WorldWideScience

Sample records for pond sediment toxicity

  1. Toxicity of stormwater treatment pond sediments to Hyallela azteca (Amphipoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, N.K.; Sparling, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Stormwater wetlands are created to contain runoff from human developments and are designed to retain contaminants such as heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, silt, pesticides, and nutrients before the runoff enter natural waterways. Because of this design, stormwater wetlands have a potential of becoming toxic sinks to organisms utilizing the wetlands for habitat. We conducted a 10-day sediment bioassay on Hyallela azteca as part of a larger study on the possible hazards of stormwater wetlands to aquatic invertebrates. Water and sediments from 10 wetlands separated into reference, residential, commercial, and highway land uses were used. No differences in survival were observed among land use categories, possibly because the ratio of acid volatile sulfides/simultaneously extractable metals (AVS/SEM) was > 1.0 for all of the ponds tested; values > 1 in this ratio are indications that toxic metals may not be bioavailable. Survival and growth rates correlated positively with AVS.

  2. Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Kristin; Viklander, Maria; Scholes, Lian N. L.; Revitt, D. Mike

    2010-01-01

    Sedimentation is a widely used technique in structural best management practices to remove pollutants from stormwater. However, concerns have been expressed about the environmental impacts that may be exerted by the trapped pollutants. This study has concentrated on stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks and reports on the accumulated metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the associated toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The metal concentrations are compared with guidelin...

  3. Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Kristin; Viklander, Maria; Scholes, Lian; Revitt, Mike

    2010-06-15

    Sedimentation is a widely used technique in structural best management practices to remove pollutants from stormwater. However, concerns have been expressed about the environmental impacts that may be exerted by the trapped pollutants. This study has concentrated on stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks and reports on the accumulated metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and the associated toxicity to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The metal concentrations are compared with guidelines and the toxicity results are assessed in relation to samples for which metal concentrations either exceed or conform to these values. The water phase metal concentrations were highest in the ponds whereas the sedimentation tanks exhibited a distinct decrease towards the outlet. However, none of the water samples demonstrated toxicity even though the concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn exceeded the threshold values for the compared guidelines. The facilities with higher traffic intensities had elevated sediment concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn which increased towards the outlet for the sedimentation tanks in agreement with the highest percentage of fine particles. The sediments in both treatment facilities exhibited the expected toxic responses in line with their affinity for heavy metals but the role of organic carbon content is highlighted. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Geochemistry and toxicity of sediment porewater in a salt-impacted urban stormwater detention pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, T.; Rochfort, Q.; Borgmann, U.; Snodgrass, W.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out to investigate the impacts of road salts on the benthic compartment of a small urban detention facility, Rouge River Pond. Although the pond is an engineered water body, it is representative of many small urban lakes, ponds and wetlands, which receive road runoff and are probable high impact areas. Specific objectives of the study were to document the porewater chemistry of an aquatic system affected by elevated salt concentrations and to carry out a toxicological assessment of sediment porewater to determine what factors may cause porewater toxicity. The results indicate that the sediment porewater may itself attain high salt concentrations. The computations show that increased chloride levels have important implications on the Cd complexation, augmenting its concentration in porewater. The toxicity tests suggest that the toxicity in porewater is caused by metals or other toxic chemicals, rather than high levels of chloride. - Effects of chlorides on metal chemistry and toxicity of sediment porewater in a stormwater detention pond impacted by road salts

  5. Microcosm investigations of stormwater pond sediment toxicity to embryonic and larval amphibians: Variation in sensitivity among species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snodgrass, Joel W. [Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252 (United States)], E-mail: jsnodgrass@towson.edu; Casey, Ryan E. [Department of Chemistry, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Joseph, Debra; Simon, Judith A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Stormwater ponds have become common features of modern development and often represent significant amounts of open space in urbanized areas. Although stormwater ponds may provide habitat for wildlife, factors responsible for producing variation in wildlife use of ponds have received limited attention. To investigate the role of variation in species tolerances of pollutants in structuring pond-breeding amphibian assemblages, we exposed species tolerant (Bufo americanus) and not tolerant (Rana sylvatica) of urbanization to pond sediments in laboratory microcosms. Pond microcosms had elevated sediment metal levels and chloride water concentrations. Among R. sylvatica embryos, exposure to pond sediments resulted in 100% mortality. In contrast, B. americanus embryos and larvae experienced only sublethal effects (i.e., reduced size at metamorphosis) due to pond sediment exposure. Our results suggest variation in pollutant tolerance among early developmental stages of amphibians may act in concert with terrestrial habitat availability to structure amphibian assemblages associated with stormwater ponds. - Variation among species in sensitivity to pollutants can influence stormwater pond amphibian assemblages.

  6. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  7. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond

  8. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  9. The effect of oil sands tailings pond sediments on embryo-larval walleye (Sander vitreus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, J C; Turcotte, D; Tumber, V; Peru, K M; Wang, Z; Yang, C; Headley, J V; Parrott, J L

    2017-10-01

    Walleye (Sander vitreus) are a commercially important North American fish species that inhabit the Athabasca River. This river flows through the Athabasca oil sands where natural sources of bitumen erode from the McMurray formation. Little information is available on responses of walleye embryos to oil sands tailings pond sediments in a laboratory setting. The current study describes the design and implementation of a daily-renewal bioassay to assess the potential effects of tailings pond sediments from the Athabasca oil sands area on walleye development. Developing walleye embryos were exposed to increasing concentrations of two tailings pond sediments (collected in the Athabasca oil sands area) until the completion of yolk absorption in control fish. Sediments from the tailings pond represent a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs. During the 31 day exposure, the walleye were examined for mortalities, weight, length and developmental abnormalities to provide an initial evaluation of the effects of the oil sands tailings pond sediments. Walleye embryo survival differed between the tailings pond sediments, and survival decreased with increasing sediment concentration. Alkylated PAH content differed between the two tailings pond sediments and lower embryo survival corresponded to higher total and alkylated PAH content. Tailings pond sediment-exposed walleye exhibited a delay in development, as well as increased percentages of larvae with heart and yolk sac edema, and cranial and spinal malformations. These abnormalities in development are often associated with PAH and alkylated PAH exposure. This study provides an exposure design that can be used to assess sediment toxicity to early developmental stages of a fish species not commonly tested in the lab, and lays the groundwork for future studies with this and other difficult-to-culture species. These results offer information on the potential effects of tailings pond sediments

  10. Pond bank access as an approach for managing toxic cyanobacteria in beef cattle pasture drinking water ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alan E; Chislock, Michael F; Yang, Zhen; Barros, Mário U G; Roberts, John F

    2018-03-25

    Forty-one livestock drinking water ponds in Alabama beef cattle pastures during were surveyed during the late summer to generally understand water quality patterns in these important water resources. Since livestock drinking water ponds are prone to excess nutrients that typically lead to eutrophication, which can promote blooms of toxigenic phytoplankton such as cyanobacteria, we also assessed the threat of exposure to the hepatotoxin, microcystin. Eighty percent of the ponds studied contained measurable microcystin, while three of these ponds had concentrations above human drinking water thresholds set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (i.e., 0.3 μg/L). Water quality patterns in the livestock drinking water ponds contrasted sharply with patterns typically observed for temperate freshwater lakes and reservoirs. Namely, we found several non-linear relationships between phytoplankton abundance (measured as chlorophyll) and nutrients or total suspended solids. Livestock had direct access to all the study ponds. Consequently, the proportion of inorganic suspended solids (e.g., sediment) increased with higher concentrations of total suspended solids, which underlies these patterns. Unimodal relationships were also observed between microcystin and phytoplankton abundance or nutrients. Euglenoids were abundant in the four ponds with chlorophyll concentrations > 250 μg/L (and dominated three of these ponds), which could explain why ponds with high chlorophyll concentrations would have low microcystin concentrations. Based on observations made during sampling events and available water quality data, livestock-mediated bioturbation is causing elevated total suspended solids that lead to reduced phytoplankton abundance and microcystin despite high concentrations of nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen. Thus, livestock could be used to manage algal blooms, including toxic secondary metabolites, in their drinking water ponds by allowing them to walk in the

  11. Effects of conversion of mangroves into gei wai ponds on sediment heavy metals accumulation in tidal flat estuary, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R.; Qiu, G.; Chai, M.; Li, R.

    2017-12-01

    Gei wai ponds act as important component in mangrove ecosystem, but the conversion of mangroves into gei wai ponds and its ecological function on heavy metal accumulation is still not clear. The study quantified the sediment heavy metal concentration and speciation in gei wai pond, Avicennia marina marsh and mudflat in Futian mangrove wetlands, South China. The results showed that gei wai pond acidified the sediment and reduced its fertility due to reduced pH, electronic conductivity (EC) and total organic carbon (TOC) compared to A. marina marsh and mudflat. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb at all depth in gei wai pond sediment were also lower than other sites, indicating reduced storage function on heavy metals. Multiple analysis implied that heavy metals in all sites could be attributed to anthropogenic sources, with Cr as natural and anthropogenic sources in gei wai pond. Gei wai pond sediment had lower heavy metal pollution based on multiple evaluation methods, including potential ecological risk coefficient (Eir), potential ecological risk index (RI), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), mean PEL quotients (m-PEL-q), pollution load index (PLI), mean ERM quotients (m-ERM-q) and total toxic unit (∑TU). Heavy metal speciation analysis indicated that gei wai pond improved the conversion from the immobilized Cd and Cr to the mobilized fraction. SEM-AVS analysis indicated no adverse toxicity occurred in all sites, and the role of TOC in relieving sediment heavy metal toxicity of gei wai pond is limited.

  12. Sediment remediation of the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeloni, D.; Eby, M.; Jarvis, S.; Martin, P. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: danielle.angeloni@earthtech.ca

    2002-06-15

    'Full text:' Low dissolved oxygen levels and large accumulated sediment remediation alternatives were examined to assemble the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge (HMP) into a healthier and more desirable recreational area in the City of Cambridge. The theory that a large amount of sediment has been deposited into the HMP from the Speed River upstream over a number of years predicts the depressed oxygen levels, high nutrient-loading rates and the odour problems in the summer months. The initial phase in the remediation plan for this project involved extensive background research and investigation. The focus was on determining the characteristics of the sediment and the history of the pond, to ultimately decide if the sediment was the source of the issues. Dissolved oxygen field tests and sediment sampling were conducted to get information on the magnitude of the problem and the environmental hazards potentially present in the pond. The pond was modelled utilising the Streeter-Phelps oxygen-sag model to predict the oxygen deficit. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD{sub 5}) testing was completed to determine the oxygen demand in the pond. These tests were conducted by using water samples obtained from various sample points at the pond. The proposed solution is a combined dredging and aeration approach. Mechanical dredging using a clamshell bucket and the installation of aerators is expected to solve the dissolved oxygen and water quality issues. (author)

  13. Effects of conversion of mangroves into gei wai ponds on accumulation, speciation and risk of heavy metals in intertidal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongyu; Qiu, Guo Yu; Chai, Minwei; Shen, Xiaoxue; Zan, Qijie

    2018-06-23

    Mangroves are often converted into gei wai ponds for aquaculture, but how such conversion affects the accumulation and behavior of heavy metals in sediments is not clear. The present study aims to quantify the concentration and speciation of heavy metals in sediments in different habitats, including gei wai pond, mangrove marsh dominated by Avicennia marina and bare mudflat, in a mangrove nature reserve in South China. The results showed that gei wai pond acidified the sediment and reduced its electronic conductivity and total organic carbon (TOC) when compared to A. marina marsh and mudflat. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb at all sediment depths in gei wai pond were lower than the other habitats, indicating gei wai pond reduced the fertility and the ability to retain heavy metals in sediment. Gei wai pond sediment also had a lower heavy metal pollution problem according to multiple evaluation methods, including potential ecological risk coefficient, potential ecological risk index, geo-accumulation index, mean PEL quotients, pollution load index, mean ERM quotients and total toxic unit. Heavy metal speciation analysis showed that gei wai pond increased the transfer of the immobilized fraction of Cd and Cr to the mobilized one. According to the acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) analysis, the conversion of mangroves into gei wai pond reduced values of ([SEM] - [AVS])/f oc , and the role of TOC in alleviating heavy metal toxicity in sediment. This study demonstrated the conversion of mangrove marsh into gei wai pond not only reduced the ecological purification capacity on heavy metal contamination, but also enhanced the transfer of heavy metals from gei wai pond sediment to nearby habitats.

  14. Leaching tendencies of uranium and regulated trace metals from the Hanford Site 300 Area North Process Pond sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Mattigod, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented that address the leaching tendencies and the total chemical composition of metals in feed materials and soil-washed fines generated by Alternative Remediation Technology, Inc. during a pilot-scale soil physical separation test performed at the 300 Area North Process Pond (Facility 316-2) on the Hanford Site in the spring of 1994. Four 300 Area North Process Pond sediments and one sediment from outside the pond's fenced area were leach-tested using the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) and other modified US Environmental Protection Agency and American Society for Testing and Materials protocols. Finally, leachate from the most contaminated sediment was used to load the Hanford sediment obtained outside the facility to evaluate the potential for contaminant adsorption onto natural sediments. The sediment characterization, leach, and adsorption results will be used in the evaluation of remedial alternatives in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study

  15. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in stormwater detention pond sediments in coastal South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, John E; Crawford, Kevin D; Garner, Thomas R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of stormwater detention ponds in coastal South Carolina. Levels of the sum of PAH analytes were significantly higher in the sediments of commercial ponds compared to that of reference, golf course, low-density residential, and high-density residential ponds. Isomer ratio analysis suggested that the predominant source of PAHs were pyrogenic; however, many ponds had a PAH signature consistent with mixed uncombusted and combusted PAH sources. PAH levels in these sediments could be modeled using both pond drainage area and pond surface area. These results demonstrate that the sediment from most commercial ponds, and a few residential and golf course ponds, were moderately contaminated with PAHs. PAH levels in these contaminated ponds exceeded between 42% and 75% of the ecological screening values for individual PAH analytes established by US EPA Region IV, suggesting that they may pose a toxicological risk to wildlife.

  17. Characterizing bacterial communities in tilapia pond surface sediment and their responses to pond differences and temporal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Limin; Barry, Kamira; Hu, Gengdong; Meng, Shunlong; Song, Chao; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Qu, Jianhong; Chen, Jiazhang; Xu, Pao

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial community compositions in the surface sediment of tilapia ponds and their responses to pond characteristics or seasonal variations were investigated. For that, three ponds with different stocking densities were selected to collect the samples. And the method of Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to amplify the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. A total of 662, 876 valid reads and 5649 operational taxonomic units were obtained. Further analysis showed that the dominant phyla in all three ponds were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria. The phyla Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Chlorobi, and Spirochaetae were also relatively abundant. Among the eight phyla, the abundances of only Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Spirochaetae were affected by seasonal variations, while seven of these (with the exception of Acidobacteria) were affected by pond differences. A comprehensive analysis of the richness and diversity of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and of the similarity in bacterial community composition in sediment also showed that the communities in tilapia pond sediment were shaped more by pond differences than by seasonal variations. Linear discriminant analysis further indicated that the influences of pond characteristics on sediment bacterial communities might be related to feed coefficients and stocking densities of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT).

  18. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, John E., E-mail: john.weinstein@citadel.edu [Department of Biology, The Citadel, Charleston, SC (United States); Crawford, Kevin D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Garner, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental Toxicology, Clemson University, Pendleton, SC (United States); Flemming, Alan J. [South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units ({Sigma}ESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the {Sigma}ESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure.

  19. Screening-level ecological and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater detention pond sediments of Coastal South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, John E.; Crawford, Kevin D.; Garner, Thomas R.; Flemming, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Screening-level ecological and human health assessments were performed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of 19 stormwater detention ponds located in coastal South Carolina. For ecological screening benchmarks, we used threshold and probable effect concentrations (TEC and PEC) derived from consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for individual PAH analytes and equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks-toxic units (ΣESB-TU) derived for PAH mixtures. For human health benchmarks, we used preliminary remediation goals (PRGs). Sediments of five stormwater ponds (four commercial ponds and one residential pond with a large drainage area) exceeded PEC values for several PAH analytes and the ΣESB-TU safe value of 1 for PAH mixtures. These same five stormwater ponds also exceeded the PRG values for five carcinogenic PAH analytes. These results suggest that the PAH levels in sediments from certain commercial and residential ponds have the potential to pose moderate to high risks for adverse, chronic effects to benthic organisms in situ and an increased risk of cancer to humans ex situ following excavation and on-site disposal. We recommend that sediment from these stormwater ponds be tested prior to excavation to determine the appropriate method of disposal. We also recommend that regulatory agencies enforce guidelines for periodic sediment removal as this should reduce both in situ and ex situ risks resulting from sediment PAH exposure.

  20. Effects of invertebrate predators and a pesticide on temporary pond microcosms used for aquatic toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Michael J.; Davies, Warren

    2004-01-01

    The effects of increased trophic complexity, through the addition of predatory notonectids (Anisops deanei), on temporary pond microcosms used for aquatic toxicity testing were studied. Replicate microcosms were established using sediment from a dried temporary pond, and treated with one of four concentrations of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan (0, 1, 10 or 50 μg/L), in the presence or absence of six A. deanei. The tanks were sampled regularly for nine weeks following the addition of the predators and the entire contents of each tank counted after 12 weeks. Analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and non-parametric MANOVA showed that both Anisops and endosulfan at concentrations >10 μg/L significantly altered community structure. However, an interaction between the effects of Anisops and the effects of endosulfan was not detected. The addition of Anisops did not increase the variability of response and thus did not reduce the sensitivity of the test method

  1. Bench-scale demonstration of treatment technologies for contaminated sediments in Sydney Tar Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchek, K.; Velicogna, D.; Punt, M.; Wong, B.; Weimer, L.; Tsangaris, A.; Brown, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to determine the capabilities of selected commercially available technologies for treating contaminated sediments from the South Pond of Sydney Tar Ponds. This study was conducted under the umbrella of a technology demonstration program aimed at evaluating technologies to be used in the remediation of such sediments. The following approach was proposed by SAIC Canada for the treatment of the sediments: (1) solvent extraction for the removal of organic contaminants, (2) acid/chelant leaching for the removal of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals, and (3) plasma hearth process for the destruction of toxic streams resulting from the first two processes. Solvent extraction followed by plasma treatment proved effective for removing and destroying organic contaminants. The removal of metals did not achieve the expected results through leaching. An approach was proposed for treating those sediments based on the results of the study. The approach differed depending on the level of organic content. An assessment of associated process costs for both a pilot-scale field demonstration and a full-scale treatment was provided. 11 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Aquatic biodiversity in sedimentation ponds receiving road runoff - What are the key drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenhua; Brittain, John E; Sokolova, Ekaterina; Thygesen, Helene; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Rauch, Sebastien; Meland, Sondre

    2018-01-01

    Recently, increased attention has been paid to biodiversity conservation provided by blue-green solutions such as engineered ponds that are primarily established for water treatment and flood control. However, little research has been done to analyse the factors that affect biodiversity in such ponds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity, mainly macroinvertebrate communities, in road sedimentation ponds in order to provide a foundation for recommendations on aquatic biodiversity conservation. Multivariate statistical methods, including unconstrained and constrained analysis, were applied to examine the relationships between organisms and the water quality as well as physical factors (including plant cover). Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that the most important variables governing the variation in the biological community composition were pond size, average annual daily traffic, metals, chloride, distance to the closest pond from study pond, dissolved oxygen, hydrocarbons, and phosphorus. The presence of most taxa was positively correlated with pond size and negatively correlated with metals. Small ponds with high pollutant loadings were associated with a low diversity and dominated by a few pollution tolerant taxa such as oligochaetes. A comprehensive understanding of impacts of various environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity is important to effectively promote and conserve aquatic biodiversity in such sedimentation ponds. Our results indicate that road sedimentation ponds should be designed large enough, because large ponds are likely to provide a more heterogeneous habitat and thus contain a species rich fauna. In addition, larger ponds seem to be less contaminated due to dilution compared to smaller ponds, thereby maintaining a higher biodiversity. Finally, creating some additional ponds in the vicinity of the sedimentation ponds in areas with few water bodies would increase the

  3. Volatilization of selenium from agricultural evaporation pond sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, U; Frankenberger, W T

    1990-03-01

    Microbial volatilization of Se was evaluated as a means of detoxifying Se-contaminated sediments. Sediment samples containing 60.7 (Kesterson Reservoir) and 9.0 mg Se kg-1 (Peck ponds) were incubated for 273 days in closed systems located in the greenhouse. Volatile Se was collected from a continuous air-exchange stream using activated carbon. Various economical and readily available organic and inorganic amendments were tested for their capacity to enhance the microbial process, including Citrus (orange) peel, Vitis (grape) pomace, feedlot manure, barley straw, chitin, pectin, ZnSO4, (NH4)2SO4, and an inoculum of Acremonium falciforme (an active Se methylating fungus). With the Kesterson sediment, the highest Se removal (44.0%) resulted from the combined application of citrus peel and ZnSO4, followed by citrus peal alone (39.6%), and citrus peel combined with ZnSO4, (NH4)2SO4 and A. falciforme (30.1%). Manure (19.5%), pectin (16.4%), chitin (9.8%) and straw plus N (8.8%) had less pronounced effects. Without the amendments, cumulative Se volatilization was 6.1% of the initial inventory. Grape pomace (3.0%) inhibited the process. With the Peck sediment, the highest amount of Se removed was observed with chitin (28.6%), manure (28.5%), and citrus peel alone (27.3%). Without amendments, 14.0% of the native Se was volatilized in 273 days. Cumulative Se volatilization was 24.7% with citrus plus Zn and N, 17.2% with citrus plus Zn, and 18.8% with citrus plus Zn, N and A. falciforme. Pectin (15.2%), straw plus N (16.4%), and grape pomace (7.3%) were among the less effective amendments for the Peck sediment. The differences in the effectiveness of each treatment between the two seleniferous soils may be a result of the residual N content of the sediments. With the Kesterson sediment, which was high in organic C and N, added N inhibited volatilization of Se, while with Peck sediments (low in organic C and N) N-rich materials tended to accelerate Se volatilization

  4. On the risks from sediment and overlying water by replenishing urban landscape ponds with reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Dong; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xiaochang C; Liu, Yanzheng; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yue; Xue, Tao; Wang, Nan

    2018-05-01

    The extensive use of reclaimed wastewater (RW) as a source of urban landscape pond replenishment, stimulated by the lack of surface water (SW) resources, has raised public concern. Greater attention should be paid to pond sediments, which act as 'sinks' and 'sources' of contaminants to the overlying pond water. Three ponds replenished with RW (RW ponds) in three Chinese cities were chosen to investigate 22 indices of sediment quality in four categories: eutrophication, heavy metal, ecotoxicity and pathogens risk. RW ponds were compared with other ponds of similar characteristics in the same cities that were replenished with SW (SW ponds). Our results show a strong impact of RW to the eutrophication and pathogenic risks, which are represented by organic matter, water content, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and phosphorus fractions, and pathogens. In particular, total phosphorus concentrations in the RW pond sediments were, on average, 50% higher than those of SW ponds. Moreover, the content of phosphorus, extracted by bicarbonate/dithionite (normally represented by BD-P) and NaOH (NaOH-P), were 2.0- and 2.83-times higher in RW ponds, respectively. For pathogens, the concentrations of norovirus and rotavirus in RW pond sediments were, on average, 0.52 and 0.30- log times those of SW ponds. The duration of RW replenishment was proved to have a marked impact on the eutrophication and pathogens risks from sediments. The continued use of RW for replenishment increases the eutrophication risk, and the pathogens risk, especially by viral pathogens, becomes greater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sydney Tar Ponds: Some problems in quantifying toxic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials of concern include BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), and particulates laden with toxic metals, such as arsenic, lead, and others. The originally nontoxic materials such as soil, blast furnace slag, and vegetation, as well as surface and ground waters, which were subsequently contaminated, must also be included if they fail tests prescribed by environmental regulations. An extensive sampling program must be undertaken to obtain data for an accurate estimate of the waste to be cleaned and disposed of. Apparently, 700,000 tons of toxic waste which is believed to be present on the site, may represent only a fraction of the actual amount. The clean-up of the site is only part of the solution. Toxic waste has to be disposed of in accordance with environmental regulations.

  6. Sydney tar ponds: some problems in quantifying toxic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Edward

    2002-12-01

    Information on the type and amount of hazardous and toxic waste is required to develop a meaningful strategy and estimate a realistic cost for clean up of the Sydney Tar Pond site which is located on Cape Breton, in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The site covers the area of the decommissioned Sysco (Sydney Steel Corporation) plant. The materials of concern include BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl), and particulates laden with toxic metals, such as arsenic, lead, and others. The originally nontoxic materials such as soil, blast furnace slag, and vegetation, as well as surface and ground waters, which were subsequently contaminated, must also be included if they fail tests prescribed by environmental regulations. An extensive sampling program must be undertaken to obtain data for an accurate estimate of the waste to be cleaned and disposed of. Apparently, 700,000 tons of toxic waste, which is believed to be present on the site, may represent only a fraction of the actual amount. The clean-up of the site is only part of the solution. Toxic waste has to be disposed of in accordance with environmental regulations.

  7. Impact of beaver ponds on river discharge and sediment deposition along the Chevral River, Ardennes, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Pontzeele, Jolien; De Visscher, Maarten; Billi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    With the recovery of the European beaver (Castor fiber) and their capacity to engineer fluvial landscapes, questions arise as to how they influence river discharge and sediment transport. The Chevral river (Ardennes, Belgium) contains two beaver dam sequences which appeared in 2004 and count now about 30 dams. Flow discharges and sediment fluxes were measured at the in- and outflow of each dam sequence. Volumes of sediment deposited behind the dams were measured. Between 2004 and 2011, peak flows were topped off, and the magnitude of extreme events decreased. 1710 m³ of sediment were deposited behind the beaver dams, with an average sediment thickness of 25 cm. The thickness of the sediment layer is related to the area of the beaver ponds. Along the stream, beaver pond sediment thickness displayed a sinusoidal deposition pattern, in which ponds with thick sediment layers were preceded by a series of ponds with thinner sediment layers. A downstream textural coarsening in the dam sequences was also observed, probably due to dam failures subsequent to surges. Differences in sediment flux between the in- and outflow at the beaver pond sequence were related to the river hydrograph, with deposition taking place during the rising limbs and slight erosion during the falling limbs. The seven-year-old sequences have filtered 190 tons of sediment out of the Chevral river, which is of the same order of magnitude as the 374 tons measured in pond deposits, with the difference between the values corresponding to beaver excavations (60 tons), inflow from small tributaries, and runoff from the valley flanks. Hydrogeomorphic effects of C. fiber and C. canadensis activity are similar in magnitude. The detailed analysis of changes to hydrology in beaver pond sequences confirms the potential of beavers to contribute to river and wetland restoration and catchment management.

  8. Calcium content in pond sediment and its effect on neutralizing capacity of water and fish production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, P.; Kutý, Michal; Hlaváč, D.; Regenda, J.; Vejsada, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2016), s. 1747-1754 ISSN 0967-6120 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pond sediment * Calcium * Hydrogen carbonates Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.095, year: 2016

  9. Nitrogen removal in maturation waste stabilisation ponds via biological uptake and sedimentation of dead biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo Valero, M A; Mara, D D; Newton, R J

    2010-01-01

    In this work a set of experiments was undertaken in a pilot-scale WSP system to determine the importance of organic nitrogen sedimentation on ammonium and total nitrogen removals in maturation ponds and its seasonal variation under British weather conditions, from September 2004 to May 2007. The nitrogen content in collected sediment samples varied from 4.17% to 6.78% (dry weight) and calculated nitrogen sedimentation rates ranged from 273 to 2868 g N/ha d. High ammonium removals were observed together with high concentrations of chlorophyll-a in the pond effluent. Moreover, chlorophyll-a had a very good correlation with the corresponding increment of VSS (algal biomass) and suspended organic nitrogen (biological nitrogen uptake) in the maturation pond effluents. Therefore, when ammonium removal reached its maximum, total nitrogen removal was very poor as most of the ammonia taken up by algae was washed out in the pond effluent in the form of suspended solids. After sedimentation of the dead algal biomass, it was clear that algal-cell nitrogen was recycled from the sludge layer into the pond water column. Recycled nitrogen can either be taken up by algae or washed out in the pond effluent. Biological (mainly algal) uptake of inorganic nitrogen species and further sedimentation of dead biomass (together with its subsequent mineralization) is one of the major mechanisms controlling in-pond nitrogen recycling in maturation WSP, particularly when environmental and operational conditions are favourable for algal growth.

  10. Regional Models for Sediment Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper investigates the use of empirical models to predict the toxicity of sediment samples within a region to laboratory test organisms based on sediment chemistry. In earlier work, we used a large nationwide database of matching sediment chemistry and marine amphipod sedim...

  11. PAH related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of PAHs from sediment to biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik; Allan, Ian; Christensen, Jan H; Malmqvist, Linus M V; Meland, Sondre; Ranneklev, Sissel

    2016-10-01

    Road runoff is an important source of pollution to the aquatic environment, and sedimentation ponds have been installed to mitigate effects on the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a) fish from sedimentation ponds were affected by road pollution and; b) the transfer of PAHs from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of PAH-metabolites in bile revealed that both populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of PAH-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of PAH-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also an improved condition. The latter results indicate that fish health was affected by road runoff. A closer investigation of PAH levels of the ecosystems of two sedimentation ponds (Skullerud and Vassum) and nearby environments were conducted. The concentration of the 16 EPA PAHs in sediments of the sedimentation ponds were high (1900-4200ngg(-1)), and even higher levels were observed in plants. Principal component analysis of selected ion chromatograms of PAHs showed a clear separation of plants vs. sediments. The plants preferentially accumulated the high molecular PAHs, both from sedimentation ponds with a petrogenic PAH isomer ratio in sediments; and from a lake with pyrogenic PAH isomer ratio in sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PAH related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of PAHs from sediment to biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik

    2016-01-01

    of the sedimentation ponds were high (1900-4200ngg(-1)), and even higher levels were observed in plants. Principal component analysis of selected ion chromatograms of PAHs showed a clear separation of plants vs. sediments. The plants preferentially accumulated the high molecular PAHs, both from sedimentation ponds......) the transfer of PAHs from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of PAH-metabolites in bile revealed that both...... populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of PAH-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of PAH-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also...

  13. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.; Carolyn ROWLAND; Renato BAUDO; Monica BELTRAMI

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists ...

  14. Measurements of radionuclide in Par Pond sediments with an underwater HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) effluent gamma emitting radionuclides in Par Pond sediment were examined in situ with an underwater HPGe detector prior to and following a 19 ft drawdown of the pond in 1991 to address dam repairs. These measurements provide a map of the 137 Cs concentrations of the pond sediment, indicating that 9.4 ± 1.5 Ci is exposed by the drawdown and that 46.6 ± 7.2 Ci is the entire pond inventory. The highest individual 137 Cs concentration was 25 μCi/m 2 for the exposed sediment and 50 μCi/m 2 for the entire pond. The results are consistent with parallel studies conducted by SREL, as well as historical data. Aside from 137 Cs, the only other SRS-produced isotope observed was 60 Co, with activity of only about 1% of that for 137 Cs. This observation was also confirmed in grab samples of pond sediment and vegetation, which were returned to the laboratory for ultra-low-level gamma spectrometry analysis. A special effort was required to calibrate the underwater HPGe detector, where both measurements and calculational models were used. The effects of sediment depth profiles for density and 137 Cs concentration were addressed in the calibration. Calibration factors for sediment surface concentrations (μCi/m 2 /cpm) and sediment mass concentrations (pCi/kg/cpm) were obtained. In general, the μCi/m 2 /cpm factor is recommended, as the pCi/kg/cpm factor depends on the depth location of the sediment of interest. However, a pCi/kg/cpm factor, which is dependent on the depth within the sediment is presented to address dose calculations that require it

  15. Numerical modelling of hydro-morphological processes dominated by fine suspended sediment in a stormwater pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mingfu; Ahilan, Sangaralingam; Yu, Dapeng; Peng, Yong; Wright, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Fine sediment plays crucial and multiple roles in the hydrological, ecological and geomorphological functioning of river systems. This study employs a two-dimensional (2D) numerical model to track the hydro-morphological processes dominated by fine suspended sediment, including the prediction of sediment concentration in flow bodies, and erosion and deposition caused by sediment transport. The model is governed by 2D full shallow water equations with which an advection-diffusion equation for fine sediment is coupled. Bed erosion and sedimentation are updated by a bed deformation model based on local sediment entrainment and settling flux in flow bodies. The model is initially validated with the three laboratory-scale experimental events where suspended load plays a dominant role. Satisfactory simulation results confirm the model's capability in capturing hydro-morphodynamic processes dominated by fine suspended sediment at laboratory-scale. Applications to sedimentation in a stormwater pond are conducted to develop the process-based understanding of fine sediment dynamics over a variety of flow conditions. Urban flows with 5-year, 30-year and 100-year return period and the extreme flood event in 2012 are simulated. The modelled results deliver a step change in understanding fine sediment dynamics in stormwater ponds. The model is capable of quantitatively simulating and qualitatively assessing the performance of a stormwater pond in managing urban water quantity and quality.

  16. Distribution of metals in fauna, flora and sediments of wet detention ponds and natural shallow lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, D.A.; Nielsen, A.H.; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Fauna, flora, and sediment were collected from 9 wet detention ponds receiving stormwater runoff and 11 small natural shallow lakes. The fauna and flora samples were sorted into species or groups of species and, together with sediments, analyzed for aluminum, copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, cadmium,...

  17. Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixiu; Yao, Lu; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2014-09-01

    Through retaining runoff and pollutants such as heavy metals from surrounding landscapes, ponds around a lake play an important role in mitigating the impacts of human activities on lake ecosystems. In order to determine the potential for heavy metal accumulation of submerged macrophytes, we investigated the concentrations of 10 heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water, sediments, and submerged macrophytes collected from 37 ponds around the Dianchi Lake in China. Our results showed that both water and sediments of these ponds were polluted by Pb. Water and sediments heavy metal concentrations in ponds received urban and agricultural runoff were not significantly higher than those in ponds received forest runoff. This result indicates that a large portion of heavy metals in these ponds may originate from atmospheric deposition and weathering of background soils. Positive relationships were found among heavy metal concentrations in submerged macrophytes, probably due to the coaccumulation of heavy metals. For most heavy metals, no significant relationships were found between submerged macrophytes and their water and sediment environments. The maximum concentrations of Cr, Fe and Ni in Ceratophyllum demersum were 4242, 16,429 and 2662mgkg(-1), respectively. The result suggests that C. demersum is a good candidate species for removing heavy metals from polluted aquatic environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects

  19. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  20. Analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Zn) concentration in sediment of Blanakan fish ponds, Subang, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiriawan, A.; Takarina, N. D.; Pin, T. G.

    2017-07-01

    Blanakan fish ponds receive water resource from Kali Malang and Blanakan rivers. Industrial and domestic activities along the river can cause pollution, especially heavy metals. Zinc (Zn) is an essential element that needed by an organism, while Lead (Pb) is a nonessential element that is not needed. Discharge of waste water from industries and anthropogenic activities continuously not only pollute the water but also the sediment and biota live on it. This research was aimed to know the heavy metals content in the sediment of Blanakan fish ponds. Sediment samples were taken on July and August 2016 at three locations. Heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) Shimadzu 6300. The result of Lead (Pb) measurement showed that Fish Pond 1 had higher average concentration compared Fish Pond 2 and Fish Pond 3 which was 0.55 ppm. Standard for Lead (Pb) in sediment according to Ontario Sediment Standards (2008) is 31 ppm. Based on Zinc (Zn) measurement, it was known that average of Zinc (Zn) concentration also higher on Fish Pond 1 compared to Fish Pond 2 and 3 which was 1.93 ppm. According to Ontario Sediment Standards (2008), a standard for Zinc (Zn) in sediment is 120 ppm. This indicated that heavy metals in the sediment of fish ponds were below standards. Statistical analysis using t-test showed that there was no significant difference of heavy metals content among fish ponds.

  1. Toxic effects of zinc from trout farm sediments on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Tabche, L; Gutiérrez Cabrera, I; Gómez Oliván, L; Galar Martinez, M; Germán Faz, C

    2000-04-14

    Zinc (Zn) is a nutritionally essential metal, and deficiency results in severe health consequences to aquatic organisms. In this study toxicity data for Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri produced by Zn in systems using three natural sediments (trout farms: El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero) are presented. Hemoglobin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and protein concentrations were measured in L. hoffmeisteri exposed to spiked sediments, as indicators of exposure. Physicochemical characteristics of water and sediments were also considered. Zn concentrations were measured in water and sediment. El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero pond sediments did not have similar physicochemical characteristics. Zn concentrations of water obtained from the rustic ponds were near 0.4575 mg/L; however, this metal was always found to be higher in the sediments (0.0271-0.9754 mg/kg). The bioassay with worms demonstrated that pond sediments from El Oyamel, El Potrero, and El Truchón produced toxicity since ATP and protein concentrations were low compared to controls (organisms without metal). All spiked sediments had a significant reduction effect on ATP, protein, and hemoglobin concentrations. This investigation clearly shows that sediments of El Truchón, El Oyamel, and El Potrero possess toxicity potential. These results suggest the usefulness of these bioassays to evaluate the toxicity of sediments polluted with heavy metals.

  2. Preliminary results of sedimentation study in SMART, Kg. Berembang holding pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremy Andy Dominic; Wan Zakaria Wan Md Tahir; Lakam Mejus; Juhari Mohd Yusuf; Kamaruzaman Mohamad; Mod Omar Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Spatial variations of the sediment bulk density profile in the Storm water Management And Road Tunnel (SMART) holding pond were measured at every 20 metre intervals along six cross section lines with a total of 72 sampling points using a Cs-137 nuclear backscatter probe. The bulk density profile at each sampling points were vertically measured at every 2 inches increment in an upward direction. The thickness of the deposited sediment varies spatially with a gradual increase towards the centre of the holding pond. The highest sediment deposition areas are located near the baffle walls, the centre and the south east corner of the holding pond. The maximum thickness of the deposited sediment adjacent to the baffle walls is 22 inch and at both the centre and south east area are 18 inch. The sediment bulk density profile varies from 1,010 kg.m -3 to 1,400 kg.m -3 . Spatial density variations are in correlation with the active and inactive zone in the pond area. The potential of sediment deposition and consolidation process is higher in the inactive zone compare to the active zone, therefore the bulk density value the inactive zone is much higher. (author)

  3. Metals in pond sediments as archives of anthropogenic activities: a study in response to health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graney, Joseph R.; Eriksen, Timothy M.

    2004-01-01

    An environmental geochemistry approach was applied in response to health concerns about present day and past exposure to pollutants within Broome County, New York by determining historical records of anthropogenic activities as preserved in sediment cores. Sediment was collected from a stormwater retention pond adjacent to a warehouse complex in the urban community of Hillcrest as well as from 3 other ponds in rural locations in Broome County. Metal concentrations and decay products of 210 Pb and 137 Cs were measured to determine the timing of source specific differences in the distribution of metals in the sediment cores. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Cd and As were elevated in the retention pond sediments when compared to sediment from other locations. Topography influenced atmospheric transport and deposition of pollutants within incised river valleys and enhanced runoff from impervious surfaces within an urban watershed contributed to the elevated metal concentrations at Hillcrest. Temporal changes in Pb deposition within retention pond sediment mimic the rise and fall in use of leaded gasoline. Arsenic concentrations decreased following placement of emission controls on nearby coal-fired power plant sources. Superimposed over the temporal trends of Pb and As are co-varying Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Cd concentrations; a suite of metals commonly used in metal plating processes by local industries. Analysis of sediment in stormwater retention ponds in other urban areas may provide opportunities for detailed records of pollution history to be obtained in many communities. Residents in urban communities located in incised river valley locations similar to Hillcrest may be particularly prone to enhanced exposure to metals from anthropogenic sources

  4. Lead levels in rivers, sediments and fish ponds in the Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead levels in rivers, sediments and fish ponds in the Ibadan metropolitan area, south-west Nigeria. ... The present situation therefore indicates severe lead contamination of aquatic systems in Ibadan City, which portends a serious public health risk to humans. A detailed assessment of other sources of lead pollution in the ...

  5. Urbanization effects on sediment and trace metals distribution in an urban winter pond (Netanya, Israel)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zohar, I.; Teutsch, N.; Levin, N.; Mackin, G.; de Stigter, H.; Bookman, R.

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThis paper aims to elucidate urban development-induced processes affecting the sediment and the distribution of contaminating metals in a seasonal pond located in the highly populated Israeli Coastal Plain. The paper demonstrates how an integrated approach, including geochemical,

  6. A spectroscopic and microscopic study of uranium speciation in the infiltration pond sediments at Hanford, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Zachara, J.M.; McKinley, J.P.; Smith, S.C.; Qafoku, O.; Catalano, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The infiltration ponds in the '300 area' of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site received large volumes of nuclear waste that contained tens of metric tons of uranium along with high concentrations of other metals such as Cu, Fe, Mn, Al and Ca during their operations from 1943 to 1975. Leaching and migration of uranium in the pond sediments threatens the integrity of the Columbia River that is with 100 m of these ponds. A clear understanding of the speciation of uranium in the pond sediments is key to predict the dissolution and migration behavior of uranium and to develop any necessary containment or decontamination strategies. In this work, we studied the speciation of uranium in a series of Hanford infiltration pond sediments and its changes after dissolution in various solution media including DDI water, sodium bicarbonate (pH 9.5) and 1 M sodium acetate (pH 4.8), using liquid-helium temperature time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectro-microscopy (TRLFISM), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). XAS analysis indicated that uranium in the sediment primarily existed in the 6+ oxidation state. The TRLFS spectra of uranium in several sediments resembled those in natural, uranyl-bearing calcite and those reported for uranium co-precipitated synthetic calcite and aragonite, suggesting the presence of similar uranyl coordination environments. The TRLFS spectra varied with both sediment location and depth and there was not a linear correlation between the spectral intensity and the overall concentration of uranium, indicating the presence of multiple uranium species. While for some sediment the major spectral characteristics appeared to remain the same after extraction using DDI water, sodium bicarbonate and even sodium acetate, for others, spectral changes were observed. Comparison of the sediment uranium TRLFS spectra with a standard spectral

  7. Bacterial reduction of selenium in coal mine tailings pond sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, T.; Arocena, J.M.; Thring, R.W.; Zhang, Y.Q. [University of North British Columbia, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Sediment from a storage facility for coal tailings solids was assessed for its capacity to reduce selenium (Se) by native bacterial community. One Se{sup 6+}-reducing bacterium Enterobacter hormaechei (Tar11) and four Se{sup 4+}-reducing bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae (Tar1), Pseudomonasfluorescens (Tar3), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Tar6), and Enterobacter amnigenus (Tar8) were isolated from the sediment. Enterobacter horinaechei removed 96% of the added Se{sup 6+} (0.92 mg L{sup -1} from the effluents when Se6+ was determined after 5 d of incubation. Analysis of the red precipitates showed that Se{sup 6+} reduction resulted in the formation of spherical particles ({lt}1.0 {mu} m) of Se 0 as observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confirmed by EDAX. Selenium speciation was performed to examine the fate of the added Se{sup 6+} in the sediment with or without addition of Enterobacter hormaechei cells. More than 99% of the added Se{sup 6+} (about 2.5 mg L{sup -1}) was transformed in the nonsterilized sediment (without Enterobacter hormaechei cells) as well as in the sterilized (heat-killed) sediment (with Enterobacter hormaechei cells). The results of this study suggest that the lagoon sediments at the mine site harbor Se{sup 6+}- and Se{sup 4+} -reducing bacteria and may be important sinks for soluble Se (Se{sup 6+} and Se{sup 4+}). Enterobacter hormaechei isolated from metal-contaminated sediment may have potential application in removing Se from industrial effluents.

  8. Comparative studies of metals in fish organs, sediments and water from Nigerian fresh water fish ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipinmoroti, K.O.; Oshodi, A.A.; Owolabi, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fish samples (Illisha africana) were collected from six man-made fish pond in Edo and Ondo states, Nigeria. Some organs of the fish sediment and water from the fish habitat were analysed for Cd, Pb, Hg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Cr, Physico-chemical properties of water samples from the ponds were also re-corded. The concentration of the metals varied in the sediment water as well as in different organs of the fish. However, chromium was absent in all the samples. The descending order of metal concentration in fish organs was: gills intestine, head and muscle. To avoid harmful accumulation of these metals in the human system, the gills and the intestine should preferably be discarded while processing fish for consumption. The head with a relatively high concentration of calcium might be useful in feed formulation. (author)

  9. Nabarlek evaporation and storage ponds: possible role of biological activity in the escape of toxic substances to the general environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinick, W.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine whether or not game birds might become contaminated with radionuclides while visiting the evaporating ponds at the Nabarlek uranium mine. The level of biological community development in the ponds and water bird activity were low. It is concluded that at present escape of radionuclides or toxic elements from the ponds as a result of biological activity is not a problem

  10. Elemental signature of terrigenous sediment runoff as recorded in coastal salt ponds: US Virgin Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Rebekka A.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Devine, Barry; Schwing, Patrick T.; Holmes, Charles W.; Jilbert, Tom; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution, multi-proxy approach is utilized on mm- to cm-scale laminated coastal salt pond sediments from St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, to determine: (1) the sedimentological signature of depositional events/processes, (2) link this sedimentological signature with known depositional events/processes in the historical (past ∼100 years) record; and, (3) project back into the recent geologic past (past ∼1400 years) to investigate the natural variability of depositional events/processes. High-resolution, short-lived radioisotope geochronology ("2"1"0Pb, "1"3"7Cs, "7Be) combined with high-resolution elemental scanning techniques (scanning XRF and scanning LA-ICP-MS) allows for the direct comparison of well-preserved salt pond deposits to historical records of depositional events (e.g., runoff/rainfall, tropical cyclones, tsunamis) to identify the sedimentary signature of each type of event. There is a robust sedimentary record of terrigenous sediment runoff linked to the frequency of rainfall events that exceed a threshold of ∼12 mm/day (minimum to mobilize and transport sediment) for study sites. This is manifested in the sedimentary record as increases in terrigenous indicator elements (%Al, %Fe, %Ti, %Si), which agree well with rainfall records over the past ∼50 years. Variability in the sedimentary record over the past ∼100 years reflects decadal-scale fluctuations between periods of increased frequency of rainfall events, and decreased frequency of rainfall events. Dm-scale variability in terrigenous indicator elements over the past ∼1400 years represents the natural system variability on a decadal–centennial scale, and provides a high-resolution, long-term baseline of natural variability of rainfall/runoff events. A period of increased terrigenous sediment delivery during the 1700s and 1800s likely indicates increased erosion in response to anthropogenic activities associated with the island’s plantation era, and perhaps increased

  11. Leachability of solidified (Ba,Ra)SO/sub 4/ sediments in simulated settling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constable, T.W.; Snodgrass, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The decanted effluent from uranium tailings basins contains large amounts of dissolved Ra-226. To remove this Ra-226, the effluent is treated with barium chloride (BaCl/sub 2/) to precipitate barium-radium sulphate -(Ba,Ra)SO/sub 4/]. The sediments are stored on the bottom of the treatment pond and the treated effluent is discharged to a local water course. However, redissolution of Ra-226 fro these sediments may occur after the tailings area has been abandoned and thus cause contamination of receiving waters. This study was conducted to investigate the rate at which this dissolution occurred and to determine if this rate could be decreased by solidification of the sediments. Solidification (also referred to as chemical fixation or encapsulation) involves mixing the sediments with chemicals to produce a solid matrix analogous to concrete. The sediments used in the study were dredged in 1976 from the bottom of the North Nordic Lake settling pond in Elliot Lake, Ontario, which receives the effluent from the Nordic tailings area

  12. Carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikuttan, K K; Adhikari, S; Kavitha, M; Jayasankar, P

    2016-07-01

    The contribution of aquaculture and allied activities to the emission of green house gases and consequently to global warming is an emerging concern among environmentalists in the recent past. However, there exists ample scope for aquaculture activities to sequester carbon and thus compensate for the carbon emissions linked to aquaculture. This article attempts to elucidate the carbon sequestration capacity of sediments, algae, and zooplankton from fresh water aquaculture ponds. The percent organic carbon in the pond sediments ranged from 0.39 to 1.31 with an average value of 0.912 ± 0.321 whereas the carbon sequestration capacity ranged from 0.442 to 1.882 MgC/ha (1 Mg = 10(6) g) with an average value of 1.018 ± 0.447 MgC/ha. In the case of zooplankton and algae from pond, the percent organic carbon was 7.688 ± 0.196 and 2.354 ± 0.047, respectively, whereas the total estimated carbon burial rate was 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.150 ± 0.003 MgC/ha, respectively. These findings are discussed with the previous reports available at present and are found to be in comparable ranges.

  13. A SEDIMENT TOXICITY METHOD USING LEMNA MINOR, DUCKWEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a Lemna minor sediment toxicity test method to assess sediment contaminants which may affect plants. This 96-hour test used 15 ml of sediment and 2 ml of overlying water which was renewed after 48 hours. Sand was used as the control sediment and also to dilute test ...

  14. 3D Modelling of Transport, Deposition and Resuspension of Highway Deposited Sediments in wet Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2010-01-01

    concrete channel with width of 0.8m and a water depth of approximately 0.8m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With a fairly good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved...... pollutants and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account....

  15. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We review methods for testing toxicity of sediments affected by metals. • Toxicity testing provides site-specific assessment of impacts on resident biota. • Goals are to document extent of toxicity and associations with metal exposure. • Need to characterize bioavailability of metals in sediment and pore water. • Toxicity data is basis for guidelines used to predict hazards of metal toxicity. - Abstract: This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate

  16. Identification of chitinolytic bacteria isolated from shrimp pond sediment and characterization of their chitinase encoding gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triwijayani, A. U.; Puspita, I. D.; Murwantoko; Ustadi

    2018-03-01

    Chitinolytic bacteria are a group of bacteria owning enzymes that able to hydrolyze chitin. Previously, we isolated chitinolytic bacteria from shrimp pond sediment in Bantul, Yogyakarta, and obtained five isolates showing high chitinolytic index named as isolate PT1, PT2, PT5, PT6 and PB2. The aims of this study were to identify chitinolytic bacteria isolated from shrimp pond sediment and to characterize the chitinase encoding gene from each isolate. The molecular technique was performed by amplification of 16S rDNA, amplification of chitinase encoding gene and sequence analysis. Two chitinolytic bacteria of PT1 and PT2 were similar to Aeromonas bivalvium strain D15, PT5 to Pseudomonas stutzeri strain BD-2.2.1, PT6 to Serratia marcescens strain FZSF02 and PB2 to Streptomyces misionensis strain OsiRt-1. The comparison of chitinase encoding gene between three isolates with those in Gen Bank shows that PT1 had similar sequences with the chi1 gene in Aeromonas sp. 17m, PT2 with chi1 gene in A. caviae (CB101) and PT6 with chiB gene in S. Marcescens (BJL200).

  17. Gamma hazards and risk associated with NORM in sediment from amang processing recycling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasirian Mohesen; Ismail Bahari; Pauzi Abdullah; Azizah JAafar

    2007-01-01

    Amang processing is an important downstream activity of tin mining noted for technologically enhancing naturally occurring radioactive materials. A study was carried out to determine the gamma radiation hazards associated with amang processing with special reference to the sediment accumulated in amang processing ponds. Twenty eight sediment samples from two amang processing plants employing the recycling close water management system were collected and analyzed. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in sediments were measured using gamma spectrometry analysis, with a Hyper Pure Ge-Li detector coupled to a Multi Channel Analyzer detector system. The range of mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were between 40.94 - 189.58 Bq kg -1 , 104.90 - 516.17 Bq kg -1 and 74.8-848.0 Bq/ kg respectively. The maximum activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K recorded were higher than Malaysia average and the worlds natural highest. Gamma Radiation Representative Level Index, I γr associated with these levels of activity concentrations of radionuclide in sediments, warrants an immediate attention from the regulatory authorities. The contribution of amang processing and the use of recycling close water management system in enhancing potential environmental radiological risk are discussed. (author)

  18. Effects of salt pond restoration on benthic flux: Sediment as a source of nutrients to the water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Brent R.; Kuwabara, James S.; Carter, James L.; Garrettt, Krista K.; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sarah; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding nutrient flux between the benthos and the overlying water (benthic flux) is critical to restoration of water quality and biological resources because it can represent a major source of nutrients to the water column. Extensive water management commenced in the San Francisco Bay, Beginning around 1850, San Francisco Bay wetlands were converted to salt ponds and mined extensively for more than a century. Long-term (decadal) salt pond restoration efforts began in 2003. A patented device for sampling porewater at varying depths, to calculate the gradient, was employed between 2010 and 2012. Within the former ponds, the benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus and that of dissolved ammonia were consistently positive (i.e., moving out of the sediment into the water column). The lack of measurable nitrate or nitrite concentration gradients across the sediment-water interface suggested negligible fluxes for dissolved nitrate and nitrite. The dominance of ammonia in the porewater indicated anoxic sediment conditions, even at only 1 cm depth, which is consistent with the observed, elevated sediment oxygen demand. Nearby openestuary sediments showed much lower benthic flux values for nutrients than the salt ponds under resortation. Allochthonous solute transport provides a nutrient advective flux for comparison to benthic flux. For ammonia, averaged for all sites and dates, benthic flux was about 80,000 kg/year, well above the advective flux range of −50 to 1500 kg/year, with much of the variability depending on the tidal cycle. By contrast, the average benthic flux of soluble reactive phosphorus was about 12,000 kg/year, of significant magnitude, but less than the advective flux range of 21,500 to 30,000 kg/year. These benthic flux estimates, based on solute diffusion across the sediment-water interface, reveal a significant nutrient source to the water column of the pond which stimulates algal blooms (often autotrophic). This benthic source may be

  19. Characterizing toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews methods for testing the toxicity of metals associated with freshwater sediments, linking toxic effects with metal exposure and bioavailability, and developing sediment quality guidelines. The most broadly applicable approach for characterizing metal toxicity is whole-sediment toxicity testing, which attempts to simulate natural exposure conditions in the laboratory. Standard methods for whole-sediment testing can be adapted to test a wide variety of taxa. Chronic sediment tests that characterize effects on multiple endpoints (e.g., survival, growth, and reproduction) can be highly sensitive indicators of adverse effects on resident invertebrate taxa. Methods for testing of aqueous phases (pore water, overlying water, or elutriates) are used less frequently. Analysis of sediment toxicity data focuses on statistical comparisons between responses in sediments from the study area and responses in one or more uncontaminated reference sediments. For large or complex study areas, a greater number of reference sediments is recommended to reliably define the normal range of responses in uncontaminated sediments – the ‘reference envelope’. Data on metal concentrations and effects on test organisms across a gradient of contamination may allow development of concentration-response models, which estimate metal concentrations associated with specified levels of toxic effects (e.g. 20% effect concentration or EC20). Comparisons of toxic effects in laboratory tests with measures of impacts on resident benthic invertebrate communities can help document causal relationships between metal contamination and biological effects. Total or total-recoverable metal concentrations in sediments are the most common measure of metal contamination in sediments, but metal concentrations in labile sediment fractions (e.g., determined as part of selective sediment extraction protocols) may better represent metal bioavailability. Metals released by the weak-acid extraction

  20. Chemistry of uranium in evaporation pond sediment in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, using x-ray fluorescence and XANES techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.C.; Amrhein, C.; Bertsch, P.M.; Hunter, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    Evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), CA, used for the disposal of irrigation drainage waters, contain elevated levels of uranium. The ponds are filled periodically and support algae which upon evaporation become incorporated in the sediments as layers of decaying organic matter. This rich source of organic matter promotes reducing conditions in the sediments. Our research was conducted to characterize oxidation/reduction reactions that affect soluble and sediment U(IV)/U(VI) concentrations in the SJV ponds. Studies were done to (1) determine soluble U(Vl)/U(IV) in waters in contact with a pond sediment subjected to changes in redox status, (2) observe U solid oxidation state as a reducing pond sediment underwent (in vitro) oxidation, and (3) determine U solid oxidation state with respect to depth in pond surface sediment layers. Low pressure ion-exchange chromatography with an eluent of 0.125 M H 2 C 2 O 4 /0.25 M HNO 3 was used for the separation of U(IV) and U(VI) oxidation states in the drainage waters. Soluble U(VI) and U(IV) coexisted in sediment suspensions exposed to changes in redox potential (Eh) (-260 mV to +330 mV), and U(VI) was highly soluble in the oxidized, surface pond sediments. X-ray near edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) showed that the U solid phases were 25% U(IV) and 75% U(VI) and probably a mixed solid [U 3 O 8(s) ] in highly reducing pond sediments. Sediment U(IV) increased slightly with depth in the surface pond sediment layers suggesting a gradual reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) with time. Under oxidized conditions, this mixed oxidation-state solid was highly soluble. 59 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Toxicity of sediments and pore water from Brunswick Estuary, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Parley V.; Lasier, Peter J.; Geitner, Harvey

    1993-01-01

    A chlor-alkali plant in Brunswick, Georgia, USA, discharged >2 kg mercury/d into a tributary of the Turtle River-Brunswick Estuary from 1966 to 1971. Mercury concentrations in sediments collected in 1989 along the tributary near the chlor-alkali plant ranged from 1 to 27 μg/g (dry weight), with the highest concentrations found in surface (0–8 cm) sediments of subtidal zones in the vicinity of the discharge site. Toxicity screening in 1990 using Microtox® bioassays on pore water extracted on site from sediments collected at six stations distributed along the tributary indicated that pore water was highly toxic near the plant discharge. Ten-day toxicity tests on pore water from subsequent sediment samples collected near the plant discharge confirmed high toxicity to Hyalella azteca, and feeding activity was significantly reduced in whole-sediment tests. In addition to mercury in the sediments, other metals (chromium, lead, and zinc) exceeded 50 μg/g, and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) concentrations ranged from 67 to 95 μg/g. On a molar basis, acid-volatile sulfide concentrations (20–45 μmol/g) in the sediments exceeded the metal concentrations. Because acid-volatile sulfides bind with cationic metals and form metal sulfides, which are generally not bioavailable, toxicities shown by these sediments were attributed to the high concentrations of PCBs and possibly methylmercury.

  2. Heavy metal contents in the sediments of astatic ponds: Influence of geomorphology, hydroperiod, water chemistry and vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Celewicz-Gołdyn, Sofia

    2015-08-01

    The contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were analysed in the bottom sediments of 30 small, astatic ponds located in the agricultural landscape of Western Poland. The samples were collected from 118 stations located in patches of four vegetation types. Relationships between the contents of particular elements and four groups of factors (geomorphology, hydroperiod, water quality and vegetation) were tested using Redundancy Analysis (RDA). The most important factors influencing the heavy metal contents were the maximum depth and area of the pond, its hydroperiod, water pH and conductivity values. In general, low quantities of heavy metals were recorded in the sediments of kettle-like ponds (small but located in deep depressions) and high in water bodies of the shore-bursting type (large but shallow). Moreover, quantities of particular elements were influenced by the structure of the vegetation covering the pond. Based on the results, we show which types of astatic ponds are most exposed to contamination and suggest some conservation practices that may reduce the influx of heavy metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicity assessment of sediments from three European river basins using a sediment contact test battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A.I.; Schmitt, C.; Hoess, S.; Bandow, N; von der Ohe, P.; de Zwart, D.; de Deckere, E.; Streck, G.; Mothes, S.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Kocan, A.; Brix, R.; Brack, W.; Barcelo, D.; Sormunen, A.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of four polluted sediments and their corresponding reference sediments from three European river basins were investigated using a battery of six sediment contact tests representing three different trophic levels. The tests included were chronic tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus

  4. Next-Generation Sequencing Assessment of Eukaryotic Diversity in Oil Sands Tailings Ponds Sediments and Surface Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Maria; Richardson, Elisabeth; Tan, BoonFei; Walker, Giselle; Dunfield, Peter F; Bass, David; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia; Dacks, Joel B

    2016-11-01

    Tailings ponds in the Athabasca oil sands (Canada) contain fluid wastes, generated by the extraction of bitumen from oil sands ores. Although the autochthonous prokaryotic communities have been relatively well characterized, almost nothing is known about microbial eukaryotes living in the anoxic soft sediments of tailings ponds or in the thin oxic layer of water that covers them. We carried out the first next-generation sequencing study of microbial eukaryotic diversity in oil sands tailings ponds. In metagenomes prepared from tailings sediment and surface water, we detected very low numbers of sequences encoding eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA representing seven major taxonomic groups of protists. We also produced and analysed three amplicon-based 18S rRNA libraries prepared from sediment samples. These revealed a more diverse set of taxa, 169 different OTUs encompassing up to eleven higher order groups of eukaryotes, according to detailed classification using homology searching and phylogenetic methods. The 10 most abundant OTUs accounted for > 90% of the total of reads, vs. large numbers of rare OTUs (< 1% abundance). Despite the anoxic and hydrocarbon-enriched nature of the environment, the tailings ponds harbour complex communities of microbial eukaryotes indicating that these organisms should be taken into account when studying the microbiology of the oil sands. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  5. Effects of light and microbial activity on the degradation of two fluoroquinolone antibiotics in pond water and sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juo-Shan; Pan, Hung-Yu; Liu, Shiu-Mei; Lai, Hong-Thih

    2010-07-01

    Enrofloxacin (ENR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) are two fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics widely used to treat diseases of human beings and cultured animals. These two FQs are usually detected in the effluent of municipal sewage plants and related aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was to understand the fates of ENR and CIP in aquaculture pond water and a sediment slurry in a laboratory-scale experiment. Effects of light and microbial activity on the degradation of these two FQs were investigated. Results indicated that natural irradiation plays a major role in the degradation of ENR and CIP in pond water and the sediment slurry. The 50 % dissipation times (DT(50)) with non-sterile treatment were 0.01 and 18.4 d for ENR, and 0.04 and 17.3 d for CIP in the water and sediment slurry, respectively. On the other hand, the degradation of ENR and CIP under dark conditions was slow or even hindered, and all of their DT(50) values exceeded 100 d. These two FQs degraded faster in the sediment slurry than in pond water under dark conditions. Artificial ultraviolet (UV) and fluorescence light had similar effects on the degradation of ENR in the pond water and sediment slurry. Degradation of CIP was faster with UV than with fluorescence light treatment, while no such difference was found for ENR degradation. CIP was a degradation product of ENR under both light and dark conditions, and DT(50) values for both compounds were shorter in the presence of light. The phenomenon of biodegradation was observed during degradation of CIP in the sediment slurry under natural light.

  6. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using {sup 137}Cs activities and radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Foucher, Anthony [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Laceby, J. Patrick [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien [E.A 6293, Laboratoire GéoHydrosystèmes Continentaux (GéHCO), Université F. Rabelais de Tours, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène [Laboratoire des Sciences et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, Domaine du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cerdan, Olivier [Département Risques et Prévention, Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans (France); and others

    2016-10-01

    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24 km{sup 2}, Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n = 36) and subsurface channel bank (n = 17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n = 41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10 m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. {sup 137}Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of

  7. Internal loading of phosphorus in a sedimentation pond of a treatment wetland: effect of a phytoplankton crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Felgate, Elizabeth J; Mortimer, Robert J G; Krom, Michael D; Jarvie, Helen P; Williams, Richard J; Spraggs, Rachael E; Stratford, Charlie J

    2011-05-01

    Sedimentation ponds are widely believed to act as a primary removal process for phosphorus (P) in nutrient treatment wetlands. High frequency in-situ P, ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and dissolved oxygen measurements, alongside occasional water quality measurements, assessed changes in nutrient concentrations and productivity in the sedimentation pond of a treatment wetland between March and June. Diffusive equilibrium in thin films (DET) probes were used to measure in-situ nutrient and chemistry pore-water profiles. Diffusive fluxes across the sediment-water interface were calculated from the pore-water profiles, and dissolved oxygen was used to calculate rates of primary productivity and respiration. The sedimentation pond was a net sink for total P (TP), soluble reactive P (SRP) and NH(4)(+) in March, but became subject to a net internal loading of TP, SRP and NH(4)(+) in May, with SRP concentrations increasing by up to 41μM (1300μl(-1)). Reductions in chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentrations also occurred at this time. The sediment changed from a small net sink of SRP in March (average diffusive flux: -8.2μmolm(-2)day(-1)) to a net source of SRP in June (average diffusive flux: +1324μmolm(-2)day(-1)). A diurnal pattern in water column P concentrations, with maxima in the early hours of the morning, and minima in the afternoon, occurred during May. The diurnal pattern and release of SRP from the sediment were attributed to microbial degradation of diatom biomass, causing reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration and leading to redox-dependent release of P from the sediment. In June, 2.7mol-Pday(-1) were removed by photosynthesis and 23mol-Pday(-1) were supplied by respiration in the lake volume. SRP was also released through microbial respiration within the water column, including the decomposition of algal matter. It is imperative that consideration to internal recycling is given when maintaining sedimentation ponds, and before the installation of new

  8. Influence of tubificid worms on nutrient fluxes across water-sediment interface in fish farm settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigagut J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of tubificid worms on nutrient translocation from water to fish farm sediments accumulating in settling ponds was addressed under laboratory conditions. Small microcosms of 0.5 L were filled up with 35 g of sludge from a fish farm settling pond and 0.15 L of filtered settling pond water. The experimental set up consisted of one control line (no worms added, a second experimental line with 1 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (550 individuals·m-2 and a third experimental line with 40 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (22 000 individuals·m-2. Nutrients translocation was determined by monitoring overlaying water concentration of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate for ten days. Results showed that abundances of 550 individuals·m-2 had no significant influence on the fluxes of nutrients here considered. However, the influence of higher abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2 was of significant extent on the translocation of nitrate and phosphate. Accordingly, bioturbation of tubificids caused 55% lower nitrate uptake by the sediment when compared to control conditions. Phosphorus released by the sediments of the control condition was ca. 90% higher than that recorded under abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2. Results obtained allowed us to estimate that fish farm settling ponds highly colonized by tubificid worms (22 000 individuals·m-2 may contribute to decrease phosphorus discharge (in terms of soluble phosphorus in ca. 5 g of P·ton-1 of fish produced.

  9. Heavy metal composition in stormwater and retention in ponds dependent on pond age, design and catchment type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egemose, Sara; Sønderup, Melanie J.; Grudinina, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals have toxic effects on flora and fauna in the aquatic environments and are of great concern in stormwater. Heavy metal runoff was studied in 37 stormwater ponds in Denmark with varying heavy metal load, catchment type and pond design. The studied metals were Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn...... difficult to retain. The removal efficiency in the ponds varied considerably, with the highest retention of Pb, Ni and Zn due to higher particulate fraction. The retention increased with increased pond volume-to-reduced catchment area ratio. In addition, the pond age affected the efficiency; whereas ponds...... less than 1-2 years efficiently removed all metals, 30-40-year-old ponds only removed Pb, Ni and Zn, but steeply decreasing over the years. Physical parameters such as pond size, age and sedimentation patterns were found to play a more significant role in the removal compared with chemical parameters...

  10. Fate of Pyrethroids in Farmland Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, B. B.; Sørensen, P. B.; Stuer-Lauridsen, F.

    Pyrethroids constitute a group of widely used insecticides, which are toxic to aquatic organisms. This report presents the results from a 2-year study of the fate of pyrethroids in ponds, i.e. their distribution in the water column, the sediment and the surface microlayer respectively. The measur......Pyrethroids constitute a group of widely used insecticides, which are toxic to aquatic organisms. This report presents the results from a 2-year study of the fate of pyrethroids in ponds, i.e. their distribution in the water column, the sediment and the surface microlayer respectively...

  11. Pesticide and trace metal occurrence and aquatic benchmark exceedances in surface waters and sediments of urban wetlands and retention ponds in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, Graeme; Zhang, Pei; Bui, AnhDuyen; Allinson, Mayumi; Rose, Gavin; Marshall, Stephen; Pettigrove, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    Samples of water and sediments were collected from 24 urban wetlands in Melbourne, Australia, in April 2010, and tested for more than 90 pesticides using a range of gas chromatographic (GC) and liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques, sample 'hormonal' activity using yeast-based recombinant receptor-reporter gene bioassays, and trace metals using spectroscopic techniques. At the time of sampling, there was almost no estrogenic activity in the water column. Twenty-three different pesticide residues were observed in one or more water samples from the 24 wetlands; chemicals observed at more than 40% of sites were simazine (100%), atrazine (79%), and metalaxyl and terbutryn (46%). Using the toxicity unit (TU) concept, less than 15% of the detected pesticides were considered to pose an individual, short-term risk to fish or zooplankton in the ponds and wetlands. However, one pesticide (fenvalerate) may have posed a possible short-term risk to fish (log10TUf > -3), and three pesticides (azoxystrobin, fenamiphos and fenvalerate) may have posed a risk to zooplankton (logTUzp between -2 and -3); all the photosystem II (PSII) inhibiting herbicides may have posed a risk to primary producers in the ponds and wetlands (log10TUap and/or log10TUalg > -3). The wetland sediments were contaminated with 16 different pesticides; no chemicals were observed at more than one third of sites, but based on frequency of detection and concentrations, bifenthrin (33%, maximum 59 μg/kg) is the priority insecticide of concern for the sediments studied. Five sites returned a TU greater than the possible effect threshold (i.e. log10TU > 1) as a result of bifenthrin contamination of their sediments. Most sediments did not exceed Australian sediment quality guideline levels for trace metals. However, more than half of the sites had threshold effect concentration quotients (TECQ) values >1 for Cu (58%), Pb (50%), Ni (67%) and Zn (63%), and 75% of sites had mean probable effect concentration quotients

  12. Effectiveness of bioremediation in reducing toxicity in oiled intertidal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Tremblay, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    A 123-day field study was conducted with in situ enclosures to compare the effectiveness of bioremediation strategies based in inorganic and organic fertilizer additions to accelerate the biodegradation rates and reduce the toxicity of Venture trademark condensate stranded within sand-beach sediments. Comparison of the two fertilizer formulations with identical nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations showed that the organic fertilizer stimulated bacterial productivity within the oiled sediments to the greatest extent. However, detailed chemical analysis indicated that inorganic fertilizer additions were the most effective in enhancing condensate biodegradation rates. The Microtox reg-sign Solid-Phase Test (SPT) bioassay was determined to be sensitive to Venture Condensate in laboratory tests. Subsequent application of this procedure to oiled sediment in the field showed a reduction in sediment toxicity over time. However, the Microtox reg-sign bioassay procedure did not identify significant reductions in sediment toxicity following bioremediation treatment. An observed increase in toxicity following periodic additions of the organic fertilizer was attributed to rapid biodegradation rates of the fertilizer, which resulted in the production of toxic metabolic products

  13. Chronic toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments: variation in toxicity among eight invertebrate taxa and eight sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Kemble, Nile E.; Schlekat, Christian E.; Garman, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chronic toxicity of Ni-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates. A 2-step spiking procedure (spiking and sediment dilution) and a 2-stage equilibration period (10 wk anaerobic and 1 wk aerobic) were used to spike 8 freshwater sediments with wide ranges of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS; 0.94–38 µmol/g) and total organic carbon (TOC; 0.42–10%). Chronic sediment toxicity tests were conducted with 8 invertebrates (Hyalella azteca, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus dilutus, Hexagenia sp., Lumbriculus variegatus, Tubifex tubifex, and Lampsilis siliquoidea) in 2 spiked sediments. Nickel toxicity thresholds estimated from species-sensitivity distributions were 97 µg/g and 752 µg/g (total recoverable Ni; dry wt basis) for sediments with low and high concentrations of AVS and TOC, respectively. Sensitive species were tested with 6 additional sediments. The 20% effect concentrations (EC20s) for Hyalella and Gammarus, but not Hexagenia, were consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency benchmarks based on Ni in porewater and in simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) normalized to AVS and TOC. For Hexagenia, sediment EC20s increased at less than an equimolar basis with increased AVS, and toxicity occurred in several sediments with Ni concentrations in SEM less than AVS. The authors hypothesize that circulation of oxygenated water by Hexagenia led to oxidation of AVS in burrows, creating microenvironments with high Ni exposure. Despite these unexpected results, a strong relationship between Hexagenia EC20s and AVS could provide a basis for conservative site-specific sediment quality guidelines for Ni.

  14. Assessment of forms finding of Chernobyl radionuclides in bottom sediments of cooling pond of the ChNPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Protsak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of forms finding of radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am and dispersal composition of fuel particles in bottom sediments of cooling pond of the ChNPP is carried out. According to the results of re-search in the year of 2012 more than 98 % of radionuclides in bottom sediments were in non-exchange (ex-changeable state, while in the composition of the fuel particles can be contained about 70% 90Sr and more than 80 % 241Am and of the plutonium isotopes. Obtained results indicate the selective leaching of radionuclides from the matrix of fuel particles.

  15. Reduction of metal exposure of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Lucie; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Kierdorf, Uwe; Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2016-03-15

    Transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. Here, we analyzed the metal exposure of Myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. Six metal elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in EDTA extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of M. daubentonii foraging at the pond. Samples were taken before remediation in 2011 and after remediation in 2013. Metal concentrations were quantified by ICP-OES after miniaturized microwave assisted extraction. In 2011, the pond sediment exhibited a high contamination with nickel, a moderate contamination with copper and chromium and low contents of zinc, cadmium and lead. While sediment metal contents declined only weakly after remediation, a much more pronounced reduction in the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and lead concentrations was observed in bat hair. Our results suggest a marked decline in metal exposure of the bats foraging at the pond as a consequence of the remediation measure. It is concluded that Daubenton's bats are suitable bioindicators of metal contamination in aquatic environments, integrating metal exposure via prey insects over their entire foraging area. We further suggest that bat hair is a useful monitoring unit, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of metal exposure in bats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Radioactive pollution of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments. I. Water-physical properties, chemical compound and radioactive pollution of pore water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Pirnach

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available First results of complex research of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments are presented. The general problematic is considered. Information about vertical distribution of bottom sediments water-physical properties, and also ionic compound and radioactive pollution 137Cs and 90Sr of pore water is received. The inventory of bottom sediments pore water activity is calculated. Strong correlations between concentration in pore water 137Cs, K +, NH4 + within the selected sediments columns are found out. Results of researches are intended for the forecast of radioecological situation change in the cooling pond water-soil complex during drying-up.

  17. Toxicity and biodegradation of PCBs in contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercova, K.; Cicmanova, J.; Lovecka, P.; Demnerova, K.; Mackova, M.; Hucko, P.; Kusnir, P.

    2006-01-01

    PCBs represent a serious ecological problem due to their low degradability, high toxicity, and strong bioaccumulation. Because of many environmental and economical problems, there are efforts to develop bio-remediation technologies for decontamination of the PCB-polluted areas. PCB were used by storage of spent nuclear fuel in nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice. In the locality of the former producer of PCB - Chemko Strazske a. s. - big amount of these substances is still persisting in sediments and soil. The goal of this study was to analyze the contaminated sediments from Strazsky canal and Zemplinska Sirava water reservoir from several points of view. The study of eco-toxicity confirmed that both sediments were toxic for various tested organisms. The genotoxicity test has not proved the mutagenic effect. The subsequent step included microbiological analysis of the contaminated sediments and isolation of pure bacterial cultures capable of degrading PCBs. In order to determine the genetic potential for their biodegradability, the gene bphA1 was identified using PCR technique in their genomes. This gene codes the enzyme biphenyl-dioxygenase, which is responsible for PCB degradation. The final goal was to perform aerobic biodegradation of PCBs in the sediments. The bacteria present in both sediments are able to degrade certain low chlorinated congeners. The issue of biodiversity is still open and has to be studied to reveal the real cooperation between bacteria. (authors)

  18. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Because consumption of lead-contaminated sediment has been suspected as the cause of waterfowl mortality in the Coeur d?Alene River basin in Idaho, we studied the bioavailability and toxicity of this sediment to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). In experiment 1, one of 10 adult male mallards died when fed a pelleted commercial duck diet that contained 24% lead-contaminated sediment (with 3,400 μg/g lead in the sediment). Protoporphyrin levels in the blood increased as the percentage of lead-contaminated sediment in the diet increased. Birds fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment exhibited atrophy of the breast muscles, green staining of the feathers around the vent, viscous bile, green staining of the gizzard lining, and renal tubular intranuclear inclusion bodies. Mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment had means of 6.1 μg/g of lead in the blood and 28 μg/g in the liver (wet-weight basis) and 1,660 μg/g in the feces (dry-weight basis). In experiment 2, we raised the dietary concentration of the lead-contaminated sediment to 48%, but only about 20% sediment was actually ingested due to food washing by the birds. Protoporphyrin levels were elevated in the lead-exposed birds, and all of the mallards fed 48% lead-contaminated sediment had renal tubular intranuclear inclusion bodies. The concentrations of lead in the liver were 9.1 μg/g for mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment and 16 μg/g for mallards fed 48% lead-contaminated sediment. In experiment 3, four of five mallards died when fed a ground corn diet containing 24% lead-contaminated sediment (with 4,000 μg/g lead in this sample of sediment), but none died when the 24% lead-contaminated sediment was mixed into a nutritionally balanced commercial duck diet; estimated actual ingestion rates for sediment were 14% and 17% for the corn and commercial diets. Lead exposure caused elevations in protoporphyrin, and four of the five mallards fed 24% lead-contaminated sediment in a commercial diet and all five

  19. Sediment and toxic contaminant transport modeling in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Mayer, D.W.; Argo, R.S.

    1982-02-01

    A hydrodynamic model, CAFE-I, a wave refraction model, LO3D, and a sediment and contaminant transport model, FETRA, were selected as tools for evaluating exposure levels of radionuclides, heavy metals, and other toxic chemicals in coastal waters. Prior to the application of these models to the Irish Sea and other coastal waters, the finite element model, FETRA, was tested to demonstrate its ability to simulate sediment and contaminant interactions (e.g., adsorption and desorption), and the mechanisms governing the transport, deposition, and resuspension of contaminated sediments

  20. Studying the effect of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity using acute amphipod toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basallote, M Dolores; De Orte, Manoela R; DelValls, T Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is increasingly being considered one of the most efficient approaches to mitigate the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated with anthropogenic emissions. However, the environmental effects of potential CO2 leaks remain largely unknown. The amphipod Ampelisca brevicornis was exposed to environmental sediments collected in different areas of the Gulf of Cádiz and subjected to several pH treatments to study the effects of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity. After 10 days of exposure, the results obtained indicated that high lethal effects were associated with the lowest pH treatments, except for the Ría of Huelva sediment test. The mobility of metals from sediment to the overlying seawater was correlated to a pH decrease. The data obtained revealed that CO2-related acidification would lead to lethal effects on amphipods as well as the mobility of metals, which could increase sediment toxicity.

  1. Pontibacter mucosus sp. nov., isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane-contaminated pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Namita; Kohli, Puneet; Mahato, Nitish Kumar; Lal, Rup

    2016-06-01

    A halotolerant, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and light-pink-pigmented bacterial strain, PB3T, was isolated from a pond sediment near a hexachlorocyclohexane-producing factory, located at Chinhat, Lucknow, India. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain PB3T formed a distinct phyletic clade along with the members of the genus Pontibacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with other members of the genus Pontibacter ranged from 94.5 to 98.9 %. The cells were motile, aerobic, and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH, C16:1ω5c, summed feature 3 (C16:1ω6c/C16:1ω7c) and summed feature 4 (iso-C17:1I/ anteiso-C17:1 B). The polar lipid profile of strain PB3T showed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, unknown aminolipids and other unknown polar lipids. DNA-DNA hybridization based homology of strain PB3T with respect to its most closely related species, Pontibacter chinhatensis LP51T, was 44.7 %. The DNA G+C content was 53.5 mol%. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolate belongs to the genus Pontibacter and represents a novel species, for which the name Pontibacter mucosus is proposed. The type strain is PB3T (=DSM 100162T=KCTC 42942T).

  2. Invertebrates in stormwater wet detention pondsSediment accumulation and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have no effect on biodiversity and community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansen, Diana Agnete; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Vollertsen, Jes

    2016-01-01

    The invertebrate diversity in nine stormwater wet detention ponds (SWDP) was compared with the diversity in eleven small shallow lakes in the western part of Denmark. The SWDPs and lakes were chosen to reflect as large a gradient of pollutant loads and urbanization as possible. The invertebrates as well as the bottom sediments of the ponds and shallow lakes were analyzed for copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, aluminum, nickel, arsenic and the potentially limiting nutrient, phosphorus. The Principal Component Analysis showed that invertebrates in SWDPs and lakes differed with respect to bioaccumulation of these elements, as did the sediments, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the TWINSPAN showed that the invertebrate populations of the ponds and lakes could not be distinguished, with the possible exception of highway ponds presenting a distinct sub-group of wet detention ponds. The SWDPs and shallow lakes studied seemed to constitute aquatic ecosystems of similar taxon richness and composition as did the 11 small and shallow lakes. This indicates that SWDPs, originally constructed for treatment and flood protection purposes, become aquatic environments which play a local role for biodiversity similar to that of natural small and shallow lakes. - Highlights: • Biota of stormwater ponds had higher levels of metals compared to natural lakes. • Bioaccumulation of metals did not affect the biodiversity of the water bodies. • Biota composition in stormwater ponds and natural lakes was indistinguishable. • Stormwater ponds can play a role for biodiversity similar to natural lakes.

  3. Invertebrates in stormwater wet detention pondsSediment accumulation and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have no effect on biodiversity and community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephansen, Diana Agnete, E-mail: das@civil.aau.dk [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Thomas Manns Vej 23, 9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Thomas Manns Vej 23, 9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild [Department of Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7H, 9200 Aalborg East (Denmark); Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Vollertsen, Jes [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Thomas Manns Vej 23, 9220 Aalborg East (Denmark)

    2016-10-01

    The invertebrate diversity in nine stormwater wet detention ponds (SWDP) was compared with the diversity in eleven small shallow lakes in the western part of Denmark. The SWDPs and lakes were chosen to reflect as large a gradient of pollutant loads and urbanization as possible. The invertebrates as well as the bottom sediments of the ponds and shallow lakes were analyzed for copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, aluminum, nickel, arsenic and the potentially limiting nutrient, phosphorus. The Principal Component Analysis showed that invertebrates in SWDPs and lakes differed with respect to bioaccumulation of these elements, as did the sediments, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the TWINSPAN showed that the invertebrate populations of the ponds and lakes could not be distinguished, with the possible exception of highway ponds presenting a distinct sub-group of wet detention ponds. The SWDPs and shallow lakes studied seemed to constitute aquatic ecosystems of similar taxon richness and composition as did the 11 small and shallow lakes. This indicates that SWDPs, originally constructed for treatment and flood protection purposes, become aquatic environments which play a local role for biodiversity similar to that of natural small and shallow lakes. - Highlights: • Biota of stormwater ponds had higher levels of metals compared to natural lakes. • Bioaccumulation of metals did not affect the biodiversity of the water bodies. • Biota composition in stormwater ponds and natural lakes was indistinguishable. • Stormwater ponds can play a role for biodiversity similar to natural lakes.

  4. Analyses of outcrop and sediment grains observed and collected from the Sirena Deep and Middle Pond of the Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, K. P.; Bartlett, D. H.; Fryer, P.

    2012-12-01

    During a March 2012 expedition we recovered sediments from two locales within the Marina Trench - Middle Pond and Sirena Deep. Samples were recovered from a Niskin bottle deployed on a passive lander platform that released an arm after touching down on the seafloor. The impact of the arm holding the Niskin bottle caused sediments to enter the bottle; this process was seen in images and on video captured by the lander. The combination of imagery and preliminary analyses of the sediments indicates that the Sirena Deep locale is a region of serpentinization and active microbial communities. Images show several outcrops consistent with serpentinization, some of which are coated with filamentous microbial mats. Results and analyses of these samples will be presented.

  5. Evaluation of metals, metalloids, and ash mixture toxicity using sediment toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojak, Amber; Bonnevie, Nancy L; Jones, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    In December 2008, a release of 4.1 million m(3) of coal ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant occurred. Ash washed into the Emory River and migrated downstream into the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. A Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment evaluated risks to ecological receptors from ash in the river system post-dredging. This article describes the approach used and results from sediment toxicity tests, discussing any causal relationships between ash, metals, and toxicity. Literature is limited in the realm of aquatic coal combustion residue (CCR) exposures and the potential magnitude of effects on benthic invertebrates. Sediment samples along a spectrum of ash content were used in a tiered toxicity testing approach and included a combination of 10 day sediment toxicity acute tests and longer-term, partial life cycle "definitive" tests with 2 species (Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus). Arsenic, and to a lesser extent Se, in the ash was the most likely toxicant causing observed effects in the laboratory toxicity tests. Sites in the Emory River with the greatest statistical and biologically significant effects had As concentrations in sediments twice the probable effects concentration of 33 mg/kg. These sites contained greater than 50% ash. Sites with less than approximately 50% ash in sediments exhibited fewer significant toxic responses relative to the reference sediment in the laboratory. The results discussed here present useful evidence of only limited effects occurring from a worst-case exposure pathway. These results provided a valuable line of evidence for the overall assessment of risks to benthic invertebrates and to other ecological receptors, and were crucial to risk management and development of project remediation goals. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. Assessment of sediment quality based on toxic equivalent benzo[a]Pyrene concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, T.L.; Lee, K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) as an indicator and its thresholds for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediments. The indicator, based on toxicity and carcinogenic effects, was selected to assess the marine environment and changes in marine environmental quality (MEQ) in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia. It was shown that the bioavailability of B[a]P and other PAHs is greatly affected by the quality and quantity of dissolved organic matter and organic carbon content. Two coal coke facilities were constructed on the shore of Sydney Harbour in the 19th century. For many years, the coke-ovens discharged toxic liquid effluent through the Tar Ponds into the harbour, contaminating the ground and surface water with arsenic, lead and other toxins. It also led to the accumulation of PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls. A recent assessment of PAH contamination of Sydney Harbour has focused on the exposure of organisms to contaminants as well as the biological effects on the organisms. All samples collected from the South Arm of Sydney Harbour exceeded the upper threshold of established regulatory guidelines. Samples from the Northwest Arm were within regulatory limits, suggesting that industrial and municipal sources were the primary sources of pollution. PAH concentrations were used to identify sediments that exceed effects thresholds based on MEQ guidelines. The results were compared to actual observations of biological effects. Toxic equivalency factors were established for B[a]P and other PAHs in order to estimate cumulative exposure levels. The concentrations can be compared to regulatory sediment quality guidelines established in Canada and the United States for the protection of marine life. 34 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Isolating the impact of sediment toxicity in urban streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Stephen; Pettigrove, Vincent; Carew, Melissa; Hoffmann, Ary

    2010-01-01

    Several factors can contribute to the ecological degradation of stream catchments following urbanization, but it is often difficult to separate their relative importance. We isolated the impact of polluted sediment on the condition of an urban stream in Melbourne, Australia, using two complementary approaches. Using a rapid bioassessment approach, indices of stream condition were calculated based on macroinvertebrate field surveys. Urban stream reaches supported impoverished macroinvertebrate communities, and contained potentially toxic concentrations of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Using a field microcosm approach, a bioassay was carried out to assess sediment pollution effects on native macroinvertebrates. Sediment from urban sites substantially altered the microcosm macroinvertebrate community, most likely due to elevated heavy metal and hydrocarbon concentrations. Macroinvertebrate surveys combined with a bioassay approach based on field microcosms can help isolate the effect of stream pollutants in degraded ecosystems. - Field microcosms isolate the ecological impact of polluted sediment in an urban stream.

  8. Sorption of selected pesticides on soils, sediment and straw from a constructed agricultural drainage ditch or pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Romain; Dousset, Sylvie; Billet, David; Benoit, Marc

    2014-04-01

    Buffer zones such as ponds and ditches are used to reduce field-scale losses of pesticides from subsurface drainage waters to surface waters. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of these buffer zones, in particular constructed wetlands, focusing specifically on sorption processes. We modelled the sorption processes of three herbicides [2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-MCPA), isoproturon and napropamide] and three fungicides (boscalid, prochloraz and tebuconazole) on four substrates (two soils, sediment and straw) commonly found in a pond and ditch in Lorraine (France). A wide range of Freundlich coefficient (K fads) values was obtained, from 0.74 to 442.63 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1), and the corresponding K foc values ranged from 56 to 3,725 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1). Based on potential retention, the substrates may be classified as straw > sediments > soils. These results show the importance of organic carbon content and nature in the process of sorption. Similarly, the studied pesticides could be classified according to their adsorption capacity as follows: prochloraz > tebuconazole-boscalid > napropamide > MCPA-isoproturon. This classification is strongly influenced by the physico-chemical properties of pesticides, especially solubility and K oc. Straw exhibited the largest quantity of non-desorbable pesticide residues, from 12.1 to 224.2 mg/L for all pesticides. The presence of plants could increase soil-sediment sorption capacity. Thus, establishment and maintenance of plants and straw filters should be promoted to optimise sorption processes and the efficiency of ponds and ditches in reducing surface water pollution.

  9. 3D Numerical Modelling of Transport, Deposition and Resuspension of Highway Deposited Sediments in Wet Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2009-01-01

    concrete channel with width of 0.8 m and a water depth of approximately 0.8 m and in circular flume experiments in order to reproduce near-bed specific processes such as resuspension and consolidation. With good agreement with measurements, modelling of hydrodynamics, transport of dissolved pollutants...... and particles in wet detention ponds is possible with application of a three dimensional RANS model and the advection/dispersion equation taken physical phenomena like wind, waves, deposition, erosion and consolidation of the bottom sediment into account....

  10. Water-quality and sediment-chemistry data of drain water and evaporation ponds from Tulare Lake Drainage District, Kings County, California March 1985 to March 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and major ion concentrations were measured in water samples collected monthly between March 1985 and March 1986 at the MD-1 pumping station at the Tulare Lake Drainage District evaporation ponds, Kings County, California. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides several times during the year. Salinity, as measured by specific conductance, ranged from 11,500 to 37,600 microsiemens/centimeter; total recoverable boron ranged from 4,000 to 16,000 micrg/L; and total recoverable molybdenum ranged from 630 to 2,600 microg/L. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium were 97 and 2 microg/L. Atrazine, prometone, propazine, and simazine were the only pesticides detected in water samples collected at the MD-1 pumping station. Major ions, trace elements, and selected pesticides also were analyzed in water and bottom-sediment samples from five of the southern evaporation ponds at Tulare Lake Drainage District. Water enters the ponds from the MD-1 pumping station at pond 1 and flows through the system terminating at pond 10. The water samples increased in specific conductance (21,700 to 90,200 microsiemens/centimeter) and concentrations of total arsenic (110 to 420 microg/L), total recoverable boron (12,000 to 80,000 microg/L) and total recoverable molybdenum (1,200 to 5,500 microg/L) going from pond 1 to pond 10, respectively. Pesticides were not detected in water from any of the ponds sampled. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium in the bottom sediments were 4.0 and 0.9 microg/g, respectively. The only pesticides detected in bottom sediment samples from the evaporation ponds were DDD and DDE, with maximum concentration of 0.8 microg/kilogram. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Toxicity of silicon carbide nanowires to sediment-dwelling invertebrates in water or sediment exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Joseph N.; Wang, Ning; Ritts, Andrew; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Li, Hao; Deng, Baolin

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNW) are insoluble in water. When released into an aquatic environment, SiCNW would likely accumulate in sediment. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of SiCNW to four freshwater sediment-dwelling organisms: amphipods (Hyalella azteca), midges (Chironomus dilutus), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), and mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea). Amphipods were exposed to either sonicated or nonsonicated SiCNW in water (1.0 g/L) for 48 h. Midges, mussels, and oligochaetes were exposed only to sonicated SiCNW in water for 96 h. In addition, amphipods were exposed to sonicated SiCNW in whole sediment for 10 d (44% SiCNW on dry wt basis). Mean 48-h survival of amphipods exposed to nonsonicated SiCNW in water was not significantly different from the control, whereas mean survival of amphipods exposed to sonicated SiCNW in two 48-h exposures (0 or 15% survival) was significantly different from the control (90 or 98% survival). In contrast, no effect of sonicated SiCNW was observed on survival of midges, mussels, or oligochaetes. Survival of amphipods was not significantly reduced in 10-d exposures to sonicated SiCNW either mixed in the sediment or layered on the sediment surface. However, significant reduction in amphipod biomass was observed with the SiCNW either mixed in sediment or layered on the sediment surface, and the reduction was more pronounced for SiCNW layered on the sediment. These results indicated that, under the experimental conditions, nonsonicated SiCNW in water were not acutely toxic to amphipods, sonicated SiCNW in water were acutely toxic to the amphipods, but not to other organisms tested, and sonicated SiCNW in sediment affected the growth but not the survival of amphipods.

  12. Radioactive pollution of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments. II. Distribution of 137Cs, 241Am, 90Sr in a solid phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Pirnach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of complex research of the Chernobyl cooling pond bottom sediments are presented Data about vertical distribution of radioactive pollution 137Cs, 241Am, 90Sr in a solid phase of sediments are received. Distribution coefficients 137Cs and 90Sr, selectivity coefficients of their exchange with similar cations and physical-chemical forms are defined. Results of research of radionuclide chemical recovery from the sediment samples are analyzed.

  13. Linking toxicity profiles to pollutants in sludge and sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stiborová, H.; Kolář, Michal; Vrkoslavová, J.; Pulkrabová, J.; Hajslova, J.; Demnerová, K.; Uhlík, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 321, zima (2017), s. 672-680 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02328S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons * Toxicity * Contamination * Sludge * Sediments * Priority pollutants * Constrained correspondence analysis (CCS) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Other biological topics Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  14. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mute swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Morton, Alexandra; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    weight and hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations in swans on control (no sediment) and reference (uncontaminated) sediment diets remained unchanged. These data provide evidence that mute swans consuming environmentally relevant concentrations of Coeur d'Alene River Basin sediment developed severe sublethal lead poisoning. Furthermore, toxic effects were more pronounced when the birds were fed lead contaminated sediment combined with rice, which closely resembles the diet of swans in the wild.

  15. Reduction of metal exposure of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flache, Lucie, E-mail: Lucie.Flache@bio.uni-giessen.de [Mammalian Ecology Group, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Ekschmitt, Klemens [Animal Ecology, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kierdorf, Uwe [Department of Biology, University of Hildesheim, Universitätsplatz 1, D-31141 Hildesheim (Germany); Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander [Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Encarnação, Jorge A. [Mammalian Ecology Group, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. Here, we analyzed the metal exposure of Myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. Six metal elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in EDTA extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of M. daubentonii foraging at the pond. Samples were taken before remediation in 2011 and after remediation in 2013. Metal concentrations were quantified by ICP-OES after miniaturized microwave assisted extraction. In 2011, the pond sediment exhibited a high contamination with nickel, a moderate contamination with copper and chromium and low contents of zinc, cadmium and lead. While sediment metal contents declined only weakly after remediation, a much more pronounced reduction in the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and lead concentrations was observed in bat hair. Our results suggest a marked decline in metal exposure of the bats foraging at the pond as a consequence of the remediation measure. It is concluded that Daubenton's bats are suitable bioindicators of metal contamination in aquatic environments, integrating metal exposure via prey insects over their entire foraging area. We further suggest that bat hair is a useful monitoring unit, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of metal exposure in bats. - Highlights: • Changes in metal exposure of bats due to remediation measure are documented. • Bats are suitable bioindicators of metal pollution. • Bat hair is a useful monitoring unit in such studies.

  16. Reduction of metal exposure of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flache, Lucie; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Kierdorf, Uwe; Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Encarnação, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. Here, we analyzed the metal exposure of Myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. Six metal elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in EDTA extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of M. daubentonii foraging at the pond. Samples were taken before remediation in 2011 and after remediation in 2013. Metal concentrations were quantified by ICP-OES after miniaturized microwave assisted extraction. In 2011, the pond sediment exhibited a high contamination with nickel, a moderate contamination with copper and chromium and low contents of zinc, cadmium and lead. While sediment metal contents declined only weakly after remediation, a much more pronounced reduction in the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and lead concentrations was observed in bat hair. Our results suggest a marked decline in metal exposure of the bats foraging at the pond as a consequence of the remediation measure. It is concluded that Daubenton's bats are suitable bioindicators of metal contamination in aquatic environments, integrating metal exposure via prey insects over their entire foraging area. We further suggest that bat hair is a useful monitoring unit, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of metal exposure in bats. - Highlights: • Changes in metal exposure of bats due to remediation measure are documented. • Bats are suitable bioindicators of metal pollution. • Bat hair is a useful monitoring unit in such studies.

  17. Evaluation of water column and sediment toxicity from an abandoned uranium mine using a battery of bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, S.C.; Figueiredo, D.R. de; Marques, S.M.; Castro, B.B.; Pereira, R.; Goncalves, F.

    2007-01-01

    Uranium mining activities in Cunha Baixa, Mangualde (Portugal), were extensive between 1967 and 1993, with high production of poor ore. Ore exploitation left millions of tons of tailings in the surrounding area, close to human houses. Contamination of the area (water and soil compartment) presently represents a serious hazard to humans and wildlife. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of water and sediments from a pond that floods a uranium mine pit, in two periods (spring and autumn). High contents of metals were found in water samples (chiefly Mn, Fe, Al, U, Sr). A battery of assays was applied to screen the acute toxicity of the different compartments using algae, crustaceans and dipterans. Results showed that the sediments were non-toxic, unlike the superficial water. Water toxicity was higher in the autumn, when the effluent was more acidic, compared to spring. In the water toxicity assays, the relative sensitivity of the test species used was Daphnia longispina > Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata > Daphnia magna. The present study is part of the chemical and ecotoxicological characterisation of the aquatic compartment performed in the Tier 1 of the Ecological Risk Assessment of the Cunha Baixa mining area

  18. Bioturbation of sediments by benthic macroinvertebrates and fish and its implication for pond ecosystems: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Z.; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-17 ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI3/196 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : benthic macroinverttebrates * benthivorous fish * bottom-water interface * nutrient cycling * pond management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.960, year: 2013

  19. Sediment and toxic contaminant transport modeling in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Mayer, D.W.; Argo, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Models are presented to estimate the migration of toxic contaminants in coastal waters. Ocean current is simulated by the vertically-averaged, finite element, two-demensional model known as CAFE-I with the Galerkin weighted residual technique. The refraction of locally generated waves or swells is simulated by the wave refraction model, LO3D. Using computed current, depth, and wave characteristics, the finite element model, FETRA, simulated sediment and contaminant transport in coastal waters, estuaries and rivers. Prior to the application of these models to the Irish Sea and other coastal waters, the finite element model, FETRA, was tested to demonstrate its ability to simulate sediment and contaminant interaction, and the mechanism governing the transport, deposition, and resuspension of contaminated sediment. Several simple equations such as the unsteady, advection-diffusion equation, the equation for noncohesive-sediment load due to wind-induced waves in offshore and surf zones, and the equation for sediment-radionuclide transport simulation were solved during the preliminary testing of the model. (Kato, T.)

  20. Effect Of Environmental Load On The Toxicity Of Bottom Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šestinová Oľga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis alba and chronic tests of Earthworm (Eisenia veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes on polluted sediments. Earthworms can accelerate the removal of contaminants from soil. The study materials are river sediments, which were obtained from a monitoring station - the Water reservoir the Ružín No.1 particularly, the river Hornád, Hnilec and sample from sludge bed Rudňany. The samples of sediment were used to assess of the potential phytotoxic effect of heavy metals on higher plants. Total mortality was established in earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 and 28 exposure days. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated sediments from the sludge bed Rudňany on S. alba seeds was observed. The largest concentration differences were recorded in the sample R7 after 7 days earthworms exposure. The earthworms mortality was not influenced by sediment neither after 7 nor 28 exposure days The spectra of samples H, HO and R showed broad peak at 1 419 - 1 512 cm−1 characteristic for carbonate radical. In the spectra of the samples (R and R7 the vibration of C-H groups at 2 926 and 2 921 cm−1, respectively were also observed, demonstrating the presence of organic matter. Our research will continue with determination of metals concentration in earthworms.

  1. Linkages between the spatial toxicity of sediments and sediment dynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary and neighboring East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinjuan; Shi, Huahong; Dai, Zhijun; Mei, Xuefei; Zong, Haibo; Yang, Hongwei; Hu, Lingling; Li, Shushi

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic activities are driving an increase in sediment contamination in coastal areas. This poses significant challenges for the management of estuarine ecosystems and their adjacent seas worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted on how dynamic mechanisms affect the sediment toxicity in the estuarine environment. This study was designed to investigate the linkages between sediment toxicity and hydrodynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) area. High sediment toxicity was found in the Yangtze River mouth (Region I), the depocenter of the Yangtze River Delta (Region II), and the southeastern area of the adjacent sea (Region III), while low sediment toxicity was found in the northeastern offshore region (Region IV). A spatial comparison analysis and regression model indicated that the distributed pattern of sediment toxicity was likely related to hydrodynamics and circumfluence in the East China Sea (ECS) shelf. Specifically, high sediment toxicity in Region I may be affected by the Yangtze River Pump (YRP) and the low hydrodynamics there, and high toxicity in Region II can be influenced by the low sediment dynamics and fine sediment in the depocenter. The high sediment toxicity in Region III might be related to the combination of the YRP and Taiwan Warm Current, while the low toxicity in Region IV may be influenced by the local coarse-grained relict sand with strong sediment dynamics there. The present research results further suggest that it is necessary to link hydrodynamics and the spatial behavior of sediment and sediment-derived pollutants when assessing the pollution status of estuarine environments, especially for those mega-estuaries and their neighboring ocean environments with complex waves, tides and ocean currents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing metal pollution in ponds constructed for controlling runoff from reclaimed coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; González, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Constructing ponds to protect downstream ecosystems is a common practice in opencast coal mine reclamation. As these ponds remain integrated in the landscape, it is important to evaluate the extent of the effect of mine pollution on these ecosystems. However, this point has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. The main objective of this work was to explore the metal pollution in man-made ponds constructed for runoff control in reclaimed opencast coal mines over time. To do so, we evaluated the concentration of ten heavy metals in the water, sediment, and Typha sp. in 16 runoff ponds ranging from 1 to 19 years old that were constructed in reclaimed opencast coal mines of northeastern Spain. To evaluate degree of mining pollution, we compared these data to those from a pit lake created in a local unreclaimed mine and to local streams as an unpolluted reference, as well as comparing toxicity levels in aquatic organisms. The runoff ponds showed toxic concentrations of Al, Cu, and Ni in the water and As and Ni in the sediment, which were maintained over time. Metal concentrations in runoff ponds were higher than in local streams, and macrophytes showed high metal concentrations. Nevertheless, metal concentrations in water and sediment in runoff ponds were lower than those in the pit lake. This study highlights the importance of mining reclamation to preserve the health of aquatic ecosystems and suggests the existence of chronic metal toxicity in the ponds, potentially jeopardizing pond ecological functions and services.

  3. The use of bioassays to assess the toxicity of sediment in an acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure of river sediment from 7 sampling sites to these bioassays provided an eco-toxicological estimation of the acute toxicity and chronic toxicity emanating from the contaminated sediments. Physico-chemical analyses revealed higher levels of sediment contamination closer to the mine. The bioassays displayed a ...

  4. USING GIS TO MAP THE DEPTH TO SEDIMENT OF A POND USING A SONIC DEPTH METER AND A TRIMBLE GPS SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a research project to identify the source of Arsenic in a watershed, it became necessary to characterize the subsurface sediments in a pond associated with the watershed. This paper describes the process that we used to measure the depth and identify the location of the d...

  5. Toxicities and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Taihu Lake, China, based on sediment quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Han, Yuwei; Yang, Jinxi; Zhu, Lingyan; Zhong, Wenjue

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence, toxicities, and ecological risks of five heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) in the sediment of Taihu Lake were investigated in this study. To evaluate the toxicities caused by the heavy metals, the toxicities induced by organic contaminants and ammonia in the sediments were screened out with activated carbon and zeolite. The toxicities of heavy metals in sediments were tested with benthic invertebrates (tubificid and chironomid). The correlations between toxicity of sediment and the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) derived previously were evaluated. There were significant correlations (pheavy metals based on SQGs, indicating that threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) were reliable to predict the toxicities of heavy metals in the sediments of Taihu Lake. By contrast, the method based on acid volatile sulfides (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), such as ∑SEM/AVS and ∑SEM-AVS, did not show correlations with the toxicities. Moreover, the predictive ability of SQGs was confirmed by a total predicting accuracy of 77%. Ecological risk assessment based on TELs and PELs showed that the contaminations of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn in the sediments of Taihu Lake were at relatively low or medium levels. The risks caused by heavy metals in the sediments of northern bay of the lake, which received more wastewater discharge from upper stream, were higher than other area of the lake. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A comparison of sediment toxicity test methods at three Great Lake Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G. Allen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Burnett, LouAnn C.; Henry, Mary; Hinman, Mark L.; Klaine, Stephen J.; Landrum, Peter F.; Ross, Phillipe; Tuchman, Marc

    1996-01-01

    The significance of sediment contamination is often evaluated using sediment toxicity (bioassay) testing. There are relatively few “standardized” test methods for evaluating sediments. Popular sediment toxicity methods examine the extractable water (elutriate), interstitial water, or whole (bulk) sediment phases using test species spanning the aquatic food chain from bacteria to fish. The current study was designed to evaluate which toxicity tests were most useful in evaluations of sediment contamination at three Great Lake Areas of Concern. Responses of 24 different organisms including fish, mayflies, amphipods, midges, cladocerans, rotifers, macrophytes, algae, and bacteria were compared using whole sediment or elutriate toxicity assays. Sediments from several sites in the Buffalo River, Calumet River (Indiana Harbor), and Saginaw River were tested, as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) Project. Results indicated several assays to be sensitive to sediment toxicity and able to discriminate between differing levels of toxicity. Many of the assay responses were significantly correlated to other toxicity responses and were similar based on factor analysis. For most applications, a test design consisting of two to three assays should adequately detect sediment toxicity, consisting of various groupings of the following species: Hyalella azteca, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Chironomus riparius, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Hexagenia bilineata, Diporeia sp., Hydrilla verticillata, or Lemna minor.

  7. Organic matter sedimentation and resuspension in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish ponds during a growing cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Montealegre, R.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Zamora, J.E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The rates of sedimentation and resuspension of organic carbon and total nitrogen were measured in earthen fishponds, based on nutrient input, water quality parameters and fish size and biomass. Material collected in sediment traps and soil samples were analyzed for organic carbon, total nitrogen,

  8. Laboratory toxicity and benthic invertebrate field colonization of Upper Columbia River sediments: finding adverse effects using multiple lines of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J F; Kemble, N E; Allert, A L; Brumbaugh, W G; Ingersoll, C G; Dowling, B; Gruenenfelder, C; Roland, J L

    2012-07-01

    colonization studies in an experimental pond (8-week duration) indicated that two of the most metal-contaminated UCR sediments (dominated by high levels of sand-sized slag particles) exhibited decreased invertebrate colonization compared with sand-based reference sediments. Field-exposed SIR-300 resin samples also exhibited decreased invertebrate colonization numbers compared with reference materials, which may indicate behavioral avoidance of this material under field conditions. Multiple lines of evidence (analytical chemistry, laboratory toxicity, and field colonization results), along with findings from previous studies, indicate that high metal concentrations associated with slag-enriched sediments in the UCR are likely to adversely impact the growth and survival of native benthic invertebrate communities. Additional laboratory toxicity testing, refinement of the applications of sediment benchmarks for metal toxicity, and in situ benthic invertebrate studies will assist in better defining the spatial extent, temporal variations, and ecological impacts of metal-contaminated sediments in the UCR system.

  9. Invertebrates in stormwater wet detention ponds - Sediment accumulation and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have no effect on biodiversity and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephansen, Diana Agnete; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Vollertsen, Jes

    2016-10-01

    The invertebrate diversity in nine stormwater wet detention ponds (SWDP) was compared with the diversity in eleven small shallow lakes in the western part of Denmark. The SWDPs and lakes were chosen to reflect as large a gradient of pollutant loads and urbanization as possible. The invertebrates as well as the bottom sediments of the ponds and shallow lakes were analyzed for copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, aluminum, nickel, arsenic and the potentially limiting nutrient, phosphorus. The Principal Component Analysis showed that invertebrates in SWDPs and lakes differed with respect to bioaccumulation of these elements, as did the sediments, albeit to a lesser degree. However, the Detrended Correspondence Analysis and the TWINSPAN showed that the invertebrate populations of the ponds and lakes could not be distinguished, with the possible exception of highway ponds presenting a distinct sub-group of wet detention ponds. The SWDPs and shallow lakes studied seemed to constitute aquatic ecosystems of similar taxon richness and composition as did the 11 small and shallow lakes. This indicates that SWDPs, originally constructed for treatment and flood protection purposes, become aquatic environments which play a local role for biodiversity similar to that of natural small and shallow lakes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  11. The distribution of plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in pond and stream sediments of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, J.J.; Halverson, J.E.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    The concentrations of 238 Pu, 239 , 240 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm were determined in sediment samples from five streams and two ponds on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and in four sediment samples from the Savannah River above and below the plant site. The following concentration ranges were determined: 238 Pu, 0.07-386 fCi g -1 ; 239 , 240 Pu, 0.37-1410 fCi g -1 ; 241 Am, 0.1-4360 fCi g -1 ; 244 Cm, -1 . Comparisons of the elemental and isotopic ratios of the sediments show that the majority of the sediments studied have been impacted upon by plant operations and that sediments outside the plant boundary in the Savannah River have only been influenced by aerial releases. Atom ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu indicate that up to 86% of the Pu in these sediments is derived from plant operations. However, comparisons of the concentration data with values for other impacted sediments near nuclear facilities indicate that the levels are relatively small. Finally, <13% of the Pu, Am or Cm in pond sediments is associated with humic or fulvic acids, indicating that little of the material should be remobilized in oxic environments through organic complexation. (author)

  12. Coal extraction causes sediment toxicity in aquatic environments in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimaira Amaral de Freitas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated water parameters in ponds affected by coal extraction. Allium cepa assay was used to measure genotoxicity/mutagenicity of the sediment. Samples were collected from four ponds in the southern state of Santa Catarina. Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and turbidity were measured. Sediments were analyzed for heavy metals. Elutriate samples were prepared at a ratio of 1:4 sediment:water. Allium cepa bulbs were placed in samples prepared from each pond, with ultrapure water used as negative control and methyl methane sulfonate as positive control. Root length, mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and nuclear abnormalities were measured. The pH of two ponds, as well as electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen of all ponds were below the minimum limits set by Brazilian regulation. All heavy metals analyzed were found in all sediment samples, but only Cd concentration was above the legal limit set by Brazilian law. Allium cepa root growth for samples from Ponds 1, 2, and 4 was significantly lower than the negative control. Meristematic cells exposed to elutriate samples showed no significant changes in cell division. There was a significant increase in total chromosomal aberrations in all treated samples in comparison with the negative control. This study demonstrates that even low concentrations of heavy metals can damage exposed biota, possibly due to synergistic effects. We also found the A. cepa bioassay to be a simple and useful tool for genotoxicity/mutagenicity analyses, and recommend its use for environmental monitoring and management in areas influenced by mining activities.

  13. Evaluation of surficial sediment toxicity and sediment physico-chemical characteristics of representative sites in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losso, C.; Arizzi Novelli, A.; Picone, M.; Marchetto, D.; Pessa, G.; Molinaroli, E.; Ghetti, P. F.; Volpi Ghirardini, A.

    2004-11-01

    Toxic hazard in sites with varying types and levels of contamination in the Lagoon of Venice was estimated by means of toxicity bioassays based on the early life-stages of the autochthonous sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Elutriate was chosen as the test matrix, due to its ability to highlight potential toxic effects towards sensitive biological components of the water column caused by sediment resuspension phenomena affecting the Lagoon. Surficial sediments (core-top 5 cm deep), directly influenced by resuspension/redeposition processes, and core sediments (core 20 cm deep), recording time-mediated contamination, were sampled in some sites located in the lagoonal area most greatly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Particle size, organic matter and water content were also analysed. In two sites, the results of physical parameters showed that the core-top sediments were coarser than the 20-cm core sediments. Sperm cell toxicity test results showed the negligible acute toxicity of elutriates from all investigated sites. The embryo toxicity test demonstrated a short-term chronic toxicity gradient for elutriates from the 20-cm core sediments, in general agreement both with the expected contamination gradient and with results of the Microtox® solid-phase test. Elutriates of the core-top 5-cm sediments revealed a totally inverted gradient, in comparison with that for the 20-cm core sediments, and the presence of a "hot spot" of contamination in the site chosen as a possible reference. Investigations on ammonia and sulphides as possible confounding factors excluded their contribution to this "hot spot". Integrated physico-chemical and toxicity results on sediments at various depths demonstrated the presence of disturbed sediments in the central basin of the Lagoon of Venice.

  14. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowell, Lisa H., E-mail: lhnowell@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center, Placer Hall, 6000 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95819 (United States); Norman, Julia E., E-mail: jnorman@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Oregon Water Science Center, 2130 SW 5" t" h Avenue, Portland, OR 97201 (United States); Ingersoll, Christopher G., E-mail: cingersoll@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, 4200 New Haven Road, Columbia, MO 65021 (United States); Moran, Patrick W., E-mail: pwmoran@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center, 934 Broadway, Suite 300, Tacoma, WA 98402 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical/chemical characteristics

  15. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical/chemical characteristics

  16. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical

  17. Degradation of carbendazim in water via photo-Fenton in Raceway Pond Reactor: assessment of acute toxicity and transformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Elizângela Pinheiro; Bottrel, Sue Ellen C; Starling, Maria Clara V M; Leão, Mônica M D; Amorim, Camila Costa

    2018-05-08

    This study aimed at investigating the degradation of fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) via photo-Fenton reactions in artificially and solar irradiated photoreactors at laboratory scale and in a semi-pilot scale Raceway Pond Reactor (RPR), respectively. Acute toxicity was monitored by assessing the sensibility of bioluminescent bacteria (Aliivibrio fischeri) to samples taken during reactions. In addition, by-products formed during solar photo-Fenton were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS). For tests performed in lab-scale, two artificial irradiation sources were compared (UV λ > 254nm and UV-Vis λ > 320nm ). A complete design of experiments was performed in the semi-pilot scale RPR in order to optimize reaction conditions (Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 concentrations, and water depth). Efficient degradation of carbendazim (> 96%) and toxicity removal were achieved via artificially irradiated photo-Fenton under both irradiation sources. Control experiments (UV photolysis and UV-Vis peroxidation) were also efficient but led to increased acute toxicity. In addition, H 2 O 2 /UV λ > 254nm required longer reaction time (60 minutes) when compared to the photo-Fenton process (less than 1 min). While Fenton's reagent achieved high CBZ and acute toxicity removal, its efficiency demands higher concentration of reagents in comparison to irradiated processes. Solar photo-Fenton removed carbendazim within 15 min of reaction (96%, 0.75 kJ L -1 ), and monocarbomethoxyguanidine, benzimidazole isocyanate, and 2-aminobenzimidazole were identified as transformation products. Results suggest that both solar photo-Fenton and artificially irradiated systems are promising routes for carbendazim degradation.

  18. UTMTOX, Toxic Chemical Transport in Atmosphere, Ground Water, Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: UTMTOX is a unified transport model for toxic materials. It combines hydrologic, atmospheric, and sediment transport in one computer code and extends the scope to predict the transport of not only trace metals but also many chemical compounds, including organics. UTMTOX is capable of calculating 1) the atmospheric dispersion of up to 20 chemicals from a maximum of 10 point, 10 line, and 10 area sources; 2) deposition of one chemical at a time in both wet and dry form on foliage or the surface of the earth; 3) surface flow and erosion; 4) percolation through the soil to a stream channel; and 5) flow in the stream channel to the outfall of a watershed. B - Method of solution: UTMTOX calculates rates of flux of chemicals from release to the atmosphere, through deposition on a watershed, infiltration, and runoff from the soil to flow in the stream channel and the associated sediment transport. From these values, mass balances can be established, budgets for the chemical can be made, and concentrations in many environmental compartments can be estimated. Since the coupling is established among three major submodels, they can share data

  19. Addition of contaminant bioavailability and species susceptibility to a sediment toxicity assessment: Application in an urban stream in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huizhen; Sun, Baoquan; Chen, Xin; Lydy, Michael J.; You, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Sediments collected from an urban creek in China exhibited high acute toxicity to Hyalella azteca with 81.3% of sediments being toxic. A toxic unit (TU) estimation demonstrated that the pyrethroid, cypermethrin, was the major contributor to toxicity. The traditional TU approach, however, overestimated the toxicity. Reduced bioavailability of sediment-associated cypermethrin due to sequestration explained the overestimation. Additionally, antagonism among multiple contaminants and species susceptibility to various contaminants also contributed to the unexpectedly low toxicity to H. azteca. Bioavailable TUs derived from the bioavailability-based approaches, Tenax extraction and matrix-solid phase microextraction (matrix-SPME), showed better correlations with the noted toxicity compared to traditional TUs. As the first successful attempt to use matrix-SPME for estimating toxicity caused by emerging insecticides in field sediment, the present study found freely dissolved cypermethrin concentrations significantly improved the prediction of sediment toxicity to H. azteca compared to organic carbon normalized and Tenax extractable concentrations. Highlights: •Over 80% sediments from an urban stream in China were acutely toxic to H. azteca. •Toxic unit analysis showed cypermethrin was the major contributor to toxicity. •The traditional toxic unit approach overestimated sediment toxicity. •Reduced bioavailability was the reason for overestimating sediment toxicity. •Freely dissolved cypermethrin concentrations greatly improved toxicity prediction. -- Field sediment toxicity caused by current-use pesticides could be more accurately evaluated by incorporating bioavailability measurements into the toxic unit analysis

  20. Assessing the toxicity of sediments using the medaka embryo-larval assay and 2 other bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; Clérandeau, Christelle; Landi, Laure; Pichon, Anaïk; Le Bihanic, Florane; Poirier, Dominique; Anschutz, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Cachot, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    Sediments are sinks for aquatic pollutants, and analyzing toxicity in such complex matrices is still challenging. To evaluate the toxicity of bioavailable pollutants accumulated in sediments from the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia), a novel assay, the medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact, was applied. Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were incubated in direct contact with sediment samples up to hatching. Lethal and sublethal adverse effects were recorded in embryos and larvae up to 20 d postfertilization. Results from medaka embryo-larval assay were compared with cytotoxicity (Microtox®), genotoxicity (SOS chromotest), and pollutant content of sediments. The results highlight differences in the contamination profile and toxicity pattern between the different studied sediments. A significant correlation was shown between medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact and SOS chromotest responses and concentrations of most organic pollutants studied. No correlation was shown between pollutant levels and Microtox. According to the number of sediment samples detected as toxic, medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact was more sensitive than Microtox, which in turn was more sensitive than the SOS chromotest; and medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact allowed sediment toxicity assessment of moderately polluted sediments without pollutant extraction and using an ecologically realistic exposure scenario. Although medaka embryo-larval assay by sediment contact should be tested on a larger sample set, the results show that it is sensitive and convenient enough to monitor the toxicity of natural sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2270-2280. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Sediment toxicity testing with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita in Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, M.S.; Crocker, P.A.; McKenna, K.M.; Petrocelli, E.A.; Scott, K.J.; Demas, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Discharges from chemical and petrochemical manufacturing facilities have contaminated portions of Louisiana's Calcasieu River estuary with a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants. As part of a special study, sediment toxicity testing was conducted to assess potential impact to the benthic community. Ten-day flow-through sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita revealed significant toxicity at 68% (26 of 38) of the stations tested. A. abdita mortality was highest in the effluent-dominated bayous, which are tributaries to the Calcasieu River. Mortality was correlated with total heavy metal and total organic compound concentrations in the sediments. Ancillary experiments showed that sediment interstitial water salinity as low as 2.5 o/o-o did not significantly affect A. abdita's, response in the flow-through system; sediment storage for 7 weeks at 4??C did not significantly affect toxicity. Sediment toxicity to A. abdita was more prevalent than receiving water toxicity using three short-term chronic bioassays. Results suggest that toxicity testing using this amphipod is a valuable tool when assessing sediments containing complex contaminant mixtures and for assessing effects of pollutant loading over time. In conjunction with chemical analyses, the testing indicated that the effluent-dominated, brackish bayous (Bayou d'Inde and Bayou Verdine) were the portions of the estuary most impacted by toxicity.

  2. Optimizing the design of a reproduction toxicity test with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Azam, Didier

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results from two ring-tests addressing the feasibility, robustness and reproducibility of a reproduction toxicity test with the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain). Sixteen laboratories (from inexperienced to expert laboratories in mollusc testing) from...... nine countries participated in these ring-tests. Survival and reproduction were evaluated in L. stagnalis exposed to cadmium, tributyltin, prochloraz and trenbolone according to an OECD draft Test Guideline. In total, 49 datasets were analysed to assess the practicability of the proposed experimental...... protocol, and to estimate the between-laboratory reproducibility of toxicity endpoint values. The statistical analysis of count data (number of clutches or eggs per individual-day) leading to ECx estimation was specifically developed and automated through a free web-interface. Based on a complementary...

  3. Optimizing the design of a reproduction toxicity test with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Azam, Didier; Benstead, Rachel; Brettschneider, Denise; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Filipe Goncalves, Sandra; Green, John W; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Faber, Daniel; Laranjeiro, Filipe; Matthiessen, Peter; Norrgren, Leif; Oehlmann, Jörg; Reategui-Zirena, Evelyn; Seeland-Fremer, Anne; Teigeler, Matthias; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Tobor Kaplon, Marysia; Weltje, Lennart; Lagadic, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results from two ring-tests addressing the feasibility, robustness and reproducibility of a reproduction toxicity test with the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain). Sixteen laboratories (from inexperienced to expert laboratories in mollusc testing) from nine countries participated in these ring-tests. Survival and reproduction were evaluated in L. stagnalis exposed to cadmium, tributyltin, prochloraz and trenbolone according to an OECD draft Test Guideline. In total, 49 datasets were analysed to assess the practicability of the proposed experimental protocol, and to estimate the between-laboratory reproducibility of toxicity endpoint values. The statistical analysis of count data (number of clutches or eggs per individual-day) leading to ECx estimation was specifically developed and automated through a free web-interface. Based on a complementary statistical analysis, the optimal test duration was established and the most sensitive and cost-effective reproduction toxicity endpoint was identified, to be used as the core endpoint. This validation process and the resulting optimized protocol were used to consolidate the OECD Test Guideline for the evaluation of reproductive effects of chemicals in L. stagnalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoess, S.; Ahlf, W.; Fahnenstich, C.; Gilberg, D.; Hollert, H.; Melbye, K.; Meller, M.; Hammers-Wirtz, M.; Heininger, P.; Neumann-Hensel, H.; Ottermanns, R.; Ratte, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  5. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, S., E-mail: hoess@ecossa.d [Ecossa, Giselastr. 6, 82319 Starnberg (Germany); Institute of Biodiversity - Network (IBN), Dreikronengasse 2, 93047 Regensburg (Germany); Ahlf, W., E-mail: ahlf@tu-harburg.d [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Fahnenstich, C. [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Gilberg, D., E-mail: d-gilberg@ect.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hollert, H., E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Melbye, K. [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Meller, M., E-mail: m-meller@ecotox-consult.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hammers-Wirtz, M., E-mail: hammers-wirtz@gaiac.rwth-aachen.d [Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment (gaiac), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Heininger, P., E-mail: heininger@bafg.d [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56070 Koblenz (Germany); Neumann-Hensel, H., E-mail: hensel@fintelmann-meyer.d [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ottermanns, R., E-mail: ottermanns@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Ratte, H.-T., E-mail: toni.ratte@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  6. Use of the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis to assess toxicity and genotoxicity of Yenisei River sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotina, Tatiana A; Trofimova, Elena A; Medvedeva, Marina Yu; Dementyev, Dmitry V; Bolsunovsky, Alexander Ya

    2015-10-01

    The toxicity, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity of bulk sediments from the Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia) were estimated in laboratory bioassays based on several endpoints in the aquatic plant Elodea canadensis. The bottom sediment samples were collected in the Yenisei River upstream and downstream of the sources of chemical and radioactive contamination. The testing revealed different sensitivities of Elodea endpoints to the quality of the bottom sediment: weight of shoots Elodea) was the highest in sediments with chemical pollution, whereas the highest inhibition of toxicity endpoints (shoot and root length) occurred in sediments with the highest level of radioactive pollution. The extreme response of Elodea endpoints to the quality of certain sediment samples may be regarded as related to the possible presence of unknown toxicants. The results show that E. canadensis can be used as an indicator species in laboratory contact testing of bottom sediment. The responses of shoot and root length growth endpoints of Elodea can be recommended as basic sensitivity indicators of bottom sediment toxicity. Analysis of cells carrying abnormal chromosomes in the apical root meristem of Elodea can be performed optionally in the same test to assess the genotoxicity of sediments. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. What Food and Feeding Rates are Optimum for the Chironomus dilutus Sediment Toxicity Test Method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests with benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used to assess the toxicity of both contaminated sediments and individual chemicals. Among the standard procedures for benthic macroinvertebrates are 10-d, 20-d, and life cycle exposures using the midge, Chironomus ...

  8. Integrating the fish embryo toxicity test as triad element for sediment toxicity assessment based on the water framework directive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzke, Mariana [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Dept. Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Delov, Vera [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Ecotoxicology, Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen (Germany); Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra; Allner, Bernhard [Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Oehlmann, Joerg [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to complement analyses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) with a sediment toxicity analysis as part of an integrated river assessment. To this end, Hessian water courses were analyzed using the sediment quality triad concept according to Chapman with chemical analyses, in situ effect evaluations, and ecotoxicological assessments. For the ecotoxicological assessment (fish embryo toxicity test with Danio rerio), a new evaluation scheme was developed, the fish teratogenicity index (FTI), that allows for a classification of sediments into ecological quality classes compliant to the WFD. Materials and methods sediment and macrozoobenthos samples were taken from tributaries of the rivers Fulda and Lahn. Sediments were characterized regarding particle size, carbon, heavy metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken via multi-habitat sampling. The fish embryo toxicity test with D. rerio was conducted as a contact assay on the basis of DIN 38415-6. Results and discussion The integrated assessment indicated a significant influence of heavy metals and carbon content on macroinvertebrate communities. The bioaccessibility of sediment pollutants were clearly demonstrated by the FTI, which showed a wide range of adverse effects. A significant linear relationship between metals and the FTI was detected. However, there was no statistically significant evidence that macroinvertebrate communities were affected by the hydromorphological quality clements at the sampling sites. Conclusions The new scheme for the assessment of fish embryo toxicity test was successfully applied. The results suggest that sediment compounds impact macroinvertebrate communities and early development of fish. It demonstrates that the quality of sediments should be evaluated on a routine basis as part of an integrated river assessment. (orig.)

  9. Toxicity of harbour canal sediments before dredging and after off shore disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Hurk, P.; Eertman, R.H.M.; Stronkhorst, J.

    1997-01-01

    Dredge material from an entrance waterway to the port of Rotterdam and sediments from the North Sea off-shore disposal site were tested for toxicity using three different sediment bioassays, The goals of the study were to evaluate if bioassays generate useful additional information to chemical based

  10. Toxicity assessment of reference and natural freshwater sediments with the luminotox assay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dellamatrice, PM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available to exist between LuminoTox-Solid Phase Assay (Lum-SPA) and Microtox Solid Phase Assay (Mic-SPA) indicating that both tests display a similar toxicity response pattern for CRM sediments having differing contaminant profiles. The sediment elutriate Lum...

  11. Seasonal variation of sediment toxicity in the Rivers Dommel and Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.; Matthaei, A.; Heise, S.; Ahlf, W.

    2007-01-01

    Contaminated sediment in the river basin has become a source of pollution with increasing importance to the aquatic ecosystem downstream. To monitor the temporal changes of the sediment bound contaminants in the River Elbe and the River Dommel monthly toxicity tests were applied to layered sediment and river water samples over the course of 10 months. There is an indication that contaminated sediments upstream adversely affected sediments downstream, but this process did not cause a continuous increase of sediment toxicity. A clear decrease of toxic effects in water and upper layer sediment was observed at the River Elbe station in spring related to high water discharge and algal blooms. The less obvious variation of sediment toxicity in the River Dommel could be explained by stable hydrological conditions. Future monitoring programmes should promote a more frequent and intensive sampling regime during these particular events for ecotoxicological evaluation. - Significant impacts of hydrological and biological factors on the ecotoxicological quality in two European rivers (Elbe and Dommel)

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of sediment samples from Guanabara Bay (RJ) during the rainy period

    OpenAIRE

    Maranho,Luciane Alves; Abreu,Ilene Matanó; Santelli,Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro,Renato Campelo; Soares-Gomes,Abílio; Moreira,Lucas Buruaem; Morais,Rodofley Davino; Abessa,Denis Moledo de Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is a marine-estuarine environment of high ecological and socio-economic importance, subject to a variety of environmental impacts. Sediment is the eventual repository for most substances introduced into water bodies and may, therefore, provide an integrated measure of the environmental quality, which can be assessed by many different approaches. In this project, the quality of sediments from Guanabara Bay was evaluated by the ecotoxicological approach: whole-sediment toxicity te...

  13. Identifying the cause of sediment toxicity in agricultural sediments: the role of pyrethroids and nine seldom-measured hydrophobic pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Donald P; Ding, Yuping; Zhang, Minghua; Lydy, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Few currently used agricultural pesticides are routinely monitored for in the environment. Even if concentrations are known, sediment LC(50) values are often lacking for common sediment toxicity testing species. To help fill this data gap, sediments in California's Central Valley were tested for nine hydrophobic pesticides seldom analyzed: abamectin, diazinon, dicofol, fenpropathrin, indoxacarb, methyl parathion, oxyfluorfen, propargite, and pyraclostrobin. Most were detected, but rarely at concentrations acutely toxic to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus dilutus. Only abamectin, fenpropathrin, and methyl parathion were found at concentrations of potential concern, and only in one or two samples. One-quarter of over 100 samples from agriculture-affected waterways exhibited toxicity, and in three-fourths of the toxic samples, pyrethroids exceeded concentrations expected to cause toxicity. The pyrethroid Bi-fen-thrin in particular, as well as lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, permethrin, and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos, were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity, rather than the more novel analytes, despite the fact that much of the sampling targeted areas of greatest use of the novel pesticides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radioecological studies of 137Cs in limnological ecosystems. 137Cs concentrations in water, sediment and fishes at the pond in Saitama prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki; Izumo, Yoshiro

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of 137 Cs in water, sediment and fishes at the pond in Saitama prefecture were determined in order to elucidate the radioecology of 137 Cs in limnological ecosystems. 137 Cs concentration in water was 0.31±0.002 mBq/l (mean±standard error), and so indicated about 3 times higher than that (0.10 mBq/l) for the river in our previous report. 137 Cs concentrations in sediment, carp, Cyprinus carpio, crucian carp, Carassius auratus cuvieri, and Hakuren, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, were about 20000, 1200, 2400 and 3100 times higher than that of the water, respectively. These concentrations were higher than those of each sample for the river in our previous report. It was so suggested that 137 Cs tended to be accumulated in these samples at the pond more than the nuclide in the river. Moreover, concentration ratios, concentration of 137 Cs in sediment, crucian carp and Hakuren to that of the water, were about 30, 2 and 3 times higher than these of 40 K, respectively, except for carp of which 137 Cs and 40 K concentration ratios were almost same. These results showed difference in accumulation mechanism between 137 Cs and 40 K in these samples, as well as 137 Cs transfer mechanism in the limnological ecosystems in part. (author)

  15. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Askem, Clare; Azam, Didier; Brettschneider, Denise; Brown, Rebecca; Charles, Sandrine; Coke, Maïra; Collinet, Marc; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas; Jach, Arne; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lacoste, Cédric; Le Page, Gareth; Matthiessen, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg; Rice, Lynsey; Roberts, Edward; Ruppert, Katharina; Davis, Jessica Elphinstone; Veauvy, Clemence; Weltje, Lennart; Wortham, Ruth; Lagadic, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain Renilys® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608μgCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20±1°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68

  16. Pollution by metals and toxicity assessment using Caenorhabditis elegans in sediments from the Magdalena River, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejeda-Benitez, Lesly; Flegal, Russell; Odigie, Kingsley; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    The Magdalena River is the most important river in Colombia, supplying over 70% of the population of fish and drinking water, and it also is the main river transportation way of the country. It receives effluents from multiple sources along its course such as contaminant agricultural and industrial discharges. To evaluate the toxicity profile of Magdalena River sediments through endpoints such as survival, locomotion, and growth, wild type strains of Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to aqueous extracts of the sediments. To identify changes in gene expression, GFP transgenic strains were used as reporter genes. Physiological and biochemical data were correlated with metal concentration in the sediments, identifying patterns of toxicity along the course of the river. Levels of some metals such as Cd, Cu, and Ni were above TEC and PEC limits. Effects in survival, growth, and locomotion were observed in most of the samples, and changes in gene expression were evident in the genes mtl-2, sod-4, and gst-1 using fluorescence expression. Cadmium and lead were the metals which were primarily associated with sediment toxicity, and the sampling sites with the highest increased expression of stress response genes were Barrancabermeja and Girardot. However, the diverse nature of toxic profiles observed in C. elegans in the study area showed the pervasiveness of different types of discharges throughout the river system. - Highlights: • The Magdalena River has high levels of some metals such as Cd, Cu, and Ni. • Most sediment extracts affected lethality, growth, and locomotion of C. elegans. • Sediment extracts induced expression changes in mtl-2, sod-4, and gst-1. • Sediment toxicity was primarily associated with Cd and Pb. • Highest toxicity was observed for samples collected in mining and industrial areas. - In Magdalena River sediments, Cd and Pb were associated with toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans and expression of stress response genes were related to

  17. Evaluation of the toxicity of sediments from the Anniston PCB Site to the mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Allison; Sinclair, Jesse A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.

    2015-01-01

    The Anniston Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Site is located in the vicinity of the municipality of Anniston in Calhoun County, in the north-eastern portion of Alabama. Although there are a variety of land-use activities within the Choccolocco Creek watershed, environmental concerns in the area have focused mainly on releases of PCBs to aquatic and riparian habitats. PCBs were manufactured by Monsanto, Inc. at the Anniston facility from 1935 to 1971. The chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) in sediments at the Anniston PCB Site include: PCBs, mercury, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of PCB-contaminated sediments to the juvenile fatmucket mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and to characterize relationships between sediment chemistry and the toxicity of sediment samples collected from the Anniston PCB Site using laboratory sediment testing. Samples were collected in August 2010 from OU-4 of the Anniston PCB Site, as well as from selected reference locations. A total of 32 samples were initially collected from six test sites and one reference site within the watershed. A total of 23 of these 32 samples were evaluated in 28-day whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with juvenile mussels (L. siliquoidea). Physical and chemical characterization of whole sediment included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), nutrients, PCBs, parent and alkylated PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, PCDD/PCDFs, total metals, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), and acid volatile sulfide (AVS). Sediment collected from Snow Creek and Choccolocco Creek contained a variety of COPCs. Organic contaminants detected in sediment included PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PCDDs/PCDFs, and PAHs. In general, the highest

  18. Evaluation of the toxicity of organic matter in marine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    The inhibitory effects of the organics from the sediment along the east coast of India on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in-vitro were evaluated. Sediment samples collected from the surface layers at various depths were extracted. Each of the extracts...

  19. Toxicity of water and sediment from stormwater retarding basins to Hydra hexactinella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj; Pollino, Carmel A.; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2008-01-01

    of 50 ml/L and 100 ml/L, while the 7 h pulse exposure caused a significant increase in the mean population growth rate compared to the control. Water samples from the two other retarding basins were found non-toxic to H. hexactinella. This is the first study to employ sediment tests with Hydra spp....... on stormwater sediments and a lower population growth rate was observed for organisms exposed to sediment from the Avoca St retarding basins. The behavioral study showed that H. hexactinella tended to avoid the sediment-water interface when exposed to sediment from all retarding basins, compared...... to the reference sediment. Further work is needed to determine the long-term effects of stormwater polluted sediments and acute effects due to organism exposure to short-term high concentrations during rain events. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Mapping the extent and relative toxicity of sediments, Winter Quarters Bay, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, A.; White, G.; Huynh, H.

    1995-01-01

    McMurdo Station was established in the mid 1950s and is the largest research station in Antarctica. In earlier days, wastes were dumped on the steep shores of Winter Quarters Bay, dosed with up to 19,000 L of diesel or jet fuel and ignited. Along with periodic fuel spills, and the discharge of raw sewage the Bay became littered with trash and contaminated with elevated levels of metals, PCBs and petroleum hydrocarbons. The original benthic community was essentially totally replaced with more opportunistic species. In 1993, a study was initiated to map the distribution of PCB and hydrocarbon contamination as well as determine sediment pore water toxicity. Sediments were collected from over forty locations with an Ekman dredge after drilling through about 210 cm of ice. Maps of sediment particle size distribution, percent organic carbon, total PCBs, total petroleum hydrocarbons, etc. were developed. Potential toxicity was mapped by normalizing the data to 1 percent organic carbon and comparing the data with various sediment quality criteria. While onsite sediment pore water toxicity tests showed essentially no impacts, the new Microtox trademark chronic bioassay on both pore water and solvent extra showed considerable toxic effects. This paper compares the relative levels of contamination, with sediment quality criteria and toxicity as determined by a chronic microbial bioassays

  1. Development of a chronic sediment toxicity test for marine benthic amphipods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, T.H.; Redmond, M.S.; Sewall, J.E.; Swartz, R.C.

    1992-12-01

    The results of the research effort culminated in the development of a research method for assessing the chronic toxicity of contaminated marine and estuarine sediments using the benthic amphipod, Leptocheirus plumulosus. The first chapter describes the efforts at collecting, handling, and culturing four estuarine amphipods from Chesapeake Bay, including L. plumulosus. This chapter includes maps of the distribution and abundance of these amphipods within Chesapeake Bay and methodologies for establishing cultures of amphipods which could be readily adopted by other laboratories. The second chapter reports the development of acute and chronic sediment toxicity test methods for L. plumulosus, its sensitivity to non-contaminant environmental variables, cadmium, two polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and contaminated sediment from Baltimore Harbor, MD. The third chapter reports the authors attempts to develop a chronic sediment toxicity test with Ampelisca abdita

  2. Bioassay of Lake Onego bottom sediments toxicity based on their chemical composition and deepwater macrozoobenthos state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinkina Nataliya Michailovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay of the toxicity of bottom sediments sampled in different areas of Lake Onega was carried out by crustaceans biotesting (Ceriodaphnia affinis Lillijeborg. It was shown that in the most areas of Lake Onega there are non-toxic bottom sediments. Toxic bottom sediments were found in Kondopogskaya Bay, intensively polluted with pulp-and-paper mill wastewaters. For the first time in the deep central part of Lake Onega the area was revealed where the toxic bottom sediments contain a high content of iron, manganese and other trace elements typical for the central areas of the lake. The mapping of the bottom of Lake Onega was accomplished, and three zones were identified based on the analysis of the data concerning the chemical composition of bottom sediments, bioassay toxicity data and the results of the deepwater macrozoobenthos assessment. For each zone the parameters of the main groups of benthos (Amphipoda, Oligochaeta, Chironomidae were defined. The first zone is located in the area of intensive anthropogenic influence (Kondopogskaya Bay, Petrozavodskaya Bay, Povenets Bay, Kizhi Skerries. The second zone is located mostly in the deep part of Petrozavodskaya Bay, where the most intensive development of amphipods is observed. The third area is identified for the first time: it is located in the central deep part of Lake Onega, where the communities of macrozoobenthos are limited by a natural toxic factor.

  3. Influence of a Brazilian sewage outfall on the toxicity and contamination of adjacent sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abessa, D.M.S.; Carr, R.S.; Rachid, B.R.F.; Sousa, E.C.P.M.; Hortelani, M.A.; Sarkis, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The submarine sewage outfall of Santos (SSOS) is situated in the Santos Bay (São Paulo, Brazil) and is potentially a significant source of contaminants to the adjacent marine ecosystem. The present study aimed to assess the influence of SSOS on the sediment toxicity and contamination at Santos Bay. At the disposal site, sediments tended to be finer, organically richer and exhibited higher levels of surfactants and metals, sometimes exceeding the “Threshold Effect Level” values. The SSOS influence was more evident toward the East, where the sediments exhibited higher levels of TOC, total S and metals during the summer 2000 sampling campaign. Sediment toxicity to amphipods was consistently detected in four of the five stations studied. Amphipod survival tended to correlate negatively to Hg, total N and % mud. This work provides evidence that the SSOS discharge affects the quality of sediments from Santos Bay, and that control procedures are warranted.

  4. Toxicity of sediment-associated pesticides to Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuping; Weston, Donald P; You, Jing; Rothert, Amanda K; Lydy, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    Two hundred sediment samples were collected and their toxicity evaluated to aquatic species in a previous study in the agriculturally dominated Central Valley of California, United States. Pyrethroid insecticides were the main contributors to the observed toxicity. However, mortality in approximately one third of the toxic samples could not be explained solely by the presence of pyrethroids in the matrices. Hundreds of pesticides are currently used in the Central Valley of California, but only a few dozen are analyzed in standard environmental monitoring. A significant amount of unexplained sediment toxicity may be due to pesticides that are in widespread use that but have not been routinely monitored in the environment, and even if some of them were, the concentrations harmful to aquatic organisms are unknown. In this study, toxicity thresholds for nine sediment-associated pesticides including abamectin, diazinon, dicofol, fenpropathrin, indoxacarb, methyl parathion, oxyfluorfen, propargite, and pyraclostrobin were established for two aquatic species, the midge Chironomus dilutus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca. For midges, the median lethal concentration (LC₅₀) of the pesticides ranged from 0.18 to 964 μg/g organic carbon (OC), with abamectin being the most toxic and propargite being the least toxic pesticide. A sublethal growth endpoint using average individual ash-free dry mass was also measured for the midges. The no-observable effect concentration values for growth ranged from 0.10 to 633 μg/g OC for the nine pesticides. For the amphipods, fenpropathrin was the most toxic, with an LC₅₀ of 1-2 μg/g OC. Abamectin, diazinon, and methyl parathion were all moderately toxic (LC₅₀s 2.8-26 μg/g OC). Dicofol, indoxacarb, oxyfluorfen, propargite, and pyraclostrobin were all relatively nontoxic, with LC₅₀s greater than the highest concentrations tested. The toxicity information collected in the present study will be helpful in decreasing the

  5. Evaluation of the toxicity of organic matter in marine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name 2_Int_Conf_Waste_Mgmt_Chem_Petrochem_Ind_Toxic_Mgmt_1991_258.pdf.txt stream_source_info 2_Int_Conf_Waste_Mgmt_Chem_Petrochem_Ind_Toxic_Mgmt_1991_258.pdf.txt Content...

  6. Biochemical parameters in Tubifex tubifex as an integral part of complex sediment toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smutna, M.; Hilscherova, K.; Paskova, V. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (CZ). RECETOX (Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology); Marsalek, B [Czech Academy of Science, Brno (Czech Republic). Centre for Cyanobacteria and their Toxins

    2008-06-15

    Background, aim, and scope Restoration of lakes and reservoirs with extensive cyanobacterial water bloom often requires evaluation of the sediment quality. Next to the chemical analysis of known pollutants, sediment bioassays should be employed to assess toxicity of the present contaminants and to make predictions of associated risk. Brno reservoir in the Czech Republic is a typical example of water bodies with long-term problems concerning cyanobacterial water blooms. Comprehensive assessment of reservoir sediment quality was conducted since successful reservoir restoration might require sediment removal. An important part of this survey focused on an examination of the utility of Tubifex tubifex and its sublethal biochemical markers for the assessment of direct sediment toxicity. Materials and methods This complex study included chemical analysis of contaminants (heavy metals, organic pollutants), ecotoxicity testing of sediment elutriates (tests with Daphnia magna, Pseudomonas putida, Sinapis alba, Scenedesmus subspicatus), and other parameters. We have tested in more detail the applicability of T. tubifex as a test organism for direct evaluation of contact sediment toxicity. Survival tests after 14 days of exposure were complemented by an assessment of parameters serving as biomarkers for sublethal effects [such as total glutathione content (GSH), activities of the enzymes glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)]. The data matrix was subjected to multivariate analysis to interpret relationships between different parameters and possible differences among locations. Results The multivariate statistical techniques helped to clearly identify the more contaminated upstream sites and separate them from the less contaminated and reference samples. The data document closer relationships of the detected sediment contamination with results of direct sediment exposure in the T. tubifex test regarding mortality but namely

  7. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for six weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, to estimate the sediment?s toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses were detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies, but these elements did not accumulate in the livers of the treated swans and probably were not readily available in the sediment. Although ingestion of the Anacostia River sediment caused subtle toxicological effects in swans, we concluded from pathological examinations and weight data that the treated swans remained basically healthy.

  8. Chronic toxicity of sediment-associated linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) to freshwater benthic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, S.D.W. [WRc-NSF, Henley Road, Medmenham, Marlow, Buckinghamshire, SL7 2HD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sean.comber@atkinsglobal.com; Conrad, A.U. [Weinberg Group, Blue Tower, Box 16, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Hoess, S. [ECOSSA, Thierschstrasser 43, 80538, Muenchen (Germany); Webb, S. [CEFIC, Ave E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, B-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Marshall, S. [Unilever Research, Environment Centre, Bebington, Wirral, Merseyside, L63 3JW (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    The toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS), to freshwater benthic organisms was assessed during exposure to spiked sediment. Lethal and sub-lethal end-points were monitored for two organisms (oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and nematode Caenorhabditis elegans). Results demonstrated relatively low toxicity (LOECs >100 mg/kg dry weight). No observed effect concentrations (NOECs) of 81 mg/kg dw (Lumbriculus) and 100 mg/kg dw (Caenorhabditis) were determined. For the oligochaete, no specific endpoint was particularly sensitive to LAS. For the nematode, egg production was the most sensitive endpoint. Significant degradation was measured over the 28-day duration of the Lumbriculus study, equating to a half-life of 20 days in sediment. - This paper provides sediment toxicity data for LAS, essential for a detailed and accurate environment risk assessment.

  9. Chronic toxicity of sediment-associated linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) to freshwater benthic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, S.D.W.; Conrad, A.U.; Hoess, S.; Webb, S.; Marshall, S.

    2006-01-01

    The toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS), to freshwater benthic organisms was assessed during exposure to spiked sediment. Lethal and sub-lethal end-points were monitored for two organisms (oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and nematode Caenorhabditis elegans). Results demonstrated relatively low toxicity (LOECs >100 mg/kg dry weight). No observed effect concentrations (NOECs) of 81 mg/kg dw (Lumbriculus) and 100 mg/kg dw (Caenorhabditis) were determined. For the oligochaete, no specific endpoint was particularly sensitive to LAS. For the nematode, egg production was the most sensitive endpoint. Significant degradation was measured over the 28-day duration of the Lumbriculus study, equating to a half-life of 20 days in sediment. - This paper provides sediment toxicity data for LAS, essential for a detailed and accurate environment risk assessment

  10. Potential risks of metal toxicity in contaminated sediments of Deule river in Northern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourino-Cabana, Beatriz; Lesven, Ludovic; Charriau, Adeline; Billon, Gabriel; Ouddane, Baghdad; Boughriet, Abdel

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A historical environmental pollution is evidenced with reference to background levels. → Sedimentary trace metals partitioning is examined under undisturbed conditions. → Anoxia and diagenetic processes induce geochemical and mineralogical variabilities. → Do metals present in particles and pore waters exhibit a potential toxicity risk? → Behaviour of binding fractions contributes to trace metals scavenging. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential sediment cumulative damage and toxicity due to metal contamination in a polluted zone of Deule river (in northern France) from nearby two smelters. Metal-enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indices measured with sediment depth revealed that - compared to background levels either in local reference soils or in world rivers sediments/suspended particulate matter - Cd contributed to the highest pollution levels, followed by Zn, Pb and to a much lesser extent Cu and Ni. A comparison of the vertical distribution of AVS (acid volatile sulfides), SEM (simultaneously extracted metals), TMC (total metal concentrations), TOC (total organic carbon) and interstitial water-metal concentrations in the sediment allowed us to highlight the extent of toxicity caused by Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu and to raise the possibility of their association with certain geochemical phases. To assess the actual environmental impacts of these metals in Deule river, numerical sediment quality guidelines were further used in the present work. Sedimentary Pb, Zn, and Cd contents largely exceeded PEC (probable effect concentration) values reported as consensus-based sediment quality guidelines for freshwater ecosystems. As for risks of toxicity from pore waters, metal concentrations reached their maxima at the surficial layers of the sediment (1-3 cm) and IWCTU (Interstitial Water Criteria Toxicity Unit) observed for Pb and to a lesser extent Cd, violated the corresponding water quality data recommended

  11. Mapping sediment contamination and toxicity in Winter Quarters Bay, McMurdo Station, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Alan B; White, Gregory J

    2003-07-01

    Winter Quarters Bay (WQB) is a small embayment located adjacent to McMurdo Station, the largest research base in Antarctica. The bay is approximately 250 m wide and long, with a maximum depth of 33 m. Historically, trash from the McMurdo Station was piled on the steep shoreline of WQB, doused with fuel and ignited. That practice has ceased, and the adjacent land area has been regraded to cover the residual waste. The bottom of WQB remains littered with drums, equipment, tanks, tires, cables, and other objects, especially the southeastern side of the bay where dumping took place. Sediments are contaminated with PCBs, metals, and hydrocarbon fuels. The objectives of this study were to map the distribution of organic contaminants in WQB, assess the toxicity of WQB sediments using a simple microbial test, and determine correlations between toxicity and contaminant levels. The study suggests that adverse ecological effects have occurred from one or more of the contaminants found in WQB but the source of the toxic impacts to bay sediments remains unknown. Whole sediment toxicity was only correlated with oil-equivalent while solvent extracts of sediments were correlated with PAHs and oil-equivalent. The authors recommend that an integrated research plan be developed that focuses on determining what additional information is needed to make informed decisions on possible remediation of WQB.

  12. Development and application of a sediment toxicity test using the benthic cladoceran Chydorus sphaericus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, T.; Greve, G.D.; Ter Laak, T.L.; Boivin, M.E.; Veuger, B.; Gortzak, G.; Dumfries, S.; Luecker, S.M.G.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.; Geest, H.G. van der

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on the development and application of a whole sediment toxicity test using a benthic cladoceran Chydorus sphaericus, as an alternative for the use of pelagic daphnids. A C. sphaericus laboratory culture was started and its performance under control conditions was optimised. The test was firstly validated by determining dose-response relationships for aqueous cadmium and copper and ammonia, showing a sensitivity of C. sphaericus (96 h LC 5 values of 594 μg Cd/L, 191 μg Cu/L and 46 mg ammonia/L at pH 8) similar to that of daphnids. Next, sediment was introduced into the test system and a series of contaminated sediments from polluted locations were tested. A significant negative correlation between survival and toxicant concentrations was observed. It is concluded that the test developed in the present study using the benthic cladoceran C. sphaericus is suitable for routine laboratory sediment toxicity testing. - A test was developed for assaying sediment toxicity using a commonly occurring small-bodied cladoceran

  13. Toxic evaluations of sediments in Tokyo Bay, Japan, using Japanese medaka embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Seiichi; Kokushi, Emiko; Kawano, Machi; McElroy, Anne E; Koyama, Jiro

    2017-12-01

    Toxic risks of sediments collected from seven sites in Tokyo Bay were evaluated using Japanese medaka embryos. Those sediments with slight pore water were placed in grass petri dishes without overlying water. The most remarkable effect in the field sediment was to cause hatching delay in embryos, and the longest time until hatching took was 12.5 ± 1.6 days post-fertilization (dpf), although that in control group was 10.1 ± 0.7 dpf. A significant delay in hatching was observed at four sites. Because total carbon concentrations were relatively high in sediments at three of these four sites, several chemicals were expected to be residues in these sites and could cause their delay. Although extreme mortality was not observed at all sites, sediments collected from the site close to Kawasaki city induced 10 % mortality. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were remarkably high at this site compared with other sites, and thus PAH toxicities could be causing the mortality. Concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in sediments were also determined, but no clear relationship was found between toxicities to embryos and the distribution of their concentrations.

  14. Toxicity of oiled sediments treated with bioremediation agents: A shoreline experiment in Delaware, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mearna, A.; Doe, K.; Fisher, W.; Lee, K.; Mueller, C.

    1995-01-01

    Using a randomized complete block design, a battery of five pore water and sediment bioassays were used to monitor and compare toxicity among un-oiled, oiled (light Nigerian crude) and nutrient and bacteria-treated shoreline plots on a sandy beach. Tests included sea urchin fertilization, water and modified-solid phase microtox, 10-day amphipod survival and grass shrimp embryo bioassays. During the 13-week study, bioremediation treatment with nutrients and/or bacteria did not decrease toxicity relative to that in untreated plots. Results from at least one bioassay suggested that, relative to no treatment, treatment may have increased toxicity for several weeks. The least and most sensitive tests were sea urchin fertilization (pore water) and 10-day amphipod test, respectively. Coupled with chemical monitoring, the study produced a large data-base for evaluating toxic concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sandy sediments

  15. Toxicities of sediments below 10 effluent outfalls to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.; Weber, D.; Stanley, R.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical quality and toxicities of sediments collected in the receiving waters below 10 wastewater outfalls to Northwest Florida coastal areas were evaluated at multiple stations during 1994--1996. Eight types of toxicity tests using 11 test species were used to assess acute and chronic toxicity of the sediments collected below industrial, municipal, power generation and pulp mill outfalls. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the relative ability of different assessment procedures to detect toxicity and to provide some much-needed perspective on the impact of major point sources on sediment quality in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The major chemical contaminants were heavy metals and PAHs. Acute and chronic toxicities were noted. Results of tests with sediment collected at the same location but several months later often differed. The most sensitive species were mysids and an estuarine amphipod. The least sensitive species were fish and macrophyte seedlings. There was poor correlation of effluent toxicity to sediment toxicity in the receiving water. Toxicity of the effluents was greater than that of the sediments. Overall, the unavailability of relevant chronic toxicity methods, uncertain criteria for choice of control stations, lack of guidance on frequency of testing and the dynamic physical and chemical characteristics of sediments are factors that need consideration if sediment monitoring is to be part of the NPDES regulatory process

  16. Behaviour of metallic and radioactive elements in lagoonal sediments: the example of the Canet-St Nazaire Pond (Mediterranean Coast)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernat, M.; Chassefiere, B.; Cauwet, G.; Faguet, D.; Gadel, F.; Monaco, A.; Ouakad, M.; Thommeret, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and radionuclides (U, Th, Pb, Ra) was studied in water, suspensions and sediments of an euxinic lagoonal environment of the French Mediterranean coast. The dynamic of these elements at the sediment-water interface is considered particularly in relation to the redox conditions, the nature of inorganic and organic supports and the sedimentation rate. (author)

  17. Can behavioural responses of Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta) assess sediment toxicity? A case study with sediments exposed to acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardo, A.M.; Soares, A.M.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Sao Domingos mine (Portugal) is, potentially, a good site for ecotoxicological studies, due to a pH and metal gradient of acid mine drainage. In this study, the toxicity of several mine sediments was evaluated using the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus as a test organism. Our hypothesis was that exposure to contaminated sediments would cause behavioural early warning responses in L. variegatus. Five sites, with pH ranging from 2.5 to 6.5, and with associated metals, were investigated. The results showed poor sediment quality in most of the collected sediments and Fe, S and As were the dominant elements in the samples. High mortalities were observed, ranging from 32.6 to 100%, indicating severe contamination. The collected sediments did not support good L. variegatus growth and significantly changed its behaviour. Early warning responses consisted of decreased locomotion and decreased peristaltic movements. A behaviour inhibition will affect the ecosystem balance by limiting the organisms' ability to avoid capture, which leads to a higher risk of predation. - Behavioural responses of the aquatic oligochaeta Lumbriculus variegatus may be used to detect early warning responses.

  18. Can interpreting sediment toxicity tests a mega sites benefit from novel approaches to normalization to address batching of tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment toxicity tests are a key tool used in Ecological Risk Assessments for contaminated sediment sites. Interpreting test results and defining toxicity is often a challenge. This is particularly true at mega sites where the testing regime is large, and by necessity performed ...

  19. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity

  20. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri assays in the assessment of seasonal and spatial patterns in toxicity of contaminated river sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jarque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several bacteria-based assays, notably Vibrio fischeri luminescence assays, are often used as environmental monitoring tool for toxicity in sediments that may serve as both sinks and secondary source of contamination in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we used 30-s kinetic bioassays based on V. fischeri to evaluate the toxicity associated to sediments from five localities with different contamination inputs (Morava River and its tributary Drevnice River in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. Toxicity assessed as half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 over the course of a year-long sampling was compared in bottom sediments and freshly trapped particulate material. Standard approach based on testing of aqueous elutriates was compared with toxicity of whole sediments (contact suspension toxicity. Bottom sediments showed lower toxicity compared to freshly trapped suspended materials in all cases. On the other hand, standardized elutriates induced generally weaker effects than suspended sediments likely due to losses during the extraction process. Toxicity generally increased during winter reaching maximum peaks in early spring months in all five sites. Total organic carbon (TOC was found to be highly correlated with toxic effects. Toxicity from sites with direct industrial and agricultural water inputs also correlated with concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Single time point sampling followed by the extraction and testing of elutriates, do not truly reflect the spatial and temporal variability in natural sediments and may lead to underestimation of ecotoxic risks.

  2. SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities...

  3. USE OF ULVA LACTUCA TO DISTINGUISH PH DEPENDENT TOXICANTS IN MARINE WATERS AND SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) is a cosmopolitan marine attached green seaweed capable of sequestering high environmental levels of ammonia. Ammonia can be acutely toxic to marine organisms and is often found in dredged sediments from highly industrial areas or from areas with high c...

  4. Toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates-Spiking methodology, species sensitivity, and nickel bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Rudel, David

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes data from studies of the toxicity and bioavailability of nickel in nickel-spiked freshwater sediments. The goal of these studies was to generate toxicity and chemistry data to support development of broadly applicable sediment quality guidelines for nickel. The studies were conducted as three tasks, which are presented here as three chapters: Task 1, Development of methods for preparation and toxicity testing of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; Task 2, Sensitivity of benthic invertebrates to toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; and Task 3, Effect of sediment characteristics on nickel bioavailability. Appendices with additional methodological details and raw chemistry and toxicity data for the three tasks are available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5225/downloads/.

  5. In situ and laboratory bioassays with Chironomus riparius larvae to assess toxicity of metal contamination in rivers: the relative toxic effect of sediment versus water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mafalda S; Lopes, Ricardo J; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2007-09-01

    We used bioassays employing head capsule width and body length increase of Chironomus riparius larvae as end points to evaluate metal contamination in streams. Bioassays were performed in situ near an abandoned Portuguese goldmine in the spring of 2003 and 2004. Bioassays also were performed under laboratory conditions with water and sediment collected from each stream to verify if laboratory bioassays could detect in situ toxicity and to evaluate the relative contribution of sediment and water to overall toxicity. We used field sediments with control water and control sediments with field water to discriminate between metal contamination in water and sediment. Field water with dry and sieved, organic matter-free, and nontreated sediments was used to determine the toxicity of heavy metals that enter the organism through ingested material. In both in situ and laboratory bioassays, body length increase was significantly inhibited by metal contamination, whereas head capsule width was not affected. Body length increase was more affected by contaminated sediment compared to contaminated water. The lowest-effect level of heavy metals was observed in the dry and sieved sediment that prevented ingestion of sediment particles by larvae. These results suggest that body length increase of C. riparius larvae can be used to indicate the impact of metal contamination in rivers. Chironomus riparius larvae are more affected by heavy metals that enter the organism through ingested sediment than by heavy metals dissolved in the water column. Nevertheless, several factors, such as the particle size and organic matter of sediment, must be taken into account.

  6. Determining the Chemical and Biological Availability of Zinc in Urban Stormwater Retention Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, K.; Casey, R.; Lev, S. M.; Landa, E. R.; Snodgrass, J.

    2005-12-01

    Highway runoff has the potential to negatively impact receiving systems due to transport of contaminants that accumulate on road surfaces. Metals such as copper and zinc are major components of automobile brake pads and tires, respectively. As these automobile parts are degraded, these metal containing particulates are deposited on the roadway and are washed into storm water retention ponds and surface water bodies during precipitation events. It has been estimated that 15 to 60% of the Zn in urban stormwater runoff comes from tire wear and that tire wear is a significant source of Zn to the environment with release inventories comparable to waste incineration sources. In urban and sub-urban systems, this large source of Zn can accumulate in stormwater retention ponds which serve as habitat for a variety of species. Understanding the chemical and biological availability of Zn to biota is integral to assessing the habitat quality of retention ponds. This study is a first effort to relate the amount and speciation of Zn in a retention pond to Zn inputs through highway-derived runoff events. In addition, results suggest that the chemical speciation and availability of particulate Zn can be related to the bioavailability and toxicity of Zn to pond organisms (i.e. larval amphibians). The study site in Owings Mills, MD is located next to a four-lane highway from which it receives runoff through a single culvert. Five species of anurans are known to utilize the pond as a breeding site and Zn in amphibian tissues and retention pond sediments were highly elevated at this site in 2001 and 2002. A recent analysis of pond sediments, soils, roadway dust and storm water collected at this site suggests that roadway particulate matter transported during runoff events is the dominant source of Zn in this system. Overall, Zn and other trace metals were found to be most abundant in the clay sized faction of pond sediments and soils. The pond cores were found to have higher Zn and Cu

  7. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-03-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for 6 weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, USA, to estimate the sediment's toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets, but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses was detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg, and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies. However, the lack of accumulation in the livers of the treated swans suggested that these elements were not readily available from the ingested sediment. The authors did not study all potential toxic effects, but, on the basis of those that they did consider, they concluded that the treated swans were basically healthy after a chronic exposure to the sediment.

  8. PAHs concentration and toxicity in organic solvent extracts of atmospheric particulate matter and sea sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takeuchi, Shin-ya; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toshiko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the toxicity to marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) were measured for the organic solvent extracts of sea sediments collected from an urban watershed area (Hiroshima Bay) of Japan and compared with the concentrations and toxicity of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). In atmospheric PM, the PAHs concentration was highest in fine particulate matter (FPM) collected during cold seasons. The concentrations of sea sediments were 0.01-0.001 times those of atmospheric PM. 1/EC50 was 1-10 L g(-1) PM for atmospheric PM and 0.1-1 L g(-1) dry solids for sea sediments. These results imply that toxic substances from atmospheric PM are diluted several tens or hundreds of times in sea sediments. The ratio of the 1/EC50 to PAHs concentration ((1/EC50)/16PAHs) was stable for all sea sediments (0.1-1 L μg(-1) 16PAHs) and was the same order of magnitude as that of FPM and coarse particulate matter (CPM). The ratio of sediments collected from the west was more similar to that of CPM while that from the east was more similar to FPM, possibly because of hydraulic differences among water bodies. The PAHs concentration pattern analyses (principal component analysis and isomer ratio analysis) were conducted and the results showed that the PAHs pattern in sea sediments was quite different to that of FPM and CPM. Comparison with previously conducted PAHs analyses suggested that biomass burning residues comprised a major portion of these other sources.

  9. Physical and chemical parameters of sediment extraction and fractionation that influence toxicity, as evaluated by microtox (trade name)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.T.Y.; Quinn, J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Several physical and chemical parameters of sediment extraction and fractionation of organic compounds that influence bioassay results were evaluated. Each parameter was evaluated with a photoluminescent bacterial bioassay (Microtox) as an end point. Three solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, and methanol) were studied for their ability to extract toxic organic components from marine sediments. Acetone extracted the most toxicity, with no difference between acetonitrile and methanol. Two methods of fractionating sediment extracts (silica-gel-column chromatography (SGCC) and acid-base fractionation) were compared. SGCC was more useful because it resulted in a wider range of responses and was faster to perform than acid-base fractionation. Microtox was used to rank four marine sediments with respect to toxicity and to determine if one chemical class (or fraction) was consistently more toxic among different sediments. With some caveats, Microtox results agreed with general chemical concentration trends and other bioassay results in distinguishing between contaminated and noncontaminated sediments. Although results indicated there was not a consistently most toxic fraction among sediments, there was a consistently least toxic fraction. The effect of sediment storage time on toxicity was also evaluated. Results indicated that the most stable chemical fraction (containing nonpolar hydrocarbons) did not change toxicologically for 30 weeks, whereas the more chemically active fraction (containing ketones, quinones, and carboxyls) changed as soon as one week

  10. Hazard identification of contaminated sites. Ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, J.; Sundberg, H.; Aakerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Eklund, B.; Breitholtz, M. [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    Background, aim, and scope: It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with, e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compounds with different polarities. Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure (i.e. ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions (semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations, ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique. Results and discussion Clear concentration-response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout, the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi

  11. Comparison of Toxicity of Sediments from Rivers with Different Levels of Anthropogenic Load (Middle Volga Region, Russia Based on Elutriate and Whole Sediment Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Stepanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of chemical characteristics and toxicity testing of whole sediment and elutri-ate have been performed with 35 samples taken during the monitoring of rivers in the Middle Volga region (Tatarstan, Russia in 2013. The locations analyzed are sites associated with agriculture, forestry, and petroleum hydrocarbons (oil production. The toxicity tests include: (1 Chlorella vulgaris (algal elutriate test, (2 Paramecium caudatum (ciliate elutriate test, (3 Daphnia magna (cladoceran whole sediment toxicity test, and (4 Heterocypris incongruens (ostracod whole sediment toxicity test. The concentrations of metals in 43% of sediment samples have been found to exceed probable effect concentration sediment quality guidelines (SQGs. However, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and organochlorine pesticides have turned out to be below SQGs in most sites. The correlation analysis has shown metal toxicity to daphnid reproduction and ostracod growth (R2 = 0.34–0.64 and ammonia (R2 = 0.49–0.54. A higher percentage of samples have shown toxicity in the whole sediment tests (86% compared to the elutriate tests (54%. A total of 91% of samples have demonstrated toxicity for at least one species. Toxicity has been most frequently observed for daphnid reproduction (83% of samples and ostracod growth (56% of samples compared to daphnid (23% survival, ostracod (11% survival, and ciliate reproduction (54% or algal growth (54%. The most polluted sediments have been registered in the area of oil production. The comparison of toxicity of the samples from different types of areas has indicated that 100% of samples from the oil production area, 94% of samples from the agricultural area, and 50% of samples from the forest area were toxic to at least one test organism.

  12. Calculating background levels for ecological risk parameters in toxic harbor sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadon, C.J.; McDonnell, T.R.; Lear, J.; Barclift, D.

    2007-01-01

    Establishing background levels for biological parameters is necessary in assessing the ecological risks from harbor sediment contaminated with toxic chemicals. For chemicals in sediment, the term contaminated is defined as having concentrations above background and significant human health or ecological risk levels. For biological parameters, a site could be considered contaminated if levels of the parameter are either more or less than the background level, depending on the specific parameter. Biological parameters can include tissue chemical concentrations in ecological receptors, bioassay responses, bioaccumulation levels, and benthic community metrics. Chemical parameters can include sediment concentrations of a variety of potentially toxic chemicals. Indirectly, contaminated harbor sediment can impact shellfish, fish, birds, and marine mammals, and human populations. This paper summarizes the methods used to define background levels for chemical and biological parameters from a survey of ecological risk investigations of marine harbor sediment at California Navy bases. Background levels for regional biological indices used to quantify ecological risks for benthic communities are also described. Generally, background stations are positioned in relatively clean areas exhibiting the same physical and general chemical characteristics as nearby areas with contaminated harbor sediment. The number of background stations and the number of sample replicates per background station depend on the statistical design of the sediment ecological risk investigation, developed through the data quality objective (DQO) process. Biological data from the background stations can be compared to data from a contaminated site by using minimum or maximum background levels or comparative statistics. In Navy ecological risk assessments (ERA's), calculated background levels and appropriate ecological risk screening criteria are used to identify sampling stations and sites with contaminated

  13. Distribution and assessment of sediment toxicity in Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahim, G. M. S.; Parker, R. J.; Nichol, S. L.

    2007-07-01

    Heavy metal levels in surface sediments from Tamaki Estuary demonstrate significant up estuary increases in Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and mud concentrations. Increased metal levels towards the head of the estuary are linked to local catchment sources reflecting the historical development, industrialisation and urbanisation of catchment areas surrounding the upper estuary. The relatively narrow constriction in the middle estuary (Panmure area), makes it susceptible to accumulation of upper estuary pollutants, since the constriction reduces circulation and extends the time required for fine waterborne sediments in the upper estuary to exchange with fresh coastal water. As a result fine fraction sediments trapped in the upper estuary facilitate capture and retention of pollutants at the head of the estuary. The increase in sandy mud poor sediments towards the mouth of the estuary is associated with generally low metal concentrations. The estuary’s geomorphic shape with a mid estuary constriction, sediment texture and mineralogy and catchment history are significant factors in understanding the overall spatial distribution of contaminants in the estuary. Bulk concentration values for Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd in all the studied surface samples occur below ANZECC ISQG-H toxicity values. Cd and Cu concentrations are also below the ISQG-L toxicity levels for these elements. However, Pb and Zn concentrations do exceed the ISQG-L values in some of the surface bulk samples in the upper estuary proximal to long established sources of catchment pollution.

  14. Assessment of heavy metals bioavailability and toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri in sediment of the Huelva estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Daniel; Usero, José; Morillo, José

    2016-06-01

    Relationship between toxicity and bioavailable metals in sediments from the Huelva estuary and its littoral of influence was analyzed. Toxicity was assessed with Microtox® bioassay using a marine luminescent bacterium: Vibrio fischeri. Bioavailable metals were considered as both, acid extractable fraction of BCR procedure and the sum of exchangeable and bound to carbonates fractions of Tessier sequential extraction. A bioavailable metals index was calculated to integrate results in a single figure. Toxicity and bioavailable metals showed a similar pattern. Higher levels were found in the estuary than in the littoral (140 TU/g). In Huelva estuary, highest levels were found in the Tinto estuary (5725 TU/g), followed by the Odiel estuary (5100 TU/g) and the Padre Santo Canal (2500 TU/g). Results in this area were well over than those in nearby estuaries. Furthermore, they are similar to or even higher than those in other polluted sediments around the world. Bioavailable metal index showed a stronger correlation with acid extractable fraction of BCR (R(2) = 0.704) than that for the sum of exchangeable and bound to carbonates fractions of Tessier (R(2) = 0.661). These results suggest that bioavailable metals are an important source of sediment toxicity in the Huelva estuary and its littoral of influence, an area with one of the highest mortality risks of Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Temporal and spatial trends in sediment contaminants associated with toxicity in California watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegler, Katie; Phillips, Bryn M.; Anderson, Brian S.; Voorhees, Jennifer P.; Tjeerdema, Ron S.

    2015-01-01

    California's Stream Pollution Trends program (SPoT) assesses long-term water quality trends, using 100 base-of-the-watershed sampling sites. Annual statewide sediment surveys from 2008 to 2012 identified consistent levels of statewide toxicity (19%), using the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Significant contaminant trends included a decrease in PCBs, stable concentrations of metals and PAHs, and a statewide increase in detections and concentrations of pyrethroid pesticides. The pyrethroid pesticide bifenthrin was detected in 69% of samples (n = 410). Detection of toxicity increased in a subset of samples tested at a more environmentally relevant test temperature (15 °C), and the magnitude of toxicity was much greater, indicating pyrethroid pesticides as a probable cause. Pyrethroid toxicity thresholds (LC50) were exceeded in 83% of samples with high toxicity. Principal components analysis related pyrethroids, metals and total organic carbon to urban land use. - Highlights: • Toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in urban dominated watersheds. • Average and range of total pyrethroid concentrations increased between 2008 and 2012. • Pyrethroid toxicity thresholds (LC50) were exceeded in 83% of samples with high toxicity. - Detections and concentrations of current use pesticides are increasing in California urban watersheds, while legacy organochlorine contaminants are decreasing statewide.

  16. Assessment of sediments from Tiete River - toxicity and trace elements - from Salesopolis to Suzano counties, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegre, Gabriel F.; Borrely, Sueli; Nascimento, Thuany M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, sediment samples from the Tiete River were evaluated for toxicity and trace metals (5 sampling sites). The studied region includes Salesopolis to Suzano and surroundings, a highly industrialized area. The study involved toxicity evaluation (sediment, elutriate and pore-water) and the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements on sediments. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption technique (CV AAS). The concentration values obtained for the metals As, Cr, Hg and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL). Regarding toxicity, whole sediments and elutriate fractions were evaluated using chronic assays for Ceriodaphnia dubia, while the pore water was carried out for Vibrio fischeri toxicity assays. These assays followed Brazilian Standardized Methods (ABNT). Whole sediments and elutriate evidenced negative biological effects, even at Salesopolis county, the control site (less impacted area). The worst effects were obtained at Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano counties (sampling stations 3 and 4). The elutriate fractions collected at the same stations showed acute toxicity in two of three samples (C. dubia). When pore water was evaluated, a toxicity gradient which increased as the river flowed through Mogi das Cruzes county was obtained. Regarding toxic metal contents in the sediment samples points 3 and 4 exceeded the TEL oriented values for As, Cr, Hg and Zn and point 4 also exceeded the PEL values for all these elements. (author)

  17. Assessment of metal leachability and toxicity from sediment potentially stored on land

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, A; Tarnawski, M; Michalec, B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity and metal leachability from three dredged bottom sediments potentially stored on land. Washing out was conducted at a sediment dry mass to water mass ratio of 1:10. The method relies on washing out pollutants from the examined sample using water with third degree of purity in static/quasi-dynamic conditions. The investigations comprised three 27-h washing out cycles, including leaching in static conditions (19 h) and shaking (8 h). Bottom sedim...

  18. Sediment Chemistry and Toxicity in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey: Pre- and Post- Hurricane Sandy, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Timothy J.; Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil K.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy made landfall in Barnegat Bay, October, 29, 2012, damaging shorelines and infrastructure. Estuarine sediment chemistry and toxicity were investigated before and after to evaluate potential environmental health impacts and to establish post-event baseline sediment-quality conditions. Trace element concentrations increased throughout Barnegat Bay up to two orders of magnitude, especially north of Barnegat Inlet, consistent with northward redistribution of silt. Loss of organic compounds, clay, and organic carbon is consistent with sediment winnowing and transport through the inlets and sediment transport modeling results. The number of sites exceeding sediment quality guidance levels for trace elements tripled post-Sandy. Sediment toxicity post-Sandy was mostly unaffected relative to pre-Sandy conditions, but at the site with the greatest relative increase for trace elements, survival rate of the test amphipod decreased (indicating degradation). This study would not have been possible without comprehensive baseline data enabling the evaluation of storm-derived changes in sediment quality.

  19. Microbacter margulisiae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel propionigenic bacterium isolated from sediments of an acid rock drainage pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Andrea, I.; Luis Sanz, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel anaerobic propionigenic bacterium, strain ADRIT, was isolated from sediment of an acid rock drainage environment (Tinto River, Spain). Cells were small (0.4-0.6 x 1-1.7 µm), non-motile and non-spore forming rods. Cells possessed a Gram-negative cell wall structure and were vancomycin

  20. Using on-farm sedimentation ponds to improve microbial quality of irrigation water in urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    water without disturbing sediments reduced helminth eggs in irrigation water by about 70%. Helminth eggs reduced from about 5 to less than 1 egg per litre in three days in both dry and wet seasons while thermotolerant coliforms took six days in the dry season to reduce from about 8 to 4 log units per...

  1. Chronic toxicity of unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of hydrocarbons in marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlett, A.; Galloway, T.S. [Plymouth Univ., Drake Circus (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences; Rowland, S.J. [Plymouth Univ., Drake Circus (United Kingdom). School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences

    2007-08-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of hydrocarbons, containing many thousands of compounds which cannot be resolved by conventional gas chromatography (GC), are common contaminants of sediments but little is known of their potential to affect sediment-dwelling organisms. Evidence exists for reduced health status in mussels, arising from aqueous exposure to aromatic UCM components acting through a narcotic mode of action. However, UCM contaminants in sediments may not be sufficiently bioavailable to elicit toxic effects. The aim of our study was therefore to measure the sublethal effects of chronic exposure to model UCM-dominated oils at environmentally realistic concentrations and compare this to effects produced by a UCM containing weathered crude oil. A further aim was to determine which, if any, fractions of the oils were responsible for any observed toxicity. Materials and Methods: Whole oils were spiked into estuarine sediment to give nominal concentrations of 500 {mu}g g-1 dry weight. Juveniles of the estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator were exposed to the contaminated sediment for 35 days and their survival, growth rate and reproductive success quantified. Using an effect-directed fractionation approach, the oils were fractionated into aliphatic and two aromatic fractions by open column chromatography and their toxicity assessed by further chronic exposures using juvenile C. volutator. Results: The growth rates of amphipods were reduced following exposure to the oils although this was only statistically significant for the weathered oil; reproductive success was reduced by all oil exposures. Sediment spiked with UCM fractions also caused reduced growth and reproduction but no particular fraction was found to be responsible for the observed toxicity. Survivorship was not affected by any oil or fraction. Discussion: The study showed that chronic exposure to sediments contaminated by UCM-dominated oils could have population level

  2. Metal mobility and toxicity to microalgae associated with acidification of sediments: CO2 and acid comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Orte, M R; Lombardi, A T; Sarmiento, A M; Basallote, M D; Rodriguez-Romero, A; Riba, I; Del Valls, A

    2014-05-01

    The injection and storage of CO2 into marine geological formations has been suggested as a mitigation measure to prevent global warming. However, storage leaks are possible resulting in several effects in the ecosystem. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of CO2 leakage on the fate of metals and on the growth of the microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Metal contaminated sediments were collected and submitted to acidification by means of CO2 injection or by adding HCl. Sediments elutriate were prepared to perform toxicity tests. The results showed that sediment acidification enhanced the release of metals to elutriates. Iron and zinc were the metals most influenced by this process and their concentration increased greatly with pH decreases. Diatom growth was inhibited by both processes: acidification and the presence of metals. Data obtained is this study is useful to calculate the potential risk of CCS activities to the marine environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxic elements in sediment from two water bodies near Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor: RMB installation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tatiane B.S.C. da; Stellato, Thamiris B.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Marques, Joyce R.; Faustino, Mainara G.; Santos, Camila F.R.T.T.; Oliveira, Cintia C. de; Miranda, Gabrielle S.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are directly affected by contaminants, such as, toxic elements that do not remain in sediment in a insoluble form. Anthropogenic and natural actions influence sediment dynamics that could lead to a potential contaminant accumulation. Therefore, to evaluate possible environmental impacts is,in many cases, mandatory. Environmental impact assessment studies are a licensing tool that seeks to control degradation activities, taking into account the legal and regulatory provisions and technical standards applicable to the case. The present study aims to evaluate the sediment quality in the area of influence of the Brazilian Multipurpose Nuclear Reactor (RMB) to be installed in the contiguous area of the Experimental Center of Aramar of the Technological Center of the Navy in São Paulo (CTMSP), located in the city of Iperó - SP. The potentially toxic elements As, Cd and Hg were analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) and Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Results were compared with Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) guideline values (TEL and PEL) and the maximum permitted values of Resolution 454/12. These toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn) were found below maximum allowed concentrations from national and international legislation. This study provides support for RMB post-completion evaluations, in order to prevent these elements to exceed tolerated levels, ensuring ecological, social and economic values. (author)

  4. Toxic elements in sediment from two water bodies near Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor: RMB installation area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tatiane B.S.C. da; Stellato, Thamiris B.; Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Marques, Joyce R.; Faustino, Mainara G.; Santos, Camila F.R.T.T.; Oliveira, Cintia C. de; Miranda, Gabrielle S.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B., E-mail: tatianebscs@live.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are directly affected by contaminants, such as, toxic elements that do not remain in sediment in a insoluble form. Anthropogenic and natural actions influence sediment dynamics that could lead to a potential contaminant accumulation. Therefore, to evaluate possible environmental impacts is,in many cases, mandatory. Environmental impact assessment studies are a licensing tool that seeks to control degradation activities, taking into account the legal and regulatory provisions and technical standards applicable to the case. The present study aims to evaluate the sediment quality in the area of influence of the Brazilian Multipurpose Nuclear Reactor (RMB) to be installed in the contiguous area of the Experimental Center of Aramar of the Technological Center of the Navy in São Paulo (CTMSP), located in the city of Iperó - SP. The potentially toxic elements As, Cd and Hg were analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) and Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Results were compared with Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) guideline values (TEL and PEL) and the maximum permitted values of Resolution 454/12. These toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn) were found below maximum allowed concentrations from national and international legislation. This study provides support for RMB post-completion evaluations, in order to prevent these elements to exceed tolerated levels, ensuring ecological, social and economic values. (author)

  5. Preparation and characterization of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments for toxicity tests: toward more environmentally realistic nickel partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; May, Thomas W.; Ivey, Chris D.; Schlekat, Christian E.; Garman, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    Two spiking methods were compared and nickel (Ni) partitioning was evaluated during a series of toxicity tests with 8 different freshwater sediments having a range of physicochemical characteristics. A 2-step spiking approach with immediate pH adjustment by addition of NaOH at a 2:1 molar ratio to the spiked Ni was effective in producing consistent pH and other chemical characteristics across a range of Ni spiking levels. When Ni was spiked into sediment having a high acid-volatile sulfide and organic matter content, a total equilibration period of at least 10 wk was needed to stabilize Ni partitioning. However, highest spiking levels evidently exceeded sediment binding capacities; therefore, a 7-d equilibration in toxicity test chambers and 8 volume-additions/d of aerobic overlying water were used to avoid unrealistic Ni partitioning during toxicity testing. The 7-d pretest equilibration allowed excess spiked Ni and other ions from pH adjustment to diffuse from sediment porewater and promoted development of an environmentally relevant, 0.5- to 1-cm oxic/suboxic sediment layer in the test chambers. Among the 8 different spiked sediments, the logarithm of sediment/porewater distribution coefficient values (log Kd) for Ni during the toxicity tests ranged from 3.5 to 4.5. These Kd values closely match the range of values reported for various field Ni-contaminated sediments, indicating that testing conditions with our spiked sediments were environmentally realistic.

  6. Toxicity of sediments from a mangrove forest patch in an urban area in Pernambuco (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D D; Souza-Santos, L P; Silva, H K P; Macedo, S J

    2014-06-01

    Industrial and urban residues are discharged every day to the rivers and may arrive at the mangrove forest and prejudice the quality of the environment and the organisms present there. The mangrove forest patch studied is encircled by an urban area of the city of Recife (Brazil) that has approximate 1.5 million inhabitants and is one of the most industrialized centers in Northeast Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the sediments of this mangrove patch in terms of metal contamination and ecotoxicology. Samples of surface sediment were collected in six stations for toxicological tests and trace metal determination (Cr, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Co and Ni), in July and August, 2006 (rainy season); and in January and February 2007 (dry season). Toxicity tests with solid-phase sediments were carried out with the copepod Tisbe biminiensis in order to observe lethal and sub-lethal endpoints and correlate them with chemical data. In June, there were no observed lethal effect, but two stations presented sub-lethal effects. In January, lethal effect occurred in three stations and sub-lethal in one station. The levels for Zn and Cr were at higher levels than international proposed guidelines (NOAA). There was a negative significant correlation between the copepods׳ fecundity, and Zn and Cr concentrations. Therefore, the studied sediments can be considered to have potential toxic to benthos due to the high content of Zn and Cr. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicity assessment of polluted sediments using swimming behavior alteration test with Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, O. V.; Nasyrova, E. I.; Nuriakhmetova, V. R.; Stepanova, N. Yu; Danilova, N. V.; Latypova, V. Z.

    2018-01-01

    Recently behavioral responses of organisms are increasingly used as a reliable and sensitive tool in aquatic toxicology. Behavior-related endpoints allow efficiently studying the effects of sub-lethal exposure to contaminants. At present behavioural parameters frequently are determined with the use of digital analysis of video recording by computer vision technology. However, most studies evaluate the toxicity of aqueous solutions. Due to methodological difficulties associated with sample preparation not a lot of examples of the studies related to the assessment of toxicity of other environmental objects (wastes, sewage sludges, soils, sediments etc.) by computer vision technology. This paper presents the results of assessment of the swimming behavior alterations of Daphnia magna in elutriates from both uncontaminated natural and artificially chromium-contaminated bottom sediments. It was shown, that in elutriate from chromium contaminated bottom sediments (chromium concentration 115±5.7 μg l-1) the swimming speed of daphnids was decreases from 0.61 cm s-1 (median speed over the period) to 0.50 cm s-1 (median speed at the last minute of the experiment). The relocation of Daphnia from the culture medium to the extract from the non-polluted sediments does not essential changes the swimming activity.

  8. An Exploratory Analysis of Stream Teratogenicity and Human Health Using Zebrafish Whole-Sediment Toxicity Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dellinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates a novel application of effect-based toxicity testing for streams that may provide indications of co-perturbation to ecological and human health. For this study, a sediment contact assay using zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos was adapted to serve as an indicator of teratogenic stress within river sediments. Sediment samples were collected from Lake Michigan tributary watersheds. Sediment contact assay responses were then compared to prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD and vital statistic birth indicators aggregated from civil divisions associated with the watersheds. Significant risk relationships were detected between variation in early life-stage (ELS endpoints of zebrafish embryos 72 h post-fertilization and the birth prevalence of human congenital heart disease, low birthweight and infant mortality. Examination of principal components of ELS endpoints suggests that variance related to embryo heart and circulatory malformations is most closely associated with human CHD prevalence. Though toxicity assays are sometimes used prospectively, this form of investigation can only be conducted retrospectively. These results support the hypothesis that bioassays normally used for ecological screening can be useful as indicators of environmental stress to humans and expand our understanding of environmental–human health linkages.

  9. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part II. whole-sediment toxicity to the amphipod hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Dias, J.R.; Murowchick, J.B.; Welker, G.; Huggins, D.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint sources on the sediment quality of five adjacent streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Physical, chemical, and toxicity data (Hyalella azteca 28-day whole-sediment toxicity test) for 29 samples collected in 2003 were used for this evaluation, and the potential causes for the toxic effects were explored. The sediments exhibited a low to moderate toxicity, with five samples identified as toxic to H. azteca. Metals did not likely cause the toxicity based on low concentrations of metals in the pore water and elevated concentrations of acid volatile sulfide in the sediments. Although individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently exceeded effect-based sediment quality guidelines [probable effect concentrations (PECs)], only four of the samples had a PEC quotient (PEC-Q) for total PAHs over 1.0 and only one of these four samples was identified as toxic. For the mean PEC-Q for organochlorine compounds (chlordane, dieldrin, sum DDEs), 4 of the 12 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 were toxic and 4 of the 8 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 3.0 were toxic. Additionally, four of eight samples were toxic, with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 based on metals, PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. The increase in the incidence of toxicity with the increase in the mean PEC-Q based on organochlorine pesticides or based on metals, PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides suggests that organochlorine pesticides might have contributed to the observed toxicity and that the use of a mean PEC-Q, rather than PEC-Qs for individual compounds, might be more informative in predicting toxic effects. Our study shows that stream sediments subject to predominant nonpoint sources contamination can be toxic and that many factors, including analysis of a full suite of PAHs and pesticides of both past and present urban applications and the origins of

  10. Toxicity of sediment cores collected from the Ashtabula River in northeastern Ohio, USA, to the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Kunz, J.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; MacDonald, D.D.; Smorong, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to support a Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration project associated with the Ashtabula River in Ohio. The objective of the study was to evaluate the chemistry and toxicity of 50 sediment samples obtained from five cores collected from the Ashtabula River (10 samples/core, with each 10-cm-diameter core collected to a total depth of about 150 cm). Effects of chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) measured in the sediment samples were evaluated by measuring whole-sediment chemistry and whole-sediment toxicity in the sediment samples (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], organochlorine pesticides, and metals). Effects on the amphipod Hyalella azteca at the end of a 28-day sediment toxicity test were determined by comparing survival or length of amphipods in individual sediment samples in the cores to the range of responses of amphipods exposed to selected reference sediments that were also collected from the cores. Mean survival or length of amphipods was below the lower limit of the reference envelope in 56% of the sediment samples. Concentrations of total PCBs alone in some samples or concentrations of total PAHs alone in other samples were likely high enough to have caused the reduced survival or length of amphipods (i.e., concentrations of PAHs or PCBs exceeded mechanistically based and empirically based sediment quality guidelines). While elevated concentrations of ammonia in pore water may have contributed to the reduced length of amphipods, it is unlikely that the reduced length was caused solely by elevated ammonia (i.e., concentrations of ammonia were not significantly correlated with the concentrations of PCBs or PAHs and concentrations of ammonia were elevated both in the reference sediments and in the test sediments). Results of this study show that PAHs, PCBs, and ammonia are the primary COPCs that are likely causing or substantially contributing to the toxicity to

  11. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Biological Effects of Toxic Contaminants in Sediments from Long Island Sound and Environs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of sediment toxicity was carried out by NOAA's National Status and Trends Program in the coastal bays that surround Long Island Sound in New York and...

  12. Sediment toxicity data from stations in U.S. coastal waters from 19910318 to 19930303 (NCEI Accession 9400004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains Sediment Toxicity data collected from Gulf of Mexico, Hudson Bay, New York Bight, North American Coastline-North, and Pamlico Sound as part of...

  13. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Magnitude and Extent of Sediment Toxicity in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of the toxicity of sediments was performed by NOAA's National Status and Trends (NSandT) Program throughout the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. The objectives of...

  14. Metal toxicity in a sediment-dwelling polychaete: Threshold body concentrations or overwhelming accumulation rates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Casado-Martinez, M.; Smith, Brian D.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Rainbow, Philip S.

    2010-01-01

    We followed the net accumulation of As, Cu and Zn in the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina exposed in the laboratory to natural metal-contaminated sediments, one exposure leading to mass mortality between day 10 and 20, and the other not causing lethality over a period of 60 days of exposure. The worms showed lower total accumulated metal concentrations just before mortality occurred (<20 days) at the lethal exposure, than after 30 days of exposure to sediments not causing mortality. Moreover rates of accumulation of As, Cu and Zn were significantly higher in the lethal exposure than in the sublethal exposure. Our results show that it is not possible to link mortality to a critical total body concentration, and we add to a growing body of literature indicating that metal toxicity occurs when organisms cannot cope with overwhelming influx and subsequent accumulation rates. - Laboratory exposures with the deposit-feeding polychaete Arenicola marina suggest that toxicity is not caused by the accumulated concentration of toxic metals in the body of the animal, but by the rate at which the toxic metal is accumulated.

  15. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part II—sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemble, Nile E.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Sibley, Paul K.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sediment toxicity and sediment chemistry were evaluated for 98 samples collected from seven metropolitan study areas across the United States. Sediment-toxicity tests were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28 day exposures) and with the midge Chironomus dilutus (10 day exposures). Overall, 33 % of the samples were toxic to amphipods and 12 % of the samples were toxic to midge based on comparisons with reference conditions within each study area. Significant correlations were observed between toxicity end points and sediment concentrations of trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or organochlorine (OC) pesticides; however, these correlations were typically weak, and contaminant concentrations were usually below sediment-toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin exceeded an estimated threshold of 0.49 ng/g (at 1 % total organic carbon) in 14 % of the samples. Of the samples that exceeded this bifenthrin toxicity threshold, 79 % were toxic to amphipods compared with 25 % toxicity for the samples below this threshold. Application of mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) based on measures of groups of contaminants (trace elements, total PAHs, total PCBs,OCpesticides, and pyrethroid pesticides [bifenthrin in particular]) improved the correct classification of samples as toxic or not toxic to amphipods compared with measures of individual groups of contaminants. Sediments are a repository for many contaminants released into surface waters. Because of this, organisms inhabiting sediments may be exposed to a wide range of contaminants (United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) United States Environmental Protection Agency 2000; American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] American Society for Testing and Materials International 2012). Contaminants of potential concern in sediments typically include trace elements (metals

  16. Sediment porewater toxicity assessment studies in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R. S.; Chapman, D. C.; Presley, B. J.; Biedenbach, J. M.; Robertson, L.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment chemical analyses and porewater toxicity tests were conducted in the vicinity of five offshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico to determine the potential long-term environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production. Evidence of toxicity was obtained from four of the five platforms from data on sea urchin fertilization and embryonic development. The majority of toxic samples were collected within 150 m of the platform. Sediment concentrations of several metals were well in excess of sediment quality assessment guidelines at a number of stations. Porewater metal concentrations were found to be high enough to account for the observed toxicity. The general conclusion reached from these toxicity tests was that the contaminant-induced impacts from the offshore platforms were confined to a limited area in the immediate vicinity of the platform. 23 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Dendrochemical assessment of mercury releases from a pond and dredged-sediment landfill impacted by a chlor-alkali plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, François; Girardclos, Olivier; Assad, Mohamad; Zappelini, Cyril; Pérez Mena, Julia Maria; Yung, Loïc; Guyeux, Christophe; Chrétien, Stéphane; Bigham, Gary; Cosio, Claudia; Chalot, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Although current Hg emissions from industrial activities may be accurately monitored, evidence of past releases to the atmosphere must rely on one or more environmental proxies. We used Hg concentrations in tree cores collected from poplars and willows to investigate the historical changes of Hg emissions from a dredged sediment landfill and compared them to a nearby control location. Our results demonstrated the potential value of using dendrochemistry to record historical Hg emissions from past industrial activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Disturbances to metal partitioning during toxicity testing of iron(II)-rich estuarine pore waters and whole sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stuart L; Batley, Graeme E

    2003-02-01

    Metal partitioning is altered when suboxic estuarine sediments containing Fe(II)-rich pore waters are disturbed during collection, preparation, and toxicity testing. Experiments with model Fe(II)-rich pore waters demonstrated the rates at which adsorptive losses of Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn occur upon exposure to air. Experiments with Zn-contaminated estuarine sediments demonstrated large and often unpredictable changes to metal partitioning during sediment storage, removal of organisms, and homogenization before testing. Small modifications to conditions, such as aeration of overlying waters, caused large changes to the metal partitioning. Disturbances caused by sediment collection required many weeks for reestablishment of equilibrium. Bioturbation by benthic organisms led to oxidation of pore-water Fe(II) and lower Zn fluxes because of the formation of Fe hydroxide precipitates that adsorb pore-water Zn. For five weeks after the addition of organisms to sediments, Zn fluxes increased slowly as the organisms established themselves in the sediments, indicating that the establishment of equilibrium was not rapid. The results are discussed in terms of the dynamic nature of suboxic, Fe(II)-rich estuarine sediments, how organisms perturb their environment, and the importance of understanding chemistry in toxicity testing with whole sediments or pore water. Recommendations are provided for the handling of sediments for toxicity testing.

  19. Assessment of sediment toxicity in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) using a multi-species set of bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Losso, Chiara; Delaney, Eugenia; Arizzi Novelli, Alessandra; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of a Weight of Evidence (WoE) approach, a set of four toxicity bioassays involving the amphipod Corophium volutator (10 d lethality test on whole sediment), the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (fertilization and embryo toxicity tests on elutriate) and the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (embryo toxicity test on elutriate) was applied to sediments from 10 sampling sites of the Venice Lagoon (Italy). Sediments were collected during three campaigns carried out in May 2004 (spring campaign), October 2004 (autumn campaign) and February 2005 (winter campaign). Toxicity tests were performed on all sediment samples. Sediment grain-size and chemistry were measured during spring and autumn campaigns. This research investigated (i) the ability of toxicity tests in discriminating among sites with different contamination level, (ii) the occurrence of a gradient of effect among sampling sites, (iii) the possible correlation among toxicity tests, sediment chemistry, grain size and organic carbon, and (iv) the possible occurrence of toxicity seasonal variability. Sediment contamination levels were from low to moderate. No acute toxicity toward amphipods was observed, while sea urchin fertilization was affected only in few sites in just a single campaign. Short-term effects on larval development of sea urchin and oyster evidenced a clear spatial trend among sites, with increasing effects along the axis connecting the sea-inlets with the industrial area. The set of bioassays allowed the identification of a spatial gradient of effect, with decreasing toxicity from the industrial area toward the sea-inlets. Multivariate data analysis showed that the malformations of oyster embryos were significantly correlated to the industrial contamination (metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls), while sea urchin development to sediment concentrations of As, Cr and organic carbon. Both embryo toxicity tests were

  20. Contaminant levels and toxicity of sediments and water of Baltimore Harbor and Back River, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, D.T.; Jacobs, F.; Mehrotra, N.

    1995-01-01

    The Patapsco and Back River Watershed drains the Baltimore metropolitan area, Maryland's most heavily industrialized and urbanized region. Due to the intensive development and industrialization of the Baltimore metropolitan area over the past 250 years, high levels of contaminants have been discharged into Baltimore Harbor on the Patapsco River and into the Back River. Pollutants historically discharged include heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, cyanide, sewage, other organic chemicals, and nutrients. Sources have included industrial and municipal discharges, sewerage overflows, urban runoff, and leaks and spills from vessels and on-land facilities. The Maryland Department of the Environment undertook this study of ambient conditions as part of a developing strategy to assess and improve conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Past studies were compiled, evaluated, and synthesized to identify the areas of degraded conditions and contaminants of possible concern. Sediment contaminant levels were assessed using historical sediment chemistry data, Effects Range Low and Median concentrations (ER-L and ER-M) as toxicological benchmarks, and a sum of toxicity units approach for multiple contaminants. Data on toxicity testing and biological monitoring was compared to sediment and water quality data. Fish tissue data were used to examine bioaccumulated chemicals. A computerized Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to manipulate and display complex geographical data. The final identification of areas and chemicals of potential concern relied on a syntheses of these results as well as information on present and past contaminant loadings

  1. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of a cationic surfactant (DODMAC) in sediment dwelling freshwater invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, S.D.W. [Atkins Ltd, Chilbrook, Oasis Business Park, Eynsham, Oxford, OX29 4AH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sean.comber@atkinsglobal.com; Rule, K.L. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Conrad, A.U. [Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, SEPA Corporate Office, Erskine Court Castle Business Park, Stirling FK9 4TR (United Kingdom); Hoess, S. [ECOSSA, Thierschstrasser 43, 80538 Muenchen (Germany); Webb, S.F. [Procter and Gamble, Temselaan 100, Strombeek-Bever B1853 (Belgium); Marshall, S. [Unilever Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC, CAS No. 107-64-2) is the principal active component of Di(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC, CAS No. 61789-80-8), a cationic surfactant formerly used principally in laundry fabric softeners. After discharge to water, DODMAC partitions strongly to sediment, therefore the assessment of the effects of DODMAC to benthic organisms is essential in any risk assessment. Chronic toxicity studies were conducted with Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaete), Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode). NOECs were greater than 5738, 1515 and 1351 mg/kg dw, respectively, even for sub-lethal effects. Measurement of the route of uptake of DODMAC by L. variegatus demonstrated the relative importance of uptake via ingestion (86%) compared with direct contact with the sediment and via pore water (14%). The overall tendency of DODMAC to bioaccumulate, however, was low with measured accumulation factors of 0.22 and 0.78 for L. variegatus and T. tubifex, respectively. - The cationic surfactant, DODMAC, exhibits low bioavailability and toxicity to sediment dwelling organisms, with uptake dominated by ingestion.

  2. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of a cationic surfactant (DODMAC) in sediment dwelling freshwater invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, S.D.W.; Rule, K.L.; Conrad, A.U.; Hoess, S.; Webb, S.F.; Marshall, S.

    2008-01-01

    Dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC, CAS No. 107-64-2) is the principal active component of Di(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) dimethylammonium chloride (DHTDMAC, CAS No. 61789-80-8), a cationic surfactant formerly used principally in laundry fabric softeners. After discharge to water, DODMAC partitions strongly to sediment, therefore the assessment of the effects of DODMAC to benthic organisms is essential in any risk assessment. Chronic toxicity studies were conducted with Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaete), Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode). NOECs were greater than 5738, 1515 and 1351 mg/kg dw, respectively, even for sub-lethal effects. Measurement of the route of uptake of DODMAC by L. variegatus demonstrated the relative importance of uptake via ingestion (86%) compared with direct contact with the sediment and via pore water (14%). The overall tendency of DODMAC to bioaccumulate, however, was low with measured accumulation factors of 0.22 and 0.78 for L. variegatus and T. tubifex, respectively. - The cationic surfactant, DODMAC, exhibits low bioavailability and toxicity to sediment dwelling organisms, with uptake dominated by ingestion

  3. Are PAHS the Right Metric for Assessing Toxicity Related to Oils, Tars, Creosote and Similar Contaminants in Sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oils, tars, and other non-aqueous phase hydrocarbon liquids (NAPLs) are common sources of contamination in aquatic sediments, and the toxicity of such contamination has generally been attributed to component chemicals, particularly PAHs. While there is no doubt PAHs can be toxic ...

  4. Comparison of methods for conducting marine and estuarine sediment porewater toxicity tests—extraction, storage, and handling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    A series of studies was conducted to compare different porewater extraction techniques and to evaluate the effects of sediment and porewater storage conditions on the toxicity of pore water, using assays with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. If care is taken in the selection of materials, several different porewater extraction techniques (pressurized squeezing, centrifugation, vacuum) yield samples with similar toxicity. Where the primary contaminants of concern are highly hydrophobic organic compounds, centrifugation is the method of choice for minimizing the loss of contaminants during the extraction procedure. No difference was found in the toxicity of pore water obtained with the Teflon® and polyvinyl chloride pressurized extraction devices. Different types of filters in the squeeze extraction devices apparently adsorbed soluble contaminants to varying degrees. The amount of fine suspended particulate material remaining in the pore water after the initial extraction varied among the methods. For most of the sediments tested, freezing and thawing did not affect the toxicity of porewater samples obtained by the pressurized squeeze extraction method. Pore water obtained by other methods (centrifugation, vacuum) and frozen without additional removal of suspended particulates by centrifugation may exhibit increased toxicity compared with the unfrozen sample.The toxicity of pore water extracted from refrigerated (4°C) sediments exhibited substantial short-term (days, weeks) changes. Similarly, sediment pore water extracted over time from a simulated amphipod solid-phase toxicity test changed substantially in toxicity. For the sediments tested, the direction and magnitude of change in toxicity of pore water extracted from both refrigerated and solid-phase test sediments was unpredictable.

  5. Ciliates (Protozoa from dried sediments of a temporary pond from Argentina Ciliados (Protozoa de sedimentos secos de una charca temporaria de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina Küppers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary ponds represent special environments that are inhabited by organisms adapted to changing environmental conditions. Ciliates are able to survive complete loss of water in these transient habitats through cyst formation. However, ciliates from the Neotropical region in general have been poorly studied with modern techniques. The main goal of this study is to describe the ciliates in dried sediments of a temporary pond from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, through sampling efforts that were performed 2003-2005. Soil samples were obtained during drought phases and re wetted in laboratory to establish raw and enriched cultures. Ciliates were then studied both in vivo and after impregnation with protargol. In this study, we present 4 new records for Argentina (Gonostomum affine (Stein, 1859 Sterki, 1878, Stylonychia bifaria (Stokes, 1887 Berger, 1999, Pleurotricha lanceolata (Ehrenberg, 1835 Stein, 1859, Meseres corlissi Petz and Foissner, 1992, 1 for South America (Blepharisma americanum (Suzuki, 1954 Hirshfield, Isquith and Bhandary, 1965, and 2 for the Neotropical Realm (Gonostomum strenuum (Engelmann, 1862 Sterki, 1878, Stylonychia lemnae Ammermann and Schlegel, 1983.Los cuerpos de agua temporarios son ambientes particulares que se encuentran habitados por organismos adaptados a condiciones fluctuantes. Los ciliados son capaces de sobrevivir a la pérdida completa de agua del ambiente gracias a la formación de estructuras de resistencia. Por otra parte, los ciliados de la región Neotropical han sido poco investigados con técnicas modernas. El objetivo de este estudio es referir los ciliados que se desarrollaron a partir de los sedimentos secos de una charca temporaria de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, en la que se realizaron muestreos durante el período 2003-2005. Las muestras de suelo fueron obtenidas durante las fases de sequía y luego resuspendidas en el laboratorio para realizar cultivos naturales y enriquecidos. Los

  6. Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development

    2009-01-15

    Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

  7. Effects of oil sands sediments on fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.; Colavecchia, M.; Hewitt, L.; Sherry, J.; Headley, J.; Turcotte, D.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described a collaborative project organized by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Panel of Energy Research and Development (PERD) with researchers from Environment Canada and the University of Saskatchewan. The 4-year study was conducted to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments and river waters, and reclamation ponds and sediments on laboratory-raised fish. Three sediments from rivers were evaluated for their potential to cause adverse impacts on fathead minnow eggs and larvae for a period of 18 days. The study monitored hatching, larval survival, development, and growth. Naphthenic acids (NA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were measured in the sediments to determine if the compounds can be correlated with observed toxicity. The study will also assess walleye eggs exposed to sediments, and in situ fish exposures. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) studies will be conducted to isolate the fractions that may affect fish development and growth.

  8. Duckweed Lemna minor as a tool for testing toxicity of coal residues and polluted sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenner, H.A.; Janssen-Mommen, J.P.M. (Kema Environmental Services, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1993-07-01

    Duckweed, Lemna minor, was used for testing single elements and leachates of coal ashes and sediments by expressing growth as surface coverage. The EC50 for the elements Cd, Cu, Zn, As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), SeO[sub 2] were 0.86, 2.2, 4.4, 8.4, 297, 21, 67, 37 [mu]M respectively. Leachates were tested of pulverized coal fuel ash (PFA), including 'low NO[sub x]' ashes, coal gasification slag (CGS), and, as a reference, the polluted sediments of a canal. The concentrations of elements in leachates of 'low NO[sub x]' PFA were higher than those in leachates of conventional PFA. The leaching of anions from PFA was quicker than the cations. CGS showed an absolutely minimal element leaching. Comparison of the effects of conventional PFA with sediments from Rotterdam harbor, River Rhine, and the canal shows PFA to be the far less toxic one. The sediment samples from the canal demonstrated strong growth inhibition, probably due to high zinc concentrations originating from industrial activity.

  9. Duckweed Lemna minor as a tool for testing toxicity of coal residues and polluted sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenner, H A; Janssen-Mommen, J P.M. [Kema Environmental Services, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1993-07-01

    Duckweed, Lemna minor, was used for testing single elements and leachates of coal ashes and sediments by expressing growth as surface coverage. The EC50 for the elements Cd, Cu, Zn, As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), SeO[sub 2] were 0.86, 2.2, 4.4, 8.4, 297, 21, 67, 37 [mu]M respectively. Leachates were tested of pulverized coal fuel ash (PFA), including 'low NO[sub x]' ashes, coal gasification slag (CGS), and, as a reference, the polluted sediments of a canal. The concentrations of elements in leachates of 'low NO[sub x]' PFA were higher than those in leachates of conventional PFA. The leaching of anions from PFA was quicker than the cations. CGS showed an absolutely minimal element leaching. Comparison of the effects of conventional PFA with sediments from Rotterdam harbor, River Rhine, and the canal shows PFA to be the far less toxic one. The sediment samples from the canal demonstrated strong growth inhibition, probably due to high zinc concentrations originating from industrial activity.

  10. Extraction, identification and quantification of heavy metals in Venice lagoon sediments using toxicity tests with microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarini, F.; Rampazzo, G.; Volpi Ghirardini, A.; Sperni, L.; Salizzato, M.; Pavoni, B. [Venice Univ., Venice (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali

    2000-02-01

    Sediments are the major sink for metal pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem but also an important source for the release of them in the water. In order to assess the contribution of heavy metals to the total sediment toxicity, a methodology that permits to integrate the chemical approach with a direct toxicological approach has been ste up. Toxicological results using Microtox test are compared with analytical results. [Italian] I sedimenti sono il principale deposito per contaminanti metalli nel''ecosistema acquatico, ma anche una fonte importnate di rilascio nell'acqua. Al fine di valutare il contributo dei metalli pesanti alla tossicita' totale del sedimento, e' stata messa a punto una metodologia che permette di integrare l'appoccio chimico con un approccio tossicologico diretto. I risultati dei test di tossicita' Microtox vengono confrontati con i risultati analitici.

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity of sediment samples from Guanabara Bay (RJ during the rainy period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Alves Maranho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is a marine-estuarine environment of high ecological and socio-economic importance, subject to a variety of environmental impacts. Sediment is the eventual repository for most substances introduced into water bodies and may, therefore, provide an integrated measure of the environmental quality, which can be assessed by many different approaches. In this project, the quality of sediments from Guanabara Bay was evaluated by the ecotoxicological approach: whole-sediment toxicity tests, using Tiburonella viscana, and porewater, elutriate and sediment-water interface chronic toxicity tests, using embryos of Lytechinus variegatus, were applied. Sediments were collected at 14 sampling stations, distributed across the bay. Chronic tests showed significant toxicity in most of the sediment samples. Sediments from stations 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 15 showed acute toxicity as well. The results of the different tests were well correlated, and their integration showed that the sediments analyzed were considered unsuitable for aquatic life, resulting in the environmental degradation of Guanabara Bay. In this context, the control of pollution sources and multi-purpose management are required to improve the environmental quality.A Baía de Guanabara é um ambiente marinho-estuarino de grande relevância ecológica e sócio-econômica, e sujeita a uma ampla gama de impactos ambientais. O sedimento é o principal destino para a maioria das substâncias introduzidas nos corpos d'água, podendo fornecer uma medida integrada da qualidade ambiental, a qual pode ser avaliada por várias abordagens. Neste projeto, a qualidade de sedimentos da Baía de Guanabara foi por uma abordagem ecotoxicológica, por meio de testes de toxicidade aguda de sedimento integral, utilizando Tiburonella viscana, e testes de toxicidade crônica de água intersticial, elutriato e interface sedimento-água, utilizando embriões de Lytechinus variegatus. Os sedimentos foram

  12. Contamination by persistent toxic substances in surface sediment of urban rivers in Chaohu City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feipeng; Zhang, Haiping; Meng, Xiangzhou; Chen, Ling; Yin, Daqiang

    2012-01-01

    The concentration and spatial distribution of persistent toxic substances (PTS) in the river sediment in Chaohu City, China were investigated. A total of nine surface sediments were collected and the selected PTS pollutants including six heavy metals and nineteen polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed. The mean heavy metal concentrations (in mg/kg, dry weight) ranged within 0.18-1.53 (Hg), 50.08-200.18 (Cu), 118.70-313.65 (Zn), 50.77-310.85 (Cr), 37.12-92.72 (Pb) and 13.29-197.24 (As), and Cu, Zn and As have been regarded as the main metal pollutants. The levels of PBDEs (1.2-12.1 ng/g) and BDE-209 (2.4-30.5 ng/g) were at the middle level of the global range. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (67.0%-85.7%), which agrees with the fact that technical deca-BDE mixtures are the dominant PBDE formulation in China. The relative high level of PTS pollutants in the western part of the city is probably owing to the intensive agricultural activities and lack of sewerage system there. The ecological risk assessment with the sediment quality guidelines (SOGs) indicates that the urban river sediments in the city have been heavily contaminated by heavy metals with probable ecotoxicological impacts on freshwater organisms and the main toxic pollutants are Hg and As. The results of current study imply that the city, and perhaps many other small cities in China as well, requires immediate pollution control measures with emphasis on not only conventional organic pollutants but also on PTS such as heavy metals and PBDEs.

  13. Aquatic studies of Gable Mountain Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.

    1974-12-01

    Studies of the biotic and abiotic components of the Gable Mountain Pond (HAPO cooling water disposal pond) ecosystem were undertaken to determine if there was a potential problem for off-site transfer of radioactivity to man originating with the aquatic food web. Most of the 137 Cs in the pond is associated with the sediments which are probably the main source of 137 Cs for uptake by the biota. Generally, highest concentrations of 137 Cs and other radioisotopes were found in the upper two inches of sediments in the northwest end of the pond and in the deeper areas along the long-axis of the pond. Native goldfish had maximum and average 137 Cs concentrations of about 340 and 170 pCi/g dry wt, respectively. Algae, macrophytes, and detritus comprised the main food items of the goldfish, and the 137 Cs levels in the plants were usually higher than the 137 Cs concentration in the fish. The 137 Cs concentrations of wild experimental ducks restricted to Gable Mountain Pond were approximately the same as resident coots, but significantly higher than transient wild ducks. Neither the goldfish nor the waterfowl inhabiting the pond attained concentrations of 137 Cs exceeding acceptable limits. Sediment, however, could be a source of high concentrations of radioactivity or radioactive contamination concern if the concentration of radiocontaminants increased and/or the pond dries up, and the contaminated sediments become windborne. (U.S.)

  14. Frozen ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, M; Westermann, S.; Anthony, K. Walter

    2015-01-01

    to a warming climate are complex and only poorly understood. Small waterbodies have been attracting an increasing amount of attention since recent studies demonstrated that ponds can make a significant contribution to the CO2 and CH4emissions of tundra ecosystems. Waterbodies also have a marked effect...... on the thermal state of the surrounding permafrost; during the freezing period they prolong the period of time during which thawed soil material is available for microbial decomposition.  This study presents net CH4 production rates during the freezing period from ponds within a typical lowland tundra landscape...

  15. Toxicity of sediment pore water associated with offshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of a multidisciplinary program to assess the long-term impacts of offshore petroleum production in the Gulf of Mexico, a series of sediment porewater toxicity tests were conducted. Sediments were samples from five petroleum production platforms along five radial transects. Pore water was extracted from the sediment using a pressure extraction device, centrifuged, and frozen for later toxicity testing and chemical analysis. The sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) embryological development assay and fertilization assay were used to assess porewater toxicity. Significant decreases in normal development of embryos was observed at 14 stations and fertilization was reduced at three stations. All stations with reduced fertilization also showed impaired development in the embryological development assay. All but three toxic sites were within 150 m of the platform. The six most toxic stations were at one platform near the Flower Garden reef, occurring near the platform along three radii; toxicity was always greater at the first site on a radium than at the second. Toxicity is discussed in relation to metal and hydrocarbon concentrations in whole sediment and in pore water

  16. Determination of trace and toxic elements in marine sediments collected from the strait of Malacca, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Abdul Khalik Hj. Wood

    2007-01-01

    The Strait of Malacca has been a major route for international trade with heavy traffic of large vessels navigating through the narrow waterway everyday. Beside, the Strait of Malacca has some natural ecosystem which requires proper protection from human activities. Therefore, the Malaysian government has initiated a project to monitor the pollution level at the Strait of Malacca. As a result, sampling expeditions had been conducted to collect marine samples to be analyzed for trace and toxic elements as well as organic pollutions and radionuclides. The focus of this report is to determine trace and toxic element concentration in surface sediment samples collected from 18 sampling locations at the Strait of Malacca was reported. (author)

  17. Influence of sediment on the fate and toxicity of a polyethoxylated tallowamine surfactant system (MON 0818) in aquatic microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Besser, J.M.; Buckler, D.R.; Honegger, J.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Johnson, B. Thomas; Kurtzweil, M.L.; MacGregor, J.; McKee, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The fate and toxicity of a polyethoxylated tallowamine (POEA) surfactant system, MON 0818, was evaluated in water–sediment microcosms during a 4-d laboratory study. A surfactant solution of 8 mg l−1 nominal concentration was added to each of nine 72-l aquaria with or without a 3-cm layer of one of two natural sediments (total organic carbon (TOC) 1.5% or 3.0%). Control well water was added to each of nine additional 72-l aquaria with or without sediment. Water samples were collected from the microcosms after 2, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of aging to conduct 48-h toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and to determine surfactant concentrations. Elevated mortality of D. magna (43–83%) was observed in overlying water sampled from water-only microcosms throughout the 96-h aging period, whereas elevated mortality (23–97%) was only observed in overlying water sampled from water–sediment microcosms during the first 24 h of aging. Measured concentrations of MON 0818 in water-only microcosms remained relatively constant (4–6 mg l−1) during the 96-h period, whereas the concentrations in overlying water from microcosms containing either of the two types of sediment dissipated rapidly, with half-lives of 13 h in the 3.0% TOC sediment and 18 h in the 1.5% TOC sediment. Both toxicity and the concentration of MON 0818 in overlying water decreased more rapidly in microcosms containing sediment with the higher percent TOC and clay and with a higher microbial biomass. Mortality of D. magna was significantly correlated with surfactant concentrations in the overlying water. These results indicate that the toxicity of the POEA surfactant in water rapidly declines in the presence of sediment due to a reduction in the surfactant concentration in the overlying water above the sediment.

  18. Monitoring the effectiveness of remediation techniques using sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M.; Lee, K.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a controlled oil release experiment of weathered crude oil was presented. The released oil was applied to a tidal saltwater marsh at Conrod's Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada. The study included 3 replicate blocks which included 2 unoiled treatments and 4 oiled treatments for each block. One unoiled site had no treatment, the second unoiled site had nutrient addition to examine the effect of nutrients. The oiled treatments included natural attenuation, nutrient addition, nutrient addition with plants, and nutrient addition with a garden aerator to introduce oxygen. A standard lab procedure was used to analyze the sediments to determine the effectiveness of the technique as well as the toxic effects on the survival of the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius. Test results indicated that the unoiled sites were non-toxic, with a slight decrease in survival in the treatment with nutrient addition. All the oiled sites were very toxic at first, but toxicity decreased gradually with time. Treatment with nutrient addition with a garden aerator proved to be the most complete and fastest detoxification method. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Occurrence, compositional distribution, and toxicity assessment of pyrethroid insecticides in sediments from the fluvial systems of Chaohu Lake, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Zhong; Bai, Ya-Shu; Wu, Yakton; Zhang, Shuo; Chen, Tian-Hu; Peng, Shu-Chuan; Xie, Yu-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Surface sediment-associated synthetic pyrethroid insecticides (SPs) are known to pose high risks to the benthic organisms in Chaohu Lake, a shallow lake of Eastern China. However, the pollution status of the lake's tributaries and estuaries is still unknown. The present study was conducted to investigate the occurrence, compositional distribution, and toxicity of 12 currently used SPs in the surface sediments from four important tributaries, as well as in the sediment cores at their estuaries, using GC-MS for quantification. All SPs selected were detectable, with cypermethrin, es/fenvalerate, and permethrin dominant in both surface and core sediments, suggesting that these compounds were extensively applied. Urban samples contained the highest summed concentrations of the 12 SPs analyzed (Σ12SP) in both surface and core sediments compared with rural samples, suggesting that urban areas near aquatic environments posed high risks for SPs. The mean concentration of Σ12SP in surface sediments of each river was generally higher than that found in core sediments from its corresponding estuary, perhaps implying recent increases in SP usage. Surface sediments were significantly dominated by cypermethrin and permethrin, whereas core sediments were dominated by permethrin and es/fenvalerate. The compositional distributions demonstrated a spatial variation for surface sediments because urban sediments generally contained greater percentages of permethrin and cypermethrin, but rural sediments had significant levels of es/fenvalerate and cypermethrin. In all sediment cores, the percentage of permethrin gradually increased, whereas es/fenvalerate tended to decrease, from the bottom sediments to the top, indicating that the former represented fresh input, whereas the latter represented historical residue. Most urban samples would be expected to be highly toxic to benthic organisms due to the residue of SPs based on a calculation of toxic units (TUs) using toxicity data of the

  20. Risk and toxicity assessments of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Hu, Xin; Tao, Xiancong; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2013-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serous environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in Jiangsu Province of China, the total concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake were analyzed. Ecological risk of sediments and human health risk of fish consumption were assessed respectively. Furthermore, toxicity of samples on expression of the stress responsive genes was evaluated using microbial live cell-array method. The results showed that the heavy metals concentrations in sediments from the Yangtze River were much higher than those in sediments from the Taihu Lake. However, the fishes from the Taihu Lake had higher concentrations of heavy metals than fishes from the Yangtze River. Ecological risk evaluation showed that the heavy metal contaminants in sediments from the Yangtze River posed higher risk of adverse ecological effects, while sediments from the study areas of Taihu Lake were relatively safe. Health risk assessment suggested that the heavy metals in fishes of both Yangtze River and Taihu Lake might have risk of adverse health effects to human. The toxicity assessment indicated that the heavy metals in these sediments and fishes showed transcriptional effects on the selected 21 stress responsive genes, which were involved in the pathways of DNA damage response, chemical stress, and perturbations of electron transport. Together, this field investigation combined with chemical analysis, risk assessment and toxicity bioassay would provide useful information on the heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments to pike (Esox lucius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Yuan, H.; Tumber, V.; Parrott, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Raine, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Pike (Esox lucius) are a commercially sought fish species that inhabit the Athabasca River, which flows through the Athabasca oil sands. The fish are exposed to natural sources of bitumen from the McMurray formation. This study was conducted to design and implement a daily-renewal bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands to this fish species and to obtain information regarding the development of pike exposed to bitumen. Eggs were collected and fertilized with milt from spawning wild pike captured from Lake Diefenbaker in Saskatchewan. The fertilized eggs were exposed to different concentrations of sediments or culture water only (negative controls) until complete yolk absorption of control fish, approximately 15 days post-hatch. For the rest of the experiment, brine shrimp were fed to the walleye embryos every day after hatching. The developing fish were examined for morphological deformities, survival, hatching success, and changes in weight and length. The research findings indicated that pike is less sensitive than walleye and fathead minnow to the toxicity of oil sands sediments.

  2. Resolving the false-negative issues of the nonpolar organic amendment in whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, W Tyler; Keough, Michael J; Pettigrove, Vincent

    2018-04-01

    Three common false-negative scenarios have been encountered with amendment addition in whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs): dilution of toxicity by amendment addition (i.e., not toxic enough), not enough amendment present to reduce toxicity (i.e., too toxic), and the amendment itself elicits a toxic response (i.e., secondary amendment effect). One such amendment in which all 3 types of false-negatives have been observed is with the nonpolar organic amendment (activated carbon or powdered coconut charcoal). The objective of the present study was to reduce the likelihood of encountering false-negatives with this amendment and to increase the value of the whole-sediment TIE bioassay. To do this, the present study evaluated the effects of various activated carbon additions to survival, growth, emergence, and mean development rate of Chironomus tepperi. Using this information, an alternative method for this amendment was developed which utilized a combination of multiple amendment addition ratios based on wet weight (1%, lower likelihood of the secondary amendment effect; 5%, higher reduction of contaminant) and nonconventional endpoints (emergence, mean development rate). This alternative method was then validated in the laboratory (using spiked sediments) and with contaminated field sediments. Using these multiple activated carbon ratios in combination with additional endpoints (namely, emergence) reduced the likelihood of all 3 types of false-negatives and provided a more sensitive evaluation of risk. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1219-1230. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Development of a bioassay using walleye (Sander vitreus) to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Yuan, H.; Tumber, V.; Parrott, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Raine, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of sediments from the Athabasca oil sands area on fish development and survival. Walleye (Sander vitreus) which inhabit the Athabasca River are exposed to natural sources of bitumen eroding from the McMurray formation. This study described the design and implementation of a daily-renewal bioassay to evaluate the potential effects of toxicants on walleye development. Eggs were collected and fertilized with milt from spawning wild walleye captured from Lake Diefenbaker in Saskatchewan. The fertilized eggs were exposed to different concentrations of sediments or culture water only (negative controls) until complete yolk absorption of control fish. The walleye embryos were fed brine shrimp daily after hatching and the developing fish were examined for morphological deformities, survival, hatching success, and changes in weight and length between treatments. Organics concentrations in fish tissues and water were measured when possible. Fathead minnows and northern pikes will also be exposed to the same sediments in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the three species.

  4. Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus

  5. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity in the St. Lawrence River at Massena Area-of-Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian T.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.; George, Scott D.; David, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1972, the USA and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. In subsequent amendments, part of the St. Lawrence River at Massena, New York and segments of three tributaries, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead and copper contamination, and habitat degradation and resulting impairment to several beneficial uses. Because sediments have been largely remediated, the present study was initiated to evaluate the current status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were used to test the hypotheses that community condition and sediment toxicity at AOC sites were not significantly different from those of adjacent reference sites. Grain size was found to be the main driver of community composition and macroinvertebrate assemblages, and bioassessment metrics did not differ significantly between AOC and reference sites of the same sediment class. Median growth of C. dilutus and its survival in three of the four river systems did not differ significantly in sediments from AOC and reference sites. Comparable macroinvertebrate assemblages and general lack of toxicity across most AOC and reference sites suggest that the quality of sediments should not significantly impair benthic macroinvertebrate communities in most sites in the St. Lawrence River AOC.

  6. Sediment toxicity assessment in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) using Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) fertilization and embryo bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi Ghirardini, A; Arizzi Novelli, A; Tagliapietra, D

    2005-09-01

    The capacity of two toxicity bioassays (fertilization and embryo toxicity tests) to discriminate sediment toxicity using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus was tested in five stations with different levels of pollution in the Lagoon of Venice. Two stations were located in estuarine sites, two in the industrial zone, and one in a site at the top of our quality gradient (reference). Elutriate was chosen as sediment matrix to assess the potential effects of bioavailable pollutants in the water column as a consequence of sediment resuspension (dredging and dumping, fishing gear, etc.). An experimental design based on Quality Assurance/Quality Control procedures (QA/QC) was adopted in order to set the methodological basis for an effective use of these bioassays in monitoring programs. Results revealed both higher embriotoxicity than spermiotoxicity in all stations and the efficacy of combined use of both toxicity bioassays in discriminating differing pollution/bioavailability between stations and periods. The good representativeness of the integrated sampling scheme and the standardization of all experimental phases yielded high precision of results. Clear Toxicity Fingerprints were evidenced for the investigated sites through the combined use of both bioassays. A good fit between ecotoxicological data and chemical contamination levels was found, except for unnatural sediment texture.

  7. The impact of sediment bioturbation by secondary organisms on metal bioavailability, bioaccumulation and toxicity to target organisms in benthic bioassays: Implications for sediment quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remaili, Timothy M.; Simpson, Stuart L.; Amato, Elvio D.; Spadaro, David A.; Jarolimek, Chad V.; Jolley, Dianne F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioturbation alters the properties of sediments and modifies contaminant bioavailability to benthic organisms. These naturally occurring disturbances are seldom considered during the assessment of sediment quality. We investigated how the presence (High bioturbation) and absence (Low bioturbation) of a strongly bioturbating amphipod within three different sediments influenced metal bioavailability, survival and bioaccumulation of metals to the bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. The concentrations of dissolved copper decreased and manganese increased with increased bioturbation. For copper a strong correlation was observed between increased bivalve survival (53–100%) and dissolved concentrations in the overlying water. Increased bioturbation intensity resulted in greater tissue concentrations for chromium and zinc in some test sediments. Overall, the results highlight the strong influence that the natural bioturbation activities from one organism may have on the risk contaminants pose to other organisms within the local environment. The characterisation of field-based exposure conditions concerning the biotic or abiotic resuspension of sediments and the rate of attenuation of released contaminants through dilution or readsorption may enable laboratory-based bioassay designs to be adapted to better match those of the assessed environment. - Highlights: • Bioturbation intensity modifies metal exposure and outcomes of sediment bioassays. • Sediment fluxes of Cu decrease and Mn and Zn increase with increased bioturbation. • Strong correlations between bioaccumulated and dissolved Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. • Weak correlations between bioaccumulated and particulate metals. - This study investigated the impact of sediment bioturbation intensity on metal bioavailability and toxicity to aquatic organisms, and the implications of this to toxicity test design.

  8. Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Delaney, Eugenia; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2018-01-01

    The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected in the lagoon of Venice highlighted that the larval development rate (LDR) and the early-life stages (ELS) mortality endpoints with A. tonsa are more sensitive than the standard amphipod mortality test; moreover LDR resulted in a more reliable endpoint than ELS mortality, due to the interference of the sediment with the recovery of unhatched eggs and dead larvae. The LDR data collected in a definitive study of 48 sediment samples from the Venice Lagoon has been analysed together with the preliminary data to evaluate the statistical performances of the bioassay (among replicate variance and minimum significant difference between samples and control) and to investigate the possible correlation with sediment chemistry and physical properties. The results showed that statistical performances of the LDR test with A. tonsa correspond with the outcomes of other tests applied to the sediment-water interface (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryotoxicity test), sediments (Neanthes arenaceodentata survival and growth test) and porewater (S. purpuratus); the LDR endpoint did, however, show a slightly higher variance as compared with other tests used in the Lagoon of Venice, such as 10-d amphipod lethality test and larval development with sea urchin and bivalves embryos. Sediment toxicity data highlighted the high sensitivity and the clear ability of the larval development to discriminate among sediments characterized by different levels of contamination. The data of the definitive study evidenced that inhibition of the larval development was not affected by grain-size and the organic carbon content of the sediment; in contrast, a strong correlation between inhibition of the larval development

  9. Bioavailability and toxicity of metals from a contaminated sediment by acid mine drainage: linking exposure-response relationships of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea to contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Bonnail, Estefanía; Nieto, José Miguel; DelValls, Ángel

    2016-11-01

    Streams and rivers strongly affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) have legal vacuum in terms of assessing the water toxicity, since the use of conventional environmental quality biomarkers is not possible due to the absence of macroinvertebrate organisms. The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea has been widely used as a biomonitor of metal contamination by AMD in freshwater systems. However, these clams are considered an invasive species in Spain and the transplantation in the field study is not allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency. To evaluate the use of the freshwater bivalve C. fluminea as a potential biomonitor for sediments contaminated by AMD, the metal bioavailability and toxicity were investigated in laboratory by exposure of clams to polluted sediments for 14 days. The studied sediments were classified as slightly contaminated with As, Cr, and Ni; moderately contaminated with Co; considerably contaminated with Pb; and heavily contaminated with Cd, Zn, and specially Cu, being reported as very toxic to Microtox. On the fourth day of the exposure, the clams exhibited an increase in concentration of Ga, Ba, Sb, and Bi (more than 100 %), followed by Co, Ni, and Pb (more than 60 %). After the fourth day, a decrease in concentration was observed for almost all metals studied except Ni. An allometric function was used to determine the relationship between the increases in metal concentration in soft tissue and the increasing bioavailable metal concentrations in sediments.

  10. Sediment porewater toxicity assessment studies in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.; Presley, B.J.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Robertson, L.; Boothe, P.; Kilada, R.; Wade, T.; Montagna, P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary program to assess the potential long-term impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production activities in the Gulf of Mexico, sediment chemical analyses and porewater toxicity tests were conducted in the vicinity of five offshore platforms. Based on data from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays, toxicity was observed near four of the five platforms sampled; the majority of the toxic samples were collected within 150 m of a platform. There was excellent agreement among the results of porewater tests with three different species (sea urchin embryological development, polychaete reproduction, and copepod nauplii survival). The sediment concentrations of several metals were well in excess of sediment quality assessment guidelines at a number of stations, and good agreement was observed between predicted and observed toxicity. Porewater metal concentrations compared with EC50, LOEC, and NOEC values generated for water-only exposures indicated that the porewater concentrations for several metals were high enough to account for the observed toxicity. Results of these studies utilizing highly sensitive toxicity tests suggest that the contaminant-induced impacts from offshore platforms are limited to a localized area in the immediate vicinity of the platforms. 

  11. Assessment of sediment contamination at Great Lakes Areas of Concern: the ARCS Program Toxicity-Chemistry Work Group strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.E.; Burton, G.A.; Crecelius, E.A.; Filkins, J. C.; Giesy, J.P.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Landrum, P.F.; Mac, M.J.; Murphy, T.J.; Rathbun, J. E.; Smith, V. E.; Tatem, H. E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a mandate in Section 118(c)(3) of the Water Quality Act of 1987, a program called Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) was established. Four technical work groups were formed. This paper details the research strategy of the Toxicity-Chemistry Work Group.The Work Group's general objectives are to develop survey methods and to map the degree of contamination and toxicity in bottom sediments at three study areas, which will serve as guidance for future surveys at other locations. A related objective is to use the data base that will be generated to calculate sediment quality concentrations by several methods. The information needed to achieve these goals will be collected in a series of field surveys at three areas: Saginaw Bay (MI), Grand Calumet River (IN), and Buffalo River (NY). Assessments of the extent of contamination and potential adverse effects of contaminants in sediment at each of these locations will be conducted by collecting samples for physical characterization, toxicity testing, mutagenicity testing, chemical analyses, and fish bioaccumulation assays. Fish populations will be assessed for tumors and external abnormalities, and benthic community structure will be analyzed. A mapping approach will use low-cost indicator parameters at a large number of stations, and will extrapolate by correlation from traditional chemical and biological studies at a smaller number of locations. Sediment toxicity testing includes elutriate, pore water and whole sediment bioassays in a three-tiered framework. In addition to the regular series of toxicity tests at primary mater stations, some stations are selected for a more extensive suite of tests.

  12. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Daria; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Matamoros, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...

  13. Sublethal toxicity of nano-titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes in a sediment dwelling marine polychaete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, Tamara, E-mail: t.s.galloway@exeter.ac.u [School of Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, EX4 4PS, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Lewis, Ceri [School of Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, EX4 4PS, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Dolciotti, Ida [Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Institute of Biology and Genetics, Via Ranieri, Monte Dago, 60121 Ancona (Italy); Johnston, Blair D. [School of Biosciences, Hatherly Laboratories, University of Exeter, EX4 4PS, Exeter, Devon (United Kingdom); Moger, Julian [School of Physics, Stocker Road, University of Exeter, Devon EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Regoli, Francesco [Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Institute of Biology and Genetics, Via Ranieri, Monte Dago, 60121 Ancona (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    The ecotoxicology of manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) in estuarine environments is not well understood. Here we explore the hypothesis that nanoTiO{sub 2} and single walled nanotubes (SWNT) cause sublethal impacts to the infaunal species Arenicola marina (lugworm) exposed through natural sediments. Using a 10 day OECD/ASTM 1990 acute toxicity test, no significant effects were seen for SWNT up to 0.03 g/kg and no uptake of SWNTs into tissues was observed. A significant decrease in casting rate (P = 0.018), increase in cellular damage (P = 0.04) and DNA damage in coelomocytes (P = 0.008) was measured for nanoTiO{sub 2}, with a preliminary LOEC of 1 g/kg. Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy (CARS) located aggregates of TiO{sub 2} of >200 nm within the lumen of the gut and adhered to the outer epithelium of the worms, although no visible uptake of particles into tissues was detected. - This study explores the hypothesis that nano-TiO{sub 2} and single walled nanotubes (SWNT) can cause sublethal impacts to Arenicola marina exposed through natural sediments.

  14. Occurrence and potential toxicity of pyrethroids and other insecticides in bed sediments of urban streams in central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintzen, Emily P. [Department of Environmental Studies, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62091 (United States); Belden, Jason B. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, 430 Life Science West, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)], E-mail: jbelden@okstate.edu

    2009-01-15

    Despite heavy insecticide usage in urban areas, only a few studies have investigated the impact of current-use insecticides on benthic invertebrates in urban streams. The objective of this study was to measure the presence and concentration of current-use pesticides in sediments of residential streams in central Texas. Additionally, toxicity of these sediments to Hyalella azteca was evaluated. Sediment samples were collected from several sites in urban streams over the course of a year, of which, 66% had greater than one toxic unit (TU) of insecticide. Bifenthrin was the greatest contributor accounting for 65% of the TUs, and sediment toxicity to H. azteca correlated with the magnitude of total insecticides and bifenthrin TUs. The results of this study further raise concerns over the environmental consequences posed by many current-use insecticides, especially pyrethroids, in urban settings. - This study examined the presence of insecticides in Texas stream sediments as a model for evaluating the potential impact of urban insecticide use in the Southern United States.

  15. Occurrence and potential toxicity of pyrethroids and other insecticides in bed sediments of urban streams in central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintzen, Emily P.; Lydy, Michael J.; Belden, Jason B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite heavy insecticide usage in urban areas, only a few studies have investigated the impact of current-use insecticides on benthic invertebrates in urban streams. The objective of this study was to measure the presence and concentration of current-use pesticides in sediments of residential streams in central Texas. Additionally, toxicity of these sediments to Hyalella azteca was evaluated. Sediment samples were collected from several sites in urban streams over the course of a year, of which, 66% had greater than one toxic unit (TU) of insecticide. Bifenthrin was the greatest contributor accounting for 65% of the TUs, and sediment toxicity to H. azteca correlated with the magnitude of total insecticides and bifenthrin TUs. The results of this study further raise concerns over the environmental consequences posed by many current-use insecticides, especially pyrethroids, in urban settings. - This study examined the presence of insecticides in Texas stream sediments as a model for evaluating the potential impact of urban insecticide use in the Southern United States

  16. Responses in sediment bioassays used in the Netherlands: can observed toxicity be explained by routinely monitored priority pollutants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahr, J.; Maas-Diepeveen, J.L.; Stuijfzand, S.C.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Drueke, J.M.; Luecker, S.; Espeldoorn, A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to identify the cause of toxicity in sediments and suspended matter, a large number of samples with different degrees of contamination was taken at various locations in The Netherlands. Standard acute bioassays were carried out with the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the rotifer Brachionus

  17. Amphipod and Sea Urchin tests to assess the toxicity of Mediterranean sediments: the case of Portmán Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cesar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The sediment formed by the tailings of an abandoned mine, which discharged into Portmán Bay, Murcia, SE-Spain, was tested to establish a possible gradient of heavy metals. The results were compared with tolerance limits of what was calculated from control sites. Whole sediment toxicity tests were performed on two amphipod species, Gammarus aequicauda and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, while sediment-water interface and porewater toxicity tests were performed on three sea urchins species, Arbacia lixula, Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis. The sensitivity of these marine organisms was evaluated by exposure tests using the reference substances: ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, cadmium chloride (CdCl2, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, sodium dodecyl sulfate (C12H25NaO4S and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4. The concentration of heavy metals decreased along the pollution gradient. Amphipod 10 day acute toxicity tests clearly demonstrated the gradient of toxicity. The sediment-water interface tests conducted with sea urchins also pointed to a pollution gradient and were more sensitive than the tests involving amphipods.

  18. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  19. Innovative Capping Technology To Prevent The Migration of Toxic Chemicals From Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capping is a common strategy for decreasing the risk associated with contaminated sediments in lakes and streams. Historically, caps have been designed to physically isolate contaminated sediments and prevent the transport of contaminants from sediments into the water above them...

  20. Flocculation of retention pond water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; McGregor, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    An integral part of the water management strategy proposed by Ranger Uranium Mining Pty. Ltd. involves the collection of runoff water in a series of retention ponds. This water will subsequently be used in the uranium milling plant or released to Magela Creek. Runoff water collected during the wet season caused a section of Magela Creek to become turbid when it was released. The eroded material causing the turbidity was very highly dispersed and showed little tendency to sediment out in the retention ponds. Results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of clarifying retention pond water by flocculation with alum are presented. A concentration of 30 Mg/L alum reduced turbidity from an initial 340 NTU to less than 30 NTU in four hours

  1. Waste Stabilisation Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Waste Stabilisation Ponds is the third volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The major variants of pond systems are fully covered, namely: facultative ponds anaerobic ponds aerated lagoons maturation ponds The book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects, operational guidelines and sludge managment for pond systems. About the series: The series is...

  2. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in two wet retention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Laila C.; Vollertsen, Jes; Blecken, Godecke-Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Metal accumulation in stormwater ponds may contaminate the inhabiting fauna, thus jeopardizing their ecosystem servicing function. We evaluated bioaccumulation of metals in natural fauna and caged mussel indicator organisms in two wet retention ponds. Mussel cages were distributed throughout...... the ponds to detect bioaccumulation gradients and obtain a time-integrated measure of metal bioavailability. We further investigated if sediment metal concentrations correlate with those in the fauna and mussels. Metal concentrations in the fauna tended to be higher in the ponds than in a reference lake......, but statistical significance was only shown for Cu. Positive correlations were found for some metals in fauna and sediment. Sediment metal concentrations in one pond decreased from inlet to outlet while no gradients were observed in the mussels in either pond. These findings indicate that metal accumulation...

  3. Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances: Proceedings of the U.S./Japan Experts Meeting (11th) Held in Seattle, Washington, on 4-6 November 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    potential environmental impact of organotins and their effect on the dredging permit proenp, Eighteen-day-old mysids were exposed to tributyltin ( TBT ...sediment. The TBT toxicant became a significant deleterious factor by day 8. After 10 days control survival was 100 per- cent with sediment and 95 percent...It is generally accepted that the TBT cation is the toxic component and the anion is not a factor in its toxicity . TBT degradation products are less

  4. Importance of dose metrics for lethal and sublethal sediment metal toxicity in the oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttinen, O.P.; Kilpi-Koski, J.; Toivainen, K. [Helsinki Univ., Lahti (Finland). Dept. of Ecology end Environmental Sciences; Jokela, M. [Mikkeli Univ. of Applied Sciences, Mikkeli (Finland); Vaeisaenen, A. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    2008-02-15

    Background, aims, and scope. There is an increasing demand for controlled toxicity tests to predict biological effects related to sediment metal contamination. In this context, questions of metal-specific factors, sensitivity of toxicity endpoints, and variability in exposure duration arise. In addition, the choice of the dose metrics for responses is equally important and is related to the applicability of the concept of critical body residue (CBR) in exposure assessments, as well as being the main focus of this study. Methods. Experiments were conducted to assess toxicity of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb to the oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus with the aim of determining CBRs for two response metrics. Mortality and feeding activity of worms exposed to sediment-spiked metals were used as end-points in connection with residue analyses from both the organisms and the surrounding media. Results. LC50 values were 0.3, 1.4, 5.2, and 6.7 mg/L (from 4.7 {mu}mol/L to 128.0 {mu}mol/L), and the order of toxicity, from most toxic to least toxic, was Cu > Cd > Pb>Cr. By relating toxicity to body residue, variability in toxicity among the metals decreased and the order of toxicity was altered. The highest lethal residue value was obtained for Cu (10.8 mmol/kg) and the lowest was obtained for Cd (2.3 mmol/kg). In the 10-d sublethal test, both time and metal exposure were an important source of variation in the feeding activity of worms. The significant treatment effects were observed from worms exposed to Cd or Pb, with the controls yielding the highest feeding rate. However, quantitative changes in the measured end-point did not correlate with the exposure concentrations or body residues, which remained an order of magnitude lower than in the acute exposures. (orig.)

  5. Biogeochemical controls on the speciation and aquatic toxicity of vanadium and other metals in sediments from a river reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedrich, Sara M.; Chappaz, Anthony; Hudson, Michelle L.; Brown, Steven S.; Burton, G. Allen

    2018-01-01

    Effects of hydrologic variability on reservoir biogeochemistry are relatively unknown, particularly for less studied metals like vanadium (V). Further, few studies have investigated the fate and effects of sediment-associated V to aquatic organisms in hydrologically variable systems. Our primary objective was to assess effects of hydrologic manipulation on speciation and toxicity of V (range: 635 to 1620 mg kg- 1) and other metals to Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna. Sediments were collected from a reservoir located in a former mining area and microcosm experiments were conducted to emulate 7-day drying and inundation periods. Despite high sediment concentrations, V bioavailability remained low with no significant effects to organism survival, growth, or reproduction. The lack of V toxicity was attributed to reduced speciation (III, IV), non-labile complexation, and sorption to Al/Fe/Mn-oxyhydroxides. Zinc (Zn) increased in surface and porewater with inundation, for some sediments exceeding the U.S. EPA threshold for chronic toxicity. While no effects of Zn to organism survival or growth were observed, Zn body concentrations were negatively correlated with H. azteca growth. Results from this study indicate that V bioavailability and environmental risk is dependent on V-speciation, and V is less influenced by hydrologic variability than more labile metals such as Zn.

  6. Gene expression profiling to characterize sediment toxicity – a pilot study using Caenorhabditis elegans whole genome microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifferscheid Georg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally, toxicity of river sediments is assessed using whole sediment tests with benthic organisms. The challenge, however, is the differentiation between multiple effects caused by complex contaminant mixtures and the unspecific toxicity endpoints such as survival, growth or reproduction. The use of gene expression profiling facilitates the identification of transcriptional changes at the molecular level that are specific to the bio-available fraction of pollutants. Results In this pilot study, we exposed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to three sediments of German rivers with varying (low, medium and high levels of heavy metal and organic contamination. Beside chemical analysis, three standard bioassays were performed: reproduction of C. elegans, genotoxicity (Comet assay and endocrine disruption (YES test. Gene expression was profiled using a whole genome DNA-microarray approach to identify overrepresented functional gene categories and derived cellular processes. Disaccharide and glycogen metabolism were found to be affected, whereas further functional pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation, ribosome biogenesis, metabolism of xenobiotics, aging and several developmental processes were found to be differentially regulated only in response to the most contaminated sediment. Conclusion This study demonstrates how ecotoxicogenomics can identify transcriptional responses in complex mixture scenarios to distinguish different samples of river sediments.

  7. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and bed sediment toxicity in the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian; George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972. The lowest reach of the Genesee River and the Rochester Embayment on Lake Ontario between Bogus Point and Nine Mile Point, including Braddock Bay, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to effects of contaminated sediments and physical disturbance on several beneficial uses. Following sediment remedial efforts and with conditions improving in the AOC, the present study was conducted to reevaluate the status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate community assessments and 10-day Chironomus dilutus bioassays were used to test the hypotheses that sediments within the AOC were no more toxic than sediments from surrounding reference areas. The study was separated into three discrete systems (Genesee River, Lake Ontario, and Braddock Bay) and non-parametric analyses determined that a multimetric index of benthic macroinvertebrate community integrity was significantly higher at AOC sites compared to reference sites on the Genesee River and in Braddock Bay while AOC and reference sites on Lake Ontario did not differ significantly. Survival and growth of C. dilutus were also similar between AOC and reference sites for each system with the exception of significantly higher growth at reference sites on Lake Ontario. Results generally indicated that the condition of benthos and toxicity of sediment of the Rochester Embayment AOC are similar to or better than that in the surrounding area.

  8. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants using freshwater invertebrates: A review of methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Ankley, G.T.; Benoit, D.A.; Brunson, E.L.; Burton, G.A.; Dwyer, F.J.; Hoke, R.A.; Landrum, P.F.; Norberg-King, T. J.; Winger, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in methods for evaluating the toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants associated with freshwater sediments and summarizes example case studies demonstrating the application of these methods. Over the past decade, research has emphasized development of more specific testing procedures for conducting 10-d toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus tentans. Toxicity endpoints measured in these tests are survival for H. azteca and survival and growth for C. tentans. Guidance has also been developed for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus, including determination of bioaccumulation kinetics for different compound classes. These methods have been applied to a variety of sediments to address issues ranging from site assessments to bioavailability of organic and inorganic contaminants using field-collected and laboratory-spiked samples. Survival and growth of controls routinely meet or exceed test acceptability criteria. Results of laboratory bioaccumulation studies with L. variegatus have been confirmed with comparisons to residues (PCBs, PAHs, DDT) present from synoptically collected field populations of oligochaetes. Additional method development is currently underway to develop chronic toxicity tests and to provide additional data-confirming responses observed in laboratory sediment tests with natural benthic populations.

  9. Effects of sediment-spiked lufenuron on benthic macroinvertebrates in outdoor microcosms and single-species toxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, T.C.M., E-mail: theo.brock@wur.nl [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bas, D.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Belgers, J.D.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bibbe, L. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boerwinkel, M-C.; Crum, S.J.H. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Diepens, N.J. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kraak, M.H.S.; Vonk, J.A. [Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roessink, I. [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • In outdoor microcosms constructed with lufenuron-spiked sediment we observed that this insecticide persistent in the sediment compartment. • Sediment exposure to lufenuron caused population-level declines (insects and crustaceans) and increases (mainly oligochaete worms) of benthic invertebrates. • The direct and indirect effects observed in the microcosms were supported by results of sediment-spiked single species tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus. • The tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms recommended by the European Food Safety Authority is protective for the treatment-related responses observed in the microcosm test. - Abstract: Sediment ecotoxicity studies were conducted with lufenuron to (i) complement the results of a water-spiked mesocosm experiment with this lipophilic benzoylurea insecticide, (ii) to explore the predictive value of laboratory single-species tests for population and community-level responses of benthic macroinvertebrates, and (iii) to calibrate the tier-1 effect assessment procedure for sediment organisms. For this purpose the concentration-response relationships for macroinvertebrates between sediment-spiked microcosms and those of 28-d sediment-spiked single-species toxicity tests with Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca and Lumbriculus variegatus were compared. Lufenuron persisted in the sediment of the microcosms. On average, 87.7% of the initial lufenuron concentration could still be detected in the sediment after 12 weeks. Overall, benthic insects and crustaceans showed treatment-related declines and oligochaetes treatment-related increases. The lowest population-level NOEC in the microcosms was 0.79 μg lufenuron/g organic carbon in dry sediment (μg a.s./g OC) for Tanytarsini, Chironomini and Dero sp. Multivariate analysis of the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates revealed a community-level NOEC of 0.79 μg a.s./g OC. The treatment

  10. 100-D Ponds groundwater quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The 100-D Ponds facility is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The pH of groundwater in a downgradient well is statistically different than local background, triggering an assessment of groundwater contamination under 40 CFR 265.93. Results of a similar assessment, conducted in 1993, show that the elevated pH is caused by the presence of alkaline ash sediments beneath the ponds, which are not part of the RCRA unit. The 100-D Ponds should remain in indicator evaluation monitoring

  11. Pollution, toxicity, and ecological risk of heavy metals in surface river sediments of a large basin undergoing rapid economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenzhong; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yu; Shan, Baoqing; Song, Zhixin

    2017-05-01

    A comprehensive and detailed investigation of heavy metal pollution, toxicity, and ecological risk assessment was conducted for the surface river sediments of the Haihe Basin in China based on 220 sampling sites selected in 2013. The average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the sediments were 129 mg/kg, 63.4 mg/kg, 36.6 mg/kg, 50.0 mg/kg, and 202 mg/kg, respectively. As indicated by the geoaccumulation and pollution load indices, most surface river sediments of the Haihe Basin were contaminated with the investigated metals, especially in the junction region of the Zi Ya He and Hei Long Gang watersheds. The 5 heavy metals in the sediments all had anthropogenic sources, and the enrichment degrees followed the order Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > Ni, with mean enrichment factors of 3.27, 2.77, 2.58, 1.81, and 1.44, respectively. According to the mean index of comprehensive potential ecological risk (38.9), the studied sediments of the Haihe Basin showed low potential ecological risk, but the sediments were potentially biologically toxic based on the mean probable effect concentration quotient (0.547), which may be the result of speciation of the 5 metals in the sediments. The results indicate that heavy metal pollution should be considered during the development of ecological restoration strategies in the Haihe Basin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1149-1155. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure

  13. Review of the use of Ceramium tenuicorne growth inhibition test for testing toxicity of substances, effluents, products sediment and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Britta

    2017-08-01

    A growth inhibition test has been developed based on two clones of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, one originating from 7 PSU and the other from 20 PSU. The species can be adapted to different salinities and the test can be carried out between 4 and 32 PSU. This test became an ISO standard in 2010 (ISO 107 10) for testing of chemicals and water effluents. In this study new and published data has been compiled on toxicity of single substances, waste waters from pulp mills, leachates from antifouling paints, harbour sediments and soil used for maintenance of leisure boats. The results show that the alga is sensitive to both metals and organic compounds and to biocides used in antifouling paints. By testing leachates from antifouling paints these could be ranked according to their toxicity. Similarly, the toxicity of waste waters from pulp mills was determined and the efficiency of secondary treatment evaluated. Further, the test method proved useful to test the toxicity in sediment samples. Sediments from small town harbours and ship lanes were shown to be harmful and compounds originating from antifouling paints were responsible for a large part of the inhibiting effect. The alga proved to be sensitive to contaminants leaking from boat yard soil. The growth inhibition test is a robust test that has high repeatability and reproducibility and easily can be applied on water, soil and sediment samples without being too costly. The species is found worl-wide in temperate waters, which makes the results relevant for large areas. In the Baltic Sea C. tenuicorne is the most common red alga species and is thus particularly relevant for this area. The overall results show that contaminants from boat activities and the use of antifouling paints in particular pose a threat to the environment.

  14. Recovery of ostracod with known ages in differently textured sediments and comparison of toxicity of heavily contaminated sediments with ostracod Heterocypris incongruens and amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, N. Yu; Nikitin, O. V.; Latypova, V. Z.; Vybornova, I. B.; Galieva, G. S.; Okunev, R. V.

    2018-01-01

    The recovery of 1-, 4-, 6,-, and 8-d-old ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens) from sediments with different texture has been evaluated. The recovery of ostracods at all ages has been in agreement with the acceptability criterion of 80% of survival for sediment tests. The recovery of ostracods has turned out to be equal to or more than 80% for sand and silt sediments, respectively. The comparison of survival rates between ostracods and amphipods has shown good convergence in the tests of heavily contaminated sediments (R2=0.75, pquality criteria (TEC) have been exceeded mostly for total petroleum hydrocarbons (100% samples), Cr (100%), Ni (87%), Cu (87%), Pb (47%), and Cd (53%). The content of acid volatile sulfides (AVS) has been significantly higher than that of simultaneously extracted metals (SEM). The obtained results have indicated that, metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb) are non-bioavailable. Only one sample has exceeded TEC for PAHs (dibenz[a,h]anthracene). It was observed that, no significant correlation between the effect of toxicity and the chemical content.

  15. Assessing remediation of contaminated sediments using multiple biological endpoints: sediment toxicity, food web tissue contamination, biotic condition and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ottawa River is a component of the Maumee River Area of Concern (AOC) as defined by the International Joint Commission’s Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. A sediment remediation project took place in the lower 14.2 km of the river where urban and industrial activitie...

  16. Sediment distribution coefficients (KD) and concentration factors (CF) in fish for natural radionuclides in a pond of a tropical region and their contributions to estimations of internal absorbed dose rate in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Pereira, Wagner de; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-01-01

    Attention has been paid only recently to the protection of biota against radiation effects. Protection is being considered through modeling of the calculation of absorbed dose rate. In these models, the inputs are the fluxes of radionuclides of environmental concern and their resulting distribution between environmental compartments. Such distribution is estimated for dispersion models. In freshwater systems and when fish is used as biomaker, relevant environmental transfer parameters are transfer between sediment and water (sediment distribution coefficients KD, in l kg -1 ), and between water and fish (concentration factor CF, in l kg -1 ). These coefficients are under the influence of a number o physical, chemical and biological factors, and display following the literature a great variability. The present work establishes the KD's and CF's for uranium, thorium, radium and lead for two ponds: one that receives treated effluents from an ore treatment unit (UTM) situated at Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil and the other pond from the uranium concentration unit (URA) situated at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil, and for fish used as biomarker. It intends also to compare these parameters with the values recommended by IAEA. Depending on considered radionuclide and on the site, CF's (l kg -1 ) observed values were of the same magnitude as, or one order of magnitude lower than recommended by IAEA. KD's (l kg -1 ) observed values were found of the same magnitude as those recommended by IAEA, approximately 10 times lower or up to 100 times higher than recommended by IAEA, again depending on the radionuclides and on the site. It can be concluded that local parameters should be established in order to obtain a more accurate estimative of biota exposition from man activities. (author)

  17. Comparative performances of eggs and embryos of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) in toxicity bioassays used for assessment of marine sediment quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrovyan, A; Rodríguez-Romero, A; Salamanca, M J; Del Valls, T A; Riba, I; Serrano, F

    2013-05-15

    The potential toxicity of sediments from various ports was assessed by means of two different liquid-phase toxicity bioassays (acute and chronic) with embryos and eggs of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Performances of embryos and eggs of P. lividus in these bioassays were compared for their interchangeable applicability in integrated sediment quality assessment. The obtained endpoints (percentages of normally developed plutei and fertilized eggs) were linked to physical and chemical properties of sediments and demonstrated dependence on sediment contamination. The endpoints in the two bioassays were strongly correlated and generally exhibited similar tendency throughout the samples. Therein, embryos demonstrated higher sensitivity to elutriate exposure, compared to eggs. It was concluded that these tests could be used interchangeably for testing toxicity of marine sediments. Preferential use of any of the bioassays can be determined by the discriminatory capacity of the test or vulnerability consideration of the test subject to the surrounding conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Magnitude and Extent of Sediment Toxicity in Four Bays of the Florida Panhandle: Pensacola, Choctawhatchee, St. Andrew and Apalachicola

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The toxicity of sediments in Pensacola, Choctawhatchee, St. Andrew and Apalachicola Bays was determined as part of bioeffects assessments performed by NOAA's...

  19. Assessment of the acute toxicity of eutrophic sediments after the addition of calcium nitrate (Ibirité reservoir, Minas Gerais-SE Brazil: initial laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Janke

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the acute toxicity of sediment in a eutrophic reservoir after remediation with a calcium nitrate solution to retain phosphorus. The study involved microcosms of surface sediments and water from the sediment-water interface in the Ibirité reservoir. This reservoir, located in the vicinity of metropolitan Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, SE Brazil, is a water body that receives treated effluents from an oil refinery (REGAP-Petrobras, as well as high loads of untreated urban effluents from the city of Ibirité and surrounding areas and industrial effluents from a major industrial park. Incubation times of the treatment experiments were: t = 0, t = 5, t = 10, t = 25, t = 50, t = 85 and t = 135 days. One control microcosm and three treated microcosms were analysed in each time interval. Acute toxicity of water samples was assessed with Ceriodaphnia silvestrii Daday, 1902 and that of bulk sediment samples with Chironomus xanthus Rempel, 1939. Toxicity tests were carried out concomitantly with chemical analyses of dissolved inorganic nitrogen species (ammonia, nitrate and nitrite, sulfate and metals in the water samples of the microcosms. Acid volatile sulfides (AVS, simultaneously extracted metal (SEM and potentially bioavailable metal were analyzed in bulk sediment samples. Neither of the tested organisms showed toxicity in the control microcosm samples. The water column of the treated microcosm showed toxicity to C. silvestrii, starting at t = 10 days, while the sediment pore water toxicity started at t = 0 day. However, toxicity was found to decline from t = 85 days to t = 135 days. Sediments showed toxicity to C. xanthus during the entire experiment, except at the longest incubation time (t = 135 days. The overall results indicate that nitrate, which reached concentrations exceeding 1,200 mg N-NO3- L-1 in the sediment pore water of the treated microcosms, was most probably responsible for the toxicity of the samples. Although

  20. Spatiotemporal trend analysis of metal concentrations in sediments of a residential California stream with toxicity and regulatory implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D; Killen, William D

    2017-06-07

    The objective of this study was to determine if concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc measured in the sediments of a residential stream in California (Pleasant Grove Creek) have changed temporally or spatially from 2006 to 2016. Threshold Effect Levels (TELs), conservative ecological effects benchmarks, and exceedances for the seven metals were also evaluated over the 11-year time period to provide insight into potential metal toxicity to resident benthic communities. In addition, the bioavailability of metals in sediments was also determined by calculating Simultaneous Extracted Metal/Acid Volatle Sulfide (SEM/AVS) ratios to allow an additional assessment of toxicity. Regulatory implications of this data set and the role of metal toxicity are also discussed. Stream-wide temporal trend analysis showed no statistically significant trends for any of the metals. However, spatial analysis for several sites located near storm drains did show a significant increase for most metals over the 11-year period. TEL exceedances during the 7 years of sampling, spanning 2006-2016, were reported for all metals with the number of exceedances ranging from 47 for copper and zinc to 1 for lead. A spatial analysis showed that the highest number of TEL exceedances and the highest number of SEM/AVS ratios greater than one with at least one metal exceeding a TEL occurred at upstream sites. The potentially toxic metal concentrations reported in Pleasant Grove Creek should be used in the 303 (d) listing process for impaired water bodies in California.

  1. Relationship between bifenthrin sediment toxic units and benthic community metrics in urban California streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to use ecologically relevant field measurements for determining the relationship between bifenthrin sediment toxic units (TUs) (environmental concentrations/Hyalella acute LC50 value) and 15 benthic metrics in four urban California streams sampled from 2006 to 2011. Data from the following four California streams were used in the analysis: Kirker Creek (2006, 2007), Pleasant Grove Creek (2006, 2007, and 2008), Arcade Creek (2009, 2010, and 2011), and Salinas streams (2009, 2010, and 2011). The results from univariate analysis of benthic metrics versus bifenthrin TU calculations for the four California streams with multiple-year datasets combined by stream showed that there were either nonsignificant relationships or lack of metric data for 93 % of cases. For 7 % of the data (4 cases) where significant relationships were reported between benthic metrics and bifenthrin TUs, these relationships were ecologically meaningful. Three of these significant direct relationships were an expression of tolerant benthic taxa (either % tolerant taxa or tolerance values, which are similar metrics), which would be expected to increase in a stressed environment. These direct significant tolerance relationships were reported for Kirker Creek, Pleasant Grove Creek, and Arcade Creek. The fourth significant relationship was an inverse relationship between taxa richness and bifenthrin TUs for the 3-year Pleasant Grove Creek dataset. In summary, only a small percent of the benthic metric × bifenthrin TU relationships were significant for the four California streams. Therefore, the general summary conclusion from this analysis is that there is no strong case for showing consistent meaningful relationships between various benthic metrics used to characterize the status of benthic communities and bifenthrin TUs for these four California streams.

  2. Joint toxicity of sediment-associated permethrin and cadmium to Chironomus dilutus: The role of bioavailability and enzymatic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin; Li, Huizhen; You, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides and metals commonly co-occurred in sediment and caused toxicity to benthic organisms jointly. To improve accuracy in assessing risk of the sediments contaminated by insecticides and metals, it is of great importance to understand interaction between the contaminants and reasons for the interaction. In the current study, permethrin and cadmium were chosen as representative contaminants to study joint toxicity of pyrethroids and metals to a benthic invertebrate Chironomus dilutus. A median effect/combination index-isobologram was applied to evaluate the interaction between sediment-bound permethrin and cadmium at three dose ratios. Antagonistic interaction was observed in the midges for all treatments. Comparatively, cadmium-dominated group (the ratio of toxicity contribution from permethrin and cadmium was 1:3) showed stronger antagonism than equitoxicity (1:1) and permethrin-dominated groups (3:1). The reasons for the observed antagonism were elucidated from two aspects, including bioavailability and enzymatic activity. The bioavailability of permethrin, expressed as the freely dissolved concentrations in sediment porewater and measured by solid phase microextraction, was not altered by the addition of cadmium, suggesting the change in permethrin bioavailability was not the reason for the antagonism. On the other hand, the activities of metabolic enzymes, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase in the midges which were exposed to mixtures of permethrin and cadmium were significantly higher than those in the midges exposed to permethrin solely. Cadmium considerably enhanced the detoxifying processes of permethrin in the midges, which largely explained the observed antagonistic interaction between permethrin and cadmium. - Highlights: • Sediment-bound permethrin and cadmium acted antagonistically to Chironomus dilutus. • Antagonism of permethrin and cadmium to the midges was noted at various dose ratios. • Addition of cadmium did

  3. Fractionation and potential toxic risk of metals from superficial sediment in Itaipu Lake--boundary between Brazil and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwa, Miguel; Quináia, Sueli Pércio; Pletsch, Adelmo L; Techy, Laura; Felsner, Maria Lurdes

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fractions of metals (labile and pseudo-total) extracted from sediment samples collected in Itaipu Lake (boundary between Brazil and Paraguay) and to assess the dynamics and mobility of these fractions by identifying the same bioavailability and ecological risk to metals in the aquatic environment. The concentrations of metal ions were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. There was a correlation between the metal ions, both in the labile and the pseudo-total, with regard to particle size. To assess metals concentrations in sediment, numerical sediment-quality guidelines were applied. The concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, lead, and zinc in all sediment samples are lower than the proposed probable effects level (PEL), thus possibly indicating that there are no harmful effects from these metals. In contrast, concentrations of copper, chromium, and nickel exceeded the PEL in some samples, thus indicating that these stations are at potential risk. The level of contamination in sediments of Itaipu Lake for all metals was evaluated using contamination factor, degree of contamination, and sum-of-metals toxic unit.

  4. Sediment nickel bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine crustaceans of contrasting bioturbative behaviors--an evaluation of the SEM-AVS paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, G Thomas; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R; He, Lijian; Washburn, Katherine M; Stewart, Emily R; Ferry, John L

    2014-11-04

    Robust sediment quality criteria require chemistry and toxicity data predictive of concentrations where population/community response should occur under known geochemical conditions. Understanding kinetic and geochemical effects on toxicant bioavailability is key, and these are influenced by infaunal sediment bioturbation. This study used fine-scale sediment and porewater measurement of contrasting infaunal effects on carbon-normalized SEM-AVS to evaluate safe or potentially toxic nickel concentrations in a high-binding Spartina saltmarsh sediment (4%TOC; 35-45 μmol-S2-·g(-1)). Two crustaceans producing sharply contrasting bioturbation--the copepod Amphiascus tenuiremis and amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus--were cultured in oxic to anoxic sediments with SEM[Ni]-AVS, TOC, porewater [Ni], and porewater DOC measured weekly. From 180 to 750 μg-Ni·g(-1) sediment, amphipod bioturbation reduced [AVS] and enhanced porewater [Ni]. Significant amphipod uptake, mortality, and growth-depression occurred at the higher sediment [Ni] even when [SEM-AVS]/foc suggested acceptable risk. Less bioturbative copepods produced higher AVS and porewater DOC but exhibited net population growth despite porewater [Ni] 1.3-1.7× their aqueous [Ni] LOEC. Copepod aqueous tests with/without dissolved organic matter showed significant aqueous DOC protection, which suggests porewater DOC attenuates sediment Ni toxicity. The SEM[Ni]-AVS relationship was predictive of acceptable risk for copepods at the important population-growth level.

  5. Mechanisms for parasites removal in a waste stabilisation pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Roberto; Blanco, Saúl; Torres-Villamizar, Linda A; Bécares, Eloy

    2011-04-01

    A waste stabilisation pond (WSP) system formed by two anaerobic ponds, a facultative pond and a maturation pond was studied from December 2003 to September 2004 in north-western Spain in order to evaluate its efficiency in the removal of faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci), coliphages, helminth eggs and protozoan (oo)cysts (Cryptosporidium and Giardia). Furthermore, sediment samples were collected from the bottom of the ponds to assess the settling rates and thus determine the main pathogen removal mechanisms in the WSPs system. The overall removal ranged from 1.4 log units for coliphages in the cold period to 5.0 log units for E. coli in the hot period. Cryptosporidium oocysts were reduced by an average of 96%, Giardia cysts by 98% and helminth eggs by 100%. The anaerobic ponds showed significantly higher surface removal rates (4.6, 5.2 and 3.7 log (oo)cysts/eggs removed m(-2) day(-1), respectively) than facultative and maturation ponds. Sunlight and water physicochemical conditions were the main factors influencing C. parvum oocysts removal both in the anaerobic and maturation ponds, whereas other factors like predation or natural mortality were more important in the facultative pond. Sedimentation, the most commonly proposed mechanism for cyst removal had, therefore, a negligible influence in the studied ponds.

  6. Assessment of toxicity of radioactively contaminated sediments of the Yenisei River for aquatic plants in laboratory assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.; Trofimova, E.; Medvedeva, M.; Bolsunovsky, A. [Institute of Biophysic SB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Yenisei River has been subjected to radioactive contamination due to the operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (Rosatom) (MCC) producing weapon-grade plutonium for more than fifty years (1958-2010). As a result, high activities of long-lived artificial radionuclides (Cs-137, Pu-238, 239, 241, Am-241) were deposited in sediments of the river. Bottom sediments of the Yenisei River downstream of the Krasnoyarsk city are also polluted with heavy metals because of industrial discharges and from the water catchment area. The purpose of this research was to estimate the ability of submersed macrophytes Elodea canadensis and Myriophyllum spicatum to serve as indicators of toxicity of bottom sediments of the Yenisei River. Activities of artificial radionuclides in the biomass of aquatic plants sampled in the Yenisei River upstream of the MCC were below detection limit (< 0.5 Bq/kg of dry mass for Cs-137). The activities of artificial radionuclides in the biomass of macrophytes sampled in the Yenisei River in the vicinity of the MCC in autumn 2012 were (Bq/kg of dry mass): 67±4 for Co-60, 16±2 for Cs-137, and 8±1 for Eu-152. For eco-toxicological experiments, top 20-cm layers of bottom sediments (BS) were collected from the Yenisei River at three sites in the vicinity of the MCC (No. 2-4) and at one site upstream of the MCC (No. 1). Samples of sediments contained natural isotope K-40 (240-330 Bq/kg, fresh mass) and artificial radionuclides: Co-60 (up to 70 Bq/kg), Cs-137 (0.8-1400 Bq/kg), Eu-152, 154 (up to 220 Bq/kg), Am-241 (up to 40 Bq/kg). The total activity concentration of radionuclides measured on an HPGe-Gamma-spectrometer (Canberra, U.S.) in samples of BS No. 1-4 was 330, 500, 880 and 1580 Bq/kg of fresh mass, respectively. Apical shoots of submersed macrophytes were planted in sediments (6-9 shoots per sediment sub-sample in three replicates). Endpoints of shoot and root growth were used as toxicity indicators; the number of cells with chromosome

  7. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of cadmium on feeding and growth of an Indian pond snail Lymnaea luteola L. under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sangita; Khangarot, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of dissolved cadmium exposure on the survival, feeding, growth rates and accumulation in Indian pond snails Lymnaea luteola L. were examined for a period of 7 weeks. The concentrations of cadmium tested were 0, 10, 32, 100, 320, 560, and 1000 μg l -1 . Cadmium exposure significantly inhibited the feeding and growth rates. At higher Cd concentrations snails refused to consume food offered as plant Marsilia sp. leaves. Cadmium mainly accumulated in soft tissues in a dose-dependent manner. After 4 and 7 weeks of exposure, the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of Cd was 10 μg l -1 and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 32 μg l -1 . Reduction of growth (decrease in wet weight) was noticed followed by a high mortality in higher Cd concentrations. Significant reduction in food consumption and growth rates was found at 32 μg l -1 and above Cd concentration. A significant relationship between Cd exposure and growth and feeding rates was noticed. The results obtained with these key aquatic organisms in the food chains complement those obtained with other aquatic organisms and gastropod snails. The findings of the present study and those of earlier studies suggested that Indian pond snail L. luteola are useful test organisms for ecotoxicology bioassays.

  8. Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  9. Lake or Pond WBID

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT DEC (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation) manages an inventory of lake and pond information. The "Lakes and Ponds Inventory" stores the Water...

  10. Microbial activities and communities in oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, Lisa; Ramos, Esther; Clothier, Lindsay; Bordenave, Sylvain; Lin, Shiping; Voordouw, Gerrit; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses how the microbial communities and their activity play a vital role in tailings ponds. The ponds contain microorganisms along with metals, hydrocarbon diluent, naphthenic acid and others. The ponds play an important role in mining operations because they store bitumen extraction waste and also allow water to be re-used in the bitumen extraction process. Pond management presents a few challenges that include, among others, gas emissions and the presence of toxic and corrosive acids. Microbial activities and communities help in managing these ponds. Microbial activity measurement in active and inactive ponds is described and analyzed and the results are presented. The conditions for reducing sulfate, nitrate and iron are also presented. From the results it can be concluded that naphthenic acids can potentially serve as substrates for anaerobic populations in tailings ponds.

  11. Using aquatic macroinvertebrate species traits to build test batteries for sediment toxicity assessment: accounting for the diversity of potential biological responses to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Péry, T Alexandre R R; Mouthon, Jacques; Lafont, Michel; Roger, Marie-Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Férard, Jean-François

    2005-09-01

    An original species-selection method for the building of test batteries is presented. This method is based on the statistical analysis of the biological and ecological trait patterns of species. It has been applied to build a macroinvertebrate test battery for the assessment of sediment toxicity, which efficiently describes the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate biological responses to toxicants in a large European lowland river. First, 109 potential representatives of benthic communities of European lowland rivers were selected from a list of 479 taxa, considering 11 biological traits accounting for the main routes of exposure to a sediment-bound toxicant and eight ecological traits providing an adequate description of habitat characteristics used by the taxa. Second, their biological and ecological trait patterns were compared using coinertia analysis. This comparison allowed the clustering of taxa into groups of organisms that exhibited similar life-history characteristics, physiological and behavioral features, and similar habitat use. Groups exhibited various sizes (7-35 taxa), taxonomic compositions, and biological and ecological features. Main differences among group characteristics concerned morphology, substrate preferendum and habitat utilization, nutritional features, maximal size, and life-history strategy. Third, the best representatives of the mean biological and ecological characteristics of each group were included in the test battery. The final selection was composed of Chironomus riparius (Insecta: Diptera), Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae), Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae), Valvata piscinalis (Gastropoda: Valvatidae), and Sericostoma personatum (Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae). This approach permitted the biological and ecological variety of the battery to be maximized. Because biological and ecological traits of taxa determine species sensitivity, such maximization should permit the battery to better account

  12. Identification of water soluble and particle bound compounds causing sublethal toxic effects. A field study on sediments affected by a chlor-alkali industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, Carme; Olivares, Alba; Faria, Melissa; Navas, Jose M.; Olmo, Ivan del; Grimalt, Joan O.; Pina, Benjamin; Barata, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    A combination of cost effective sublethal Daphnia magna feeding tests, yeast- and cell culture-based bioassays and Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures was used to characterize toxic compounds within sediments collected in a river area under the influence of the effluents from a chlor-alkali industry (Ebro River, NE Spain). Tests were designed to measure and identify toxic compounds in the particulate and filtered water fractions of sediment elutriates. The combined use of bioassays responding to elutriates and dioxin-like compounds evidenced the existence of three major groups of hazardous contaminants in the most contaminated site: (A) metals such as cadmium and mercury bound to sediment fine particles that could be easily resuspended and moved downstream, (B) soluble compounds (presumably, lye) able to alkalinize water to toxic levels, and (C) organochlorine compounds with high dioxin-like activity. These results provided evidence that elutriate D. magna feeding responses can be used as surrogate assays for more tedious chronic whole sediment tests, and that the incorporation of such tests in sediment TIE procedures may improve the ability to identify the toxicity of particle-bound and water-soluble contaminants in sediments.

  13. [Studies on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds around Chaohu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-ye; Ma, Xiu-ling; Yang, Gui-de; Chen, Zheng; Wu, Hong-lin; Xuan, Huai-xiang

    2010-07-01

    There are a lot of ponds around Chaohu Lake. According to location and runoff supply of ponds, the ponds are divided into three types: ponds inner vellage (PIV), ponds adjacent vellage (PAV) and ponds outer vellage (POV). The samples of water and sediment were collected from 136 ponds around Chaohu Lake and the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in water and sediments were analyzed in this study. The results showed that mean contents of total nitrogen (TN), NH4+ -N, NO3- -N, NO2- -N, total phosphorus (TP), soluble PO4(3-) -P and COD were 2.53, 0.65, 0.18, 0.02, 0.97, 0.38 and 51.58 mg x L(-1) in pond water, respectively; and mean contents of TN, NH4+ -N, NO3- -N, NO2- -N, TP, inorganic phosphorus (IP), organic phosphorus (OP) and loss of ignition (LOI) in pond sediment were 1575.36, 35.73, 13.30, 2.88, 933.19, 490.14, 414.75 mg x kg(-1) and 5.44%, respectively. The ponds of more than 90% presented eutrophication in the contents of total nitrogen and phosphorus in water. The contents of TN and NH4+ -N in water and sediment of PIV were significantly higher than that of POV. And the contents of inorganic nitrogen in pond water and sediment displayed a following order: NH4+ -N > NO3- -N > NO2- -N. Data analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation between organic matter and total nitrogen and phosphorus in water and sediment. The nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds mainly sourced farmlands and village land surface. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds were affected by location and runoff supply of ponds. By retaining nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in runoff, the ponds can effectively decrease nutrient content into Chaohu Lake.

  14. Levels of potentially toxic metals in water, sediment and peat from Wonderfonteinspruit, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsaka, Ntumba C; McCrindle, Robert I; Ambushe, Abayneh A

    2018-04-30

    Environmental monitoring of the levels of potentially toxic metals is of importance because of possible adverse effects on living species. This study was conducted to assess the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, U and V in water, sediment and peat samples collected from the region of Wonderfonteinspruit. Water samples were simply filtered and acidified with HNO 3 prior to analysis. Sediment and peat were oven-dried, ground, sieved and mineralised using a microwave digestion system. Concentrations of the selected elements in all samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A Zeeman mercury analyser was also used for quantification of Hg in the same sediment and peat samples. The method validation was carried out using SRM 1643e water and BCR 320R sediment certified reference materials. The results showed no significant difference at 95% level of confidence between the certified and measured values after using the Student's t-test. The levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U found in rivers and dams were lower than the tentative South African water quality range guideline for domestic and irrigation purposes. However, water from dams and certain rivers was unsuitable for irrigation and domestic use.

  15. Food inputs, water quality and nutrient accumulation in integrated pond systems: A multivariate approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.; Milstein, A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A participatory on-farm study was conducted to explore the effects of food input patterns on water quality and sediment nutrient accumulation in ponds, and to identify different types of integrated pond systems. Ten integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farms, in which ponds associate with fruit

  16. Towards more ecological relevance in sediment toxicity testing with fish: Evaluation of multiple bioassays with embryos of the benthic weatherfish (Misgurnus fossilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Benjamin; Fischer, Jonas; Schiwy, Sabrina; Hollert, Henner; Schulz, Ralf

    2018-04-01

    The effects of sediment contamination on fish are of high significance for the protection of ecosystems, human health and economy. However, standardized sediment bioassays with benthic fish species, that mimic bioavailability of potentially toxic compounds and comply with the requirements of alternative test methods, are still scarce. In order to address this issue, embryos of the benthic European weatherfish (Misgurnus fossilis) were exposed to freeze-dried sediment (via sediment contact assays (SCA)) and sediment extracts (via acute fish embryo toxicity tests) varying in contamination level. The extracts were gained by accelerated solvent extraction with (i) acetone and (ii) pressurized hot water (PHWE) and subsequently analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Furthermore, embryos of the predominately used zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to extracts from the two most contaminated sediments. Results indicated sufficient robustness of weatherfish embryos towards varying test conditions and sensitivity towards relevant sediment-bound compounds. Furthermore, a compliance of effect concentrations derived from weatherfish embryos exposed to sediment extracts (96h-LC 50 ) with both measured gradient of sediment contamination and previously published results was observed. In comparison to zebrafish, weatherfish embryos showed higher sensitivity to the bioavailability-mimicking extracts from PHWE but lower sensitivity to extracts gained with acetone. SCAs conducted with weatherfish embryos revealed practical difficulties that prevented an implementation with three of four sediments tested. In summary, an application of weatherfish embryos, using bioassays with sediment extracts from PHWE might increase the ecological relevance of sediment toxicity testing: it allows investigations using benthic and temperate fish species considering both bioavailable contaminants and animal welfare

  17. Assessment of sedimentation rate based on disequilibrium in the {sup 232}Th decay series in an artificial pond downstream a former uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyss, J.L. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement - LSCE/IPSL, Unite Mixte de Recherche 8212 CEA, CNRS, UVSQ, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mangeret, A.; Courbet, C.; Saadi, Z.; Guillevic, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), BP 17, 92262 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Thouvenot, A. [LMGE, UMR CNRS 6023, Lab Microorganismes Genome et Environnement, 63 177 Aubiere (France)

    2014-07-01

    In rivers and lakes, sediment dynamics are very difficult to quantify by field measurements as well as by modeling studies (Olley et al. 1997 WRR 33, 1319-1326). The well-known {sup 210}Pb excess method (Appleby 2000 Limnology 59-S.1, 1-14; Perga et al. 2010 Limnol. and Ocean. 55, 803-816) cannot be used for quantifying sedimentation rates over granitic catchments as large amounts of {sup 210}Pb produced by granite weathering tend to dilute the atmospheric {sup 210}Pb. The knowledge of sedimentation rates in lakes is however very important for understanding the geochemical mechanisms involved in contaminant scavenging and remobilization at the sediment-water interface (SWI). Moreover, these measurements are crucial for developing solute transport models, especially for radionuclides and metals in pore waters and through the SWI. In order to overcome these issues, this study focuses on an artificial pound located in a granitic catchment, down-gradient from a former uranium mining site that ceased operations at the beginning of the 80's (Guillevic and Reyss 2011 ICRER 2011). Sediment sampling was carried out in this artificial lake with an UWITEC{sup R} hand corer. All the samples were dried and the activities of artificial and natural radionuclides were measured by gamma spectrometry, at the Underground Laboratory of Modane and alpha spectrometry after radiochemical purification. The profile of {sup 210}Pb activities in the sediment increased with depth in the core and did not allow to distinguish the atmospheric {sup 210}Pb from the {sup 210}Pb produced by watering processes in this uranium enriched environment. Another method for quantifying sediment accumulation rates is therefore proposed here using the disequilibrium between {sup 228}Ra (half-life of 5.75 years) and {sup 232}Th, the parent isotope. The excess of {sup 228}Ra over its respective parent {sup 232}Th has already been demonstrated by (Olley et al. 1997 WRR 33, 1319-1326) in river and lake

  18. Bioelectric production from sediment of pond fishing and molasses using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology-base with the influence of substrate concentration variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafitri, L. M.; Saputro, Y. A.; Hana, P. N.; Hardiani, D.; Raharjo, B.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is currently faced the problem of the need for electrical energy. MFC is a technology that can be used to generate electricity by utilizing microbial activity. The aims of this study is to manage the molasses waste and sediment of fishery as a substrate in the MFC system. The research method was performed by preparing anode and cathode connected by a salt bridge forming the system of MFC Double Chamber. The result of bacteriology test using Total Plate Count (TPC) method showed that the number of bacterial colonies on the sediment substrate was 4.1 × 106 cfu/gr, while the molasses substrate was 7,1 × 104 cfu/gr. The measurement result of electricity showed that 25% sediment and 75% molasses substrate variation resulted in the highest average voltage and power density that are 0.372 V and 813.191 mW/m2. The conclusion of this research is that the mixture of sediment with molasses substrate can increase the production of electricity produced by MFC system.

  19. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated silvernanoparticles in the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Yi; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    damage (comet assay tail moment and tail DNA intensity %) of Nereis coelomocytes increased in a concentration-dependent manner in all three Ag treatments. Ag NP treatments were more toxic than aqueous Ag for all toxicity endpoints, even though bioaccumulation did not differ significantly among Ag forms...

  20. Acute and chronic toxicity of effluent water from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S C; Pereira, R; Gonçalves, F

    2007-08-01

    Inactive or abandoned mines represent a significant source of environmental, chemical, physical, and aesthetic impact. Among concerning situations, the occurrence of abandoned or semi-abandoned mine-associated ponds (for sedimentation of solids, for effluent neutralization, or for washing the ore) is a common feature in this type of system. These ponds are a source of contamination for the groundwater resources and adjacent soils, because they lack appropriate impermeabilization. The use of this water for agriculture may also pose chronic risks to humans. In Portugal, these problems have been diagnosed and some remediation projects have been developed. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of water samples collected from the aquatic system surrounding an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa, Mangualde, Central Portugal). The present study focuses on the water compartment, whose toxicity was evaluated by means of standard toxicity assays using two Daphnia species (D. longispina and D. magna). Three different ponds were used in the characterization of the aquatic system from Cunha Baixa mine: a reference pond (Ref), a mine effluent treatment pond (T), and a mine pit pond (M). Metal analyses performed in the water samples from these ponds showed values that, in some cases, were much higher than maximum recommendable values established (especially Al, Mn) by Portuguese legislation for waters for crop irrigation. Acute toxicity was only observed in the mine pit pond, with EC(50) values of 28.4% and 50.4% for D. longispina and D. magna, respectively. The significant impairment of chronic endpoints, translated in reductions in the population growth rate for both species, gives rise to concerns regarding the potential risks for aquatic zooplanktonic communities, from local receiving waters, potentially exposed to point source discharges of the treated and nontreated effluent from Cunha Baixa uranium mine.

  1. Effects of untreated hospital effluents on the accumulation of toxic metals in sediments of receiving system under tropical conditions: case of South India and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubedi, Josué Ilunga; Devarajan, Naresh; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mputu, John Kayembe; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mpiana, Pius T; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses have been performed to assess the quality of sediments receiving untreated hospital effluents from Indian and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) hospitals. The sediments were collected monthly and characterized for grain size, organic matter, total organic carbon, total carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, toxic metals and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals from the Indian hospital effluent receiving systems, especially for Cr, Cu, As, Zn and Hg. On the other hand, the metal concentrations in the sediment receiving system from DRC are low (e.g. maximum Hg and Zn concentration were 0.46 and 48.84 mg kg(-1) respectively). Ostracods exposed to sediment samples H2 (September month sample) and H3 (June and September month samples) were found dead after 6d of exposure whereas the higher mortality rate for Congo sediments was 23% but was accompanied with 33 ± 7% of growth inhibition. The results of this study show the variation of sediment composition on toxic metal levels as well as toxicity related to both, the type of hospitals and the sampling period. Additionally, hospital effluent disposal practices at the study sites can lead to the pollution of water resources and may generate risks for aquatic organisms and human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hospital and urban effluent waters as a source of accumulation of toxic metals in the sediment receiving system of the Cauvery River, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Naresh; Laffite, Amandine; Ngelikoto, Patience; Elongo, Vicky; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Piana, Pius T M; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-09-01

    Hospital and urban effluents contain a variety of toxic and/or persistent substances in a wide range of concentrations, and most of these compounds belong to the group of emerging contaminants. The release of these substances into the aquatic ecosystem can lead to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk. Sediments receiving untreated and urban effluent waters from the city of Tiruchirappalli in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, are analyzed for potential environmental and human health risks. The sediment samples were collected from five hospital outlet pipes (HOP) and from the Cauvery River Basin (CRB) both of which receive untreated municipal effluent waters (Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India). The samples were characterized for grain size, organic matter, toxic metals, and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals in HOP, reaching values (mg kg(-1)) of 1851 (Cr), 210 (Cu), 986 (Zn), 82 (Pb), and 17 (Hg). In contrast, the metal concentrations in sediments from CRB were lower than the values found in the HOP (except for Cu, Pb), with maximum values (mg kg(-1)) of 75 (Cr), 906 (Cu), 649 (Zn), 111 (Pb), and 0.99 (Hg). The metal concentrations in all sampling sites largely exceed the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and the Probable Effect Concentration (PEC) for the Protection of Aquatic Life recommendation. The ecotoxicity test with ostracods exposed to the sediment samples presents a mortality rate ranging from 22 to 100 % (in sediments from HOP) and 18-87 % (in sediments from CRB). The results of this study show the variation of toxic metal levels as well as toxicity in sediment composition related to both the type of hospital and the sampling period. The method of elimination of hospital and urban effluents leads to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk.

  3. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A plutonium (Pu) processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior of transuranics in this ecosystem. This ultra-eutrophic pond has a water inflow rate of 10 m 3 /min, of which 95% leaves the pond by percolation. Macrophytes (mainly Potamogeton), algae (mainly Cladophora), benthic invertebrates (mainly dipteran and odonate larvae, hemipterans, amphipods and gastropods) and goldfish are the major biotic components of the system. Sediments appear to be the principal repository of Pu and Am, having mean concentrations for 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu and 241 Am of 112, 121 and 71 pCi/g (dry), respectively. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Algal floc (decomposing algal material) is the major concentrator of Pu and Am in the pond having mean concentrations of 238 Pu of 986 pCi/g, for 239 240 Pu of 615 pCi/g, and for 241 Am of 256 pCi/g. Watercress (Rorippa) had Pu levels about equal to those of the sediments, while dragonfly larvae (Libellula) and snails (Lymnaea) along with watercress had Am levels approximating those of the sediments. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments.Preliminary in situ experiments indicate that goldfish reach an equilibrium level for Pu of about 15 pCi/g within a few days of exposure to the pond, after which they may remain active in the pond for many months without further accumulation. Experimental goldfish established ratios of 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu and 241 Am to 239 240 Pu that were similar to all other pond biota within 2 weeks of pond residence, suggesting a common source of biologically available Pu and Am

  4. Arsenic, Chromium, and Other Potentially Toxic Elements in the Rocks and Sediments of Oropos-Kalamos Basin, Attica, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alexakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rocks and sediments are non-anthropogenic sources of elements contamination. In this study, a series of potentially toxic elements were quantified in rocks and sediments of the Oropos-Kalamos basin. Only As, Hg, Pb, and Sb contents, in all the examined rocks and sediments, were higher than the levels given in international literature. Concentration of the elements As, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, and U is highly elevated in the lignite compared to crustal element averages. The enrichment of Cr and Ni in the lignite can be attributed to the known ultramafic rock masses surrounding the basin, while enrichment of As, Hg, Mo, Sb, and U is associated with the past geothermal activity of the Upper Miocene (about 15 million years ago. Nickel and Cr were transported into the lignite deposition basin by rivers and streams draining ultramafic rock bodies. The results of this study imply the natural source of Cr3+ and Cr6+ contamination of the Oropos-Kalamos groundwater, since high Cr contents were also recorded in the lignite (212.3 mg kg−1, chromiferous iron ore occurrences (256.6 mg kg−1, and alluvial deposits (212.5 mg kg−1, indicating Cr leaching and transportation to the depositional basin dating from the Upper Miocene age.

  5. Determination of Heavy and Toxic Trace Elements in Sediments of Qarun Lake Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, A.; Abd EI-Samad, M.; Soliman, N.F.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of certain heavy and toxic trace elements in 15 sediment samples from different areas at Qarun Lake was performed by a neutron activation technique using the neutron irradiation facilities of the Second Egyptian Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The samples together with two sets of gold foils (one bare and the other covered with cadmium) and two Standard Reference Materials IAEA (Soil-7) were irradiated at the core of the reactor in two capsules for 8520 seconds, another two capsules each has two sets of gold foils (one bare and the other covered with cadmium) are used to determine the neutron fluxes around the sediment samples. The gamma-rays of nuclides from the irradiated samples were carried out by means of a well calibrated high resolution HPGe detection system. The concentrations of product nuclides containing in the irradiated samples were determined from the peak counting-rates of the prominent gamma-ray lines for the corresponding nuclides using Single External Comparator Method (k 0 -Standardization Method) which called k 0 -NAA technique. The neutron flux ratios (f) in the same radiation sites of the sediment samples bottles were calculated as well as the cadmium ratios (R e d). MS Excel work books were constructed and used in our calculation. The total contents of As , Ba , Ca ,Co, Cr ,Cs, Eu ,Hf ,Hg,Na ,Ru ,Sc ,Se ,Sm ,Sn ,Sr ,Th ,Rb ,Zn ,and Zr in these samples were measured. The objectives .of this study were evaluated to identify the variations of concentration of some elements that have an impact on environmental pollutions. The results indicated that the concentrations of toxic trace elements of Ba, Cr, Se, Sn, Hg, Sin and Zn may represent pollutions problem

  6. Distribution of transuranic elements in a freshwater pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1975-05-01

    Preliminary results are reported from a study initiated on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am in a freshwater environment. This study involves a waste pond which has been receiving Pu processing wastes for about 30 years. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization. In addition, the ecological distribution of Pu and Am was investigated. The pond is also highly enriched with nutrients, thus supporting a high level of algal and macrophyte production. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrators of Pu transuranics in the pond system. The major sink for Pu and Am in this system is the sediments. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments, is also a major concentrator of transuranics in this system []Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Dragonfly, larvae, watercress, and snails show concentrations which approximate those of the sediments but nearly all other food web components have levels of Pu and Am which are lower than those of the sediments, thus, Pu and Am seem to be relatively immobile in the aquatic ecosystem. (CH)

  7. Assessment of sediment metal contamination in the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain: Metal distribution, toxicity, bioaccumulation and benthic community structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mar Menor coastal lagoon is one of the largest of the Mediterranean Sea. Ancient mining activities in the mountains near its southern basin have resulted in metal contamination in the sediment. The metal bioavailability of these sediments was determined through laboratory toxicity bioassays using three Mediterranean sea urchin species and two amphipod species, and by means of field bioaccumulation measurements involving the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa. The effect of sediment metal contamination on benthic communities was assessed through benthic infaunal analyses, applying classical descriptive parameters and multivariate techniques. The sediments affected by the mining activities presented high levels of toxicity and metals were also accumulated in the seagrass tissues, pointing to metal bioavailability. Although the classical benthic indices were not clear indicators of disturbance, the multivariate techniques applied provided more consistent conclusions.

  8. Toxicity and the fractional distribution of trace metals accumulated from contaminated sediments by the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed in the laboratory and the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalman, J., E-mail: judit.kalman@uca.es [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bonnail-Miguel, E. [Department of Physical-Chemistry, University of Cadiz, Poligono Industrial Rio San Pedro s/n, 11,510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Smith, B.D. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom); Bury, N.R. [Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Science, King' s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Rainbow, P.S. [Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams. - Highlights: • Scrobicularia plana accumulated As, Cu and Zn from naturally toxic sediments. • Toxic metals were accumulated in detoxified and non-detoxified components. • Cu accumulation in the non-detoxified pool increased with increased Cu uptake rate. • Cu uptake rate exceeded combined loss and detoxification rates to cause toxicity.

  9. Toxicity and the fractional distribution of trace metals accumulated from contaminated sediments by the clam Scrobicularia plana exposed in the laboratory and the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, J.; Bonnail-Miguel, E.; Smith, B.D.; Bury, N.R.; Rainbow, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the subcellular distribution of accumulated toxic metals into five operational fractions (subsequently combined into presumed detoxified and non-detoxified components) and toxicity in the clam Scrobicularia plana was investigated under different laboratory exposures. Clams were exposed to metal contaminated media (water and diet) and analysed for the partitioning of accumulated As, Cu and Zn into subcellular fractions. In general, metallothionein-like proteins, metal-rich granules and cellular debris in different proportions acted as main storage sites of accumulated metals in the clam soft tissues for these three metals. No significant differences were noted in the accumulation rates of As, Cu and Zn of groups of individuals with or without apparent signs of toxicity after up to 30 days of exposure to naturally contaminated sediment mixtures. There was, however, an increased proportional accumulation of Cu in the non-detoxified fraction with increased Cu accumulation rate in the clams, suggesting that the Cu uptake rate from contaminated sediments exceeded the combined rates of elimination and detoxification of Cu, with the subsequent likelihood for toxic effects in the clams. - Highlights: • Scrobicularia plana accumulated As, Cu and Zn from naturally toxic sediments. • Toxic metals were accumulated in detoxified and non-detoxified components. • Cu accumulation in the non-detoxified pool increased with increased Cu uptake rate. • Cu uptake rate exceeded combined loss and detoxification rates to cause toxicity

  10. Distribution and Potential Toxicity of Trace Metals in the Surface Sediments of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Ramanathan, A.; Mathukumalli, B. K. P.; Datta, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution, enrichment and ecotoxocity potential of Bangladesh part of Sundarban mangrove was investigated for eight trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) using sediment quality assessment indices. The average concentration of trace metals in the sediments exceeded the crustal abundance suggesting sources other than natural in origin. Additionally, the trace metals profile may be a reflection of socio-economic development in the vicinity of Sundarban which further attributes trace metals abundance to the anthropogenic inputs. Geoaccumulation index suggests moderately polluted sediment quality w.r.t. Ni and As and background concentrations for Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, As and Cd. Contamination factor analysis suggested low contamination by Zn, Cr, Co and Cd, moderate by Fe, Mn, Cu and Pb while Ni and As show considerable and high contamination, respectively. Enrichment factors for Ni, Pb and As suggests high contamination from either biota or anthropogenic inputs besides natural enrichment. As per the three sediment quality guidelines, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co and As would be more of a concern with respect to ecotoxicological risk in the Sundarban mangroves. The correlation between various physiochemical variables and trace metals suggested significant role of fine grained particles (clay) in trace metal distribution whereas owing to low organic carbon content in the region the organic complexation may not be playing significant role in trace metal distribution in the Sundarban mangroves.

  11. The use of two microbiotests to evaluate the toxicity of sediment from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The release of contaminants into the aquatic environment and the subsequent accumulation in sediment is a specific area of ... The Ostracodtoxkit F using the species Heterocypris incongruens has ... the top 2 cm of the river bed with an inert plastic scoop, as .... of pollution, such as hydrocarbons and pesticides, ostracods.

  12. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...... been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds....... The results also show that the accumulation rates for the heavy metals depend significantly on the relative pond area (pond area divided by catchment area). The conclusion is that the mass balances of heavy metals and PAHs in highway ponds can be estimated with acceptable accuracy from a combination of short...

  13. Vertical distribution of potentially toxic elements in sediments impacted by intertidal geothermal hot springs (Bahia Concepcion, Gulf of California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Acosta, M. L.; Shumilin, E.

    2016-12-01

    The intertidal geothermal hot springs (GHS) in Bahia Concepcion, Gulf of California are the source of potentially toxic elements to the adjacent marine environment surrounded by mangroves trees. The anoxic sediments enriched in organic carbon accumulate As, Hg and other heavy metals that can be bioavailable for the biota. To know the vertical distribution of these elements the geochemistry of a short sediment core was carried out. It was collected in June, 2010 in the mangrove area near to GHS (1 m) during a low tide, pushing manually a polypropylene tube into the sediments. The extracted sediment core was cut with plastic knife on 1 cm thick sub-samples, stored in plastic bags and transported on ice to the laboratory. The major and trace elements contents were determinate by ICP-MS after total digestion with stronger acids (HClO4-HNO3-HCl-HF). Certificate reference materials were used for the quality control of the method obtaining good recoveries for most of the elements (80-105%). The sediment core had high maximum contents of CaCO3 (70%) and total organic carbon (12%). The concentration of Hg along the core ranges from 650 to 74300 mg kg-1 and had more than three orders of magnitude above the reference values of 40 mg kg-1 for the Upper Continental Crust (UCC)1. In contrast, As ranges from 12 to 258 mg kg-1 resulting in more than one order of magnitude respect to UCC1 (1.7 mg kg-1). Similar pattern result for Mn, Cu, Pb, and Zn with the maximum values of 3200 mg kg-1, 42 mg kg-1, 12.4 mg kg-1, 71 mg kg-1 respectively that coincide with the maximum for As at the same core depth (4 cm). The Ca, Li, Co, Sb, U, and Mg also show high contents in comparison with the UCC1reference values. The maximum contents of Mo and Cd coincide with maximum concentration of sulfur (2%) at 6 to 8 cm. The enrichment factor calculated using Al as normalizing element showed Cd (7-280), As (26-329) and Hg (23-1196) as highly enriched mainly in the first centimeters of the sediment core

  14. Effect of co-culture of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) on pond environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Yongjun; Wang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    Monoculture of sea cucumber (pond S) and polyculture of shrimp with sea cucumber (pond SS) were established to evaluate the effect of shrimp on the environmental conditions of sea cucumber farming pond. Contributions of sediment organic matter (SOM2) resuspended from benthic sediment and the suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) deposited from the water column to the precipitated organic matter (SOM1) collected with sediment traps were estimated with carbon stable isotope analysis. The results showed that the levels of SPOM and SOM2 in pond SS significantly decreased in comparison with those in pond S at the end of experiment ( P sea cucumber farming pond could purify the farming water. Carbon stable isotope analysis showed that the proportion of SOM2 in SOM1 in pond SS (84.97% ± 0.38%) was significantly lower than that in pond S (95.20% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), suggesting that the resuspension of organic matter from benthic sediment into overlying water was reduced in polyculture pond. In contrast, the proportion of SPOM in SOM1 in pond SS (15.03% ± 0.38%) was significantly higher than that in pond S (4.80% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), indicating that the sedimentation of SPOM from water column was enhanced in pond SS owing to the biodeposition effect of shrimp.

  15. Agglomeration, sedimentation, and cellular toxicity of alumina nanoparticles in cell culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dokyung; Woo, Daekwang; Kim, Jung Heon; Kim, Moon Ki; Kim, Taesung; Hwang, Eung-Soo; Baik, Seunghyun

    2011-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of alumina nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated for a wide range of concentration (25–200 μg/mL) and incubation time (0–72 h) using floating cells (THP-1) and adherent cells (J774A.1, A549, and 293). Alumina NPs were gradually agglomerated over time although a significant portion of sedimentation occurred at the early stage within 6 h. A decrease of the viability was found in floating (THP-1) and adherent (J774A.1 and A549) cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the time-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed only in adherent cells (J774A.1 and A549), which is predominantly related with the sedimentation of alumina NPs in cell culture medium. The uptake of alumina NPs in macrophages and an increased cell-to-cell adhesion in adherent cells were observed. There was no significant change in the viability of 293 cells. This in vitro test suggests that the agglomeration and sedimentation of alumina NPs affected cellular viability depending on cell types such as monocytes (THP-1), macrophages (J774A.1), lung carcinoma cells (A549), and embryonic kidney cells (293).

  16. Agglomeration, sedimentation, and cellular toxicity of alumina nanoparticles in cell culture medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dokyung; Woo, Daekwang; Kim, Jung Heon; Kim, Moon Ki; Kim, Taesung; Hwang, Eung-Soo; Baik, Seunghyun

    2011-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of alumina nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated for a wide range of concentration (25-200 μg/mL) and incubation time (0-72 h) using floating cells (THP-1) and adherent cells (J774A.1, A549, and 293). Alumina NPs were gradually agglomerated over time although a significant portion of sedimentation occurred at the early stage within 6 h. A decrease of the viability was found in floating (THP-1) and adherent (J774A.1 and A549) cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the time-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed only in adherent cells (J774A.1 and A549), which is predominantly related with the sedimentation of alumina NPs in cell culture medium. The uptake of alumina NPs in macrophages and an increased cell-to-cell adhesion in adherent cells were observed. There was no significant change in the viability of 293 cells. This in vitro test suggests that the agglomeration and sedimentation of alumina NPs affected cellular viability depending on cell types such as monocytes (THP-1), macrophages (J774A.1), lung carcinoma cells (A549), and embryonic kidney cells (293).

  17. Toxicity of triphenyltin and tributyltin to the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum in a new sediment biotest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duft, Martina; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Tillmann, Michaela; Markert, Bernd; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals, the xeno-androgens triphenyltin (TPT) and tributyltin (TBT), were investigated in a new whole-sediment biotest with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia). Artificial sediments were spiked with seven concentrations, ranging from 10 to 500 microg nominal TPT-Sn/kg dry weight and TBT-Sn/kg dry weight, respectively. We analyzed the responses of the test species after two, four, and eight weeks exposure. For both compounds, P. antipodarum exhibited a sharp decline in the number of embryos sheltered in its brood pouch in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in comparison to the control sediment. The number of new, still unshelled embryos turned out to be the most sensitive parameter. The lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) was equivalent to the lowest administered concentration (10 microg/kg of each test compound) for most parameters and thus no no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) could be established. The calculation of effect concentrations (EC10) resulted in even lower values for both substances (EC10 after eight weeks for unshelled embryos: 0.03 microg TPT-Sn/kg, EC10 after four weeks for unshelled embryos: 0.98 microg TBT-Sn/kg). Our results indicate that P. antipodarum is highly sensitive to both endocrine disruptors TPT and TBT at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  18. Geogenically vs. anthropogenic pollution of river sediments by potentially toxic trace elements on model locations; Geogenne vs. antropogenne znecistenie riecnych sedimentov potencialne toxickymi stopovymi prvkami na modelovych lokalitach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazicka, A. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra geochemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Michnova, J. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra loziskovej geologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    Rtg diffraction analysis was used to evaluate the stream sediments mineralogical composition of Maly Dunaj, Nitra and Hron rivers. Identified minerals in the sediment samples, in addition with chemical analysis of selected elements (As, Sb, Hg, Cu, Pb), helped to determine the origin (geogenic vs. anthropogenic) of these potentially toxic trace elements. The results show that Maly Dunaj sediments are mostly loaded with anthropogenic contamination (agriculture, industry). Heavy minerals identified in Nitra sediments suggest natural higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Fe. On the other hand As and Hg contamination is caused by human activities. The main sources are the coal ash impoundments in Zemianske Kostolany and Chalmova (for As) and Novacke chemicke zavody a.s. (for Hg). Stream sediments of Hron river are mostly influneced by the geology of the catchment area (Sb - As deposits in Nizke Tatry, volcanics). (authors)

  19. Evaluation of toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and to the midge, Chironomus dilutus; and bioaccumulation by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with exposure to PCB-contaminated sediments from Anniston, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Coady, Matthew R.; Farrar, J. Daniel; Lotufo, Guilherme R.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.; Stanley, Jacob K.; Sinclair, Jesse A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) requested that as part of the remedial investigation for the Anniston, Alabama Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Site (Anniston PCB Site), that Pharmacia Corporation and Solutia Inc. (P/S) perform long-term reproduction toxicity tests with the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and the midge, Chironomus dilutus, and bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, using sediment samples collected from reference locations and from Operable Unit 4 of the Anniston PCB Site. The sediment toxicity testing and sediment bioaccumulation results will be used by ARCADIS U.S., Inc. (ARCADIS) as part of a weight-of-evidence assessment to evaluate risks and establish sediment remediation goals for contaminants to sediment-dwelling organisms inhabiting the Anniston PCB Site. The goal of this study was to characterize relations between sediment chemistry and sediment toxicity and relations between sediment chemistry and sediment bioaccumulation in samples of sediments collected from the Anniston PCB Site. A total of 32 samples were evaluated from six test sites and one reference site to provide a wide range in concentrations of chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) including PCBs in samples of whole sediment. The goal of this study was not to determine the extent of sediment contamination across the Anniston PCB Site. Hence, the test sites or samples collected from within a test site were not selected to represent the spatial extent of sediment contamination across the Anniston PCB Site. Sediment chemistry, pore-water chemistry, and sediment toxicity data were generated for 26 sediment samples from the Anniston PCB Site. All of the samples were evaluated to determine if they qualified as reference sediment samples. Those samples that met the chemical selection criteria and biological selection criteria were identified as reference samples and used to develop the reference envelope for each toxicity test endpoint. Physical

  20. Fate and effects of esfenvalerate in agricultural ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe-Petersen, L.; Gutavson, K.; Madsen, T.

    2001-01-01

    in enclosures in a natural lake and in the laboratory on surface (Cymatia coleoptrata) and sediment (Chironomus riparius) insects. The latter were used in sediment-plus-water and in water-only tests, measuring effects on emergence and mortality. The measurements in the artificial pond indicated exposure...

  1. Food web interactions and nutrients dynamics in polyculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial feed and fertilizers are the main sources of nutrients supporting fish growth in aquaculture ponds. The majority of the added nutrients are lost to the sediment, where they are no longer available for natural food production. By increasing resuspension of the sediment through the

  2. An in situ postexposure feeding assay with Carcinus maenas for estuarine sediment-overlying water toxicity evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Susana M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Ribeiro, Rui

    2006-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay for estuarine sediment-overlying waters, with the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) based on postexposure feeding. It consisted of a 48-h in situ exposure period followed by a short postexposure feeding period (30 min). A precise method for quantifying feeding, using the Polychaeta Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Müller as food source, was first developed. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response was verified by comparing it to that of lethality, upon cadmium exposure. The influence of environmental conditions prevailing during exposure (salinity, temperature, substrate, light regime, and food availability) on postexposure feeding was also addressed. The potential of this in situ assay was then investigated by deploying organisms at ten sites, located in reference and contaminated Portuguese estuaries. Organism recovery ranged between 90% and 100% and a significant postexposure feeding depression (16.3-72.7%) was observed at all contaminated sites relatively to references.

  3. Determination of heavy toxic metals in the environment indicator specimens (water, river sediment and kangkung plant) of Muria terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J Djati Pramana; Sukirno; Bambang Irianto

    2004-01-01

    Analysis and evaluation contain of heavy toxic metals in the water kangkung plant (Ipomea reptans poir) and river sediment of five rivers sampling location at peninsula Muria region by NAA Instrumental method has been done. The method of sampling. preparation although analysis method according to standard procedure of environmental specimens analysis. Accordingly the quality standard of water group C although group D. the sample from fifth river location sampling was under allowed maximum Cd concentration. Correlation between variable location and kind of indicators to heavy metal concentration was shown by coefficient of Pearson correlation. Interpretation by statistic correlation was obtained. Correlation between kind indicators was indicated that river water has significant correlation with the kangkung plant about Cd concentration. (author)

  4. Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 μg L−1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 μg L−1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 μg L−1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 μg L−1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

  5. Risks to Ecological Receptors Posed by Contaminants of Potential Concern in the Lower Three Runs Cooling Ponds and Canals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Blas, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-21

    The upper portion of Lower Three Runs includes several ponds, reservoirs, and canals that were formerly used as a cooling system for nuclear production reactors. This area was divided into nine exposure areas (EAs) for the assessment of environmental contamination resulting from past reactor operations and other industrial processes. A tiered screening process identified several contaminants of potential concern including aluminum, cyanide, lead, manganese, mercury, DDD, DDE, and DDT. Risks posed by these contaminants to ecological receptors (river otter, belted kingfisher, raccoon, and blue heron) were assessed using contaminant exposure models that estimated contaminant intake resulting from ingestion of food, water, and sediment/ soil and compared these intakes with toxicity reference values (TRVs). The contaminant exposure models showed that the TRVs were not exceeded in the otter model, exceeded by aluminum in EA 7 (Pond 2 and associated canals) in the raccoon model, and exceeded by mercury in EAs 2, 3 (Pond B), 6 (Par Pond), and 8 (Ponds 4 and 5 and Canal to Pond C) in both the kingfisher and blue heron models. Hazard quotients (total exposure dose divided by the TRV) were 2.8 for aluminum and 1.7- 3.6 for mercury. The primary route of exposure for aluminum was the ingestion of soil, and the primary route of exposure for mercury was the ingestion of mercury contaminated fish. Elevated levels of mercury in fish were at least partly the result of the aerial deposition of mercury onto Lower Three Runs and its watershed. The atmospheric deposition of mercury creates pervasive contamination in fish throughout the Savannah River basin. Another possible source of mercury was the discharge of mercury contaminated Savannah River water into the Lower Three Runs cooling ponds and canals during previous years of reactor operation. This contamination originated from industries located upstream of the SRS. The aluminum exceedance for the raccoon was likely the result of

  6. Distribution and toxicity of current-use insecticides in sediment of a lake receiving waters from areas in transition to urbanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jizhong; Li Huizhen; You Jing

    2012-01-01

    Current-use insecticides including organophosphate (OPs) and synthetic pyrethroid (SPs) insecticides were analyzed in 35 sediment samples collected from Chaohu Lake in China, where a transition from a traditional agricultural to a modern urbanized society is ongoing. Total concentrations of five OPs and eight SPs ranged from 0.029 to 0.681 ng/g dry weight and 0.016–301 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Toxic unit analysis showed that 13% of the sediment samples likely produced over 50% of the mortality for benthic invertebrates. Analysis also showed that cypermethrin was the principal contributor to the toxicity. Spatial distribution evaluation implied that OPs were mainly from non-point sources associated with agricultural activities. Conversely, SPs may have been derived from runoff of inflowing rivers through urban regions, as their concentrations were well-correlated with concentrations of other urban-oriented contaminants. - Highlights: ► Though lower than urban sites, pyrethroid insecticides in Chaohu Lake, China may cause toxicity to benthic invertebrates. ► Concentrations of pyrethroids were well correlated with those of other urban-oriented contaminants, e.g. PAHs and LABs. ► Spatial distribution showed urban runoff was the major source of pyrethroids deposited in the lake sediment. ► Conversely, organophosphate insecticides were mainly associated with agricultural non-point sources. - Evaluation of the distribution, potential toxicity, and input sources of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides in sediment from Chaohu Lake, China.

  7. ACUTE TOXICITY OF FIVE SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED METALS, INDIVIDUALLY AND IN A MIXTURE, TO THE ESTUARINE MEIOBENTHIC HARPACTICOID COPEPOD AMPHIASCUS TENUIREMIS. (R825279)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe acute effects of many individual, seawater-solubilized metals on meiobenthic copepods and nematodes are well known. In sediments, however, metals most often occur as mixtures, and it is not known whether such mixtures exhibit simple additive toxicity to me...

  8. Development of a numerical model for calculating exposure to toxic and nontoxic stressors in the water column and sediment from drilling discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rye, H.; Reed, M.; Frost, T.K.; Smit, M.G.D.; Durgut, S.

    2008-01-01

    Drilling discharges are complex mixtures of chemical components and particles which might lead to toxic and nontoxic stress in the environment. In order to be able to evaluate the potential environmental consequences of such discharges in the water column and in sediments, a numerical model was

  9. An in situ postexposure feeding assay with Carcinus maenas for estuarine sediment-overlying water toxicity evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Susana M.; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Guilhermino, Lucia; Ribeiro, Rui

    2006-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay for estuarine sediment-overlying waters, with the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) based on postexposure feeding. It consisted of a 48-h in situ exposure period followed by a short postexposure feeding period (30 min). A precise method for quantifying feeding, using the Polychaeta Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Mueller as food source, was first developed. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response was verified by comparing it to that of lethality, upon cadmium exposure. The influence of environmental conditions prevailing during exposure (salinity, temperature, substrate, light regime, and food availability) on postexposure feeding was also addressed. The potential of this in situ assay was then investigated by deploying organisms at ten sites, located in reference and contaminated Portuguese estuaries. Organism recovery ranged between 90% and 100% and a significant postexposure feeding depression (16.3-72.7%) was observed at all contaminated sites relatively to references. - A new sub-lethal toxicity assay is presented for marine invertebrates

  10. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and sediment toxicity testing in the Ely Creek watershed restoration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soucek, D.J.; Currie, R.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Latimer, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Ely Creek watershed in Lee County, Virginia, contains an abundance of abandoned mined land (AML) seeps that contaminate the majority of the creek and its confluence into Big Stone Creek. Contaminated sediments had high concentrations of iron (∼10,000 mg/kg), aluminum (∼1,500 mg/kg), magnesium (∼400 mg/kg) and manganese (∼150 mg/kg). Copper and zinc generally ranged from 3 to 20 mg/kg. Benthic macroinvertebrates surveys at six of 20 sites sampled in the watershed yielded no macroinvertebrates, while eight others had total abundances of 1 to 9 organisms. Four reference sites contained ≥100 organisms and at least 14 different taxa. Laboratory, 10-day survival/impairment sediments tests with Daphnia magna did not support the field data. Mortality of 92 to 100% for D. magna occurred in samples collected from six cities. Daphnid reproduction was more sensitive than laboratory test organism survivorship; however, neither daphnid survivorship nor reproduction were good predictors of taxa richness. Laboratory test concerns included the use of a reference diluent water rather than site specific diluent water

  11. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  12. Discussion on the source survey method in a natural evaporation pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiaoshu; Fan Chengrong; Fu Yunshan

    2014-01-01

    A natural evaporation pond intended to be decommissioned. The survey of the pond focused on investigating radioactive contamination distribution and estimating the total amount of deposits in the pond, in order to provide support for subsequent decommissioning activities. Based on the source survey in the pond, this paper introduced how to implement radiation measurements and sampling (such as water and sediment) in the water. The movable work platform was built on the pond to facilitate sampling and measurement. In addition, a sludge sampler had been designed so as to accurately determine the amount of sampling and its depth. This paper also described the distribution of sampling points. (authors)

  13. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fauna from wet detention ponds for stormwater runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Diana; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2012-01-01

    Stormwater detention ponds remove pollutants e.g. heavy metals and nutrients from stormwater runoff. These pollutants accumulate in the pond sediment and thereby become available for bioaccumulation in fauna living in the ponds. In this study the bioaccumulation was investigated by fauna samples...... from 5 wet detention ponds for analyses of heavy metal contents. Five rural shallow lakes were included in the study to survey the natural occurrence of heavy metals in water-dwelling fauna. Heavy metal concentrations in water-dwelling fauna were generally found higher in wet detention ponds compared...

  14. A comprehensive study of the toxicity of natural multi-contaminated sediments: New insights brought by the use of a combined approach using the medaka embryo-larval assay and physico-chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjhoux, Iris; Clérandeau, Christelle; Menach, Karyn Le; Anschutz, Pierre; Gonzalez, Patrice; Budzinski, Hélène; Morin, Bénédicte; Baudrimont, Magalie; Cachot, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Sediment compartment is a long term sink for pollutants and a secondary source of contamination for aquatic species. The abiotic factors controlling the bioavailability and thus the toxicity of complex mixtures of pollutants accumulated in sediments are poorly documented. To highlight the different factors influencing sediment toxicity, we identified and analyzed the physico-chemical properties, micro-pollutant contents, and toxicity level of six contrasted sediments in the Lot-Garonne continuum. Sediment toxicity was evaluated using the recently described Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryo-larval assay with direct exposure to whole sediment (MELAc). Multiple toxicity endpoints including embryotoxicity, developmental defects and DNA damage were analyzed in exposed embryos. Chemical analyses revealed significant variations in the nature and contamination profile of sediments, mainly impacted by metallic trace elements and, unexpectedly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to sediments induced different toxic impacts on medaka early life stages when compared with the reference site. Principal component analysis showed that the toxic responses following exposure to sediments from the Lot River and its tributary were associated with micro-pollutant contamination: biometric measurements, hatching success, genotoxicity, craniofacial deformities and yolk sac malabsorption were specifically correlated to metallic and organic contaminants. Conversely, the main biological responses following exposure to the Garonne River sediments were more likely related to their physico-chemical properties than to their contamination level. Time to hatch, cardiovascular injuries and spinal deformities were correlated to organic matter content, fine particles and dissolved oxygen levels. These results emphasize the necessity of combining physico-chemical analysis of sediment with toxicity assessment to accurately evaluate the environmental risks associated with sediment

  15. The distribution of radionuclides between the sediments and macrophytes in the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP - The Distribution of Radionuclides in Freshwater Hydro Ecosystem's Bottom Sediments and Macrophytes depending on the Ecological Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciulioniene, D.; Jefanova, O.; Mazeika, J.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of 137 Cs, 60 Co, 54 Mn in the aquatory of lake Drukshiai (the monitoring stations), the coastal area of this lake, the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed on the basis of long-term (1988-2009) investigations of radionuclides specific activity in bottom sediments and macrophytes, also the ability of radionuclides falling into lake Drukshiai from the Ignalina NPP through effluents channels was assessed. It was established that 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn in the bottom sediments and the macrophytes were distributed quite differently in the monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai and the coastal area as well as in the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP. The different characteristics of the sediments, various ecological conditions, as well as the existing anthropogenic environmental factors and the different in the ecological groups of the plants could have had impact on the distribution of 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn in the bottom sediments and the aquatic plants in lake Drukshiai and the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. The 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn specific activity's values were significantly higher in macrophytes from the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP than in macrophytes from the cooling water channel. Nevertheless the specific activities level of these radionuclides differed only slightly in the macrophytes from the areas which were impacted by the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. This can be explained by the fact that the phyto-remediation (as the form of auto-purification) of these effluents from the radionuclides had been present in the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP before entering the water into lake Drukshiai. (authors)

  16. The distribution of radionuclides between the sediments and macrophytes in the cooling pond of the Ignalina NPP - The Distribution of Radionuclides in Freshwater Hydro Ecosystem's Bottom Sediments and Macrophytes depending on the Ecological Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciulioniene, D.; Jefanova, O.; Mazeika, J. [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos str. 2, LT-08412 Vilnius, Lietuva (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    The distribution of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn in the aquatory of lake Drukshiai (the monitoring stations), the coastal area of this lake, the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP was analyzed on the basis of long-term (1988-2009) investigations of radionuclides specific activity in bottom sediments and macrophytes, also the ability of radionuclides falling into lake Drukshiai from the Ignalina NPP through effluents channels was assessed. It was established that {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in the bottom sediments and the macrophytes were distributed quite differently in the monitoring stations of lake Drukshiai and the coastal area as well as in the industrial drainage systems channel of the Ignalina NPP and the cooling water channel of the Ignalina NPP. The different characteristics of the sediments, various ecological conditions, as well as the existing anthropogenic environmental factors and the different in the ecological groups of the plants could have had impact on the distribution of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn in the bottom sediments and the aquatic plants in lake Drukshiai and the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. The {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn specific activity's values were significantly higher in macrophytes from the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP than in macrophytes from the cooling water channel. Nevertheless the specific activities level of these radionuclides differed only slightly in the macrophytes from the areas which were impacted by the effluents channels of the Ignalina NPP. This can be explained by the fact that the phyto-remediation (as the form of auto-purification) of these effluents from the radionuclides had been present in the industrial drainage systems channel of Ignalina NPP before entering the water into lake Drukshiai. (authors)

  17. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics

  18. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  19. Dredged Material Analysis Tools; Performance of Acute and Chronic Sediment Toxicity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    NOAA SQuiRT Tables (1999), such as effects range median (ERM), were exceeded for PAHs, PCBs, ΣDDT, and metals in some sediments. Tributyl tins ( TBT ...Tetrabutyltin 2.0 5.7 5.3 2.9 5.2 4.0 4.8 4.0 4.9 2.7 NA Tributyltin 1.8 16 4.7 2.5 6.2 3.5 4.3 52 4.3 2.4 NA Dibutyltin 1.5 11 4.0 2.2 5.1 3.0 3.7 9.0 3.7

  20. Potential toxic elements in stream sediments, soils and waters in an abandoned radium mine (central Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, I M H R; Neiva, A M R; Albuquerque, M T D; Carvalho, P C S; Santos, A C T; Cunha, Pedro P

    2018-02-01

    The Alto da Várzea radium mine (AV) exploited ore and U-bearing minerals, such as autunite and torbernite. The mine was exploited underground from 1911 to 1922, closed in 1946 without restoration, and actually a commercial area is deployed. Stream sediments, soils and water samples were collected between 2008 and 2009. Stream sediments are mainly contaminated in As, Th, U and W, which is related to the AV radium mine. The PTEs, As, Co, Cr, Sr, Th, U, W, Zn, and electrical conductivity reached the highest values in soils collected inside the mine influence. Soils are contaminated with As and U and must not be used for any purpose. Most waters have pH values ranging from 4.3 to 6.8 and are poorly mineralized (EC = 41-186 µS/cm; TDS = 33-172 mg/L). Groundwater contains the highest Cu, Cr and Pb contents. Arsenic occurs predominantly as H 2 (AsO 4 ) - and H(AsO 4 ) 2- . Waters are saturated in goethite, haematite and some of them also in lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite, which adsorbs As (V). Lead is divalent in waters collected during the warm season, being mobile in these waters. Thorium occurs mainly as Th(OH) 3 (CO 3 ) - , Th(OH) 2 (CO 3 ) and Th(OH) 2 (CO 3 ) 2 2- , which increase water Th contents. Uranium occurs predominantly as UO 2 CO 3 , but CaUO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 2- and CaUO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 also occur, decreasing its mobility in water. The waters are contaminated in NO 2 - , Mn, Cu, As, Pb and U and must not be used for human consumption and in agricultural activities. The water contamination is mainly associated with the old radium mine and human activities. A restoration of the mining area with PTE monitoring is necessary to avoid a public hazard.

  1. Toxic elements in free-living freshwater fish, water and sediments in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkoda Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples for analysis were collected from 10 areas, including the major Polish rivers and lakes, with different sources of environmental pollution (industrial, municipal, and farming. The materials was taken from the lakes of Mazury, located in a non-industrialised region, from the Brda River, an area impacted by pig farms, from the lakes of Lipczyno Wielkie/Pomerania, from the Wkra River, an area impacted by poultry farms, from the Dunajec River at the Roznowski Reservoir, from the Vistula River at Cracow and Warsaw, from the Odra River at Wroclaw and the Warta River estuary, and also from Rybnik Power Station Reservoir. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Hg, and As were analysed in 397 fish muscle and 128 sediment samples using an atomic absorption spectrometry technique. The analytical procedures were covered by a quality assurance programme. It was demonstrated that the average concentrations of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in fish were in the low hundredths and thousandths of a mg/kg and never exceeded permitted limits established for food. Higher values of these elements were found in fish from bodies of water located in the zone of influence of large urban agglomerations, especially the Cracow region. High concentrations of lead and cadmium were also found in Vistula River sediments near Cracow, where the maximum values were 134.10 mg/kg and 21.24 mg/kg dry weight for lead and cadmium respectively. The average concentration of mercury in a predatory fish muscle (0.179 mg/kg was almost twice as high as in the omnivorous fish (0.103 mg/kg. Only a single fish sample exceeded the maximum limit for this metal (0.50 mg/kg and did not present a risk to consumers’ health.

  2. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  3. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  4. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor L Myhrvold

    Full Text Available Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  5. Holocene closure of Lib Pond, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Conor L; Janny, Fran; Nelson, Daniel; Ladd, S Nemiah; Atwood, Alyssa; Sachs, Julian P

    2014-01-01

    Well-preserved sediment from closed water bodies of atolls such as Lib Pond are rare opportunities to reconstruct the past regional climate, which pieced together across a latitude and longitude range identify the range of movement patterns of wider scale climate phenomena such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). We conducted the first physico-chemical survey of Lib Pond, a shallow, closed-water saline lake located on remote and difficult to access Lib Island in the Marshall Islands at 8° 18' 48.99″ N, 167 22' 51.90″ E in the Pacific Ocean, in July 2009. We performed a bathymetric survey, recorded salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature profiles, monitored the tidal variability, and conducted a vegetation survey surrounding the lake. From bathymetric data we calculated the lake volume, which we used to estimate the lake's salt budget, and ultimately the residence time of water in the lake basin. We took a series of sediment cores from the lake, cores which indicate Lib Island's changing environment and climate. Radiocarbon measurements determined sediment age, and reveal significant mixing over the last 2 ka of deposition. We conclude that prior to 3 ka, Lib Island was an atoll with a central lagoon connected to the open ocean, which was then closed off from the open ocean to form the brackish system that exists today. We predict that the sediment accumulation in Lib Pond evident today will continue. As seawater is inhibited from exchanging with fresh water, Lib Pond will become a shallower lake with increasingly fresh water.

  6. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  7. Report on the methylmercury situation in Par Pond. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, J.E.; Williams, D.J.; Alberts, J.J.

    1975-06-01

    Studies are reported on the methylation and accumulation of mercury in fish populations of the pond. Results showed that the majority of the mercury in the fish muscles was in the methyl mercury form. Very low concentrations of mercury were found in the pond sediments. Physiological methylation of the mercury could not be demonstrated by in vivo or in vitro techniques. Organic ligand methylation and reduction of the mercury was shown to be a possible mechanism to account for both the mercury distribution in the pond and the concentrations of methylmercury in the fish. Recommendations are made for remedial treatments to eliminate the mercury problem. (HLW)

  8. Chronic toxicity of contaminated sediments on reproduction and histopathology of the crustacean Gammarus fossarum and relationship with the chemical contamination and in vitro effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurova, Edita; Hilscherova, Klara; Sidlova-Stepankova, Tereza; Blaha, Ludek [Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic); Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Rottenburg (Germany); Jungmann, Dirk [Inst. of Hydrobiology, Dresden Univ. of Tech. (Germany); Giesy, John P. [Dept. of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Zoology Dept., National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, and Center for Integrative Toxicology Center, and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Biology and Chemistry Dept., City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of the Environment, Nanjing Univ. (China)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between the sediment contaminants and the occurrence of intersex in situ. Two of the studied sediments were from polluted sites with increased occurrence of intersex crustaceans (Lake Pilnok, black coal mining area in the Czech Republic, inhabited by the crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus population with 18% of intersex; creek Lockwitzbach in Germany with Gammarus fossarum population with about 7% of intersex). Materials and methods Sediments were studied by a combined approach that included (1) determination of concentrations of metals and traditionally analyzed organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (2) examination of the in vitro potencies to activate aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), estrogen (ER), and androgen receptor-mediated responses; and (3) in vivo whole sediment exposures during a 12-week reproduction toxicity study with benthic amphipod G. fossarum. (orig.)

  9. Distribution of transuranic elements in a freshwater pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    During the past two years a unique study has been initiated on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater environment. This study involves a waste pond which has been receiving occasional low-level plutonium processing wastes for about 30 years. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization. In addition, the ecological distribution of plutonium and americium is being investigated. The purpose of this work is to explain plutonium and americium concentrations at specific ecological sites, important export routes out of the pond, and potential pathways to man. The pond is also highly enriched with nutrients, thus supporting a high level of algal and macrophyte production. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrator of transuranics in the pond system. The major sink for plutonium and americium in this system is the sediments. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments, is also a major concentrator of transuranics in this system. Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Dragonfly larvae, watercress, and snails show concentrations which approximate those of the sediments but nearly all other food web components have levels of plutonium and americium which are lower than those of the sediments. Thus, plutonium and americium seem to be relatively immobile in the aquatic ecosystem. However, the role of algae as a potential mechanism for the long-range ecological transport of plutonium and americium will receive additional attention

  10. Distribution and pollution, toxicity and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments from urban and rural rivers of the Pearl River delta in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2013-12-01

    Sediments were collected from the upper, middle and lower reaches of both urban and rural rivers in a typical urbanization zone of the Pearl River delta. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and their spatial distribution, pollution levels, toxicity and ecological risk levels were evaluated to compare the characteristics of heavy metal pollution between the two rivers. Our results indicated that the total contents of the six metals in all samples exceeded the soil background value in Guangdong province. Based on the soil quality thresholds of the China SEPA, Cd levels at all sites exceeded class III criteria, and other metals exhibited pollution levels exceeding class II or III criteria at both river sites. According to the sediment quality guidelines of the US EPA, all samples were moderately to heavily polluted by Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Compared to rural river sites, urban river sites exhibited heavier pollution. Almost all sediment samples from both rivers exhibited moderate to serious toxicity to the environment, with higher contributions from Cr and Ni. A "hot area" of heavy metal pollution being observed in the upper and middle reaches of the urban river area, whereas a "hot spot" was identified at a specific site in the middle reach of the rural river. Contrary metal distribution patterns were also observed along typical sediment profiles from urban and rural rivers. However, the potential ecological risk indices of rural river sediments in this study were equal to those of urban river sediments, implying that the ecological health issues of the rivers in the undeveloped rural area should also be addressed. Sediment organic matter and grain size might be important factors influencing the distribution profiles of these heavy metals.

  11. Nature of uranium contamination in the agricultural drainage water evaporation ponds of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.C.; Amrhein, C.; Bradford, G.

    1997-01-01

    Evaporation ponds used for agricultural subsurface drainage water disposal in the Tulare Lake Bed (TLB) of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA have elevated levels of U. Waterfowl which inhabit and forage the ponds and surrounding areas are threatened by exposure to U. The ponds, which receive irrigation drainage waters and seasonal rain, are subject to wetting and drying periods. The periods result in the accumulation of decaying algae and other organic material in surface sediments. Sediment and waters in the ponds were sampled to determine what factors control U solubility and sediment U concentrations. Data from a 1990 study conducted by Chilcott et al. in 1989 on the TLB ponds were used to help identify what factors may control U solubility. Pond sediment U concentrations decreased abruptly with depth and surface sediment U concentrations were related to dissolved Ca:HCO 3 ratios. Pond algal U bioaccumulation was favored in waters with high Ca:HCO 3 ratios, which had lower pH values and carbonate alkalinities than waters with low CA:HCO 3 ratios. Ponds with high salinities and high carbonate alkalinities contained the highest aqueous U concentrations relative to other TLB ponds. Sediment total organic carbon (TOC) was correlated with sediment U concentrations, suggesting that U is bound to organic matter. The source of TOC is most likely from algae deposition. (author)

  12. Impact of a flood disaster on sediment toxicity in a major river system - the Elbe flood 2002 as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oetken, Matthias; Stachel, Burkhard; Pfenninger, Markus; Oehlmann, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    The ecotoxicological implications of a flooding disaster were investigated with the exceptional Elbe flood in August 2002 as an example. Sediment samples were taken shortly after the flood at 37 sites. For toxicity assessment the midge Chironomus riparius (Insecta) and the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda) were exposed to the sediment samples for 28 days. For a subset of 19 sampling sites, the contamination level and the biological response of both species were also recorded before the flood in 2000. The direct comparison of biological responses at identical sites revealed significant differences for samples taken before and immediately after the flood. After flood sediments of the river Elbe caused both higher emergence rates in the midge and higher numbers of embryos in the mudsnail. Contrary to expectations the toxicity of the sediments decreased after the flood, probably because of a dilution of toxic substances along the river Elbe and a reduction in bioavailability of pollutants as a result of increasing TOC values after the flood. - The extraordinary Elbe flood in August 2002 did not result in an overall increase of environmental contamination

  13. ISDD: A computational model of particle sedimentation, diffusion and target cell dosimetry for in vitro toxicity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The difficulty of directly measuring cellular dose is a significant obstacle to application of target tissue dosimetry for nanoparticle and microparticle toxicity assessment, particularly for in vitro systems. As a consequence, the target tissue paradigm for dosimetry and hazard assessment of nanoparticles has largely been ignored in favor of using metrics of exposure (e.g. μg particle/mL culture medium, particle surface area/mL, particle number/mL). We have developed a computational model of solution particokinetics (sedimentation, diffusion) and dosimetry for non-interacting spherical particles and their agglomerates in monolayer cell culture systems. Particle transport to cells is calculated by simultaneous solution of Stokes Law (sedimentation) and the Stokes-Einstein equation (diffusion). Results The In vitro Sedimentation, Diffusion and Dosimetry model (ISDD) was tested against measured transport rates or cellular doses for multiple sizes of polystyrene spheres (20-1100 nm), 35 nm amorphous silica, and large agglomerates of 30 nm iron oxide particles. Overall, without adjusting any parameters, model predicted cellular doses were in close agreement with the experimental data, differing from as little as 5% to as much as three-fold, but in most cases approximately two-fold, within the limits of the accuracy of the measurement systems. Applying the model, we generalize the effects of particle size, particle density, agglomeration state and agglomerate characteristics on target cell dosimetry in vitro. Conclusions Our results confirm our hypothesis that for liquid-based in vitro systems, the dose-rates and target cell doses for all particles are not equal; they can vary significantly, in direct contrast to the assumption of dose-equivalency implicit in the use of mass-based media concentrations as metrics of exposure for dose-response assessment. The difference between equivalent nominal media concentration exposures on a μg/mL basis and target cell

  14. ISDD: A computational model of particle sedimentation, diffusion and target cell dosimetry for in vitro toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisler William B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The difficulty of directly measuring cellular dose is a significant obstacle to application of target tissue dosimetry for nanoparticle and microparticle toxicity assessment, particularly for in vitro systems. As a consequence, the target tissue paradigm for dosimetry and hazard assessment of nanoparticles has largely been ignored in favor of using metrics of exposure (e.g. μg particle/mL culture medium, particle surface area/mL, particle number/mL. We have developed a computational model of solution particokinetics (sedimentation, diffusion and dosimetry for non-interacting spherical particles and their agglomerates in monolayer cell culture systems. Particle transport to cells is calculated by simultaneous solution of Stokes Law (sedimentation and the Stokes-Einstein equation (diffusion. Results The In vitro Sedimentation, Diffusion and Dosimetry model (ISDD was tested against measured transport rates or cellular doses for multiple sizes of polystyrene spheres (20-1100 nm, 35 nm amorphous silica, and large agglomerates of 30 nm iron oxide particles. Overall, without adjusting any parameters, model predicted cellular doses were in close agreement with the experimental data, differing from as little as 5% to as much as three-fold, but in most cases approximately two-fold, within the limits of the accuracy of the measurement systems. Applying the model, we generalize the effects of particle size, particle density, agglomeration state and agglomerate characteristics on target cell dosimetry in vitro. Conclusions Our results confirm our hypothesis that for liquid-based in vitro systems, the dose-rates and target cell doses for all particles are not equal; they can vary significantly, in direct contrast to the assumption of dose-equivalency implicit in the use of mass-based media concentrations as metrics of exposure for dose-response assessment. The difference between equivalent nominal media concentration exposures on a

  15. Strategies and equipment for sampling suspended sediment and associated toxic chemicals in large rivers - with emphasis on the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Stevens, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    A Lagrangian strategy for sampling large rivers, which was developed and tested in the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers of South America during the early 1980s, is now being applied to the study of toxic chemicals in the Mississippi River. A series of 15-20 cross-sections of the Mississippi mainstem and its principal tributaries is sampled by boat in downstream sequence, beginning upriver of St. Louis and concluding downriver of New Orleans 3 weeks later. The timing of the downstream sampling sequence approximates the travel time of the river water. Samples at each cross-section are discharge-weighted to provide concentrations of dissolved and suspended constituents that are converted to fluxes. Water-sediment mixtures are collected from 10-40 equally spaced points across the river width by sequential depth integration at a uniform vertical transit rate. Essential equipment includes (i) a hydraulic winch, for sensitive control of vertical transit rates, and (ii) a collapsible-bag sampler, which allows integrated samples to be collected at all depths in the river. A section is usually sampled in 4-8 h, for a total sample recovery of 100-120 l. Sampled concentrations of suspended silt and clay are reproducible within 3%.

  16. Distribution of toxic trace elements in soil/sediment in post-Katrina New Orleans and the Louisiana Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Tingzhi; Shu Shi; Shi Honglan; Wang Jianmin; Adams, Craig; Witt, Emitt C.

    2008-01-01

    This study provided a comprehensive assessment of seven toxic trace elements (As, Pb, V, Cr, Cd, Cu, and Hg) in the soil/sediment of Katrina affected greater New Orleans region 1 month after the recession of flood water. Results indicated significant contamination of As and V and non-significant contamination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb at most sampling sites. Compared to the reported EPA Region 6 soil background inorganic levels, except As, the concentrations of other six elements had greatly increased throughout the studied area; St. Bernard Parish and Plaquemines Parish showed greater contamination than other regions. Comparison between pre- and post-Katrina data in similar areas, and data for surface, shallow, and deep samples indicated that the trace element distribution in post-Katrina New Orleans was not obviously attributed to the flooding. This study suggests that more detailed study of As and V contamination at identified locations is needed. - This article provides an in-depth assessment of the contamination of As, Pb, V, Cr, Cd, Cu, and Hg in post-Katrina greater New Orleans region

  17. Surface and subsurface soils at the Pond B dam: July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    Pond B, 685-13G, is an inactive reactor cooling impoundment built in 1961 on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Between 1961 and 1964, Pond B received R-Reactor cooling water discharges that were contaminated with 137 Cs, 90 Sr and plutonium. Though the pond has not been used since 1964, radionuclides from the contaminated cooling water remain in the water and in the surface sediments of the pond. The current proposal to fix and repair the Pond B dam structure includes installing a new drain system and monitoring equipment. The dam will be reinforced with additional previous material on the downstream face of the dam. The objectives of this report are to describe the sampling methodology used during the July 1998 sampling event at the downstream face of the Pond B dam and in Pond B, present the results of the sampling event, and compare, where possible, these results to related risk-based standards

  18. Toxicity of sediments from Bahía de Chetumal, México, as assessed by hepatic EROD induction and histology in nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Pérez, O; Simá-Alvarez, R; Noreña-Barroso, E; Güemes, J; Gold-Bouchot, G; Ortega, A; Albores-Medina, A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of environmental pollutants present in sediments obtained from Bahía de Chetumal, a bay on the border between Mexico and Belize, was studied in nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) intraperitoneally injected with sediment extracts from six different sites of the Bay. Sediment samples used for the study contained a variety of organic chemicals such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total cytochrome P-450 and EROD activity were measured in fish liver. Haematological and histological analyses were also carried out. Hepatic P-450 content in treated fish increased from 43 to 240%, and EROD activity from 85 to 160% compared to controls. Extracts from two sampling sites inhibited EROD activity. There were positive significant correlations between P-450 content and the levels of PCBs 44 and 128. EROD activity correlated to HCB, op'-DDE, pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD, mirex and PCB 18 concentrations. Blood examination showed cell degeneration and binucleated leukocytes with abnormal chromatin. Extract treatment also resulted in foci of hyperplasia on the basement of gill lamellae, hypertrophy and oedema in gills and liver necrosis. Control fish showed no abnormalities. The results demonstrate that sediments from Bahía of Chetumal have the potential to cause histopathological, haematological and biochemical alterations in fish. The administration of sediment extracts to fish may serve as a useful test to screen the toxicity of sediments from different areas.

  19. Development of a numerical model for calculating exposure to toxic and nontoxic stressors in the water column and sediment from drilling discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Henrik; Reed, Mark; Frost, Tone Karin; Smit, Mathijs G D; Durgut, Ismail; Johansen, Øistein; Ditlevsen, May Kristin

    2008-04-01

    Drilling discharges are complex mixtures of chemical components and particles which might lead to toxic and nontoxic stress in the environment. In order to be able to evaluate the potential environmental consequences of such discharges in the water column and in sediments, a numerical model was developed. The model includes water column stratification, ocean currents and turbulence, natural burial, bioturbation, and biodegradation of organic matter in the sediment. Accounting for these processes, the fate of the discharge is modeled for the water column, including near-field mixing and plume motion, far-field mixing, and transport. The fate of the discharge is also modeled for the sediment, including sea floor deposition, and mixing due to bioturbation. Formulas are provided for the calculation of suspended matter and chemical concentrations in the water column, and burial, change in grain size, oxygen depletion, and chemical concentrations in the sediment. The model is fully 3-dimensional and time dependent. It uses a Lagrangian approach for the water column based on moving particles that represent the properties of the release and an Eulerian approach for the sediment based on calculation of the properties of matter in a grid. The model will be used to calculate the environmental risk, both in the water column and in sediments, from drilling discharges. It can serve as a tool to define risk mitigating measures, and as such it provides guidance towards the "zero harm" goal.

  20. Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Delaney, Eugenia

    2018-01-01

    between samples and control) and to investigate the possible correlation with sediment chemistry and physical properties. The results showed that statistical performances of the LDR test with A. tonsa correspond with the outcomes of other tests applied to the sediment-water interface (Strongylocentrotus...

  1. Vertical profile, source apportionment, and toxicity of PAHs in sediment cores of a wharf near the coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Ju, Yun-Ru; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-03-01

    Three sediment cores were collected from a wharf near a coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Analyses for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority list in the core sediment samples were conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The vertical profiles of PAHs in the core sediments were assessed, possible sources and apportionment were identified, and the toxicity risk of the core sediments was determined. The results from the sediment analyses showed that total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 11774 ± 4244 to 16755 ± 4593 ng/g dry weight (dw). Generally, the vertical profiles of the PAHs in the sediment cores exhibited a decreasing trend from the top to the lower levels of the S1 core and an increasing trend of PAHs from the top to the lower levels of the S2 and S3 cores. Among the core sediment samples, the five- and six-ring PAHs were predominantly in the S1 core, ranging from 42 to 54 %, whereas the composition of the PAHs in the S2 and S3 cores were distributed equally across three groups: two- and three-ring, four-ring, and five- and six-ring PAHs. The results indicated that PAH contamination at the site of the S1 core had a different source. The molecular indices and principal component analyses with multivariate linear regression were used to determine the source contributions, with the results showing that the contributions of coal, oil-related, and vehicle sources were 38.6, 35.9, and 25.5 %, respectively. A PAH toxicity assessment using the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q, 0.59-0.79), benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (TEQ(carc), 1466-1954 ng TEQ/g dw), and dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ(fish), 3036-4174 pg TEQ/g dw) identified the wharf as the most affected area. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the coal-based industries in this region for pollution reduction.

  2. Further contributions to the understanding of nitrogen removal in waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, R K X; Rios, E N; Sánchez, I A

    2018-06-01

    A set of experiments were conducted in Brazil in a pilot-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) system (a four-maturation-pond series) treating an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent. Over a year and a half the pond series was monitored under two flow rate conditions, hence also different hydraulic retention times and surface loading rates. On-site and laboratory trials were carried out to assess: (i) ammonia losses by volatilization using acrylic capture chambers placed at the surface of the ponds; (ii) organic nitrogen sedimentation rates using metal buckets placed at the bottom of the ponds for collecting settled particulate matter; (iii) nitrogen removal by algal uptake based on the nitrogen content of the suspended particulate matter in samples from the ponds' water column. In addition, nitrification and denitrification rates were measured in laboratory-based experiments using pond water and sediment samples. The pond system achieved high nitrogen removal (69% total nitrogen and 92% ammonia removal). The average total nitrogen removal rates varied from 10,098 to 3,849 g N/ha·d in the first and the last ponds, respectively, with the following fractions associated with the various removal pathways: (i) 23.5-45.6% sedimentation of organic nitrogen; (ii) 13.1-27.8% algal uptake; (iii) 1.2-3.1% ammonia volatilization; and (iv) 0.15-0.34% nitrification-denitrification.

  3. Determination of volatile, toxic hydrogen phosphides in the sediments of the Elbe river, the Elbe estuaries and the Heligoland Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution and concentraion of phosphines in the sediments of the Elbe river were determined by selective preparation and analysis. The concentration of phosphines in one kilogram wet sediment was in the range of 0.1 to 57 n g with the bulking, anaerobic mud from harbors having the highest and the sandy, aerobic sediments having the lowest concentrations. Phosphines in fluvial sediments were detected successfully for the first time applying the method described. (orig.) [de

  4. The effect of beaver ponds on water quality in rural coastal plain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bason, Christopher W.; Kroes, Daniel; Brinson, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    We compared water-quality effects of 13 beaver ponds on adjacent free-flowing control reaches in the Coastal Plain of rural North Carolina. We measured concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and suspended sediment (SS) upstream and downstream of paired ponds and control reaches. Nitrate and SS concentrations decreased, ammonium concentrations increased, and SRP concentrations were unaffected downstream of the ponds and relative to the control reaches. The pond effect on nitrate concentration was a reduction of 112 ± 55 μg-N/L (19%) compared to a control-reach—influenced reduction of 28 ± 17 μg-N/L. The pond effect on ammonium concentration was an increase of 9.47 ± 10.9 μg-N/L (59%) compared to the control-reach—influenced reduction of 1.49 ± 1.37 μg-N/L. The pond effect on SS concentration was a decrease of 3.41 ± 1.68 mg/L (40%) compared to a control-reach—influenced increase of 0.56 ± 0.27 mg/L. Ponds on lower-order streams reduced nitrate concentrations by greater amounts compared to those in higher-order streams. Older ponds reduced SS concentrations by greater amounts compared to younger ponds. The findings of this study indicate that beaver ponds provide water-quality benefits to rural Coastal Plain streams by reducing concentrations of nitrate and suspended sediment.

  5. Relative sensitivity of an amphipod Hyalella azteca, a midge Chironomus dilutus, and a unionid mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea to a toxic sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Hughes, Jamie P.; Wang, Ning; Ireland, D. Scott; Mount, David R.; Hockett, J. Russell; Valenti, Ted W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relative sensitivity of test organisms in exposures to dilutions of a highly toxic sediment contaminated with metals and organic compounds. One dilution series was prepared using control sand (low total organic carbon [TOC; TOC [∼10% TOC, higher binding capacity for contaminants]). Test organisms included an amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 10-d and 28-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 20-d and 48-d exposures started with <1-h-old larvae, and 13-d and 48-d exposures started with 7-d-old larvae), and a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea; 28-d exposures). Relative species sensitivity depended on the toxicity endpoint and the diluent. All 3 species were more sensitive in sand dilutions than in West Bearskin Lake sediment dilutions. The <1-h-old C. dilutus were more sensitive than 7-d-old C. dilutus, but replicate variability was high in exposures started with the younger midge larvae. Larval biomass and adult emergence endpoints of C. dilutus exhibited a similar sensitivity. Survival, weight, and biomass of H. azteca were more sensitive endpoints in 28-d exposures than in 10-d exposures. Weight and biomass of L. siliquoidea were sensitive endpoints in both sand and West Bearskin Lake sediment dilutions. Metals, ammonia, oil, and other organic contaminants may have contributed to the observed toxicity.

  6. Geo-engineering experiments in two urban ponds to control eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijen, G.; Oosterhout, J.F.X.; Douglas, G.C.; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2016-01-01

    Many urban ponds experience detrimental algal blooms as the result of eutrophication. During a two year field experiment, the efficacy of five in situ treatments to mitigate eutrophication effects in urban ponds was studied. The treatments targeted the sediment phosphorus release and were intended

  7. Cooling pond fog studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Fog Excess Water Index (FEWI) method of fog prediction has been verified by the use of data obtained at the Dresden cooling pond during 1976 and 1977 and by a reanalysis of observations made in conjunction with a study of cooling pond simulators during 1974. For applications in which the method is applied to measurements or estimates of bulk water temperature, a critical value of about 0.7 mb appears to be most appropriate. The present analyses confirm the earlier finding that wind speed plays little part in determining the susceptibility for fog generation

  8. Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants collected using sediment sampler and net casts from the GUS III and EXCELLENCE in the Gulf of Mexico from 1978-05-24 to 1979-02-26 (NODC Accession 7900304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using sediment sampler and net casts in the Gulf of Mexico. Data were submitted by Texas...

  9. Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants collected using net and sediment samplers from the MT MITCHELL and other platforms from 22 May 1974 to 27 May 1974 (NODC Accession 7800886)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using sediment sampler and net casts in the coastal waters of the East coast of US. Data...

  10. Benthic organism and marine toxic substances and pollutants collected using net and sediment sampler casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in Gulf of Mexico from 1979-07-23 to 1980-12-13 (NODC Accession 8200103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organism and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using net, sediment sampler, and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other...

  11. Marine toxic substances and pollutants data from sediment corer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Caribbean Sea from 1980-07-16 to 1987-11-29 (NODC Accession 8800013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substance and pollutants data were collected using sediment corer and other instruments in the Caribbean Sea from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other...

  12. Transportation and Bioavailability of Copper and Zinc in a Storm Water Retention Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camponelli, K.; Casey, R. E.; Wright, M. E.; Lev, S. M.; Landa, E. R.

    2006-05-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a non-point source of metals to storm water retention ponds. Zinc and copper are major components of tires and brake pads, respectively. As these automobile parts degrade, they deposit particulates onto the roadway surface. During a storm event, these metal containing particulates are washed into a storm water retention pond where they can then accumulate over time. These metals may be available to organisms inhabiting the pond and surrounding areas. This study focuses on tracking the metals from their deposition on the roadway to their transport and accumulation into a retention pond. The retention pond is located in Owings Mills, MD and collects runoff from an adjacent four lane highway. Pond sediments, background soils, road dust samples, and storm events were collected and analyzed. Copper and zinc concentrations in the pond sediments are higher than local background soils indicating that the pond is storing anthropogenically derived metals. Storm event samples also reveal elevated levels of copper and zinc transported through runoff, along with a large concentration of total suspended solids. After looking at the particulate and dissolved fractions of both metals in the runoff, the majority of the Zn and Cu are in the particulate fraction. Changes in TSS are proportional with changes in particulate bound Zn, indicating that the solid particulates that are entering into the pond are a major contributor of the total metal loading. Sequential extractions carried out on the road dust show that the majority of zinc is extracted in the second and third fractions and could become available to organisms in the pond. There is a small amount of Cu that is being released in the more available stages of the procedure; however the bulk of the Cu is seen in the more recalcitrant steps. In the pond sediments however, both Cu and Zn are only being released from the sediments in the later steps and are most likely not highly available.

  13. Accumulation of toxic metals and organic micro-pollutants in sediments from tropical urban rivers, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Laffite, Amandine; Grandjean, Dominique; Mulaji, Crispin K; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2017-07-01

    The increasing contamination of fresh water resource by toxic metals and Persistence Organic Pollutants (POPs) is a major environmental concern globally. In the present investigation, surface sediments collected from three main rivers named, Makelele, Kalamu and Nsanga, draining through the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, were characterized for grain size, organic matter, toxic metals, POPs (including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were performed to determine metal source and pollution status. The results highlighted high concentration of toxic metals in all sediment samples, reaching the values (mg kg -1 ) of 325 (Cu), 549 (Zn), 165 (Pb) and 1.5 (Cd). High values of PCBs and OCPs were detected in sediment samples, e.g. in Makelele river, PCB values ranged from 0.9 to 10.9 with total PCBs (∑7 PCBs × 4.3): 169.3 μg kg -1 ; OCPs from 21.6 to 146.8 with ∑OCPs: 270.6 μg kg -1 . The PBDEs concentrations were higher in investigated rivers comparatively with values detected in many rivers from Sub-Saharan Africa. The ΣPAHs value ranged from 22.6 to 1011.9 μg kg -1 . River contamination may be explained by local intense domestic activities, urban and agricultural runoff, industrial and hospital wastewaters discharge into the rivers without prior treatment. This research provides not only a first baseline information on the extent of contamination in this tropical ecosystem but also represents useful tools incorporated to evaluate sediment quality in the river receiving systems which can be applied to similar aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sediment toxicity data from the NOAA National Status and Trends Program, March 1991 to July 1996 (NODC Accession 9800146)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of its bioeffects assessment program. NOAA has begun a series of surveys of the toxicity and other biological effects of toxicants in selected bays and...

  15. Bioavailability assessment of toxic metals using the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)" in marine sediments collected in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jucelino B; Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Oliva, Sergio T; de Oliveira, Olívia M C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the bioavailability of the metals (cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and nickel) in sediment samples collected in seven stations from the São Paulo Estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil. The bioavailability was determined by employing the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)". The elements cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were determined using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), while nickel was quantified utilizing electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). The accuracy of these methods was confirmed using a certified reference material of estuarine sediment (NIST 1646). The sulfide was quantified using potentiometry with selective electrode and the organic matter determination employing an indirect volumetric method using potassium dichromate and iron(II) sulfate solutions. The bioavailability of the metals was estimated by relationship between the concentration of AVS and the sum of the concentrations of the simultaneously extracted metals (ΣSEM), considering a significant toxicity when (ΣSEM)/(AVS) is higher than 1. The bioavailability values in the seven stations studied varied from 0.93 to 1.31 (June, 2014) and from 0.34 to 0.58 (September, 2014). These results demonstrated a critical condition of toxicity (bioavailability >1) in six of the seven sediment samples collected during the rainy season (June, 2014). In the other period (September, 2014), the bioavailability was always lower than 1 for all sediment samples collected in the seven stations. The individual values of the concentrations of the five metals were compared with the parameters PEL (probable effects level) and TEL (threshold effects level), which are commonly employed for characterization of ecological risk in environmental systems. This comparison revealed that all metals have concentrations lower than the PEL and only zinc and lead in some stations have contents higher than the TEL. The

  16. Studies on oxygen depletion and the toxic effect of sediments; Untersuchungen zur Sauerstoffzehrung und toxischen Wirkung von Sedimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfitzner, S.; Giest, B.; Wotzka, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Depending on their composition and how they were formed, water sediments contain varying amounts of oxygen-depleting substances. Their portion is particularly high in fine sediment and sediments formed in conjunction with exposure to a high level of wastewater. Particularly in current-free areas like old arms, indentations, sluices and outer ports, sediment forms with a high fine grain content and a correspondingly higher potential for depletion. If, for instance, the sediments are moved and stirred up during dredging, this may impair their oxygen content since oxygen consumption is far higher in a suspended sediment than when it is undisturbed on the water bottom. The very rapid spontaneous chemical oxidation and biological oxidation of reduced substances are possible oxygen-consuming processes. (orig.) [German] Gewaessersedimente enthalten in Abhaengigkeit von ihrer Zusammensetzung und der Art ihrer Entstehung unterschiedliche Mengen an Sauerstoff zehrenden Substanzen. Ihr Anteil ist besonders hoch in Feinsedimenten und solchen, die sich unter starkem Abwassereinfluss bilden konnten. Insbesondere in stroemungsberuhigten Gebieten, wie Altarmen, Ausbuchtungen sowie Schleusen und deren Vorhaefen, reichern sich Sedimente mit hohem Feinkornanteil und dementsprechend hoher potenzieller Zehrungsfaehigkeit an. Werden die Sedimente beispielsweise durch Baggermassnahmen bewegt und aufgewirbelt, kann es zur Beeintraechtigung des Sauerstoffhaushaltes kommen, da der Sauerstoffverbrauch eines Sedimentes bei Suspension um ein Vielfaches hoeher als bei ungestoerter Lagerung am Gewaesserboden sein kann. Als Sauerstoff verbrauchende Prozesse kommen die sehr schnell verlaufende spontane chemische Oxidation sowie die biologische Oxidation reduzierter Substanzen in Betracht. (orig.)

  17. Toxicity of sediment-associated substituted phenylamine antioxidants on the early life stages of Pimephales promelas and a characterization of effects on freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Ryan S; Parrott, Joanne L; Galicia, Melissa; Shires, Kallie; Sullivan, Cheryl; Toito, John; Bartlett, Adrienne J; Milani, Danielle; Gillis, Patty L; Balakrishnan, Vimal K

    2017-10-01

    Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are high production volume chemicals that are incorporated into a variety of commercial products (e.g., polymers, dyes, lubricants). There are few data on chronic toxicity of SPAs to fish and no data on the toxicity of SPAs to the early life stages of fish. The physicochemical properties of SPAs would suggest that if they were to enter an aquatic ecosystem they would partition into sediment. Therefore, the present study focused on investigating the chronic effect of sediment-associated SPAs to the early life stages of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Eggs and larvae were exposed to sediment spiked with diphenylamine (DPA), N-phenyl-1-napthylamine (PNA), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPDA), or 4,4'-methylene-bis[N-sec-butylaniline] (MBA). The most sensitive endpoint for DPA, PNA, and DPPDA was total survival with 21-d median lethal concentrations (LC50s) based on concentration in overlying water of 1920, 74, and 35 μg/L, respectively. The most sensitive endpoint for MBA was growth with a 21-d median effective concentration (EC50) of 71 μg/L. The same endpoints were the most sensitive in terms of concentrations of DPA, PNA, DPPDA, and MBA in sediment (101, 54, 111, and 76 μg/g dry wt, respectively). Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were constructed for each SPA based on acute and chronic toxicity data generated in the present study and found in the literature. Overall, P. promelas was in the midrange of chronic sensitivity, with the most sensitive species being Tubifex tubifex. The SSDs indicate that DPA based on concentration in water is the least toxic to aquatic biota of the 4 SPAs investigated. The constructed SSDs indicate that a concentration in water and sediment of 1 μg/L and 1 μg/g dry weight, respectively, would be protective of >95% of the aquatic species tested. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2730-2738. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Evaluation of the threat of marine CO2 leakage-associated acidification on the toxicity of sediment metals to juvenile bivalves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basallote, M. Dolores; Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; De Orte, Manoela R.; Del Valls, T. Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Short-term tests using juveniles of bivalves to study the effects of CO 2 dissolved. • CO 2 causes effects if the threshold concentration of the organism is overlapped. • Flows of escaped CO 2 would affect the geochemical composition of sediment–seawater. • CO 2 -induced acidification would affect differently to marine sediment toxicity. - Abstract: The effects of the acidification associated with CO 2 leakage from sub-seabed geological storage was studied by the evaluation of the short-term effects of CO 2 -induced acidification on juveniles of the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum. Laboratory scale experiments were performed using a CO 2 -bubbling system designed to conduct ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were exposed for 10 days to elutriates of sediments collected in different littoral areas that were subjected to various pH treatments (pH 7.1, 6.6, 6.1). The acute pH-associated effects on the bivalves were observed, and the dissolved metals in the elutriates were measured. The median toxic effect pH was calculated, which ranged from 6.33 to 6.45. The amount of dissolved Zn in the sediment elutriates increased in parallel with the pH reductions and was correlated with the proton concentrations. The pH, the pCO 2 and the dissolved metal concentrations (Zn and Fe) were linked with the mortality of the exposed bivalves

  19. Assessment of water quality around Jaduguda uranium tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, A.K.; Gurunadha Rao, V.V.S.; Ramesh, G.; Surinaidu, L.; Thama Rao, G.; Dhakate, R.; Sarangi, A.K.; Nair, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impacts of uranium mining and milling activities are of great concern in many countries for the last three decades. These impacts range from the creation of massive stockpiles of radioactive and toxic waste rock and sand-like tailings to serious contamination of surface and groundwater with radioactive and toxic pollutants, and releases of conventional, toxic and radioactive air pollutants. Uranium mining is also associated with high concentrations of highly toxic heavy metals, which are a major source of surface and groundwater contamination. Depending upon the hydraulic properties of the fractures involved, contaminated ground water may be transported many miles from its point of origin before feeding into an aquifer. Tailings pond may contaminate the groundwater regime by continuous seepage and leaching of radionuclides and other toxic metals due to interaction of rain water through the tailings ponds. The uranium milling and tailings pond operations were started at Jaduguda since 1968. A comprehensive geological and geophysical investigation has been carried out in the Jaduguda watershed covering the tailings ponds to understand the geohydrological characteristics of the region. High resolution electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys have been carried out to delineate the aquifer geometry. Water quality analyses were carried out in three seasons covering from premonsoon to postmonsoon period during 2008-2009. Uranium concentrations have been observed in the dug wells, surface water and monitoring wells

  20. Geohydrology and limnology of Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Friesz, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    nitrogen inputs (858 kilograms per year) were dominated (30 percent) by plume water from the septic leach field and, possibly, by swimmers (34 percent). Phosphorus inputs (32 kilograms per year) were dominated by atmospheric dry deposition, background ground water, and estimated swimmer inputs. Swimmer inputs may represent more than 50 percent of the phosphorus load during the summer. The septic-system plume did not contribute phosphorus, but increased the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio for inputs from 41 to 59, on an atom-to-atom basis. The ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus in input loads and within the lake indicated algal growth would be strongly phosphorus limited. Nitrogen supply in excess of plant requirements may mitigate against nitrogen fixing organisms including undesirable blooms of cyanobacteria. Based on areal nutrient loading, Walden Pond is a mesotrophic lake. Hypolimnetic oxygen demand of Walden Pond has increased since a profile was measured in 1939. Currently (1999), the entire hypolimnion of Walden Pond becomes devoid of dissolved oxygen before fall turnover in late November; whereas historical data indicated dissolved oxygen likely remained in the hypolimnion during 1939. The complete depletion of dissolved oxygen likely causes release of phosphorus from the sediments. Walden Pond contains a large population of the deep-growing benthic macro alga Nitella, which has been hypothesized to promote water clarity in other clear-water lakes by sequestering nutrients and keeping large areas of the sediment surface oxygenated. Loss of Nitella populations in other lakes has correlated with a decline in water quality. Although the Nitella standing crop is large in Walden Pond, Nitella still appears to be controlled by nutrient availability. Decreasing phosphorus inputs to Walden Pond, by amounts under anthropogenic control would likely contribute to the stability of the Nitella population in the metalimnion, may reverse oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion, and decreas

  1. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  2. Toxic trace element assessment for soils/sediments deposited during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita from southern Louisiana, USA: a sequential extraction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Honglan; Witt, Emitt C; Shu, Shi; Su, Tingzhi; Wang, Jianmin; Adams, Craig

    2010-07-01

    Analysis of soil/sediment samples collected in the southern Louisiana, USA, region three weeks after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed was performed using sequential extraction procedures to determine the origin, mode of occurrence, biological availability, mobilization, and transport of trace elements in the environment. Five fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron (Fe)-manganese (Mn) oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual, were subsequently extracted. The toxic trace elements Pb, As, V, Cr, Cu, and Cd were analyzed in each fraction, together with Fe in 51 soil/sediment samples. Results indicated that Pb and As were at relatively high concentrations in many of the soil/sediment samples. Because the forms in which Pb and As are present tend to be highly mobile under naturally occurring environmental conditions, these two compounds pose an increased health concern.Vanadium and Cr were mostly associated with the crystal line nonmobile residual fraction. A large portion of the Cu was associated with organic matter and residual fraction. Cadmium concentrations were low in all soil/sediment samples analyzed and most of this element tended to be associated with the mobile fractions. An average of 21% of the Fe was found in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, indicating that a substantial part of the Fe was in an oxidized form. The significance of the overall finding of the present study indicated that the high concentrations and high availabilities of the potentially toxic trace elements As and Pb may impact the environment and human health in southern Louisiana and, in particular, the New Orleans area. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  3. Ecological risk assessment of toxic organic pollutant and heavy metals in water and sediment from a landscape lake in Tianjin City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Yuanyuan; Niu, Zhiguang; Jin, Shaopei

    2017-05-01

    To estimate the ecological risk of toxic organic pollutant (formaldehyde) and heavy metals (mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr)) in water and sediment from a landscape Lake in Tianjin City, an ecological risk assessment was performed. The risk quotient (RQ) method and the AQUATOX model were used to assess the ecological risk of formaldehyde in landscape water. Meanwhile, the RQ method and the potential ecological risk index method were used to assess the ecological risk of four heavy metals in water and sediment from the studied landscape lake, respectively. The results revealed that the maximum concentration of formaldehyde in landscape water was lower than the environmental quality standards of surface water in China. The maximum simulated concentrations of formaldehyde in phytoplankton and invertebrates were 3.15 and 22.91 μg/L, respectively, which were far less than its toxicity data values (1000 and 510 μg/L, respectively), suggesting that formaldehyde in landscape water was at a safe level for aquatic organisms. The RQ model indicated that the risks of phytoplankton and invertebrates were higher than that of fish posed by Hg and Cd in landscape water, and the risks from As and Cr were acceptable for all test organisms. Cd is the most important pollution factor among all heavy metals in sediment from studied landscape lake, and the pollution factor sequence of heavy metals was Hg > As > Cr > Cd. The values of risk index (RI) for four heavy metals in samples a and b were 43.48 and 72.66, which were much lower than the threshold value (150), suggesting that the ecological risk posed by heavy metals in sediment was negligible.

  4. Using an interlaboratory study to revise methods for conducting 10-d to 42-d water or sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Mount, David R.; Hockett, J. Russell; Norberg-King, Teresa J.; Soucek, Dave; Taylor, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to refine US Environmental Protection Agency, ASTM International, and Environment Canada standard methods for conducting 42-d reproduction tests with Hyalella azteca in water or in sediment. Modifications to the H. azteca method include better-defined ionic composition requirements for exposure water (i.e., >15 mg/L of chloride and >0.02 mg/L of bromide) and improved survival, growth, and reproduction with alternate diets provided as increased rations over time in water-only or whole-sediment toxicity tests. A total of 24 laboratories volunteered to participate in the present interlaboratory study evaluating the performance of H. azteca in 42-d studies in control sand or control sediment using the refined methods. Improved growth and reproduction of H. azteca was observed with 2 alternate diets of 1) ramped diatoms (Thalassiosira weissflogii) + ramped Tetramin or 2) yeast–cerophyll–trout chow (YCT) + ramped Tetramin, especially when compared with results from the traditional diet of 1.8 mg YCT/d. Laboratories were able to meet proposed test acceptability criteria and in most cases had lower variation in growth or reproduction compared with previous interlaboratory studies using the traditional YCT diet. Laboratory success in conducting 42-d H. azteca exposures benefited from adherence to several key requirements of the detailed testing, culturing, and handling methods. Results from the present interlaboratory study are being used to help revise standard methods for conducting 10-d to 42-d water or sediment toxicity exposures with H. azteca.

  5. Assessment of sediment quality based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in heavily industrialized area of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf: concentrations, spatial distributions, and sediment bioavailability/toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaeinia, Hossein; Nabipour, Iraj; Ostovar, Afshin; Asadgol, Zahra; Abuee, Ehsan; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2016-05-01

    Sediment samples from the coastal area of Asaluyeh harbor were collected during autumn and spring 2015. The acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) were measured to assess the sediment quality and potential ecological risks. The average concentrations (and relative standard deviation (RSD)) of AVS in the industrial sediments were 12.32 μmol/g (36.91) and 6.34 μmol/g (80.05) in autumn and spring, respectively, while in the urban area, these values were 0.44 μmol/g (123.50) and 0.31 μmol/g (160.0) in autumn and spring, respectively. The average concentrations of SEM (and RSD) in the industrial sediments were 15.02 μmol/g (14.38) and 12.34 μmol/g (20.65) in autumn and spring, respectively, while in the urban area, these values were 1.10 μmol/g (43.03) and 1.06 μmol/g (55.59) in autumn and spring, respectively. Zn was the predominant component (34.25-86.24 %) of SEM, while the corresponding value for Cd, much more toxic ingredient, was less than 1 %. Some of the coastal sediments in the harbor of Asaluyeh (20 and 47 % in autumn and spring, respectively) had expected adverse biological effects based on the suggested criterion by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), while most stations (80 and 53 % in autumn and spring, respectively) had uncertain adverse effects.

  6. Remediation of an oily leachate pond in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2005-12-01

    Until recent years, waste oil and oil-contaminated waters commonly ended up in landfills. At some dump sites, ponds of oily liquids and leachate were formed. To remediate such ponds, an interdisciplinary approach is now required, keeping costs at an affordable level, particularly in countries with changing economies. From 1974 to 1993, liquid oily wastes taken to the Laguja landfill, in Estonia, were disposed of in a pond with a surface area of 9800 m2. It was estimated that the pond contained 4500-6000 m3 of oily water and 3500 m3 of oil-containing bottom sediments. This study aimed at developing an environmentally sound and cost-effective method for remediation of the oily liquids, leachate and contaminated underlying sediment material, to meet the existing legal demands. It was concluded that treatment of contaminated water is well established and the procedures carried out to meet the regulatory demands achieved satisfactory results. However, regarding treatment of sediments it was concluded that legal and technological aspects, as well as monitoring procedures are not fully established and are usually underestimated. Laboratory investigations can provide valuable information in decision-making, and contribute to effective full-scale remediation planning.

  7. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1975-03-01

    A Pu processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior in this ecosystem. About 8.1 kg of Pu was reported to have been discharged into waste trenches leading to the pond. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, 0.61 for 241 Am to 238 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Levels of Pu and Am in the interstitial water range from 0.5 to 13 pCi/g (dry wt. of sediment). For 238 Pu in pond water the mean concentration is 0.007 pCi/l, for 239 240 Pu it is 0.002 pCi/l, and for 241 Am it is 1.08 pCi/l. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments. (U.S.)

  8. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program: Magnitude and Extent of Sediment Toxicity of South Carolina and Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surficial sediment samples were collected from 162 locations within five estuaries - Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, Leadenwah Creek, Savannah River, and St. Simons...

  9. Toxic metals enrichment in the surficial sediments of a eutrophic tropical estuary (Cochin Backwaters, Southwest coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Martin, G.D.; Rejomon G.; Shaiju, P.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Nair, S.M.; Chandramohanakumar, N.

    changes. Enrichments factors using Fe as a normalizer showed that metal contamination was the product of anthropogenic activities. An assessment of degree of pollution-categorized sediments as moderately polluted with Cu and Pb, moderately...

  10. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  11. EVALUATING THE ECOLOGICAL RESILIENT DRIVEN PERFORMANCE OF A TROPICAL WASTE STABILIZATION POND SYSTEM USING ECOLOGICAL SIGNATURE OF BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Lahiri Ganguly; Dipanwita Sarkar Paria; B. B. Jana

    2015-01-01

    Using ecological signature of biological integrity as a measure of performance, the reclamation efficiency of waste stabilization ponds was evaluated over a period of four years in a tropical sewage treatment plant – cum fish culture consisting of two anaerobic, two facultative and four maturation ponds located serially across the sewage effluent gradient. The four maturation ponds were used for batch culture of fish. Samples of surface and bottom water as well as surface sediment were collec...

  12. Performance of constructed evaporation ponds for disposal of smelter waste water: a case study at Portland Aluminum, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, S A; Allinson, G; Stagnitti, F; Coates, M; Hill, R J

    2001-06-01

    The construction of evaporative ponds and wetlands for the disposal of waste water high in ionic concentrations is a waste disposal strategy currently considered by many industries. However, the design, construction and management of these ponds and wetlands are not straightforward as complex chemical interactions result in both spatial and temporal changes in water quality. The effects of evaporation and drainage on the water quality in two constructed ponds, an adjacent man-made wetland and local groundwater at Portland Aluminium were investigated. The minimum volume of water entering the ponds during the study period was 0.96 +/- 0.16 ML per month. The predicted theoretical evaporative capacity of the two ponds was calculated to be 0.30 +/- 0.07 ML per month. More water enters the ponds than it is theoretically possible to evaporate under the ambient weather conditions at Portland, yet the ponds do not overflow, suggesting percolation through the pond lining. No spatial differences in solute concentrations (fluoride, sulphate, bicarbonate, carbonate, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium ions) were found within the waters of either pond, although temporal differences were apparent. The results support the conclusion that the ponds are not impermeable, and that much of the waste water entering the ponds is being lost through seepage. The impacts on local groundwater chemistry of this seepage are addressed. Significant correlations exist between solute presence within and between the ponds. wetland and groundwater. Fluoride and sulphate concentrations were significantly higher in pond waters throughout the duration of the experiment. Pond sediments revealed a high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the concentration of all monitored ions resulting from the chemical heterogeneity of the material making up the pond linings. Adsorption isotherms for fluoride indicate that the adsorption capacity of the pond linings remains high for this ion

  13. Fate of high loads of ammonia in a pond and wetland downstream from a hazardous waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrofello, Michele; Durant, John L

    2007-07-01

    Halls Brook (eastern Massachusetts, USA) is a significant source of total dissolved ammonia (sum of NH(3) and NH(4)(+); (NH(3))(T)) to the Aberjona River, a water body listed for NH(3) impairment on the Clean Water Act section 303(d) list. We hypothesized (1) that (NH(3))(T) in Halls Brook derived from a hazardous waste site via groundwater discharging to a two-basin pond that feeds the brook; and (2) that transport of (NH(3))(T) to the Aberjona River was controlled by lacustrine and wetland processes. To test these hypotheses we measured (NH(3))(T) levels in the brook, the pond, and a wetlands directly downstream of the pond during both dry and wet weather over a ten month period. In addition, we analyzed sediment cores and nitrogen isotopes, and performed mass balance calculations. Groundwater discharge from beneath the hazardous waste site was the major source of (NH(3))(T) (20-67 kg d(-1)) and salinity to the north basin of the pond. The salty bottom waters of the north basin were anoxic on all sampling dates, and exhibited relatively stable (NH(3))(T) concentrations between 200 and 600 mg Nl(-1). These levels were >100-times higher than typical background levels, and 8-24-times above the acute effects level for (NH(3))(T) toxicity. Bottom waters from the north basin continuously spill over into the south basin contributing approximately 50% of the (NH(3))(T) load entering this basin. The remainder comes from Halls Brook, which receives (NH(3))(T) loadings from as yet unknown sources upstream. During storm events up to 50% of the mass of (NH(3))(T) was flushed from the south basin and into the wetlands. The wetlands acted as a (NH(3))(T) sink in dry weather in the growing season and a discharge-dependent (NH(3))(T) source to the Aberjona River during rainstorms.

  14. Can terraced pond wetland systems improve urban watershed water quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Ho, M.; Flanagan, N. E.; Richardson, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Properly built constructed wetlands are a more economic and efficient way of wastewater treatment compared with traditional methods, although their mechanisms are far from completely understood. As part of the Stream and Wetland Assessment Management Park (SWAMP), which is aimed to improve the water quality of downstream and thereby enhance watershed ecosystem services, a terraced three-pond wetland system was created near Duke University in 2014. This project is expected to promote the retention and settling of pollutants and sediment before runoffs enter downstream flow. The goal of this study is to examine: (1) whether a terraced pond wetland system improves water quality, during both baseline (low flow) and storm events (high flow), which increases pollutant inputs; and (2) how this system functions to remove pollutants, namely what components of this system (plant, soil or water) increase or decrease the level of pollutants. By analyzing a dataset consisting of more than four-year monthly samplings from Pond 1 (first pond in the system) and Pond 3 (last pond in the system), we found that the pond system has reduced total suspended solids (TSS) but only when elevated inputs occur. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is closely related to temperature and macrophytes growth; whereas acidity (pH), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) did not show retention in the early stages of the system development. This system reaches its optimum for reducing TSS at the second pond, but the third pond has important effects on DO, pH, TN and TP. A monitoring in 2017 shows this pond system significantly reduces TSS while increasing dissolved oxygen and neutralizing pH after a storm event; although greater variations incurred within the system as time progresses after storm, overall retention function remained valid. Retention of the pollutants is primarily accomplished by the settling process, which occurs in stilled waterbody of the ponds and by the filtration of macrophytes. We

  15. Vertical distribution, composition profiles, sources and toxicity assessment of PAH residues in the reclaimed mudflat sediments from the adjacent Thane Creek of Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaiah, N; Mohite, R D; Singare, P U; Reddy, A V R; Singhal, R K; Blaha, U

    2017-05-15

    A study on vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility, carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting PAHs was performed in the reclaimed mudflat sediments adjacent to the Thane Creek of Mumbai. The 5-rings PAHs and ΣC-PAHs were more dominant at 120cm depth contributing 52.23% and 60.19% respectively to ∑PAHs. The average ratio values of LMW/HMW PAHs (0.58); Fla/(Fla+Pyr) (0.50); Ant/(Ant+Phe) (0.50); BaA/(Chry+BaA) (0.48); BaP/BghiP (2.06), Phe/Ant (1.03) and BaA/Chr (0.93) indicate that the PAH contamination might have raised due to inefficient combustion and pyrogenic emissions during the open burning of solid waste in the vicinity. This was further supported by the anthropogenic ferri(o)magnetic loading over the last 100years influencing the Creek sediments. The PAHs toxicity estimation was performed by calculating the toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) value of 8.62ng TEQ/g which was below the safe level (600ng TEQ/g) suggested by the Canadian risk-based soil criterion for protection of human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of adsorption behavior of dibutyltin (DBT) to clay-rich sediments in comparison to the highly toxic tributyltin (TBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch, Marion; Alonso-Azcarate, Jacinto; Lischick, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Adsorption of dibutyltin to marine sediments is influenced by the type of predominating clay material. - The sorption behavior of dibutyltin (DBT) to four types of natural clay-rich sediments as a function of pH and salinity was studied. The strongest affinity of DBT was found to the montmorillonite-rich sediment, which is characterized by the highest specific surface area and cation exchange capacity of the four used sediments. K d values range between 12 and 40 (l/kg) on simulated marine conditions (pH 8, salinity 32%o). A maximum of DBT adsorption was found at a salinity of 0%o and pH 6. Desorption occurred over the entire studied pH range (4-8) when contaminated sediments interact with butyltin-free water. The maximum of desorption coincided with the minimum of adsorption, and vice versa. The results of DBT adsorption are compared with tributyltin (TBT), and the mechanism of the adsorption process is discussed

  17. Persistent toxic substances in remote lake and coastal sediments from Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic: Levels, sources and fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Liping; Zheng, Gene J.; Minh, Tu Binh; Richardson, Bruce; Chen Liqi; Zhang Yuanhui; Yeung, Leo W.; Lam, James C.W.; Yan, Xulin; Lam, Paul K.S.; Wong, Ming H.

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediments from remote lakes and coastal areas from Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Relatively high levels of PAHs were encountered from several lakes from Ny-Alesund, which were within the range of levels reported for European high mountain lakes and some urban/industrialized areas in the world, pointing to the role of remote Arctic lakes as potential reservoir of semi-volatile organic compounds. Specific patterns of PBDEs were observed, showing higher concentrations of lower brominated compounds such as BDE-7, 17 and 28. Estimated surface sediment fluxes of PAHs in Ny-Alesund remote lakes were similar to those observed for some European high mountain lakes. The current PAH levels in sediments from three lakes exceeded Canadian sediment quality guidelines, suggesting the presence of possible risks for aquatic organisms and the need for further studies. - High levels of PAHs and specific patterns of PBDEs were found in sediments from the remote Norwegian Arctic lakes

  18. Molecular diversity of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community in disused tin-mining ponds located within Kampar, Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, S L S; Khoo, G; Chong, L K; Smith, T J; Harrison, P L; Ong, H K A

    2014-02-01

    Disused tin-mining ponds make up a significant amount of water bodies in Malaysia particularly at the Kinta Valley in the state of Perak where tin-mining activities were the most extensive, and these abundantly available water sources are widely used in the field of aquaculture and agriculture. However, the natural ecology and physicochemical conditions of these ponds, many of which have been altered due to secondary post-mining activities, remains to be explored. As ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are directly related to the nutrient cycles of aquatic environments and are useful bioindicators of environmental variations, the focus of this study was to identify AOBs associated with disused tin-mining ponds that have a history of different secondary activities in comparison to ponds which were left untouched and remained as part of the landscape. The 16S rDNA gene was used to detect AOBs in the sediment and water sampled from the three types of disused mining ponds, namely ponds without secondary activity, ponds that were used for lotus cultivation and post-aquaculture ponds. When the varying pond types were compared with the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the AOB clone libraries, both Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira-like AOB were detected though Nitrosospira spp. was seen to be the most ubiquitous AOB as it was present in all ponds types. However, AOBs were not detected in the sediments of idle ponds. Based on rarefaction analysis and diversity indices, the disused mining pond with lotus culture indicated the highest richness of AOBs. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that among the physicochemical properties of the pond sites, TAN and nitrite were shown to be the main factors that influenced the community structure of AOBs in these disused tin-mining ponds.

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediments from the Southern Shores of the Caspian Sea, Anzali City: Toxicity Assessment and Source Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Azimi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caspian Sea has recently experienced great damages due to intense pressure from human activities, petroleum contaminant discharges from oil extraction and refining activities, and domestic and industrial wastewaters discharged into the environment. The aim of this study was to determine the sources and levels of one of the most dangerous oil pollutants ‒ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ‒ in the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (Anzali City. The data would be compared with standard PAHs concentrations in order to derive the information required for designing appropriate management measures. For the purposes of this study, nine surface sediment samples were collected from the experimental field and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used to analyze the samples for their contaminants. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 736 to 9009 ng g-1d.w with an increasing trend along the east-west direction. Also, multiple indexes were used to detect the petrogenic origin of these compounds. Compared with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs of Florida (TELs/PELs, the levels for half the PAH compounds exceeded TELs. Moreover, naphthalene, fluorine, and phenanthrene concentrations exceeded the PELs in some stations, indicating likely acute toxic effects. However, comparison with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs of the United States (TELs/PELs revealed that most of the compounds at the stations investigated were lower than ERLs. It was concluded that the quality guidelines of the Florida State are more conservative for protecting the biotic organisms in the region.

  20. Evaluation of the threat of marine CO{sub 2} leakage-associated acidification on the toxicity of sediment metals to juvenile bivalves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basallote, M. Dolores, E-mail: dolores.basallote@uca.es [Cátedra UNESCO/UNITWIN WiCop, Departamento de Química-Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Polígono Río San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli [Departamento de Ecología y Gestión Costera, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (CSIC), Campus Río San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); De Orte, Manoela R.; Del Valls, T. Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada [Cátedra UNESCO/UNITWIN WiCop, Departamento de Química-Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Polígono Río San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Short-term tests using juveniles of bivalves to study the effects of CO{sub 2} dissolved. • CO{sub 2} causes effects if the threshold concentration of the organism is overlapped. • Flows of escaped CO{sub 2} would affect the geochemical composition of sediment–seawater. • CO{sub 2}-induced acidification would affect differently to marine sediment toxicity. - Abstract: The effects of the acidification associated with CO{sub 2} leakage from sub-seabed geological storage was studied by the evaluation of the short-term effects of CO{sub 2}-induced acidification on juveniles of the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum. Laboratory scale experiments were performed using a CO{sub 2}-bubbling system designed to conduct ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were exposed for 10 days to elutriates of sediments collected in different littoral areas that were subjected to various pH treatments (pH 7.1, 6.6, 6.1). The acute pH-associated effects on the bivalves were observed, and the dissolved metals in the elutriates were measured. The median toxic effect pH was calculated, which ranged from 6.33 to 6.45. The amount of dissolved Zn in the sediment elutriates increased in parallel with the pH reductions and was correlated with the proton concentrations. The pH, the pCO{sub 2} and the dissolved metal concentrations (Zn and Fe) were linked with the mortality of the exposed bivalves.

  1. Lethal and sublethal responses to a sediment bound toxicant by two oligochaetes from Lake Michigan: stylodrilus heringianus and limnodrilus hoffmeisteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keilty, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Short-term lethal, and short and long-term sublethal responses by Stylodrilus heringianus (Lumbriculidae) and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Tubificidae) to sediments dosed with endrin were measured in single and mixed species tests. Ninety-six hour LC 50 values were 2588 +/- 1974 and 2757 +/- 995 ug/g dry weight sediment for S. heringianus and L. hoffmeisteri respectively. Ninety-six hour EC 50 burrowing avoidance values (concentration where 50% do not burrow) were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the LC 50 's. Short-term mixed species LC 50 data suggested that L. hoffmeisteri may benefit from the presence of S. heringianus. Long-term sublethal responses were quantified by measuring sediment reworking rates (the rate at which subsurface sediments are egested at the surface and re-buried) in laboratory microcosms. Rates were determined by monitoring a gamma-emitting 137 Cesium marker layer with a well-collimated NaI detector. Sediment endrin concentrations ranged from 3 ng/g to 82 ug/g in six 1300 hour experiments. For S. heringianus, reworking rates were stimulated at low concentrations during the first half of experiments, followed by gradual decreases relative to controls. Stimulation of L. hoffmeisteri reworking was not observed. At high concentrations, early reworking rates were reduced for both species, followed by dramatic decreases later on. In mixed species experiments at high concentrations, the presence of S. heringianus enhanced the reworking of L. hoffmeisteri, although the reverse was not observed. Decreased mortality and increased post experimental dry weights of L. hoffmeisteri in mixed, relative to single species tests were also observed. Generally, post experimental worm weights were inversely related to sediment endrin loads, and bioconcentration factors for S. heringianus (10-40) were approximately fourfold that of L. hoffmeisteri (1-10)

  2. The Pond Is Our Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Barbara Turco

    1978-01-01

    This science teacher's laboratory is a pond within walking distance of his school that provides a stimulating environment for exploring the natural world. With simple materials students practice making careful observations, taking measurements and compiling and graphing information for their science studies. They also extend their pond experiences…

  3. Restoration of a shady urban pond - The pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczak, Tomasz; Wojtal-Frankiewicz, Adrianna; Kaczkowski, Zbigniew; Oleksińska, Zuzanna; Bednarek, Agnieszka; Zalewski, Maciej

    2018-07-01

    The Bzura-7 pond (Łódź, Poland) is a typical shallow and shady urban reservoir situated on the Bzura River that is exposed to pollutants introduced mainly by internal loads and the supply from the catchment. In 2010-2012, the following characteristics were observed in the pond: a high allochthonous input of organic matter, high concentration of ammonium, low concentration of dissolved oxygen and low diversity of zooplankton, dominated mainly by Daphnia spp. From January to June 2013, restoration measures were performed, including sediment removal, increasing light access to the pond and construction of a sequential sedimentation-biofiltration system (SSBS). The aim of the present study was to investigate how the water quality in the Bzura-7 pond was affected by the restoration process, which included reducing pollutant inflows and enhancing habitat potential, thus increasing the diversity of this ecosystem. Restoration efforts improved the chemical and physical parameters of the water. The oxygen concentration increased, and the concentrations of TN and ammonium significantly decreased. Despite the increase in pond lighting, the growth of cyanobacteria was limited. However, we observed increased abundance of green algae and diatoms but less than adequate changes in the zooplankton community structures. Although we observed a significant increase in the zooplankton species richness after restoration, this increase was related to the small-bodied groups of zooplankton, rotifers and bosminiids, characteristic of eutrophic ecosystems. In addition, a planktivorous fish - sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus) - was identified as an unintended side effect of the restoration effort. Further conservation efforts in the Bzura-7 pond and monitoring of results are still needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of four porewater sampling methods for metal mixtures and dissolved organic carbon and the implications for sediment toxicity evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Danielle; Brumbaugh, William G; MacDonald, Donald D

    2017-11-01

    Evaluations of sediment quality conditions are commonly conducted using whole-sediment chemistry analyses but can be enhanced by evaluating multiple lines of evidence, including measures of the bioavailable forms of contaminants. In particular, porewater chemistry data provide information that is directly relevant for interpreting sediment toxicity data. Various methods for sampling porewater for trace metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is an important moderator of metal bioavailability, have been employed. The present study compares the peeper, push point, centrifugation, and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) methods for the quantification of 6 metals and DOC. The methods were evaluated at low and high concentrations of metals in 3 sediments having different concentrations of total organic carbon and acid volatile sulfide and different particle-size distributions. At low metal concentrations, centrifugation and push point sampling resulted in up to 100 times higher concentrations of metals and DOC in porewater compared with peepers and DGTs. At elevated metal levels, the measured concentrations were in better agreement among the 4 sampling techniques. The results indicate that there can be marked differences among operationally different porewater sampling methods, and it is unclear if there is a definitive best method for sampling metals and DOC in porewater. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2906-2915. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  5. Persistence, variance and toxic levels of organochlorine pesticides in fluvial sediments and the role of black carbon in their retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Musarrat; Ramanathan, Al; Khillare, P S; Raju, N J

    2014-05-01

    The present study assesses the persistence and variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their regulation by total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in freshwater sediment. Sediment samples from the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganges (one of the most populated and intensively used rivers in Asia), had high levels of Σ20OCPs (21.41 to 139.95 ng g(-1)). β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was the most predominant component. ΣHCH and Σdichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) constituted ~86% of Σ20OCPs. Isomer ratios indicated fresh usage of lindane, DDT and technical-grade HCH. Toxicological comparison with freshwater sediment quality guidelines showed γ-HCH and DDT at high levels of concern. β-HCH, α-HCH, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane (DDD), dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene and chlordane were above some of the guideline levels. TOC and BC had mean concentrations of 1.37 ± 0.51% and 0.46 ± 0.23 mg g(-1), respectively. BC constituted 1.25 to 10.56% of TOC. We observed low to moderate correlations of BC with isomers of HCH, p,p'-DDT and methoxychlor while of TOC with Σ20OCPs, γ-HCH, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor. Principal component analysis enabled correlating and clustering of various OCPs, BC and TOC. OCP distribution was related with pH, electrical conductivity, soil moisture and finer fractions of sediment. OCPs with similarity in properties that determine their interactions with carbonaceous components of sediment clustered together. A number of factors may, thus, be involved in the regulation of interactive forces between BC and OCPs. BC in this study may be more important than TOC in the retention of some OCPs into fluvial sediments, thereby reducing their bioavailability. The finding is probably the first of its kind to report and emphasises the role of BC in the persistence of OCPs in fluvial sediments.

  6. Environmental Risk Assessment Based on High-Resolution Spatial Maps of Potentially Toxic Elements Sampled on Stream Sediments of Santiago, Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. S. Cabral Pinto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical mapping is the base knowledge to identify the regions of the planet with critical contents of potentially toxic elements from either natural or anthropogenic sources. Sediments, soils and waters are the vehicles which link the inorganic environment to life through the supply of essential macro and micro nutrients. The chemical composition of surface geological materials may cause metabolic changes which may favor the occurrence of endemic diseases in humans. In order to better understand the relationships between environmental geochemistry and public health, we present environmental risk maps of some harmful elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the stream sediments of Santiago, Cape Verde, identifying the potentially harmful areas in this island. The Estimated Background Values (EBV of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and V were found to be above the Canadian guidelines for any type of use of stream sediments and also above the target values of the Dutch and United States guidelines. The Probably Effect Concentrations (PEC, above which harmful effects are likely in sediment dwelling organisms, were found for Cr and Ni. Some associations between the geological formations of the island and the composition of stream sediments were identified and confirmed by descriptive statistics and by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The EBV spatial distribution of the metals and the results of PCA allowed us to establish relationships between the EBV maps and the geological formations. The first two PCA modes indicate that heavy metals in Santiago stream sediments are mainly originated from weathering of underlying bedrocks. The first metal association (Co, V, Cr, and Mn; first PCA mode consists of elements enriched in basic rocks and compatible elements. The second association of variables (Zn and Cd as opposed to Ni; second PCA mode appears to be strongly controlled by the composition of alkaline volcanic rocks and pyroclastic rocks. So, the

  7. Toxic effects of some major polyaromatic hydrocarbons found in crude oil and aquatic sediments on Scenedesmus subspicatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djomo, J.E. [Universite de Dschang Cameroun, Toulouse (France). Laboratoire de Biologie Animale; Dauta, A. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). CESAC; Ferrier, V. [UMR-CNRS 9925 affiliee a l' INSERM, Toulouse (France); Narbonne, J.F. [Universite de Bordeaux I, Talence (France). Laboratoire de Toxicologie Alimentaire; Monkiedje, A.; Njine, T. [Universite de Yaounde 1, Cameroun, Toulouse (France). Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie Animales; Garrigues, P. [Universite de Bordeaux I, Talence (France). UPRES A 5472 CNRS

    2004-04-01

    The green alga, Scenedesmus subspicatus was exposed for 7 days to a series of PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) of increased molecular weight from two to five rings [naphthalene (Nap), anthracene (Ant), phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)]. The toxicity measured as population growth inhibition by individual PAH to the S. subspicatus followed the order: BaP>Pyr>Ant>Phe>Nap. These results confirmed that the toxicity potential of PAHs seems to be strongly influenced by their physico-chemical properties (aqueous solubility, K{sub ow}, coefficient of volatilization, etc.) and the conditions of algae culture (light, presence of nitrate ions, etc.). Consequently, Nap, Phe and Ant having low K{sub ow} values and low coefficient of volatilization values were less toxic than BaP with the highest k{sub ow} value, indicating for example why Nap with the lowest EC{sub 50} value was nearly 2x10{sup 5} times lower than that of BaP. Moreover, nitrate ions seemed to act directly on the degree of hydroxylated radical reactivity of PAHs, since BaP always remained the most toxic of the compounds tested. The results were also agreed with the QSAR model for toxicity prediction of PAHs to many aquatic organisms. (author)

  8. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned

  9. A highly sensitive underwater video system for use in turbid aquaculture ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Tsao, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Kuo-Hao; Jang, Jia-Pu; Chang, Hsu-Kuang; Dobbs, Fred C

    2016-08-24

    The turbid, low-light waters characteristic of aquaculture ponds have made it difficult or impossible for previous video cameras to provide clear imagery of the ponds' benthic habitat. We developed a highly sensitive, underwater video system (UVS) for this particular application and tested it in shrimp ponds having turbidities typical of those in southern Taiwan. The system's high-quality video stream and images, together with its camera capacity (up to nine cameras), permit in situ observations of shrimp feeding behavior, shrimp size and internal anatomy, and organic matter residues on pond sediments. The UVS can operate continuously and be focused remotely, a convenience to shrimp farmers. The observations possible with the UVS provide aquaculturists with information critical to provision of feed with minimal waste; determining whether the accumulation of organic-matter residues dictates exchange of pond water; and management decisions concerning shrimp health.

  10. Survey of PAH in low density residential stormwater ponds in coastal South Carolina: false dark mussels (Mytilopsis leucophaeata) as potential biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Alan T; Weinstein, John E; Lewitus, Alan J

    2008-09-01

    The distribution of PAHs was studied in sediment and false dark mussels, Mytilopsis leucophaeata, of three brackish stormwater retention ponds on Kiawah Island, a gated residential community and golf resort. Impervious surface in pond watersheds ranged from 5 to 30%. Sediment concentrations were lower than those found in other studies of suburban residential areas, and there were no significant differences among ponds or seasons. Mean summation PAH16 values for sediments in Ponds 67, 100, and 37 were 184.7+/-101.3ng g(-1), 67.5+/-26.0ng g(-1), and 84.3+/-75.5ng g(-1), respectively. Mussel summation PAH16 concentrations from Pond 67 in August (mean 734.5+/-148.1ng g(-1)), and from Pond 37 in December (mean 1115.1+/-87.7ng g(-1)), were significantly higher than other ponds. Mean summation PAH16 values for mussels in Ponds 67, 100, and, 37 were 555.9+/-219.7ng g(-1), 312.5+/-99.1ng g(-1) and 737.8+/-419.8ng g(-1), respectively. The mean biota-to-sediment ratio was 7.6+/-8.1. Isomer ratios generally suggested pyrogenic sources. False dark mussels are a promising indicator species for PAH contamination because they are abundant, easy to sample, bioaccumulate PAH profiles representative of the time-integrated sediment profiles, and their PAH levels are less variable than either stormwater or sediment samples.

  11. Fuel particles in the Chernobyl cooling pond: current state and prediction for remediation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgakov, A.; Konoplev, A.; Smith, J.; Laptev, G.; Voitsekhovich, O.

    2009-01-01

    During the coming years, a management and remediation strategy for the Chernobyl cooling pond (CP) will be implemented. Remediation options include a controlled reduction in surface water level of the cooling pond and stabilisation of exposed sediments. In terrestrial soils, fuel particles deposited during the Chernobyl accident have now almost completely disintegrated. However, in the CP sediments the majority of 90 Sr activity is still in the form of fuel particles. Due to the low dissolved oxygen concentration and high pH, dissolution of fuel particles in the CP sediments is significantly slower than in soils. After the planned cessation of water pumping from the Pripyat River to the Pond, significant areas of sediments will be drained and exposed to the air. This will significantly enhance the dissolution rate and, correspondingly, the mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides will increase with time. The rate of acidification of exposed bottom sediments was predicted on the basis of acidification of similar soils after liming. Using empirical equations relating the fuel particle dissolution rate to soil and sediment pH allowed prediction of fuel particle dissolution and 90 Sr mobilisation for different remediation scenarios. It is shown that in exposed sediments, fuel particles will be almost completely dissolved in 15-25 years, while in parts of the cooling pond which remain flooded, fuel particle dissolution will take about a century

  12. Potentially toxic contamination of sediments, water and two animal species in Lake Kalimanci, FYR Macedonia: Relevance to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovnik, Petra; Arrebola, Juan P.; Serafimovski, Todor; Dolenec, Tadej; Šmuc, Nastja Rogan; Dolenec, Matej; Mutch, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the research were: (1) to examine the concentrations of metals in Vimba melanops and Rana temporaria and (2) to evaluate the potential risks of the contaminated organisms to human health in Makedonska Kamenica region. Analyses identified high levels of Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in studied animals, which also exceeded their permissible levels in food. In sediment and soil samples, levels of Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and As were perceived, while Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and As were increased in water samples. Results of transfer factor revealed that the examined animals had higher bioaccumulation rate from surrounding waters than from sediments or soils. The accomplished Health Risk Index disclosed that studied animals can have considerably high health risks for inhabitants. Conclusively, they could be considered as highly contaminated with metals and can consequently harm human health, especially children in their early development stages. -- Highlights: •The study merges the accumulation of PTE in animal species, sediments, soils and water. •Correlation between different media and their impact to living organisms'. •Considerably high health risks for inhabitants. -- In the Makedonska Kamenica region had been described several potential sources of exposure therefore exists the potential threat to human health

  13. Organic persistent toxic substances in soils, waters and sediments along an altitudinal gradient at Mt. Sagarmatha, Himalayas, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzella, Licia; Poma, Giulia; De Paolis, Adolfo; Roscioli, Claudio; Viviano, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important classes of compounds of serious environmental concern. These compounds were measured in waters, sediments and soils from several high altitude sites in the Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal) and included in the Himalayan ridge. In water samples, low-level substituted PCBs and PBDEs, along with more volatile PAHs, were the most common contaminants. In sediment and soil samples, the PCB profile was mainly composed of medium-level chlorinated congeners and significantly correlated with altitude. The PAH profile for water and soil samples showed the main contribution of pyrogenic PAHs due to emissions of solid combustion, whereas the profile for sediments indicated the main contribution of pyrogenic PAHs from gasoline emissions. The PAH levels measured in Himalayan samples must be considered as low to medium contaminated, whereas the regarded Himalayan stations can be considered undisturbed remote areas concerning PCB, PBDE and OC compounds. - Highlights: → POPs were measured in environmental samples from remote lakes in the Himalaya ridge. → It was confirmed the hypothesis of Long-Range Atmospheric Transport for lighter POPs. → PAH levels in Himalayan samples must be considered as low to medium contaminated. → The stations can be considered undisturbed remote areas concerning PCB, PBDE and OCC. - Organic PTSs in environmental matrices in remote regions of the Himalayan ridge.

  14. A Hydrodynamic Study of Davis Pond, Near New Orleans, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    District 2004). This project will make the Barataria estuary a more prolific producer of oysters, shrimp, crab , and fish, as well as a major habitat...yards 0.9144 meters ERDC/CHL TR-08-11 1 1 Introduction The Davis Pond freshwater diversion project is a salinity -control structure located in St...Mathematical model of estuarial sediment transport. Technical Report D-77-12. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station

  15. 2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Diffusion of single oxidation pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ruo-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic characteristic of an oxidation pond was studied by the tracer experiment, and an empirical formula of Peclet number was obtained, which can be well applied to the model of plug flow reactor with longitudinal diffusion.

  17. Mercury remediation in wetland sediment using zero-valent iron and granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ariel S; Huntington, Thomas G; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C; Amirbahman, Aria

    2016-05-01

    Wetlands are hotspots for production of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that can bioaccumulate in the food web. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of zero-valent iron (ZVI) or granular activated carbon (GAC) to wetland sediment could reduce MeHg production and bioavailability to benthic organisms. Field mesocosms were installed in a wetland fringing Hodgdon Pond (Maine, USA), and ZVI and GAC were applied. Pore-water MeHg concentrations were lower in treated compared with untreated mesocosms; however, sediment MeHg, as well as total Hg (THg), concentrations were not significantly different between treated and untreated mesocosms, suggesting that smaller pore-water MeHg concentrations in treated sediment were likely due to adsorption to ZVI and GAC, rather than inhibition of MeHg production. In laboratory experiments with intact vegetated sediment clumps, amendments did not significantly change sediment THg and MeHg concentrations; however, the mean pore-water MeHg and MeHg:THg ratios were lower in the amended sediment than the control. In the laboratory microcosms, snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) accumulated less MeHg in sediment treated with ZVI or GAC. The study results suggest that both GAC and ZVI have potential for reducing MeHg bioaccumulation in wetland sediment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mercury remediation in wetland sediment using zero-valent iron and granular activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ariel S.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Amirbahman, Aria

    2016-01-01

    Wetlands are hotspots for production of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that can bioaccumulate in the food web. The objective of this study was to determine whether the application of zero-valent iron (ZVI) or granular activated carbon (GAC) to wetland sediment could reduce MeHg production and bioavailability to benthic organisms. Field mesocosms were installed in a wetland fringing Hodgdon Pond (Maine, USA), and ZVI and GAC were applied. Pore-water MeHg concentrations were lower in treated compared with untreated mesocosms; however, sediment MeHg, as well as total Hg (THg), concentrations were not significantly different between treated and untreated mesocosms, suggesting that smaller pore-water MeHg concentrations in treated sediment were likely due to adsorption to ZVI and GAC, rather than inhibition of MeHg production. In laboratory experiments with intact vegetated sediment clumps, amendments did not significantly change sediment THg and MeHg concentrations; however, the mean pore-water MeHg and MeHg:THg ratios were lower in the amended sediment than the control. In the laboratory microcosms, snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) accumulated less MeHg in sediment treated with ZVI or GAC. The study results suggest that both GAC and ZVI have potential for reducing MeHg bioaccumulation in wetland sediment.

  19. Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisburd, R.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put? Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic? How do rates of organic production vary temporally? Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates? Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of 14 C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two

  20. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  1. Sludge accumulation in shallow maturation ponds treating UASB reactor effluent: results after 11 years of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possmoser-Nascimento, Thiago Emanuel; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; von Sperling, Marcos; Vasel, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Polishing ponds are natural systems used for the post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents. They are designed as maturation ponds and their main goal is the removal of pathogens and nitrogen and an additional removal of residual organic matter from the UASB reactor. This study aimed to evaluate organic matter and suspended solids removal as well as sludge accumulation in two shallow polishing ponds in series treating sanitary effluent from a UASB reactor with a population equivalent of 200 inhabitants in Brazil, operating since 2002. For this evaluation, long-term monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids and bathymetric surveys have been undertaken. The ponds showed an irregular distribution of total solids mass in the sludge layer of the two ponds, with mean accumulation values of 0.020 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) and 0.004 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) in Ponds 1 and 2, leading to around 40% and 8% of the liquid volume occupied by the sediments after 11 years of operation. The first pond showed better efficiency in relation to organic matter removal, although its contribution was limited, due to algal growth. No simple input-output mass balance of solids can be applied to the ponds due to algal growth in the liquid phase and sludge digestion in the sludge.

  2. Evaluation of the concentration of toxic metals and rare ground elements in samples of sediments of the Billings and Guarapiranga systems reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Larissa de Souza

    2017-01-01

    The excessive urbanization process of the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region resulted in the loss of the natural characteristics of its water courses causing serious changes in flow and quality regimes. The objective of this study was evaluate the concentration of toxic metals, semi metals As, Sb and Se, and rare earth elements present in surface sediment samples collected at the Billings, Guarapiranga and Rio Grande Reservoirs. The Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn elements were analyzed using Optical Emission Spectrometry With Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP OES). Some major, trace and rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) were analyzed by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. The total Hg concentration was determined by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique (CVAAS). The validation of the methodologies was performed by means of the certified reference material analyses. To assess the sources of anthropogenic contamination, the enrichment factor (EF) and the geoaccumulation index (IGeo) were calculated. The results obtained for both techniques were compared with TEL and PEL oriented values established by CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) and adopted by CETESB (Environmental Company of the Sao Paulo State). All sampling points showed concentration values for toxic metals >TEL and 2 points at Billings Reservoir (BILL02030 and 02100), values > PEL for As, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, probably due to the entrance of the Pinheiros River waters and drainage basins of the Cocaia and Borore streams. The calculated EF and IGeo values indicated possible anthropogenic contamination for Sb and Se for the elements determined by ICP OES and As, Cr, Sb and Zn, obtained by INAA. The Billings reservoir presented, in general, the highest concentrations for the analyzed elements, indicating a poor quality of its sediments. This study confirms the need of a frequent

  3. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Obiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As, 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd, 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg, respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE and reasonable maximum exposure (RME parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd, 1.45 (Pb, 4.60 (Hg and 1.98 (As; while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  4. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-18

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR-Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10(-3). The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(-6). These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  5. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Armah, Frederick A.; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  6. 2101-M pond closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment

  7. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Phillips, D.H., E-mail: d.phillips@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sen Gupta, B. [School of the Built Environment, Hariot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. - Highlights: • Tynagh silver mine in Co. Galway, Ireland is a source of

  8. Gamma emitting radionuclides of the Test Reactor Area leaching ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Markham, O.D.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive leaching ponds adjacent to the Test Reactor Area (TRA) located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site were investigated to determine the seasonal distribution and ecological behavior of gamma emitting radionuclides. The potential hazards to man and the environment were considered through the biological export of radioactive materials from the ponds. Both biotic and abiotic pond compartments were sampled. Fall and winter biomass estimates showed that benthic periphyton comprised 52%, macrophytes and littoral vegetation 35%, and seston 10% of the total for all biotic compartments. Concentrations and concentration factors (CFs) for fall and winter are presented for Cr-51, Co-60, Zr-95, I-131, Cs-137, Ba-140, and Ce-141. Concentrations and CFs ranged over seven orders of magnitude for the various nuclides and compartments. Seston and zooplankton had the highest concentrations followed by periphyton, sediment, macrophytes, littoral plants, willow, and filtered water. Arthropods had variable concentrations and CFs. Significant seasonal differences were observed for concentrations and CFs in seston, macrophytes, and littoral vegetation. A compartmental inventory of total gamma emitting activity accounted for 254 Ci (9.25 TBq) of the 731 Ci (24.8 TBq) estimated to remain in the ponds at the time of sampling. Filtered water and surface sediments contained 99% of the total radioactivity, while periphyton and seston had most of the remaining 1%. An estimate of the avian export rate of radioactivity from the TRA ponds showed that potentially harvestable mourning doves had the lowest rate with 0.02 μCi/y. External tissues of migratory waterfowl were found to contribute 90% of the total exported activity for all birds. The total avian export rate was estimated to be 1350 μCi/y during 1975

  9. Elevated CO_2 levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue; Du, Wenchao; Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO_2 led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO_2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO_2 to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO_2 for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO_2 led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO_2 levels.

  10. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Du, Wenchao, E-mail: du@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Guo, Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO{sub 2} to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO{sub 2} for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO{sub 2} levels.

  11. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  12. Thaw pond dynamics and carbon emissions in a Siberian lowland tundra landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huissteden, Ko; Heijmans, Monique; Dean, Josh; Meisel, Ove; Goovaerts, Arne; Parmentier, Frans-Jan; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Belelli Marchesini, Luca; Kononov, Alexander; Maximov, Trofim; Borges, Alberto; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Arctic climate change induces drastic changes in permafrost surface wetness. As a result of thawing ground ice bodies, ice wedge troughs and thaw ponds are formed. Alternatively, ongoing thaw may enhance drainage as a result of increased interconnectedness of thawing ice wedge troughs, as inferred from a model study (Liljedahl et al., 2016, Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2674). However, a recent review highlighted the limited predictability of consequences of thawing permafrost on hydrology (Walvoord and Kurylyk, 2016, Vadose Zone J., DOI:10.2136/vzj2016.01.0010). Overall, these changes in tundra wetness modify carbon cycling in the Arctic and in particular the emissions of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, providing a possibly positive feedback on climate change. Here we present the results of a combined remote sensing, geomorphological, vegetation and biogechemical study of thaw ponds in Arctic Siberian tundra, at Kytalyk research station near Chokurdakh, Indigirka lowlands. The station is located in an area dominated by Pleistocene ice-rich 'yedoma' sediments and drained thaw lake bottoms of Holocene age. The development of three types of ponds in the Kytalyk area (polygon centre ponds, ice wedge troughs and thaw ponds) has been traced with high resolution satellite and aerial imagery. The remote sensing data show net areal expansion of all types of ponds. Next to formation of new ponds, local vegetation change from dry vegetation types to wet, sedge-dominated vegetation is common. Thawing ice wedges and thaw ponds show an increase in area and number at most studied locations. In particular the area of polygon centre ponds increased strongly between 2010 and 2015, but this is highly sensitive to antecedent precipitation conditions. Despite a nearly 60% increase of the area of thawing ice wedge troughs, there is no evidence of decreasing water surfaces by increasing drainage through connected ice wedge troughs. The number of thaw ponds shows an equilibrium

  13. Blogging from North Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea going research expeditions provide an ideal opportunity for outreach through blogs: the finite duration limits the author's commitment; scientists are usually in a remote location with fewer distractions; and fieldwork is visual and interesting to describe. Over four weeks this winter, Katrina Edwards of USC authored a blog about her deep-sea drilling expedition to North Pond, a depression in the ocean crust in the mid-Atlantic. She emailed daily dispatches and photos to USC Media Relations, which maintained a (still accessible) blog. Written for the general public, the blog quickly attracted interest from lay readers as well as from media organizations. Scientific American carried the blog on its web site, and the National Science Foundation linked to it in its "Science 360" electronic news digest. The blog also led to a Q&A with Edwards in the widely-read "Behind the Scenes" feature of LiveScience. Interest from science bloggers and National Geographic towards the end suggests that the blog could have expanded its reach given more time: expeditions lasting between six weeks and three months, such as occur during ocean drilling expeditions, would appear to be ideal candidates for a blog. Most importantly, the blog educated readers about the importance to planetary life of what Edwards calls the "intraterrestrials": the countless microbes that inhabit the oceanic crust and influence major chemical and biological cycles. Considering that the subjects of the expedition were invisible critters in a pitch-dark place, the blog shows what can be accomplished by scientists and institutions committed to public outreach.

  14. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: jwhunt@ucdavis.edu; Anderson, Brian [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, Bryn [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: bmphillips@ucdavis.edu; Tjeerdema, Ron [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marine Pollution Studies Laboratory, Granite Canyon, 34500 Highway 1, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States)], E-mail: rstjeerdema@ucdavis.edu; Largay, Bryan [Largay Hydrologic Sciences, LLC, 160 Farmer Street Felton, CA 95018-9416 (United States)], E-mail: bryan.largay@sbcglobal.net; Beretti, Melanie [Resources Conservation District of Monterey County, 744-A La Guardia Street, Salinas, CA 93905 (United States)], E-mail: beretti.melanie@rcdmonterey.org; Bern, Amanda [California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Coast Region, 895 Aerovista Place, Suite 101, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 (United States)], E-mail: abern@waterboards.ca.gov

    2008-11-15

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems.

  15. Use of toxicity identification evaluations to determine the pesticide mitigation effectiveness of on-farm vegetated treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, John; Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Tjeerdema, Ron; Largay, Bryan; Beretti, Melanie; Bern, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of ecological impacts from pesticide runoff has prompted installation of vegetated treatment systems (VTS) along the central coast of California, USA. During five surveys of two on-farm VTS ponds, 88% of inlet and outlet water samples were toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) indicated water toxicity was caused by diazinon at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos at VTS-2. Diazinon levels in VTS-1 were variable, but high pulse inflow concentrations were reduced through dilution. At VTS-2, chlorpyrifos concentrations averaged 52% lower at the VTS outlet than at the inlet. Water concentrations of most other pesticides averaged 20-90% lower at VTS outlets. All VTS sediment samples were toxic to amphipods (Hyalella azteca). Sediment TIEs indicated toxicity was caused by cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin at VTS-1, and chlorpyrifos and permethrin at VTS-2. As with water, sediment concentrations were lower at VTS outlets, indicating substantial reductions in farm runoff pesticide concentrations. - Toxicity identification evaluations identified key pesticides in agricultural runoff, and their concentrations were reduced by farmer-installed vegetated treatment systems

  16. Managed flood effects on beaver pond habitat in a desert riverine ecosystem, bill williams river, Arizona USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D.C.; Shafroth, P.B.; Pritekel, C.M.; O'Neill, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    The ecological effects of beaver in warm-desert streams are poorly documented, but potentially significant. For example, stream water and sediment budgets may be affected by increased evaporative losses and sediment retention in beaver ponds. We measured physical attributes of beaver pond and adjacent lotic habitats on a regulated Sonoran Desert stream, the Bill Williams River, after ???11 flood-free months in Spring 2007 and Spring 2008. Neither a predicted warming of surface water as it passed through a pond nor a reduction in dissolved oxygen in ponds was consistently observed, but bed sediment sorted to finest in ponds as expected. We observed a river segment-scale downstream rise in daily minimum stream temperature that may have been influenced by the series of ??100 beaver ponds present. Channel cross-sections surveyed before and after an experimental flood (peak flow 65 m3/s) showed net aggradation on nine of 13 cross-sections through ponds and three of seven through lotic reaches. Our results indicate that beaver affect riverine processes in warm deserts much as they do in other biomes. However, effects may be magnified in deserts through the potential for beaver to alter the stream thermal regime and water budget. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2011.

  17. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  18. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA

  19. 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch characterization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Duncan, D.W.; Graham, M.J.; Hall, M.D.; Hall, V.W.; Landeen, D.S.; Leitz, J.G.; Mitchell, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    The chemical, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has generated large volumes of radioactive liquid effluents. The majority of these effluents have been used strictly for cooling or other supportive functions and have been discharged to ditches and ponds. The 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch are two such disposal facilities. These facilities are components of an integrated system of ditches, ponds, and overflow facilities collectively referred to as the U-Pond disposal system. The U-Pond system has been used since 1943 and has received a large variety of radioisotopes from several sources. This study covered tho major aspects of the environment, including wind resuspension, biological uptake and transport, geologic distribution in surface and subsurface sediments, and ground-water impacts. The long-term use of U-Pond and the Z-19 Ditch has resulted in the localized accumulation of transuranic and fission product inventories as a result of sorption and filtration of particulates onto the uppermost sediments.

  20. 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch characterization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Duncan, D.W.; Graham, M.J.; Hall, M.D.; Hall, V.W.; Landeen, D.S.; Leitz, J.G.; Mitchell, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    The chemical, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has generated large volumes of radioactive liquid effluents. The majority of these effluents have been used strictly for cooling or other supportive functions and have been discharged to ditches and ponds. The 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch are two such disposal facilities. These facilities are components of an integrated system of ditches, ponds, and overflow facilities collectively referred to as the U-Pond disposal system. The U-Pond system has been used since 1943 and has received a large variety of radioisotopes from several sources. This study covered tho major aspects of the environment, including wind resuspension, biological uptake and transport, geologic distribution in surface and subsurface sediments, and ground-water impacts. The long-term use of U-Pond and the Z-19 Ditch has resulted in the localized accumulation of transuranic and fission product inventories as a result of sorption and filtration of particulates onto the uppermost sediments

  1. Perched Lava Pond Complex on South Rift of Axial Volcano Revealed in AUV Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    -like structures and jumbled sheet flows on the floors suggest the eruption was on-going when the ponds emptied. 14C-dating of foraminifera from basal sediments on the pond floors gives a minimum age for the ponds of ~1500 years, which is older than any of the surface flows in Axial's summit caldera. Limu o Pele was abundant. Glass contents of the recovered lavas are 7.6 to 8.0 wt% MgO with few exceptions, and other than being plagioclase-phyric, the chemistry is similar to the majority of lavas at the summit. Lava samples from the floors of several ponds have a few tenths of a weight percent lower MgO than the nearby levees, suggesting the pond's molten interior or resupplied lavas had some time to cool. The varying levee rim heights and abundance of ponds in the vicinity suggest this type of activity occurred many times in this area, but it is an unusual eruption style for mid-ocean ridges. Another lava pond complex with even higher levees occurs on the north rift of Axial Volcano. Formation of these ponds requires long-lived, steady, moderate-eruption-rate lava effusion on nearly horizontal seafloor and may occur only on deep distal rift zones of central volcanoes.

  2. Effects of season on ecological processes in extensive earthen tilapia ponds in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E G P; Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Milstein, A

    2015-11-01

    In Southeastern Brazil tilapia culture is conducted in extensive and semi-intensive flow-through earthen ponds, being water availability and flow management different in the rainy and dry seasons. In this region lettuce wastes are a potential cheap input for tilapia culture. This study examined the ecological processes developing during the rainy and dry seasons in three extensive flow-through earthen tilapia ponds fertilized with lettuce wastes. Water quality, plankton and sediment parameters were sampled monthly during a year. Factor analysis was used to identify the ecological processes occurring within the ponds and to construct a conceptual graphic model of the pond ecosystem functioning during the rainy and dry seasons. Processes related to nitrogen cycling presented differences between both seasons while processes related to phosphorus cycling did not. Ecological differences among ponds were due to effects of wind protection by surrounding vegetation, organic loading entering, tilapia density and its grazing pressure on zooplankton. Differences in tilapia growth among ponds were related to stocking density and ecological process affecting tilapia food availability and intraspecific competition. Lettuce wastes addition into the ponds did not produce negative effects, thus this practice may be considered a disposal option and a low-cost input source for tilapia, at least at the amounts applied in this study.

  3. Fish Scale Evidence for Rapid Post Glacial Colonization of an Atlantic Coastal Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, R. A.; Peteet, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    Fish scales from the sediment of Allamuchy Pond, New Jersey, USA, indicate that fishes were present in the pond within 400 years of the time of the first deposition of organic material, at approximately 12,600 yrs BP. The earliest of the scales, from a white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, appears in sediment dated 12,260 +/- 220 yrs BP. Presence of scales in sediment deposited before I 0,000 yrs BP indicates that Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, sunfish, Lepomis sp., and yellow perch, Perca flavescens, also were early inhabitants of the pond. The timing of the arrival of each of these fishes suggests that they migrated out from Atlantic coastal refugia. A minnow scale, referred to Phoxininae, was also retrieved; it could not be matched to any cyprinid currently found in northeastern North America. The species present historically in this pond are from five families found currently in ponds throughout the Northeast and sugoest that the lentic palaeo-enviromnent was similar to present mid-elevation or high-latitude lentic systems.

  4. Mercury Cycling in Salt Marsh Pond Ecosystems: Cape Cod, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Gonneea, M. E.; Lamborg, C. H.; Kroeger, K. D.; Swarr, G.; Vadman, K. J.; Baldwin, S.; Brooks, T. W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We are measuring total mercury (HgT) and monomethylmercury (CH3Hg+ or MMHg) in pore water, surface water, and sediment cores from two salt marsh pond systems on the south shore of Cape Cod, MA to characterize the distribution of mercury species and to identify features that influence mercury speciation and transport. Sage Lot Pond is relatively undisturbed and has low nitrogen loading (12 kg ha-1 y-1). It is part of the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Reserve and is surrounded by undeveloped wooded uplands. In contrast, Great Pond is highly impacted. Nitrogen loading to the site is elevated (600 kg ha-1 y-1) and the marsh is adjacent to a large residential area. In both systems, a 1 to 2 m organic-rich peat layer overlies the permeable sand aquifer. Groundwater in this region is typically oxic, where pore water within salt marsh peat is suboxic to anoxic. We hypothesize that redox gradients at the transition from the root zone to peat and at the peat-sand interface may provide habitat for MMHg-producing anaerobic bacteria. Preliminary results from a 2-m nearshore depth profile at Sage Lot Pond indicate HgT in groundwater within the sand aquifer occurred primarily in the > 0.2 μm fraction, with unfiltered concentrations exceeding 100 pM. Filtered (fraction of filtered HgT in peat pore water. Although MMHg in both groundwater and pore water remained around 1 pM throughout our depth profile, we observed an increase in sediment MMHg (0.3 to 1.6 μg/kg) at the peat-sand interface. MMHg comprised ~50% of the HgT concentration in pore water suggesting mercury in the salt marsh peat is biologically available.

  5. Liner used in tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinchak, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    A composite liner has been developed for use in hazardous waste impoundments and in tailings ponds where uranium is involved. The liner offers a high degree of reliability against seepage, is durable, and provides a firm working surface. The advantages of the liner are discussed

  6. Developing Sediment Remediation Goals at Superfund Sites Based on Pore Water for the Protection of Benthic Organisms from Direct Toxicity to Non-ionic Organic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A methodology for developing remediation goals for sites with contaminated sediments is provided. The remediation goals are based upon the concentrations of chemicals in the sediment interstitial water measured using the passive sampling technique. The passive sampling technique ...

  7. Determination of the algal growth-limiting nutrients in strip mine ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucknavage, M.J.; Aharrah, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    Using both a test organism, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, and natural phytoplankton, the Printz Algal Assay Bottle Test was used to determine the algal growth limiting nutrients in two strip mine ponds. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron were investigated, singly and in combination, as possible limiting nutrients. A synthetic chelator, Na 2 EDTA, was also used in the assay to test for the presence of metal toxicants and/or trace metal limitation. Because bacteria have a major influence on water chemistry, a separate assay incorporating the natural bacteria population was performed. In both ponds, assay results using test alga indicate phosphorus to be the primary limiting nutrient and nitrogen as a secondary factor. The presence of EDTA in combination with phosphate containing treatment promoted a higher algal concentration in both ponds. Iron was determined to be a secondary limiting nutrient in only one of the ponds. Natural phytoplankton of the two ponds responded in a similar manner to nutrient increases. Only one pond had the same results produced by both assays. Nutrient availability was influenced by the presence of bacteria in one pond but not in the other

  8. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  9. Nutrient and metal uptake in wetland plants at stormwater detension ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenic, Darja; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients and metals were analysed in tissues of various wetland plants growing in stormwater detention ponds in Denmark. Nutrient and metal concentrations in below and aboveground tissues were compared to the concentrations of the adjacent sediment. The results showed accumulation of heavy metal...

  10. HRE-Pond Cryogenic Barrier Technology Demonstration: Pre- and Post-Barrier Hydrologic Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moline, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond is the site of a former impoundment for radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in east Tennessee. The pond received radioactive wastes from 1957 to 1962, and was subsequently drained, filled with soil, and covered with an asphalt cap. The site is bordered to the east and south by an unnamed stream that contains significant concentrations of radioactive contaminants, primarily 90 Sr. Because of the proximity of the stream to the HRE disposal site and the probable flow of groundwater from the site to the stream, it was hypothesized that the HRE Pond has been a source of contamination to the creek. The HRE-Pond was chosen as the site of a cryogenic barrier demonstration to evaluate this technology as a means for rapid, temporary isolation of contaminants in the type of subsurface environment that exists on the ORR. The cryogenic barrier is created by the circulation of liquid CO 2 through a system of thermoprobes installed in boreholes which are backfilled with sand. The probes cool the subsurface, creating a vertical ice wall by freezing adjacent groundwater, effectively surrounding the pond on four sides. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the hydrologic conditions within and around the pond prior to, during, and after the cryogenic barrier emplacement. The objectives were (1) to provide a hydrologic baseline for post-banner performance assessment, (2) to confirm that the pond is hydraulically connected to the surrounding sediments, (3) to determine the likely contaminant exit pathways from the pond, and (4) to measure changes in hydrologic conditions after barrier emplacement in order to assess the barrier performance. Because relatively little information about the subsurface hydrology and the actual configuration of the pond existed, data from multiple sources was required to reconstruct this complex system

  11. Monitoring and Modelling of Salinity Behaviour in Drinking Water Ponds in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. A.; Williams, A.; Mathewson, E.; Rahman, A. K. M. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Scheelbeek, P. F. D.; Vineis, P.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking water in southern Bangladesh is provided by a variety of sources including constructed storage ponds, seasonal rainwater and, ubiquitously saline, shallow groundwater. The ponds, the communal reservoirs for harvested rainwater, also tend to be saline, some as high as 2 g/l. Drinking water salinity has several health impacts including high blood pressure associated major risk factor for several cardio-vascular diseases. Two representative drinking water ponds in Dacope Upazila of Khulna District in southwest Bangladesh were monitored over two years for rainfall, evaporation, pond and groundwater level, abstraction, and solute concentration, to better understand the controls on drinking water salinity. Water level monitoring at both ponds shows groundwater levels predominantly below the pond level throughout the year implying a downward gradient. The grain size analysis of the underlying sediments gives an estimated hydraulic conductivity of 3E-8 m/s allowing limited seepage loss. Water balance modelling indicates that the seepage has a relatively minor effect on the pond level and that the bulk of the losses come from the combination of evaporation and abstraction particularly in dry season when precipitation, the only inflow to the pond, is close to zero. Seasonal variation in salinity (electrical conductivities, EC, ranged between 1500 to 3000 μS/cm) has been observed, and are primarily due to dilution from rainfall and concentration from evaporation, except on one occasion when EC reached 16,000 μS/cm due to a breach in the pond levee. This event was analogous to the episodic inundation that occurs from tropical cyclone storm surges and appears to indicate that such events are important for explaining the widespread salinisation of surface water and shallow groundwater bodies in coastal areas. A variety of adaptations (either from practical protection measures) or novel alternative drinking sources (such as aquifer storage and recovery) can be applied

  12. Ground water input to coastal salt ponds of southern Rhode Island estimated using 226Ra as a tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M K; Moran, S B

    2001-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclide 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600 years) was used as a tracer to determine ground water input to Point Judith, Potter, Green Hill and Ninigret ponds in southern Rhode Island. Measurements of 226Ra activity were made in samples collected from salt ponds, pore waters, sediments, and local ground water wells during June-August, 1997. These results were combined with a simple box model to derive ground water input fluxes of 0.1-0.3 cm3 cm-2 d-1 (2-5 x 10(7) L d-1), which are comparable to previous estimates of ground water input to these ponds.

  13. Marine toxic substances and pollutants data collected using sediment corer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in Gulf of Mexico and other Sea areas from 1979-02-05 to 1987-10-30 (NODC Accession 8700038)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using sediment corer and other instruments in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and other Sea areas from...

  14. Phytotoxkit® and Ostracodtoxkit® tests for assessing the toxicity of sediment samples with high concentration of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Molina, Jose; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the risk of contaminants, chemical methods need to be complemented with biological methods. Ecotoxicological testing may be a useful approach for assessing the toxicity as a complement to chemical analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and applicability of two bioassays representing multiple trophic levels, for the preliminary ecotoxicological screening of sediments from sites contaminated by mining activities: a chronic toxicity test with the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens and a phytotoxicity test using Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba seeds. For this study, 30 soils samples were collected from the Sierra Minera (Murcia, SE Spain) for general analytical determinations and the total metal content (Pb, Zn, Cd and As) was determined. The Phytotoxkit® test measures the decrease in (or the absence of) seed germination and of the growth of the young roots after 3 days of exposure of seeds of selected higher plants to a contaminated matrix compared with the controls germinated in a reference soil. The plants selected for the Phytotoxkit® microbiotest were: the monocotyl Sorghum saccharatum (Sorgho) and the dicotyls Lepidium sativum (Garden cress) and Sinapis alba (mustard) (Phytotoxkit®, 2004). The percent inhibition of seed germination (SG) and root growth inhibition (RI) for each plant were calculated. Ostracodtoxkit® test consists of placing freshly hatched ostracod neonates in multiwell cups in 2 ml synthetic freshwater, with 300 µl sediment and 3x107 algal cells (Selenastrum capricornutum). After 6 days, incubation at 25 °C in darkness, the mortality of test organisms was determined (Ostracodtoxkit® FTM, 2001) and growth inhibition was calculated. Soil samples showed a mean pH value of 6.0 in water and 5.7 in KCl. The EC varied from 1.0 dS m-1 to 56.2 dS m-1, with a mean value of 17.7 dS m-1. The mean value for Pb was 0.84 mg kg-1, 10593 mg kg-1 for Zn, 23.18 mg kg-1 for Cd and 0.16 mg kg-1 for As

  15. Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Riemath, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples

  16. The Ruminant and the Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Lajarin-Encina, Aitor

    2015-01-01

    The Ruminant and the Pond presents a group of paintings and a film that explore contemporary psycho-social conditions through fictional narratives. Paintings and film explore territories of thinking and emotion engaging the audience in subjective digressions related to ideas of artificiality, relativeness, absurdity, futility or alienation in relation to intersubjective reality perception, production and representation. At the same time the project delves in the specific relationship existin...

  17. The use of bioassays to assess the toxicity of sediment in an acid mine drainage impacted river in Gauteng (South Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, P; Nel, A; Durand, JF

    2017-01-01

    Sediment contamination may occur from various anthropogenic activities, such as mining-, agricultural- and industrial practices. Many of the contaminants arising from these activities enter the aquatic system and precipitate from the surrounding water, becoming bound to sediment particles. These bound contaminants may reach concentrations higher than in the overlying water. Although water quality may be acceptable, an aquatic system may still be at risk if the contaminated sediment were to be...

  18. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Deep subsurface life from North Pond: enrichment, isolation, characterization and genomes of heterotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Russell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies of subsurface microorganisms have yielded few environmentally relevant isolates for laboratory studies. In order to address this lack of cultivated microorganisms, we initiated several enrichments on sediment and underlying basalt samples from North Pond, a sediment basin ringed by basalt outcrops underlying an oligotrophic water-column west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 22°N. In contrast to anoxic enrichments, growth was observed in aerobic, heterotrophic enrichments from sediment of IODP site U1382B at 4 and 68 meters below seafloor (mbsf. These sediment depths, respectively, correspond to the fringes of oxygen penetration from overlying seawater in the top of the sediment column and upward migration of oxygen from oxic seawater from the basalt aquifer below the sediment. Here we report the enrichment, isolation, and initial characterizations of three isolated aerobic heterotrophs from North Pond sediments; an Arthrobacter species from 4 mbsf, and Paracoccus and Pseudomonas species from 68 mbsf. These cultivated bacteria are represented in the amplicon 16S rRNA gene libraries created from whole sediments, albeit at low (up to 2% relative abundance. We provide genomic evidence from our isolates demonstrating that the Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas isolates have the potential to respire nitrate and oxygen, though dissimilatory nitrate reduction could not be confirmed in laboratory cultures. The cultures from this study represent members of environmentally significant phyla, and allow for further studies into geochemical factors impacting life in the deep subsurface.

  20. Deep Subsurface Life from North Pond: Enrichment, Isolation, Characterization and Genomes of Heterotrophic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joseph A; León-Zayas, Rosa; Wrighton, Kelly; Biddle, Jennifer F

    2016-01-01

    Studies of subsurface microorganisms have yielded few environmentally relevant isolates for laboratory studies. In order to address this lack of cultivated microorganisms, we initiated several enrichments on sediment and underlying basalt samples from North Pond, a sediment basin ringed by basalt outcrops underlying an oligotrophic water-column west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 22°N. In contrast to anoxic enrichments, growth was observed in aerobic, heterotrophic enrichments from sediment of IODP Hole U1382B at 4 and 68 m below seafloor (mbsf). These sediment depths, respectively, correspond to the fringes of oxygen penetration from overlying seawater in the top of the sediment column and upward migration of oxygen from oxic seawater from the basalt aquifer below the sediment. Here we report the enrichment, isolation, initial characterization and genomes of three isolated aerobic heterotrophs from North Pond sediments; an Arthrobacter species from 4 mbsf, and Paracoccus and Pseudomonas species from 68 mbsf. These cultivated bacteria are represented in the amplicon 16S rRNA gene libraries created from whole sediments, albeit at low (up to 2%) relative abundance. We provide genomic evidence from our isolates demonstrating that the Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas isolates have the potential to respire nitrate and oxygen, though dissimilatory nitrate reduction could not be confirmed in laboratory cultures. The cultures from this study represent members of abundant phyla, as determined by amplicon sequencing of environmental DNA extracts, and allow for further studies into geochemical factors impacting life in the deep subsurface.

  1. Comparison of different water pollution control methods in decreaseing sediment load from peat mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeve, B.

    1997-01-01

    Different water treatment alternatives used to reduce sediment from peat mines were compared with a mathematical model. The simulation tested the benefit of different alternatives to reduce sediment transport during a simulated storm. Traditional structures such as bed ditch pipe barriers, sedimentation ponds were compared against new alternatives such as artificial floodplains, and peak runoff control structures. The results of simulations show that detention of peak discharge is the most efficient way to reduce sediment transport. When runoff peaks are reduced traditional sedimentation ponds seem to have a smaller effect on sediment transport; increased settling is achieved by using shallow settling basins such as artificial floodplains. (orig.) 21 refs

  2. Comparison of different water pollution control methods in decreaseing sediment load from peat mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeve, B.

    1997-11-01

    Different water treatment alternatives used to reduce sediment from peat mines were compared with a mathematical model. The simulation tested the benefit of different alternatives to reduce sediment transport during a simulated storm. Traditional structures such as bed ditch pipe barriers, sedimentation ponds were compared against new alternatives such as artificial floodplains, and peak runoff control structures. The results of simulations show that detention of peak discharge is the most efficient way to reduce sediment transport. When runoff peaks are reduced traditional sedimentation ponds seem to have a smaller effect on sediment transport; increased settling is achieved by using shallow settling basins such as artificial floodplains. (orig.) 21 refs.

  3. Solar pond conception - experimental and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Huseyin [Zonguldak Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey); Halici, Fethi [Sakarya Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Adapazari (Turkey); Binark, A. Korhan [Marmara Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    A one dimensional transient mathematical model for predicting the thermal performance of the salt gradient solar pond is developed and presented. In this paper, the natural solar ponds and different artificial solar pond systems found in