WorldWideScience

Sample records for polymer systems annual

  1. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, September 25, 1994--September 24, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1996-05-01

    The objectives of the research program are to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems -- KUSP1 systems which contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethylphthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system. The KUSP1 polymer-ester system and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to super-critical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  2. In situ permeability modification using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, April 11, 1997--April 10, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; McCool, C.S.; Heppert, J.A.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.J.

    1998-09-01

    Results from a research program on the application of gelled polymer technology for in situ permeability modification are presented in this report. The objective of this technology when used with displacement processes such as waterflooding is to reduce the permeability in fractures and/or high permeability matrix zones to improve volumetric sweep efficiency of the displacement process. In production wells, the objective is to reduce water influx. The research program focused on five areas: Gel treatment in fractured systems; Gel treatment in carbonate rocks; In-depth placement of gels; Gel systems for application in carbon dioxide flooding; and Gel treatment in production wells. The research program is primarily an experimental program directed toward improving the understanding of gelled polymer systems and how these systems can be used to increase oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. A summary of progress for research conducted in the second 12 month period of a 28 month program is described.

  3. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, September 25, 1992--September 24, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1994-08-01

    The general objectives of the research program are to (1) identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focuses on three types of gel systems-an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSPI) that gels as a function of pH, polyacrylamide or xanthan crosslinked by CR(III) and a polyacrylamide-aluminum citrate system. Work to date has focused primarily on development of a database, selection of systems, and work to characterize the gel/polymer physical properties and kinetics. The use of ester hydrolysis to control the rate of pH change of a gel system has been investigated and this approach to gel-time control shows promise. Extensive kinetic data were taken on the uptake of CR(III) oligomers by polyacrylamide. A model was developed which describes very well the monomer uptake rates. The model described the dimer uptake data less well and the trimer uptake data poorly. Studies of the flow and gelation in rock materials have been initiated. A mathematical model of rock-fluid interaction during flow of high pH solutions has been developed.

  4. Advanced polymer PV system: PVMaT 4A1 annual report, September 1995--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanoka, J; Chleboski, R; Farber, M; Fava, J; Kane, P; Martz, J [Evergreen Solar, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Purpose of this subcontract was to produce lower module and systems costs through the innovative use of polymeric materials. The Innovative Mounting System (IMS) was developed and testing begun during the first year of this contract. IMS reduces the cost of installed PV systems by reducing labor and materials costs both in the factory and in field installation. It incorporates several advances in polymers, processing methods and product design. An advanced backskin material permits elimination of the conventional Al perimeter frame by protecting and sealing the edge and by direct bonding of multifunctional mounting bars. Electrical interconnection is easier and more reliable with a new junction box. Feasibility of a non-vacuum, high-throughput lamination method was also demonstrated, involving a novel transparent encapsulant with UV stabilization package that can be laminated in air and which should lead to longer field life than conventional designs. The first-year program culminated in the fielding of prototype products with the new encapsulant, backskin, junction box, frameless edge seal, and IMS. Feedback and marketing information from potential customers were solicited. Result promises a $0.50/watt manufacturing and system cost reductions as well as increased system lifetime. The second year will complete refinement and test of the encapsulant and backskin, complete the new lamination method, and refine product designs.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of confined polymer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Johannes Henricus van

    1991-01-01

    This thesis considers confined polymer systems. These systems are of considerable interest, e.g., thin polymer films, chromotography of polymer solutions, drag reduction, enhanced oil recovery, stabilization of colloidal dispersions, lubrication and biolubrication. The method used to study these

  6. Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the...ADDRESS. Princeton University PO Box 0036 87 Prospect Avenue - 2nd floor Princeton, NJ 08544 -2020 14-Mar-2014 ABSTRACT Number of Papers published in...peer-reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems Report Title

  7. Polymer reinforcement of cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    In the last couple of decades several cement- and concrete-based composites have come into prominence. Of these, cement-polymer composites, like cement-fibre composites, have been recognised as very promising, and considerable research and development on their properties, fabrication methods and application are in progress. Of the three types of concrete materials which incorporate polymers to form composites, polymer impregnated concrete forms a major development in which hardened concrete is impregnated with a liquid monomer which is subsequently polymerized to form a rigid polymer network in the pores of the parent material. In this first part of the extensive review of the polymer reinforcement of cement systems, the process technology of the various monomer impregnation techniques and the properties of the impregnated composite are assessed critically. It is shown that the high durability and superior performance of polymer impregnated concrete can provide an economic and competitive alternative in in situ strengthening, and in other areas where conventional concrete can only at best provide adequate performance. The review includes a section on radiation-induced polymerization. (author)

  8. New Polymer Electrolyte Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, William H.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent; Pappenfus, T.; Henderson, W.

    2004-01-01

    PAPERS PUBLISHED: 1. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Complexes of Lithium Imide Salts with Tetraglyme and Their Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2004), 15 1 (2), A209-A2 15. 2. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Ionic-liquidlpolymer electrolyte composite materials for electrochemical device applications. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (2003), 88 302. 3. Pappenfus, Ted R.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; and Smyrl, William H. Ionic Conductivity of a poly(vinylpyridinium)/Silver Iodide Solid Polymer Electrolyte System. Solid State Ionics (in press 2004). 4. Pappenfus Ted M.; Mann, Kent R; Smyrl, William H. Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials with LiPFs and Tetraglyme. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2004), 7(8), A254.

  9. Polymer systems testing: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is in the process of decontaminating lead shielding material. The procedure involves abrasive surface etching of the shielding to remove the outer layer of lead that contains the majority of the radioactive contaminants. This procedure generates a small volume of mixed waste in the form of a wet residue containing lead, abrasive grit (Al 2 O 3 ), uranium and water. IC Technologies, Inc. (ICT) has developed several processes for the treatment of mixed wastes involving stabilizing/encapsulating the waste in a polymer monolith. The objective of the test program was to verify the applicability of ICT's technology to this specific waste stream and provide LANL baseline data on the performance of polymer encapsulation techniques. Polymer microencapsulation of lead shielding/blasting grit (surrogate) mixed waste was evaluated. Two polymers, melamine formaldehyde and polyester xylene, were used to examine the effect of waste loading on Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract Pb concentration. Six levels of waste loading were evaluated by eleven tests. Significant reduction in Pb solubility during TCLP was achieved. Additional optimization to the single-stage microencapsulation technique utilized will be necessary to mitigate the toxic (RCRA) characteristic of the waste

  10. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: jorgegabriel@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  11. Polymer hydrogels as optimized delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Jorge G.S.; Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Garrido, Gabriela P.; Diniz, Bruna M.; Carvalho, Vinicius S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogels are formed by polymers capable of absorbing large quantities of water. They consist of one or more three-dimensionally structured polymer networks formed by macromolecular chains linked by covalent bonds-crosslinks - and physical interactions. The application of hydrogels, has been widely studied. Biodegradable synthetic or natural polymers such as chitosan, starch and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid, have properties that allow the development of biodegradable systems for drug and nutraceutics delivery. This study aimed to develop polymeric hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone using ionizing radiation in order to develop hydrogels for improved loading and release of compounds. Polymer solutions were solubilized in water and poured into thermoformed packages. After sealing, the material was subjected to γ-irradiation at 25kGy. The samples were assayed by means of mechanical properties, gel fraction and swelling degree. Nanostructure characterization was performed using Flory's equation to determine crosslinking density. The systems developed showed swelling degree and adequate mechanical resistance. The nanostructure evaluation showed different results for each system demonstrating the need of choosing the polymer based on the specific properties of each material. (author)

  12. Polymer association in a microemulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountain, L.E.; Shahidan Radiman; Toprakcioglu, C.

    1997-01-01

    Using small angle neutron scattering technique with appropriate contrast we have been able to elucidate some associations structures of polystyrene (PS) and triblock co-polymers of polyethylene oxide-polystyrene- polyethylene oxide (PEO-PS-PEO) in a water-in-oil microemulsion system

  13. Polymers for Pharmaceutical Packaging and Delivery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Charlotte Juel

    materials of interest for pharmaceutical packaging and delivery systems. Confocal fluorescence microscopy studies and stability studies with insulin aspart (AspB28 insulin) were conducted to evaluate the impact of modified PP compared to unmodified PP. In contrast to PEEK, PP did not contain any functional....... In order to decrease the amount of catalyst residual in the modified materials, activator regenerated by electron transfer (ARGET) SI-ATRP was applied in the second experimental round. Two poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA) monomers with 4 and 23 ethylene oxide units in the side chain......Selection of polymer materials which will be exposed to protein drugs in either containers or medical devices is often very challenging due to the demands on the polymers. Suitable polymer materials should comply with requirements like compatibility with proteins, sterilisability, good barrier...

  14. Surface properties of functional polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Derek

    Polymer surface modification typically involves blending with other polymers or chemical modification of the parent polymer. Such strategies inevitably result in polymer systems that are spatially and chemically heterogeneous, and which exhibit the phenomenon of surface segregation. This work investigates the effects of chain architecture on the surface segregation behavior of such functionally modified polymers using a series of end- and center-fluorinated poly(D,L-lactide). Surface segregation of the fluorinated functional groups was observed in both chain architectures via AMPS and water contact angle. Higher surface segregation was noted for functional groups located at the chain end as opposed to those in the middle of the chain. A self-consistent mean-field lattice theory was used to model the composition depth profiles of functional groups and excellent agreement was found between the model predictions and the experimental AMPS data in both chain architectures. Polymer properties are also in general dependent on both time and temperature, and exhibit a range of relaxation times in response to environmental stimuli. This behavior arises from the characteristic frequencies of molecular motions of the polymer chain and the interrelationship between time and temperature has been widely established for polymer bulk properties. There is evidence that surface properties also respond in a manner that is time and temperature dependent and that this dependence may not be the same as that observed for bulk properties. AMPS and water contact angle experiments were used to investigate the surface reorganization behavior of functional groups using a series of anionically synthesized end-fluorinated and end-carboxylated poly(styrene). It was found that both types of functional end-groups reorganized upon a change in the polarity of the surface environment in order to minimize the surface free energy. ADXPS and contact angle results suggest that the reorganization depth was

  15. 5th Annual Earth System Grid Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the Fifth Annual Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Face-to-Face (F2F) Conference was to present the most recent information on the state of ESGF’s software stack and to identify and address the data needs and gaps for the climate and weather communities that ESGF supports.

  16. Industrial Irradiation of Polymers: Systems and Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittendorfer, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic survey of systems and concepts used in the industrial irradiation of polymers. It consists basically of three parts: in the first part, different types of applications like wires and cables, pipes and engineering plastics are discussed and the associated irradiation systems analyzed and highlighted according their basics modules. These are identified as the radiation source, the product handling system, process control and facility/shielding layout. In the second part, the irradiation process design is reviewed in detail. The discussion starts with the requirement analysis, e.g. the desired polymer parameters and effects, continues with a process development roadmap and concludes with process verification and validation. Special attention is drawn to process control, which plays an important role in industrial irradiation technology. The use of mathematical modeling to facilitate and support process and system design is discussed as well and several examples are given which demonstrate their capabilities. In the third part, the design of a electron beam facility for the irradiation of small plastic parts for the automotive industry is worked out in detail. Besides system and product handling considerations, throughput and economical estimates are provided. The paper concludes with a summary of the design and concept bullets which proved to be important in history and can facilitate new developments which will enhance the potential of industrial polymer irradiation

  17. Synthesis of new water-soluble metal-binding polymers: Combinatorial chemistry approach. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, M.J.; Miller, R.B.; Sawan, S.; Smith, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    '(1) Develop rapid discovery and optimization approaches to new water-soluble chelating polymers for use in Polymer Filtration (PF) systems, and (2) evaluate the concept of using water and organic soluble polymers as new solid supports for combinatorial synthesis. Polymer Filtration (PF), which uses water-soluble metal-binding polymers to sequester metal ions in dilute solution with ultrafiltration (UF) to separate the polymers, is a new technology to selectively remove or recover hazardous and valuable metal ions. Future directions in PF must include rapid development, testing, and characterization of new metal-binding polymers. Thus, the authors are building upon and adapting the combinatorial chemistry approach developed for rapid molecule generation for the drug industry to the rapid development of new chelating polymers. The authors have focused on four areas including the development of: (1) synthetic procedures, (2) small ultrafiltration equipment compatible with organic- and aqueous-based combinatorial synthesis, (3) rapid assay techniques, and (4) polymer characterization techniques.'

  18. Numerical solution of the polymer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugse, V.; Karlsen, K.H.; Lie, K.-A.; Natvig, J.R.

    1999-05-01

    The paper describes the application of front tracking to the polymer system, an example of a nonstrictly hyperbolic system. Front tracking computes piecewise constant approximations based on approximate Remain solutions and exact tracking of waves. It is well known that the front tracking method may introduce a blow-up of the initial total variation for initial data along the curve where the two eigenvalues of the hyperbolic system are identical. It is demonstrated by numerical examples that the method converges to the correct solution after a finite time that decreases with the discretization parameter. For multidimensional problems, front tracking is combined with dimensional splitting and numerical experiments indicate that large splitting steps can be used without loss of accuracy. Typical CFL numbers are in the range of 10 to 20 and comparisons with the Riemann free, high-resolution method confirm the high efficiency of front tracking. The polymer system, coupled with an elliptic pressure equation, models two-phase, tree-component polymer flooding in an oil reservoir. Two examples are presented where this model is solved by a sequential time stepping procedure. Because of the approximate Riemann solver, the method is non-conservative and CFL members must be chosen only moderately larger than unity to avoid substantial material balance errors generated in near-well regions after water breakthrough. Moreover, it is demonstrated that dimensional splitting may introduce severe grid orientation effects for unstable displacements that are accentuated for decreasing discretization parameters. 9 figs., 2 tabs., 26 refs.

  19. 3rd annual biomass energy systems conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The main objectives of the 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conference were (1) to review the latest research findings in the clean fuels from biomass field, (2) to summarize the present engineering and economic status of Biomass Energy Systems, (3) to encourage interaction and information exchange among people working or interested in the field, and (4) to identify and discuss existing problems relating to ongoing research and explore opportunities for future research. Abstracts for each paper presented were edited separately. (DC)

  20. Nanostructures for all-polymer microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Bruus, Henrik; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    antistiction coating was found to improve the replication fidelity (shape and depth) of nanoscale features substantially. Arrays of holes of 50 nm diameter/35 nm depth and 100 nm/100 nm diameter, respectively, were mass-produced in cyclic olefin copolymer (Topas 5013) by injection molding. Polymer microfluidic...... channel chip parts resulted from a separate injection molding process. The microfluidic chip part and the nanostructured chip part were successfully bonded to form a sealed microfluidic system using air plasma assisted thermal bonding....

  1. Polymers for hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Rachel Reina; Simmons, Kevin L.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2013-10-01

    This document addresses polymer materials for use in hydrogen service. Section 1 summarizes the applications of polymers in hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems and identifies polymers used in these applications. Section 2 reviews the properties of polymer materials exposed to hydrogen and/or high-pressure environments, using information obtained from published, peer-reviewed literature. The effect of high pressure on physical and mechanical properties of polymers is emphasized in this section along with a summary of hydrogen transport through polymers. Section 3 identifies areas in which fuller characterization is needed in order to assess material suitability for hydrogen service.

  2. Polymer-based platform for microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, William [Livermore, CA; Krulevitch, Peter [Pleasanton, CA; Maghribi, Mariam [Livermore, CA; Hamilton, Julie [Tracy, CA; Rose, Klint [Boston, MA; Wang, Amy W [Oakland, CA

    2009-10-13

    A method of forming a polymer-based microfluidic system platform using network building blocks selected from a set of interconnectable network building blocks, such as wire, pins, blocks, and interconnects. The selected building blocks are interconnectably assembled and fixedly positioned in precise positions in a mold cavity of a mold frame to construct a three-dimensional model construction of a microfluidic flow path network preferably having meso-scale dimensions. A hardenable liquid, such as poly (dimethylsiloxane) is then introduced into the mold cavity and hardened to form a platform structure as well as to mold the microfluidic flow path network having channels, reservoirs and ports. Pre-fabricated elbows, T's and other joints are used to interconnect various building block elements together. After hardening the liquid the building blocks are removed from the platform structure to make available the channels, cavities and ports within the platform structure. Microdevices may be embedded within the cast polymer-based platform, or bonded to the platform structure subsequent to molding, to create an integrated microfluidic system. In this manner, the new microfluidic platform is versatile and capable of quickly generating prototype systems, and could easily be adapted to a manufacturing setting.

  3. [New polymer-drug systems based on natural and synthetic polymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviţă, Stefania; Vasiliu, Silvia; Foia, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    The great versatility of polymers makes them very useful in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. The combination of natural and synthetic polymers leads to new materials with tailored functional properties. The aim of this work consists in the preparation of new drug delivery system based on chitosan (natural polymer) and polybetaines (synthetic polymers), by a simple process, well known in the literature as complex coacervation methods. Also, the adsorption and release studies of two antibiotics as well as the preservation of their bactericidal capacities were performed.

  4. Zinc polymer electrolytes in battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, W.P.; Latham, R.J.; Linford, R.G.; Vickers, S.L. (Dept. of Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom))

    1994-06-01

    We have previously reported results of our studies of structure-conductivity relationships for polymer electrolytes of the form PEO[sub n][center dot]ZnX[sub 2]. In this paper we report the results of investigations of battery systems based on these electrolytes. Results will be presented for OCV and discharge curves for loaded cells of the type: Zn/polymer electrolyte/MnO[sub 2]. We are particularly interested in the speciation between oxidation states of manganese as a function of the degree of cell discharge, and have carried out determinations by chemical methods based on polarography. Preliminary studies indicate the presence of Mn[sup II] in cells discharged at various rates. The discharge times for a series of optimised cells show an exponential decrease with increasing load. This is consistent with a low electrolyte conductivity and less than ideal cathode conductivity, which leads to an increased 'front face' reaction with increasing load

  5. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference, Thursday, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference October 23-26, 2017 | Waterford at Springfield | Springfield, VA NDIA.org/systemsengineering...Conference Program SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE 2 Welcome to the NDIA Systems Engineering Conference On behalf of the National Defense Industrial...Association’s Systems Engineering Division, I would like to extend a very warm welcome to the 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Yes, the 20th Annual

  6. Structural health monitoring system/method using electroactive polymer fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Carnell, Lisa A. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for monitoring the structural health of a structure of interest by coupling one or more electroactive polymer fibers to the structure and monitoring the electroactive responses of the polymer fiber(s). Load changes that are experienced by the structure cause changes in the baseline responses of the polymer fiber(s). A system for monitoring the structural health of the structure is also provided.

  7. Systems for production of polymer encapsuated solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, William L.; Aines, Roger D.; Baker, Sarah E.; Duoss, Eric B.; Maiti, Amitesh; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Vericella, John J.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Hardin, IV, James O.; Floyd, III, William C.

    2017-11-21

    Encapsulated solids are made by first encapsulating precursor materials in a polymer shell. The precursors are some combination of solids, liquids, gases, and/or gels. The precursors are then transformed into solids by emplacement of the capsule in an environment where gas or fluid transport into or out of the polymer shell causes transformation into solids.

  8. 1998 Annual Study Report. Research and development of solid polymer type fuel cells (Development of techniques for power generation systems and several tens kW class, distributed power source systems); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu (hatsuden system gijutsu no kaihatsu / koden'atsugata su 10kW kyu bunsan dengen system no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The cells are tested using a CO-containing synthetic reforming gas in 1998, to verify the long-term characteristics of the solid polymer type fuel cells. The cells, equipped with the anode catalyst developed therefor, are tested for extended periods, to confirm the performance and stability in the synthetic gas flow. For development of the catalyst, the optimum content of Ru in the Pt and Ru alloy composition is determined. For the cell tests, the single- and 3-cell units are tested for extended periods. For verification of commercial viability of the stacked cell systems, the cell-humidifying techniques are developed, which can uniformly humidify each cell in the stacked unit with a number of cells, after investigating the effects of temporal changes in water permeability, pretreatment conditions and film thickness. These techniques are used to develop and operate a 10kW, stacked cell unit, which successfully generates power of 10.6 kW at the rated current density, exceeding the target of 10 kW. For development of design bases for compact fuel treatment system, the techniques which allow reduction of CO concentration to 10 ppm or less at high repeatability are developed. (NEDO)

  9. 1998 Annual Study Report. Research and development of solid polymer type fuel cells (Development of techniques for power generation systems and several tens kW class, distributed power source systems); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kenkyu kaihatsu (hatsuden system gijutsu no kaihatsu / koden'atsugata su 10kW kyu bunsan dengen system no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The cells are tested using a CO-containing synthetic reforming gas in 1998, to verify the long-term characteristics of the solid polymer type fuel cells. The cells, equipped with the anode catalyst developed therefor, are tested for extended periods, to confirm the performance and stability in the synthetic gas flow. For development of the catalyst, the optimum content of Ru in the Pt and Ru alloy composition is determined. For the cell tests, the single- and 3-cell units are tested for extended periods. For verification of commercial viability of the stacked cell systems, the cell-humidifying techniques are developed, which can uniformly humidify each cell in the stacked unit with a number of cells, after investigating the effects of temporal changes in water permeability, pretreatment conditions and film thickness. These techniques are used to develop and operate a 10kW, stacked cell unit, which successfully generates power of 10.6 kW at the rated current density, exceeding the target of 10 kW. For development of design bases for compact fuel treatment system, the techniques which allow reduction of CO concentration to 10 ppm or less at high repeatability are developed. (NEDO)

  10. Thiolated polymers as mucoadhesive drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Sarah; Cummins, Wayne; O' Donovan, Orla; Hughes, Helen; Owens, Eleanor

    2017-03-30

    Mucoadhesion is the process of binding a material to the mucosal layer of the body. Utilising both natural and synthetic polymers, mucoadhesive drug delivery is a method of controlled drug release which allows for intimate contact between the polymer and a target tissue. It has the potential to increase bioavailability, decrease potential side effects and offer protection to more sensitive drugs such as proteins and peptide based drugs. The thiolation of polymers has, in the last number of years, come to the fore of mucoadhesive drug delivery, markedly improving mucoadhesion due to the introduction of free thiol groups onto the polymer backbone while also offering a more cohesive polymeric matrix for the slower and more controlled release of drug. This review explores the concept of mucoadhesion and the recent advances in both the polymers and the methods of thiolation used in the synthesis of mucoadhesive drug delivery devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Annual forage cropping-systems for midwestern ruminant livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, John Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Annual forage cropping systems are a vital aspect of livestock forage production. One area where this production system can be enhanced is the integration of novel annual forages into conventional cropping systems. Two separate projects were conducted to investigate alternative forage options in annual forage production. In the first discussed research trial, two sets of crops were sown following soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain harvest, at two nitrogen application rates 56 ...

  12. Fluctuation-induced long-range interactions in polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A N; Obukhov, S P

    2005-01-01

    We discover a new universal long-range interaction between solid objects in polymer media. This polymer-induced interaction is directly opposite to the van der Waals attraction. The predicted effect is deeply related to the classical Casimir interactions, providing a unique example of universal fluctuation-induced repulsion rather than normal attraction. This universal repulsion comes from the subtracted soft fluctuation modes in the ideal counterpart of the real polymer system. The effect can also be interpreted in terms of subtracted (ghost) large-scale polymer loops. We establish the general expressions for the energy of polymer-induced interactions for arbitrary solid particles in a concentrated polymer system. We find that the correlation function of the polymer density in a concentrated solution of very long chains follows a scaling law rather than an exponential decay at large distances. These novel universal long-range interactions can be of importance in various polymer systems. We discuss the ways to observe/simulate these fluctuation-induced effects

  13. Development of controlled drug release systems based on thiolated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Scholler, S; Biebel, R G

    2000-05-03

    The purpose of the present study was to generate mucoadhesive matrix-tablets based on thiolated polymers. Mediated by a carbodiimide, L-cysteine was thereby covalently linked to polycarbophil (PCP) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The resulting thiolated polymers displayed 100+/-8 and 1280+/-84 micromol thiol groups per gram, respectively (means+/-S.D.; n=6-8). In aqueous solutions these modified polymers were capable of forming inter- and/or intramolecular disulfide bonds. The velocity of this process augmented with increase of the polymer- and decrease of the proton-concentration. The oxidation proceeded more rapidly within thiolated PCP than within thiolated CMC. Due to the formation of disulfide bonds within thiol-containing polymers, the stability of matrix-tablets based on such polymers could be strongly improved. Whereas tablets based on the corresponding unmodified polymer disintegrated within 2 h, the swollen carrier matrix of thiolated CMC and PCP remained stable for 6.2 h (mean, n=4) and more than 48 h, respectively. Release studies of the model drug rifampicin demonstrated that a controlled release can be provided by thiolated polymer tablets. The combination of high stability, controlled drug release and mucoadhesive properties renders matrix-tablets based on thiolated polymers useful as novel drug delivery systems.

  14. [Phase transition in polymer blends and structure of ionomers and copolymers]. [Annual report, April 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The main thrust of the program in the past 3 years are summarized: SAXS instrumentation development; structure and dynamics of macro- and supra-molecules, phase transitions in polymer blends and solutions, structure of ionomers, and fractals and anisotropic systems.

  15. Compositions, methods, and systems comprising fluorous-soluble polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M.; Lim, Jeewoo; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-10-13

    The present invention generally relates to compositions, methods, and systems comprising polymers that are fluorous-soluble and/or organize at interfaces between a fluorous phase and a non-fluorous phase. In some embodiments, emulsions or films are provided comprising a polymer. The polymers, emulsions, and films can be used in many applications, including for determining, treating, and/or imaging a condition and/or disease in a subject. The polymer may also be incorporated into various optoelectronic device such as photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, or the like. In some embodiments, the polymers comprise pi-conjugated backbones, and in some cases, are highly emissive.

  16. Significant role of cationic polymers in drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshbaf, Masoud; Davaran, Soodabeh; Zarebkohan, Amir; Annabi, Nasim; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Salehi, Roya

    2017-11-06

    Cationic polymers are characterized as the macromolecules that possess positive charges, which can be either inherently in the polymer side chains and/or its backbone. Based on their origins, cationic polymers are divided in two category including natural and synthetic, in which the possessed positive charges are as result of primary, secondary or tertiary amine functional groups that could be protonated in particular situations. Cationic polymers have been employed commonly as drug delivery agents due to their superior encapsulation efficacy, enhanced bioavailability, low toxicity and improved release profile. In this paper, we focus on the most prominent examples of cationic polymers which have been revealed to be applicable in drug delivery systems and we also discuss their general synthesis and surface modification methods as well as their controlled release profile in drug delivery.

  17. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  18. Mechanistic modelling of drug release from polymer-coated and swelling and dissolving polymer matrix systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunisto, Erik; Marucci, Mariagrazia; Borgquist, Per; Axelsson, Anders

    2011-10-10

    The time required for the design of a new delivery device can be sensibly reduced if the release mechanism is understood and an appropriate mathematical model is used to characterize the system. Once all the model parameters are obtained, in silico experiments can be performed, to provide estimates of the release from devices with different geometries and compositions. In this review coated and matrix systems are considered. For coated formulations, models describing the diffusional drug release, the osmotic pumping drug release, and the lag phase of pellets undergoing cracking in the coating due to the build-up of a hydrostatic pressure are reviewed. For matrix systems, models describing pure polymer dissolution, diffusion in the polymer and drug release from swelling and eroding polymer matrix formulations are reviewed. Importantly, the experiments used to characterize the processes occurring during the release and to validate the models are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of annual storage solar space heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, F C; Cook, J D

    1979-11-01

    Design considerations for annual storage solar space heating systems are discussed. A simulation model for the performance of suh systems is described, and a method of classifying system configurations is proposed. It is shown that annual systems sized for unconstrained performance, with no unused collector or storage capacity, and no rejected heat, minimize solar acquisition costs. The optimal performance corresponds to the condition where the marginal storage-to-collector sizing ratio is equal to the corresponding marginal cost ratio.

  20. Selectivity of radiation-induced processes in hydrocarbons, related polymers and organized polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.I.; Sukhov, F.F.; Zezin, A.A.; Orlov, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of the selectivity of radiation-induced events in polymers and polymeric systems were considered: (1) The grounds of selectivity of the primary events were analyzed on the basis of the results of studies of model compounds (molecular aspect). Basic results were obtained for hydrocarbon molecules irradiated in low-temperature matrices. The effects of selective localization of the primary events on the radical formation were examined for several polymers irradiated at low and superlow temperatures (77 and 15 K). A remarkable correlation between the properties of prototype ionized molecules (radical cations) and selectivity of the primary bond rupture in the corresponding polymers were found for polyethylene, polystyrene and some other hydrocarbon polymers. The first direct indication of selective localization of primary events at conformational defects was obtained for oriented high-crystalline polyethylene irradiated at 15 K. The significance of dimeric ring association was proved for the radiation chemistry of polystyrene. Specific mechanisms of low-temperature radiation-induced degradation were also analyzed for polycarbonate and poly(alkylene terephthalates). (2) Specific features of the localization of primary radiation-induced events in microheterogeneous polymeric systems were investigated (microstructural aspect). It was found that the interphase processes played an important role in the radiation chemistry of such systems. The interphase electron migration may result in both positive and negative non-additive effects in the formation of radiolysis products. The effects of component diffusion and chemical reactions on the radiation-induced processes in microheterogeneous polymeric systems were studied with the example of polycarbonate - poly(alkylene terephthalate) blends. (3) The effects of restricted molecular motion on the development of the radiation-chemical processes in polymers were investigated (dynamic aspect). In particular, it

  1. Recent Trends of Polymer Mediated Liposomal Gene Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal Kumar Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in the gene delivery system have resulted in clinical successes in gene therapy for patients with several genetic diseases, such as immunodeficiency diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD blindness, thalassemia, and many more. Among various delivery systems, liposomal mediated gene delivery route is offering great promises for gene therapy. This review is an attempt to depict a portrait about the polymer based liposomal gene delivery systems and their future applications. Herein, we have discussed in detail the characteristics of liposome, importance of polymer for liposome formulation, gene delivery, and future direction of liposome based gene delivery as a whole.

  2. Alternative High Performance Polymers for Ablative Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghozian, Tane; Stackpoole, Mairead; Gonzales, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Ablative thermal protection systems are commonly used as protection from the intense heat during re-entry of a space vehicle and have been used successfully on many missions including Stardust and Mars Science Laboratory both of which used PICA - a phenolic based ablator. Historically, phenolic resin has served as the ablative polymer for many TPS systems. However, it has limitations in both processing and properties such as char yield, glass transition temperature and char stability. Therefore alternative high performance polymers are being considered including cyanate ester resin, polyimide, and polybenzoxazine. Thermal and mechanical properties of these resin systems were characterized and compared with phenolic resin.

  3. Nonlinear Response of Strong Nonlinear System Arisen in Polymer Cushion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model is proposed for a polymer foam-based nonlinear cushioning system. An accurate analytical solution for the nonlinear free vibration of the system is derived by applying He's variational iteration method, and conditions for resonance are obtained, which should be avoided in the cushioning design.

  4. Coalinga polymer demonstration project. Fourth annual report, July 1978-July 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, V.

    1980-09-01

    A field demonstration test of displacement mobility control in the East Coalinga Field is being conducted in order to determine the relative merits of polymer flooding and waterflooding in a medium viscosity oil reservoir. The injection pattern consists of four inverted 5-spot patterns and an updip area. Water injection began in June 1976 and continued through April 1978. Polymer injection began in May 1978 and is ongoing. The overall production performance for the pilot has been far less than expected. The current oil production rate is currently below the expected primary decline rate. The polymer injection rate is substantially below original predictions and will increase the time required to inject the designed slug volume.

  5. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Innovative Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Lohani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have always been valuable excipients in conventional dosage forms, also have shown excellent performance into the parenteral arena, and are now capable of offering advanced and sophisticated functions such as controlled drug release and drug targeting. Advances in polymer science have led to the development of several novel drug delivery systems. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs have shown superior performances over the conventional individual polymers and, consequently, the ranges of applications have grown rapidly for such class of materials. The advanced properties of IPNs like swelling capacity, stability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity and biodegradability have attracted considerable attention in pharmaceutical field especially in delivering bioactive molecules to the target site. In the past few years various research reports on the IPN based delivery systems showed that these carriers have emerged as a novel carrier in controlled drug delivery. The present review encompasses IPNs, their types, method of synthesis, factors which affects the morphology of IPNs, extensively studied IPN based drug delivery systems, and some natural polymers widely used for IPNs.

  6. Novel ceramic-polymer composite membranes for the separation of hazardous liquid waste. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1998-01-01

    'This report summarizes the work progress over the last 1.75 years of a 3 year project. The objectives of the project have been to develop a new class of ceramic-supported polymeric membranes that could be tailored-designed for a wide-range of applications in remediation and pollution prevention. To date, a new class of chemically-modified ceramic membranes was developed for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions and for the pervaporation removal of volatile organics from aqueous systems. These new ceramic-supported polymer (CSP) membranes are fabricated by modifying the pore surface of a ceramic membrane support by a graft polymerization process (Chaimberg and Cohen, 1994). The graft polymerization process consists of activating the membrane surface with alkoxy vinyl silanes onto which vinyl monomers are added via free-radical graft polymerization resulting in a thin surface layer of terminally anchored polymer chains. Reaction conditions are selected based on knowledge of the graft polymerization kinetics for the specific polymer/substrate system. The resultant ceramic-supported polymer (CSP) membrane is a composite structure in which mechanical strength is provided by the ceramic support and the selectivity is determined by the covalently bonded polymer brush layer. Thus, one of the unique attributes of the CSP membrane is that it can be used in environments where the polymer layer is swollen (or even completely miscible) in the mixture to be separated (Castro et al., 1993). It is important to note that the above modification process is carried out under mild conditions (e.g., temperature of about 70 C) and is well suited for large scale commercial application. In a series of studies, the applicability of a polyvinylpyrrolidone CSP membrane was demonstrated for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsion under a variety of flow conditions (Castro et al.,1996). Improved membrane performance was achieved due to minimization of surface adsorption of the oil components

  7. Phases of polymer systems in solution studied via molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Joshua Allen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Polymers are amazingly versatile molecules with a tremendous range of applications. Our lives would be very different without them. There would be no multitudes of plastic encased electronic gizmos, no latex paint on the walls and no rubber tires, just to name a few of the many commonplace polymer materials. In fact, life as we know it wouldn’t exist without polymers as two of the most essential types of molecules central to cellular life, Proteins and DNA, are both polymers! [1] With their wide range of application to a variety of uses, polymers are still a very active field in basic research. Of particular current interest is the idea of combining polymers with inorganic particles to form novel composite materials. [2] As computers are becoming faster, they are becoming all the more powerful tools for modeling and simulating real systems. With recent advances in computing on graphics processing units (GPUs) [3–7], questions can now be answered via simulation that could not even be asked before. This thesis focuses on the use of computer simulations to model novel polymerinorganic composite systems in order to predict what possible phases can form and under what conditions. The goal is to provide some direction for future experiments and to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental physics involved. Along the way, there are some interesting and essential side-tracks in the areas of equilibrating complicated phases and accelerating the available computer power with GPU computing, both of which are necessary steps to enable the study of polymer nanocomposites.

  8. Systems analysis department annual progress report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.; Larsen, H.; Vestergaard, N.K.

    1987-02-01

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1986. The activities may be classified as energy systems analysis and risk and reliability analysis. The report includes a list of staff members. (author)

  9. Printed polymer photonic devices for optical interconnect systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Pan, Zeyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L. J.; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Polymer photonic device fabrication usually relies on the utilization of clean-room processes, including photolithography, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching (RIE) and lift-off methods etc, which are expensive and are limited to areas as large as a wafer. Utilizing a novel and a scalable printing process involving ink-jet printing and imprinting, we have fabricated polymer based photonic interconnect components, such as electro-optic polymer based modulators and ring resonator switches, and thermo-optic polymer switch based delay networks and demonstrated their operation. Specifically, a modulator operating at 15MHz and a 2-bit delay network providing up to 35.4ps are presented. In this paper, we also discuss the manufacturing challenges that need to be overcome in order to make roll-to-roll manufacturing practically viable. We discuss a few manufacturing challenges, such as inspection and quality control, registration, and web control, that need to be overcome in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible polymer photonic systems. We have overcome these challenges, and currently utilizing our inhouse developed hardware and software tools, <10μm alignment accuracy at a 5m/min is demonstrated. Such a scalable roll-to-roll manufacturing scheme will enable the development of unique optoelectronic devices which can be used in a myriad of different applications, including communication, sensing, medicine, security, imaging, energy, lighting etc.

  10. All-polymer microfluidic systems for droplet based sample analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben

    In this PhD project, I pursued to develop an all-polymer injection moulded microfluidic platform with integrated droplet based single cell interrogation. To allow for a proper ”one device - one experiment” methodology and to ensure a high relevancy to non-academic settings, the systems presented ...

  11. Hybrid energy harvesting systems, using piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornogolub, Alexandru; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Petit, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    Interest in energy harvesting applications has increased a lot during recent years. This is especially true for systems using electroactive materials like dielectric polymers or piezoelectric materials. Unfortunately, these materials despite multiple advantages, present some important drawbacks. For example, many dielectric polymers demonstrated high energy densities; they are cheap, easy to process and can be easily integrated in many different structures. But at the same time, dielectric polymer generators require an external energy supply which could greatly compromise their autonomy. Piezoelectric systems, on the other hand, are completely autonomous and can be easily miniaturized. However, most common piezoelectric materials present a high rigidity and are brittle by nature and therefore their integration could be difficult. This paper investigates the possibility of using hybrid systems combining piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers for mechanical energy harvesting applications and it is focused mainly on the problem of electrical energy transfer. Our objective is to show that such systems can be interesting and that it is possible to benefit from the advantages of both materials. For this, different configurations were considered and the problem of their optimization was addressed. The experimental work enabled us to prove the concept and identify the main practical limitations.

  12. Characterization of plasticized PEO-PAM blend polymer electrolyte system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Gargi; Kanchan, Dinesh

    2017-05-01

    Present study reports characterization studies of NaCF3SO3 based PEO-PAM Blend Polymer Electrolyte (BPE) system with varying amount of EC+PC as plasticizer prepared by solution cast technique. Structural analysis and surface topography have been performed using FTIR and SEM studies. To understand, thermal properties, DSC studies have been undertaken in the present paper

  13. Systems Analysis Department annual progress report 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risø National Laboratory during 1998. The department undertakes research within Energy Systems Analysis, Integrated Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, IndustrialSafety and Reliability, Man/Machine Interac....../Machine Interaction, and Technology Scenarios. The report includes lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members....

  14. Systems Analysis Department annual progress report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risø National Laboratory during 1999. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Safety,Realiability and Human Factors, and Technology...

  15. Systems Analysis Department. Annual Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.; Olsson, C. (eds.)

    2004-04-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 2003. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning UNEP Centre, Safety, Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology Scenarios. The report includes summary statistics and list of staff members. (au)

  16. FY2015 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-31

    The Vehicle Systems research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  17. FY2016 Vehicle Systems Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-31

    Vehicle Systems is concerned with advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty (HD) vehicle systems to support DOE’s goals of developing technologies for the U.S. transportation sector that enhance national energy security,increase U.S. competitiveness in the global economy, and support improvement of U.S. transportation and energy infrastructure.

  18. Systems Analysis Department. Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N J; Jensen, E; Larsen, H; Skipper, S [eds.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 2001. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Safety, Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology Scenarios. The report includes summary statistics and lists of publications, committees and staff members. (au)

  19. Systems Analysis Department annual report 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risø National Laboratory during 2003. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning – UNEP Centre, Safety,Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology...... Scenarios. The report includes summary statistics and list of staff members....

  20. Systems Analysis Department. Annual Progress Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Olsson, Charlotte; Loevborg, Leif [eds.

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1999. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning-UNEP Centre, Safety, Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology Scenarios. The report includes summary statistics and lists of publications, committees and staff members. (au)

  1. Systems Analysis department. Annual progress report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Olsson, Charlotte; Petersen, Kurt E

    1998-03-01

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1997. The department is undertaking research within Energy systems Analysis, Integrated Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Industrial Safety and Reliability and Man/Machine Interaction. The report includes lists of publications lectures, committees and staff members. (au) 110 refs.

  2. Systems Analysis Department. Annual progress report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H; Olsson, C; Petersen, K E [eds.

    1997-03-01

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1996. The department is undertaking research within Simulation and Optimisation of Energy Systems, Energy and Environment in Developing Countries - UNEP Centre, Integrated Environmental and Risk Management and Man/Machine Interaction. The report includes lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au) 131 refs.

  3. Energy Systems Group. Annual Progress Report 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt; Villadsen, B.

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risø National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff...

  4. 1998 FFTF annual system assessment reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttenberg, S.

    1998-01-01

    The health of FFTF systems was assessed assuming a continued facility standby condition. The review was accomplished in accordance with the guidelines of FFTF-EI-083, Plant Evaluation Program. The attached document includes an executive summary of the significant conclusions and assessment reports for each system evaluated

  5. System Analysis Department. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N J; Jensen, E; Larsen, H; Skipper, S [eds.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 2001. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Safety, Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology Scenarios. The report includes summary statistics and lists of publications, committees and staff members. (au)

  6. Systems Analysis Department. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N J; Jensen, E; Larsen, H; Olsson, C

    2001-05-01

    This report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 2000. The department is undertaking research within Energy Systems Analysis, Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Safety, Reliability and Human Factors, and Technology Scenarios. The report includes summary statistics and lists of publications, committees and staff members. (au)

  7. Systems Analysis Department annual progress report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Olsson, Charlotte; Loevborg, Leif [eds.

    1999-03-01

    The report describes the work of the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1998. The department undertakes research within Energy Systems Analysis, Integrated Energy, Environment and Development Planning - UNEP Centre, Industrial Safety and Reliability, Man/Machine Interaction and Technology Scenarios. The report includes lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au) 111 refs.

  8. Energy Systems Group annual progress report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.; Larsen, H.; Villadsen, B.

    1985-02-01

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risoe National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff members. (author)

  9. 1998 FFTF annual system assessment reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, S.

    1998-03-19

    The health of FFTF systems was assessed assuming a continued facility standby condition. The review was accomplished in accordance with the guidelines of FFTF-EI-083, Plant Evaluation Program. The attached document includes an executive summary of the significant conclusions and assessment reports for each system evaluated.

  10. Disability Evaluation Systems Analysis and Research Annual Report 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Army and Air Force had higher percentages of reserve component disability evaluations, likely due to the inclusion of National Guard service members...Annual Report 2015 Disability Evaluation Systems Analysis and Research Prepared by Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity...Preventive Medicine Branch Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Silver Spring, Maryland Disability Evaluation Systems Analysis and Research

  11. Disability Evaluation System Analysis and Research Annual Report 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    Inclusion of laboratory and diagnostic information on the medical condition or injury that precipitated the disability evaluation in each service’s...Annual Report 2015 Disability Evaluation Systems Analysis and Research Prepared by Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity...Preventive Medicine Branch Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Silver Spring, Maryland Disability Evaluation Systems Analysis and Research

  12. 2016 Earth System Grid Federation Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) experienced a major setback in June 2015, when it experienced a security incident that brought all systems to a halt for more than half a year. However, federation developers and management committee members turned the incident into an opportunity to dramatically upgrade the system security and functionality and to develop planning and policy documents to guide ESGF evolution and success. Moreover, despite the incident, ESGF developer working teams continue to make strong and significant progress on various enhancement projects that will help ensure ESGF can meet the needs of the climate community in the coming years.

  13. Commercial scale demonstration: enhanced oil recovery by micellar-polymer flood. Annual report, October 1980-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    This commercial scale test, known as the M-1 Project, is located in Crawford County, Illinois. It encompasses 407 acres of Robinson sand reservoir and covers portions of several waterflood projects that were approaching economic limit. The project includes 248 acres developed on a 2.5-acre five-spot pattern and 159 acres developed on a 5.0-acre five-spot pattern. Development work commenced in late 1974 and has previously been reported. Micellar solution (slug) injection was initiated on February 10, 1977, and is now completed. After 10% of a pore volume of micellar slug was injected, injection of 11% pore volume of Dow 700 Pusher polymer was conducted at a concentration of 1156 ppM. At the end of this reporting period, 625 ppM polymer was being injected into the 2.5-acre pattern and 800 ppM polymer was being injected into the 5.0-acre pattern. The oil cut of the 2.5-acre pattern has decreased from 11.0% in September 1980, to 7.9% in September 1981. The 2.5-acre pattern had been on a plateau since May 1980, and as of May 1981 appears to be on a decline. The oil cut of the 5.0-acre pattern has increased from 5.9% in September 1980, to 10.9% in September 1981. The 5.0-acre pattern experienced a sharp increase in oil cut after 34% of a pore volume of total fluid had been injected and appears to be continuing its incline. This fifth annual report is organized under the following three work breakdown structures: fluid injection; production; and performance monitoring.

  14. Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A. [Southwest Technology Development Inst., Las Cruces, NM (US)

    1993-05-01

    The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

  15. Polymer-Based Novel Lung Targeted Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmowafy, Enas; Osman, Rihab; Ishak, Rania A H

    2017-01-01

    Due to its unique features, the respiratory tract had received great attention as a promising non-invasive route for drug administration to achieve both local and systemic effects. Efforts spent to tailor systems able to overcome the lung defence mechanisms and biological barriers are followed in this review. Aerodynamic diameter, morphology, lung deposition and drug release profiles are the main criteria describing the selected new smart lung targeted delivery systems. Novel systems such as nanoparticles, nano-embedded-in microparticles (NEM), small microparticles (MP), large porous particles (LPP), PulmospheresTM and polymeric micelles are used to passively target different areas in the respiratory tract. The most common preparation methods are outlined in the article. Special emphasis was given to the characteristics of the polymers used to fabricate the developed systems. Efforts made to prepare systems using chitosan (CS), alginate (alg), hyaluronic acid (HA), gelatin and albumin as examples of natural polymers and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) as synthetic polymers were compiled. The continuous development and work in the area of lung targeting resulted in the development of engineered smart platforms with the capability to carry small drug molecules, proteins and genes to treat a variety of local and systemic diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Control of polymer network topology in semi-batch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Olsen, Bradley; Johnson, Jeremiah

    Polymer networks invariably possess topological defects: loops of different orders. Since small loops (primary loops and secondary loops) both lower the modulus of network and lead to stress concentration that causes material failure at low deformation, it is desirable to greatly reduce the loop fraction. We have shown that achieving loop fraction close to zero is extremely difficult in the batch process due to the slow decay of loop fraction with the polymer concentration and chain length. Here, we develop a modified kinetic graph theory that can model network formation reactions in semi-batch systems. We demonstrate that the loop fraction is not sensitive to the feeding policy if the reaction volume maintains constant during the network formation. However, if we initially put concentrated solution of small junction molecules in the reactor and continuously adding polymer solutions, the fractions of both primary loop and higher-order loops will be significantly reduced. There is a limiting value (nonzero) of loop fraction that can be achieved in the semi-batch system in condition of extremely slow feeding rate. This minimum loop fraction only depends on a single dimensionless variable, the product of concentration and with single chain pervaded volume, and defines an operating zone in which the loop fraction of polymer networks can be controlled through adjusting the feeding rate of the semi-batch process.

  17. New Brunswick System Operator 2005 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    New Brunswick's electricity generating mix includes thermal, hydro and nuclear power. Facts about New Brunswick's electricity market were presented with reference to transmission lines; number of interconnecting operators; interconnection capacity; installed generation capacity; generation capacity mix; peak demand for 2004-2005; total energy transactions over a 6 month period and value of electricity over that 6 month period. The independently governed New Brunswick System Operator (NBSO) began operations in 2004 with a mandate to introduce competitive integrated electricity supply to municipal utilities and large industrial customers in order to ensure a reliable and adequate supply of electricity to the Maritime area. The NBSO's first task to launch the transition from monopoly supply to a competitive market is in the beginning stages, but progress has been made in terms of market rules, new computerized systems, and consultations with the Market Advisory Committee who review potential changes to the market rules and tariffs. tabs., figs

  18. Environmental Systems Research FY-99 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The original portfolio of research activities was assembled after an analysis of the EM technology development and science needs as gathered by the Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs) complex-wide. Current EM investments in science and technology throughout the research community were also included in this analysis to avoid duplication of efforts. This is a progress report for the second year of the ESR Program (Fiscal Year 99). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (a) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (b) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (c) Materials Dynamics, (d) Characterization Science, and (e) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas, are described

  19. Environmental Systems Research, FY-99 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Lynn

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The original portfolio of research activities was assembled after an analysis of the EM technology development and science needs as gathered by the Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs) complex-wide. Current EM investments in science and technology throughout the research community were also included in this analysis to avoid duplication of efforts. This is a progress report for the second year of the ESR Program (Fiscal Year 99). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (a) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (b) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (c) Materials Dynamics, (d) Characterization Science, and (e) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas, are described.

  20. Environmental Systems Research FY-99 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The original portfolio of research activities was assembled after an analysis of the EM technology development and science needs as gathered by the Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs) complex-wide. Current EM investments in science and technology throughout the research community were also included in this analysis to avoid duplication of efforts. This is a progress report for the second year of the ESR Program (Fiscal Year 99). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (a) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (b) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (c) Materials Dynamics, (d) Characterization Science, and (e) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas, are described.

  1. Effect of attractive interactions between polymers on the effective force acting between colloids immersed in a polymer system: Analytic liquid-state theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervanyov, A I

    2016-12-28

    By making use of the polymer reference interaction site model, we analytically study the effect of attractive interactions between polymers on the effective forces acting between colloids immersed in a polymer system. The performed theoretical analysis has no restrictions with respect to the polymer density and relative sizes of the colloids and polymers. The polymer mediated (PM) potential acting between colloids is shown to significantly depend on the strength and range of the polymer-polymer interactions. In the nano-particle limit, where the colloid radius is much smaller than the polymer gyration radius, the presence of attractive polymer-polymer interactions causes only quantitative changes to the PM potential. In the opposite limit of relatively large colloids, the polymer-polymer interactions revert the sign of the total effective force acting between colloids so that this force becomes attractive at sufficiently large polymer densities. With the objective to study an intricate interplay between the attractive PM forces and steric repulsion in different polymer density regimes, we calculate the second virial coefficient B of the total effective potential acting between colloids. The dependence of B on the polymer density is discussed in detail, revealing several novel features of the PM interactions caused by the presence of attractive polymer-polymer interactions.

  2. Disability Evaluation System Analysis and Research Annual Report 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-20

    females, other race, enlisted and active duty service members for all services and time periods. • Rates increase as age increases in the Army. For the...Annual Report 2017 Disability Evaluation Systems Analysis and Research Prepared by Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity ...50 History of hospitalization among active duty service

  3. Utah System of Higher Education 2015-16 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah System of Higher Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This annual report describes Utah System of Higher Education's progress in the 2015-2016 academic year in the following areas: (1) Strategic plan; (2) Enrollment and completion; (3) Paying for college; (4) Funding higher education; (5) College preparation; (6) Concurrent enrollment and math; (7) Outreach and access; and (8) Industry and the…

  4. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, M.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  5. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report. FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This Building America FY2012 Annual Report includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  6. Polymer based drug delivery systems for mycobacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rajesh; Khuller, G K

    2004-07-01

    In the last decade, polymer based technologies have found wide biomedical applications. Polymers, whether synthetic (e.g. polylactide-co-glycolide or PLG) or natural (e.g. alginate, chitosan etc.), have the property of encapsulating a diverse range of molecules of biological interest and bear distinct therapeutic advantages such as controlled release of drugs, protection against the premature degradation of drugs and reduction in drug toxicity. These are important considerations in the long-duration treatment of chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis in which patient non-compliance is the major obstacle to successful chemotherapy. Antitubercular drugs, singly or in combination, have been encapsulated in polymers to provide controlled drug release and the system also offers the flexibility of selecting various routes of administration such as oral, subcutaneous and aerosol. The present review highlights the approaches towards the preparation of polymeric antitubercular drug delivery systems, emphasizing how the route of administration may influence drug bioavailability as well as the chemotherapeutic efficacy. In addition, the pros and cons of the various delivery systems are also discussed.

  7. Viscosity of the oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer and nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tushar; Kumar, G. Suresh; Chon, Bo Hyun; Sangwai, Jitendra S.

    2014-11-01

    Information on the viscosity of Pickering emulsion is required for their successful application in upstream oil and gas industry to understand their stability at extreme environment. In this work, a novel formulation of oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsion stabilized using nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer (polyacrylamide) system as formulated in our earlier work (Sharma et al., Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2014) is investigated for rheological stability at high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions using a controlled-strain rheometer. The nanoparticle (SiO2 and clay) concentration is varied from 1.0 to 5.0 wt%. The results are compared with the rheological behavior of simple o/w emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system. Both the emulsions exhibit non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. A positive shift in this behavior is observed for surfactant-polymer stabilized emulsion at high pressure conditions. Yield stress is observed to increase with pressure for surfactant-polymer emulsion. In addition, increase in temperature has an adverse effect on the viscosity of emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system. In case of nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer stabilized o/w emulsion system, the viscosity and yield stress are predominantly constant for varying pressure and temperature conditions. The viscosity data for both o/w emulsion systems are fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and found to be satisfactory. In general, the study indicates that the Pickering emulsion stabilized by nanoparticle-surfactant-polymer system shows improved and stable rheological properties as compared to conventional emulsion stabilized by surfactant-polymer system indicating their successful application for HPHT environment in upstream oil and gas industry.

  8. From precision polymers to complex materials and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Jean-François; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Meijer, E. W.; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2016-05-01

    Complex chemical systems, such as living biological matter, are highly organized structures based on discrete molecules in constant dynamic interactions. These natural materials can evolve and adapt to their environment. By contrast, man-made materials exhibit simpler properties. In this Review, we highlight that most of the necessary elements for the development of more complex synthetic matter are available today. Using modern strategies, such as controlled radical polymerizations, supramolecular polymerizations or stepwise synthesis, polymers with precisely controlled molecular structures can be synthesized. Moreover, such tailored polymers can be folded or self-assembled into defined nanoscale morphologies. These self-organized macromolecular objects can be at thermal equilibrium or can be driven out of equilibrium. Recently, in the latter case, interesting dynamic materials have been developed. However, this is just a start, and more complex adaptive materials are anticipated.

  9. Ferritin nanocontainers that self-direct in synthetic polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengonul, Merih C.

    Currently, there are many approaches to introduce functionality into synthetic polymers. Among these, for example, are copolymerization, grafting, and blending methods. However, modifications made by such methods also change the thermodynamics and rheological properties of the polymer system of interest, and each new modification often requires a costly reoptimization of polymer processing. Such a reoptimalization would not be necessary if new functionality could be introduced via a container whose external surface is chemically and physically tuned to interact with the parent polymer. The contents of the container could then be changed without changing other important properties of the parent polymer. In this context this thesis project explores an innovative nanocontainer platform which can be introduced into phase-separating homopolymer blends. Ferritin is a naturally existing nanocontainer that can be used synthetically to package and selectively transport functional moieties to a particular phase that is either in the bulk or on the surface of a homopolymer blend system. The principal focus of this work centers on modifying the surface of wild ferritin to: (1) render modified ferritin soluble in a non-aqueous solvent; and (2) impart it with self-directing properties when exposed to a homopolymer blend surface or incorporated into the bulk of a homopolymer blend. Wild ferritin is water soluble, and this research project successfully modified wild ferritin by grafting either amine-functional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or short-chain alkanes to carbodiimide activated carboxylate groups on ferritin's surface. Such modified ferritin is soluble in dichloromethane (DCM). Modification was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography, zeta-potential measurements, and electrospray mass spectroscopy. FT-IR was used to quantify the extent of PEGylation of the reaction products through area ratios of the -C-O-C asymmetric stretching vibration of the grafted PEG chains to the

  10. 9th Annual Systems Engineering Conference: Volume 4 Thursday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-26

    ISO /IEC 27000 series – Information Security Management System (ISMS) – ISO /IEC 17799:2005 – Code of Practice for Information Security Management...October 2006, Track 2 Standards Organizations Supporting Assurance ISO IEC JTC1TC176 SC1 SC22 Terminology Software Engineering Language, OS SC7...Information Assurance IEEE CS ISO IEC IEEE CS NIST FISMA Projects U.S. Gov’t DoD MIL-STDsPolicy Memos OMG Knowledge Discovery Models OMG 259th Annual

  11. Oak Ridge Reservation Public Warning Siren System Annual Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. F. Gee

    2000-01-01

    The full operational test of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Public Warning Siren System (PWSS) was successfully conducted on September 27, 2000. The annual test is a full-scale sounding of the individual siren systems around each of the three Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the annual test is to demonstrate and validate the siren systems' ability to alert personnel outdoors in the Immediate Notification Zones (INZ) (approximately two miles) around each site. The success of this test is based on two critical functions of the siren system. The first function is system operability. The system is considered operable if 90% of the sirens are operational. System diagnostics and direct field observations were used to validate the operability of the siren systems. Based on the diagnostic results and field observations, greater than 90% of the sirens were considered operational. The second function is system audibility. The system is considered audible if the siren could be heard in the immediate notification zones around each of the three sites. Direct field observations, along with sound level measurements, were used to validate the audibility of the siren system. Based on the direct field observations and sound level measurements, the siren system was considered audible. The combination of field observations, system diagnostic status reports, and sound level measurements provided a high level of confidence that the system met and would meet operational requirements upon demand. As part of the overall system test, the Tennessee Emergency Management Agency (TEMA) activated the Emergency Alerting System (EAS), which utilized area radio stations to make announcements regarding the test and to remind residents of what to do in the event of an actual emergency

  12. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2006. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications and hybrid systems within mini-grids. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  13. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2007. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids and PV environmental health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 22 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  14. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2008. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids as well as health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  15. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2006. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications and hybrid systems within mini-grids. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  16. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2007. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids and PV environmental health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 22 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  17. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2008. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids as well as health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  18. 296-B-5 Stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1995-02-01

    The B Plant Administration Manual requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-5 at B Plant. The sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-5 is functional and performing satisfactorily. This document is an annual assessment report of the systems associated with the 296-B-5 stack

  19. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2000. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance and design of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, the grid interconnection of building-integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, very large scale photovoltaic power generation systems and the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. The status and prospects in the 20 countries participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  20. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2004. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  1. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2004. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  2. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2001. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance, maintenance and sizing of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system and the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. The status and prospects in the 20 countries participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  3. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2003. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. The programme's tenth anniversary is noted. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance, maintenance and sizing of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 20 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  4. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2005. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  5. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2005. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  6. [Designing the Annual Meeting and Active Learning System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazumi

    2018-01-01

     At the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences our theme centered on active learning systems where adult learners engage on their own initiative. Many of the participants were pharmacists active in clinical practices. Regardless of their specialized skill-sets, pharmacists are constantly faced with difficult challenges in their daily work. Passive, one-way lectures are one resource for them, but unfortunately such lectures provide limited insights for resolving concrete problems. The present meeting aimed to show participants how to obtain information they need to solve specific real-world problems. This paper summarizes how we planned this year's meeting, including details about the debate symposium, social lunch, and online questionnaires. All these elements had the end goal of enabling learners proactivity to become their own best resource for learning. It is sincerely hoped that the design and execution of this meeting will prove resourceful for future annual meetings.

  7. INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology Annual Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon Rueff; Bryce Wheeler; Todd Vollmer; Tim McJunkin; Robert Erbes

    2012-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop an interoperable set of tools to provide a comprehensive, consistent implementation of cyber security and overall situational awareness of control and sensor network implementations. The operation and interoperability of these tools will fill voids in current technological offerings and address issues that remain an impediment to the security of control systems. This report provides an FY 2012 update on the Sophia, Mesh Mapper, Intelligent Cyber Sensor, and Data Fusion projects with respect to the year-two tasks and annual reporting requirements of the INL Control System Situational Awareness Technology report (July 2010).

  8. Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil; Wolff, Anders

    2003-01-01

    A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar....... The emphasis of this paper is on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detection and its relation to the sensitivity. Two absorbance cells with an optical path length of 100 μm and 1000 μm were characterized and compared in terms of sensitivity, limit of detection and effective path length for measurements...

  9. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2009. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented, as are activities planned for 2010. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids, PV environmental health and safety activities, performance and reliability of PV systems and high penetration PV in electricity grids. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  10. Scaling in multichain polymer systems in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, M.; Kalos, M.H.; Sokal, A.D.; Frisch, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    The mean dimensions of multichain polymer systems are predicted to follow a scaling relation with scaling variable X = l/sup d/ν-1 rho, where l is the number of statistical segments on the chain, rho is the segment density, d is the dimension, and ν is the critical exponent for the mean dimensions of an isolated polymer chain. The scaling laws are 2 >roughly-equalA(X) l/sup 2nu/ for l→ infinity with X bounded, and 2 >roughly-equalB(rho) l for l→ infinity with X → infinity. Moreover, the critical amplitudes behave as A(X)approx.X/sup()( -2nu-1/d/ν-1) as X → infinity and B(rho)approx.rho/sup()( -2nu-1/d/ν-1) as rho → 0. Simulations of both continuum and lattice systems are reanalyzed and found to be consistent with these scaling relations. Previous naive use of short-chain data has led to misleading results

  11. Tuning of electrostatic vs. depletion interaction in deciding the phase behavior of nanoparticle-polymer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sugam, E-mail: sugam@barc.gov.in; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, H-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-06-24

    Nanoparticle-polymer system interestingly show a re-entrant phase behavior where charge stabilized silica nanoparticles (phase I) undergo particle clustering (phase II) and then back to individual particles (phase I) as a function of polymer concentration. Such phase behavior arises as a result of dominance of various interactions (i) nanoparticle-nanoparticle electrostatic repulsion (ii) polymer induced attractive depletion between nanoparticles and (iii) polymer-polymer repulsion, at different concentration regimes. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the evolution of interaction during this re-entrant phase behavior of nanoparticles by contrast-marching the polymer. The SANS data have been modeled using a two-Yukawa potential accounting for both attractive and repulsive parts of the interaction between nanoparticles. The degree of both of these parts has been separately tuned by varying the polymer concentration and ionic strength of the solution. Both of these parts are found to have long-range nature. At low polymer concentrations, the electrostatic repulsion dominates over the depletion attraction. The magnitude and the range of the depletion interaction increase with the polymer concentration leading to nanoparticle clustering. At higher polymer concentrations, the increased polymer-polymer repulsion reduces the strength of depletion leading to re-entrant phase behavior. The clusters formed under depletion attraction are found to have surface fractal morphology.

  12. Tuning of electrostatic vs. depletion interaction in deciding the phase behavior of nanoparticle-polymer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle-polymer system interestingly show a re-entrant phase behavior where charge stabilized silica nanoparticles (phase I) undergo particle clustering (phase II) and then back to individual particles (phase I) as a function of polymer concentration. Such phase behavior arises as a result of dominance of various interactions (i) nanoparticle-nanoparticle electrostatic repulsion (ii) polymer induced attractive depletion between nanoparticles and (iii) polymer-polymer repulsion, at different concentration regimes. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the evolution of interaction during this re-entrant phase behavior of nanoparticles by contrast-marching the polymer. The SANS data have been modeled using a two-Yukawa potential accounting for both attractive and repulsive parts of the interaction between nanoparticles. The degree of both of these parts has been separately tuned by varying the polymer concentration and ionic strength of the solution. Both of these parts are found to have long-range nature. At low polymer concentrations, the electrostatic repulsion dominates over the depletion attraction. The magnitude and the range of the depletion interaction increase with the polymer concentration leading to nanoparticle clustering. At higher polymer concentrations, the increased polymer-polymer repulsion reduces the strength of depletion leading to re-entrant phase behavior. The clusters formed under depletion attraction are found to have surface fractal morphology

  13. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project FY17 Annual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakahara, Robert; Hackenberg, Davis; Johnson, William

    2017-01-01

    This presentation was presented to the Integrated Aviation Systems Program at the FY17 Annual Review of the UAS-NAS project. The presentation captures the overview of the work completed by the UAS-NAS project and its subprojects.

  14. El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Demonstration Project. Second annual report, July 1975--May 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenwald, G.W. (ed.)

    1976-07-01

    Laboratory oil displacement tests were conducted using Shell Oil Co. and Union Oil Co. chemical formulations in both Berea and El Dorado Admire Sandstone cores. Total relative mobility of the oil-water bank created during chemical flooding was measured in Admire Sandstone cores. The values ranged from 0.018 to 0.065 reciprocal centipoise. Four observation wells were drilled, cored, and logged during the year. They were cased with fiberglass and are now being used to monitor fluid properties. A tracer test was conducted by injection of chemical tracers into each of the 18 injection wells. Results indicate that there is no gross channeling in the reservoir. The same conclusion was drawn from results of interference tests. Performance forecasting was utilized to show that maintaining the bottom-hole injection pressures at 400 psia and the producing pressures at 30 psia would increase throughput rates and result in acceptable project life for the 6.4-acre, five-spot patterns. Injection well rates relative to the central injector were computed. These rates will be used as a guide for the operation of injection wells. This plan corresponds to operation at constant bottom-hole pressures for a homogeneous reservoir of uniform thickness. Construction of the fresh water system and injection plant was completed. The injection plant has performed satisfactorily. Injection of pretreatment fluid was started in both patterns on November 18, 1975.Severe loss of injectivity was experienced during the first week of injection. Several likely causes were identified and corrective actions taken. More moderate injectivity problems have continued throughout this reporting period. Additional preventive measures have been undertaken to improve the quality of injected fluids. A procedure was developed to stimulate and clean-up wells damaged by the injection fluid. A preliminary evaluation indicates that combination solvent-acid treatments will increase injection rates to the desired level.

  15. Energy Systems Studies Program annual report, fiscal year 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beller, M. (ed.)

    1976-06-01

    This is the fourth annual progress report of the Energy Systems Studies Program supported at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), Office of the Assistant Administrator for Planning and Analysis. The program is coordinated under the designation of a National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems (NCAES). Five working groups with specific program responsibilities are: policy analysis, economic analysis, biomedical and environmental assessment, technology assessment, and energy data and models. Future scenarios of the implementation of groups of technologies and new resources are developed. The socio-economic and environmental consequences are analyzed in detail and impact analyses are performed. Progress during FY 1976 is summarized in the following areas: energy system model development; energy-economic model development; technology assessments and support; economic analyses; and energy model data base activities. The program plan for FY 1977 is presented. (MCW)

  16. Intermolecular energy transfer in binary systems of dye polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin-I.; Barashkov, Nikolay N.; Palsule, Chintamani P.; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Borst, Walter L.

    2000-10-01

    We present results and physical interpretations for the energy transfer mechanisms in two-component dye polymer systems. The data consist of fluorescence emission spectra and decays. Two dyes were embedded in an epoxypolymer base, and only they participated in the energy transfer. Following pulsed laser excitation of the donor dye, energy transfer took place to the accept dye. The possible transfer paths considered here were nonradiative and radiative transfer. The latter involves two steps, emission and absorption of a photon, and therefore is relatively slow, while nonradiative transfer is a fast single step resulting from direct Coulomb interactions. A predominantly nonradiative transfer is desirable for applications, for instance in wavelength shifters in high energy particle detection. We studied the concentration effects of the dyes on the energy transfer and obtained the relative quantum efficiencies of various wavelength shifters from the fluorescence emission spectra. For low acceptor concentrations, radiative transfer was found to dominate, while nonradiative transfer became dominant at increasing dye concentrations. The fluorescence decays were analyzed with a sum-of-exponentials method and with Förster kinetics. The sum of exponential model yielded mean decay times of the dye polymers useful for a general classification. The decay times decreased as desired with increasing acceptor concentration. The samples, in which nonradiative energy transfer dominated, were analyzed with Förster kinetics. As a result, the natural decay times of the donor and acceptor dyes and the critical radii for nonradiative energy transfer were obtained from a global best fit.

  17. 49 CFR 659.25 - Annual review of system safety program plan and system security plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system security plan. 659.25 Section 659.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... and system security plan. (a) The oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to conduct an annual review of its system safety program plan and system security plan. (b) In the event the rail...

  18. Annual Reviews of User Accounting Controls for the Washington Headquarters Services Allotment Accounting System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of annual accounting system reviews is to determine whether DoD accounting systems are in compliance with accounting principles, standards, and related accounting requirements established...

  19. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Volume 1, Monday-Tuesday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference October 23-26, 2017 | Waterford at Springfield | Springfield, VA NDIA.org/systemsengineering...Conference Program SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CONFERENCE 2 Welcome to the NDIA Systems Engineering Conference On behalf of the National Defense Industrial...Association’s Systems Engineering Division, I would like to extend a very warm welcome to the 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Yes, the 20th Annual

  20. Utilization of polymer enclosed intermediate class arresters to improve the performance of modern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakich, J.D.; Lenk, D.W.; Koepfinger, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces the first commercially available polymer enclosed intermediate class metal oxide surge arrester. It describes the unique construction of the design, including reduced size, increased flexibility, a collared seal on the polymer housing and an open webbed fiberglass-epoxy module which houses the metal oxide disc elements. Performance advantages are discussed. These include improved short term contamination performance of the insulator-like polymer design when compared to multi-unit porcelain housed designs. Data will show that polymer housed open-webbed fiberglass module construction extends the pressure relief capability beyond that of typical porcelain enclosed designs. The capability of the polymer enclosed design to withstand repeated pressure relief tests, simulating system reclose on a failed arrester, is also discussed. This paper discusses the circumstances at one utility which has considered utilizing polymer enclosed intermediate class arresters to effectively upgrade their system protection capabilities

  1. Electronic excited states and relaxation dynamics in polymer heterojunction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, John Glenn Santos

    The potential for using conducting polymers as the active material in optoelectronic devices has come to fruition in the past few years. Understanding the fundamental photophysics behind their operations points to the significant role played by the polymer interface in their performance. Current device architectures involve the use of bulk heterojunctions which intimately blend the donor and acceptor polymers to significantly increase not only their interfacial surface area but also the probability of exciton formation within the vicinity of the interface. In this dissertation, we detail the role played by the interface on the behavior and performance of bulk heterojunction systems. First, we explore the relation between the exciton binding energy to the band offset in determining device characteristics. As a general rule, when the exciton binding energy is greater than the band offset, the exciton remains the lowest energy excited state leading to efficient light-emitting properties. On the other hand, if the offset is greater than the binding energy, charge separation becomes favorable leading to better photovoltaic behavior. Here, we use a Wannier function, configuration interaction based approach to examine the essential excited states and predict the vibronic absorption and emission spectra of the PPV/BBL, TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT heterojunctions. Our results underscore the role of vibrational relaxation in the formation of charge-transfer states following photoexcitation. In addition, we look at the relaxation dynamics that occur upon photoexcitation. For this, we adopt the Marcus-Hush semiclassical method to account for lattice reorganization in the calculation of the interconversion rates in TFB/F8BT and PFB/F8BT. We find that, while a tightly bound charge-transfer state (exciplex) remains the lowest excited state, a regeneration pathway to the optically active lowest excitonic state in TFB/F8BT is possible via thermal repopulation from the exciplex. Finally

  2. Norbornylene-based polymer systems for dielectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Shawn M [Albuquerque, NM; Wheeler, David R [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-17

    A capacitor having at least one electrode pair being separated by a dielectric component, with the dielectric component being made of a polymer such as a norbornylene-containing polymer with a dielectric constant greater than 3 and a dissipation factor less than 0.1 where the capacitor has an operating temperature greater than 100.degree. C. and less than 170.degree. C.

  3. Compact hydrogen production systems for solid polymer fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Formanski, V.; Kalk, Th.; Roes, J.

    Generally there are several ways to produce hydrogen gas from carbonaceous fuels like natural gas, oil or alcohols. Most of these processes are designed for large-scale industrial production and are not suitable for a compact hydrogen production system (CHYPS) in the power range of 1 kW. In order to supply solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) with hydrogen, a compact fuel processor is required for mobile applications. The produced hydrogen-rich gas has to have a low level of harmful impurities; in particular the carbon monoxide content has to be lower than 20 ppmv. Integrating the reaction step, the gas purification and the heat supply leads to small-scale hydrogen production systems. The steam reforming of methanol is feasible at copper catalysts in a low temperature range of 200-350°C. The combination of a small-scale methanol reformer and a metal membrane as purification step forms a compact system producing high-purity hydrogen. The generation of a SPFC hydrogen fuel gas can also be performed by thermal or catalytic cracking of liquid hydrocarbons such as propane. At a temperature of 900°C the decomposition of propane into carbon and hydrogen takes place. A fuel processor based on this simple concept produces a gas stream with a hydrogen content of more than 90 vol.% and without CO and CO2.

  4. Influence of anharmonic effects on the structural-mechanical and thermophysical properties of filled polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordyuk, N.A.; Nikitchuk, V.I.; Voloshin, O.M.

    1995-01-01

    The force constants of anharmonicity, the total energy, and the force of interaction between structural elements of PVC systems are determined from the values of the quasielastic constants of filled polymer systems

  5. One-step polymer surface modification for minimizing drug, protein, and DNA adsorption in microanalytical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben Kjær Unmack; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2013-01-01

    The non-specific adsorption of dissolved analytes strongly reduces the sensitivity and reliability in polymer microanalytical systems. Here, a one-step aqueous phase procedure modifies polymer material surfaces to strongly reduce their non-specific adsorption of a broad range of organic analytes ...

  6. Risoe annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    An explanation of Risoe National Laboratory's function within the Danish research system is followed by brief accounts of research activities at Risoe during 1987. Energy resources, technology and policy are discussed, the annual accounts are presented, a guide to the National Laboratory and a list of its publications are given. Some of the research activities that took place in 1987 described in more detail are within the fields of chemistry and the environment, superconductivity, new aspects of powdery mildew, polymers and robotics. (AB)

  7. Precision manufacturing of polymer micro-nano fluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnæs, Jørgen; Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) technologies require the possibility of fabricating devices which include micro down to sub-micrometre features with high production rate and low cost. In the present study precision injection moulding is performed using a COC Topas 5013 L10 polymer to produce LoC devices...... in the sample. Design of experiment (DOE) was adopted to characterize the replication fidelity of produced polymer features. Results have shown the possibility of performing quality control of micro- and sub-μm features, taking into account the polymer shrinkage, depending on process conditions at both micro...

  8. Polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles as enhanced indomethacin delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Bochicchio, Sabrina; Nasibullin, Shamil F; Bertoncin, Paolo; Lamberti, Gaetano; Barba, Anna Angela; Moustafine, Rouslan I

    2018-05-17

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i.e. indomethacin used for rheumatoid arthritis and non-rheumatoid inflammatory diseases, are known for their injurious actions on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Mucosal damage can be avoided by using nanoscale systems composed by a combination of liposomes and biodegradable natural polymer, i.e. chitosan, for enhancing drug activity. Aim of this study was to prepare chitosan-lipid hybrid delivery systems for indomethacin dosage through a novel continuous method based on microfluidic principles. The drop-wise conventional method was also applied in order to investigate the effect of the two polymeric coverage processes on the nanostructures features and their interactions with indomethacin. Thermal-physical properties, mucoadhesiveness, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro release behavior in simulated GI fluids and stability in stocking conditions were assayed and compared, respectively, for the uncoated and chitosan-coated nanoliposomes prepared by the two introduced methods. The prepared chitosan-lipid hybrid structures, with nanometric size, have shown high indomethacin loading (about 10%) and drug encapsulation efficiency up to 99%. TEM investigation has highlighted that the developed novel simil-microfluidic method is able to put a polymeric layer, surrounding indomethacin loaded nanoliposomes, thicker and smoother than that achievable by the drop-wise method, improving their storage stability. Finally, double pH tests have confirmed that the chitosan-lipid hybrid nanostructures have a gastro retentive behavior in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids thus can be used as delivery systems for the oral-controlled release of indomethacin. Based on the present results, the simil-microfluidic method, working with large volumes, in a rapid manner, without the use of drastic conditions and with a precise control over the covering process, seems to be the most promising method for the production of suitable

  9. Development of buccal drug delivery systems based on a thiolated polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langoth, Nina; Kalbe, Jochen; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2003-02-18

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the benefit of thiolated polymers (thiomers) for the development of buccal drug delivery systems. L-Cysteine was thereby covalently attached to polycarbophil (PCP) mediated by a carbodiimide. The resulting conjugate displayed 140.5+/-8.4 microM thiol groups per gram polymer. Disintegration studies were carried out with tablets based on unmodified polymer and conjugated polymer, respectively. Due to the formation of disulfide bonds within the thiolated polymer, the stability of matrix-tablets based on this polymer was strongly improved. Additionally tensile studies were carried out, which were in good correlation with further results obtained by mucoadhesion studies, using the rotating cylinder method. These results showed that tablets based on thiolated PCP remained attached on freshly excised porcine mucosa 1.8 times longer than the corresponding control. Moreover, the enzyme inhibitory properties of polymers were evaluated as well. Thiolated PCP increased the stability of the synthetic substrate for aminopeptidase N-leu-p-nitroanilide (N-leu-pNA) and the model drug leucin-enkephalin (leu-enkephalin) against enzymatic degradation on buccal mucosa. Due to the use of thiolated polymers also a controlled drug release for leu-enkephalin was guaranteed over a time period for more than 24 h. Results of the present studies suggest that thiolated polymers represent a very useful tool for buccal delivery of peptide drugs.

  10. Aqueous Colloid + Polymer Depletion System for Confocal Microscopy and Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nayoung; Umanzor, Esmeralda J.; Conrad, Jacinta C.

    2018-05-01

    We developed a model depletion system with colloidal particles that were refractive index- and density-matched to 80 (w/w)% glycerol in water, and characterized the effect of interparticle interactions on the structure and dynamics of non-equilibrium phases. 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate-co-tert-butyl methacrylate copolymer particles were synthesized following Kodger et al. (Sci. Rep. 5, 14635 (2015)). Particles were dispersed in glycerol/water solutions to generate colloidal suspensions with good control over electrostatic interactions and a moderately high background viscosity of 55 mPa-s. To probe the effects of charge screening and depletion attractions on the suspension phase behavior, we added NaCl and polyacrylamide (M_w = 186 kDa) at various concentrations to particle suspensions formulated at volume fractions of phi = 0.05 and 0.3 and imaged the suspensions using confocal microscopy. The particles were nearly hard spheres at a NaCl concentration of 20 mM, but aggregated when the concentration of NaCl was further increased. Changes in the particle structure and dynamics with increasing concentration of the depletant polyacrylamide followed the trends expected from earlier experiments on depletion-driven gelation. Additionally, we measured the viscosity and corrected first normal stress difference of suspensions formulated at phi = 0.4 with and without added polymer. The solvent viscosity was suitable for rheology measurements without the onset of instabilities such as secondary flows or edge fracture. These results validate this system as an alternative to one common model system, suspensions of poly(methyl methacrylate) particles and polystyrene depletants in organic solvents, for investigating phase behavior and flow properties in attractive colloidal suspensions.

  11. Optical measuring system with an interrogator and a polymer-based single-mode fibre optic sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical measuring system comprising a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system (102), an optical interrogator (101), and an optical arrangement (103) interconnecting the optical interrogator (101) and the polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor...... system (102). The invention further relates to an optical interrogator adapted to be connected to a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system via an optical arrangement. The interrogator comprises a broadband light source arrangement (104) and a spectrum analysing arrangement which receives...

  12. California community water systems annual indicators dataset, 1999-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains annual measures of arsenic and nitrates in public drinking water supplies. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW)...

  13. Increased Oil Recovery from Mature Oil Fields Using Gelled Polymer Treatments, Annual Report, June 16,2000-June 15, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; McCool, C.S.

    2002-05-22

    This program was aimed at reducing barriers to the widespread use of gelled polymer treatments by (1) developing methods to predict gel behavior during placement in matrix rock and fractures, (2) determining the persistence of permeability reduction after gel placement, and (3) developing methods to design production well treatments to control water production.

  14. Blends of synthetic and natural polymers as drug delivery systems for growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascone, M G; Sim, B; Downes, S

    1995-05-01

    In order to overcome the biological deficiencies of synthetic polymers and to enhance the mechanical characteristics of natural polymers, two synthetic polymers, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were blended, in different ratios, with two biological polymers, collagen (C) and hyaluronic acid (HA). These blends were used to prepare films, sponges and hydrogels which were loaded with growth hormone (GH) to investigate their potential use as drug delivery systems. The GH release was monitored in vitro using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results show that GH can be released from HA/PAA sponges and from HA/PVA and C/PVA hydrogels. The initial GH concentration used for sample loading affected the total quantity of GH released but not the pattern of release. The rate and quantity of GH released was significantly dependent on the HA or C content of the polymers.

  15. Rapid replacement of Tangier Island bridges including lightweight and durable fiber-reinforced polymer deck systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite cellular deck systems were used as new bridge decks on two replacement bridges on Tangier Island, Virginia. The most important characteristics of this application were reduced self-weight and increased durabil...

  16. A new system for crack closure of cementitious materials using shrinkable polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, Anthony; Joseph, Christopher; Lark, Robert; Isaacs, Ben; Dunn, Simon; Weager, Brendon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents details of an original crack-closure system for cementitious materials using shrinkable polymer tendons. The system involves the incorporation of unbonded pre-oriented polymer tendons in cementitious beams. Crack closure is achieved by thermally activating the shrinkage mechanism of the restrained polymer tendons after the cement-based material has undergone initial curing. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated in a series of small scale experiments on pre-cracked prismatic mortar specimens. The results from these tests show that, upon activation, the polymer tendon completely closes the preformed macro-cracks and imparts a significant stress across the crack faces. The potential of the system to enhance the natural autogenous crack healing process and generally improve the durability of concrete structures is addressed.

  17. Polymer multilevel lab-on-chip systems for electrochemical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Garau, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    with depths as small as tens of nanometers and as big as hundreds of microns on the same polymer chip. The authors also describe in detail the fabrication procedure of polymer substrates with embedded Au and pedot:tosylate electrodes for electrochemical applications. The electrode fabrication process...... is simple and fit for integration in a production scheme. The electrode–substrates are then bonded to injection molded counterparts to be used for electrochemical applications. A dimensional and functional characterization of the electrodes is also presented here....

  18. Thermal degradation of polymer systems having liquid crystalline oligoester segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Matroniani

    Full Text Available Abstract Block copolymers and blends comprised by liquid crystalline oligoester and polystyrene were prepared and their thermal stability were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The samples have shown three main decomposition temperatures due to (1 lost of flexible chain and decomposition of mesogenic segment, (2 decomposition of polystyrene and (3 final decomposition of oligoester rigid segment. Both copolymers and polymer blends presented lower thermal stability compared to polystyrene and oligoester. The residual mass after heating at 600 °C in copolymers and polymer blends were lower than those found in the oligoesters. A degradative process of aromatic segments of oligoester induced by decomposition of polystyrene is suggested.

  19. Integrated lasers for polymer Lab-on-a-Chip systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mappes, Timo; Vannahme, Christoph; Grosmann, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    We develop optical Lab-on-a-Chips on different platforms for marker-based and label-free biophotonic sensor applications. Our chips are based on polymers and fabricated by mass production technologies to integrate microfluidic channels, optical waveguides and miniaturized lasers.......We develop optical Lab-on-a-Chips on different platforms for marker-based and label-free biophotonic sensor applications. Our chips are based on polymers and fabricated by mass production technologies to integrate microfluidic channels, optical waveguides and miniaturized lasers....

  20. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli ( E . coli ) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS...or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the U.S. Government. i i E . coli in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared...March 2017 EpiData Center Department NMCPHC-EDC-TR-187-2017 ii ii E . coli in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared March 2017 EpiData

  1. FY2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    FY 2013 annual report focuses on the following areas: vehicle modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluations, laboratory and field evaluations, codes and standards, industry projects, and vehicle systems optimization.

  2. Diffusion coefficients of tracers in glassy polymer systems prepared by gamma radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonge, M.P.; Gilbert, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion-controlled reactions are common in free radical polymerisation reactions, especially in glassy polymer matrices. Such reactions commonly have an important influence on the polymerisation process and final polymer properties. For example, the dominant growth-stopping event (bimolecular termination) is generally diffusion-controlled. In glassy polymer systems, where molecular mobility is very low, the chain growth mechanism (propagation) may become diffusion-controlled. At present, the mechanism for propagation in glassy polymers is poorly understood, but it is expected by the Smoluchowski expression applied to propagation to depend strongly on the diffusion coefficient of monomer. The objective of this study is to measure reliable diffusion coefficients of small tracer molecules in glassy polymers, and compare these with propagation rate coefficients in similar systems, by the prediction above. Samples were initially prepared in a sealed sampled cell containing monomer, inert diluent, and tracer dye. After irradiation for several days, complete conversion of monomer to polymer can be obtained. The diffusion coefficients for two tracer dyes have been measured as a function of weight fraction polymer glassy poly(methyl methacrylate) samples

  3. Polymer mixtures in confined geometries: Model systems to explore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to mean field behavior for very long chains, the critical behavior of mixtures confined into thin film geometry falls in the 2d Ising class irrespective of chain length. ..... AB interface does not approach the wall; (b) corresponds to a temperature .... Very recently, these theoretical studies have been extended to polymer mixtures.

  4. Morphological analysis of polymer systems with broad particle size distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, Miroslav; Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Nevoralová, Martina; Fortelný, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, April (2015), s. 8-16 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer blends * morphology * image analysis Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2015

  5. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  6. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in Diluted Polymer plus Solvent Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bogdanić, Grozdana; Wichterle, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2011), s. 1080-1083 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/0444 Grant - others:MZOŠ(HR) 061-0000000-3029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : polymer * prediction * total pressure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2011

  7. The coiled coil motif in polymer drug delivery systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2013), s. 90-96 ISSN 0734-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0543; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : coiled coil * hydrophilic polymer * recombinant protein Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 8.905, year: 2013

  8. Enhanced non-volatile and updatable holography using a polymer composite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengfei; Sun, Sam Q; Baig, Sarfaraz; Wang, Michael R

    2012-03-12

    Updatable holography is considered as the ultimate technique for true 3D information recording and display. However, there is no practical solution to preserve the required features of both non-volatility and reversibility which conflict with each other when the reading has the same wavelength as the recording. We demonstrate a non-volatile and updatable holographic approach by exploiting new features of molecular transformations in a polymer recording system. In addition, by using a new composite recording film containing photo-reconfigurable liquid-crystal (LC) polymer, the holographic recording is enhanced due to the collective reorientation of LC molecules around the reconfigured polymer chains.

  9. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study of Interplay of Attractive and Repulsive Interactions in Nanoparticle-Polymer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, Vinod K; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2016-02-16

    The phase behavior of nanoparticle (silica)-polymer (polyethylene glycol) system without and with an electrolyte (NaCl) has been studied. It is observed that nanoparticle-polymer system behaves very differently in the presence of electrolyte. In the absence of electrolyte, the nanoparticle-polymer system remains in one-phase even at very high polymer concentrations. On the other hand, a re-entrant phase behavior is found in the presence of electrolyte, where one-phase (individual) system undergoes two-phase (nanoparticle aggregation) and then back to one-phase with increasing polymer concentration. The regime of two-phase system has been tuned by varying the electrolyte concentration. The polymer concentration range over which the two-phase system exists is significantly enhanced with the increase in the electrolyte concentration. These systems have been characterized by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments of contrast-marching the polymer to the solvent. The data are modeled using a two-Yukawa potential accounting for both attractive and repulsive parts of the interaction between nanoparticles. The phase behavior of nanoparticle-polymer system is explained by interplay of attractive (polymer-induced attractive depletion between nanoparticles) and repulsive (nanoparticle-nanoparticle electrostatic repulsion and polymer-polymer repulsion) interactions present in the system. In the absence of electrolyte, the strong electrostatic repulsion between nanoparticles dominates over the polymer-induced depletion attraction and the nanoparticle system remains in one-phase. With addition of electrolyte, depletion attraction overcomes electrostatic repulsion at some polymer concentration, resulting into nanoparticle aggregation and two-phase system. Further addition of polymer increases the polymer-polymer repulsion which eventually reduces the strength of depletion and hence re-entrant phase behavior. The effects of varying electrolyte concentration on the phase

  10. Rheology of multiphase polymer systems using novel "melt rigidity" evaluation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Multiphase polymer systems like blends, composites and nanocomposites exhibit complex rheological behaviour due to physical and also possibly chemical interactions between individual phases. Up to now, rheology of heterogeneous polymer systems has been usually described by evaluation of viscosity curve (shear thinning phenomenon), storage modulus curve (formation of secondary plateau) or plotting information about damping behaviour (e.g. Van Gurp-Palmen-plot). On the contrary to evaluation of damping behaviour, "melt rigidity" approach has been introduced for description of physical network of rigid particles in polymer matrix as relation of ∫G'/∫G" over specific frequency range. This approach has been experimentally proved for polymer nanocomposites in order to compare shear flow characteristics with elongational flow field. In this contribution, LDPE-clay nanocomposites with different dispersion grades (physical networks) have been prepared and characterized by both conventional as well as novel "melt rigidity" approach.

  11. Impregnation and Polymerization Methods and Systems Used in the Production of Wood-Polymer Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, W. E.; Rotariu, G. J. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC 20545 (United States)

    1968-10-15

    Studies on the radiation production of wood-polymer materials began in the United States in 1961 at West Virginia University and have continued until today. In this paper the impregnation and polymerization methods and systems that have evolved from these studies are reviewed. Included is a description of the procedures developed at the College of Forestry, Syracuse University, for producing wood-polymers via a thermal-catalytic process. (author)

  12. Synthesis and characterization of an electrolyte system based on a biodegradable polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sownthari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A polymer electrolyte system has been developed using a biodegradable polymer namely poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL in combination with zinc triflate [Zn(CF3SO32] in different weight percentages and characterized during this investigation. Free-standing thin films of varying compositions were prepared by solution casting technique. The successful doping of the polymer has been confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR by analyzing the carbonyl (C=O stretching region of the polymer. The maximum ionic conductivity obtained at room temperature (25°C was found to be 8.8x10–6 S/cm in the case of PCL complexed with 25 wt% Zn(CF3SO32 which is five orders of magnitude higher than that of the pure polymer host material. The increase in amorphous phase with an increase in salt concentration of the prepared polymer electrolyte has also been confirmed from the concordant results obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopic (SEM analyses. Furthermore, the electrochemical stability window of the prepared polymer electrolyte was found to be 3.7 V. An electrochemical cell has been fabricated based on Zn/MnO2 electrode couple as an application area and its discharge characteristics were evaluated.

  13. Annual elk calf survival in a multiple carnivore system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eacker, Daniel R.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Jimenez, Benjamin S.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Robinson, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    The realized effect of multiple carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment may depend on the carnivore assemblage as well as compensation from forage and winter weather severity, which may mediate juvenile vulnerability to predation in ungulates. We used a time-to-event approach to test for the effects of risk factors on annual elk (Cervus canadensis) calf survival and to estimate cause-specific mortality rates for 2 elk populations in adjacent study areas in the southern Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA, during 2011–2014. We captured and radio-tagged 286 elk calves: 226 neonates, and 60 6-month-old calves. Summer survival probability was less variable than winter (P = 0.12) and averaged 0.55 (95% CI = 0.47–0.63), whereas winter survival varied more than summer and significantly across study years (P = 0.003) and averaged 0.73 (95% CI = 0.64–0.81). During summer, elk calf survival increased with biomass of preferred forage biomass, and was slightly lower following winters with high precipitation; exposure to mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation risk was unimportant. In contrast, during winter, we found that exposure to mountain lion predation risk influenced survival, with a weak negative effect of winter precipitation. We found no evidence that forage availability or winter weather severity mediated vulnerability to mountain lion predation risk in summer or winter (e.g., an interaction), indicating that the effect of mountain lion predation was constant regardless of spatial variation in forage or weather. Mountain lions dominated known causes of elk calf mortality in summer and winter, with estimated cause-specific mortality rates of 0.14 (95% CI = 0.09–0.20) and 0.12 (95% CI = 0.07–0.18), respectively. The effect of carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment varies across ecological systems depending on relative carnivore densities. Mountain lions may be the most important carnivore for ungulates, especially where grizzly

  14. Monte Carlo simulations of lattice models for single polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Single linear polymer chains in dilute solutions under good solvent conditions are studied by Monte Carlo simulations with the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method up to the chain length N ˜ O(10^4). Based on the standard simple cubic lattice model (SCLM) with fixed bond length and the bond fluctuation model (BFM) with bond lengths in a range between 2 and sqrt{10}, we investigate the conformations of polymer chains described by self-avoiding walks on the simple cubic lattice, and by random walks and non-reversible random walks in the absence of excluded volume interactions. In addition to flexible chains, we also extend our study to semiflexible chains for different stiffness controlled by a bending potential. The persistence lengths of chains extracted from the orientational correlations are estimated for all cases. We show that chains based on the BFM are more flexible than those based on the SCLM for a fixed bending energy. The microscopic differences between these two lattice models are discussed and the theoretical predictions of scaling laws given in the literature are checked and verified. Our simulations clarify that a different mapping ratio between the coarse-grained models and the atomistically realistic description of polymers is required in a coarse-graining approach due to the different crossovers to the asymptotic behavior.

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of lattice models for single polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Single linear polymer chains in dilute solutions under good solvent conditions are studied by Monte Carlo simulations with the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method up to the chain length N∼O(10 4 ). Based on the standard simple cubic lattice model (SCLM) with fixed bond length and the bond fluctuation model (BFM) with bond lengths in a range between 2 and √(10), we investigate the conformations of polymer chains described by self-avoiding walks on the simple cubic lattice, and by random walks and non-reversible random walks in the absence of excluded volume interactions. In addition to flexible chains, we also extend our study to semiflexible chains for different stiffness controlled by a bending potential. The persistence lengths of chains extracted from the orientational correlations are estimated for all cases. We show that chains based on the BFM are more flexible than those based on the SCLM for a fixed bending energy. The microscopic differences between these two lattice models are discussed and the theoretical predictions of scaling laws given in the literature are checked and verified. Our simulations clarify that a different mapping ratio between the coarse-grained models and the atomistically realistic description of polymers is required in a coarse-graining approach due to the different crossovers to the asymptotic behavior

  16. 291-B-1 stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The B Plant 291-B-1 main stack exhausts gaseous effluents to the atmosphere from the 221-B Building canyon and cells, the No. 1 Vessel Ventilation System (VVS1), the 212-B Cask Station cell ventilation system, and, to a limited capacity, the 224-B Building. VVS1 collects offgases from various process tanks in 221-B Building, while the 224-B system maintains a negative pressure in out-of-service, sealed process tanks. B Plant Administration Manual, WHC-CM-7-5, Section 5.30 requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 291-B-1 (System Number B977A) at B Plant. The system is functional and performing satisfactorily

  17. 42 CFR 435.136 - State agency implementation requirements for one-time notice and annual review system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-time notice and annual review system. 435.136 Section 435.136 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... agency implementation requirements for one-time notice and annual review system. An agency must— (a...) Establish an annual review system to identify individuals who meet the requirements of § 435.135 (a) or (c...

  18. Electro-Optical Parameters Of Hairy Rod Polymer/Dimethylformamide System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasevska, Hristina

    2003-01-01

    Rigid rod polymers are materials with special features, that is the reason why they have large scientific and technological applications like isotropic-nematic and other types of transition. One of the biggest problems that happen while investigation to these polymers, at molecular level, is their poor solubility in most of the common solvents. Solubility gets better if while synthesize junctions flexible side chains, [1]. Remaining polymers belong on one new class - hairy rod polymers and have big potential for their technological applications. Because of their nonlinear optical properties and opportunity for self-organization in super molecular structures (films and fibers), can be used in electronics and telecommunications industry either at display-technologies [2]. That is the main reason why controlling the remaining polymer features and connection of their microscopic and macroscopic characteristics, like an complete characterization (in solutions and solid state) is from essential scientific interest, actually it is an imperative. The polymer POD-2/that is subject of investigation, bellows to hairy rod polymers and it is synthesized for the first time [3] by giving a support to their characterization. Measures on diluted solutions from the system POD-2/dimethylformamide are made by the method electric birefringence, at three temperatures (25, 40 and 55 o C). For different concentrations on system, from obtained electro-optical signals (EOS), dependence on electric birefringence (Δn) against applied electric field (E 2 ), is determined. By investigation of electro-optical effects, especially studding the way of their maintenance and losing, while applying electric square impulses, relaxation time τ o of polymer molecules is calculated. From these parameters, as presented data for EOS rise and decay too, deformational electro-optical effect has been determined. (Author)

  19. Theory of optical transitions in conjugated polymers. I. Ideal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barford, William; Marcus, Max

    2014-10-28

    We describe a theory of linear optical transitions in conjugated polymers. The theory is based on three assumptions. The first is that the low-lying excited states of conjugated polymers are Frenkel excitons coupled to local normal modes, described by the Frenkel-Holstein model. Second, we assume that the relevant parameter regime is ℏω ≪ J, i.e., the adiabatic regime, and thus the Born-Oppenheimer factorization of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom is generally applicable. Finally, we assume that the Condon approximation is valid, i.e., the exciton-polaron wavefunction is essentially independent of the normal modes. Using these assumptions we derive an expression for an effective Huang-Rhys parameter for a chain (or chromophore) of N monomers, given by S(N) = S(1)/IPR, where S(1) is the Huang-Rhys parameter for an isolated monomer. IPR is the inverse participation ratio, defined by IPR = (∑(n)|Ψ(n)|(4))(-1), where Ψ(n) is the exciton center-of-mass wavefunction. Since the IPR is proportional to the spread of the exciton center-of-mass wavefunction, this is a key result, as it shows that S(N) decreases with chain length. As in molecules, in a polymer S(N) has two interpretations. First, ℏωS(N) is the relaxation energy of an excited state caused by its coupling to the normal modes. Second, S(N) appears in the definition of an effective Franck-Condon factor, F(0v)(N) = S(N)(v)exp ( - S(N))/v! for the vth vibronic manifold. We show that the 0 - 0 and 0 - 1 optical intensities are proportional to F00(N) and F01(N), respectively, and thus the ratio of the 0 - 1 to 0 - 0 absorption and emission intensities are proportional to S(N). These analytical results are checked by extensive DMRG calculations and found to be generally valid, particularly for emission. However, for large chain lengths higher-lying quasimomentum exciton states become degenerate with the lowest vibrational excitation of the lowest exciton state. When this happens there is

  20. Manufacturing routes for disposable polymer blood diagnostic microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Griffiths, Christian; Azcarate, Sabino

    2008-01-01

    (Multi-Material Micro Manufacture) that are relevant to the technology for disposable polymer parts for Micro-Tele-BioChip (µTBC) medical platforms. Combining two separation mechanisms a novel micro channel design was developed. The separation unit is based on a micro channel bend structure where typical...... channel dimensions are 20 µm for the plasma channel width, and 50-75 µm for the cell channel. The height of all channels is 100 µm. The micro channel bend works simply on physical and hydrodynamic separation mechanisms without integrated actuators like pumps or valves. For the mass-fabrication of low...

  1. Disability Evaluation Systems Analysis and Research Annual Report 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    condition among Army and Marine Corps service members; paralysis and epilepsy were the most common type of neurological conditions in the Navy; migraines...Force in 2013 and in the previous five year period. Epilepsy and paralysis were the most common neurological conditions in the Navy. IN T R O D U...States at the Beginning of the Twenty-first Century. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology , 2007. 3(1): p. 137-158. 10. Lapierre, C.B., A.F. Schwegler

  2. Polymer brushes: a controllable system with adjustable glass transition temperature of fragile glass formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shi-Jie; Qian, Hu-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2014-01-28

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations for coarse-grained polymer brushes in a wide temperature range to investigate the factors that affect the glass transition in these systems. We focus on the influences of free surface, polymer-substrate interaction strength, grafting density, and chain length not only on the change of glass transition temperature Tg, but also the fragility D of the glass former. It is found that the confinement can enhance the dependence of the Tg on the cooling rate as compared to the bulk melt. Our layer-resolved analysis demonstrates that it is possible to control the glass transition temperature Tg of polymer brushes by tuning the polymer-substrate interaction strength, the grafting density, and the chain length. Moreover, we find quantitative differences in the influence range of the substrate and the free surface on the density and dynamics. This stresses the importance of long range cooperative motion in glass formers near the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the string-like cooperative motion analysis demonstrates that there exists a close relation among glass transition temperature Tg, fragility D, and string length ⟨S⟩. The polymer brushes that possess larger string length ⟨S⟩ tend to have relatively higher Tg and smaller D. Our results suggest that confining a fragile glass former through forming polymer brushes changes not only the glass transition temperature Tg, but also the very nature of relaxation process.

  3. A review study of (bio)sensor systems based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Murat

    2013-05-01

    This review article concentrates on the electrochemical biosensor systems with conducting polymers. The area of electro-active polymers confined to different electrode surfaces has attracted great attention. Polymer modified carbon substrate electrodes can be designed through polymer screening to provide tremendous improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, stability and reproducibility of the electrode response to detect a variety of analytes. The electro-active films have been used to entrap different enzymes and/or proteins at the electrode surface, but without obvious loss of their bioactivity for the development of biosensors. Electropolymerization is a well-known technique used to immobilize biomaterials to the modified electrode surface. Polymers might be covalently bonding to enzymes or proteins; therefore, thickness, permeation and charge transport characteristics of the polymeric films can be easily and precisely controlled by modulating the electrochemical parameters for various electrochemical techniques, such as chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, and differential pulse voltammetry. This review article is divided into three main parts as given in the table of contents related to the immobilization process of some important conducting polymers, polypyrrole, polythiophene, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), polycarbazole, polyaniline, polyphenol, poly(o-phenylenediamine), polyacetylene, polyfuran and their derivatives. A total of 216 references are cited in this review article. The literature reviewed covers a 7 year period beginning from 2005. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Terminology of Polymers and Polymerization Processes in Dispersed Systems (IUPAC Recommendations 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogošić, M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A large group of industrially important polymerization processes is carried out in dispersed systems. These processes differ with respect to their physical nature, mechanism of particle formation, particle morphology, size, charge, types of interparticle interactions, and many other aspects. Polymer dispersions, and polymers derived from polymerization in dispersed systems,are used in diverse areas such as paints, adhesives, microelectronics, medicine, cosmetics, biotechnology, and others. Frequently, the same names are used for different processes and products or different names are used for the same processes and products. The document contains a list of recommended terms and definitions necessary for the unambiguous description of processes, products, parameters, and characteristic features relevant to polymers in dispersed systems.

  5. Discontinuous and heterogeneous glass transition behavior of carbohydrate polymer-plasticizer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kiyoshi; Hagura, Yoshio

    2012-07-01

    In order to understand the glass transition properties of carbohydrate polymer-plasticizer systems, glass transition temperatures of dextrin-glucose and dextrin-maltose systems were investigated systematically using differential scanning calorimetry. The onset (Tg(on)) and offset (Tg(off)) of the glass transition decreased with increasing plasticizer (glucose or maltose) content, and showed an abrupt depression at certain plasticizer content. The abrupt depression of Tg(off) occurred at higher plasticizer content than that of Tg(on). The glass transition was much broader for intermediate plasticizer content. From the enthalpy relaxation behavior of samples aged at various temperatures, it was found that two different glass transitions occurred contentiously in the broad glass transition. These results suggested that carbohydrate polymer-plasticizer systems can be classified into three regions: the entrapment of the plasticizer by the polymer, the formations of the polymer-plasticizer and plasticizer-rich domains, and the embedment of polymer into the plasticizer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of equivalent retention among different polymer-solvent systems in thermal field-flow fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Suk; Park, Young Hun; Lee, Dai Woon; Moon, Myeong Hee; Yu, Euy Kyung

    1998-01-01

    An equivalent retention has been experimentally observed in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFF) for different polymer-solvent systems. It is shown that iso-retention between two sets of polymer-solvent systems can be obtained by adjusting the temperature difference (ΔT) according to the difference in the ration of ordinary diffusion coefficient to thermal diffusion coefficient. This method uses a compensation of field strength (ΔT) in ThFFF at a fixed condition of cold wall temperature. It is applied for the calculation of molecular weight of polymers based on a calibration run of different standards obtained at an adjusted ΔT. The polymer standards used in this study are polystyrene (PS), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF). Three carrier solvents, tetrahydrofuran (THF), methylethylketone (MEK) and ethylacetate (ETAc) were employed. Though the accuracy in the calculation of molecular weight is dependent on the difference in the slope of log λ vs. log M which is related to Mark-Houwink constant a, it shows reasonable agreement within about 6% of relative error in molecular weight calculation for the polymer-solvent systems having similar a value

  7. Annual energy performance of R744 and R410A heat pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Zhequan; Eikevik, Trygve M.; Nekså, Petter; Hafner, Armin; Wang, Ruzhu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Annual energy performance of R744 and R410A heat pumping systems is compared. • Several dynamic models of heat pumping systems are developed. • Annual energy efficiency of R744 hybrid ground-coupled heat pumping system. • The seasonal COPc and COPh of R744 hybrid system are 3.55 and 3.32. • The superiority of R744 system on the integration of two heat sinks is discussed. - Abstract: This work compares the annual energy performance of heat pumping systems using R744 and R410A as refrigerant. Focus is the annual energy efficiency of R744 hybrid ground-coupled heat pumping system. The hybrid system uses both ambient air and ground as heat sinks in the cooling mode. This is important to eliminate the underground heat accumulation phenomenon in warm climates. Several quasi-steady state models of heat pumping systems, using R744 and R410A, have been developed. Simulation results show that the annual COP_c and COP_h of an R744 hybrid system reaches 3.55 and 3.32, and its cooling performance is 42% better than for a R744 ASHP and 23% better than for a R744 GCHP system. The annual energy performance factor of a R410A ASHP system is better than for a R744 hybrid system, but the COP_c for the R410A system will be lower when the ambient temperature is higher than 30 °C.

  8. 296-B-10 stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    B Plant Administration Manual, requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-10 at B Plant. The ventilation system of WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) is designed to provide airflow patterns so that air movement throughout the building is from areas of lesser radioactivity to areas of greater radioactivity. All potentially contaminated areas are maintained at a negative pressure with respect to the atmosphere so that air flows into the building at all times. The exhaust discharging through the 296-B-10 stack is continuously monitored and sampled using a sampling and monitoring probe assembly located approximately 17.4 meters (57 feet) above the base of the stack. The probe assembly consists of 5 nozzles for the sampling probe and 2 nozzles to monitor the flow. The sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-10 is functional and performing satisfactorily

  9. Conductive polymers for controlled release and treatment of central nervous system injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, Rajiv

    As one of the most devastating forms of neurotrauma, spinal cord injury remains a challenging clinical problem. The difficulties in treatment could potentially be resolved by better technologies for therapeutic delivery. In order to develop new approaches to treating central nervous system injury, this dissertation focused on using electrically-conductive polymers, controlled drug release, and stem cell transplantation. We first sought to enhance the therapeutic potential of neural stem cells by electrically increasing their production of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), important molecules for neuronal cell survival, differentiation, synaptic development, plasticity, and growth. We fabricated a new cell culture device for growing neural stem cells on a biocompatible, conductive polymer. Electrical stimulation via the polymer led to upregulation of NTF production by neural stem cells. This approach has the potential to enhance stem cell function while avoiding the pitfalls of genetic manipulation, possibly making stem cells more viable as a clinical therapy. Seeing the therapeutic potential of conductive polymers, we extended our studies to an in vivo model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a novel fabrication and extraction technique, a conductive polymer was fabricated to fit to the characteristic pathology that follows contusive SCI. Assessed via quantitative analysis of MR images, the conductive polymer significantly reduced compression of the injured spinal cord. Further characterizing astroglial and neuronal response of injured host tissue, we found significant neuronal sparing as a result of this treatment. The in vivo studies also demonstrated improved locomotor recovery mediated by a conductive polymer scaffold over a non-conductive control. We next sought to take advantage of conductive polymers for local, electronically-controlled release of drugs. Seeking to overcome reported limitations in drug delivery via polypyrrole, we first embedded drugs in poly

  10. Optimized protocol for the radioiodination of hydrazone-type polymer drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedláček, Ondřej; Kučka, Jan; Hrubý, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hydrazone conjugates of polymers with doxorubicin represent a very promising tool for cancer chemotherapy. However, these conjugates are very difficult to radiolabel with iodine radionuclides, which possess otherwise very advantageous nuclear properties to, e.g., follow biodistribution. In this study, we developed a robust protocol for the high-yield radioiodination of hydrazone-type drug delivery systems with doxorubicin. In particular, it is crucial that the polymer radioiodination step be performed before the deprotection of the hydrazide and doxorubicin binding. - Highlights: • Hydrazone-type drug delivery systems with doxorubicin were radioiodinated. • Radioiodination was performed via polymer-bound phenolic moiety. • Radioiodination step must be performed before deprotection and drug binding

  11. Theory and design of an Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) for residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.; Abbatiello, L.A.; Ballou, M.L.

    1980-05-01

    The basic concept of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) - an integrated system for supplying space heating, hot water, and air conditioning to a building - and the theory underlying its design and operation are described. Practical procedures for designing an ACES for a single-family residence, together with recommended guidelines for the construction and installation of system components, are presented. Methods are discussed for estimating the life-cycle cost, component sizes, and annual energy consumption of the system for residential applications in different climatic regions of the US.

  12. Using Winter Annual Cover Crops in a Virginia No-till Cotton Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, James B. II

    1997-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a low residue crop, that may not provide sufficient surface residue to reduce erosion and protect the soil. A winter annual cover crop could alleviate erosion between cotton crops. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate selected winter annual cover crops for biomass production, ground cover, and N assimilation. The cover crop treatments were monitored under no-till and conventional tillage systems for the effects on soil moisture, cotton yield and qu...

  13. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Quarterly report, September 25--December 24, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1994-01-19

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems -- an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium(III)-polyacrylamide system and the aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide system. Laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Results to date are summarized.

  14. Multilayer affinity adsorption of albumin on polymer brushes modified membranes in a continuous-flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng-Xin; Li, Xiang; Li, Ji-Nian; Huang, Jing-Jing; Ren, Ge-Rui

    2018-02-23

    Polymer brushes modified surfaces have been widely used for protein immobilization and isolation. Modification of membranes with polymer brushes increases the surface concentration of affinity ligands used for protein binding. Albumin is one of the transporting proteins and shows a high affinity to bile acids. In this work, the modified membranes with cholic acid-containing polymer brushes can be facilely prepared by the immobilization of cholic acid on the poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) grafted microporous polypropylene membranes (MPPMs) for affinity adsorption of albumin. ATR/FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the chemical composition of the modified membranes. Water contact angle measurements were used to analyze the hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of the membrane surface. The modified MPPMs show a high affinity to albumin and have little non-specific adsorption of hemoglobin. The dynamic binding capacity of albumin in the continous-flow system increases with the cycle number and feed rate as the binding degree of cholic acid is moderate. The highest binding capacity of affinity membranes is about 52.49 g/m 2 membrane, which is about 24 times more than the monolayer binding capacity. These results reveal proteins could be captured in multilayers by the polymer brushes containing affinity ligands similar to the polymer brushes containing ion-exchange groups, which open up the potential of the polymer brushes containing affinity ligands in protein or another components separation. And the cholic acid containing polymer brushes modified membranes has the promising potential for albumin separation and purification rapidly from serum or fermented solution in medical diagnosis and bioseparation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical coupling of bare optoelectronic components and flexographically printed polymer waveguides in planar optronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiao; Wolfer, Tim; Lange, Alex; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2016-05-01

    Large scale, planar optronic systems allowing spatially distributed functionalities can be well used in diverse sensor networks, such as for monitoring the environment by measuring various physical quantities in medicine or aeronautics. In these systems, mechanically flexible and optically transparent polymeric foils, e.g. polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), are employed as carrier materials. A benefit of using these materials is their low cost. The optical interconnections from light sources to light transmission structures in planar optronic systems occupy a pivotal position for the sensing functions. As light sources, we employ the optoelectronic components, such as edgeemitting laser diodes, in form of bare chips, since their extremely small structures facilitate a high integration compactness and ensure sufficient system flexibility. Flexographically printed polymer optical waveguides are deployed as light guiding structures for short-distance communication in planar optronic systems. Printing processes are utilized for this generation of waveguides to achieve a cost-efficient large scale and high-throughput production. In order to attain a high-functional optronic system for sensing applications, one of the most essential prerequisites is the high coupling efficiency between the light sources and the waveguides. Therefore, in this work, we focus on the multimode polymer waveguide with a parabolic cross-section and investigate its optical coupling with the bare laser diode. We establish the geometrical model of the alignment based on the previous works on the optodic bonding of bare laser diodes and the fabrication process of polymer waveguides with consideration of various parameters, such as the beam profile of the laser diode, the employed polymer properties of the waveguides as well as the carrier substrates etc. Accordingly, the optical coupling of the bare laser diodes and the polymer waveguides was simulated

  16. Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems From Rigid Polymer Networks to Elastomers

    CERN Document Server

    Broer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    With rapidly expanding interest in liquid crystalline polymers and elastomers among the liquid crystal community, researchers are currently exploring the wide range of possible application areas for these unique materials, including optical elements on displays, tunable lasers, strain gauges, micro-structures, and artificial muscles. Written by respected scientists from academia and industry around the world, who are not only active in the field but also well-known in more traditional areas of research, "Cross-Linked Liquid Crystalline Systems: From Rigid Polymer Networks to Elastomers&qu

  17. Development of the computer-aided process planning (CAPP system for polymer injection molds manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning of production and selling of polymer products largely depends on mold manufacturing. The costs of mold manufacturing have significant share in the final price of a product. The best way to improve and rationalize polymer injection molds production process is by doing mold design automation and manufacturing process planning automation. This paper reviews development of a dedicated process planning system for manufacturing of the mold for injection molding, which integrates computer-aided design (CAD, computer-aided process planning (CAPP and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM technologies.

  18. Multicomponent semiconducting polymer systems with low crystallization-induced percolation threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goffri, S.; Müller, C.; Stingelin-Stutzmann, N.

    2006-01-01

    of the two components, during which the semiconductor is predominantly expelled to the surfaces of cast films, we can obtain vertically stratified structures in a one-step process. Incorporating these as active layers in polymer field-effect transistors, we find that the concentration of the semiconductor......–crystalline/semiconducting–insulating multicomponent systems offer expanded flexibility for realizing high-performance semiconducting architectures at drastically reduced materials cost with improved mechanical properties and environmental stability, without the need to design all performance requirements into the active semiconducting polymer...

  19. Creep-Fatigue Relationsihps in Electroactive Polymer Systems and Predicted Effects in an Actuator Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Aleksandra M.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Henslee, Issac

    2009-01-01

    The paper concerns the time-dependent behavior of electroactive polymers (EAP) and their use in advanced intelligent structures for space exploration. Innovative actuator design for low weight and low power valves required in small plants planned for use on the moon for chemical analysis is discussed. It is shown that in-depth understanding of cyclic loading effects observed through accelerated creep rates due to creep-fatigue interaction in polymers is critical in terms of proper functioning of EAP based actuator devices. In the paper, an overview of experimental results concerning the creep properties and cyclic creep response of a thin film piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is presented. The development of a constitutive creep-fatigue interaction model to predict the durability and service life of electroactive polymers is discussed. A novel method is proposed to predict damage accumulation and fatigue life of polymers under oyclic loading conditions in the presence of creep. The study provides a basis for ongoing research initiatives at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in the pursuit of new technologies using EAP as active elements for lunar exploration systems.

  20. Novel routes to liquid-based self-healing polymer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the current state-of-the-art and the progressing advancements in the field of self-healing materials, this thesis addresses several novel routes to advance the concept of liquid-based self-healing polymer systems. This thesis presents the concept and characterisation of a one-component

  1. New Approach for Description of Sorption and Swelling phenomena in Liquid + Polymer Membrane Systems.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Randová, A.; Bartovská, L.; Hovorka, Š.; Bartovský, T.; Izák, Pavel; Kárászová, Magda; Vopička, O.; Lindnerová, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 179, MAY (2017), s. 475-485 ISSN 1383-5866 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : description of sorption * polymer membranes systems * new method Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 3.359, year: 2016

  2. Molecular modeling in confined polymer and biomembrane systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeeta Ghosh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The computational study of soft materials under confinement for bio- and nanotechnology still poses significantchallenges but has come a long way in the last decade. It is possible to realistically model and understand the fundamentalmechanisms which are at play if soft materials are confined to nanometer dimensions. Here, we present several recentexamples of such studies. Thin polymer films are abundantly used as friction modifiers or steric stabilizers. We show howsystematic modeling can shed light on the interplay between entropic and energetic interactions. Thin glassy films arecritical for the success of nanolithography. For that we have to understand the effect of confinement on the glass transitionbehavior in order to guarantee the stability and integrity of the lithographic masks. Simulations aim to understand the fundamental differences in the densities of states of glass formers in bulk and under confinement. With the advent of bionanotechnology the structure and phase behavior of lipid membranes as models for cellular membranes at the nano scale length is of importance due to implications in understanding the role of the lipids in biochemical membrane processes.

  3. Formulation of gastroretentive floating drug delivery system using hydrophilic polymers and its in vitro characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Srikanth Meka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to formulate and evaluate the gastroretentive floating drug delivery system of antihypertensive drug, propranolol HCl. Gastroretentive floating tablets (GRFT were prepared by using a synthetic hydrophilic polymer polyethylene oxide of different grades such as PEO WSR N-12 K and PEO 18 NF as release retarding polymers and calcium carbonate as gas generating agent. The GRFT were compressed by direct compression strategy and the tablets were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, in vitro buoyancy, swelling studies, in vitro dissolution studies and release mechanism studies. From the dissolution and buoyancy studies, F 9 was selected as an optimized formulation. The optimized formulation followed zero order rate kinetics with non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The optimized formulation was characterised with FTIR studies and observed no interaction between the drug and the polymers.

  4. 2005 8th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Volume 1, Tuesday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-27

    systems engineering – Based on ISO 12207 – software engineering – Measure using best practices of CMMI® • Benefits – Facilitates sharing of tools... 12207 Software Life-Cycle Processes IEEE SSC-C Software Engineering Process SECNAV 5000.2C DoD Architecture Framework ISO 9001:2000 Quality Systems GIG...Comparisons and Contrasts Between ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, and MIL-STD-882D and their Suitability for the Systems Engineering Process Mr. Kenneth Dormer

  5. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Volume 3, Thursday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    Program (HPCMP) The DoD HPCMP CREATE Program is a Tri-Service Program launched in 2006 by OSD and the HPCMP to develop and deploy eleven physics -based...best practices, System of Systems guide and capstone marketplace to development of technical leaders. ENTERPRISE HEALTH MANAGEMENT/PROGNOSTICS...DIAGNOSTICS/RELIABILTY Track Chairs: Chris Resig, The Boeing Company The health of the system as a whole – the enterprise – is a critical function of

  6. Systems Biology of Metabolism: Annual Review of Biochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology are descr...

  7. Annual analysis of heat pipe PV/T systems for domestic hot water and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Gang; Fu Huide; Ji Jie; Chow Tintai; Zhang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal system with freeze protection was proposed. ► A detailed annual simulation model for the HP-PV/T system was presented. ► Annual performance of HP-PV/T was predicted and analyzed under different condition. - Abstract: Heat-pipe photovoltaic/thermal (HP-PV/T) systems can simultaneously provide electrical and thermal energy. Compared with traditional water-type photovoltaic/thermal systems, HP-PV/T systems can be used in cold regions without being frozen with the aid of a carefully selected heat-pipe working fluid. The current research presents a detailed simulation model of the HP-PV/T system. Using this model, the annual electrical and thermal behavior of the HP-PV/T system used in three typical climate areas of China, namely, Hong Kong, Lhasa, and Beijing, are predicted and analyzed. Two HP-PV/T systems, with and without auxiliary heating equipment, are studied annually under four different kinds of hot-water load per unit collecting area (64.5, 77.4, 90.3, and 103.2 kg/m 2 ).

  8. Optical manipulation with two beam traps in microfluidic polymer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Matteucci, Marco; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2015-01-01

    An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written in the microflui......An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written...

  9. 13th Annual Systems Engineering Conference: Tues- Wed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    afknprod/ASPs/Reg/ GroupAdmin.asp?Filter=23843&EventID=1464 7 &GroupID=19841 No-Host Social, 1700-1900 Hamlet Restaurant I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e...Engineering Relationship Between SE and other Disciplines Systems People • Behaviours (The Head) – Understanding system concepts and viewpoints...level, and used/ consumed by SEs at both the SoS and single system level in the process of developing, maintaining, enhancing, deploying, and assessing

  10. Annual Report 1991. Institute for systems engineering and informatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The report presents the achievements of the Institute for Systems Engineering and Informatics (ISEI) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) for 1991. The JRC is a European scientific and technical research centre established by the member states of the CEC. Its four sites in Belgium (Geel), Germany (Karlsruhe), the Netherland (Petten) and Italy (Ispra) house 8 institutes, each with its own focus of expertise. ISEI, based at Ispra, was created in 1990 by the merger of the Institute for Systems Engineering (ISE) and the Centre for Information Technologies and Electronics (CITE). The main areas of activity of the Institute are: - Industrial and Environmental Risk, - Nuclear Safeguards, -Fusion Reactor Systems Integration and Safety, - Solar Energy Systems and Energy Management, - Advanced Computing, - Informatic services

  11. In situ permeability modification using gelled polymer systems. Topical report, June 10, 1996--April 10, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; McCool, C.S.; Heppert, J.A.; Vossoughi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Results from a research program on the application of gelled polymer technology for in situ permeability modification are presented in this report. The objective of this technology when used with displacement processes such as waterflooding is to reduce the permeability in fractures and/or high permeability matrix zones to improve volumetric sweep efficiency of the displacement process. In production wells, the objective is to reduce water influx. The research program is focused on five areas: gel treatment in fractured systems; gel treatment in carbonate rocks; in-depth placement of gels; gel systems for application in carbon dioxide flooding; and gel treatment in production wells. The research program is primarily an experimental program directed at improving the understanding of gelled polymer systems and how these systems can be used to increase oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. A summary of progress for research conducted in the first 10 months of a 28 month program is described in the following sections.

  12. Environmental Systems Research Candidates FY-01 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Lynn; Piet, Steven James

    2001-03-01

    The Environmental Systems Research Candidates (ESRC) Program ran from April 2000 through September 2001 as part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ESRA provides key science and technology to meet the cleanup mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM), and performs research and development that will help solve current legacy problems and enhance the INEEL’s scientific and technical capability for solving longer-term challenges. This report documents the accomplishments of the ESRC Program. The ESRC Program consisted of 25 tasks subdivided within four research areas.

  13. Controlled release system for ametryn using polymer microspheres: Preparation, characterization and release kinetics in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Renato; Pereira, Anderson do Espirito Santo; Ferreira Silva de Melo, Nathalie; Porto, Raquel Martins; Feitosa, Leandro Oliveira; Tonello, Paulo Sergio; Dias Filho, Newton L.; Rosa, Andre Henrique; Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a modified release system for the herbicide ametryn by encapsulating the active substance in biodegradable polymer microparticles produced using the polymers poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) or poly(hydroxybutyrate-valerate) (PHBV), in order to both improve the herbicidal action and reduce environmental toxicity. PHB or PHBV microparticles containing ametryn were prepared and the efficiencies of herbicide association and loading were evaluated, presenting similar values of approximately 40%. The microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that the average sizes of the PHB and PHBV microparticles were 5.92 ± 0.74 μm and 5.63 ± 0.68 μm, respectively. The ametryn release profile was modified when it was encapsulated in the microparticles, with slower and more sustained release compared to the release profile of pure ametryn. When ametryn was associated with the PHB and PHBV microparticles, the amount of herbicide released in the same period of time was significantly reduced, declining to 75% and 87%, respectively. For both types of microparticle (PHB and PHBV) the release of ametryn was by diffusion processes due to anomalous transport (governed by diffusion and relaxation of the polymer chains), which did not follow Fick's laws of diffusion. The results presented in this paper are promising, in view of the successful encapsulation of ametryn in PHB or PHBV polymer microparticles, and indications that this system may help reduce the impacts caused by the herbicide, making it an environmentally safer alternative.

  14. Performance of the Defense Acquisition System, 2016 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-24

    reversing the trend . However, competition rates declined again in FY 2015 despite an increased goal and strong management emphasis by the DAE through the...engineering; industrial and contract property management ; information technology; life-cycle logistics ; production, quality, and manufacturing; program...Helicopter Army LONGBOW HELLFIRE Longbow Apache Precision Strike Missile System Army LMP Logistics Modernization Program Army LPD 17 San Antonio

  15. COMBINED MICROBIAL SURFACTANT-POLYMER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED OIL MOBILITY AND CONFORMANCE CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2004-08-01

    Many domestic oil fields are facing abandonment even though they still contain two-thirds of their original oil. A significant number of these fields can yield additional oil using advanced oil recovery (AOR) technologies. To maintain domestic oil production at current levels, AOR technologies are needed that are affordable and can be implemented by independent oil producers of the future. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technologies have become established as cost-effective solutions for declining oil production. MEOR technologies are affordable for independent producers operating stripper wells and can be used to extend the life of marginal fields. The demonstrated versatility of microorganisms can be used to design advanced microbial systems to treat multiple production problems in complex, heterogeneous reservoirs. The proposed research presents the concept of a combined microbial surfactant-polymer system for advanced oil recovery. The surfactant-polymer system utilizes bacteria that are capable of both biosurfactant production and metabolically-controlled biopolymer production. This novel technology combines complementary mechanisms to extend the life of marginal fields and is applicable to a large number of domestic reservoirs. The research project described in this report is performed jointly by, Bio-Engineering Inc., a woman owned small business, Texas A&M University and Prairie View A&M University, a Historically Black College and University. This report describes the results of our laboratory work to grow microbial cultures and the work done on recovery experiments on core rocks. We have selected two bacterial strains capable of producing both surfactant and polymers. We have conducted laboratory experiments to determine under what conditions surfactants and polymers can be produced from one single strain. We have conduct recovery experiments to determine the performance of these strains under different conditions. Our results do not show a

  16. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Final report, September 25, 1992--July 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1997-06-01

    The objectives of the research program were to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems--KUSP1 systems that contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethyl phthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to supercritical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  17. Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems annual program review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Goals of the 8-year program are to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. During this Nov. 9-11, 1994, meeting, presentations on energy policy issues were delivered by representatives of regulatory, industry, and research institutions; program overviews and technical reviews were given by contractors; and ongoing and proposed future projects sponsored by university and industry were presented and displayed at the poster session. Panel discussions on distributed power and Advanced Gas Systems Research education provided a forum for interactive dialog and exchange of ideas. Exhibitors included US DOE, Solar Turbines, Westinghouse, Allison Engine Co., and GE.

  18. 46th Annual Gun and Missile Systems Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    is concerned (no negative results for environment when dumping of substances is prevented) General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems...displacement capability of electro dynamic shaker, hydraulic shaker has displacement capability but not force capability  Requested waiver for...support equipment were developed. J75189 Ground Handling Adapter J75192 Hoisting Beam J75199 Gun Transfer Adapter J75196 Mount Rail J75197 Gun Mounting

  19. 20th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Volume 2, Wednesday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    Roadmap Key Capability Areas C yber M odeling, Sim ulation, and Experim entation (M SE) Em bedded, M obile, and Tactical System s ( EM T) (MSE & EMT) cross...Space Weapons Missile Bomb Sensors WS Characteristics WS Quality Properties Defining Themes WS Engineering Methods WS Types | 10 | This technical data...aircraft 10 Aircraft depart initial point (IP) 11 JTAC controls CAS aircraft 12 Bombs on target 13 Assessment < 3min < 2 min > 95% Acrcy ASOC/ DASC CAS

  20. Annual Systems Engineering Conference (12th). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-29

    This Presentation will discuss : • Modularity: what it is, Pros and Cons , how it is used on LCS • Overview of extended systems – What’s the concern...is Export Approval # ACK219 (assigned IAW PRO -4527, PRO -3439). Marion L. Butterfield, Alaka Shivananda, and Dennis Schwarz (The Boeing Company...Other Tech Maturity Assessment Methods 7. SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Threat, Opportunity) Analysis 8. Conclusions & Recommendations GWU 3 Introduction The

  1. Department of Defense Systems Engineering FY 2012 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    by the Utility Helicopter PMO, is utilizing the latest Defense Acquisition Guidelines and previously approved PEO AVN SEP examples to develop all...efforts. As a whole, all of PEO AVN Program Management Offices understand the importance of systems engineering. They stress the continued use of...established SE guidelines, practices and procedures throughout our acquisition processes. PEO AVN , working with the AMRDEC SE Division, has

  2. 35-We polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system for notebook computer using a compact fuel processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, In-Hyuk; Shin, Woo-Cheol; Lee, Yong-Kul; Lee, Sung-Chul; Ahn, Jin-Gu; Han, Sang-Il; kweon, Ho-Jin; Kim, Ju-Yong; Kim, Moon-Chan; Park, Jun-Yong

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system is developed to power a notebook computer. The system consists of a compact methanol-reforming system with a CO preferential oxidation unit, a 16-cell PEMFC stack, and a control unit for the management of the system with a d.c.-d.c. converter. The compact fuel-processor system (260 cm 3) generates about 1.2 L min -1 of reformate, which corresponds to 35 We, with a low CO concentration (notebook computers.

  3. 35-We polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system for notebook computer using a compact fuel processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, In-Hyuk; Shin, Woo-Cheol; Lee, Sung-Chul; Ahn, Jin-Gu; Han, Sang-Il; kweon, Ho-Jin; Kim, Ju-Yong; Park, Jun-Yong [Energy 1 Group, Energy Laboratory at Corporate R and D Center in Samsung SDI Co., Ltd., 575, Shin-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-731 (Korea); Lee, Yong-Kul [Department of Chemical Engineering, Dankook University, Youngin 448-701 (Korea); Kim, Moon-Chan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chongju University, Chongju 360-764 (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system is developed to power a notebook computer. The system consists of a compact methanol-reforming system with a CO preferential oxidation unit, a 16-cell PEMFC stack, and a control unit for the management of the system with a d.c.-d.c. converter. The compact fuel-processor system (260 cm{sup 3}) generates about 1.2 L min{sup -1} of reformate, which corresponds to 35 We, with a low CO concentration (<30 ppm, typically 0 ppm), and is thus proven to be capable of being targetted at notebook computers. (author)

  4. Parallelized event chain algorithm for dense hard sphere and polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampmann, Tobias A.; Boltz, Horst-Holger; Kierfeld, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We combine parallelization and cluster Monte Carlo for hard sphere systems and present a parallelized event chain algorithm for the hard disk system in two dimensions. For parallelization we use a spatial partitioning approach into simulation cells. We find that it is crucial for correctness to ensure detailed balance on the level of Monte Carlo sweeps by drawing the starting sphere of event chains within each simulation cell with replacement. We analyze the performance gains for the parallelized event chain and find a criterion for an optimal degree of parallelization. Because of the cluster nature of event chain moves massive parallelization will not be optimal. Finally, we discuss first applications of the event chain algorithm to dense polymer systems, i.e., bundle-forming solutions of attractive semiflexible polymers

  5. The theory of hadronic systems. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report briefly discusses progress on the following topics: isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon system; direct capture of pions into deeply bound atomic states; knock out of secondary components in the nucleus; study of the radii of neutron distributions in nuclei; the hadronic double scattering operator; transparency in pion production; asymmetry in pion scattering and charge exchange from polarized nuclei; the mechanism of pion absorption in nuclei; the neutron-proton charge-exchange reaction; modification of the fundamental structure of nucleons in nuclei; and antiproton annihilation in nuclei

  6. INIS annual report 2000. International nuclear information system 30 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qinglin; Xue Enjie

    2001-01-01

    Main achievements of INIS (International Nuclear Information System) since its founding in 1970 are presented. More than 2 220 000 records have been collected in INIS Database; the INIS bibliographic database and full text database of NCL (Non-conventional literature) are produced and distributed in electronic form on CD-ROM; INIS database can also be accessed on Internet since 1998. 65 719 bibliographic records and 12 992 full text of NCL documents were added to INIS during 2000. INIS is made up of 103 Member States and 19 International Organizations

  7. Environmental Systems Research Candidates Program--FY2000 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, Steven James

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research Candidates (ESRC) Program, which is scheduled to end September 2001, was established in April 2000 as part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to provide key science and technology to meet the clean-up mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management, and perform research and development that will help solve current legacy problems and enhance the INEEL’s scientific and technical capability for solving longer-term challenges. This report documents the progress and accomplishments of the ESRC Program from April through September 2000. The ESRC Program consists of 24 tasks subdivided within four research areas: A. Environmental Characterization Science and Technology. This research explores new data acquisition, processing, and interpretation methods that support cleanup and long-term stewardship decisions. B. Subsurface Understanding. This research expands understanding of the biology, chemistry, physics, hydrology, and geology needed to improve models of contamination problems in the earth’s subsurface. C. Environmental Computational Modeling. This research develops INEEL computing capability for modeling subsurface contaminants and contaminated facilities. D. Environmental Systems Science and Technology. This research explores novel processes to treat waste and decontaminate facilities. Our accomplishments during FY 2000 include the following: • We determined, through analysis of samples taken in and around the INEEL site, that mercury emissions from the INEEL calciner have not raised regional off-INEEL mercury contamination levels above normal background. • We have initially demonstrated the use of x-ray fluorescence to image uranium and heavy metal concentrations in soil samples. • We increased our understanding of the subsurface environment; applying mathematical complexity theory to the problem of

  8. Annual Rainfall Forecasting by Using Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah-Ghalhary, G.-A.; Habibi Nokhandan, M.; Mousavi Baygi, M.

    2009-04-01

    Long-term rainfall prediction is very important to countries thriving on agro-based economy. In general, climate and rainfall are highly non-linear phenomena in nature giving rise to what is known as "butterfly effect". The parameters that are required to predict the rainfall are enormous even for a short period. Soft computing is an innovative approach to construct computationally intelligent systems that are supposed to possess humanlike expertise within a specific domain, adapt themselves and learn to do better in changing environments, and explain how they make decisions. Unlike conventional artificial intelligence techniques the guiding principle of soft computing is to exploit tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty, robustness, partial truth to achieve tractability, and better rapport with reality. In this paper, 33 years of rainfall data analyzed in khorasan state, the northeastern part of Iran situated at latitude-longitude pairs (31°-38°N, 74°- 80°E). this research attempted to train Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) based prediction models with 33 years of rainfall data. For performance evaluation, the model predicted outputs were compared with the actual rainfall data. Simulation results reveal that soft computing techniques are promising and efficient. The test results using by FIS model showed that the RMSE was obtained 52 millimeter.

  9. Environmental Systems Research and Analysis FY 2000 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Miller; Castle, Peter Myer; Steven J. Piet

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the INEEL. Strengthening the Technical capabilities of the INEEL will provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Office of Environmental Management (EM). This is a progress report for the third year of the ESR Program (FY 2000). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (1) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (2) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (3) Materials Dynamics, (4) Characterization Science, and (5) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, the report describes activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas. The five research areas are subdivided into 18 research projects. FY 2000 research in these 18 projects has resulted in more than 50 technical papers that are in print, in press, in review, or in preparation. Additionally, more than 100 presentations were made at professional society meetings nationally and internationally. Work supported by this program was in part responsible for one of our researchers, Dr. Mason Harrup, receiving the Department of Energy’s “Bright Light” and “Energy at 23” awards. Significant accomplishments were achieved. Non-Destructive Assay hardware and software was deployed at the INEEL, enhancing the quality and efficiency of TRU waste characterization for shipment. The advanced tensiometer has been employed at numerous sites around the complex to determine hydrologic gradients in variably saturated vadose zones. An ion trap, secondary ion mass spectrometer (IT-SIMS) was designed and fabricated to deploy at the INEEL site to measure the

  10. Ion beam irradiation as a tool to improve the ionic conductivity in solid polymer electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H., E-mail: h-manjunath@blr.amrita.edu; Kumaraswamy, G. N. [Department of Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bengaluru-560 035 (India); Damle, R. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru-560 056 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have potential applications in solid state electronic and energy devices. The optimum conductivity of SPEs required for such applications is about 10{sup −1} – 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1}, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is observed that ionic conductivity of SPEs continuously increase with increasing concentration of inorganic salt in the host polymer. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity of SPEs decreases due to the formation of ion pairs. In the present study, solid polymer thin films based on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with NaBr salt with different concentrations have been prepared and the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEO{sub x}NaBr is identified. The microstructure of the SPE with highest ionic conductivity is modified by irradiating it with low energy O{sup +1} ion (100 keV) of different fluencies. It is observed that the ionic conductivity of irradiated SPEs increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains due to radiation induced micro structural modification.

  11. ToF-SIMS and Laser-SNMS Imaging of Heterogeneous Topographically Complex Polymer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, Andreas; Körsgen, Martin; Kurosawa, Takako; Morita, Hiromi; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-10-04

    Heterogeneous polymer coatings, such as those used in organic electronics and medical devices, are of increasing industrial importance. In order to advance the development of these types of systems, analytical techniques are required which are able to determine the elemental and molecular spatial distributions, on a nanometer scale, with very high detection efficiency and sensitivity. The goal of this study was to investigate the suitability of laser postionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (Laser-SNMS) with a 157 nm postionization laser beam to image structured polymer mixtures and compare the results with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) measurements using Bi 3 + primary ions. The results showed that Laser-SNMS is better suited than ToF-SIMS for unambiguous detection and submicrometer imaging of the wide range of polymers investigated. The data also showed that Laser-SNMS has the advantage of being much more sensitive (in general higher by more than an order of magnitude and peaking at up to 3 orders of magnitude) than ToF-SIMS while also showing superior performance on topographically complex structured insulating surfaces, due to significantly reduced field effects and a higher dynamic range as compared to ToF-SIMS. It is concluded that Laser-SNMS is a powerful complementary technique to ToF-SIMS for the analysis of heterogeneous polymers and other complex structured organic mixtures, providing submicrometer resolution and high sensitivity.

  12. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy of biological and synthetic polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, A.; Morin, C.; Araki, T.; Zhang, X.; Dynes, J.; Stover, H.; Brash, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM) are synchrotron based, soft X-ray spectromicroscopy techniques which provide chemical speciation at 50 nm spatial resolution based on near edge X-ray absorption spectral (NEXAFS) contrast. The instrumentation and techniques of soft X-ray spectro- microscopy will be described and illustrated with applications to wet biofilms, protein interactions with patterned polymer surfaces, and polymer microstructure optimization. STXM can be applied to samples in air, He, vacuum, or a fully hydrated environment. With many collaborators, my group is using STXM to study fundamental and applied aspects of polymer microstructure, to map metal ions and anti-microbial agents in wet biofilms, and to identify sites of selective adsorption of proteins on phase separated polymer thin films in the presence of an overlayer of protein solution. X-PEEM has greater surface sensitivity than STXM but requires a flat, conductive, and vacuum-compatible sample. Comparison of X-PEEM and STXM for the same system - fibrinogen adsorption on a PS:PMMA blend, will be used to illustrate advantages and limitations of each technique. Measurements at 5.3.2 STXM and 7.3.1 PEEM at the Advanced Light Source, funded by DoE under contract DE-AC03- 76SF00098. Research supported by NSERC (Canada), AFMnet (Advanced Food and Biomaterials Network) and the Canada Research Chair program

  13. Plasma coatings of nitrogen polymers on metal prostheses of the circulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez J, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work has a study about the synthesis of poly aniline, poly allylamine and poly pyrrole doped with iodine onto metallic surfaces similar to stents for the circulatory system. Ar, water and hydrogen peroxide plasmas were used for eroding, conditioning and synthesizing polymers that potentially reduce some rejection reactions when stents are implanted in the human body. Stents are small metallic meshes that applied inside collapsed arteries or veins enlarge the diameter and restore the blood flow, however the metallic surfaces usually cause rejection reactions that obstruct the veins again. To give solutions to this problem, in this work is studied the synthesis of biocompatible polymer coatings on the stents that resist the blood flow forming a biocompatible interface between metal and blood. The metallic substrates were eroded and chemically prepared with Ar, H_2O and/or H_2O_2 glow discharges on which the polymers were synthesized by plasma. The coatings were morphologically characterized by optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, the chemical structure was studied by infrared and photoelectron X-ray spectroscopy. The hydrophilicity was studied measuring the advance static contact angle and the adhesion was evaluated indirectly with scanning electron microscopy after two months submerged in buffered phosphate solutions. The results indicate that the polymers grew following the superficial morphology; that the conditioning with Ar ions erode the substrates and that the conditioning with H_2O or H_2O_2 erodes and activates the surface generating oxygen bridges which help in the polymer-metal adhesion. The chemical structure of the polymeric coatings contain crosslinked structures that correspond to links between monomers with the participation of all atoms, states that suggest monomer fragmentation and oxidation and states that indicate oxygen bridges in the polymers. The coatings had contact angles close to 90 degrees where is located the line

  14. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  15. Superconductivity Program for electric power systems: 1994 annual PEER review. Volume 1, Meeting proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is Volume I of information presented at the Annual Peer Review of the Superconductivity Program For Electric Power Systems. Topics include: Wire development; powder synthesis; characterization of superconducting materials; electric power applications; magnetic refrigerators; and motor cooling issues. Individual reports were processed separately for the database

  16. California Energy Systems for the 21st Century 2016 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Randwyk, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Boutelle, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McClelland, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weed, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-25

    The California Energy Systems for the 21st Century (CES-21) Program is a public-private collaborative research and development program between the California Joint Utilities1 and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this annual report is to provide the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC or Commission) with a summary of the 2016 progress of the CES-21 Program.

  17. Investigation on the relationship between systemic burden and annual limits on intake of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yongzeng

    1984-01-01

    The concept of systemic burden and the calculation of annual limits on intake (ALI) of radionuclides are discussed. The relationship between these two quantities is also described. Using this relationship, the ratio of actual amount of intake to ALI can be obtained for the assessment of the risk to internal exposure

  18. 6th Annual Earth System Grid Federation Face to Face Conference Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    The Sixth Annual Face-to-Face (F2F) Conference of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF), a global consortium of international government agencies, institutions, and companies dedicated to the creation, management, analysis, and distribution of extreme-scale scientific data, was held December 5–9, 2016, in Washington, D.C.

  19. 2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

  20. Lysozyme-responsive polymer systems for detection of infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffer, Doris; Verient, Vanessa; Luschnig, Daniel; Blokhuis-Arkes, Miriam H.E.; van der Palen, Job J.A.M.; Gamerith, Clemens; Burnet, Michael; Sigl, Eva; Heinzle, Andrea; Guebitz, Georg M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong need for new point-of-care systems for the detection of wound infection. Overseen infections in chronic wounds induce severe complications, such as delayed healing and high risks for the patients, while time-consuming common gold and silver standard methods for infection assessment

  1. From precision polymers to complex materials and systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, J.F.; Lehn, J.M.; Meijer, E.W.; Matyjaszewski, K.

    2016-01-01

    Complex chemical systems, such as living biological matter, are highly organized structures based on discrete molecules in constant dynamic interactions. These natural materials can evolve and adapt to their environment. By contrast, man-made materials exhibit simpler properties. In this Review, we

  2. Aerial Measuring System Technical Integration Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada Remote Sensing Laboratory

    2003-06-01

    Fiscal Year 2002 is the second year of a five-year commitment by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to invest in development of new and state-of-the-art technologies for the Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) project. In 2000, NNSA committed to two million dollars for AMS Technical Integration (TI) for each of five years. The tragedy of September 11, 2001, profoundly influenced the program. NNSA redirected people and funding resources at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to more immediate needs. Funds intended for AMS TI were redirected to NNSA's new posture of leaning further forward throughout. AMS TI was brought to a complete halt on December 10, 2001. Then on April 30, 2002, NNSA Headquarters allowed the restart of AMS TI at the reduced level of $840,000. The year's events resulted in a slow beginning of several projects, some of which were resumed only a few weeks before the AMS TI Symposium held at RSL on July 30.

  3. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, R.D.; Lamb, K.M.; Matejka, L.A.; Nenni, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5

  4. Polymeric reaction of polymer-monomer system for pressure sensitive adhesives by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiguchi, R.; Uryu, T.

    1985-01-01

    Application of low-energy electron beam to non-solvent type pressure sensitive adhesives is investigated. The adhesive properties such as peel strength and holding time (dead-load strength) were closely related to the reaction of acrylate polymer-monomer systems. The reaction behavior is elucidated by combining the measurement of gel fraction, infrared spectrum of gel, and the molecular weight distribution detected by gel permeation chromatography. It was important for the production of pressure sensitive adhesives by electron beam that the adhesive with high peel strength and long holding time is composed of a proper combination of three factors, that is, about 35% gel fraction, 25% monomer units in gel, and 15% graft efficiency by irradiating the polymer-monomer system containing low molecular weight poly (butyl acrylate). (author)

  5. Documentation for first annual testing and inspections of Benificial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile date generated during the first annual tests and inspections of the Benificiai Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask. In addition, this report will verify that the testing criteria identified in chapter 8 of the BUSS Cask Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) was met. Section 8.2 ''Maintenance and Periodic Inspection Program'' of the BUSS Cask SARP requires that the following tests and inspections be performed on an annual basis: Hydrostatic pressure test; helium leak test; dye penetrant test on the trunnions and lifting lugs; and torque test on all bolts; impact limiter inspection and weight test. The first annual inspections and testing of the BUSS Cask were completed on May 5, 1994, and met the SARP criteria

  6. The NOx system in nuclear waste. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.; Meisel, D.

    1997-01-01

    'The authors highlight their results from the title project. The project is a coordinated effort of the three Co-PIs to assist the Safety Programs at the Hanford and other DOE Environmental Management Sites. The authors present in the report their observations and interactively discuss their implications for safety concerns. They focus on three issues: (1) Reducing radicals in the NOx system The authors show that the only reducing radical that lasts longer than a few ns in typical waste solutions, and is capable of generating hydrogen, is NO 3 2- . The authors measured the lifetime of this species across the whole pH range (3 ≤ pH ≤ 14) and found it to be shorter than -15 265s, before it dissociates to give the strongly oxidizing NO, radicals. They found that it reacts with many proton donors (H + , phosphate, borate, NH', amines) in a reaction that is not merely an acid-base equilibrium reaction but is probably a dissociative proton transfer. They estimate the redox potential from theoretical considerations and obtain an experimental verification. They conclude that it is highly unlikely, although thermodynamically possible, that this radi-cal will generate hydrogen in waste solutions. (2) Aging of organic chelators and their degradation products by NO, Methodologies to study the degradation of organic substrates (including the important waste components, formate and oxalate) to CO;, or carbonate, by NO, were developed. This radical dimerizes and disproportionates to nitrate and nitrite. Therefore, mineralization of the organic substrates competes with the disproportionation of NO,. Among the organic substrates, formate and oxalate are also mineralized but because they are of low fuel value their mineralization is not very helpful, yet it consumes NO,. (3) Interfacial processes in aqueous suspensions Yields of charge transfer from solid silica particles to water and other liquids were meas-ured. If the particles are small enough, essentially all of the charge

  7. A Simple Opto-Fluidic Switch Detecting Liquid Filling in Polymer-Based Microfluidic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Frederik; Geschke, Oliver; Zengerle, R

    2007-01-01

    A novel detection scheme for detection of liquid levels and bubbles in microfluidic systems, using the principle of total internal reflection (TIR) is presented. A laser beam impinges on the side walls of a channel which are inclined at 45deg. In an unfilled channel of such a "V-groove", TIR defl...... of the microfluidic channels. The machining of the V-groves can seamlessly be integrated into common polymer microfabrication schemes such as injection molding....

  8. Annual Report: Advanced Energy Systems Fuel Cells (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, Kirk; Richards, George

    2014-04-16

    data capturing operational degradation. The data were matched by a 3D multi-physics simulation of SOFC operational performance assuming that the entire performance loss related to coarsening of the cathode triple phase boundary (3PB). The predicted 3PB coarsening was then used to tune the mobility parameters of a phase field model describing microstructural evolution of the lanthanum strontium manganate (LSM)/ yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) system. Once calibrated, the phase field model predicted continuous microstructural coarsening processes occurring over the operating period, which could be extrapolated to performance periods of longer duration and also used to produce 3D graphical representations. NETL researchers also completed significant electrode engineering research complimented by 3D multi-physics simulations. In one key activity researchers generated an illustration demonstrating that control of infiltrate deposition can provide cell manufacturers with significant additional operational and engineering control over the SOFC stack. Specifically, researchers demonstrated that by engineering the deposition of electrocatalyst inside the cathode, the distribution of overpotential across the cell could be controlled to either decrease the average cell overpotential value or minimize cross-cell overpotential gradient. Results imply that manufacturers can establish improved engineering control over stack operation by implementing infiltration technology in SOFC cathodes.

  9. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, James E.; Pajak, Paul; Wunderlich, Mary P.

    1984-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of Kerr Dam operations on the fisheries of the Lower Flathead System. Supported by Bonneville Power Administration funding, and conducted by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, the study began in December of 1982 and is scheduled for completion in December of 1987. This report covers the 1983-84 field season and includes the status of target fish species populations in the Flathead River and tributaries, and initial work in South Bay of Flathead Lake. Additionally it addresses how Kerr operations may effect the reproduction of salmonids and northern pike. Combined trout population estimates for rainbow, brown, brook, and bull trout, averaged 13 fish/km of the lower Flathead River. The number of bull trout and cutthroat trout captured was so low that estimation of their individual populations was not possible. An interim closure to trout harvest on the lower Flathead River was recommended and approved by the Tribal Council until study results can be further analyzed and management options reviewed. Population estimates for northern pike ranged from six/kilometer in poorer habitat, to one hundred three/km in the best habitat in the main Flathead River. Seven pike were radio tagged and their movements monitored. Movements of over 89 km were recorded. One fish left the Flathead River and moved down the Clark Fork to the Plains area. Fish weirs were constructed on the Jocko River and Mission Creek to assess spawning runs of trout from the main river. Thirty-two adult rainbow passed the Jocko weir and twenty-eight passed the Mission weir during the spring spawning season. Twenty adult brown trout were captured at the Jocko weir and five at Mission weir in the fall. The Jocko weir suffered minor damage due to bed load movement during high flows of spring runoff. The structure of trout populations in the lower Flathead River points to spawning and recruitment problems caused by hydroelectric operations and

  10. Comparative Investigation on the Performance of Modified System Poles and Traditional System Poles Obtained from PDC Data for Diagnosing the Ageing Condition of Transformer Polymer Insulation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The life expectancy of a transformer is largely depended on the service life of transformer polymer insulation materials. Nowadays, several papers have reported that the traditional system poles obtained from polarization and depolarization current (PDC data can be used to assess the condition of transformer insulation systems. However, the traditional system poles technique only provides limited ageing information for transformer polymer insulation. In this paper, the modified system poles obtained from PDC data are proposed to assess the ageing condition of transformer polymer insulation. The aim of the work is to focus on reporting a comparative investigation on the performance of modified system poles and traditional system poles for assessing the ageing condition of a transformer polymer insulation system. In the present work, a series of experiments have been performed under controlled laboratory conditions. The PDC measurement data, degree of polymerization (DP and moisture content of the oil-immersed polymer pressboard specimens were carefully monitored. It is observed that, compared to the relationships between traditional system poles and DP values, there are better correlations between the modified system poles and DP values, because the modified system poles can obtain much more ageing information on transformer polymer insulation. Therefore, the modified system poles proposed in the paper are more suitable for the diagnosis of the ageing condition of transformer polymer insulation.

  11. COMBINED MICROBIAL SURFACTANT-POLYMER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED OIL MOBILITY AND CONFORMANCE CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2005-08-01

    Many domestic oil fields are facing abandonment even though they still contain two-thirds of their original oil. A significant number of these fields can yield additional oil using advanced oil recovery (AOR) technologies. To maintain domestic oil production at current levels, AOR technologies are needed that are affordable and can be implemented by the independent oil producers of the future. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technologies have become established as cost-effective solutions for declining oil production. MEOR technologies are affordable for independent producers operating stripper wells and can be used to extend the life of marginal fields. The demonstrated versatility of microorganisms can be used to design advanced microbial systems to treat multiple production problems in complex, heterogeneous reservoirs. The proposed research presents the concept of a combined microbial surfactant-polymer system for advanced oil recovery. The surfactant-polymer system utilizes bacteria that are capable of both biosurfactant production and metabolically-controlled biopolymer production. This novel technology combines complementary mechanisms to extend the life of marginal fields and is applicable to a large number of domestic reservoirs. The research project described in this report was performed by Bio-Engineering Inc., a woman owned small business, Texas A&M University and Prairie View A&M University, a Historically Black College and University. This report describes the results of our laboratory work to grow microbial cultures, the work done on recovery experiments on core rocks, and computer simulations. We have selected two bacterial strains capable of producing both surfactant and polymers. We have conducted laboratory experiments to determine under what conditions surfactants and polymers can be produced from one single strain. We have conduct recovery experiments to determine the performance of these strains under different conditions. Our results

  12. An all-polymer micropump based on the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and a polyurethane channel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; West, Keld; Hassager, Ole

    2007-01-01

    An all-polymer micropunlp was realized using the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDT) as the active cODlponent. The pUlnping effect originated fronl an ac potential applied to an aSylnlnetric array of interdigitat.ed electrodes. The PEDT electrodes were fabricated using...... of t.he conducting polylner electrodes by an insulating polYlTIer layer prevented electrode break-down at the cost of puolping efficiency. Continuous punlping for 40 nlin at 20 fJ..,m s-l without detectable pump degradation was delTIOnstrated in this configuration....

  13. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Eleventh quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1995-07-24

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems -- an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSP1) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium(III)-polyacrylamide system and the aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide system. Laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Technical progress is described for the following tasks: physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; mechanisms of in situ gelation; and mathematical modelling of the gel systems.

  14. THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

    2013-04-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

  15. Permeation enhancing polymers in oral delivery of hydrophilic macromolecules: thiomer/GSH systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Kast, C E; Guggi, D

    2003-12-05

    Thiolated polymers (= thiomers) in combination with reduced glutathione (GSH) were shown to improve the uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules from the GI tract. The mechanism responsible for this permeation enhancing effect seems to be based on the thiol groups of the polymer. These groups inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase, being involved in the closing process of tight junctions, via a GSH-mediated mechanism. The strong permeation enhancing effect of various thiomer/GSH systems such as poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine/GSH or chitosan-4-thio-butylamidine (chitosan-TBA)/GSH could be shown via permeation studies on freshly excised intestinal mucosa in Ussing-type chambers. Furthermore, the efficacy of the system was also shown in vivo. By utilizing poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine/GSH as carrier matrix, an absolute oral bioavailability for low molecular weight heparin of 19.9 +/- 9.3% and a pharmacological efficacy--calculated on the basis of the areas under the reduction in serum glucose levels of the oral formulation versus subcutaneous (s.c.) injection-for orally given insulin of 7% could be achieved. The incorporation of salmon calcitonin in chitosan-TBA/GSH led on the other hand to a pharmacological efficacy based on the areas under the reduction in plasma calcium levels of the oral thiomer formulation versus intravenous (i.v.) injection of 1.3%. Because of this high efficacy (i), the possibility to combine thiomer/GSH systems with additional low molecular weight permeation enhancers acting in other ways (ii) and minimal toxicological risks as these polymers are not absorbed from the GI tract (iii), thiolated polymers represent a promising novel tool for the oral administration of hydrophilic macromolecules.

  16. Integration of polystyrene microlenses with both convex and concave profiles in a polymer-based microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a new technique of fabricating polystyrene microlenses with both convex and concave profiles that are integrated in polymer-based microfluidic system. The polystyrene microlenses, or microlens array, are fabricated using the free

  17. Native prairie filter strips reduce runoff from hillslopes under annual row-crop systems in Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Hernandez-Santana; X. Zhou; M.J. Helmers; H. Asbjornsen; R. Kolka; M. Tomer

    2013-01-01

    Intensively managed annual cropping systems have produced high crop yields but have often produced significant ecosystem services alteration, in particular hydrologic regulation loss. Reconversion of annual agricultural systems to perennial vegetation can lead to hydrologic function restoration, but its effect is still not well understood. Therefore, our objective was...

  18. Economic analysis of solar industrial process heat systems: A methodology to determine annual required revenue and internal rate of return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, W. C.; Brown, K. C.

    1981-08-01

    An economic evaluation of solar industrial process heat systems, is developed to determine the annual required revenue and the internal rate of return. First, a format is provided to estimate the solar system's installed cost, annual operating and maintenance expenses, and net annual solar energy delivered to the industrial process. The annual required revenue and the price of solar is calculated. The economic attractiveness of the potential solar investment can be determined by comparing the price of solar energy with the price of fossilfuel, both expressed in levelized terms. This requires calcuation of the internal rate of return on the solar investment or, in certain cases, the growth rate of return.

  19. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, J.; Gudowski, W.; Carlsson, Johan; Eriksson, Marcus; Tucek, K.

    1998-12-01

    This annual report describes the accelerator-driven transmutation project conducted at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology. The main results are: development of the simulation tools for accelerator-driven transmutation calculations including an integrated Monte-Carlo burnup module and improvements of neutron energy fission yield simulations, processing of the evacuated nuclear data files including preparation of the temperature dependent neutron cross-sections, development of nuclear data for a medium energy range for some isotopes, development of the models and codes for radiation damage simulations, system studies for the spent fuel transmuter, based on heavy metal coolant and advanced nuclear fuel, contribution to the spallation target design being manufactured in IPPE, Obninsk, and accelerator reliability studies. Moreover a lot of efforts were put to further develop existing international collaboration with the most active research groups in the world together with educational activities in Sweden including a number of meetings and workshops and a graduate course in transmutation. This project has been conducted in close collaboration with the EU-project 'Impact of the accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety' - IABAT and in bilateral cooperation with different foreign research groups

  20. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenius, J.; Gudowski, W.; Carlsson, Johan; Eriksson, Marcus; Tucek, K. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1998-12-01

    This annual report describes the accelerator-driven transmutation project conducted at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology. The main results are: development of the simulation tools for accelerator-driven transmutation calculations including an integrated Monte-Carlo burnup module and improvements of neutron energy fission yield simulations, processing of the evacuated nuclear data files including preparation of the temperature dependent neutron cross-sections, development of nuclear data for a medium energy range for some isotopes, development of the models and codes for radiation damage simulations, system studies for the spent fuel transmuter, based on heavy metal coolant and advanced nuclear fuel, contribution to the spallation target design being manufactured in IPPE, Obninsk, and accelerator reliability studies. Moreover a lot of efforts were put to further develop existing international collaboration with the most active research groups in the world together with educational activities in Sweden including a number of meetings and workshops and a graduate course in transmutation. This project has been conducted in close collaboration with the EU-project `Impact of the accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety` - IABAT and in bilateral cooperation with different foreign research groups 31 refs, 23 figs

  1. Oxygen Compatibility of Brass-Filled PTFE Compared to Commonly Used Fluorinated Polymers for Oxygen Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Stephen D.; Frisby, Paul M.; Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2009-01-01

    Safe and reliable seal materials for high-pressure oxygen systems sometimes appear to be extinct species when sought out by oxygen systems designers. Materials that seal well are easy to find, but these materials are typically incompatible with oxygen, especially in cryogenic liquid form. This incompatibility can result in seals that leak, or much worse, seals that easily ignite and burn during use. Materials that are compatible with oxygen are easy to find, such as the long list of compatible metals, but these metallic materials are limiting as seal materials. A material that seals well and is oxygen compatible has been the big game in the designer's safari. Scientists at the Materials Combustion Research Facility (MCRF), part of NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are constantly searching for better materials and processes to improve the safety of oxygen systems. One focus of this effort is improving the characteristics of polymers used in the presence of an oxygen enriched environment. Very few systems can be built which contain no polymeric materials; therefore, materials which have good impact resistance, low heat of combustion, high auto-ignition temperature and that maintain good mechanical properties are essential. The scientists and engineers at the Materials Combustion Research Facility, in cooperation with seal suppliers, are currently testing a new formulation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with Brass filler. This Brass-filled PTFE is showing great promise as a seal and seat material for high pressure oxygen systems. Early research has demonstrated very encouraging results, which could rank this material as one of the best fluorinated polymers ever tested. This paper will compare the data obtained for Brass-filled PTFE with other fluorinated polymers, such as TFE-Teflon (PTFE) , Kel-F 81, Viton A, Viton A-500, Fluorel , and Algoflon . A similar metal filled fluorinated polymer, Salox-M , was tested in comparison to Brass-filled PTFE to

  2. Polymer optical fiber with Rhodamine doped cladding for fiber light systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narro-García, R., E-mail: roberto.narro@gmail.com [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Quintero-Torres, R. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Domínguez-Juárez, J.L. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Cátedras CONACyT, Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Ocampo, M.A. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2016-01-15

    Both preform and polymer optical fiber with a Poly(methyl methacrylate) core and THV–Rhodamine 6G cladding were characterized. UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence spectra and lifetime of the preform were measured. Axial and lateral photoluminescence spectra of the polymer optical fiber were studied under 404 nm excitation in order to study the illumination performance of the fiber. It was observed that the peak wavelength from the fiber photoluminescence spectra is higher than the peak wavelength from the fiber preform and that the peak wavelength from the fiber photoluminescence spectra is red shifted with the fiber length in the case of axial emission. The obtained results suggest the influence of self-absorption on the photoluminescence shape. Strong lateral emission along the fiber was observed with the naked eyes in all the cases. The lateral photoluminescence spectra show that the lateral emission is a combination between the pump laser and the Rh6G molecule photoluminescence. The results suggest that this polymer optical fiber could be a potential candidate for the development of fiber lighting systems. - Highlights: • Axial and lateral emission along the fiber was studied. • Self-absorption effect was confirmed in the case of axial photoluminescence. • The lateral emission is a combination between the laser and the RhG6 emission. • This fiber could be a potential candidate for the development of lighting systems.

  3. Annual simulations of heat pump systems with vertical ground heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, M.A.; Randriamiarinjatovo, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique

    2001-06-01

    The recent increased popularity in ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems is due to their energy saving potential. However, in order for a GCHP to operate efficiently, they must be sized correctly. This paper presents a method to perform annual simulations of GCHP systems to optimize the length of the ground heat exchanger and provide annual energy consumption data. A computer program has been developed to simulate the building load, heat pump and the ground heat exchanger, the three most distinct parts of the system. The coupled governing equations of these three models are solved simultaneously until a converged solution is obtained at each time step. The simulations are performed using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES). This program has proven to be useful in balancing ground heat exchanger length against heat pump energy consumption.15 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Further Improvement and System Integration of High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    The new development in the field of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is high temperature PEMFC for operation above 100°C, which has been successfully demonstrated through the previous EC Joule III and the 5th framework programme. New challenges are encountered, bottlenecks for the new...... technology have been identified, and new concepts and solutions have been provisionally identified. FURIM is directed at tackling these key issues by concentrating on the further materials development, compatible technologies, and system integration of the high temperature PEMFC. The strategic developments...... of the FURIM are in three steps: (1) further improvement of the high temperature polymer membranes and related materials; (2) development of technological units including fuel cell stack, hydrocarbon reformer and afterburner, that are compatible with the HT-PEMFC; and (3) integration of the HT-PEMFC stack...

  5. High stability of polymer optical fiber with dye doped cladding for illumination systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo-Ochoa, L. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230, México (Mexico); Narro-García, R. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230, México (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Ingeniería, Circuito Universitario S/N, 31125 Chihuahua, Chih., México (Mexico); Ocampo, M.A. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230, México (Mexico); Quintero-Torres, R., E-mail: rquintero@fata.unam.mx [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230, México (Mexico)

    2017-04-15

    In this work, the photodegradation of a polymer optical fiber with Rhodamine doped cladding as a function of illumination time and excitation intensity is presented. To show the effect of photodegradation on different bulk geometries and environments, the photodegradation from a dye doped preform and a PMMA thick film is also evaluated. The reversible and the irreversible degradation of the florescent material were quantified under an established excitation scheme. To this purpose, a four-level system to model the photodegradation rates and its relation with the population of the states is presented and it is used to justify a possible underlying mechanism. The obtained results suggest an increase of one order of magnitude in the stability (lifetime) of the polymer optical fiber with respect to the preform or the thick film geometry stability.

  6. Experiments with polymer coated microspheres irradiated by the Shiva laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, J.M.; Manes, K.R.; Matthews, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Polymer coated spherical targets have been irradiated by the Shiva laser system in an effort to compress the contained 10 mg/cc DT fuel to super liquid densities. Glass microspheres of 140 μm ID and 5 μm wall thickness with polymer coatings 15 μm to 100 μm thick have been irradiated with laser pulses of 4 kilojoules in 200 psec FWHM. Target performance was diagnosed with neutron yield measurements, radiochemistry, Argon line imaging, and x-ray imaging techniques. Ball in plate targets achieved greater implosion symmetry than free-standing ball targets. With yields of 10 7 to 10 8 neutrons, targets reached DT fuel compressions of several times liquid density

  7. Polymer dynamics from synthetic polymers to proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Polymer dynamics; reptation; domain dynamics biomolecules. Abstract. Starting from the standard model of polymer motion - the Rouse model - we briefly present some key experimental results on the mesoscopic dynamics of polymer systems. We touch the role of topological confinement as expressed in the ...

  8. Development status of solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis for manned spacecraft life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, L. J.; Titterington, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the design and system verification test results are presented for a six-man-rated oxygen generation system. The system configuration incorporates components and instrumentation for computer-controlled operation with automatic start-up/shutdown sequencing, fault detection and isolation, and with self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. All fluid and electrical components, sensors, and electronic controls are designed to be easily maintainable under zero-gravity conditions. On-board component spares are utilized in the system concept to sustain long-term operation (six months minimum) in a manned spacecraft application. The system is centered on a 27-cell solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis module which, combined with the associated system components and controls, forms a total system envelope 40 in. high, 40 in. wide, and 30 in. deep.

  9. Polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and fullerene: Pyrene acceptor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cominetti, Alessandra; Pellegrino, Andrea; Longo, Luca [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Po, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.po@eni.com [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Tacca, Alessandra; Carbonera, Chiara; Salvalaggio, Mario [Research Center for Renewable Energies and Environment, Istituto Donegani, Eni S.p.A, Via Fauser 4, IT-28100 Novara (Italy); Baldrighi, Michele; Meille, Stefano Valdo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “G. Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, IT-20131 Milano (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    The replacement of widely used fullerene derivatives, e.g. [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), with unfunctionalized C60 and C70 is an effective approach to reduce the costs of organic photovoltaics. However, solubility issues of these compounds have always represented an obstacle to their use. In this study, bulk-heterojunction solar cells made of poly(3-hexylthiophene) donor polymer, C60 or C70 acceptors and a pyrene derivative (1-pyrenebutiric acid butyl ester) are reported. Butyl 1-pyrenebutirate limits the aggregation of fullerenes and improves the active layer morphology, plausibly due to the formation of pyrene-fullerene complexes which, in the case of pyrene-C70, were also obtained in a crystalline form. Maximum power conversion efficiencies of 1.54% and 2.50% have been obtained using, respectively, C60 or C70 as acceptor. Quantum mechanical modeling provides additional insight into the formation of plausible supermolecular structures via π-π interactions and on the redox behaviour of pyrene-fullerene systems. - Highlights: • Pyrene derivatives favour the dispersion of unfunctionalized fullerenes. • Polymer solar cells with pyrene: C60 adduct as acceptor have efficiencies of 1.54%. • When C60 is substituted with C70 the efficiency is increased to 2.50%. • DFT calculations support the plausibility of the formation of pyrene: fullerene adducts. • The use of unfunctionalized fullerenes may decrease the costs of polymer solar cells.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of biocompatible multicomponent polymer systems as supports for cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porjazoska, Aleksandra; Cvetkovska, Maja; Yylmaz, Oksan Karal; Baysal, Kemal; Apohan, Nilhan Kayaman; Baysal, Bahattin M.

    2004-01-01

    Engineering living tissue for reconstructive surgery requires an appropriate cell source and optimal culture conditions, but also a suitable biodegradable scaffold as the basic elements. On the basis of the well known facts that scaffold chemistry and architecture can influence the fate and function of engrafted cells, a large number of polymers, as cell cultures supports, have been proposed. In this study, we report a synthesis, characterization and cell interactions with the following polymer systems: I. Poly[L- lactic acid / glycolic acid / poly(dimethylsiloxane)], copolymers; II. Poly(DL - lactic acid) / triblock PCL - PDMS - PCL copolymers; III. Blends of poly(DL - lactic - co - glycolic acid) and triblock PCL - PDMS - PCL copolymers. For the cell seeding experiments, Swiss 3T3 and/or L929 mouse fibroblasts were grown in RPMI 1640 and/or DMEM / F12 medium, and placed onto the bio polymer non porous or porous films, prepared using a particulate leaching technique. The amount of cells present on the surfaces of the scaffolds was quantified using a neutral red uptake assay. (Author)

  11. Lowest of AC-DC power output for electrostrictive polymers energy harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddad, Mounir; Eddiai, Adil; Hajjaji, Abdelowahed; Guyomar, Daniel; Belkhiat, Saad; Boughaleb, Yahia; Chérif, Aida

    2013-11-01

    Advances in technology led to the development of electronic circuits and sensors with extremely low electricity consumption. At the same time, structural health monitoring, technology and intelligent integrated systems created a need for wireless sensors in hard to reach places in aerospace vehicles and large civil engineering structures. Powering sensors with energy harvesters eliminates the need to replace batteries on a regular basis. Scientists have been forced to search for new power source that are able to harvested energy from their surrounding environment (sunlight, temperature gradients etc.). Electrostrictive polymer belonging to the family of electro-active polymers, offer unique properties for the electromechanical transducer technology has been of particular interest over the last few years in order to replace conventional techniques such as those based on piezoelectric or electromagnetic, these materials are highly attractive for their low-density, with large strain capability that can be as high as two orders of magnitude greater than the striction-limited, rigid and fragile electroactive ceramics. Electrostrictive polymers sensors respond to vibration with an ac output signal, one of the most important objectives of the electronic interface is to realize the required AC-DC conversion. The goal of this paper is to design an active, high efficiency power doubler converter for electrostrictive polymers exclusively uses a fraction of the harvested energy to supply its active devices. The simulation results show that it is possible to obtain a maximum efficiency of the AC-DC converter equal to 80%. Premiliminary experimental measurements were performed and the results obtained are in good agreement with simulations.

  12. 2016 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS): 34th Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummin, David D; Mowry, James B; Spyker, Daniel A; Brooks, Daniel E; Fraser, Michael O; Banner, William

    2017-12-01

    This is the 34th Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS). As of 1 January 2016, 55 of the nation's poison centers (PCs) uploaded case data automatically to NPDS. The upload interval was 9.50 [7.33, 14.6] (median [25%, 75%]) min, facilitating a near real-time national exposure and information database and surveillance system. We analyzed the case data tabulating specific indices from NPDS. The methodology was similar to that of previous years. Where changes were introduced, the differences are identified. Cases with medical outcomes of death were evaluated by a team of medical and clinical toxicologist reviewers using an ordinal scale of 1-6 to assess the Relative Contribution to Fatality (RCF) of the exposure. In 2016, 2,710,042 closed encounters were logged by NPDS: 2,159,032 human exposures, 54,019 animal exposures, 490,215 information cases, 6687 human confirmed non-exposures, and 89 animal confirmed non-exposures. US PCs also made 2,718,022 follow-up calls in 2016. Total encounters showed a 2.94% decline from 2015, while health care facility (HCF) human exposure cases increased by 3.63% from 2015. All information calls decreased by 12.5% but HCF information calls increased 0.454%, and while medication identification requests (Drug ID) decreased 29.6%, human exposure cases were essentially flat, decreasing by 0.431%. Human exposures with less serious outcomes have decreased 2.59% per year since 2008 while those with more serious outcomes (moderate, major or death) have increased by 4.39% per year since 2000. The top five substance classes most frequently involved in all human exposures were analgesics (11.2%), household cleaning substances (7.54%), cosmetics/personal care products (7.20%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (5.84%), and antidepressants (4.74%). As a class, sedative/hypnotics/antipsychotics exposures increased most rapidly, by 10.7% per year (2088 cases/year), over the last

  13. Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems Annual Program Review meeting. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Goal of the 8-year program are to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. The conference is held annually for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties in industry, academia, and Government. This volume contains 28 poster presentations and appendices; the poster papers are processed separately for the data base.

  14. Automated sorting of polymer flakes: fluorescence labeling and development of a measurement system prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, S; Fomin, P; Kargel, Ch

    2015-04-01

    The extensive demand and use of plastics in modern life is associated with a significant economical impact and a serious ecological footprint. The production of plastics involves a high energy consumption and CO2 emission as well as the large need for (limited) fossil resources. Due to the high durability of plastics, large amounts of plastic garbage is mounting in overflowing landfills (plus 9.6 million tons in Europe in the year 2012) and plastic debris is floating in the world oceans or waste-to-energy combustion releases even more CO2 plus toxic substances (dioxins, heavy metals) to the atmosphere. The recycling of plastic products after their life cycle can obviously contribute a great deal to the reduction of the environmental and economical impacts. In order to produce high-quality recycling products, mono-fractional compositions of waste polymers are required. However, existing measurement technologies such as near infrared spectroscopy show limitations in the sorting of complex mixtures and different grades of polymers, especially when black plastics are involved. More recently invented technologies based on mid-infrared, Raman spectroscopy or laser-aided spectroscopy are still under development and expected to be rather expensive. A promising approach to put high sorting purities into practice is to label plastic resins with unique combinations of fluorescence markers (tracers). These are incorporated into virgin resins during the manufacturing process at the ppm (or sub ppm) concentration level, just large enough that the fluorescence emissions can be detected with sensitive instrumentation but neither affect the visual appearance nor the mechanical properties of the polymers. In this paper we present the prototype of a measurement and classification system that identifies polymer flakes (mill material of a few millimeters size) located on a conveyor belt in real time based on the emitted fluorescence of incorporated markers. Classification performance

  15. Novel ceramic-polymer composite membranes for the separation of liquid waste. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1997-01-01

    'The project on ceramic-supported polymer membranes focuses on the development of a novel class of membranes for the separation of organics from both organic-aqueous and organic-organic mixtures, Theses membranes are fabricated by a graft polymerization process where polymer chains are grown onto the surface of a ceramic support membrane. The surface graft polymerization process, developed at UCLA, results in the formation of a thin polymer layer covalently bonded to the membrane pore surface as a layer of terminally anchored polymeric chains. Through the selection of the polymer most appropriate for the desired separation task, the graft polymerized surface layer can be synthesized to impart specific separation properties to the membrane. It is expected that this project will lead to the demonstration of a new technology for the tailor design of a new class of selective and robust ceramic-supported polymer membranes. This new approach will allow the rapid deployment of task-specific membranes for the separation of waste constituents for subsequent recovery, treatment or disposal. Progress to date includes the preparation of successful silica-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) membrane for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions and a silica-polyvinylacetate (PVAc) pervaporation membrane for the separation of organics from water. Current work is ongoing to study the performance of the pervaporation membrane for the removal of chlorinated organics from water and to develop a pervaporation membrane for organic-organic separation. In another aspect of the study, the authors are studying the hydrophilic PVP CSP membrane for oil-in-water emulsion treatment with the goal of determining the optimal membrane polymer surface structure as a function of various operating conditions (e.g., tube-side Reynolds number and transmembrane pressure), Work is also in progress to characterize the polymer layer by AFM and internal reflection FTIR, and to model the conformation of the polymer

  16. Molecular weight (hydrodynamic volume) dictates the systemic pharmacokinetics and tumour disposition of PolyPEG star polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Song Yang; Hu, Jinming; McLeod, Victoria M; Quinn, John F; Williamson, Mark; Porter, Christopher J H; Whittaker, Michael R; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Davis, Thomas P

    2015-11-01

    Herein we report for the first time the biological fate of poly[(oligoethylene glycol) acrylate] (POEGA) star polymers synthesised via a versatile arm-first reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerisation approach. The biopharmaceutical behaviour of three different molecular weight (49, 64 and 94kDa) POEGA stars was evaluated in rats and nude mice bearing human MDA MB-231 tumours after intravenous administration. The 94kDa star polymer exhibited a longer plasma exposure time than the 49kDa or 64kDa star polymer; an observation attributable to differences in the rates of both polymer biodegradation and urinary excretion. Tumour biodistribution also correlated with molecular weight and was greatest for the longest circulating 94kDa star. Different patterns of liver and spleen biodistribution were observed between mice and rats for the different sized polymers. The polymers were also well-tolerated in vivo and in vitro at therapeutic concentrations. Advances in nanotechnology has enabled scientists to produce nanoparticle as drug carriers in cancer therapeutics. In this article, the authors studied the biological fate of poly[(oligoethylene glycol) acrylate] (POEGA) star polymers of different size, after intravenous injections. This would allow the subsequent comparison to other drug delivery systems for better drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on a Foam System of Ultralow Interfacial Tension Applied in Daqing Oilfield after Polymer Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-sheng Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of oil displacement by a foam system of ultralow interfacial tension, the interfacial activities and foam properties of a nonionic gemini surfactant (DWS were investigated under Daqing Oilfield reservoir conditions. Injection methods and alternate cycle of the foam system were discussed here on the basis of results from core flow experiments. It was obtained that the surface tension of DWS was approximately 25 mN/m, and ultralow interfacial tension was reached between oil and DWS with a surfactant concentration between 0.05wt% and 0.4wt%. The binary system showed splendid foam performances, and the preferential surfactant concentration was 0.3wt% with a polymer concentration of 0.2wt%. When gas and liquid were injected simultaneously, flow control capability of the foam reached its peak at the gas-liquid ratio of 3 : 1. Enhanced oil recovery factor of the binary foam system exceeded 10% in a parallel natural cores displacement after polymer flooding.

  18. Gamma irradiated micro system for long-term parenteral contraception: An alternative to synthetic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthli, S; Vavia, P

    2008-11-15

    An injectable system of levonorgestrel (LNG) was developed using biodegradable polymer of natural origin. The parenteral system was optimized for particle size and higher drug loading. The microparticulate system was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, encapsulation efficiency, moisture content, IR, DSC, XRD, residual solvent content, sterility testing, test of abnormal toxicity and test for pyrogens. The microparticles were sterilised by gamma irradiation (2.5Mrad). The system was injected intramuscularly in rabbits and the blood levels of LNG were determined using radioimmunoassay technique. An optimized drug to polymer ratio of 0.3-1.0 (w/w ratio) gave improved drug loading of about 52%. In vivo studies in rabbits showed that the drug was released in a sustained manner for a period of 1 month. The AUC(0-t) was found to be 9363.6+/-2340pg/mLday(-1) with MRT calculated to be about 16 days and Kel of 0.01day(-1). LNG levels were maintained between 200 and 400pg/mL. In vivo release exhibited an initial burst effect which was not observed in the in vitro dissolution. This promising "Progestin-only" long-term contraceptive with improved user compliance is an alternative to the synthetic expensive polymeric carriers.

  19. Enhanced magnetoelectric coupling in a composite multiferroic system via interposing a thin film polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuyun; Mohanchandra, Kotekar P.; Lo Conte, Roberto; Ty Karaba, C.; Schneider, J. D.; Chavez, Andres; Tiwari, Sidhant; Sohn, Hyunmin; Nowakowski, Mark E.; Scholl, Andreas; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Bokor, Jeffrey; Carman, Gregory P.; Candler, Rob N.

    2018-05-01

    Enhancing the magnetoelectric coupling in a strain-mediated multiferroic composite structure plays a vital role in controlling magnetism by electric fields. An enhancement of magnetoelastic coupling between ferroelectric single crystal (011)-cut [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3](1-x)-[PbTiO3]x (PMN-PT, x≈ 0.30) and ferromagnetic polycrystalline Ni thin film through an interposed benzocyclobutene polymer thin film is reported. A nearly twofold increase in sensitivity of remanent magnetization in the Ni thin film to an applied electric field is observed. This observation suggests a viable method of improving the magnetoelectric response in these composite multiferroic systems.

  20. Communication: Relationship between solute localization and diffusion in a dynamically constrained polymer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, David M.; Jawahery, Sudi; Silverstein, Joshua S.; Forrey, Christopher [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, FDA, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    We investigate the link between dynamic localization, characterized by the Debye–Waller factor, 〈u{sup 2}〉, and solute self-diffusivity, D, in a polymer system using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and vapor sorption experiments. We find a linear relationship between lnD and 1/〈u{sup 2}〉 over more than four decades of D, encompassing most of the glass formation regime. The observed linearity is consistent with the Langevin dynamics in a periodically varying potential field and may offer a means to rapidly assess diffusion based on the characterization of dynamic localization.

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte on the basis of polyethylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukhanin, G.P.; Dumler, S.A.; Sablin, A.N.; Novakov, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reaction in the system polyethylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate was investigated by IR spectroscopy, differential thermal and X-ray structural analyses. Specific electric conductivity of the prepared composition has been measured. Solid polymer electrolytes on the basis of polyethylene carbonate have conducting properties as electrolytes on the basis of unmodified polyethylene oxide. Compositions of polyethylene carbonate : LiClO 4 =10 : 1Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 possess maximum value of electrical conductivity. Activation energies of the process is calculated for all investigated compositions, and dependence of these values from concentration of lithium perchlorate is established

  2. RCLED Optimization and Nonlinearity Compensation in a Polymer Optical Fiber DMT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Miao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In polymer optical fiber (POF systems, the nonlinear transfer function of the resonant cavity light emitting diode (RCLED drastically degrades the communication performance. After investigating the characteristics of the RCLED nonlinear behavior, an improved digital look-up-table (LUT pre-distorter, based on an adaptive iterative algorithm, is proposed. Additionally, the system parameters, including the bias current, the average electrical power, the LUT size and the step factor are also jointly optimized to achieve a trade-off between the system linearity, reliability and the computational complexity. With the proposed methodology, both the operating point and efficiency of RCLED are enhanced. Moreover, in the practical 50 m POF communication system with the discrete multi-tone (DMT modulation, the bit error rate performance is improved by over 12 dB when RCLED is operating in the nonlinear region. Therefore, the proposed pre-distorter can both resist the nonlinearity and improve the operating point of RCLED.

  3. On computing stress in polymer systems involving multi-body potentials from molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Song, Jeong-Hoon

    2014-08-01

    Hardy stress definition has been restricted to pair potentials and embedded-atom method potentials due to the basic assumptions in the derivation of a symmetric microscopic stress tensor. Force decomposition required in the Hardy stress expression becomes obscure for multi-body potentials. In this work, we demonstrate the invariance of the Hardy stress expression for a polymer system modeled with multi-body interatomic potentials including up to four atoms interaction, by applying central force decomposition of the atomic force. The balance of momentum has been demonstrated to be valid theoretically and tested under various numerical simulation conditions. The validity of momentum conservation justifies the extension of Hardy stress expression to multi-body potential systems. Computed Hardy stress has been observed to converge to the virial stress of the system with increasing spatial averaging volume. This work provides a feasible and reliable linkage between the atomistic and continuum scales for multi-body potential systems.

  4. Fundamental molecular design for precise control of thermoresponsiveness of organic polymers by using ternary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemori, Shogo; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2012-05-23

    The de novo design of thermosensitive polymers in solution has been achieved by using the addition of small organic molecules (or "effectors"). Hydrogen bonding as an attractive polymer-polymer or polymer-effector interaction substantially dominates the responsivity, causing facile switching between LCST-type and UCST-type phase transitions, control of the transition temperature, and further coincidence of the two transitions. Small molecules having a high affinity for the polymer induce UCST-type phase behavior, whereas those having a low affinity for the polymer showed LCST-type phase behavior.

  5. Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems Annual Program Review meeting. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Goal of the 8-year program is to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. The conference is held annually for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties industry, academia, and Government. Advanced turbine systems topics discussed during five technical sessions included policy and strategic issues, program element overviews and technical reviews, related activities, university/industry consortium interactions, and supportive projects. Twenty-one papers presented during the technical sessions are contained in this volume; they are processed separately for the data base.

  6. An oral oligonucleotide delivery system based on a thiolated polymer: Development and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, Ronny; Hoyer, Herbert; Perera, Glen; Schnürch, Andreas Bernkop

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an oral oligonucleotide delivery system based on a thiolated polymer/reduced glutathione (GSH) system providing a protective effect toward nucleases and permeation enhancement. A polycarbophil-cysteine conjugate (PCP-Cys) was synthesized. Enzymatic degradation of a model oligonucleotide by DNase I and within freshly collected intestinal fluid was investigated in the absence and presence of PCP-Cys. Permeation studies with PCP-Cys/GSH versus control were performed in vitro on Caco-2 cell monolayers and ex vivo on rat intestinal mucosa. PCP-Cys displayed 223 ± 13.8 μmol thiol groups per gram polymer. After 4h, 61% of the free oligonucleotides were degraded by DNase I and 80% within intestinal fluid. In contrast, less than 41% (DNase I) and 60% (intestinal fluid) were degraded in the presence of 0.02% (m/v) PCP-Cys. Permeation studies revealed an 8-fold (Caco-2) and 10-fold (intestinal mucosa) increase in apparent permeability compared to buffer control. Hence, this PCP-Cys/GSH system might be a promising tool for the oral administration of oligonucleotides as it allows a significant protection toward degrading enzymes and facilitates their transport across intestinal membranes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Full Scale Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro De Vita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign performed at the Laboratory of Materials and Structural Testing of the University of Salerno (Italy in order to investigate the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC beam-column joints strengthened with steel reinforced polymer (SRP systems. With the aim to represent typical façade frames’ beam-column subassemblies found in existing RC buildings, specimens were provided with two short beam stubs orthogonal to the main beam and were designed with inadequate seismic details. Five members were strengthened by using two different SRP layouts while the remaining ones were used as benchmarks. Once damaged, two specimens were also repaired, retrofitted with SRP, and subjected to cyclic test again. The results of cyclic tests performed on SRP strengthened joints are examined through a comparison with the outcomes of the previous experimental program including companion specimens not provided with transverse beam stubs and strengthened by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP systems. In particular, both qualitative and quantitative considerations about the influence of the confining effect provided by the secondary beams on the joint response, the suitability of all the adopted strengthening solutions (SRP/CFRP systems, the performances and the failure modes experienced in the several cases studied are provided.

  8. Full Scale RC Beam-Column Joints Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Alessandro; Napoli, Annalisa; Realfonzo, Roberto

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign performed at the Laboratory of Materials and Structural Testing of the University of Salerno (Italy) in order to investigate the seismic performance of RC beam-column joints strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer (SRP) systems. With the aim to represent typical façade frames’ beam-column subassemblies found in existing RC buildings, specimens were provided with two short beam stubs orthogonal to the main beam and were designed with inadequate seismic details. Five members were strengthened by using two different SRP layouts while the remaining ones were used as benchmarks. Once damaged, two specimens were also repaired, retrofitted with SRP and subjected to cyclic test again. The results of cyclic tests performed on SRP strengthened joints are examined through a comparison with the outcomes of the previous experimental program including companion specimens not provided with transverse beam stubs and strengthened by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) systems. In particular, both qualitative and quantitative considerations about the influence of the confining effect provided by the secondary beams on the joint response, the suitability of all the adopted strengthening solutions (SRP/CFRP systems), the performances and the failure modes experienced in the several cases studied are provided.

  9. Radiation-induced free radical reactions in polymer/drug systems for controlled release: an EPR investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faucitano, A. E-mail: chemrad@unipv.it; Buttafava, A.; Montanari, L.; Cilurzo, F.; Conti, B.; Genta, I.; Valvo, L

    2003-05-01

    The primary and secondary free radical intermediates in the gamma radiolysis of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and clonazepam loaded PLGA microspheres were investigated by matrix EPR spectroscopy in the temperature range 77-298 K. Drug-polymer interactions were found to be important leading to significant deviations of the G(radicals) from the additivity law. In particular, in the mixed system a stabilization of the polymer matrix with respect to the radiation damage was detected, witnessed by a decrease of the overall polymer radicals yield which is accompanied by an increase of the drug radicals yield. These effects have been attributed to the scavenging properties of the nitro group with respect to electrons and polymer radicals. It is conceivable that such conclusions be of general application for all pharmaceutical formulations containing drugs bearing nitro groups in their chemical structure.

  10. Thermally responsive polymer systems for self-healing, reversible adhesion and shape memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaofan

    Responsive polymers are "smart" materials that are capable of performing prescribed, dynamic functions under an applied stimulus. In this dissertation, we explore several novel design strategies to develop thermally responsive polymers and polymer composites for self-healing, reversible adhesion and shape memory applications. In the first case described in Chapters 2 and 3, a thermally triggered self-healing material was prepared by blending a high-temperature epoxy resin with a thermoplastic polymer, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL). The initially miscible system undergoes polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) during the curing of epoxy and yields a variety of compositionally dependent morphologies. At a particular PCL loading, the cured blend displays a "bricks-and-mortar" morphology in which epoxy exists as interconnected spheres ("bricks") within a continuous PCL matrix ("mortar"). A heat induced "bleeding" phenomenon was observed in the form of spontaneous wetting of all free surfaces by the molten PCL, and is attributed to the volumetric thermal expansion of PCL above its melting point in excess of epoxy brick expansion, which we term differential expansive bleeding (DEB). This DEB is capable of healing damage such as cracks. In controlled self-healing experiments, heating of a cracked specimen led to PCL bleeding from the bulk that yields a liquid layer bridging the crack gap. Upon cooling, a "scar" composed of PCL crystals was formed at the site of the crack, restoring a significant portion of mechanical strength. We further utilized DEB to enable strong and thermally-reversible adhesion of the material to itself and to metallic substrates, without any requirement for macroscopic softening or flow. After that, Chapters 4--6 present a novel composite strategy for the design and fabrication of shape memory polymer composites. The basic approach involves physically combining two or more functional components into an interpenetrating fiber

  11. Development of anti-scale poly(aspartic acid-citric acid) dual polymer systems for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayunigari, Mithil Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Kokkarachedu, Varaprasad; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2014-01-01

    The formation of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate scale poses major problems in heat exchangers and water cooling systems, thereby affecting the performance of these types of equipment. In order to inhibit these scale formations, new types of biodegradable water soluble single polymer and dual poly(aspartic acid-citric acid) polymers were developed and tested. The effectiveness of single polymer and four different compositions of poly aspartic acid and citric acid dual polymer systems as scale inhibitors were evaluated. Details of the synthesis, thermal stability, scale inhibition and the morphological characterization of single and dual polymers are presented in this scientific paper. It was found that the calcium sulphate scale inhibition rate was in the range 76.06-91.45%, while the calcium carbonate scale inhibition rate observed was in the range 23.37-30.0% at 65-70 °C. The finding suggests that the water soluble dual polymers are very effective in sulphate scale inhibition in comparison of calcium carbonate scale inhibition.

  12. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis system development. [to generate oxygen for manned space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology used in a water electrolysis system (WES) to generate oxygen and hydrogen for manned space station applications was investigated. A four-man rated, low pressure breadboard water electrolysis system with the necessary instrumentation and controls was fabricated and tested. A six man rated, high pressure, high temperature, advanced preprototype WES was developed. This configuration included the design and development of an advanced water electrolysis module, capable of operation at 400 psig and 200 F, and a dynamic phase separator/pump in place of a passive phase separator design. Evaluation of this system demonstrated the goal of safe, unattended automated operation at high pressure and high temperature with an accumulated gas generation time of over 1000 hours.

  13. Towards a portable microchip system with integrated thermal control and polymer waveguides for real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Sekulovic, Andrea; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2006-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR microchip platform with integrated thermal system and polymer waveguides has been developed. The integrated polymer optical system for real-time monitoring of PCR was fabricated in the same SU-8 layer as the PCR chamber, without additional masking steps. Two suitable DNA...... binding dyes, SYTOX Orange and TO-PRO-3, were selected and tested for the real-time PCR processes. As a model, cadF gene of Campylobacter jejuni has been amplified on the microchip. Using the integrated optical system of the real-time PCR microchip, the measured cycle threshold values of the real-time PCR...

  14. Further Improvement and System Integration of High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology based on Nafion membranes can operate at temperatures around 80°C. The new development in the field is high temperature PEMFC for operation above 100°C, which has been successfully demonstrated through the previous EC Joule III and the 5th......, and system integration of the high temperature PEMFC. The strategic developments of the FURIM are in three steps: (1) further improvement of the high temperature polymer membranes and related materials; (2) development of technological units including fuel cell stack, hydrocarbon reformer, afterburner...... and power management system, that are compatible with the HT-PEMFC; and (3) integration of the HT-PEMFC stack with these compatible subunits. The main goal of the project is a 2kWel HT-PEMFC stack operating in a temperature range of 120-220°C, with a single cell performance target of 0.7 A/cm² at a cell...

  15. Comparison of two polymer-based immunohistochemical detection systems: ENVISION+ and ImmPRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Vara, José A; Miller, Margaret A

    2006-11-01

    The non-specific background reaction produced in avidin-biotin-based immunohistochemistry, particularly after harsh antigen retrieval procedures, has promoted the use of non-avidin-biotin systems, yet there are few reports comparing the performance of non-avidin-biotin, polymer-based methods. In this study we compare two of these methods, ENVISION+trade mark and ImmPRESS, in animal tissues. We examined the immunoreactivity of 18 antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Antigens were located in the cytoplasmic membrane (CD11d, CD18 and CD79a), cytoplasm (calretinin, COX-1, COX-2, Glut-1, HepPar 1, KIT, Melan A, tryptase and uroplakin III) or nucleus (MUM-1, PGP 9.5 and thyroid transcription factor 1). We also evaluated three infectious agents (Aspergillus, calicivirus and West Nile virus). The staining with ENVISION+ or ImmPRESS was performed simultaneously for each antigen. The intensity of the reaction and background staining were scored. ImmPRESS yielded similar or higher reaction intensity than ENVISION+trade mark in 16/18 antigens. ImmPRESS produced abundant background with the other two antigens (calretinin and COX-2), which hindered interpretation of the specific reaction. The cost of ImmPRESS was 25% lower than for ENVISION+trade mark. Based on these results, ImmPRESS is a good polymer-based detection system for routine immunohistochemistry.

  16. Annual investigation of vertical type ground source heat pump system performance on a wall heating and cooling system in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbulut, U.; Yoru, Y.; Kincay, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University (Turkey)], email: akbulutugur@yahoo.com, email: yilmazyoru@gmail.com, email: okincay@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    Wall heating and cooling systems (WHCS) are equipped with heating serpentines or panels for water circulation. These systems operate in a low temperature range so they are preferable to other, conventional systems. Furthermore, when these systems are connected to a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system, energy performance and thermal comfort are further enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an annual inspection done on a vertical type ground-coupled heat pump systems (V-GSHP) WHCS in Istanbul and present the results. The performance data from the Yildiz Renewable Energy House at Davutpasa Campus of Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, during the year 2010 were collected and analyzed. The conclusions drawn from the inspection and analysis were listed in this paper. Using renewable energy sources effectively will bring both economic and environmental benefits and it is hoped that the use of these energy efficient WHCS systems will become widespread.

  17. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  18. Low cost Polymer Optical Fibre based transmission system for feeding integrated broadband wireless in-house LANs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'Oma, A.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Smulders, P.F.M.; Khoe, G.D.; Visser, D. Taco; Lenstra, Daan; Schouten, F. Hugo

    2002-01-01

    A bi-directional transmission system using low cost Polymer Optical Fibre (POF) to feed the required large number of radio access points in next-generation integrated broadband wireless in-house LANs is proposed. Results from simulations and experiments show that, by tuning system parameters, a

  19. Annual Performance Assessment of Complex Fenestration Systems in Sunny Climates Using Advanced Computer Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Basurto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex Fenestration Systems (CFS are advanced daylighting systems that are placed on the upper part of a window to improve the indoor daylight distribution within rooms. Due to their double function of daylight redirection and solar protection, they are considered as a solution to mitigate the unfavorable effects due to the admission of direct sunlight in buildings located in prevailing sunny climates (risk of glare and overheating. Accordingly, an adequate assessment of their performance should include an annual evaluation of the main aspects relevant to the use of daylight in such regions: the indoor illuminance distribution, thermal comfort, and visual comfort of the occupant’s. Such evaluation is possible with the use of computer simulations combined with the bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF data of these systems. This study explores the use of available methods to assess the visible and thermal annual performance of five different CFS using advanced computer simulations. To achieve results, an on-site daylight monitoring was carried out in a building located in a predominantly sunny climate location, and the collected data was used to create and calibrate a virtual model used to carry-out the simulations. The results can be employed to select the CFS, which improves visual and thermal interior environment for the occupants.

  20. [Participants-centered Design of Annual Meeting: From the Perspectives of Instructional Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuaki

    2018-01-01

     This paper examines the reform experience of the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences from Instructional Systems perspectives, to check whether it was effective, efficient, and appealing for participants. "Instructional Systems" has been a research area in educational technology for the past 50 years, and has also been applied to training and human resource development in healthcare domains. If an annual meeting is to be designed for participants' learning, then perspectives of Instructional Systems can be applied to interpret the effort of the reform. First, fill in the gaps of participants' knowledge, using before-and-after comparison. Design a conference to meet the needs of its participants by checking why they attend (expectations) and what they bring in (starting status). Second, design the conference as a process of innovation. The bigger the expected changes, the more carefully participants should be prepared to accommodate them. Third, follow plan-do-check-action cycles with data for confirming and revising the new ways of running the meeting. Plan to check "exportability" of the new ways, to assess whether it can be generalized to future meetings.

  1. Mutual diffusion coefficient models for polymer-solvent systems based on the Chapman-Enskog theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous examples of the importance of small molecule migration in polymeric materials, such as in drying polymeric packing, controlled drug delivery, formation of films, and membrane separation, etc. The Chapman-Enskog kinetic theory of hard-sphere fluids with the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen effective hard-sphere diameter (Enskog-WCA has been the most fruitful in diffusion studies of simple fluids and mixtures. In this work, the ability of the Enskog-WCA model to describe the temperature and concentration dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficient, D, for a polystyrene-toluene system was evaluated. Using experimental diffusion data, two polymer model approaches and three mixing rules for the effective hard-sphere diameter were tested. Some procedures tested resulted in models that are capable of correlating the experimental data with the refereed system well for a solvent mass fraction greater than 0.3.

  2. Turkevich method for silver/titanium dioxide nanoparticles with antimicrobial application in polymers systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olyveira, Gabriel Molina de; Pessan, Luiz Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were covered with silver nanoparticles using Turkevich Method or citrate reduction method. Silver and titanium dioxide has proved antimicrobial properties then the nanocomposite can be successful incorporated in polymer systems. Silver nitrate was reduced by sodium citrate in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)(PVP) resulting in nano-Ag/TiO 2 stabilized suspension. It was tested ammonia hydroxide in the synthesis to avoid the nanoparticles growth. The Ag/TiO 2 nanoparticles were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The best system of coloidal nanoparticles was that one with Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and ammonia in the synthesis. (author)

  3. On the dynamics of polymers in dense systems - Results of neutron spin echo spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D.

    1997-01-01

    One of the basic problems in the dynamics of polymers concerns the importance of geometrical or topological interactions which are directly related to the large scale molecular structures. In the famous reptation model these constraints are pictured in terms of a tube of localization following the average chain profile and confining the chain motion to the curve-linear tube. Recently studying the dynamic structure factor of a single labeled chain in a polymer melt by means of neutron spin echo spectroscopy (NSE) led to a direct observation of these tube constraints. Here I shall summarize these neutron spin echo experiments. I shall address the NSE technique, present results on the entropy driven segmental chain dynamics, discuss the dynamics of single chains in the melt where the chain length is increased through the transition to 'reptation' dynamics and display NSE measurements on long chain systems which revealed the molecular existence of the entanglement distance. Their magnitudes agree very well with tube diameters derived from dynamical mechanical measurements on the basis of the reptation model proving thereby the basic assumption of this Nobel Price winning concept

  4. Hemocompatibility of ultrafine systems on the basis of chitosan and its derivatives polymer-colloid complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Bazunova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the development process for the preparation of micro and nano-sized polymer-colloid com-plexes (РСС on the basis of water-soluble natural polymer chitosan (СTZ and the sodium salt of chitosan succinylamid (SСTZ with silver halide sols in aqueous media. Results of research of СTZ, sodium salt of SСTZ solutions and PСС of CTZ and SСTZ with colloidal parti-cles of silver iodide influence on structurally-functional properties of erythrocytes’ membranes on model of acidic hemolisis are presented in the article. Their influence on the nature of erythrocytes distribution by degree of their stability and on kinetic parameters (the beginning, intensity and completion of process of their destruction under the influence of the damaging agent (HCl is shown. The comparative analysis of results convinces that СTZ, SСTZ solutions and disperse systems on the basis of PСС of СTZ and SСTZ with colloidal particles of the silver iodide are capable of modulating variously matrix properties of erythrocytes of blood.

  5. Concise Approach for Determining the Optimal Annual Capacity Shortage Percentage using Techno-Economic Feasibility Parameters of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    PV power systems have been commercially available and widely used for decades. The performance of a reliable PV system that fulfils the expectations requires correct input data and careful design. Inaccurate input data of the techno-economic feasibility would affect the size, cost aspects, stability and performance of PV power system on the long run. The annual capacity shortage is one of the main input data that should be selected with careful attention. The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of different annual capacity shortages on the techno-economic feasibility parameters and determining the optimal value for Baghdad city location using HOMER simulation tool. Six values of annual capacity shortage percentages (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%), and wide daily load profile range (10 kWh - 100 kWh) are implemented. The optimal annual capacity shortage is the value that always "wins" when each techno-economic feasibility parameter is at its optimal/ reasonable criteria. The results showed that the optimal annual capacity shortage that reduces significantly the cost of PV power system while keeping the PV system with reasonable technical feasibility is 3%. This capacity shortage value can be carried as a reference value in future works for Baghdad city location. Using this approach of analysis at other locations, annual capacity shortage can be always offered as a reference value for those locations.

  6. Analysis of x-ray reflectivity data from low-contrast polymer bilayer systems using a Fourier method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeck, O. H.; Kaendler, I. D.; Tolan, M.; Shin, K.; Rafailovich, M. H.; Sokolov, J.; Kolb, R.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity data of polymer bilayer systems have been analyzed using a Fourier method which takes into account different limits of integration in q-space. It is demonstrated that the interfacial parameters can be determined with high accuracy although the difference in the electron density (the contrast) of the two polymers is extremely small. This method is not restricted to soft-matter thin films. It can be applied to any reflectivity data from low-contrast layer systems. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  7. Open absorption system for cooling and air conditioning using membrane contactors. 2006 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde-Petit, M. [M. Conde Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Weber, R. [Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Abteilung Bautechnologien, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    This illustrated annual report for 2006 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work being done on the development of an open absorption system for cooling and air-conditioning. The report reviews the construction of a first prototype and the manufacture of its components. The conceptual design of this new type of air handling unit (AHU), operating with a liquid desiccant, is discussed. The AHU is to be autonomous and the system will not require additional mechanical refrigeration. It is to be thermally driven at temperatures below 80 {sup o}C. Waste heat sources, solar collectors, district heating plants and co-generation systems are targeted as providers of thermal energy at this temperature level. Work carried out is reported on, including that on two-stream membrane contactors.

  8. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability

  9. Optimization of heliostat field layout in solar central receiver systems on annual basis using differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atif, Maimoon; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Differential evolution optimization model was developed to optimize the heliostat field. • Five optical parameters were considered for the optimization of the optical efficiency. • Optimization using insolation weighted and un-weighted annual efficiency are developed. • The daily averaged annual optical efficiency was calculated to be 0.5023 while the monthly was 0.5025. • The insolation weighted daily averaged annual efficiency was 0.5634. - Abstract: Optimization of a heliostat field is an essential task to make a solar central receiver system effective because major optical losses are associated with the heliostat fields. In this study, a mathematical model was developed to effectively optimize the heliostat field on annual basis using differential evolution, which is an evolutionary algorithm. The heliostat field layout optimization is based on the calculation of five optical performance parameters: the mirror or the heliostat reflectivity, the cosine factor, the atmospheric attenuation factor, the shadowing and blocking factor, and the intercept factor. This model calculates all the aforementioned performance parameters at every stage of the optimization, until the best heliostat field layout based on annual performance is obtained. Two different approaches were undertaken to optimize the heliostat field layout: one with optimizing insolation weighted annual efficiency and the other with optimizing the un-weighted annual efficiency. Moreover, an alternate approach was also proposed to efficiently optimize the heliostat field in which the number of computational time steps was considerably reduced. It was observed that the daily averaged annual optical efficiency was calculated to be 0.5023 as compared to the monthly averaged annual optical efficiency, 0.5025. Moreover, the insolation weighted daily averaged annual efficiency of the heliostat field was 0.5634 for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The code developed can be used for any other

  10. Seasonal and annual variability of coastal sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohde, Thomas; Dadou, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal and annual variability of surface sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system off Namibia because of their significant impacts on the marine ecosystem, fishing industry, aquaculture farming and tourism due to their toxic properties. We identified the sulphur plumes in ocean colour satellite data of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) for the 2002-2012 time period using the differences in the spectral properties of Namibian Benguela optical water types. The sulphur events have a strong seasonal cycle with pronounced main and off-seasons forced by local and remote-driven processes. The main peak season is in late austral summer and early austral autumn at the beginning of the annual upwelling cycle caused by increasing equatorwards alongshore winds. The sulphur plume activity is high between February and April during the seasonal oxygen minimum associated with the seasonal reduction of cross-shore ventilation of the bottom waters, the seasonal southernmost position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone, the seasonal maximum of water mass fractions of South Atlantic and Angola Gyre Central Waters as well as the seasonal arrival of the downwelling coastal trapped waves. The off-season is in austral spring and early austral summer during increased upwelling intensity and enhanced oxygen supply. The annual variability of sulphur events is characterized by very high activities in years 2004, 2005 and 2010 interrupted by periods of lower activity in years 2002 to 2003, 2006 to 2009 and 2011 to 2012. This result can be explained by the relative contributions or adding effects of local and remote-driven forces (from the equatorial area). The probability for the occurrence of sulphur plumes is enhanced in years with a lower annual mean of upwelling intensity, decreased oxygen supply associated with decreased lateral ventilation of bottom waters, more southern position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone, increased mass

  11. Seasonal and annual variability of coastal sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ohde

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal and annual variability of surface sulphur plumes in the northern Benguela upwelling system off Namibia because of their significant impacts on the marine ecosystem, fishing industry, aquaculture farming and tourism due to their toxic properties. We identified the sulphur plumes in ocean colour satellite data of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS for the 2002-2012 time period using the differences in the spectral properties of Namibian Benguela optical water types. The sulphur events have a strong seasonal cycle with pronounced main and off-seasons forced by local and remote-driven processes. The main peak season is in late austral summer and early austral autumn at the beginning of the annual upwelling cycle caused by increasing equatorwards alongshore winds. The sulphur plume activity is high between February and April during the seasonal oxygen minimum associated with the seasonal reduction of cross-shore ventilation of the bottom waters, the seasonal southernmost position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone, the seasonal maximum of water mass fractions of South Atlantic and Angola Gyre Central Waters as well as the seasonal arrival of the downwelling coastal trapped waves. The off-season is in austral spring and early austral summer during increased upwelling intensity and enhanced oxygen supply. The annual variability of sulphur events is characterized by very high activities in years 2004, 2005 and 2010 interrupted by periods of lower activity in years 2002 to 2003, 2006 to 2009 and 2011 to 2012. This result can be explained by the relative contributions or adding effects of local and remote-driven forces (from the equatorial area. The probability for the occurrence of sulphur plumes is enhanced in years with a lower annual mean of upwelling intensity, decreased oxygen supply associated with decreased lateral ventilation of bottom waters, more southern position of the Angola Benguela Frontal Zone

  12. [Matrix transdermal systems for caffeine delivery based on polymer and emulsion compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, E G; Kuryleva, O M; Salomatina, L A; Sevast'ianov, V I

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and test transdermal therapeutic systems for caffeine delivery. In vitro experiments showed that the rate of caffeine diffusion through untreated rabbit skin from a transdermal therapeutic systems based on polymer compound containing 50 mg medicine was 67.2 (9.1 microg/cm2h; for a system based on emulsion compound it was 173 (19 microg/cm2h. Methods for studying the caffeine release rate and quantitative measurement of caffeine content in the emulsion-based transdermal therapeutic system were developed. These methods are required to obtain data for standard drug documentation. The results of in vivo experiments in rabbits showed the absence of irritating effect of the emulsion-based transdermal therapeutic system. The obtained data on the specific efficiency of the transdermal therapeutic systems for caffeine delivery (50 mg) in healthy volunteers showed that this medicine could be used as a nonnarcotic psychoactivator for improving mental and physical activities and attention concentration.

  13. Rationalising polymer selection for supersaturated film forming systems produced by an aerosol spray for the transdermal delivery of methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A; Qi, S; Liu, F; Brown, M B; McAuley, W J

    2017-05-01

    Film forming systems offer a number of advantages for topical and transdermal drug delivery, in particular enabling production of a supersaturated state which can greatly improve drug absorption and bioavailability. However the suitability of individual film forming polymers to stabilise the supersaturated state and optimise delivery of drugs is not well understood. This study reports the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to measure the solubility of methylphenidate both as the free base and as the hydrochloride salt in two polymethacrylate copolymers, Eudragit RS (EuRS) and Eudragit E (EuE) and relates this to the ability of films formed using these polymers to deliver methylphenidate across a model membrane. EuRS provided greater methylphenidate delivery when the drug was formulated as the free base in comparison EuE because the lower solubility of the drug in EuRS provided a higher degree of drug saturation in the polymeric film. In contrast EuE provided greater delivery of methylphenidate hydrochloride as EuRS could not prevent its crystallisation from a supersaturated state. Methylphenidate flux across the membrane could be directly related to degree of saturation of the drug in the film formulation as estimated by the drug solubility in the individual polymers demonstrating the importance of drug solubility in the polymer included in film forming systems for topical/transdermal drug delivery. In addition DSC has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for determining the solubility of drugs in polymers used in film forming systems and the approaches outlined here are likely to be useful for predicting the suitability of polymers for particular drugs in film forming transdermal drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Annual cycle energy system (ACES). Performance report, November 1977-September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, A.S.; Abbatiello, L.A.

    1980-05-01

    A single-family residence near Knoxville, Tennessee, is being used to demonstrate the energy-conserving features of the annual cycle energy system (ACES), an integrated heating and cooling system that utilizes a unidirectional heat pump and low-temperature thermal storage. A second house, the control house, is being used to compare the performance of the ACES with that of an electric-resistance heating and hot-water system combined with a central air conditioning system. The results of one year's operation, from November 1977 through mid-September 1978, showed that the ACES consumed 9012 kWhr of electricity and delivered 40.8 x 10/sup 6/ Btu (43.03 x 10/sup 9/J) of heating, 19.8 x 10/sup 6/ Btu (20.89 x 10/sup 9/J) of hot water, and 24.8 x 10/sup 6/ Btu (26.17 x 10/sup 9/J) of cooling; the annual coefficient of performance (COP) was 2.78. The control house consumed 20,523 kWhr of electricity and delivered 41.3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu (43.57 x 10/sup 9/J) of heating, 14.8 x 10/sup 6/ Btu (15.61 x 10/sup 9/J) of hot water, and 23.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu (24.41 x 10/sup 9/J) of cooling; the annual COP was 1.13. These loads were delivered in a test year in which the heating season was one of the most severe in the past 20 years and the cooling season was normal. In addition, the ACES reduced peak utility system demands significantly: a reduction from 11.7 to 3.1 kW was achieved in the winter and from 4.1 to 0.7 kW in the summer. The only problems encountered were a heat leak into the storage bin that was twice the calculated value and control logic errors that produced excessive hot water in the winter, requiring extensive use of the night heat-rejection mode in the summer. These problems are currently being corrected.

  15. Annual incidence and standardized incidence ratio of cerebrovascular accidents in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, C C; Ho, L Y; To, C H

    2009-01-01

    To study the annual incidence and standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The annual incidence of CVA from 1999 to 2007 in a longitudinal cohort of SLE patients was calculated each year and compared with that of the regional population within the same study period. Age-specific SIRs and outcome of CVA in SLE patients were also studied. In 2007, there were 490 SLE patients in our cohort. The mean annual incidence of CVA between 1999 and 2007 was 6.45/1000 patients and no obvious trend over time was observed. Of the 20 CVAs in patients with SLE, 18 (90%) were ischaemic stroke whereas two (10%) were haemorrhagic stroke. The mean SIR of all types of CVA in SLE patients was 2.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-3.81; p = 0.002]. The SIR of ischaemic stroke decreased with age and the stroke incidence was no longer significantly higher than that of the population in patients aged >or= 60 years. Haemorrhagic stroke occurred mainly in younger SLE patients. The duration of hospitalization and the mortality rate for CVA was non-significantly higher in SLE than in non-SLE patients. The incidence of CVA in SLE remained constant over the 8 years between 1999 and 2007. Younger SLE patients are at substantially increased risk of CVA compared to age-matched population. The duration of hospitalization and the mortality rate for CVA are similar in SLE and non-SLE patients.

  16. Polymer substrates for flexible photovoltaic cells application in personal electronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znajdek, K.; Sibiński, M.; Strąkowska, A.; Lisik, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of polymeric materials for flexible substrates in photovoltaic (PV) structures that could be used as power supply in the personal electronic systems. Four types of polymers have been elected for testing. The first two are the most specialized and heat resistant polyimide films. The third material is transparent polyethylene terephthalate film from the group of polyesters which was proposed as a cheap and commercially available substrate for the technology of photovoltaic cells in a superstrate configuration. The last selected polymeric material is a polysiloxane, which meets the criteria of high elasticity, is temperature resistant and it is also characterized by relatively high transparency in the visible light range. For the most promising of these materials additional studies were performed in order to select those of them which represent the best optical, mechanical and temperature parameters according to their usage for flexible substrates in solar cells.

  17. Magnetron sputtering system with an annual discharge zone and two cathode modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savich, V. A.; Yasyunas, A. A.; Kovrigo, V. M.; Kotov, D. A.; Shiripov, V. Ya.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, general discharge characteristics of a cylindrical magnetron sputtering system with an annual sputtering zone and a high target usage coefficient designed for transparent conducting coatings are shown. Two coupled DC-cathodes are used to improve coating uniformity. Radial sputtered material fluxes are being created. The engineered magnetic system is extremely balanced (G-factor is much higher than 2) and thus provides maximal effective operating power higher than 6 kW. The effectiveness of a magnetic trap results in a fast work cycle (less than 1.5 min) and a high target material usage coefficient (higher than 40%). A multipole magnetic field with null magnetic flux density zones lower target’s surface is being created. There is an influence between cathode modules despite mutual magnetic isolation, so magnetic conductors-shunts are used to weaken it. The magnetron can be used to sputter both metals and conducting ceramics (including ITO). (authors)

  18. Self-monitoring fiber reinforced polymer strengthening system for civil engineering infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoliang; Dawood, Mina; Peters, Kara; Rizkalla, Sami

    2008-03-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials are currently used for strengthening civil engineering infrastructures. The strengthening system is dependant on the bond characteristics of the FRP to the external surface of the structure to be effective in resisting the applied loads. This paper presents an innovative self-monitoring FRP strengthening system. The system consists of two components which can be embedded in FRP materials to monitor the global and local behavior of the strengthened structure respectively. The first component of the system is designed to evaluate the applied load acting on a structure based on elongation of the FRP layer along the entire span of the structure. Success of the global system has been demonstrated using a full-scale prestressed concrete bridge girder which was loaded up to failure. The test results indicate that this type of sensor can be used to accurately determine the load prior to failure within 15 percent of the measured value. The second sensor component consists of fiber Bragg grating sensors. The sensors were used to monitor the behavior of steel double-lap shear splices tested under tensile loading up to failure. The measurements were used to identify abnormal structural behavior such as epoxy cracking and FRP debonding. Test results were also compared to numerical values obtained from a three dimensional shear-lag model which was developed to predict the sensor response.

  19. Biostable glucose permeable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A new biostable glucose permeable polymer has been developed which is useful, for example, in implantable glucose sensors. This biostable glucose permeable polymer has a number of advantageous characteristics and, for example, does not undergo hydrolytic cleavage and degradation, thereby providing...... a composition that facilitates long term sensor stability in vivo. The versatile characteristics of this polymer allow it to be used in a variety of contexts, for example to form the body of an implantable glucose sensor. The invention includes the polymer composition, sensor systems formed from this polymer...

  20. Double stimuli-responsive polymer systems: How to use crosstalk between pH- and thermosensitivity for drug depots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bogomolova, Anna; Kaberov, Leonid; Sedláček, Ondřej; Filippov, Sergey K.; Štěpánek, Petr; Král, V.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, S. L.; Ye, X. D.; Hrubý, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, November (2016), s. 54-64 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14292; GA ČR(CZ) GC15-10527J Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : drug depot formulation * double responsive system * pH-responsive polymer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  1. Vapour–Liquid Equilibria in the Polymer + Solvent System Containing Lower Concentrations of Solute at Normal or Reduced Pressures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Jan; Bogdanić, Grozdana; Wichterle, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 358, 25 NOV (2013), s. 301-303 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : vapour–liquid equilibrium * experimental data * polymer-solvent system Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.241, year: 2013

  2. Quasi-homogenous approximation for description of the properties of dispersed systems. The basic approaches to model hardening processes in nanodispersed silica systems. Part 1. Statical polymer method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with possibilities to use quasi-homogenous approximation for discription of properties of dispersed systems. The authors applied statistical polymer method based on consideration of average structures of all possible macromolecules of the same weight. The equiations which allow evaluating many additive parameters of macromolecules and the systems with them were deduced. Statistical polymer method makes it possible to model branched, cross-linked macromolecules and the systems with them which are in equilibrium or non-equilibrium state. Fractal analysis of statistical polymer allows modeling different types of random fractal and other objects examined with the mehods of fractal theory. The method of fractal polymer can be also applied not only to polymers but also to composites, gels, associates in polar liquids and other packaged systems. There is also a description of the states of colloid solutions of silica oxide from the point of view of statistical physics. This approach is based on the idea that colloid solution of silica dioxide – sol of silica dioxide – consists of enormous number of interacting particles which are always in move. The paper is devoted to the research of ideal system of colliding but not interacting particles of sol. The analysis of behavior of silica sol was performed according to distribution Maxwell-Boltzmann and free path length was calculated. Using this data the number of the particles which can overcome the potential barrier in collision was calculated. To model kinetics of sol-gel transition different approaches were studied.

  3. Effect of temperature and ph on the drug release rate from a polymer conjugate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawy, E.; Abdel-Hay, F.I.; El-Newehy, M.H.; Ottenbrite, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroximide and A-methylhydroxamic acid of poly(ethylene-altmaleic anhydride) (average MW 100-500 k) were used as a carrier for a new drug delivery system. The synthesis of the hydroximide and N methylhydroxamic acid of poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) were carried out by chemical modification of poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) with hydroxylamine and N-methyl hydroxylamine, respectively, in N,N- dimethylformamide at room temperature to yield water soluble copolymer. Ketoprofen was reacted with hydroximide and N-methylhydroxamic acid derivatives of poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as condensation agent at -5 degree C to yield water insoluble ketoprofen conjugates. All products were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and 1HNMR spectra. The in-vitro ketoprofen release was carried out by UV spectrophotometer at max =260 nm. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of hydroximide and N-methylhydroxamic acid of polyethylene-alt-maleic anhydride) as a drug delivery system. The release rates were studied at various ph and temperatures. The copolymer-drug adducts released the drug very slowly at the low ph found in the stomach thus protecting the drug from the action of high concentrations of digestive acids. These results showed the usefulness of hydroxamic acid polymer-drug conjugates as a new drug delivery system for drugs to be targeted to sites in the GI system

  4. Utilization of methanol for polymer electrolyte fuel cells in mobile systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, V M [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Broeckerhoff, P [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Hoehlein, B [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Menzer, R [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Stimming, U [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The constantly growing volume of road traffic requires the introduction of new vehicle propulsion systems with higher efficiency and drastically reduced emission rates. As part of the fuel cell programme of the Research Centre Juelich a vehicle propulsion system with methanol as secondary energy carrier and a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as the main component for energy conversion is developed. The fuel gas is produced by a heterogeneously catalyzed steam reforming reaction in which methanol is converted to H[sub 2], CO and CO[sub 2]. The required energy is provided by the catalytic conversion of methanol for both heating up the system and reforming methanol. The high CO content of the fuel gas requires further processing of the gas or the development of new electrocatalysts for the anode. Various Pt-Ru alloys show promising behaviour as CO-tolerant anodes. The entire fuel cell system is discussed in terms of energy and emission balances. The development of important components is described and experimental results are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Colorimetric test-systems for creatinine detection based on composite molecularly imprinted polymer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyeva, T A; Gorbach, L A; Piletska, E V; Piletsky, S A; Brovko, O O; Honcharova, L A; Lutsyk, O D; Sergeeva, L M; Zinchenko, O A; El'skaya, A V

    2013-04-03

    An easy-to-use colorimetric test-system for the efficient detection of creatinine in aqueous samples was developed. The test-system is based on composite molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) membranes with artificial receptor sites capable of creatinine recognition. A thin MIP layer was created on the surface of microfiltration polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes using method of photo-initiated grafting polymerization. The MIP layer was obtained by co-polymerization of a functional monomer (e.g. 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid, itaconic acid or methacrylic acid) with N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linker. The choice of the functional monomer was based on the results of computational modeling. The creatinine-selective composite MIP membranes were used for measuring creatinine in aqueous samples. Creatinine molecules were selectively adsorbed by the MIP membranes and quantified using color reaction with picrates. The intensity of MIP membranes staining was proportional to creatinine concentration in an analyzed sample. The colorimetric test-system based on the composite MIP membranes was characterized with 0.25 mM detection limit and 0.25-2.5mM linear dynamic range. Storage stability of the MIP membranes was estimated as at least 1 year at room temperature. As compared to the traditional methods of creatinine detection the developed test-system is characterized by simplicity of operation, small size and low cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Control and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350 W high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2013-01-01

    is the water and methanol mixture fuel flow and the burner fuel/air ratio and combined flow. An experimental setup is presented capable of testing the methanol reformer used in the Serenergy H3 350 Mobile Battery Charger; a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell system......This work presents a control strategy for controlling the methanol reformer temperature of a 350 W high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system, by using a cascade control structure for reliable system operation. The primary states affecting the methanol catalyst bed temperature....... The experimental system consists of a fuel evaporator utilizing the high temperature waste gas from the cathode air cooled 45 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack. The fuel cells used are BASF P1000 MEAs which use phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes. The resulting reformate gas output of the reformer system...

  7. Antimicrobial polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Duvvuri, L Sailaja; Farah, Shady; Beyth, Nurit; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2014-12-01

    Better health is basic requirement of human being, but the rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their serious health effects pose a significant challenge to modern science. Infections by pathogenic microorganisms are of great concern in many fields such as medical devices, drugs, hospital surfaces/furniture, dental restoration, surgery equipment, health care products, and hygienic applications (e.g., water purification systems, textiles, food packaging and storage, major or domestic appliances etc.) Antimicrobial polymers are the materials having the capability to kill/inhibit the growth of microbes on their surface or surrounding environment. Recently, they gained considerable interest for both academic research and industry and were found to be better than their small molecular counterparts in terms of enhanced efficacy, reduced toxicity, minimized environmental problems, resistance, and prolonged lifetime. Hence, efforts have focused on the development of antimicrobial polymers with all desired characters for optimum activity. In this Review, an overview of different antimicrobial polymers, their mechanism of action, factors affecting antimicrobial activity, and application in various fields are given. Recent advances and the current clinical status of these polymers are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Multi-scale optical metrology for the quality control of polymer microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    Micro injection moulding is a replication technology enabling large scale production of polymer-based micro products. To this respect, optical measuring technologies were selected to perform the quality control of a polymer micro-component: an optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a white...

  9. Enzymatic logic calculation systems based on solid-state electrochemiluminescence and molecularly imprinted polymer film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wenjing; Liang, Jiying; Shen, Li; Jin, Yue; Liu, Hongyun

    2018-02-15

    The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) films were electropolymerized on the surface of Au electrodes with luminol and pyrrole (PY) as the two monomers and ampicillin (AM) as the template molecule. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity peak of polyluminol (PL) of the AM-free MIP films at 0.7V vs Ag/AgCl could be greatly enhanced by AM rebinding. In addition, the ECL signals of the MIP films could also be enhanced by the addition of glucose oxidase (GOD)/glucose and/or ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH) 2 ) in the testing solution. Moreover, Fc(COOH) 2 exhibited cyclic voltammetric (CV) response at the AM-free MIP film electrodes. Based on these results, a binary 3-input/6-output biomolecular logic gate system was established with AM, GOD and Fc(COOH) 2 as inputs and the ECL responses at different levels and CV signal as outputs. Some functional non-Boolean logic devices such as an encoder, a decoder and a demultiplexer were also constructed on the same platform. Particularly, on the basis of the same system, a ternary AND logic gate was established. The present work combined MIP film electrodes, the solid-state ECL, and the enzymatic reaction together, and various types of biomolecular logic circuits and devices were developed, which opened a novel avenue to construct more complicated bio-logic gate systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a PDMS/polymer tape composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Surapaneni, Rajesh; Gale, Bruce K

    2009-05-07

    Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a combination of double-sided tape and PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) is introduced. PDMS is typically difficult to bond using adhesive tapes due to its hydrophobic nature and low surface energy. For this reason, PDMS is not compatible with the xurography method, which uses a knife plotter and various adhesive coated polymer tapes. To solve these problems, a PDMS/tape composite was developed and demonstrated in microfluidic applications. The PDMS/tape composite was created by spinning it to make a thin layer of PDMS over double-sided tape. Then the PDMS/tape composite was patterned to create channels using xurography, and bonded to a PDMS slab. After removing the backing paper from the tape, a complete microfluidic system could be created by placing the construct onto nearly any substrate; including glass, plastic or metal-coated glass/silicon substrates. The bond strength was shown to be sufficient for the pressures that occur in typical microfluidic channels used for chemical or biological analysis. This method was demonstrated in three applications: standard microfluidic channels and reactors, a microfluidic system with an integrated membrane, and an electrochemical biosensor. The PDMS/tape composite rapid prototyping technique provides a fast and cost effective fabrication method and can provide easy integration of microfluidic channels with sensors and other components without the need for a cleanroom facility.

  11. Structural, vibrational and electrical characterization of PVA-NH4Br polymer electrolyte system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hema, M.; Selvasekerapandian, S.; Sakunthala, A.; Arunkumar, D.; Nithya, H.

    2008-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte based on PVA doped with different concentrations of NH 4 Br has been prepared by solution casting technique. The complexation of the prepared polymer electrolytes has been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The maximum ionic conductivity (5.7x10 -4 S cm -1 ) has been obtained for 25 mol% NH 4 Br-doped PVA polymer electrolyte. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity of the prepared polymer electrolytes obeys Arrhenius law. The ionic transference number of mobile ions has been estimated by dc polarization method and the results reveal that the conducting species are predominantly ions. The dielectric behavior of the polymer electrolytes has been analyzed using dielectric permittivity and electric modulus spectra

  12. Terrestrial photovoltaic power systems with sunlight concentration. Annual progress report, January 1, 1975--December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1976-01-31

    This annual report is for the second year of a program to investigate the characteristics of the components and the total system using sunlight concentrated onto solar cells. The second year was primarily to experimentally investigate the conclusions of the first year of analytical studies. Cells have been fabricated that are designed for different intensities. Typically the efficiency of a cell will increase from its 11 percent at AM1 peak to efficiency at the designed concentration level and return to its initial efficiency at about 3 times its designed concentration level. The developed cells have been tested under high intensity simulators and in concentrated sunlight and have shown to have the predicted response. The experimental testing of passive cooling limitations for cooling cells with just finned arrangements in the back of the cell has been completed in the controlled environment of a wind tunnel. These experiments have confirmed the heat transfer coefficients that had been used in the analytical studies. Testing was done to collect heat transfer coefficients for actual wind conditions and these data show good agreement with the controlled wind tunnel data. Four photovoltaic/concentrator system experiments have been started with CR of about 3, 10, 25, and 100. System analysis has indicated that photovoltaic concentration systems may be attractive in low solar irradiation areas such as Cleveland.

  13. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Program Office. Annual report for fiscal year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This edition of the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office (GWPO) for fiscal year (FY) 1994. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater programs at the three Oak Ridge facilities [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], as well as the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants (PGDP and PORTS, respectively.) This report describes the administrative framework of the GWPO including staffing, organization, and funding sources. In addition, summaries are provided of activities involving the Technical Support staff at the five facilities. Finally, the results of basic investigations designed to improve our understanding of the major processes governing groundwater flow and contaminant migration on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are reported. These investigations are conducted as part of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Studies (ORRHAGS) program. The relevance of these studies to the overall remediation responsibilities of Energy Systems is discussed

  15. Performance of a Polymer Flood with Shear-Thinning Fluid in Heterogeneous Layered Systems with Crossflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Sang Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the potential of a polymer flood for mobility control requires an accurate model on the viscosities of displacement fluids involved in the process. Because most polymers used in EOR exhibit shear-thinning behavior, the effective viscosity of a polymer solution is a highly nonlinear function of shear rate. A reservoir simulator including the model for the shear-rate dependence of viscosity was used to investigate shear-thinning effects of polymer solution on the performance of the layered reservoir in a five-spot pattern operating under polymer flood followed by waterflood. The model can be used as a quantitative tool to evaluate the comparative studies of different polymer flooding scenarios with respect to shear-rate dependence of fluids’ viscosities. Results of cumulative oil recovery and water-oil ratio are presented for parameters of shear-rate dependencies, permeability heterogeneity, and crossflow. The results of this work have proven the importance of taking non-Newtonian behavior of polymer solution into account for the successful evaluation of polymer flood processes. Horizontal and vertical permeabilities of each layer are shown to impact the predicted performance substantially. In reservoirs with a severe permeability contrast between horizontal layers, decrease in oil recovery and sudden increase in WOR are obtained by the low sweep efficiency and early water breakthrough through highly permeable layer, especially for shear-thinning fluids. An increase in the degree of crossflow resulting from sufficient vertical permeability is responsible for the enhanced sweep of the low permeability layers, which results in increased oil recovery. It was observed that a thinning fluid coefficient would increase injectivity significantly from simulations with various injection rates. A thorough understanding of polymer rheology in the reservoir and accurate numerical modeling are of fundamental importance for the exact estimation

  16. Variable diameter CO2 laser ring-cutting system adapted to a zoom microscope for applications on polymer tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Erik; Bohnert, Patrick; Kraus, Matthias; Kilper, Roland; Müller, Ute; Buchmann, Martin; Brunner, Robert

    2016-11-20

    This paper presents the conception and implementation of a variable diameter ring-cutting system for a CO2 laser with a working wavelength of 10.6 μm. The laser-cutting system is adapted to an observation zoom microscope for combined use and is applicable for the extraction of small circular areas from polymer films, such as forensic adhesive tapes in a single shot. As an important characteristic for our application, the variable diameter ring-cutting system provides telecentricity in the target area. Ring diameters are continuously tunable between 500 μm and 2 mm. A minimum width of less than 20 μm was found for the ring profile edge. The basic characteristics of the system, including telecentricity, were experimentally evaluated and demonstrated by cutting experiments on different polymer tapes and further exemplary samples.

  17. Isolation of plasma membranes from the nervous system by countercurrent distribution in aqueous polymer two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jens; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2009-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cell-interior from the cell's environment. To maintain homeostatic conditions and to enable transfer of information, the plasma membrane is equipped with a variety of different proteins such as transporters, channels, and receptors. The kind and number of plasma membrane proteins are a characteristic of each cell type. Owing to their location, plasma membrane proteins also represent a plethora of drug targets. Their importance has entailed many studies aiming at their proteomic identification and characterization. Therefore, protocols are required that enable their purification in high purity and quantity. Here, we report a protocol, based on aqueous polymer two-phase systems, which fulfils these demands. Furthermore, the protocol is time-saving and protects protein structure and function.

  18. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project FY16 Annual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindle, Laurie; Hackenberg, Davis

    2016-01-01

    This presentation gives insight into the research activities and efforts being executed in order to integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system. This briefing is to inform others of the UAS-NAS FY16 progress and future directions.

  19. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Isabelle; Tighzert, Lan

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  20. Introduction of a deformable x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, E.; Heath, E.; Hilts, M.; Jirasek, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study introduces the first 3D deformable dosimetry system based on x-ray computed tomography (CT) polymer gel dosimetry and establishes the setup reproducibility, deformation characteristics and dose response of the system. A N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-based gel formulation optimized for x-ray CT gel dosimetry was used, with a latex balloon serving as the deformable container and low-density polyethylene and polyvinyl alcohol providing additional oxygen barrier. Deformable gels were irradiated with a 6 MV calibration pattern to determine dosimetric response and a dosimetrically uniform plan to determine the spatial uniformity of the response. Wax beads were added to each gel as fiducial markers to track the deformation and setup of the gel dosimeters. From positions of the beads on CT images the setup reproducibility and the limits and reproducibility of gel deformation were determined. Comparison of gel measurements with Monte Carlo dose calculations found excellent dosimetric accuracy, comparable to that of an established non-deformable dosimetry system, with a mean dose discrepancy of 1.5% in the low-dose gradient region and a gamma pass rate of 97.9% using a 3%/3 mm criterion. The deformable dosimeter also showed good overall spatial dose uniformity throughout the dosimeter with some discrepancies within 20 mm of the edge of the container. Tracking of the beads within the dosimeter found that sub-millimetre setup accuracy is achievable with this system. The dosimeter was able to deform and relax when externally compressed by up to 30 mm without sustaining any permanent damage. Internal deformations in 3D produced average marker movements of up to 12 mm along the direction of compression. These deformations were also shown to be reproducible over 100 consecutive deformations. This work has established several important characteristics of a new deformable dosimetry system which shows promise for future clinical applications, including the

  1. Light-responsive polymer microcapsules as delivery systems for natural active agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzarro, Valentina; Carfagna, Cosimo; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB-CNR), Via Campi Flegrei, 34, 80078 Pozzuoli, NA (Italy); Marturano, Valentina; Ambrogi, Veronica [Department of Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering (DICMAPI), University of Naples “Federico II”, P. le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB-CNR), Via Campi Flegrei, 34, 80078 Pozzuoli, NA (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In this work we report the preparation and the release behavior of UV-responsive polymeric microcapsules containing essential oils as a core. The oil acted also as a monomer solvent during polymerization. Accordingly, the potentially toxic organic solvent traditionally used was replaced with a natural active substance, resulting in a more sustainable functional system. Polymer shell was based on a lightly cross-linked polyamide containing UV-sensitive azobenzene moieties in the main chain. The micro-sized capsules were obtained via interfacial polycondensation in o/w emulsion, and their mean size was measured via Dynamic Light Scattering. Shape and morphology were analyzed through Scanning Electron and Optical Microscopy. UV-responsive behavior was evaluated via spectrofluorimetry, by assessing the release kinetics of a fluorescent probe molecule upon UV light irradiation (λ{sub max}=360 nm). The irradiated samples showed an increase in fluorescence intensity, in accordance with the increase of the probe molecule concentration in the release medium. As for the un-irradiated sample, no changes could be detected demonstrating the effectiveness of the obtained releasing system.

  2. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  3. Temperature range extension of an organically crosslinked polymer system and its successful field application for water and gas shutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Julio; Eoff, Larry; Dalrymple, Dwyann [Halliburton, Rio de Janeiro. RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Excessive water production from hydrocarbon reservoirs is one of the most serious problems in the oil industry. Water production greatly affects the economic life of producing wells and brings along secondary problems such as sand production, corrosion, and tubular scale. Remediation techniques for controlling water production, generally referred to as conformance control, include the use of polymer systems to reduce or plug permeability to water. This paper presents the laboratory evaluation of an organically crosslinked polymer (OCP) system used as a sealant for water control problems in hydrocarbon wells. Originally, the OCP system had a limited working temperature range (140 deg to 260 deg F). Recently, an alternative base polymer (for low temperatures) and a retarder (for high temperatures) have been introduced to expand the temperature range of applicability of the OCP system from 70 deg F to 350 deg F without compromising its effectiveness or thermal stability. More than 400 jobs have been performed with the OCP system around the world to address conformance problems such as water coning/cresting, high-permeability streaks, gravel pack isolation, fracture shutoff, and casing leak repairs. This paper presents an overview of case histories that used the OCP system in various regions of the world for a wide variety of applications. (author)

  4. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, Per; Tucek, Kamil

    2000-05-01

    In 1996, SKB commenced funding of the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems and development of a spallation target'. The aim of the project was stated as: Development of a complete code for simulation of transmutation processes in an accelerator driven system. Application of the code for analysis of neutron flux, transmutation rates, reactivity changes, toxicity and radiation damages in the transmutation core. Build up of competence regarding issues related to spallation targets, development of research activities regarding relevant material issues. Performing of basic experiments in order to investigate the adequacy of using the spallation. target as a neutron source for a transmutation system, and participation in the planning and implementation of an international demonstration experiment. In the present report, activities within and related to the framework of the project, performed at the department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology during 1999, are accounted for

  5. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, J.; Carlsson, Johan; Gudowski, W.

    1997-12-01

    In November 1996, SKB started financing of the project ''System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems and development of a spallation target''. The aim of the project was stated as: 1) Development of a complete code for simulation of transmutation processes in an accelerator driven system. Application of the code for analysis of neutron flux, transmutation rates, reactivity changes, toxicity and radiation damages in the transmutation core. 2) Build up of competence regarding issues related to spallation targets development of research activities regarding relevant material issues. Performing of basic experiments in order to investigate the adequacy of using the spallation target as a neutron source for a transmutation system, and participation in the planning and implementation of an international demonstration-experiment. In the present report, activities within the framework of the project performed at the department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology during 1997, are accounted for

  6. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenius, J.; Carlsson, Johan; Gudowski, W. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1997-12-01

    In November 1996, SKB started financing of the project ``System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems and development of a spallation target``. The aim of the project was stated as: 1) Development of a complete code for simulation of transmutation processes in an accelerator driven system. Application of the code for analysis of neutron flux, transmutation rates, reactivity changes, toxicity and radiation damages in the transmutation core. 2) Build up of competence regarding issues related to spallation targets development of research activities regarding relevant material issues. Performing of basic experiments in order to investigate the adequacy of using the spallation target as a neutron source for a transmutation system, and participation in the planning and implementation of an international demonstration-experiment. In the present report, activities within the framework of the project performed at the department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology during 1997, are accounted for. 13 refs, 6 figs.

  7. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, Per; Tucek, Kamil [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2000-05-01

    In 1996, SKB commenced funding of the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems and development of a spallation target'. The aim of the project was stated as: Development of a complete code for simulation of transmutation processes in an accelerator driven system. Application of the code for analysis of neutron flux, transmutation rates, reactivity changes, toxicity and radiation damages in the transmutation core. Build up of competence regarding issues related to spallation targets, development of research activities regarding relevant material issues. Performing of basic experiments in order to investigate the adequacy of using the spallation. target as a neutron source for a transmutation system, and participation in the planning and implementation of an international demonstration experiment. In the present report, activities within and related to the framework of the project, performed at the department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology during 1999, are accounted for.

  8. Application of electron beam on natural polymer systems. Viscose rayon and polysaccharide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudoh, Hisaaki

    2003-01-01

    Application of electron accelerator on natural polymers, viscose rayon and polysaccharide derivatives is presented. In Canada at AECL, a high-energy (10 MeV) electron linear accelerator named IMPELA was used to reduce and control molecular weight of cellulose. Recently, under UNDP/RCA/IAEA project, Asian countries had a cooperated research program on this subject. Kinetics of radiation chemistry of polysaccharide derivatives is under investigation by means of pulse radiolysis with a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator. Rate constants between polymers and hydrated electron etc., and characteristics of very long-lived polymer radical were reported. (author)

  9. Processing of polymers using reactive solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemstra, P.J.; Kurja, J.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A review with many refs. on processing of polymers using reactive solvents including classification of synthetic polymers, guidelines for the selection of reactive solvents, basic aspects of processing, examples of intractable and tractable polymer/reactive solvent system

  10. Annual Forest Monitoring as part of Indonesia's National Carbon Accounting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustiyo, K.; Roswintiarti, O.; Tjahjaningsih, A.; Dewanti, R.; Furby, S.; Wallace, J.

    2015-04-01

    Land use and forest change, in particular deforestation, have contributed the largest proportion of Indonesia's estimated greenhouse gas emissions. Indonesia's remaining forests store globally significant carbon stocks, as well as biodiversity values. In 2010, the Government of Indonesia entered into a REDD+ partnership. A spatially detailed monitoring and reporting system for forest change which is national and operating in Indonesia is required for participation in such programs, as well as for national policy reasons including Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV), carbon accounting, and land-use and policy information. Indonesia's National Carbon Accounting System (INCAS) has been designed to meet national and international policy requirements. The INCAS remote sensing program is producing spatially-detailed annual wall-to-wall monitoring of forest cover changes from time-series Landsat imagery for the whole of Indonesia from 2000 to the present day. Work on the program commenced in 2009, under the Indonesia-Australia Forest Carbon Partnership. A principal objective was to build an operational system in Indonesia through transfer of knowledge and experience, from Australia's National Carbon Accounting System, and adaptation of this experience to Indonesia's requirements and conditions. A semi-automated system of image pre-processing (ortho-rectification, calibration, cloud masking and mosaicing) and forest extent and change mapping (supervised classification of a 'base' year, semi-automated single-year classifications and classification within a multi-temporal probabilistic framework) was developed for Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+. Particular attention is paid to the accuracy of each step in the processing. With the advent of Landsat 8 data and parallel development of processing capability, capacity and international collaborations within the LAPAN Data Centre this processing is being increasingly automated. Research is continuing into improved

  11. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  12. Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun Jung; Holmberg, Angela L; Olsen, Bradley D

    2017-06-07

    Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Taking inspiration from materials evolved in nature, scientists have created modular building blocks with simplified monomer sequences that replicate the function of natural systems. The corresponding protein engineering toolbox has enabled the systematic development of complex functional polymeric materials across areas as diverse as adhesives, responsive polymers, and medical materials. This review discusses the natural proteins that have inspired the development of key building blocks for protein polymer engineering and the function of these elements in material design. The prospects and progress for scalable commercialization of protein polymers are reviewed, discussing both technology needs and opportunities.

  13. Implementing hospital quality assurance policies in Iran: balancing licensing, annual evaluation, inspections and quality management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei Hashjin, Asgar; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Kringos, Dionne S; Tabibi, Seyed Jamaladin; Manouchehri, Jila; Klazinga, Niek S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of applied hospital quality assurance (QA) policies in Iran. A mixed method (quantitative data and qualitative document analysis) study was carried out between 1996 and 2010. The QA policy cycle forms a tight monitoring system to assure hospital quality by combining mandatory and voluntary methods in Iran. The licensing, annual evaluation and grading, and regulatory inspections statutorily implemented by the government as a national package to assure and improve hospital care quality, while implementing quality management systems (QMS) was voluntary for hospitals. The government's strong QA policy legislation role and support has been an important factor for successful QA implementation in Iran, though it may affected QA assessment independency and validity. Increased hospital evaluation independency and repositioning, updating standards, professional involvement and effectiveness studies could increase QA policy impact and maturity. The study highlights the current QA policy implementation cycle in Iranian hospitals. It provides a basis for further quality strategy development in Iranian hospitals and elsewhere. It also raises attention about finding the optimal balance between different QA policies, which is topical for many countries. This paper describes experiences when implementing a unique approach, combining mandatory and voluntary QA policies simultaneously in a developing country, which has invested considerably over time to improve hospital quality. The experiences with a mixed obligatory/voluntary approach and comprehensive policies in Iran may contain lessons for policy makers in developing and developed countries.

  14. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawsey, R.A.; Turner, J.W.

    1996-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and systems development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from information prepared for the FY 1995 Annual Program Review held August 1-2, 1995. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems

  15. Design of a multi-dopamine-modified polymer ligand optimally suited for interfacing magnetic nanoparticles with biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Ji, Xin; Na, Hyon Bin; Safi, Malak; Smith, Alexandra; Palui, Goutam; Perez, J Manuel; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2014-06-03

    We have designed a set of multifunctional and multicoordinating polymer ligands that are optimally suited for surface functionalizing iron oxide and potentially other magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and promoting their integration into biological systems. The amphiphilic polymers are prepared by coupling (via nucleophilic addition) several amine-terminated dopamine anchoring groups, poly(ethylene glycol) moieties, and reactive groups onto a poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PIMA) chain. This design greatly benefits from the highly efficient and reagent-free one-step reaction of maleic anhydride groups with amine-containing molecules. The availability of several dopamine groups in the same ligand greatly enhances the ligand affinity, via multiple coordination, to the magnetic NPs, while the hydrophilic and reactive groups promote colloidal stability in buffer media and allow subsequent conjugation with target biomolecules. Iron oxide nanoparticles ligand exchanged with these polymer ligands have a compact hydrodynamic size and exhibit enhanced long-term colloidal stability over the pH range of 4-12 and in the presence of excess electrolytes. Nanoparticles ligated with terminally reactive polymers have been easily coupled to target dyes and tested in live cell imaging with no measurable cytotoxicity. Finally, the resulting hydrophilic nanoparticles exhibit large and size-dependent r2 relaxivity values.

  16. Polymer Derived Rare Earth Silicate Nanocomposite Protective Coatings for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging a rapidly evolving state-of-the-art technical base empowered by Phase I NASA SBIR funding, NanoSonic's polymer derived rare earth silicate EBCs will...

  17. Polymer Derived Rare Earth Silicate Nanocomposite Protective Coatings for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I SBIR program is to develop polymer derived rare earth silicate nanocomposite environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for providing...

  18. Monitoring of the thermal deformations on polymer parts using a vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Madruga, Daniel González; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Dimensional measurements in production environment are affected by non‐controlled temperature conditions. In the case of polymer parts the high thermal expansion coefficient leads to significant dimensional changes. In order to achieve high accuracy in dimensional measurements, thermal deformatio...

  19. Electric Field Induced Strain in Electrostrictive Polymers Under High Hydrostatic Pressure - System Development and Material Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Q

    2000-01-01

    ... of (i) developing a high performance piezo-bimorph based dilatometer which can be used to characterize the electric field induced strain response in polymer films under high hydrostatic pressure, (ii...

  20. Polymers for bimodal immunoradiotherapy - are they able to promote immune system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukotova, L.; Kucka, J.; Rabyk, M.; Hoecherl, A.; Venclikova, K.; Janouskova, O.; Konefal, R.; Stepanek, P.; Hruby, M.; Kolarova, V.; Sefc, L.

    2017-01-01

    The conceptually new bimodal treatment is demonstrated with radiolabeled thermoresponsive β-glucan-graft-poly(2- isopropyl-2-oxazoline-co-2-butyl-2-oxazoline). The thermoresponsive polymer behavior in aqueous solutions has been studied showing appropriate cloud point temperature. The in vitro studies have been performed, the polymer has been found to be non-toxic and actively uptaken by cancer cells and macrophages. Moreover, oxidative burst assay has shown the immunostimulatory properties of prepared polymer. The polymer has been radiolabeled with 90 Y 3+ and used in antitumor efficiency in vivo experiment on mice bearing EL4 lymphoma. The in vivo experiment demonstrates the synergic effect of immunoradiotherapy compared to only immunotherapy and radiotherapy. (authors)

  1. Nuclear plant reliability data system. 1979 annual reports of cumulative system and component reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The primary purposes of the information in these reports are the following: to provide operating statistics of safety-related systems within a unit which may be used to compare and evaluate reliability performance and to provide failure mode and failure rate statistics on components which may be used in failure mode effects analysis, fault hazard analysis, probabilistic reliability analysis, and so forth

  2. Smart polymers in drug delivery systems on crossroads: which way deserves following?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubý, Martin; Filippov, Sergey K.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, April (2015), s. 82-97 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/12/0950; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14292; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14009; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08336S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : stimuli responsive polymers * drug delivery * thermosensitive polymers Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.485, year: 2015

  3. Fundamental investigations of clay/polymer nanocomposites and applications in co-extruded microlayered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jeremy John

    The second and fourth generations of hydroxylated dendritic polyesters (HBP2, HBP4) were combined with unmodified sodium montmorillonite clay (Na +MMT) in water to generate a broad range of polymer clay nanocomposites from 0 to 100% wt/wt Na+MMT. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate intercalation states of the clay galleries. It was shown that interlayer spacings were independent of generation number and changed over the composition range from 0.5 nm to 3.5 nm in 0.5 nm increments that corresponded to a flattened HBP conformation within the clay tactoids. The HBP4/Na+MMT systems were investigated to study the vitrified Rigid Amorphous Fraction (RAF) induced by the clay surfaces. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed changes in heat capacity, Delta Cp, at Tg, that decreased with clay content, until completely suppressed at 80 wt% Na+MMT due to confinement. RAF was quantified from these changes in heat capacity and verified by the analysis of orthopositronium lifetime temperature scans utilizing positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS): verifying the glassy nature of the RAF at elevated temperatures. Mathematical relationships allowed for correlation of the interlayer spacings with DeltaC p. RAF formation correlated to intercalated HBP4, and external surfaces of the clay tactoids. The interdiffusion of a polymer pair in microlayers was exploited to increase the concentration of nanoclay particles. When microlayers of a nanocomposite composed of organically modified montmorillonite (M2(HT)2 ) inside maleic anhydride grafted linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE-g-MA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were taken into the melt, the greater mobility of the linear LLDPE-g-MA chains compared to the branched LDPE chains caused shrinkage of the nanocomposite microlayers, concentrating the M 2(HT)2 contained within. Analysis of the clay morphology within these layers demonstrated an increase in clay

  4. A review of integrating electroactive polymers as responsive systems for specialized drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Viness; Tsai, Tong-Sheng; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Kumar, Pradeep; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Ndesendo, Valence M K

    2014-06-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs) are promising candidate materials for the design of drug delivery technologies, especially in conditions where an "on-off" drug release mechanism is required. To achieve this, EAPs such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, polythiophene, ethylene vinyl acetate, and polyethylene may be blended into responsive hydrogels in conjunction with the desired drug to obtain a patient-controlled drug release system. The "on-off" drug release mechanism can be achieved through the environmental-responsive nature of the interpenetrating hydrogel-EAP complex via (i) charged ions initiated diffusion of drug molecules; (ii) conformational changes that occur during redox switching of EAPs; or (iii) electroerosion. These release mechanisms are not exhaustive and new release mechanisms are still under investigation. Therefore, this review seeks to provide a concise incursion and critical overview of EAPs and responsive hydrogels as a strategy for advanced drug delivery, for example, controlled release of neurotransmitters, sulfosalicyclic acid from cross-linked hydrogel, and vaccine delivery. The review further discusses techniques such as linear sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and chronoamperometry for the determination of the redox capability of EAPs. The future implications of the hydrogel-EAP composites include, but not limited to, application toward biosensors, DNA hybridizations, microsurgical tools, and miniature bioreactors and may be utilized to their full potential in the form of injectable devices as nanorobots or nanobiosensors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Enrichment of reticulocytes from whole blood using aqueous multiphase systems of polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok A; Lim, Caeul; Moreno, Yovany; Mace, Charles R; Syed, Abeer; Van Tyne, Daria; Wirth, Dyann F; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Whitesides, George M

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the enrichment of reticulocytes by centrifuging whole blood through aqueous multiphase systems (AMPSs)-immiscible phases of solutions of polymers that form step-gradients in density. The interfaces of an AMPS concentrate cells; this concentration facilitates the extraction of blood enriched for reticulocytes. AMPS enrich reticulocytes from blood from both healthy and hemochromatosis donors. Varying the osmolality and density of the phases of AMPS provides different levels of enrichment and yield of reticulocytes. A maximum enrichment of reticulocytemia of 64 ± 3% was obtained from donors with hemochromatosis. When used on peripheral blood from normal donors, AMPS can provide a higher yield of enriched reticulocytes and a higher proportion of reticulocytes expressing CD71 than differential centrifugation followed by centrifugation over Percoll. Blood enriched for reticulocytes by AMPS could be useful for research on malaria. Several species of malaria parasites show a preference to invade young erythrocytes and reticulocytes; this preference complicates in vitro cultivation of these species in human blood. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria parasites invade normal human blood enriched for reticulocytes by AMPSs at a rate 2.2 times greater (P blood. Parasite invasion in normal blood enriched by AMPS was 1.8 times greater (P blood enriched to a similar reticulocytemia by differential centrifugation followed by centrifugation over Percoll. The enrichment of reticulocytes that are invaded by malaria parasites demonstrates that AMPSs can provide a label-free method to enrich cells for biological research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. New neuro-fuzzy system-based holey polymer fibers drawing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Salim, Omar Nameer

    2017-10-01

    Furnace temperature (T), draw tension (TE), and draw ratio (Dr) are the main parameters that could directly affect holey polymer fiber (HPF) production during the drawing stage. Therefore, a suitable mechanism to control (T), (TE), and (Dr) is required to enhance the HPF production process. The conventional approaches, such as observation and tuning technique, experience many difficulties in realizing the accurate values of (T), (TE), and (Dr) in addition to being expensive and time consuming. Therefore, an artificial intelligence model using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy system (ANFIS) method is proposed as an effective solution to achieve an accurate value of the main parameters that affect HPF drawing. Three ANFIS models are developed and tested to determine which one has the best performance for emulating the operation of HPF drawing tower. The ANFIS model with a gbell MF provides a better performance than Gaussian MF ANFIS model and triangular MF ANFIS model in terms of lower mean absolute error and mean square error. Furthermore, the proposed gbell MF model achieved the highest Q-Q response, which indicates the excellent performance of this model.

  7. Drug release control in delivery system for biodegradable polymer drugs by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Sumie; Azo, Yukio; Kojima, Shigeo

    1997-01-01

    Characterizations of the drug release from microsphere and hydrogel preparation made from biodegradable polymers were investigated aiming at development of a drug delivery system which allows an optimum drug delivery and the identification of the factors which control its delivery. Poly-lactic acid microspheres containing 10% of progesterone were produced from poly DL-lactic acid and exposed to γ-ray at 5-1000 kGy. And its glass transition temperature (Tg) was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The temperature was gradually lowered with an increase in the dose of radiation. Tg of the microsphere exposed at 1000 kGy was lower by 10degC compared with the untreated one, showing that Tg control is possible without changing the size distribution of microsphere. Then, the amount of progesterone released from microsphere was determined. The release rate of the drug linearly increased with a square root of radiation time. These results indicate that the control of drug release rate is possible through controling the microsphere's Tg by γ-ray radiation. (M.N.)

  8. Polymer-based Drug Delivery Systems Applied to Insects Repellents Devices: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, Thaís Nogueira; Senna, Juliana Perdiz; Ricci, Eduardo; Mansur, Claudia Regina Elias

    2016-01-01

    Insects-borne diseases constitute a public health concern. Since there is no vaccine or curative treatment for many of these diseases, individual protection is the main approach to prevent them. Nowadays, the search for replacing synthetic molecules for insect repellents from natural sources, such as essential oils, is increasing. However, most of them present low efficiency compared to synthetic repellents. Therefore, decreasing skin permeation of synthetic repellents or yet, increasing effectiveness of natural repellents are challenges that must be overcome during the development of novel insect repellent formulations. In this context, polymer-based formulations allow entrapping active ingredients and provide release control. Encapsulation into polymeric micro/nanocapsules, cyclodextrins, polymeric micelles or hydrogels constitutes an approach to modify physicochemical properties of encapsulated molecules. Such techniques, applied in topical formulations, fabrics modification for personal protection, or food packaging have proved to be more effective in increasing repellency time and also in reducing drug dermal absorption, improving safety profiles of these products. In this work, the main synthetic and natural insect repellents are described as well as their polymeric carrier systems and their potential applications.

  9. Far-IR transparency and dynamic infrared signature control with novel conducting polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Prasanna; Dooley, T. J.

    1995-09-01

    Materials which possess transparency, coupled with active controllability of this transparency in the infrared (IR), are today an increasingly important requirement, for varied applications. These applications include windows for IR sensors, IR-region flat panel displays used in camouflage as well as in communication and sight through night-vision goggles, coatings with dynamically controllable IR-emissivity, and thermal conservation coatings. Among stringent requirements for these applications are large dynamic ranges (color contrast), 'multi-color' or broad-band characteristics, extended cyclability, long memory retention, matrix addressability, small area fabricability, low power consumption, and environmental stability. Among materials possessing the requirements for variation of IR signature, conducting polymers (CPs) appear to be the only materials with dynamic, actively controllable signature and acceptable dynamic range. Conventional CPs such as poly(alkyl thiophene), poly(pyrrole) or poly(aniline) show very limited dynamic range, especially in the far-IR, while also showing poor transparency. We have developed a number of novel CP systems ('system' implying the CP, the selected dopant, the synthesis method, and the electrolyte) with very wide dynamic range (up to 90% in both important IR regions, 3 - 5 (mu) and 8 - 12 (mu) ), high cyclability (to 105 cycles with less than 10% optical degradation), nearly indefinite optical memory retention, matrix addressability of multi-pixel displays, very wide operating temperature and excellent environmental stability, low charge capacity, and processability into areas from less than 1 mm2 to more than 100 cm2. The criteria used to design and arrive at these CP systems, together with representative IR signature data, are presented in this paper.

  10. 76 FR 67530 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of Actions Arising Out of the 2010 Annual GSP Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of Actions Arising Out of the 2010 Annual GSP Review AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice of a petition accepted for review; and request for comments. SUMMARY: In September...

  11. Report from the Third Annual Symposium of the RIKEN-Max Planck Joint Research Center for Systems Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunschweiger, Andreas

    2014-08-15

    The third Annual Symposium of the RIKEN-Max Planck Joint Research Center for Systems Chemical Biology was held at Ringberg castle, May 21-24, 2014. At this meeting 45 scientists from Japan and Germany presented the latest results from their research spanning a broad range of topics in chemical biology and glycobiology.

  12. Seasonal variation in the mating system of a selfing annual with large floral displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ge; Barrett, Spencer C H; Luo, Yi-Bo; Bai, Wei-Ning

    2016-03-01

    Flowering plants display considerable variation in mating system, specifically the relative frequency of cross- and self-fertilization. The majority of estimates of outcrossing rate do not account for temporal variation, particularly during the flowering season. Here, we investigated seasonal variation in mating and fertility in Incarvillea sinensis (Bignoniaceae), an annual with showy, insect-pollinated, 'one-day' flowers capable of delayed selfing. We examined the influence of several biotic and abiotic environmental factors on day-to-day variation in fruit set, seed set and patterns of mating. We recorded daily flower number and pollinator abundance in nine 3 × 3-m patches in a population at Mu Us Sand land, Inner Mongolia, China. From marked flowers we collected data on daily fruit and seed set and estimated outcrossing rate and biparental inbreeding using six microsatellite loci and 172 open-pollinated families throughout the flowering period. Flower density increased significantly over most of the 50-d flowering season, but was associated with a decline in levels of pollinator service by bees, particularly on windy days. Fruit and seed set declined over time, especially during the latter third of the flowering period. Multilocus estimates of outcrossing rate were obtained using two methods (the programs MLTR and BORICE) and both indicated high selfing rates of ∼80 %. There was evidence for a significant increase in levels of selfing as the flowering season progressed and pollinator visitation declined. Biparental inbreeding also declined significantly as the flowering season progressed. Temporal variation in outcrossing rates may be a common feature of the mating biology of annual, insect-pollinated plants of harsh environments but our study is the first to examine seasonal mating-system dynamics in this context. Despite having large flowers and showy floral displays, I. sinensis attracted relatively few pollinators. Delayed selfing by corolla dragging

  13. System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhanov, Vasily; Fokau, Andrei; Persson, Calle; Runevall, Odd; Sandberg, Nils; Tesinsky, Milan; Wallenius, Janne; Youpeng Zhang

    2008-05-01

    Within the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation', research on design and safety of sub-critical reactors for recycling of minor actinides is performed. During 2007, the reactor physics division at KTH has calculated safety parameters for EFIT-400 with cermet fuel, permitting to start the transient safety analysis. The accuracy of different reactivity meters applied to the YALINA facility was assessed and neutron detection studies were performed. A model to address deviations from point kinetic behaviour was developed. Studies of basic radiation damage physics included calculations of vacancy formation and activation enthalpies in bcc niobium. In order to predict the oxygen potential of inert matrix fuels, a thermo-chemical model for mixed actinide oxides was implemented in a phase equilibrium code

  14. System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation. Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzhanov, Vasily; Fokau, Andrei; Persson, Calle; Runevall, Odd; Sandberg, Nils; Tesinsky, Milan; Wallenius, Janne; Youpeng Zhang (Div. of Reactor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-05-15

    Within the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation', research on design and safety of sub-critical reactors for recycling of minor actinides is performed. During 2007, the reactor physics division at KTH has calculated safety parameters for EFIT-400 with cermet fuel, permitting to start the transient safety analysis. The accuracy of different reactivity meters applied to the YALINA facility was assessed and neutron detection studies were performed. A model to address deviations from point kinetic behaviour was developed. Studies of basic radiation damage physics included calculations of vacancy formation and activation enthalpies in bcc niobium. In order to predict the oxygen potential of inert matrix fuels, a thermo-chemical model for mixed actinide oxides was implemented in a phase equilibrium code

  15. Modeling and optimization of the air system in polymer exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Cheng; Ouyang, Minggao [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yi, Baolian [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2006-06-01

    Stack and air system are the two most important components in the fuel cell system (FCS). It is meaningful to study their properties and the trade-off between them. In this paper, a modified one-dimensional steady-state analytical fuel cell model is used. The logarithmic mean of the inlet and the outlet oxygen partial pressure is adopted to avoid underestimating the effect of air stoichiometry. And the pressure drop model in the grid-distributed flow field is included in the stack analysis. Combined with the coordinate change preprocessing and analog technique, neural network is used to treat the MAP of compressor and turbine in the air system. Three kinds of air system topologies, the pure screw compressor, serial booster and exhaust expander are analyzed in this article. A real-code genetic algorithm is programmed to obtain the global optimum air stoichiometric ratio and the cathode outlet pressure. It is shown that the serial booster and expander with the help of exhaust recycling, can improve more than 3% in the FCS efficiency comparing to the pure screw compressor. As the net power increases, the optimum cathode outlet pressure keeps rising and the air stoichiometry takes on the concave trajectory. The working zone of the proportional valve is also discussed. This presented work is helpful to the design of the air system in fuel cell system. The steady-state optimum can also be used in the dynamic control. (author)

  16. Modeling and optimization of the air system in polymer exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Cheng; Ouyang, Minggao; Yi, Baolian

    Stack and air system are the two most important components in the fuel cell system (FCS). It is meaningful to study their properties and the trade-off between them. In this paper, a modified one-dimensional steady-state analytical fuel cell model is used. The logarithmic mean of the inlet and the outlet oxygen partial pressure is adopted to avoid underestimating the effect of air stoichiometry. And the pressure drop model in the grid-distributed flow field is included in the stack analysis. Combined with the coordinate change preprocessing and analog technique, neural network is used to treat the MAP of compressor and turbine in the air system. Three kinds of air system topologies, the pure screw compressor, serial booster and exhaust expander are analyzed in this article. A real-code genetic algorithm is programmed to obtain the global optimum air stoichiometric ratio and the cathode outlet pressure. It is shown that the serial booster and expander with the help of exhaust recycling, can improve more than 3% in the FCS efficiency comparing to the pure screw compressor. As the net power increases, the optimum cathode outlet pressure keeps rising and the air stoichiometry takes on the concave trajectory. The working zone of the proportional valve is also discussed. This presented work is helpful to the design of the air system in fuel cell system. The steady-state optimum can also be used in the dynamic control.

  17. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  18. An Improved Apparatus for Vapour-Liquid Equilibria Measurement in Polymer + Solvent Systems at Higher Temperatures: a Study of the Water + Poly(ethylene glycol) System.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Jan; Bogdanić, Grozdana; Wichterle, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 454, 25 DEC (2017), s. 111-115 ISSN 0378-3812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19542S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : correlation * experimental data * polymer-solvent system Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  19. Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles: Development & statistical optimization of norfloxacin for topical drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Dave

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly lactic acid is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and non-toxic polymer, widely used in many pharmaceutical preparations such as controlled release formulations, parenteral preparations, surgical treatment applications, and tissue engineering. In this study, we prepared lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for topical and site targeting delivery of Norfloxacin by emulsification solvent evaporation method (ESE. The design of experiment (DOE was done by using software to optimize the result, and then a surface plot was generated to compare with the practical results. The surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential and composition of the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, TEM, AFM, and FTIR. The thermal behavior of the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles was characterized by DSC and TGA. The prepared lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles of Norfloxacin exhibited an average particle size from 178.6 ± 3.7 nm to 220.8 ± 2.3 nm, and showed very narrow distribution with polydispersity index ranging from 0.206 ± 0.36 to 0.383 ± 0.66. The surface charge on the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles were confirmed by zeta potential, showed the value from +23.4 ± 1.5 mV to +41.5 ± 3.4 mV. An Antimicrobial study was done against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles showed potential activity against these two. Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles of Norfloxacin showed the %cumulative drug release of 89.72% in 24 h. A stability study of the optimized formulation showed the suitable condition for the storage of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles was at 4 ± 2 °C/60 ± 5% RH. These results illustrated high potential of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles Norfloxacin for usage as a topical antibiotic drug carriers.

  20. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  1. The effect of water-swelling polymer composition on radiocesium transfer in 'water - soil - plant' system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakalyan, N.; Sergeeva, S.; Voskanyan, P. [Yerevan Institute ' Plastpolymer' Yerevan, 0007, 127 Arshacunats (Armenia); Tadevosyan, A.; Pyuskyulyan, K. [Institute of Hydroponics Problems NAS RA, Yerevan, 0082, 108 Noragyugh (Armenia); Mihranyan, A. [Division of Materials Science, Luleaa University of Technology, LuleAa SE-971 87 (Sweden); Tsuruoka, S. [Research Center for Exotic Nanocarbons, Shinshu University, Nagano,380-8553,4-17-1 Wakasato (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Due to the relatively long half-life (T{sub 1/2} = 30 years) and high solubility {sup 137}Cs presents a serious threat to the environment. The study on radioactive cesium transfer into plants and its distribution in different parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves) is among the tasks of agricultural radioecology. The problem has become especially urgent in connection with the accident at Fukushima nuclear power plant. The present work describes potential countermeasures to regulate radiocesium transfer from soil to agricultural plants. As countermeasure the use polymer hydrogels is offered. Water-swelling polymers are of great interest for their practical application as effective absorbents of humidity at growth of agricultural plants. Composite polymer hydrogels containing an inorganic phase are of special interest, as numerous inorganic fillers exhibit the ability to absorb radionuclides. Optimal samples of hydrogels based on ammonium acrylate with good water-swelling and water-retention were obtained. Samples with the same polymer matrix - ammonium acrylate - and such fillers as silica gel, synthetic aluminosilicate, bentonite and zeolite from Armenian deposits were used. Developed gels with and without fillers are applicable for multiple uses in the processes of water sorption and desorption. For preliminary assessment of radiocesium migration in 'water - soil- plant' system we studied sorption of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs from water. In the experiments, water with the specific radioactivity (1.86-4.38)x10{sup 4} Bq/L was used for {sup 137}Cs, while for {sup 134}Cs we used (2.175- 3.41)x10{sup 4} Bq/L water. Low-background gamma spectrometer with pure Ge detector and supporting 'GENIE' software were used for measurements. Non-filled gels of ammonium acrylate actually did not absorb radiocesium from water. Cesium sorption by filled gels of ammonium acrylate depended on the filler type and quantity. The optimal quantity of filler was

  2. Characterization of bovine serum albumin partitioning behaviors in polymer-salt aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yin Hui; Yap, Yee Jiun; Tan, Chin Ping; Anuar, Mohd Shamsul; Tejo, Bimo Ario; Show, Pau Loke; Ariff, Arbakariya Bin; Ng, Eng-Poh; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a linear relationship is proposed relating the natural logarithm of partition coefficient, ln K for protein partitioning in poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to the square of tie-line length (TLL(2)). This relationship provides good fits (r(2) > 0.98) to the partition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in PEG (1450 g/mol, 2000 g/mol, 3350 g/mol, and 4000 g/mol)-phosphate ATPS with TLL of 25.0-50.0% (w/w) at pH 7.0. Results also showed that the plot of ln K against pH for BSA partitioning in the ATPS containing 33.0% (w/w) PEG1450 and 8.0% (w/w) phosphate with varied working pH between 6.0 and 9.0 exhibited a linear relationship which is in good agreement (r(2) = 0.94) with the proposed relationship, ln K = α' pH + β'. These results suggested that both the relationships proposed could be applied to correlate and elucidate the partition behavior of biomolecules in the polymer-salt ATPS. The influence of other system parameters on the partition behavior of BSA was also investigated. An optimum BSA yield of 90.80% in the top phase and K of 2.40 was achieved in an ATPS constituted with 33.0% (w/w) PEG 1450 and 8.0% (w/w) phosphate in the presence of 8.5% (w/w) sodium chloride (NaCl) at pH 9.0 for 0.3% (w/w) BSA load. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Shape memory polymer medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan [Pleasant Hill, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Bearinger, Jane P [Livermore, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L [Concord, CA; Jensen, Wayne A [Livermore, CA; Ortega, Jason M [Pacifica, CA; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M [Stockton, CA

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  4. Measurement of infinite dilution activity coefficient and application of modified ASOG model for solvent-polymer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.; Choi, J. [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tochigi, K.; Kojima, K. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-20

    A gas chromatographic method was used in order to measure vapor-liquid equilibria for solvent (1)-polymer (2) systems in which the polymers were polystyrene, poly(a-methyl) styrene and the advents were benzene toluene cyclohexane methylisobutylketone, ethylacetate, and vinylacetate. The activity coefficients of solvents for solvent (1)-polymer (2) systems were measured at infinite dilution and the modified ASOG (Analytical Solution of Group) model was suggested to describe vapor-liquid equilibria of those systems within a range of temperatures 423.15K through 498.15K. The model consists of the original ASOG and the free volume term. An external degree of freedom in the free volume term empirically became to a C1={alpha}+{beta}/T as a function of temperature. Each tern in the modified ASOG model is based on the weight fraction. The external degree of freedom in the model was estimated by experimental data within a range of temperatures. As a result of doing it the infinite dilution activity coefficients calculated were agreed with the experimental data within an error of 0.1%. 27 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems 2012 Annual Report: A Year of Progress and Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Doreswamy, Rajiv; Fry, Emma Kiele

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) maintains and advances U.S. leadership in all aspects of rocket propulsion for defense, civil, and commercial uses. The Institute's creation is in response to widely acknowledged concerns about the U.S. rocket propulsion base dating back more than a decade. U.S. leadership in rocket and missile propulsion is threatened by long-term industry downsizing, a shortage of new solid and liquid propulsion programs, limited ability to attract and retain fresh talent, and discretionary federal budget pressures. Numerous trade and independent studies cite erosion of this capability as a threat to national security and the U.S. economy resulting in a loss of global competitiveness for the U.S. propulsion industry. This report covers the period between May 2011 and December 2012, which includes the creation and transition to operations of NIRPS. All subsequent reports will be annual. The year 2012 has been an eventful one for NIRPS. In its first full year, the new team overcame many obstacles and explored opportunities to ensure the institute has a firm foundation for the future. NIRPS is now an active organization making contributions to the development, sustainment, and strategy of the rocket propulsion industry in the United States. This report describes the actions taken by the NIRPS team to determine the strategy, organizational structure, and goals of the Institute. It also highlights key accomplishments, collaborations with other organizations, and the strategic framework for the Institute.

  6. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems: Annual Report for FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawsey, R.A.

    2000-06-13

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1999 Annual Program Review held July 26-28, 1999. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the International Cryogenic Materials Conference and the Cryogenic Engineering Conference (July 1999) are included in this report, as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  7. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems, Annual Report for FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawsey, R.A.; Murphy, A.W

    2000-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by U.S. industry for development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1999 Annual Program Review held July 26--28, 1999. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the International Cryogenic Materials Conference and the Cryogenic Engineering Conference (July 1999) are included in this report, as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of U.S. industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with U.S. industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  8. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for electric power systems. Annual report for FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koncinski, W.S. [ed.; Hawsey, R.A. [comp.

    1997-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by US industry for commercial development of electric power applications of high temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 1996 Annual Program Review held July 31 and August 1, 1996. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. In fact, nearly three-fourths of the ORNL effort is devoted to cooperative projects with private companies. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Patent disclosures, working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  9. ORNL Superconducting Technology Program for Electric Power Systems--Annual Report for FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawsey, RA

    2002-02-18

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Superconducting Technology Program is conducted as part of a national effort by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to develop the science and technology base needed by US industry for development of electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity. The two major elements of this program are wire development and applications development. A new part of the wire research effort was the Accelerated Coated Conductor Initiative. This document describes the major research and development activities for this program together with related accomplishments. The technical progress reported was summarized from recent open literature publications, presentations, and information prepared for the FY 2001 Annual Program Review held August 1-3, 2001. Aspects of ORNL's work that were presented at the International Cryogenic Materials Conference/Cryogenic Engineering Conference (July 2001) are included in this report as well. This ORNL program is highly leveraged by the staff and other resources of US industry and universities. Interlaboratory teams are also in place on a number of industry-driven projects. Working group meetings, staff exchanges, and joint publications and presentations ensure that there is technology transfer with US industry. Working together, the collaborative teams are making rapid progress in solving the scientific and technical issues necessary for the commercialization of long lengths of practical high-temperature superconductor wire and wire-using systems.

  10. Safety of the French power grid: audit and annual reporting; Surete du systeme electrique francais: audit et reporting annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesseron, J.M. [Reseau de Transport d' Electricite (RTE), 92 - Paris la Defense (France)

    2006-09-15

    Power system reliability is at the core of the responsibilities entrusted to RTE, the French transmission system operator. Considering the particularly important issue of reliability, RTE's management has set up an entity which reports to it directly on this subject. The two main activities of this entity involve drawing up the annual system reliability report and carrying out audits devoted to reliability. After going over the principles governing the control of system reliability in France, the document presents the experience acquired since 2000. The principles underlying the drafting of the annual reliability report and the method for scheduling and performing the reliability audits are first set out. The author then goes on to present how these principles are applied to two reliability audits, one carried out on voltage control and the other on the control of the clearance time of short-circuits affecting the 400 kV grid. (author)

  11. Control and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350W high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker

    suited for reformer systems, where high CO tolerance is required. This enables the use fuels based on e.g. liquid alcohols. This work presents the control strategies of a methanol refoermer for a 350W HTPEM FC system. The system examined is the Serenergy H3-350 Mobile Battery Charger, an integrated......High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane(HTPEM) fuel cells offer many advantages due to their increased operating tempera-tures compared to similar Nafion-based membrane tech-nologies, that rely on the conductive abilities of liquid water. The polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes are especially...

  12. Optical methods for the optimization of system SWaP-C using aspheric components and advanced optical polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, Amy; Benson, Robert; Deegan, John; Walsh, Ken; Schmidt, W. David; Howe, Russell

    2013-06-01

    We describe the benefits to camera system SWaP-C associated with the use of aspheric molded glasses and optical polymers in the design and manufacture of optical components and elements. Both camera objectives and display eyepieces, typical for night vision man-portable EO/IR systems, are explored. We discuss optical trade-offs, system performance, and cost reductions associated with this approach in both visible and non-visible wavebands, specifically NIR and LWIR. Example optical models are presented, studied, and traded using this approach.

  13. A broad spectrum catalytic system for removal of toxic organics from water by deep oxidation. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.

    1998-01-01

    'Toxic organics and polymers pose a serious threat to the environment, especially when they are present in aquatic systems. The objective of the research is the design of practical procedures for the removal and/or recycling of such pollutants by oxidation. This report summarizes the work performed in the first one and half years of a three year project. The authors had earlier described a catalytic system for the deep oxidation of toxic organics, such as benzene, phenol and substituted phenols, aliphatic and aromatic halogenated compounds, organophosphorus, and organosulfur compounds [1]. In this system, metallic palladium was found to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate by dioxygen in aqueous medium at 80--100 C in the presence of carbon monoxide. For all the substrates examined, deep oxidation to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water occurred in high yields, resulting in up to several hundred turnovers over a 24 h period. Because of a pressing need for new procedures for the destruction of chemical warfare agents, the authors have examined in detail the deep oxidation of appropriate model compounds containing phosphorus-carbon and sulfur-carbon bonds using the same catalytic system. The result is the first observation of the efficient catalytic oxidative cleavage of phosphorus-carbon and sulfur-carbon bonds under mild conditions, using dioxygen as the oxidant [2]. In addition to the achievements described above, they have unpublished results in several other areas. For example, they have investigated the possibility of using dihydrogen rather than carbon monoxide as a coreductant in the catalytic deep oxidation of substrates. Even more attractive from a practical standpoint is the possibility of using a mixture of carbon monoxide and dihydrogen (synthesis gas). Indeed, experiments indicated that it is possible to substitute carbon monoxide by dihydrogen or synthesis gas. Significantly, in the case of nitro compounds, the deep oxidation in fact proceeded

  14. All-Polymer Microfluidic Systems with integrated Nanostructures for Cell Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria

    There is an increasing need for mass-production of nanostructures with high precision at polymer surfaces, for example to reduce the reflection of light, to reduce the adhesion of smudge, for optical data storage (e.g. Blu-ray discs), and for biological applications. In this project the effects...... of the polymer melt, interfacial effects like wetting and friction play a major role in injection molding of high aspect ratio nanostructures. The interfacial energy between mold and polymer needs to allow filling as well as demolding which are opposing properties: On the one hand, insufficient wetting...... cavity during demolding leading to nanostructural failure. It was found that the mold temperature has a major influence on the replication depth for tested mold coatings while other parameters (melt temperature, injection velocity and pressure, holding pressure and ejection temperature) do not have any...

  15. A low cost and hybrid technology for integrating silicon sensors or actuators in polymer microfluidic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, Samuel; Gué, Anne-Marie; Tasselli, Josiane; Marty, Antoine; Abgrall, Patrick; Estève, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a new technology permitting a hybrid integration of silicon chips in polymer (PDMS and SU8) microfluidic structures. This two-step technology starts with transferring the silicon device onto a rigid substrate (typically PCB) and planarizing it, and then it proceeds with stacking of the polymer-made fluidic network onto the device. The technology is low cost, based on screen printing and lamination, can be applied to treat large surface areas, and is compatible with standard photolithography and vacuum based approaches. We show, as an example, the integration of a thermal sensor inside channels made of PDMS or SU8. The developed structures had no fluid leaks at the Si/polymer interfaces and the electrical circuit was perfectly tightproof. (note)

  16. On the molecular anisotropy of liquid crystalline and flexible polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Horn, Brett L.

    The demand for products of ever increasing quality or for novel applications has required increasing attention to or manipulation of the anisotropy of manufactured parts. Oriented plastics are used everywhere from recording film to automotive body parts to monofilament fishing line. Liquid crystals are also used in a wide array of applications including their dominance in the flat panel display industry, color changing temperature sensors, and woven bullet resistant fabrics. Anisotropy can also be detrimental, for instance sometimes leading to poor fracture resistance or low yield stress along specific directions. Controlling and measuring anisotropy of materials has become increasingly important, but doing so is wrought with challenges. Measuring physical properties of isotropic liquids, such as water or most oils can be done in a straightforward fashion. Their viscosities and densities, for example, have unique values under a given set of conditions. With anisotropic fluids, like liquid crystals, the viscosity, for instance, will not only depend upon temperature, concentration, etc. but also upon the direction of observation, degree of anisotropy, source of anisotropy, and so forth. This added degree of complexity complicates our ability to define the state of the material at which the measurements are made and generally necessitates the use of more sophisticated measurement strategies or techniques. This work presents techniques and tools for investigating anisotropy in liquid crystalline and stretched polymeric systems. Included are the use of conoscopy for the determination of birefringence and orientation of nematic liquid crystals and stretched polymers, the shear response of flow aligning nematic liquid crystal monodomains, and the design of a novel linear rheometer that allows for in situ optical or scattering investigations.

  17. Natural-Synthetic Hybrid Polymers Developed via Electrospinning: The Effect of PET in Chitosan/Starch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espíndola-González, Adolfo; Martínez-Hernández, Ana Laura; Fernández-Escobar, Francisco; Castaño, Victor Manuel; Brostow, Witold; Datashvili, Tea; Velasco-Santos, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan is an amino polysaccharide found in nature, which is biodegradable, nontoxic and biocompatible. It has versatile features and can be used in a variety of applications including films, packaging, and also in medical surgery. Recently a possibility to diversify chitosan properties has emerged by combining it with synthetic materials to produce novel natural-synthetic hybrid polymers. We have studied structural and thermophysical properties of chitosan + starch + poly(ethylene terephthalate) (Ch + S + PET) fibers developed via electrospinning. Properties of these hybrids polymers are compared with extant chitosan containing hybrids synthesized by electrospinning. Molecular interactions and orientation in the fibers are analyzed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies respectively, morphology by scanning electron microscopy and thermophysical properties by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Addition of PET to Ch + S systems results in improved thermal stability at elevated temperatures. PMID:21673930

  18. Investigation of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal system by NMR diffusometry and relaxometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Mingxue

    2013-02-26

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) are polymer composites containing a dispersion of liquid crystal droplets in polymer networks. PDLCs have attracted much attention due to their unique properties and potential usage. The properties of PDLCs depend on the degree of phase separation and the size of liquid crystal droplets. To investigate the structure will help us to better understand and optimize PDLCs.The main aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate PDLCs by NMR techniques. Diffusion constants and spin-lattice relaxation times in the laboratory (T{sub 1}) and rotating frame (T{sub 1{rho}}) were measured for PDLCs as well as precursor mixtures based on the trifunctional monomer trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and the commercial nematic mixture E7. The variation of the main dipolar splitting of {sup 1}H spectra with increasing temperature was analyzed to obtain the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition temperature and the nematic order parameter of E7 and, for comparison, the nematic liquid crystal 5CB.Diffusion constants in TMPTA/E7 mixtures, measured by pulsed-field gradient NMR, increase for both E7 and TMPTA as the mass fraction of E7 increases, due to the lower viscosity of E7. E7 in the PDLC diffuses more slowly than in the bulk because of the hindrance by the polymer matrix. T{sub 1} and T{sub 1{rho}} relaxation times in the liquid or liquid-crystalline phases of TMPTA and bulk E7 are higher than in the PDLC and the pure polymer, due to the lower mobility in the polymer samples. T{sub 1{rho}} in the PDLC is even shorter than in the pure polymer, indicating an anti-softening effect caused by E7 molecules. In bulk E7, the well-ordered rod-like molecules exhibit a unique H-C dipolar coupling, which leads to oscillations in the cross-polarization curve. However, in the PDLC, the anchoring effect at the boundary between the polymer and LC droplets disturbs the molecular order resulting in a smooth cross polarization curve.

  19. Silver-containing polymer composition used in spacecraft and semiconductor optoelectronics control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A. A., E-mail: alexchemtsu@rambler.ru; Tuev, V. I., E-mail: tvi-retem@main.tusur.ru [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The copolymer of the vinyl chloride-maleic anhydride and silver nano- and microparticle (70 wt %) composition is offered as a conductive adhesive for fixing various chips on the dielectric substrate. The wiring volume resistivity is up to 3.1×10{sup −8} Ohm×m. The adhesive strength of the silver-containing polymer composition (70% of Ag) applied under a shear on the dielectric substrate is 106 N/mm{sup 2}. Adhesive layers obtained from these substances have a high thermal conductivity up to λ = 199.93 W/m×K that depends on the amount of Ag in the polymer composition.

  20. Investigation of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal system by NMR diffusometry and relaxometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Mingxue

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) are polymer composites containing a dispersion of liquid crystal droplets in polymer networks. PDLCs have attracted much attention due to their unique properties and potential usage. The properties of PDLCs depend on the degree of phase separation and the size of liquid crystal droplets. To investigate the structure will help us to better understand and optimize PDLCs.The main aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate PDLCs by NMR techniques. Diffusion constants and spin-lattice relaxation times in the laboratory (T 1 ) and rotating frame (T 1ρ ) were measured for PDLCs as well as precursor mixtures based on the trifunctional monomer trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and the commercial nematic mixture E7. The variation of the main dipolar splitting of 1 H spectra with increasing temperature was analyzed to obtain the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition temperature and the nematic order parameter of E7 and, for comparison, the nematic liquid crystal 5CB.Diffusion constants in TMPTA/E7 mixtures, measured by pulsed-field gradient NMR, increase for both E7 and TMPTA as the mass fraction of E7 increases, due to the lower viscosity of E7. E7 in the PDLC diffuses more slowly than in the bulk because of the hindrance by the polymer matrix. T 1 and T 1ρ relaxation times in the liquid or liquid-crystalline phases of TMPTA and bulk E7 are higher than in the PDLC and the pure polymer, due to the lower mobility in the polymer samples. T 1ρ in the PDLC is even shorter than in the pure polymer, indicating an anti-softening effect caused by E7 molecules. In bulk E7, the well-ordered rod-like molecules exhibit a unique H-C dipolar coupling, which leads to oscillations in the cross-polarization curve. However, in the PDLC, the anchoring effect at the boundary between the polymer and LC droplets disturbs the molecular order resulting in a smooth cross polarization curve.

  1. A quasi-direct methanol fuel cell system based on blend polymer membrane electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Hasiotis, C.

    2002-01-01

    , compared to less than 100 ppm CO for the Nafion-based technology at 80degrees C. The high CO tolerance makes it possible to use the reformed hydrogen directly from a simple methanol reformer without further CO removal. That both the fuel cell and the methanol reformer operate at temperatures around 200......On the basis of blend polymer electrolytes of polybenzimidazole and sulfonated polysulfone, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell was developed with an operational temperature up to 200degrees C. Due to the high operational temperature, the fuel cell can tolerate 1.0-3.0 vol % CO in the fuel...

  2. Electric field induced dewetting at polymer/polymer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Z.Q.; Kerle, T.; Russell, T.P.; Schäffer, E.; Steiner, U

    2002-01-01

    External electric fields were used to amplify interfacial fluctuations in the air/polymer/polymer system where one polymer dewets the other. Two different hydrodynamic regimes were found as a function of electric field strength. If heterogeneous nucleation leads to the formation of holes before the

  3. Sustainable design and manufacturing of multifunctional polymer nanocomposite coatings: A multiscale systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie

    Polymer nanocomposites have a great potential to be a dominant coating material in a wide range of applications in the automotive, aerospace, ship-making, construction, and pharmaceutical industries. However, how to realize design sustainability of this type of nanostructured materials and how to ensure the true optimality of the product quality and process performance in coating manufacturing remain as a mountaintop area. The major challenges arise from the intrinsic multiscale nature of the material-process-product system and the need to manipulate the high levels of complexity and uncertainty in design and manufacturing processes. This research centers on the development of a comprehensive multiscale computational methodology and a computer-aided tool set that can facilitate multifunctional nanocoating design and application from novel function envisioning and idea refinement, to knowledge discovery and design solution derivation, and further to performance testing in industrial applications and life cycle analysis. The principal idea is to achieve exceptional system performance through concurrent characterization and optimization of materials, product and associated manufacturing processes covering a wide range of length and time scales. Multiscale modeling and simulation techniques ranging from microscopic molecular modeling to classical continuum modeling are seamlessly coupled. The tight integration of different methods and theories at individual scales allows the prediction of macroscopic coating performance from the fundamental molecular behavior. Goal-oriented design is also pursued by integrating additional methods for bio-inspired dynamic optimization and computational task management that can be implemented in a hierarchical computing architecture. Furthermore, multiscale systems methodologies are developed to achieve the best possible material application towards sustainable manufacturing. Automotive coating manufacturing, that involves paint spay and

  4. Effective experimental tumor therapy with targeted polymer drug delivery systems based on HPMA copolymers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šírová, Milada; Horková, Veronika; Sivák, Ladislav; Etrych, Tomáš; Říhová, Blanka; Studenovský, Martin

    SI (2016), s. 24-24 ISSN 0014-2980. [3rd Meeting of Middle – European Societies for Immunology and Allergology. 01.12.2016-03.12.2016, Budapest ] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12742S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Tumor therapy * polymer drug * HPMA copolymers Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  5. Ceramic Foams from Pre-Ceramic Polymer Routes for Reusable Acreage Thermal Protection System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Mairead; Chien, Jennifer; Schaeffler, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: Motivation. Current light weight insulation. Advantages of preceramic-polymer-derived ceramic foams. Rigid insulation materials. Tailor foam microstructures. Experimental approach. Results: sacrificial materials, sacrificial fillers. Comparison of foam microstructures. Density of ceramic foams. Phase evolution and properties: oxidation behavior. mechanical properties, aerothermal performance. Impact damage of microcellular foams. Conclusions.

  6. Design and fabrication of polymer based dry adhesives inspired by the gecko adhesive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kejia

    There has been significant interest in developing dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which offers several advantages compared to conventional pressure sensitive adhesives. Specifically, gecko adhesive pads have anisotropic adhesion properties: the adhesive pads (spatulae) stick strongly when sheared in one direction but are non-adherent when sheared in the opposite direction. This anisotropy property is attributed to the complex topography of the array of fine tilted and curved columnar structures (setae) that bear the spatulae. In this thesis, easy, scalable methods, relying on conventional and unconventional techniques are presented to incorporate tilt in the fabrication of synthetic polymer-based dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which provide anisotropic adhesion properties. In the first part of the study, the anisotropic adhesion and friction properties of samples with various tilt angles to test the validity of a nanoscale tape-peeling model of spatular function are measured. Consistent with the Peel Zone model, samples with lower tilt angles yielded larger adhesion forces. Contact mechanics of the synthetic array were highly anisotropic, consistent with the frictional adhesion model and gecko-like. Based on the original design, a new design of gecko-like dry adhesives was developed which showed superior tribological properties and furthermore showed anisotropic adhesive properties without the need for tilt in the structures. These adhesives can be used to reversibly suspend weights from vertical surfaces (e.g., walls) and, for the first time to our knowledge, horizontal surfaces (e.g., ceilings) by simultaneously and judiciously activating anisotropic friction and adhesion forces. Furthermore, adhesion properties between artificial gecko-inspired dry adhesives and rough substrates with varying roughness are studied. The results suggest that both adhesion and friction forces on a rough substrate depends significantly on the

  7. Development of high-throughput analysis system using highly-functional organic polymer monoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Tomonari; Kojima, Norihisa; Ueki, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    The growing demand for high-throughput analysis in the current competitive life sciences and industries has promoted the development of high-speed HPLC techniques and tools. As one of such tools, monolithic columns have attracted increasing attention and interest in the last decade due to the low flow-resistance and excellent mass transfer, allowing for rapid separations and reactions at high flow rates with minimal loss of column efficiency. Monolithic materials are classified into two main groups: silica- and organic polymer-based monoliths, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Organic polymer monoliths have several distinct advantages in life-science research, including wide pH stability, less irreversible adsorption, facile preparation and modification. Thus, we have so far tried to develop organic polymer monoliths for various chemical operations, such as separation, extraction, preconcentration, and reaction. In the present paper, recent progress in the development of organic polymer monoliths is discussed. Especially, the procedure for the preparation of methacrylate-based monoliths with various functional groups is described, where the influence of different compositional and processing parameters on the monolithic structure is also addressed. Furthermore, the performance of the produced monoliths is demonstrated through the results for (1) rapid separations of alklybenzenes at high flow rates, (2) flow-through enzymatic digestion of cytochrome c on a trypsin-immobilized monolithic column, and (3) separation of the tryptic digest on a reversed-phase monolithic column. The flexibility and versatility of organic polymer monoliths will be beneficial for further enhancing analytical performance, and will open the way for new applications and opportunities both in scientific and industrial research. (author)

  8. PHOTOREFRACTIVE POLYMERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morichere, D; Malliaras, G.G; Krasnikov, V.V.; Bolink, H.J; Hadziioannou, G

    The use of polymers as photorefractive materials offers many advantages : flexibility in synthesis, doping, processing and low cost. The required functionalities responsible for photorefractivity, namely charge generation, transport, trapping and linear electrooptic effect are given in the polymer

  9. Photorefractive polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolink, Hendrik Jan; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and properties of photorefractive polymers. Photorefractive polymers are materials in which the refractive index can be varied by the interaction with light. Unlike in numerous other photosensitive materials, in photorefractive materials this occurs via

  10. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    at the study site, may better perform on marginal sites. Switchgrass is an example of the need to grow site-adapted energy crops. The annual energy crop maize required the highest input, but at the same time yielded the most. The two crop rotation systems did not differ in yield and energy input, but the system with no-till may be more environmentally benign as it has the potential to sequester carbon. The objective of Paper II was the optimization of crop cultivation through the differentiation of input parameters to enhance the quality of the energy crop triticale, without influencing the biomass yield. The intention was to minimize the content of combustion-disturbing elements (potassium and chlorine) and the ash residue of both aboveground plant parts (grain and straw). It was done through different straw and potassium fertilizer treatments. It could be shown that the removal of straw from the previously cultivated crop and no additional potassium fertilizer could reduce the amount of combustion-disturbing elements. A high influence must also be expected from site and weather conditions. Papers III to V address the supply of different high quality biomasses, with the focus on maize for anaerobic digestion. The objective of Paper III was the assessment of the requirements of biogas plants and biomass for anaerobic digestion. It introduces potential energy crops, along with their advantages and disadvantages. Alongside maize, many other biomass types, which are preserved as silage and are high in carbohydrates and low in lignocelluloses, can be anaerobically digested. The development of potential site-specific crop rotation systems for biomass production are discussed. The objective of Papers IV and V was the identification of suitable biomass and production systems for the anaerobic digestion. The focus lay on the determination of (i) suitable energy maize varieties for Central Europe, (ii) optimal growth periods of energy crops, (iii) the influence of crop

  11. Three-dimensional dynamic modelling of Polymer-Electrolyte-Membrane-Fuel-Cell-Systems; Dreidimensionale dynamische Modellierung und Berechnung von Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vath, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    This thesis deals with dynamic and multi-dimensional modelling of Polymer- Electrolyte-Membrane-Fuel-Cells (PEMFC). The developed models include all the different layers of the fuel cell e.g. flow field, gas diffusion layer, catalyst layer and membrane with their particular physical, chemical and electrical characteristics. The simulation results have been verified by detailed measurements performed at the research centre for hydrogen and solar energy in Ulm (ZSW Ulm). The developed three dimensional model describes the time- and spatial-dependent charge and mass transport in a fuel cell. Additionally, this model allows the analysis of critical operating conditions. For example, the current density distribution for different membranes is shown during insufficient humidification which results in local overstraining and degradation. The model also allows to analyse extreme critical operating conditions, e.g. short time breakdown of the humidification. Furthermore, the model shows the available potential of improvement opportunities in power density and efficiency of PEMFC due to optimisation of the gas diffusion layer, the catalyst and membrane. In the second part of the work the application of PEMFC systems for combined heat and power units is described by one-dimensional models for an electrical power range between 1 kW and 5 kW. This model contains the necessary components, e.g. gas processing, humidification, gas supply, fuel cell stack, heat storage, pumps, auxiliary burner, power inverter und additional aggregates. As a main result, it is possible to distinctly reduce the energy demand and the carbon dioxide exhaust for different load profiles. Today the costs for fuel cell systems are considerably higher than that of the conventional electrical energy supply. (orig.)

  12. Polymer Brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Kleijn, J.M.; Keizer, de A.; Cosgrove, T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    A polymer brush can be defined as a dense array of polymers end-attached to an interface that stretch out into the surrounding medium. Polymer brushes have been investigated for the past 30 years and have shown to be an extremely useful tool to control interfacial properties. This review is intended

  13. XNBR-grafted halloysite nanotube core-shell as a potential compatibilizer for immiscible polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paran, S.M.R.; Naderi, G.; Ghoreishy, M.H.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Attached an utilitarian silane coupling agent to the HNT via a sol-gel method. • Developed and analyzed the HNT/XNBR core-shell particles via sol-gel technique. • Enhanced the reactivity of the surface of HNT through XNBR grafting. • The act of HNT/XNBR as a compatibilizer in PA6/NBR TPEs. • Immiscible Polymer System with a good balanced physical and mechanical properties. - Abstract: Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) grafted with carboxylated nitrile byutadiene rubber (XNBR) were synthesized via a sol-gel method. The HNTs as an inorganic cores were pre-treated with 3-Glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane, then successfully coated with the XNBR as an organic shell. The properties of XNBR-grafted HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggested that the XNBR grafted to the surfaces of HNTs successfully. Then the TPE nanocomposites based on polyamide-6 (PA6) and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) containing various XNBR-grafted and pristine HNTs were prepared via a direct melt mixing method. The morphology, mechanical, dynamic mechanical and rheological properties of the prepared TPE nanocomposites were investigated. The results show that the XNBR-grafted HNTs can effectively improve the morphology and mechanical properties of the PA6/NBR TPEs. The morphology study of the prepared nanocomposites show that the effect of XNBR-grafted HNTs on the size reduction of NBR phase is markedly more effective than the pristine HNTs and rose by 50% in the same concentrations. Mechanical measurements show that the Young’s modulus of the TPE nanocomposites rose by 60% in just 7 wt% of XNBR-grafted HNT loading. The results indicate that the introduction of HNT/XNBR core-shells into the PA6/NBR TPEs can enhances the interfacial interactions

  14. XNBR-grafted halloysite nanotube core-shell as a potential compatibilizer for immiscible polymer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paran, S.M.R.; Naderi, G., E-mail: g.naderi@ippi.ac.ir; Ghoreishy, M.H.R.

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Attached an utilitarian silane coupling agent to the HNT via a sol-gel method. • Developed and analyzed the HNT/XNBR core-shell particles via sol-gel technique. • Enhanced the reactivity of the surface of HNT through XNBR grafting. • The act of HNT/XNBR as a compatibilizer in PA6/NBR TPEs. • Immiscible Polymer System with a good balanced physical and mechanical properties. - Abstract: Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) grafted with carboxylated nitrile byutadiene rubber (XNBR) were synthesized via a sol-gel method. The HNTs as an inorganic cores were pre-treated with 3-Glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane, then successfully coated with the XNBR as an organic shell. The properties of XNBR-grafted HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggested that the XNBR grafted to the surfaces of HNTs successfully. Then the TPE nanocomposites based on polyamide-6 (PA6) and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) containing various XNBR-grafted and pristine HNTs were prepared via a direct melt mixing method. The morphology, mechanical, dynamic mechanical and rheological properties of the prepared TPE nanocomposites were investigated. The results show that the XNBR-grafted HNTs can effectively improve the morphology and mechanical properties of the PA6/NBR TPEs. The morphology study of the prepared nanocomposites show that the effect of XNBR-grafted HNTs on the size reduction of NBR phase is markedly more effective than the pristine HNTs and rose by 50% in the same concentrations. Mechanical measurements show that the Young’s modulus of the TPE nanocomposites rose by 60% in just 7 wt% of XNBR-grafted HNT loading. The results indicate that the introduction of HNT/XNBR core-shells into the PA6/NBR TPEs can enhances the interfacial interactions

  15. Amphipathic DNA polymers exhibit antiviral activity against systemic Murine Cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juteau Jean-Marc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorothioated oligonucleotides (PS-ONs have a sequence-independent, broad spectrum antiviral activity as amphipathic polymers (APs and exhibit potent in vitro antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of herpesviruses: HSV-1, HSV-2, HCMV, VZV, EBV, and HHV-6A/B, and in vivo activity in a murine microbiocide model of genital HSV-2 infection. The activity of these agents against animal cytomegalovirus (CMV infections in vitro and in vivo was therefore investigated. Results In vitro, a 40 mer degenerate AP (REP 9 inhibited both murine CMV (MCMV and guinea pig CMV (GPCMV with an IC50 of 0.045 μM and 0.16 μM, respectively, and a 40 mer poly C AP (REP 9C inhibited MCMV with an IC50 of 0.05 μM. Addition of REP 9 to plaque assays during the first two hours of infection inhibited 78% of plaque formation whereas addition of REP 9 after 10 hours of infection did not significantly reduce the number of plaques, indicating that REP 9 antiviral activity against MCMV occurs at early times after infection. In a murine model of CMV infection, systemic treatment for 5 days significantly reduced virus replication in the spleens and livers of infected mice compared to saline-treated control mice. REP 9 and REP 9C were administered intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days at 10 mg/kg, starting 2 days prior to MCMV infection. Splenomegaly was observed in infected mice treated with REP 9 but not in control mice or in REP 9 treated, uninfected mice, consistent with mild CpG-like activity. When REP 9C (which lacks CpG motifs was compared to REP 9, it exhibited comparable antiviral activity as REP 9 but was not associated with splenomegaly. This suggests that the direct antiviral activity of APs is the predominant therapeutic mechanism in vivo. Moreover, REP 9C, which is acid stable, was effective when administered orally in combination with known permeation enhancers. Conclusion These studies indicate that APs exhibit potent, well tolerated

  16. The hexagon/panel system for selecting FIA plots under an annual inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary J. Brand; Mark D. Nelson; Daniel G. Wendt; Kevin K. Nimerfro

    2000-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) is changing to an annual nationwide forest inventory. This paper describes the sampling grid used to distribute FIA plots across the landscape and to allocate them to a particular measurement year. We also describe the integration of the F1A and Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) plot networks.

  17. Annual Surveillance Summary: Acinetobacter Species Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Infection Classifications .................................................................. 7 Section B – Antimicrobial Resistance and Use... Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Regional Multidrug Resistance In 2016, the IR of Acinetobacter species infection was 5.34 infections per 100,000 persons...et al. Antimicrobial - resistant pathogens associated with health-associated infections: annual summary of data reported to the National Healthcare

  18. Polymer architecture and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Li Yan; Bae, You Han

    2006-01-01

    Polymers occupy a major portion of materials used for controlled release formulations and drug-targeting systems because this class of materials presents seemingly endless diversity in topology and chemistry. This is a crucial advantage over other classes of materials to meet the ever-increasing requirements of new designs of drug delivery formulations. The polymer architecture (topology) describes the shape of a single polymer molecule. Every natural, seminatural, and synthetic polymer falls into one of categorized architectures: linear, graft, branched, cross-linked, block, star-shaped, and dendron/dendrimer topology. Although this topic spans a truly broad area in polymer science, this review introduces polymer architectures along with brief synthetic approaches for pharmaceutical scientists who are not familiar with polymer science, summarizes the characteristic properties of each architecture useful for drug delivery applications, and covers recent advances in drug delivery relevant to polymer architecture.

  19. Micelles from lipid derivatives of water-soluble polymers as delivery systems for poorly soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanov, Anatoly N; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2004-05-07

    Polymeric micelles have a whole set of unique characteristics, which make them very promising drug carriers, in particular, for poorly soluble drugs. Our review article focuses on micelles prepared from conjugates of water-soluble polymers, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), with phospholipids or long-chain fatty acids. The preparation of micelles from certain polymer-lipid conjugates and the loading of these micelles with various poorly soluble anticancer agents are discussed. The data on the characterization of micellar preparations in terms of their morphology, stability, longevity in circulation, and ability to spontaneously accumulate in experimental tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect are presented. The review also considers the preparation of targeted immunomicelles with specific antibodies attached to their surface. Available in vivo results on the efficiency of anticancer drugs incorporated into plain micelles and immunomicelles in animal models are also discussed.

  20. Applications of Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry to Polymer Blends and Related Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourston, Douglas J.; Song, Mo

    It has been shown in this chapter that the MTDSC technique is a very useful tool in the study of several aspects of polymer blends and related materials including structured latexes and interpenetrating polymer networks. It is important to note that the dC p/dT versus temperature signal may be used not only qualitatively as a sensitive detector of transitions impossible to spot by other thermal techniques such as conventional DSC and DMTA, but it may also be used to significant advantage in a quantitative way. It has been shown that it is sensitive to the diffuse interface between phases. Thus, from dC p/dT versus temperature signals, the weight fraction of the diffuse interface can be quantified. There are many situations where this will prove to be very valuable.

  1. "Thunderstruck": Plasma-Polymer-Coated Porous Silicon Microparticles As a Controlled Drug Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Steven J P; Michl, Thomas D; Delalat, Bahman; Al-Bataineh, Sameer A; Coad, Bryan R; Vasilev, Krasimir; Griesser, Hans J; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2016-02-01

    Controlling the release kinetics from a drug carrier is crucial to maintain a drug's therapeutic window. We report the use of biodegradable porous silicon microparticles (pSi MPs) loaded with the anticancer drug camphothecin, followed by a plasma polymer overcoating using a loudspeaker plasma reactor. Homogenous "Teflon-like" coatings were achieved by tumbling the particles by playing AC/DC's song "Thunderstruck". The overcoating resulted in a markedly slower release of the cytotoxic drug, and this effect correlated positively with the plasma polymer coating times, ranging from 2-fold up to more than 100-fold. Ultimately, upon characterizing and verifying pSi MP production, loading, and coating with analytical methods such as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetry, water contact angle measurements, and fluorescence microscopy, human neuroblastoma cells were challenged with pSi MPs in an in vitro assay, revealing a significant time delay in cell death onset.

  2. Informed Materials Discovery: Designing New Engineering Polymer Systems Using High Throughput Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    and molecu- lar physical structure into the prediction of the macroscopic constitutive properties and behaviour of the polymers. GIM uses a mean field...Cβ and Cg are related to the loss of DOFs over beta and glass transitions, where R is the molar gas constant and C is defined by: (2) C = NR (6.7T θ1...The compression yield behaviour of polymethyl methacrylate over a wide range of temperatures and strain-rates, Journal of Materials Science 8 (7

  3. Easily Processed Host-Guest Polymer Systems with High-Tg Characteristics (First-year Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    manner such that the effective electro- optical coefficient is maximized. Unfortunately, relaxation of the chromophore in the host polymer leads to...polished stainless steel facing plates (0.25 in thickness, McMaster ) and window molds cut from aluminum stock (1 mm thickness, McMaster ). Both facing...plasticization from the chromophore. Both chromophores resulted in substantial red-shifted absorption compared to a sample prepared in virgin PMMA. We expect

  4. Hydrophilic polymer-coated microcatheter-guide wire system for superselective angiographic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Hiraki, Yoshiyuki; Nishimoto, Hidetou; Miyazono, Nobuaki; Satake, Mitsuo; Shinohara, Shinji

    1988-01-01

    A hydrophilic polymer-coated microcatheter-guide wire device has been newly developed for superselective angiography and interventional procedures. The injection rate of this microcatheter was estimated at 2.0 ml/sec. on the maximum pressure of 300 psi when used a non-ionic low osmolar contrast medium, Iopamidol 300. In two of three cases this catheter could make easy insertion into the peripheral branches of the right hepatic artery which were approximately 1 mm in vascular diameter. (author)

  5. Optimized protocol for the radioiodination of hydrazone-type polymer drug delivery systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, Ondřej; Kučka, Jan; Hrubý, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 95, January (2015), s. 129-134 ISSN 0969-8043 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI4/625; GA ČR GAP304/12/0950; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14079 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200501201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : doxorubicin * hydrazone * polymer conjugate Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.136, year: 2015

  6. The synthesis and characterisation of mucoadhesive polymeric systems using synthetic and natural polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah, Duggan

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesion is the binding of a material to a mucosal surface. The mucosal surface has a rate of absorption of up to four times that of the skin and, therefore, has great potential as a route of drug administration. Mucoadhesive polymeric drug delivery devices have been designed to allow for the slow and controlled release of a drug to a specific site, with fewer side effects and greater bioavailability in comparison to other methods of administration. In this project, mucoadhesive polyme...

  7. A predictive group-contribution simplified PC-SAFT equation of state: Application to polymer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tihic, Amra; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; von Solms, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    A group-contribution (GC) method is coupled with the molecular-based perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) equation of state (EoS) to predict its characteristic pure compound parameters. The estimation of group contributions for the parameters is based on a parameter...... are the molecular structure of the polymer of interest in terms of functional groups and a single binary interaction parameter for accurate mixture calculations....

  8. All Polymer Micropump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis an all polymer micropump, and the fabrication method required to fabricate this, are examined. Polymer microfluidic. devices are of major scientific interest because they can combine complicated chemical and biological analys~s in cheap and disposable devices. The electrode system...... in the micropump is based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The majority of the work conducted was therefore aimed at developing methods for patterning and processing PEDOT. First a method was developed, where the conducting polymer PEDOT can be integrated into non...... of the substrate, the PEDOT is integrated into the non-conductive polymer. The result is a material that retains the good conductivity of PEDOT, but gains the mechanical stability of the substrate. The best results were obtained for PEDOTjPMMA. The new mechanically stable PEDOTjPMMA was micro-patterned using clean...

  9. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  10. Porous fiber formation in polymer-solvent system undergoing solvent evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Pratyush; Kyu, Thein

    2006-08-01

    Temporal evolution of the fiber morphology during dry spinning has been investigated in the framework of Cahn-Hilliard equation [J. Chem. Phys. 28, 258 (1958)] pertaining to the concentration order parameter or volume fraction given by the Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing [P. J. Flory, Principles of Polymer Chemistry (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1953), p. 672] in conjunction with the solvent evaporation rate. To guide the solvent evaporation induced phase separation, equilibrium phase diagram of the starting polymer solution was established on the basis of the Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing. The quasi-steady-state approximation has been adopted to account for the nonconserved nature of the concentration field caused by the solvent loss. The process of solvent evaporation across the fiber skin-air interface was treated in accordance with the classical Fick's law [R. B. Bird et al., Transport Phenomena (J. Wiley, New York, 1960), p. 780]. The simulated morphologies include gradient type, hollow fiber type, bicontinuous type, and host-guest type. The development of these diverse fiber morphologies is explicable in terms of the phase diagram of the polymer solution in a manner dependent on the competition between the phase separation dynamics and rate of solvent evaporation.

  11. Peptides, proteins and peptide/protein-polymer conjugates as drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Biswajit; Karmakar, Swapna D; Hossain, Chowdhury M; Bhattacharya, Sanchari

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades, novel drug delivery strategies have been a big priority to the formulation scientists. Peptides and proteins have drawn a special attention for their wide scope in the area. Serum albumin, transferrin, recom- binant proteins, virus capsids etc. are used as carrier for drug and biomolecules. Conjugates of polymers with proteins have also shown strong potency in the field of drug delivery. Polyethylene glycol is one of the most successful polymers that has been used extensively to develop protein conjugated formulations. Besides, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polylactic-co- glycolic acid, N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymer, polyglutamic acid have also been investigated. In this re- view, we will highlight on the most recent overview of various advantages, limitations and marketed products of proteins, peptides and protein/peptide-polymer conjugates as drug carriers, such products in clinical trials and their various uses in the field of modern drug delivery. Understanding the key features of these materials and the vigorous research in this field will develop new drug formulations that will combat various types of life-threatening diseases.

  12. Annual cycle solar energy utilization with seasonal storage. Part 8. Study on periodic steady state of the annual cycle energy system at a practical operation; Kisetsukan chikunetsu ni yoru nenkan cycle taiyo energy riyo system ni kansuru kenkyu. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H; Okumiya, M [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A study was made of the periodic steady state of the annual cycle solar energy system with seasonal heat storage at a practical operation. Cold heat in winter and warm heat in summer are stored in the seasonal storage tank, and these are each used in shift until when demand for cold/warm heat appears. Moreover, gap in quantity of cold/warm heat going in/out of the heat storage tank during a year is filled by natural energy such as solar energy, so that the system can be operated in annual cycles. Studies were conducted of the periodic unsteady term and the problem on lowering of performance during the term such as the periodic unsteady term of water temperature inside the seasonal heat storage tank and temperature of the soil around the storage tank, and the level of lowering of performance during the term, necessity of additional operation/control at the start of operation and aged deterioration of the system. Within the assumption, even if starting operation in any time of the year, the system could show the performance almost expected from the first operation year with no additional system operation and control required only at the start of operation. It is thought that the heat source selection control of heat pump largely contributes to this. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. US Department of Energy National Solid Waste Information Management System (NSWIMS): Annual report for calendar year 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, W.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) is the database used to gather information for the US Department of Energy (DOE) on DOE and Department of Defense solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The National SWIMS Annual Report (NSWIMS) provides officials of the DOE with management information on the entire DOE/defense solid LLW cycle. The acronym for the annual report, NSWIMS, signifies that an improved format has been developed to make this document a more useful tool for assessing solid LLW management performance. Part I provides a composite summary of the DOE/defense solid LLW management. It includes data related to waste generation, forecasting, treatment, and disposal. Part II contains SWIMS computer-supplied information with discussions of the data presented, standardized and simplified data tables, and revised figures. All data are presented without interpretation and are potentially useful to users for evaluating trends, identifying possible problem areas, and defining future implications. 33 figs., 29 tabs.

  14. Calculation of liquid-liquid phase separation in a ternary system of a polymer in a mixture of a solvent and a nonsolvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, Frank W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical method for the calculation of the binodal of liquid-liquid phase separation in a ternary system is described. The Flory-Huggins theory for three-component systems is used. Binodals are calculated for polymer/solvent/nonsolvent systems which are used in the preparation of asymmetric

  15. Colorimetric biomimetic sensor systems based on molecularly imprinted polymer membranes for highly-selective detection of phenol in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeyeva T. A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of an easy-to-use colorimetric sensor system for fast and accurate detection of phenol in envi- ronmental samples. Methods. Technique of molecular imprinting, method of in situ polymerization of molecularly imprinted polymer membranes. Results. The proposed sensor is based on free-standing molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP membranes, synthesized by in situ polymerization, and having in their structure artificial binding sites capable of selective phenol recognition. The quantitative detection of phenol, selectively adsorbed by the MIP membranes, is based on its reaction with 4-aminoantipyrine, which gives a pink-colored product. The intensity of staining of the MIP membrane is proportional to phenol concentration in the analyzed sample. Phenol can be detected within the range 50 nM–10 mM with limit of detection 50 nM, which corresponds to the concentrations that have to be detected in natural and waste waters in accordance with environmental protection standards. Stability of the MIP-membrane-based sensors was assessed during 12 months storage at room temperature. Conclusions. The sensor system provides highly-selective and sensitive detection of phenol in both mo- del and real (drinking, natural, and waste water samples. As compared to traditional methods of phenol detection, the proposed system is characterized by simplicity of operation and can be used in non-laboratory conditions.

  16. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1 synthetic and (2 natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogels and other water soluble drug polymer complexes have also been explained. The general properties and applications of different water soluble polymers in the formulation of different dosage forms, novel delivery systems and biomedical applications will be discussed.

  17. White polymer light-emitting diode based on polymer blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Kyun; Kwon, Soon Kab; Kim, Jun Young; Park, Tae Jin; Song, Dae Ho; Kwon, Jang Hyuk; Choo, Dong Jun; Jang, Jin; Jin, Jae Kyu; You, Hong

    2006-01-01

    A series of white polymer light emitting devices have been fabricated by using a polymer blending system of polyfluorene-based blue and MEH-PPV red polymers. A device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer/LiF/Al was employed. The white polymer device exhibited a current efficiency of 4.33 cd/A (4,816 cd/m 2 , Q.E. = 1.9 %) and a maximum luminance of 21,430 cd/m 2 at 9.2 V. The CIE coordinates were (0.35, 0.37) at 5 V and (0.29, 0.30) at 9 V.

  18. Annual Surveillance Summary: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    2017 Section B – Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Regional Multidrug Resistance The 2016 annual incidence rate of P. aeruginosa among all MHS...characteristics, prescription practices, and antibiotic resistance patterns observed for P. aeruginosa infections in calendar year (CY) 2016. Multiple...decreased and the majority of infections occurred in those over 65 years of age. Regional distribution of infections and drug resistance followed the

  19. Annual Surveillance Summary: Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the U.S. Government . i i VRE in the MHS: Annual Summary 2016 Prepared...continually increased from 1.16 infections per 100,000 persons in 2013 to 1.60 infections per 100,000 persons in 2015. A recent meta -analysis of VRE...associated with infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in the United States: systematic literature review and meta -analysis. Infect

  20. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1994-08-01

    A coordinated research program involving synthesis, characterization, and rheology has been undertaken to develop advanced polymer system which should be significantly more efficient than polymers presently used for mobility control and conformance. Unlike the relatively inefficient, traditional EOR polymers, these advanced polymer systems possess microstructural features responsive to temperature, electrolyte concentration, and shear conditions. Contents of this report include the following chapters. (1) First annual report responsive copolymers for enhanced oil recovery. (2) Copolymers of acrylamide and sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate. (3) Terpolymers of NaAMB, Am, and n-decylacrylamide. (4) Synthesis and characterization of electrolyte responsive terpolymers of acrylamide, N-(4-butyl)phenylacrylamide, and sodium acrylate, sodium-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphonate or sodium-3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate. (5) Synthesis and solution properties of associative acrylamido copolymers with pyrensulfonamide fluorescence labels. (6) Photophysical studies of the solution behavior of associative pyrenesulfonamide-labeled polyacrylamides. (7) Ampholytic copolymers of sodium 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonate with [2-(acrylamido)-2-methypropyl]trimethylammonium chloride. (8) Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphoante and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethyl-ammonium chloride and (9) Polymer solution extensional behavior in porous media.

  1. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System : Annual Report 1990-1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Maynard, D.J.; Downing, S.L. (and others)

    1994-01-01

    In 1983, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) began a multiyear cooperative research program with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to evaluate a new miniaturized identification system that could be used with salmonids. The system is referred to as the passive-integrated-transponder (PIT) tagging and interrogation system. The program has focused on determining the effects of PIT tags on juvenile and adult salmonids, as well as the development and evaluation of tagging and interrogation methods. Earlier results of the program have been reported in annual reports and journal articles cited in this report. This report covers the work per formed from 1990 through 1993. For convenience, the report is divided into three sections: (1) Interrogation and separation systems at Columbia River Basin dams; (2) Systems development and evaluation; and (3) Information and technology transfer.

  2. A Promising Combo Gene Delivery System Developed from (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-Modified Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Cationic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zubin; Song, Lina; Dong, Jinlai; Guo, Dawei; Du, Xiaolin; Cao, Biyin; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning; Mao, Xinliang

    2013-05-01

    (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-modified iron oxide nanoparticles (APTES-IONPs) have been evaluated for various biomedical applications, including medical imaging and drug delivery. Cationic polymers (CPs) such as Lipofectamine and TurboFect are widely used for research in gene delivery, but their toxicity and low in vivo efficiency limited their further application. In the present study, we synthesized water-soluble APTES-IONPs and developed a combo gene delivery system based on APTES-IONPs and CPs. This system significantly increased gene-binding capacity, protected genes from degradation, and improved gene transfection efficiency for DNA and siRNA in both adherent and suspension cells. Because of its great biocompatibility, high gene-carrying ability, and very low cytotoxicity, this combo gene delivery system will be expected for a wide application, and it might provide a new method for gene therapy.

  3. A Promising Combo Gene Delivery System Developed from (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-Modified Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Cationic Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zubin; Song Lina; Dong Jinlai; Guo Dawei; Du Xiaolin; Cao Biyin; Zhang Yu; Gu Ning; Mao Xinliang

    2013-01-01

    (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-modified iron oxide nanoparticles (APTES-IONPs) have been evaluated for various biomedical applications, including medical imaging and drug delivery. Cationic polymers (CPs) such as Lipofectamine and TurboFect are widely used for research in gene delivery, but their toxicity and low in vivo efficiency limited their further application. In the present study, we synthesized water-soluble APTES-IONPs and developed a combo gene delivery system based on APTES-IONPs and CPs. This system significantly increased gene-binding capacity, protected genes from degradation, and improved gene transfection efficiency for DNA and siRNA in both adherent and suspension cells. Because of its great biocompatibility, high gene-carrying ability, and very low cytotoxicity, this combo gene delivery system will be expected for a wide application, and it might provide a new method for gene therapy.

  4. Integration of polystyrene microlenses with both convex and concave profiles in a polymer-based microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-12-20

    This paper reports a new technique of fabricating polystyrene microlenses with both convex and concave profiles that are integrated in polymer-based microfluidic system. The polystyrene microlenses, or microlens array, are fabricated using the free-surface thermal compression molding method. The laser fabricated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheet is used as the mold for the thermal compression molding process. With different surface treatment methods of the PMMA mold, microlenses with either convex or concave profiles could be achieved during the thermal molding process. By integrating the microlenses in the microfluidic systems, observing the flow inside the microchannels is easier. This new technique is rapid, low cost, and it does not require cleanroom facilities. Microlenses with both convex and concave profiles can be easily fabricated and integrated in microfluidic system with this technique. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Improvement of N-phthaloylchitosan based gel polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells using a binary salt system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, S N F; Azzahari, A D; Selvanathan, V; Yahya, R; Careem, M A; Arof, A K

    2017-02-10

    A binary salt system utilizing lithium iodide (LiI) as the auxiliary component has been introduced to the N-phthaloylchitosan (PhCh) based gel polymer electrolyte consisting of ethylene carbonate (EC), dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrapropylammonium iodide (TPAI), and iodine (I 2 ) in order to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with efficiency of 6.36%, photocurrent density, J SC of 17.29mAcm -2 , open circuit voltage, V OC of 0.59V and fill factor, FF of 0.62. This efficiency value is an improvement from the 5.00% performance obtained by the DSSC consisting of only TPAI single salt system. The presence of the LiI in addition to the TPAI improves the charge injection rates and increases the iodide contribution to the total conductivity and both factors contribute to the increase in efficiency of the DSSC. The interaction behavior between polymer-plasticizer-salt was thoroughly investigated using EIS, FTIR spectroscopy and XRD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel approach for analyzing glass-transition temperature vs. composition patterns: application to pharmaceutical compound+polymer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, Ioannis M

    2011-04-18

    In medicine, polymer-based materials are commonly used as excipients of poorly water-soluble drugs. The success of the encapsulation, as well as the physicochemical stability of the products, is often reflected on their glass transition temperature (T(g)) vs. composition (w) dependencies. The shape of the T(g)(w) patterns is critically influenced by polymer's molecular mass, drug molecule's shape and molecular volume, the type and degree of shielding of hydrogen-bonding capable functional groups, as well as aspects of the preparation process. By altering mixture's T(g) the amorphous solid form of the active ingredient may be retained at ambient or body temperatures, with concomitant improvements in handling, solubility, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. Given the importance of the problem, the glass transitions observed in pharmaceutical mixtures have been extensively analyzed, aiming to appraise the state of mixing and intermolecular interactions. Here, accumulated experimental information on related systems is re-evaluated and comparably discussed under the light of a more effective and system-inclusive T(g)(w) equation. The present analysis indicates that free volume modifications and conformational changes of the macromolecular chains dominate, over enthalpic effects of mixing, in determining thermal characteristics and crystallization inhibition/retardation. Moreover, hydrogen-bonding and ion-dipole heterocontacts--although favorable of a higher degree of mixing--appear less significant compared to the steric hindrances and the antiplasticization proffered by the higher viscosity component. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo evaluation of anionic thiolated polymers as oral delivery systems for efflux pump inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmberger, Thomas F; Laffleur, Flavia; Greindl, Melanie; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the cationic polymer thiolated chitosan has been reported to modulate drug absorption by inhibition of intestinal efflux pumps. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo whether thiolated anionic biopolymers also show an efflux pump inhibitory effect in order to improve intestinal transcellular drug uptake. Therefore, three thiomers have been synthesized due covalent attachment of cysteine to various polymer backbones: pectin-cysteine (pect-cys), carboxymethylcellulose-cysteine (CMC-cys) and alginate-cysteine (alg-cys). In vitro, the permeation enhancing properties of these thiomers and their corresponding unmodified polymers have been evaluated on rat small intestine in Ussing-type chambers, using sulforhodamine 101 (SR-101) as MRP2 model substrate. In comparison to buffer only, SR-101 transport in presence of pect-cys, CMC-cys and alg-cys was improved 1.5-fold, 1.8-fold and 3.0-fold, respectively. Due to the comparatively best in vitro performance of thiolated alginate, it has been chosen for in vivo studies: a SR-101 solution containing 4% (w/v) alg-cys led to an AUC0 ≥ 12 of SR-101 of 109 ng ml(-1)h in rats representing a 3.8-fold improvement in comparison to a SR-101 buffer solution. Unmodified alginate improved the AUC0 ≥ 12 of SR-101 by a factor of 1.9. These findings suggest thiolated alginate as promising auxiliary agent for drugs being anionic efflux pump substrates, since the oral bioavailability of a MRP2 substrate could be significantly improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optical absorption studies on biodegradable PVA/PVP blend polymer electrolyte system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, S. K. Shahenoor; Reddy, K. Veera Bhadra; Rao, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable blend polymer electrolytes of PVA/PVP with different wt% ratios of MgCl2.6H2O have been prepared using solution cast technique. Optical absorption studies were carried-out on to the prepared films at room temperature using JASCO V-670 Spectrophotometer in the wavelength region 200-600 nm. Due to the clusters between the vibrations of molecules a broad peak is obtained due to п-п* transition in the wavelength region 310-340 nm.

  9. Theoretical study on naphthobischalcogenadiazole conjugated polymer systems and C61 derivative as organic photovoltaic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takehiro; Matsui, Toru; Sumita, Masato; Imamura, Yutaka; Morihashi, Kenji

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the charge-transfer reactions of solar cells including a quaterthiophene copolymer with naphtho-bis-thiadiazole (PNTz4T) and naphtho-bis-oxadiazole (PNOz4T) using constrained density functional theory (CDFT). According to our calculations, the high electron-transfer rate results in a highly efficient solar cell, and the stable charge-transfer state results in low energy loss. Our computations imply that the following three factors are crucial to improve the performance of semiconducting polymers: (i) large structural changes following charge-transfer, (ii) narrow band gap, and (iii) spatially delocalized lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the ground state.

  10. Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) based antenna for flexible system on package (SoP) applications

    KAUST Repository

    Marnat, Loic; Shamim, Atif

    2012-01-01

    The design, fabrication and measurement of a bowtie antenna on a flexible Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate is reported in this paper. The antenna is fed by a balun transition which helps improve the gain up to 5.1 dB. The antenna performance is analyzed for both planar and curved substrates. The comparison between simulation and measurements shows a good agreement. This structure can either be used to sense the bending of the substrate or use the bending to tilt the beam. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Synthetic approaches towards new polymer systems by the combination of living carbocationic and anionic polymerizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Jesper; Ivan, Bela; Muller, Axel. H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent efforts to obtain block copolymers by combination of living carbocationic and anionic polymerizations are presented.When tolyl-ended polyisobutylene was used as macroinitiator of anionic polymerization of methacrylate derivatives mixtures of homopolymers and block copolymers were formed due...... to incomplete lithiation of this chain end.In another approach a new functionalization method was developed by end-quenching living polyisobutylene with 1,1-diphenylethylene. After transformation of the groups into 2,2-diphenylvinyl end groups and lithiation polymers were synthesized from protected acrylate...

  12. Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) based antenna for flexible system on package (SoP) applications

    KAUST Repository

    Marnat, Loic

    2012-06-01

    The design, fabrication and measurement of a bowtie antenna on a flexible Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate is reported in this paper. The antenna is fed by a balun transition which helps improve the gain up to 5.1 dB. The antenna performance is analyzed for both planar and curved substrates. The comparison between simulation and measurements shows a good agreement. This structure can either be used to sense the bending of the substrate or use the bending to tilt the beam. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. The effect of phase morphology on the nature of long-lived charges in semiconductor polymer:fullerene systems

    KAUST Repository

    Dou, Fei; Domingo, Ester; Sakowicz, Maciej; Rezasoltani, Elham; McCarthy-Ward, Thomas; Heeney, Martin; Zhang, Xinping; Stingelin, Natalie; Silva, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effect of phase morphology on the nature of charges in poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecyl-thiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2,-b]thiophene) (pBTTT-C16) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) blends over timescales greater than hundreds of microseconds by quasi-steady-state photoinduced absorption spectroscopy. Specifically, we compare an essentially fully intermixed, one-phase system based on a 1 : 1 (by weight) pBTTT-C16 : PC61BM blend, known to form a co-crystal structure, with a two-phase morphology composed of relatively material-pure domains of the neat polymer and neat fullerene. The co-crystal occurs at a composition of up to 50 wt% PC61BM, because pBTTT-C16 is capable of hosting fullerene derivatives such as PC61BM in the cavities between its side chains. In contrast, the predominantly two-phase system can be obtained by manipulating a 1 : 1 polymer : fullerene blend with the assistance of a fatty acid methyl ester (dodecanoic acid methyl ester, Me12) as additive, which hinders co-crystal formation. We find that triplet excitons and polarons are generated in both phase morphologies. However, polarons are generated in the predominantly two-phase system at higher photon energy than for the structure based on the co-crystal phase. By means of a quasi-steady-state solution of a mesoscopic rate model, we demonstrate that the steady-state polaron generation efficiency and recombination rates are higher in the finely intermixed, one-phase system compared to the predominantly phase-pure, two-phase morphology. We suggest that the polarons generated in highly intermixed structures, such as the co-crystal investigated here, are localised polarons while those generated in the phase-separated polymer and fullerene systems are delocalised polarons. We expect this picture to apply generally to other organic-based heterojunctions of complex phase morphologies including donor:acceptor systems that form, for instance, molecularly mixed amorphous solid

  14. US Department of Energy National Solid Waste Information Management System (NSWIMS) annual report for calendar year 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T.

    1989-09-01

    This report is generated annually from the National Solid Waste Information Management System (SWIMS) database. The SWIMS database operates under NOMAD2, fourth generation database management system. The database resides on an IBM 3083 mainframe with a virtual machine operating system. This system was implemented to meet the requirements of Energy Research and Development Administration Manual. The SWIMS database has kept pace with requirements of subsequent directives and complies with current Department of Energy (DOE) orders for retention of data on the management of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW). SWIMS provides a comprehensive method for collecting and maintaining data related to management of US DOE and Department of Defense (DOE/Defense) related LLW. 33 figs., 29 tabs.

  15. Annual Report, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, Herma G.; Leadbetter, Alan J.

    1999-01-01

    In this Annual Report a selection of about 30 scientific achievements are highlighted. These are intended to represent the huge range of high quality research carried out at ILL. In 1998 about 750 experiments were performed in the 225 days of reactor operation. The fields of magnetism and strongly correlated electron systems continue to be fertile and to throw up strong new growth. Remarkable new advances are coming from the applications of both existing and new neutron techniques and the development of new materials. These highlights concern superconductors, nano-magnetic particles, colossal magneto-resistance, magnetic-nuclear correlations, quantum spin systems and more. Novel magnetic measurements are also reported for a quasicrystal and on thin films of both normal and superconducting materials. Thanks to special abilities of neutrons to penetrate matter new results were obtained: following the production of novel intermetallic compounds, pressure dependence of phonon frequencies, the structure of glasses, solutions (in both bulk and thin films) and adsorbed phases; dynamics and relaxation in liquids; the confirmation of reptant motion in linear polymers, self-assembly and shear phenomena in liquid crystals. Three important results from nuclear physics are also included. These involve: fission-produced neutron-rich nuclei, weighing gamma photons in connection with the determination of fundamental constants and the determination of interatomic potentials from the slowing down process of atoms recoiling from gamma-ray emission - a direct link between nuclear and solid-state physics. The neutron experiments of importance for particle physics and biology will be reported next year

  16. Annual Report, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Herma G; Leadbetter, Alan J [eds.; Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1999-11-01

    In this Annual Report a selection of about 30 scientific achievements are highlighted. These are intended to represent the huge range of high quality research carried out at ILL. In 1998 about 750 experiments were performed in the 225 days of reactor operation. The fields of magnetism and strongly correlated electron systems continue to be fertile and to throw up strong new growth. Remarkable new advances are coming from the applications of both existing and new neutron techniques and the development of new materials. These highlights concern superconductors, nano-magnetic particles, colossal magneto-resistance, magnetic-nuclear correlations, quantum spin systems and more. Novel magnetic measurements are also reported for a quasicrystal and on thin films of both normal and superconducting materials. Thanks to special abilities of neutrons to penetrate matter new results were obtained: following the production of novel intermetallic compounds, pressure dependence of phonon frequencies, the structure of glasses, solutions (in both bulk and thin films) and adsorbed phases; dynamics and relaxation in liquids; the confirmation of reptant motion in linear polymers, self-assembly and shear phenomena in liquid crystals. Three important results from nuclear physics are also included. These involve: fission-produced neutron-rich nuclei, weighing gamma photons in connection with the determination of fundamental constants and the determination of interatomic potentials from the slowing down process of atoms recoiling from gamma-ray emission - a direct link between nuclear and solid-state physics. The neutron experiments of importance for particle physics and biology will be reported next year

  17. Optimizing Polymer Infusion Process for Thin Ply Textile Composites with Novel Matrix System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somen K. Bhudolia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For mass production of structural composites, use of different textile patterns, custom preforming, room temperature cure high performance polymers and simplistic manufacturing approaches are desired. Woven fabrics are widely used for infusion processes owing to their high permeability but their localised mechanical performance is affected due to inherent associated crimps. The current investigation deals with manufacturing low-weight textile carbon non-crimp fabrics (NCFs composites with a room temperature cure epoxy and a novel liquid Methyl methacrylate (MMA thermoplastic matrix, Elium®. Vacuum assisted resin infusion (VARI process is chosen as a cost effective manufacturing technique. Process parameters optimisation is required for thin NCFs due to intrinsic resistance it offers to the polymer flow. Cycles of repetitive manufacturing studies were carried out to optimise the NCF-thermoset (TS and NCF with novel reactive thermoplastic (TP resin. It was noticed that the controlled and optimised usage of flow mesh, vacuum level and flow speed during the resin infusion plays a significant part in deciding the final quality of the fabricated composites. The material selections, the challenges met during the manufacturing and the methods to overcome these are deliberated in this paper. An optimal three stage vacuum technique developed to manufacture the TP and TS composites with high fibre volume and lower void content is established and presented.

  18. Optimizing Polymer Infusion Process for Thin Ply Textile Composites with Novel Matrix System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhudolia, Somen K; Perrotey, Pavel; Joshi, Sunil C

    2017-03-15

    For mass production of structural composites, use of different textile patterns, custom preforming, room temperature cure high performance polymers and simplistic manufacturing approaches are desired. Woven fabrics are widely used for infusion processes owing to their high permeability but their localised mechanical performance is affected due to inherent associated crimps. The current investigation deals with manufacturing low-weight textile carbon non-crimp fabrics (NCFs) composites with a room temperature cure epoxy and a novel liquid Methyl methacrylate (MMA) thermoplastic matrix, Elium ® . Vacuum assisted resin infusion (VARI) process is chosen as a cost effective manufacturing technique. Process parameters optimisation is required for thin NCFs due to intrinsic resistance it offers to the polymer flow. Cycles of repetitive manufacturing studies were carried out to optimise the NCF-thermoset (TS) and NCF with novel reactive thermoplastic (TP) resin. It was noticed that the controlled and optimised usage of flow mesh, vacuum level and flow speed during the resin infusion plays a significant part in deciding the final quality of the fabricated composites. The material selections, the challenges met during the manufacturing and the methods to overcome these are deliberated in this paper. An optimal three stage vacuum technique developed to manufacture the TP and TS composites with high fibre volume and lower void content is established and presented.

  19. Unlocking Chain Exchange in Highly Amphiphilic Block Polymer Micellar Systems: Influence of Agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ryan P; Kelley, Elizabeth G; Rogers, Simon A; Sullivan, Millicent O; Epps, Thomas H

    2014-11-18

    Chain exchange between block polymer micelles in highly selective solvents, such as water, is well-known to be arrested under quiescent conditions, yet this work demonstrates that simple agitation methods can induce rapid chain exchange in these solvents. Aqueous solutions containing either pure poly(butadiene- b -ethylene oxide) or pure poly(butadiene- b -ethylene oxide- d 4 ) micelles were combined and then subjected to agitation by vortex mixing, concentric cylinder Couette flow, or nitrogen gas sparging. Subsequently, the extent of chain exchange between micelles was quantified using small angle neutron scattering. Rapid vortex mixing induced chain exchange within minutes, as evidenced by a monotonic decrease in scattered intensity, whereas Couette flow and sparging did not lead to measurable chain exchange over the examined time scale of hours. The linear kinetics with respect to agitation time suggested a surface-limited exchange process at the air-water interface. These findings demonstrate the strong influence of processing conditions on block polymer solution assemblies.

  20. Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  1. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  2. Laser self-mixing interferometry in VCSELs - an ultra-compact and massproduceable deflection detection system for nanomechanical polymer cantilever sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2008-01-01

    We have realised an ultra-compact deflection detection system based on laser self-mixing interferometry in a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL). The system can be used together with polymer nanomechanical cantilevers to form chemical sensors capable of detecting less than 1nm deflection....

  3. Real-Time PCR using a PCR Microchip with Integrated Thermal System and Polymer Waveguides for the Detection of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Sekulovic, Andrea; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2006-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR microchip platform with integrated thermal system and polymer waveguides has been developed. By using the integrated optical system of the real-time PCR chip, cadF – a virulence gene of Campylobacter jejuni, could specifically be detected. Two different DNA binding dyes, SYTOX...

  4. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Veeran Gowda Kadajji; Guru V. Betageri

    2011-01-01

    Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. A large number of natural and synthetic polymers are available. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. They have been explained in two categories (1) synthetic and (2) natural. Drug polymer conjugates, block copolymers, hydrogel...

  5. CEREF: A hybrid data-driven model for forecasting annual streamflow from a socio-hydrological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Singh, Vijay P.; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yinghao

    2016-09-01

    Hydrological forecasting is complicated by flow regime alterations in a coupled socio-hydrologic system, encountering increasingly non-stationary, nonlinear and irregular changes, which make decision support difficult for future water resources management. Currently, many hybrid data-driven models, based on the decomposition-prediction-reconstruction principle, have been developed to improve the ability to make predictions of annual streamflow. However, there exist many problems that require further investigation, the chief among which is the direction of trend components decomposed from annual streamflow series and is always difficult to ascertain. In this paper, a hybrid data-driven model was proposed to capture this issue, which combined empirical mode decomposition (EMD), radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN), and external forces (EF) variable, also called the CEREF model. The hybrid model employed EMD for decomposition and RBFNN for intrinsic mode function (IMF) forecasting, and determined future trend component directions by regression with EF as basin water demand representing the social component in the socio-hydrologic system. The Wuding River basin was considered for the case study, and two standard statistical measures, root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE), were used to evaluate the performance of CEREF model and compare with other models: the autoregressive (AR), RBFNN and EMD-RBFNN. Results indicated that the CEREF model had lower RMSE and MAE statistics, 42.8% and 7.6%, respectively, than did other models, and provided a superior alternative for forecasting annual runoff in the Wuding River basin. Moreover, the CEREF model can enlarge the effective intervals of streamflow forecasting compared to the EMD-RBFNN model by introducing the water demand planned by the government department to improve long-term prediction accuracy. In addition, we considered the high-frequency component, a frequent subject of concern in EMD

  6. Polymer chemistry (revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Mum

    1987-02-01

    This book deals with polymer chemistry, which is divided into fourteen chapters. The contents of this book are development of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer, molecule structure of polymer, thermal prosperities of solid polymer, basic theory of polymerization, radical polymerization, ion polymerization, radical polymerization, copolymerization, polymerization by step-reaction, polymer reaction, crown polymer and inorganic polymer on classification and process of creation such as polymeric sulfur and carbon fiber.

  7. Combination of Polymer Technology and Carbon Nanotube Array for the Development of an Effective Drug Delivery System at Cellular Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggio Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, a carbon nanotube (CNT array-based system combined with a polymer thin film is proposed as an effective drug release device directly at cellular level. The polymeric film embedded in the CNT array is described and characterized in terms of release kinetics, while in vitro assays on PC12 cell line have been performed in order to assess the efficiency and functionality of the entrapped agent (neural growth factor, NGF. PC12 cell differentiation, following incubation on the CNT array embedding the alginate delivery film, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The achieved results indicate that polymeric technology could be efficiently embedded in CNT array acting as drug delivery system at cellular level. The implication of this study opens several perspectives in particular in the field of neurointerfaces, combining several functions into a single platform.

  8. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4

  9. Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute: Year Three Annual Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Yvonne; Schmidt, Greg; Kring, David; Horanyi, Mihaly; Heldmann, Jennifer; Glotch, Timothy; Rivkin, Andy; Farrell, William; Pieters, Carle; Bottke, William; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is pleased to present the 2016 Annual Report. Each year brings new scientific discoveries, technological breakthroughs, and collaborations. The integration of basic research and development, industry and academic partnerships, plus the leveraging of existing technologies, has further opened a scientific window into human exploration. SSERVI sponsorship by the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) continues to enable the exchange of insights between the human exploration and space science communities, paving a clearer path for future space exploration. SSERVI provides a unique environment for scientists and engineers to interact within multidisciplinary research teams. As a virtual institute, the best teaming arrangements can be made irrespective of the geographical location of individuals or laboratory facilities. The interdisciplinary science that ensues from virtual and in-person interactions, both within the teams and across team lines, provides answers to questions that many times cannot be foreseen. Much of this research would not be accomplished except for the catalyzing, collaborative environment enabled by SSERVI. The SSERVI Central Office, located at NASA Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, California, provides the leadership, guidance and technical support that steers the virtual institute. At the start of 2016, our institute had nine U.S. teams, each mid-way through their five-year funding cycle, plus nine international partnerships. However, by the end of the year we were well into the selection of four new domestic teams, selected through NASA's Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) process, and a new international partnership. Understanding that human and robotic exploration is most successful as an international endeavor, international partnerships collaborate with SSERVI domestic teams on a no-exchange of funds basis

  10. Mathematical modeling of degradation for bulk-erosive polymers: applications in tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhang; Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Qing

    2011-03-01

    The degradation of polymeric biomaterials, which are widely exploited in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems, has drawn significant attention in recent years. This paper aims to develop a mathematical model that combines stochastic hydrolysis and mass transport to simulate the polymeric degradation and erosion process. The hydrolysis reaction is modeled in a discrete fashion by a fundamental stochastic process and an additional autocatalytic effect induced by the local carboxylic acid concentration in terms of the continuous diffusion equation. Illustrative examples of microparticles and tissue scaffolds demonstrate the applicability of the model. It is found that diffusive transport plays a critical role in determining the degradation pathway, whilst autocatalysis makes the degradation size dependent. The modeling results show good agreement with experimental data in the literature, in which the hydrolysis rate, polymer architecture and matrix size actually work together to determine the characteristics of the degradation and erosion processes of bulk-erosive polymer devices. The proposed degradation model exhibits great potential for the design optimization of drug carriers and tissue scaffolds. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoluminescence in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furst, J.E.; Laugesen, R.; Dastoor, P.; McNeill, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Conjugated polymers combine the electronic and optical properties of semiconductors with the processability of polymers. They contain a sequence of alternate single and double carbon bonds so that the overlap of unhybridised p z orbitals creates a delocalised ρ system which gives semiconducting properties with p-bonding (valence) and p* -antibonding (conduction) bands. Photoluminesence (PL) in conjugated polymers results from the radiative decay of singlet excitons confined to a single chain. The present work is the first in a series of studies in our laboratory that will characterize the optical properties of conjugated polymers. The experiment involves the illumination of thin films of conjugated polymer with UV light (I=360 nm) and observing the subsequent fluorescence using a custom-built, fluorescence spectrometer. Photoluminesence spectra provide basic information about the structure of the polymer film. A typical spectrum is shown in the accompanying figure. The position of the first peak is related to the polymer chain length and resolved multiple vibronic peaks are an indication of film structure and morphology. We will also present results related to the optical degradation of these materials when exposed to air and UV light

  12. A rheological study of hydrophobic-surface-active polymer systems structuration; Etude rheologique de la structuration de systemes polymere hydrophobe-tensioactif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, E.

    1997-01-29

    This work deals with the study of the rheology and the structuration of hydrophobic polymer and surfactant systems. The used associative polymers are acrylamide/nonyl methacrylate copolymers and the surfactant is nonionic. They are particularly used for hydrocarbons extraction techniques as drilling (drilling fluids) or wells cementation. The studied materials are first characterized by different analytic techniques. This preliminary stage of the work gives a good insight of the physico-chemical parameters of the systems. The effect of surfactant was shown by studying the variation of Newtonian viscosity as a function of surfactant concentration. This yields bell curves, whose maximum determines the critical aggregation concentration (cac). The hydrophobic effect is analysed in different polymer concentration regimes, in quasi-static conditions, and under shear. The study of the dynamic visco-elasticity of semi-dilute solutions allows to observe the effect of the hydrophobic associations on the relaxation time of the chains. The system can be described as a superposition of two networks of junctions: the network of physical entanglements and a second one formed by the hydrophobic links. Phenomena of structuration have been observed at room temperature for surfactant concentrations close to the cac. The increase of viscosity or elastic modulus can be 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. The effect of the temperature on the structure of the systems is studied as well. The rheological characterization of the Sol-Gel transition is developed and the rheological behavior of the solutions in a structured state shows a critical stress for rupture of the structure. Microscopic observations of the birefringence of the solutions display the existence of lamellar vesicles, which leads to the following assumption: the formation of big spherulites create a rigidification of the macromolecular network. (author) 190 refs.

  13. Annual report on the Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 2. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2006. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2006 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2006

  14. Annual report on the Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 3. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2007. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2007 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2007

  15. A Compact Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC System with Inductive Sensor for Closed Loop Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC, of which a low actuating voltage (<5 V, high power efficiency and biocompatibility makes it a proven candidate for low power devices. However, due to its inherent nonlinear behaviour and time-variance, feedback control, as well as reliable sensing means, are required for accurate operations. This paper presents an IPMC actuator implemented with an inductive sensor to enhance the reliability and compactness of the overall device. A practical, low cost and importantly, compact inductive sensor fabricated on a printed circuit board (PCB is proposed here. Target material selections and coil design considerations are discussed. It is experimentally determined that the inductive sensor has comparable performance to a laser sensor. Based on a proportional-integral-derivative (PID control results the inductive sensor has demonstrated to be an alternative to a laser sensor allowing devices using IPMC actuators to be compact.

  16. Further Improvement and System Integration of High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    The strategic developments of the FURIM are in three steps: (1) further improvement of the high temperature polymer membranes and related materials; (2) development of technological units including fuel cell stack, hydrocarbon reformer and afterburner, that are compatible with the HT-PEMFC; and (3......) integration of the HT-PEMFC stack with these compatible subunits. The main goal of the project is a 2kWel HT-PEMFC stack operating in a temperature range of 150-200°C, with a single cell performance target of 0.7 A/cm² at a cell voltage around 0.6 V. The target durability is more than 5,000 hours...

  17. Biomimetic insulin-imprinted polymer nanoparticles as a potential oral drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Pijush Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs, which form a three-dimensional image of the region at and around the active binding sites of pharmaceutically active insulin or are analogous to b cells bound to insulin. This approach was employed to create a welldefined structure within the nanospace cavities that make up functional monomers by cross-linking. The obtained MIPs exhibited a high adsorption capacity for the target insulin, which showed a significantly higher release of insulin in solution at pH 7.4 than at pH 1.2. In vivo studies on diabetic Wistar rats showed that the fast onset within 2 h is similar to subcutaneous injection with a maximum at 4 h, giving an engaged function responsible for the duration of glucose reduction for up to 24 h. These MIPs, prepared as nanosized material, may open a new horizon for oral insulin delivery.

  18. Adsorption and flocculation by polymers and polymer mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John; Barany, Sandor

    2011-11-14

    Polymers of various types are in widespread use as flocculants in several industries. In most cases, polymer adsorption is an essential prerequisite for flocculation and kinetic aspects are very important. The rates of polymer adsorption and of re-conformation (relaxation) of adsorbed chains are key factors that influence the performance of flocculants and their mode of action. Polyelectrolytes often tend to adopt a rather flat adsorbed configuration and in this state their action is mainly through charge effects, including 'electrostatic patch' attraction. When the relaxation rate is quite low, particle collisions may occur while the adsorbed chains are still in an extended state and flocculation by polymer bridging may occur. These effects are now well understood and supported by much experimental evidence. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the use of multi-component flocculants, especially dual-polymer systems. In the latter case, there can be significant advantages over the use of single polymers. Despite some complications, there is a broad understanding of the action of dual polymer systems. In many cases the sequence of addition of the polymers is important and the pre-adsorbed polymer can have two important effects: providing adsorption sites for the second polymer or causing a more extended adsorbed conformation as a result of 'site blocking'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    This technical report presents the age-adjusted total, and race and sex specific geographic patterns of cancer mortality for South Carolina (SC) counties utilizing the 1953--1987 average annual age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs). The mortality information was obtained from the State Cancer Control Map and Data Program produced by the National Cancer Institute , Centers for Disease Control and the American Cancer Society. The AAMRs for selected primary sites are classified as significantly different or not significantly different from the corresponding United States and SC mortality rates. Categories for classification of the rates are determined using 95% confidence intervals. Geographic patterns of significantly high county AAMRs are identified and discussed. Individual county rates are not emphasized. The terminology, mortality rates used throughout this report pertains to the 1953--1987 AAMRS.

  20. Pair interactions in polyelectrolyte-nanoparticle systems: Influence of dielectric inhomogeneities and the partial dissociation of polymers and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2015-01-01

    We study the effective pair interactions between two charged spherical particles in polyelectrolyte solutions using polymer self-consistent field theory. In a recent study [V. Pryamitsyn and V. Ganesan, Macromolecules 47, 6095 (2015)], we considered a model in which the particles possess fixed charge density, the polymers contain a prespecified amount of dissociated charges and, the dielectric constant of the solution was assumed to be homogeneous in space and independent of the polymer concentration. In this article, we present results extending our earlier model to study situations in which either or both the particle and the polymers possess partially dissociable groups. Additionally, we also consider the case when the dielectric constant of the solution depends on the local concentration of the polymers and when the particle’s dielectric constant is lower than that of the solvent. For each case, we quantify the polymer-mediated interactions between the particles as a function of the polymer concentrations and the degree of dissociation of the polymer and particles. Consistent with the results of our previous study, we observe that the polymer-mediated interparticle interactions consist of a short-range attraction and a long-range repulsion. The partial dissociablity of the polymer and particles was seen to have a strong influence on the strength of the repulsive portion of the interactions. Rendering the dielectric permittivity to be inhomogeneous has an even stronger effect on the repulsive interactions and results in changes to the qualitative nature of interactions in some parametric ranges

  1. Static and dynamic filtrations of different clay, electrolytes, polymer systems; Filtrations statiques et dynamiques de differents systemes argile, electrolytes, polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y

    1996-04-16

    Filtration properties of model drilling fluids composed of water, clays, electrolytes and water soluble polymers have been studied in static and dynamic conditions on paper filters and rock slices. Filtration experiments combined with cake observations by cryo-S.E.M. and T.E.M., show the influence of the size shape of clay particles as well as their associating mode in suspension, on the texture of the cake, its permeability, and relaxation properties. These parameters depend on the nature of the electrolyte. The polymer reduces the cake permeability by enhancing the dispersion of the clay within the suspension, but mainly by plugging the porous network due its auto aggregation properties. The cake construction in dynamic conditions, is related to the state of aggregation of the initial suspension, its poly-dispersity, its sensitivity to shear rates, and also, to the permeability of the cake built at the beginning of the filtration. In all cases, the rate of thickening of the cake is slower and larger filtrate volumes are obtained compared to the static conditions. Shear rate has two effects: first, to dissociate the weak aggregates in suspension, second, to impose a size selection of the particles in the case of a poly-dispersed suspension. At high shear rates, a cake of constant thin thickness is quickly obtained. The thickness of this limiting cake depends on the fraction of small particles present in suspension, or that can be formed by dissociation of weak aggregates under shear rate. The permeability of this limiting cake formed in dynamic conditions is, as in static conditions, controlled by the size and the shape of the particles that form the cake or by the presence of a build loss reducer water soluble polymer. Filtrations carried out on Fontainebleau sandstones allow to visualize the internal cake and to precise the risks of formation damage by the drilling fluid. (author) 127 refs.

  2. Rheology of Supramolecular Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabbir, Aamir

    Supramolecular polymers are a broad class of materials that include all polymerscapable of associating via secondary interactions. These materials represent an emerging class of systems with superior versatility compared to classical polymers with applications in food stuff, coatings, cost...... efficient processes or biomedical areas. Design and development of supramolecular polymers using ionic, hydrogen bonding or transition metal complexes with tailored properties requires deep understanding of dynamics both in linear and non-linear deformations. While linear rheology is important to understand...... the dynamics under equilibrium conditions, extensional rheology is relevant during the processing or in the usage of polymers utilizing supramolecular associations for example, acrylic based pressure sensitive adhesives are subjected to extensional deformations during the peeling where strain hardening...

  3. Piezoelectricity in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler, R.G.; Anderson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Piezoelectricity and related properties of polymers are reviewed. After presenting a historical overview of the field, the mathematical basis of piezo- and pyroelectricity is summarized. We show how the experimentally measured quantities are related to the changes in polarization and point out the serious inequlity between direct and converse piezoelectric coefficients in polymers. Theoretical models of the various origins of piezo- and pyroelectricity, which include piezoelectricity due to inhomogeneous material properties and strains, are reviewed. Relaxational effects are also considered. Experimental techniques are examined and the results for different materials are presented. Because of the considerable work in recent years polyimylidene fluoride, this polymer receives the majority of the attention. The numerous applications of piezo-and pyroelectric polymers are mentioned. This article concludes with a discussion of the possible role of piezo- and pyroelectricity in biological system

  4. Morphology control of MnO2 nanoparticles: Effect of P123 polymer in ethanol-water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of MnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by two-step reaction in the ethanol-water system with urea as reducing agent. During the novel routine, P123 polymer plays a crucial role in controlling the morphology. Then, characterization and systematic investigations of the samples by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the morphology of MnO2 nanoparticles changed as the raw materials ratio changed. Finally, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to confirm the crystal structure and the exact components. These results indicated the particles showed a rod-like shape without P123 and changed into sheet-like shape after the addition of P123. Therefore, this idea could be developed for the controllable synthesis of other metal oxide-based nanomaterials.

  5. Influence of Nanodisperse Metal Fillers on the Viscoelastic Properties and Processes of Mechanical Relaxation of Polymer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolupav, B. B.; Kolupaev, B. S.; Levchuk, V. V.; Maksimtsev, Yu. R.; Sidletskii, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The results of research into the viscoelastic properties and processes of mechanical relaxation of polyvinylchloride (PVC) containing Cu nanoparticles obtained by means of electroerosion crushing and electrohydraulic destruction of agglomerates of disperse Cu in the presence of an ultrasonic field are presented. It is shown that, in the case of longitudinal shear deformation at a frequency of 0.4 × 106 s-1 over a wide range of temperatures and content of ingredients, viscoelastic phenomena depending on structural changes in the PVC system occur. An analysis of quantitative results of the elastic and viscoelastic deformation of a body is carried out taking into account the energy and entropy components of interaction of the polymer and filler at their interface.

  6. Detection of bisphenol A in food packaging based on fluorescent conjugated polymer PPESO3 and enzyme system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yongxin; Liu, Jintong; Tong, Jin; Su, Xingguang

    2015-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a kind of carcinogen, which can interfere with the body's endocrine system. In this paper, a new kind of fluorescent sensor for BPA detection was established based on the fluorescent conjugated polymer PPESO3. The oxidative product of BPA is able to quench PPESO3 in the presence of HRP and H2O2, and the quenched PL intensity of PPESO3 was proportionally to the concentration of BPA in the range of 1-100 μmol/L with a detection limit of 4 × 10(-7) mol/L. The proposed method has been applied to detect BPA in eight food packaging samples with satisfactory results. The proposed method has the potential for the assay of BPA in food or food packaging samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Combination of SEDDS and Preactivated Thiomer Technology: Incorporation of a Preactivated Thiolated Amphiphilic Polymer into Self-Emulsifying Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, Gergely; Griesser, Janine; Nardin, Isabelle; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to create novel mucoadhesive drug delivery systems by incorporating amphiphilic hydrophobically modified, thiolated and preactivated polymers (preactivated thiomers) into self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). L-Cysteine methyl ester was covalently attached to the polymeric backbone of Pemulen TR-2 and preactivated using 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (2-MNA). These thiomers were incorporated in a concentration of 0.3% (w/v) into SEDDS. The size distribution and the zeta potential of the emulsions were evaluated by dynamic light scattering. Mucoadhesive properties of thiomers-SEDDS spiked with FDA (fluorescein diacetate) were examined utilizing rheological measurement, permeation studies and in vitro residence time study on porcine mucosa. Cell viability tests were additionally performed. 734 ± 58 μmol L-Cysteine methyl ester and 562 ± 71 μmol 2-MNA could be attached per gram polymer of Pemulen TR-2. Emulsions exhibited a droplet size range between 180 and 270 nm. Blank SEDDS possessed a zeta potential value between -5.7 and -8.6 mV, whereas thiomers-SEDDS between -14.6 and -17.2 mV. Viscous modulus of thiomer and preactivated thiomer containing SEDDS-mucus mixture was 8-fold and 11-fold increased in comparison to reference. The amount of FDA permeated the mucus layer was 2-fold lower in case of thiomers-SEDDS compared to blank SEDDS. A prolonged residence time was observed for thiomers-SEDDS over 45 min. During cell viability studies no severe toxic effects were detected. The novel developed SEDDS with incorporated thiomers might be a promising tool for mucoadhesive oral drug delivery.

  8. High-Throughput Fabrication of Nanocone Substrates through Polymer Injection Moulding For SERS Analysis in Microfluidic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viehrig, Marlitt; Matteucci, Marco; Thilsted, Anil H.

    analysis. Metal-capped silicon nanopillars, fabricated through a maskless ion etch, are state-of-the-art for on-chip SERS substrates. A dense cluster of high aspect ratio polymer nanocones was achieved by using high-throughput polymer injection moulding over a large area replicating a silicon nanopillar...... structure. Gold-capped polymer nanocones display similar SERS sensitivity as silicon nanopillars, while being easily integrable into a microfluidic chips....

  9. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  10. Use of two-phase aqueous systems based on water-soluble polymers in thin-layer and extraction chromatography for recovery and separtion of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molochnikova, N.P.; Shkinev, V.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility has been demonstrated of using two-phase aqueous systems based on water-soluble polymers, polyethylene glycol and dextran sulfate, in thin-layer and extraction chromatography for recovery and separation of actinides. A convenient method has been proposed for continuous recovery of 239 Np from 243 Am, originating from differences in sorption of tri- and pentavalent actinides from sulfate solutions containing potassium phosphotungstate by silica gel impregnated with polyethylene glycol. New plates for thin-layer chromatography using water-soluble polymers have been developed. These plates were used to study behavior of americium in various oxidation states in thin sorbent layers

  11. A microfluidic control system with re-usable micropump/valve actuator and injection moulded disposable polymer lab-on-a-slide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Yi, Sun

    2011-01-01

    A microfluidic control system consisting of micropump/valves with a re-usable pneumatic actuator and a disposable polymer lab-on-a-slide is presented. The lab-on-a-slide was fabricated using low cost methods, such as injection moulding of TOPAS® cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) slide, lamination...... of different layers of polymer, and ultrasonic welding of TOPAS® lid to the slide. The re-usable pneumatic actuator not only simplifies the design of the lab-on-a-slide and reduces the fabrication cost, but also reduces the possibility of cross contamination during replacement of the disposable lab...

  12. Annual CO-emissions of combined pellet and solar heating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Frank; Persson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Emissions are an important aspect of a pellet heating system. High carbon monoxide emissions are often caused by unnecessary cycling of the burner when the burner is operated below the lowest combustion power. Combining pellet heating systems with a solar heating system can significantly reduce cycling of the pellet heater and avoid the inefficient summer operation of the pellet heater. The aim of this paper was to study CO-emissions of the different types of systems and to compare the yearly...

  13. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  14. 77 FR 17407 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Annual Survey of School System Finances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... cannot provide information on the assets of individual school systems. School systems have the choice to... school systems in states where the state education agency cannot provide information on the indebtedness... information technology. Comments submitted in response to this notice will be summarized and/or included in...

  15. North Dakota University System Annual Financial Report, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota University System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report provides financial data for the North Dakota University System (the "System") for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2007. The Management Discussion and Analysis; the Statement of Net Assets; the Statement of Revenues, Expenses, and Changes in Net Assets; and the Statement of Cash Flows provide information on the System as a…

  16. An eight pushbutton control system for the PSU ultra-safe nuclear plant: Addendum to annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, M.A.

    1988-10-01

    The control system described in this report was developed for a ''Light Water Ultra-Safe Plant Concept'' studied at Penn State during a 2 year program funded by the Department of Energy. A reconfigured pressurized water reactor was designed which eliminated the conventional PWR pressurizer and added an active pumping system with a large dedicated water storage tank to control pressure. The thermal hydraulics aspects of the design were studied and reported in several master's theses and other addendum reports and first annual report. In addition to improving the inherent safety of an advanced plant by changes in the thermal hydraulic aspects of the design, a new approach to control system organization and design should also be included in an advanced plant. The study presented in this report modifies a conventional PWR plant control system to the needs of the Ultra-Safe Plant Concept and then describes implementation of the control system in a distributed network of control computers. The end result is a control system that is much simpler at the operator level. This simplicity should eliminate the possibility of operator error in the Ultra-Safe plant

  17. ANNUAL REPOR ANNUAL REPORT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    systems. G Ravindra Kumar sheds light on light and its interaction with matter. Technical breakthroughs ... fertilization of ideas and methods from ..... India's total water availability of ~ 4,000 cu. km. and ... Indo-Swedish 3rd meeting – special programme (STINT) (supported by ..... decisions yet to be made, were presented with.

  18. Morphology development in immiscible polymer blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinaels, R.M.; Moldenaers, P.; Guo, Qipeng

    This chapter discusses the morphology development of immiscible binary polymer blends. It first describes morphology development in droplet-matrix structures, the dynamics of fibrillar structures and cocontinuous structures. The chapter then considers binary immiscible polymer blends, such systems

  19. New Microlayer and Nanolayer Polymer Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baer, E

    2001-01-01

    ... (see attached, interim report (1/1/99 - 12/31/99). (4) High barrier, injection moldable systems have been produced by microlayering a polymer with good water barrier and a polymer with good oxygen barrier...

  20. Structure and Dynamics of Polymer/Polymer grafted nanoparticle composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Lynden

    Addition of nanoparticles to polymers is a well-practiced methodology for augmenting various properties of the polymer host, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, barrier properties, dimensional stability and wear resistance. Many of these property changes are known to arise from nanoparticle-induced modification of polymer structure and chain dynamics, which are strong functions of the dispersion state of the nanoparticles' and on their relative size (D) to polymer chain dimensions (e.g. Random coil radius Rg or entanglement mesh size a) . This talk will discuss polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) comprised of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) tethered silica nanoparticles (SiO2-PEG) dispersed in polymers as model systems for investigating phase stability and dynamics of PNCs. On the basis of small-angle X-ray Scattering, it will be shown that favorable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered chains and a polymer host provides an important mechanism for creating PNCs in which particle aggregation is avoided. The talk will report on polymer and particle scale dynamics in these materials and will show that grafted nanoparticles well dispersed in a polymer host strongly influence the host polymer relaxation dynamics on all timescales and the polymers in turn produce dramatic changes in the nature (from diffusive to hyperdiffusive) and speed of nano particle decorrelation dynamics at the polymer entanglement threshold. A local viscosity model capable of explaining these observations is discussed and the results compared with scaling theories for NP motions in polymers This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation Award Nos. DMR-1609125 and CBET-1512297.

  1. A 3D Sphere Culture System Containing Functional Polymers for Large-Scale Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi G. Otsuji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs in cell-based therapy and drug discovery requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up conventional adherent cultures presents challenges of maintaining a uniform high quality at low cost. In this regard, suspension cultures are a viable alternative, because they are scalable and do not require adhesion surfaces. 3D culture systems such as bioreactors can be exploited for large-scale production. However, the limitations of current suspension culture methods include spontaneous fusion between cell aggregates and suboptimal passaging methods by dissociation and reaggregation. 3D culture systems that dynamically stir carrier beads or cell aggregates should be refined to reduce shearing forces that damage hPSCs. Here, we report a simple 3D sphere culture system that incorporates mechanical passaging and functional polymers. This setup resolves major problems associated with suspension culture methods and dynamic stirring systems and may be optimal for applications involving large-scale hPSC production.

  2. Pathogen-mimicking vaccine delivery system designed with a bioactive polymer (inulin acetate) for robust humoral and cellular immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunny; Kesharwani, Siddharth S; Kuppast, Bhimanna; Bakkari, Mohammed Ali; Tummala, Hemachand

    2017-09-10

    New and improved vaccines are needed against challenging diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, Ebola, influenza, AIDS, and cancer. The majority of existing vaccine adjuvants lack the ability to significantly stimulate the cellular immune response, which is required to prevent the aforementioned diseases. This study designed a novel particulate based pathogen-mimicking vaccine delivery system (PMVDS) to target antigen-presenting-cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells. The uniqueness of PMVDS is that the polymer used to prepare the delivery system, Inulin Acetate (InAc), activates the innate immune system. InAc was synthesized from the plant polysaccharide, inulin. PMVDS provided improved and persistent antigen delivery to APCs as an efficient vaccine delivery system, and simultaneously, activated Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR-4) on APCs to release chemokine's/cytokines as an immune-adjuvant. Through this dual mechanism, PMVDS robustly stimulated both the humoral (>32 times of IgG1 levels vs alum) and the cell-mediated immune responses against the encapsulated antigen (ovalbumin) in mice. More importantly, PMVDS stimulated both cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells of cell-mediated immunity to provide tumor (B16-ova-Melanoma) protection in around 40% of vaccinated mice and significantly delayed tumor progression in rest of the mice. PMVDS is a unique bio-active vaccine delivery technology with broader applications for vaccines against cancer and several intracellular pathogens, where both humoral and cellular immune responses are desired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  4. Organic Rankine kilowatt isotope power system. First annual summary report, August 1, 1975--August 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Sundstrand Energy Systems is developing a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) directed toward satisfying the higher power requirements of satellites of the 1980's. The KIPS is a plutonium oxide fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system which will provide design output power in the range of 500 to 2000 W(e) with a minimum of system changes. Research progress is reported on Phase I comprising: (1) flight system conceptual design and ground demonstration; (2) flight system design and ground qualification; and (3) flight system production, acceptance testing and delivery. The principal objectives of Phase I are to: (1) conceptually design the flight system, (2) based on the flight system concept, design and build the ground demonstration system (GDS), (3) conduct performance and endurance testing using electric heaters to simulate the radioisotope heat source, (4) identify and initiate long lead development efforts required to achieve the initial flight qualification hardware availability date of April 1981, and (5) finalize the flight concept design and prepare the program plan for the Phase II effort

  5. Polymer Nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods for the synthesis of polymer nanocomposites. In this article we .... ers, raw materials recovery, drug delivery and anticorrosion .... region giving rise to dose-packed absorption bands called an IR ... using quaternary ammonium salts.

  6. Stress transfer mechanisms at the submicron level for graphene/polymer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, George; Androulidakis, Charalampos; Koukaras, Emmanuel N; Tsoukleri, Georgia; Polyzos, Ioannis; Parthenios, John; Papagelis, Konstantinos; Galiotis, Costas

    2015-02-25

    The stress transfer mechanism from a polymer substrate to a nanoinclusion, such as a graphene flake, is of extreme interest for the production of effective nanocomposites. Previous work conducted mainly at the micron scale has shown that the intrinsic mechanism of stress transfer is shear at the interface. However, since the interfacial shear takes its maximum value at the very edge of the nanoinclusion it is of extreme interest to assess the effect of edge integrity upon axial stress transfer at the submicron scale. Here, we conduct a detailed Raman line mapping near the edges of a monolayer graphene flake that is simply supported onto an epoxy-based photoresist (SU8)/poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix at steps as small as 100 nm. We show for the first time that the distribution of axial strain (stress) along the flake deviates somewhat from the classical shear-lag prediction for a region of ∼ 2 μm from the edge. This behavior is mainly attributed to the presence of residual stresses, unintentional doping, and/or edge effects (deviation from the equilibrium values of bond lengths and angles, as well as different edge chiralities). By considering a simple balance of shear-to-normal stresses at the interface we are able to directly convert the strain (stress) gradient to values of interfacial shear stress for all the applied tensile levels without assuming classical shear-lag behavior. For large flakes a maximum value of interfacial shear stress of 0.4 MPa is obtained prior to flake slipping.

  7. "Green" High-Temperature Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    PMR-15 is a processable, high-temperature polymer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center in the 1970's principally for aeropropulsion applications. Use of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in these applications can lead to substantial weight savings, thereby leading to improved fuel economy, increased passenger and payload capacity, and better maneuverability. PMR-15 is used fairly extensively in military and commercial aircraft engines components seeing service temperatures as high as 500 F (260 C), such as the outer bypass duct for the F-404 engine. The current world-wide market for PMR-15 materials (resins, adhesives, and composites) is on the order of $6 to 10 million annually.

  8. Processing of (in)tractable polymers using reactive solvents, 4: Structure development in the model system poly(ethylene)/styrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, J.G.P.; Rastogi, S.; Meijer, H.E.H.; Lemstra, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of reactive solvents provides a unique opportunity to extend the processing characteristics of both intractable and standard (tractable) polymers beyond existing limits. The polymer to be processed is dissolved in the reactive solvent (monomer) and the solution is transferred into a mould.

  9. Energy Systems Group annual progress report 1 January - 31 December 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, G.A.; Larsen, H.

    1984-03-01

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risoe National Laboratory during 1983. The activities may be roughly classified as energy planning, development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, and energy technology assessment. The report includes a list of staff members, as well as their experience and areas of interest. (author)

  10. Reliable, Low Cost Distributed Generator/Utility System Interconnect: 2001 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-08-01

    This report details a research program to develop requirements that support the definition, design, and demonstration of a distributed generation-electric power system interconnection interface concept that allows distributed generation to be interconnected to the electric power system in a manner that provides value to end users without compromising reliability and performance.

  11. Advanced cathode materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells based on pt/ metal oxides: from model electrodes to catalyst systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Emiliana; Pătru, Alexandra; Rabis, Annett; Kötz, Rüdiger; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The development of stable catalyst systems for application at the cathode side of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) requires the substitution of the state-of-the-art carbon supports with materials showing high corrosion resistance in a strongly oxidizing environment. Metal oxides in their highest oxidation state can represent viable support materials for the next generation PEFC cathodes. In the present work a multilevel approach has been adopted to investigate the kinetics and the activity of Pt nanoparticles supported on SnO2-based metal oxides. Particularly, model electrodes made of SnO2 thin films supporting Pt nanoparticles, and porous catalyst systems made of Pt nanoparticles supported on Sb-doped SnO2 high surface area powders have been investigated. The present results indicate that SnO2-based supports do not modify the oxygen reduction reaction mechanism on the Pt nanoparticle surface, but rather lead to catalysts with enhanced specific activity compared to Pt/carbon systems. Different reasons for the enhancement in the specific activity are considered and discussed.

  12. Model-based diagnosis through Structural Analysis and Causal Computation for automotive Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverino, Pierpaolo; Frisk, Erik; Jung, Daniel; Krysander, Mattias; Pianese, Cesare

    2017-07-01

    The present paper proposes an advanced approach for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) systems fault detection and isolation through a model-based diagnostic algorithm. The considered algorithm is developed upon a lumped parameter model simulating a whole PEMFC system oriented towards automotive applications. This model is inspired by other models available in the literature, with further attention to stack thermal dynamics and water management. The developed model is analysed by means of Structural Analysis, to identify the correlations among involved physical variables, defined equations and a set of faults which may occur in the system (related to both auxiliary components malfunctions and stack degradation phenomena). Residual generators are designed by means of Causal Computation analysis and the maximum theoretical fault isolability, achievable with a minimal number of installed sensors, is investigated. The achieved results proved the capability of the algorithm to theoretically detect and isolate almost all faults with the only use of stack voltage and temperature sensors, with significant advantages from an industrial point of view. The effective fault isolability is proved through fault simulations at a specific fault magnitude with an advanced residual evaluation technique, to consider quantitative residual deviations from normal conditions and achieve univocal fault isolation.

  13. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  14. Strip cropping of alternating perennial grass–clover and annual rye–vetch intercrops when grown within an organic farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, A.; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2012-01-01

    interactions. Less soil water content below the perennial strip indicated greater water uptake, than below the annual strips. Unfortunately, the present strip cropping system did not possess the right balance of co-existence and complementarity. However, from a practical point of view the system was manageable...

  15. Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve

    2006-12-30

    Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This

  16. Nanoparticles from Renewable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Roman Wurm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of polymers from natural resources can bring many benefits for novel polymeric nanoparticle systems. Such polymers have a variety of beneficial properties such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, they are readily available on large scale and at low cost. As the amount of fossil fuels decrease, their application becomes more interesting even if characterization is in many cases more challenging due to structural complexity, either by broad distribution of their molecular weights polysaccharides, polyesters, lignin or by complex structure (proteins, lignin. This review summarizes different sources and methods for the preparation of biopolymer-based nanoparticle systems for various applications.

  17. Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power annual report, government fiscal year 1976/TQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The overall objective of the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Program is to continue system and component engineering activities relating to the zirconium hydride (ZrH) reactor. The specific objectives for FY 1976/TQ were to: (1) study standardized ZrH reactor space power systems and components, (2) perform preconceptual analysis and design of ZrH reactor--organic Rankine power systems for subsea applications, (3) conduct fuel and hydrogen barrier investigations, (4) perform system studies in support of the Department of Defense and their contractors as directed by ERDA, (5) test components, and (6) provide for material disposal and facility surveillance. In the study, representative systems which utilize Brayton, Rankine, and Stirling cycle power conversion units as well as thermoelectric modules, are analyzed at power levels of 10, 25, 50, and 75 kWe. Waste heat rejection is accomplished by concentric, cylindrical space radiators which can be nested during launch for space shuttle integration. Subsequent studies, which supported this effort, were completed and provided useful information on system reliability and survivability

  18. Annual performance of building-integrated photovoltaic/water-heating system for warm climate application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.T.; Chan, A.L.S.; Fong, K.F.; Lin, Z.; He, W.; Ji, J.

    2009-01-01

    A building-integrated photovoltaic/water-heating (BiPVW) system is able to generate higher energy output per unit collector area than the conventional solar systems. Through computer simulation with energy models developed for this integrative solar system in Hong Kong, the results showed that the photovoltaic/water-heating (PVW) system has economic advantages over the conventional photovoltaic (PV) installation. The system thermal performance under natural water circulation was found better than the pump-circulation mode. For a specific BiPVW system at a vertical wall of a fully air-conditioned building and with collectors equipped with flat-box-type thermal absorber and polycrystalline silicon cells, the year-round thermal and cell conversion efficiencies were found respectively 37.5% and 9.39% under typical Hong Kong weather conditions. The overall heat transmission through the PVW wall is reduced to 38% of the normal building facade. When serving as a water pre-heating system, the economical payback period was estimated around 14 years. This greatly enhances the PV market opportunities. (author)

  19. The friction of polymers around Tg,Tm : Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J

    We present Molecular Dynamics calculations involving polymers of different lengths. Polymers with lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms are considered. The systems are able to simulate friction between polymer surfaces and polymer against metal. The results we present are very preliminary and they......We present Molecular Dynamics calculations involving polymers of different lengths. Polymers with lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms are considered. The systems are able to simulate friction between polymer surfaces and polymer against metal. The results we present are very preliminary...

  20. Hardware/Software Data Acquisition System for Real Time Cell Temperature Monitoring in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Francisca; Bartolucci, Veronica; Andújar, José Manuel

    2017-07-09

    This work presents a hardware/software data acquisition system developed for monitoring the temperature in real time of the cells in Air-Cooled Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (AC-PEFC). These fuel cells are of great interest because they can carry out, in a single operation, the processes of oxidation and refrigeration. This allows reduction of weight, volume, cost and complexity of the control system in the AC-PEFC. In this type of PEFC (and in general in any PEFC), the reliable monitoring of temperature along the entire surface of the stack is fundamental, since a suitable temperature and a regular distribution thereof, are key for a better performance of the stack and a longer lifetime under the best operating conditions. The developed data acquisition (DAQ) system can perform non-intrusive temperature measurements of each individual cell of an AC-PEFC stack of any power (from watts to kilowatts). The stack power is related to the temperature gradient; i.e., a higher power corresponds to a higher stack surface, and consequently higher temperature difference between the coldest and the hottest point. The developed DAQ system has been implemented with the low-cost open-source platform Arduino, and it is completed with a modular virtual instrument that has been developed using NI LabVIEW. Temperature vs time evolution of all the cells of an AC-PEFC both together and individually can be registered and supervised. The paper explains comprehensively the developed DAQ system together with experimental results that demonstrate the suitability of the system.