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Sample records for polycrystalline diamond electrode

  1. Polycrystalline diamond detectors with three-dimensional electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S., E-mail: lagomarsino@fi.infn.it [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bellini, M. [INO-CNR Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carzino, R. [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Cindro, V. [Joseph Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Corsi, C. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); LENS Firenze, Via N. Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Servoli, L. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The three-dimensional concept in diamond detectors has been applied, so far, to high quality single-crystal material, in order to test this technology in the best available conditions. However, its application to polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond could be desirable for two reasons: first, the short inter-electrode distance of three-dimensional detectors should improve the intrinsically lower collection efficiency of polycrystalline diamond, and second, at high levels of radiation damage the performances of the poly-crystal material are not expected to be much lower than those of the single crystal one. We report on the fabrication and test of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors with several inter-electrode distances, and we demonstrate that their collection efficiency is equal or higher than that obtained with conventional planar detectors fabricated with the same material. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser fabrication of polycristalline diamond detectors with 3D electrodes. • Measurement of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) under beta irradiation. • Comparation between the CCE of 3D and conventional planar diamond sensors. • A rationale for the behavior of three-dimensional and planar sensors is given.

  2. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  3. H-terminated polycrystalline boron doped diamond electrode for geochemical sensing into underground components of nuclear repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussadi, A.; Betelu, S.; Ignatiadis, I.; Silva, F.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Nuclear waste repositories are being installed in deep excavated rock formations in some places in Europe to isolate and store radioactive waste. In France, Callovo-Oxfordian formation (COx) is potential candidate for nuclear waste repository. It is thus necessary to measure in situ the state of a structure's health during its entire life. The monitoring of the near-field rock and the knowledge of the geochemical transformations can be carried out by a set of sensors for a sustainable management of long-term safety, reversibility and retrievability. Among the chemical parameters, the most significant are pH, conductivity and redox potential. Wide band gap semiconductors are favored materials for chemical sensing because of their high stability to many chemical agents. Among the wide band gap materials, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) boron doped diamond (BDD) benefits from a large band gap, which gives rise to a wide electrochemical potential window. It is moreover described as a radiation, corrosion and bio-corrosion resistant. These remarkable properties, in addition to a low double layer capacity and a low residual current, make BDD a promising material for geochemical sensor elaboration. This work aimed to investigate BDD- based electrodes coated with p-type polycrystalline BDD-hydrogen- terminated surfaces (1 cm 2 ) for pH and/or redox measurements into the underground components of nuclear repositories. The boron-doped p-type channel was grown in a microwave plasma reactor (BJS 150). The boron-doped channel was hydrogen terminated by a hydrogen plasma treatment in the CVD reactor, resulting in full saturation of the surface carbon bonds with hydrogen atoms. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the polycrystalline BDD coating with a Bore/Carbon ratio of 500 ppm shows the typical columnar growth of the polycrystalline CVD diamond. A homogeneous surface was observed concerning the crystallite size which average

  4. Modified diamond electrodes for electrolysis and electroanalysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einaga, Yasuaki; Sato, Rika; Olivia, Herlambang; Shin, Dongchan; Ivandini, T.A.; Fujishima, Akira

    2004-01-01

    The outstanding properties of diamond make it a very attractive material for use in many potential applications. In particular, the superior electrochemical properties of highly boron-doped conductive diamond films, prepared by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, have received attention from electrochemists. This paper reports several diversified applications of boron-doped diamond electrodes; highly sensitive and interference-free microfiber electrodes with over-oxidized polypyrrole modification, integrated electrochemical detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE), and smoothing treatments of micro-polycrystalline surface. Studies have been made of the electrochemical properties of each system and their application in electroanalysis is discussed

  5. Electrochemical reactivity at graphitic micro-domains on polycrystalline boron doped diamond thin-films electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, E.; Devilliers, D.; Comninellis, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. A comparative study has been carried out to show the influence of the presence of graphitic micro-domains upon the surface of these films. Those graphitic domains are sometimes present on as-grown boron doped diamond electrodes. The effect of doping a pure Csp 3 diamond electrode is established by highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) abrasion onto the diamond surface. In order to establish the effect of doping on a pure Csp 3 diamond electrode, the amount of graphitic domains was increased by means of HOPG crystals grafted onto the BDD surface. Indeed that method allows the enrichment of the Csp 2 contribution of the electrode. The presence of graphitic domains can be correlatively associated with the presence of kinetically active redox sites. The electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond electrodes shows a distribution of kinetic constants on the whole surface of the electrode corresponding to different active sites. In this paper, we have studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy the kinetics parameters of the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple in KCl electrolyte. A method is proposed to diagnose the presence of graphitic domains on diamond electrodes, and an electrochemical 'pulse cleaning' procedure is proposed to remove them

  6. Electrochemical reactivity at graphitic micro-domains on polycrystalline boron doped diamond thin-films electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahe, E. [LI2C CNRS/UMR 7612, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Universite Pierre-et-Marie Curie - case courrier 51, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Devilliers, D. [LI2C CNRS/UMR 7612, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Universite Pierre-et-Marie Curie - case courrier 51, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Comninellis, Ch. [Unite de Genie Electrochimique, Institut de sciences des procedes chimiques et biologiques, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. A comparative study has been carried out to show the influence of the presence of graphitic micro-domains upon the surface of these films. Those graphitic domains are sometimes present on as-grown boron doped diamond electrodes. The effect of doping a pure Csp{sup 3} diamond electrode is established by highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) abrasion onto the diamond surface. In order to establish the effect of doping on a pure Csp{sup 3} diamond electrode, the amount of graphitic domains was increased by means of HOPG crystals grafted onto the BDD surface. Indeed that method allows the enrichment of the Csp{sup 2} contribution of the electrode. The presence of graphitic domains can be correlatively associated with the presence of kinetically active redox sites. The electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond electrodes shows a distribution of kinetic constants on the whole surface of the electrode corresponding to different active sites. In this paper, we have studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy the kinetics parameters of the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple in KCl electrolyte. A method is proposed to diagnose the presence of graphitic domains on diamond electrodes, and an electrochemical 'pulse cleaning' procedure is proposed to remove them.

  7. Boron-doped diamond electrode: synthesis, characterization, functionalization and analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, John H T; Male, Keith B; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, conductive diamond electrodes for electrochemical applications have been a major focus of research and development. The impetus behind such endeavors could be attributed to their wide potential window, low background current, chemical inertness, and mechanical durability. Several analytes can be oxidized by conducting diamond compared to other carbon-based materials before the breakdown of water in aqueous electrolytes. This is important for detecting and/or identifying species in solution since oxygen and hydrogen evolution do not interfere with the analysis. Thus, conductive diamond electrodes take electrochemical detection into new areas and extend their usefulness to analytes which are not feasible with conventional electrode materials. Different types of diamond electrodes, polycrystalline, microcrystalline, nanocrystalline and ultrananocrystalline, have been synthesized and characterized. Of particular interest is the synthesis of boron-doped diamond (BDD) films by chemical vapor deposition on various substrates. In the tetrahedral diamond lattice, each carbon atom is covalently bonded to its neighbors forming an extremely robust crystalline structure. Some carbon atoms in the lattice are substituted with boron to provide electrical conductivity. Modification strategies of doped diamond electrodes with metallic nanoparticles and/or electropolymerized films are of importance to impart novel characteristics or to improve the performance of diamond electrodes. Biofunctionalization of diamond films is also feasible to foster several useful bioanalytical applications. A plethora of opportunities for nanoscale analytical devices based on conducting diamond is anticipated in the very near future.

  8. Cyclic voltammetry response of an undoped CVD diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabisiak, K., E-mail: kfab@ukw.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Powstancow Wielkopolskich 2, 85-090 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Torz-Piotrowska, R. [Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, UTLS Seminaryjna 3, 85-326 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Staryga, E. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 219, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Szybowicz, M. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13A, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Paprocki, K.; Popielarski, P.; Bylicki, F. [Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Powstancow Wielkopolskich 2, 85-090 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Wrzyszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 219, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation was found between diamond quality and its electrochemical performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrode sensitivity depends on the content of sp{sup 2} carbon phase in diamond layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sp{sup 2} carbon phase content has little influence on the CV peak separation ({Delta}E{sub p}). - Abstract: The polycrystalline undoped diamond layers were deposited on tungsten wire substrates by using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique. As a working gas the mixture of methanol in excess of hydrogen was used. The morphologies and quality of as-deposited films were monitored by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy respectively. The electrochemical activity of the obtained diamond layers was monitored by using cyclic voltammetry measurements. Analysis of the ferrocyanide-ferricyanide couple at undoped diamond electrode suggests that electrochemical reaction at diamond electrode has a quasireversibile character. The ratio of the anodic and cathodic peak currents was always close to unity. In this work we showed that the amorphous carbon admixture in the CVD diamond layer has a crucial influence on its electrochemical performance.

  9. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-12-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  10. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  11. Polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes for electrocatalytic and electrosynthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2017-01-24

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes are recognized as being superior to other electrode materials due to their outstanding chemical and dimensional stability, their exceptionally low background current, the extremely wide potential window for water electrolysis that they have, and their excellent biocompatibility. However, whereas these properties have been utilized in the rapid development of electroanalytical applications, very few studies have been done in relation to their applications in electrocatalysis or electrosynthesis. In this report, following on from reports of the electrosynthesis of various products through anodic and cathodic reactions using BDD electrodes, the potential use of these electrodes in electrosynthesis is discussed.

  12. High vacuum tribology of polycrystalline diamond coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polycrystalline diamond coatings; hot filament CVD; high vacuum tribology. 1. Introduction .... is a characteristic of graphite. We mark the (diamond ... coefficient of friction due to changes in substrate temperature. The average coefficient of.

  13. Polycrystalline Diamond Schottky Diodes and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ganming

    In this work, four-hot-filament CVD techniques for in situ boron doped diamond synthesis on silicon substrates were extensively studied. A novel tungsten filament shape and arrangement used to obtain large-area, uniform, boron doped polycrystalline diamond thin films. Both the experimental results and radiative heat transfer analysis showed that this technique improved the uniformity of the substrate temperature. XRD, Raman and SEM studies indicate that large area, uniform, high quality polycrystalline diamond films were obtained. Schottky diodes were fabricated by either sputter deposition of silver or thermal evaporation of aluminum or gold, on boron doped diamond thin films. High forward current density and a high forward-to-reverse current ratio were exhibited by silver on diamond Schottky diodes. Schottky barrier heights and the majority carrier concentrations of both aluminum and gold contacted diodes were determined from the C-V measurements. Furthermore, a novel theoretical C-V-f analysis of deep level boron doped diamond Schottky diodes was performed. The analytical results agree well with the experimental results. Compressive stress was found to have a large effect on the forward biased I-V characteristics of the diamond Schottky diodes, whereas the effect on the reverse biased characteristics was relatively small. The stress effect on the forward biased diamond Schottky diode was attributed to piezojunction and piezoresistance effects. The measured force sensitivity of the diode was as high as 0.75 V/N at 1 mA forward bias. This result shows that CVD diamond device has potential for mechanical transducer applications. The quantitative photoresponse characteristics of the diodes were studied in the spectral range of 300 -1050 nm. Semi-transparent gold contacts were used for better photoresponse. Quantum efficiency as high as 50% was obtained at 500 nm, when a reverse bias of over 1 volt was applied. The Schottky barrier heights between either gold or

  14. Rhenium Alloys as Ductile Substrates for Diamond Thin-Film Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeffrey M; Martin, Heidi B

    2014-02-01

    Molybdenum-rhenium (Mo/Re) and tungsten-rhenium (W/Re) alloys were investigated as substrates for thin-film, polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes. Traditional, carbide-forming metal substrates adhere strongly to diamond but lose their ductility during exposure to the high-temperature (1000°C) diamond, chemical vapor deposition environment. Boron-doped semi-metallic diamond was selectively deposited for up to 20 hours on one end of Mo/Re (47.5/52.5 wt.%) and W/Re (75/25 wt.%) alloy wires. Conformal diamond films on the alloys displayed grain sizes and Raman signatures similar to films grown on tungsten; in all cases, the morphology and Raman spectra were consistent with well-faceted, microcrystalline diamond with minimal sp 2 carbon content. Cyclic voltammograms of dopamine in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) showed the wide window and low baseline current of high-quality diamond electrodes. In addition, the films showed consistently well-defined, dopamine electrochemical redox activity. The Mo/Re substrate regions that were uncoated but still exposed to the diamond-growth environment remained substantially more flexible than tungsten in a bend-to-fracture rotation test, bending to the test maximum of 90° and not fracturing. The W/Re substrates fractured after a 27° bend, and the tungsten fractured after a 21° bend. Brittle, transgranular cleavage fracture surfaces were observed for tungsten and W/Re. A tension-induced fracture of the Mo/Re after the prior bend test showed a dimple fracture with a visible ductile core. Overall, the Mo/Re and W/Re alloys were suitable substrates for diamond growth. The Mo/Re alloy remained significantly more ductile than traditional tungsten substrates after diamond growth, and thus may be an attractive metal substrate for more ductile, thin-film diamond electrodes.

  15. Catalytic aided electrical discharge machining of polycrystalline diamond - parameter analysis of finishing condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikal Ahmad, M. A.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Fauzi, M. F. Mohd; Abdullah, Aslam; Omar, Z.; Ding, Songlin; Ismail, A. E.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.

    2018-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) is regarded as among the hardest material in the world. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) typically used to machine this material because of its non-contact process nature. This investigation was purposely done to compare the EDM performances of PCD when using normal electrode of copper (Cu) and newly proposed graphitization catalyst electrode of copper nickel (CuNi). Two level full factorial design of experiment with 4 center points technique was used to study the influence of main and interaction effects of the machining parameter namely; pulse-on, pulse-off, sparking current, and electrode materials (categorical factor). The paper shows interesting discovery in which the newly proposed electrode presented positive impact to the machining performance. With the same machining parameters of finishing, CuNi delivered more than 100% better in Ra and MRR than ordinary Cu electrode.

  16. Software optimization for electrical conductivity imaging in polycrystalline diamond cutters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, G.; Ludwig, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Rd, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K. [US Synthetic, 1260 South 1600 West, Orem, UT 84058 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    We previously reported on an electrical conductivity imaging instrument developed for measurements on polycrystalline diamond cutters. These cylindrical cutters for oil and gas drilling feature a thick polycrystalline diamond layer on a tungsten carbide substrate. The instrument uses electrical impedance tomography to profile the conductivity in the diamond table. Conductivity images must be acquired quickly, on the order of 5 sec per cutter, to be useful in the manufacturing process. This paper reports on successful efforts to optimize the conductivity reconstruction routine, porting major portions of it to NVIDIA GPUs, including a custom CUDA kernel for Jacobian computation.

  17. An All-Solid-State pH Sensor Employing Fluorine-Terminated Polycrystalline Boron-Doped Diamond as a pH-Insensitive Solution-Gate Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2017-05-05

    A fluorine-terminated polycrystalline boron-doped diamond surface is successfully employed as a pH-insensitive SGFET (solution-gate field-effect transistor) for an all-solid-state pH sensor. The fluorinated polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) channel possesses a pH-insensitivity of less than 3mV/pH compared with a pH-sensitive oxygenated channel. With differential FET (field-effect transistor) sensing, a sensitivity of 27 mv/pH was obtained in the pH range of 2-10; therefore, it demonstrated excellent performance for an all-solid-state pH sensor with a pH-sensitive oxygen-terminated polycrystalline BDD SGFET and a platinum quasi-reference electrode, respectively.

  18. Natural occurrence of pure nano-polycrystalline diamond from impact crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Irifune, Tetsuo; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Yamashita, Tomoharu; Isobe, Futoshi; Afanasiev, Valentin P.; Pokhilenko, Nikolai P.

    2015-10-01

    Consolidated bodies of polycrystalline diamond with grain sizes less than 100 nm, nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD), has been experimentally produced by direct conversion of graphite at high pressure and high temperature. NPD has superior hardness, toughness and wear resistance to single-crystalline diamonds because of its peculiar nano-textures, and has been successfully used for industrial and scientific applications. Such sintered nanodiamonds have, however, not been found in natural mantle diamonds. Here we identified natural pure NPD, which was produced by a large meteoritic impact about 35 Ma ago in Russia. The impact diamonds consist of well-sintered equigranular nanocrystals (5-50 nm), similar to synthetic NPD, but with distinct [111] preferred orientation. They formed through the martensitic transformation from single-crystal graphite. Stress-induced local fragmentation of the source graphite and subsequent rapid transformation to diamond in the limited time scale result in multiple diamond nucleation and suppression of the overall grain growth, producing the unique nanocrystalline texture of natural NPD. A huge amount of natural NPD is expected to be present in the Popigai crater, which is potentially important for applications as novel ultra-hard material.

  19. The adhesion and tribology analysis of polycrystalline diamond coated on Si3N4 substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, E.; Purniawan, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cauliflower and octahedral structure of polycrystalline diamond was deposited on silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) substrate by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD). In our earlier work, the effects of deposition parameters namely, % Methane (CH 4 ) diluted in hydrogen (H 2 ), microwave power and chamber pressure on surface morphology were studied. In the present work the polycrystalline diamond coating adhesion and tribology behaviour were investigated. Rockwell C hardness tester and pin-on-disk tribometer were used to determine the adhesion and tribology properties on diamond coating, respectively. The morphology of the diamond before and after indentation was observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Based on the adhesion analysis results, it was found that octahedral morphology has better adhesion than cauliflower structure. It was indicated by few cracks and less peel-off than cauliflower structure of polycrystalline diamond after indentation. Based on tribology analysis, polycrystalline diamond coated on substrate has better tribology properties than uncoated substrate. (author)

  20. Polycrystalline diamond film UV detectors for excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralchenko, V G; Savel'ev, A V; Konov, Vitalii I; Mazzeo, G; Spaziani, F; Conte, G; Polyakov, V I

    2006-01-01

    Photoresistive metal-semiconductor-metal detectors based on polycrystalline diamond films are fabricated for recording cw and pulsed UV radiation. The detectors have a high spectral selectivity (the UV-to-VIS response ratio is ∼10 5 ) and a temporal resolution of the order of 10 9 s. 'Solar-blind' photostable diamond detectors are promising for applications in UV lithography, laser micromachining, medicine, and space research. (letters)

  1. An electrical conductivity inspection methodology of polycrystalline diamond cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, G.; Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-05-01

    The polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) is widely used in oil and gas drilling operations. It is manufactured by sintering diamond powder onto a tungsten carbide substrate at 6 GPa and 1500 C. During sintering, molten cobalt from the substrate infiltrates the diamond table. The residual metal content correlates with cutter performance. We present an instrument that employs electrical impedance tomography capable of imaging the 3D metal content distribution in the diamond table. These images can be used to predict cutter performance as well as detect flaws.

  2. Electrochemical and morphological characterization of gold nanoparticles deposited on boron-doped diamond electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limat, Meriadec; El Roustom, Bahaa [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jotterand, Henri [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Physics of the Complex Matter, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Foti, Gyoergy [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: gyorgy.foti@epfl.ch; Comninellis, Christos [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-03-30

    A novel two-step method was employed to synthesize gold nanoparticles dispersed on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. It consisted of sputter deposition at ambient temperature of maximum 15 equivalent monolayers of gold, followed by a heat treatment in air at 600 deg. C. Gold nanoparticles with an average diameter between 7 and 30 nm could be prepared by this method on polycrystalline BDD film electrode. The obtained Au/BDD composite electrode appeared stable under conditions of electrochemical characterization performed using ferri-/ferrocyanide and benzoquinone/hydroquinone redox couples in acidic medium. The electrochemical behavior of Au/BDD was compared to that of bulk Au and BDD electrodes. Finally, the Au/BDD composite electrode was regarded as an array of Au microelectrodes dispersed on BDD substrate.

  3. Electrochemical and morphological characterization of gold nanoparticles deposited on boron-doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limat, Meriadec; El Roustom, Bahaa; Jotterand, Henri; Foti, Gyoergy; Comninellis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    A novel two-step method was employed to synthesize gold nanoparticles dispersed on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. It consisted of sputter deposition at ambient temperature of maximum 15 equivalent monolayers of gold, followed by a heat treatment in air at 600 deg. C. Gold nanoparticles with an average diameter between 7 and 30 nm could be prepared by this method on polycrystalline BDD film electrode. The obtained Au/BDD composite electrode appeared stable under conditions of electrochemical characterization performed using ferri-/ferrocyanide and benzoquinone/hydroquinone redox couples in acidic medium. The electrochemical behavior of Au/BDD was compared to that of bulk Au and BDD electrodes. Finally, the Au/BDD composite electrode was regarded as an array of Au microelectrodes dispersed on BDD substrate

  4. Synthetic diamond in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskov, Yurii V

    1999-01-01

    The results of studies on the electrochemistry of diamond carried out during the last decade are reviewed. Methods for the preparation, the crystalline structure and the main electrophysical properties of diamond thin films are considered. Depending on the doping conditions, the diamond behaves as a superwide-gap semiconductor or as a semimetal. It is shown that the 'metal-like' diamond is corrosion-resistant and can be used advantageously as an electrode in the electrosynthesis (in particular, for the electroreduction of compounds that are difficult to reduce) and electroanalysis. Kinetic characteristics of some redox reactions and the impedance parameters for diamond electrodes are presented. The results of comparative studies of the electrodes made of diamond single crystals, polycrystalline diamond and amorphous diamond-like carbon, which reveal the effect of the crystalline structure (e.g., the influence of intercrystallite boundaries) on the electrochemical properties of diamond, are presented. The bibliography includes 99 references.

  5. Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes: Electrochemical, Atomic Force Microscopy and Raman Study towards Corrosion-modifications at Nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavan, Ladislav; Vlckova Zivcova, Zuzana; Petrak, Vaclav; Frank, Otakar; Janda, Pavel; Tarabkova, Hana; Nesladek, Milos; Mortet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • B-doped diamond is nanostructured by corrosion-driven modifications occurring at carbonaceous impurity sites (sp 2 -carbons). • The electrochemical oxidation partly transforms a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface to O-terminated one, but the electrocatalytic activity of plasmatically O-terminated diamond is not achieved. • In contrast to all usual sp 2 carbons, the Raman spectra of B-doped diamond electrodes do not change upon electrochemical charging/discharging. - Abstract: Comparative studies of boron-doped diamonds electrodes (polycrystalline, single-crystalline, H-/O-terminated, and with different sp 3 /sp 2 ratios) indicate morphological modifications of diamond which are initiated by corrosion at nanoscale. In-situ electrochemical AFM imaging evidences that the textural changes start at non-diamond carbonaceous impurity sites treated at high positive potentials (>2.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The primary perturbations subsequently develop into sub-micron-sized craters. Raman spectroscopy shows that the primary erosion site is graphite-like (sp 2 -carbon), which is preferentially removed by anodic oxidation. Other non-diamond impurity, viz. tetrahedral amorphous carbon (t-aC), is less sensitive to oxidative decomposition. The diamond-related Raman features, including the B-doping-assigned modes, are intact during reversible electrochemical charging/discharging, which is a salient difference from all usual sp 2 -carbons. The electrochemical oxidation partly transforms a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface to O-terminated one, but the electrocatalytic activity of plasmatically O-terminated diamond is not achieved for a model redox couple, Fe 3+/2+ . Electrochemical impedance spectra were fitted to six different equivalent circuits. The determination of acceptor concentrations is feasible even for highly-doped diamond electrodes.

  6. Study on the Effect of Diamond Grain Size on Wear of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rani, A. M.; Che Sidid, Adib Akmal Bin; Adzis, Azri Hamim Ab

    2018-03-01

    Drilling operation is one of the most crucial step in oil and gas industry as it proves the availability of oil and gas under the ground. Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bit is a type of bit which is gaining popularity due to its high Rate of Penetration (ROP). However, PDC bit can easily wear off especially when drilling hard rock. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between the grain sizes of the diamond and wear rate of the PDC cutter using simulation-based study with FEA software (ABAQUS). The wear rates of a PDC cutter with a different diamond grain sizes were calculated from simulated cuttings of cutters against granite. The result of this study shows that the smaller the diamond grain size, the higher the wear resistivity of PDC cutter.

  7. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz Alfaro, Marco Antonio; Ferro, Sergio; Martinez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto; Vong, Yunny Meas

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes. (author)

  8. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfaro Marco Antonio Quiroz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes.

  9. Tracking performance of a single-crystal and a polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menasce, D.; et al.

    2013-06-01

    We present a comparative characterization of the performance of a single-crystal and a polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector employing the standard CMS pixel readout chips. Measurements were carried out at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility, FTBF, using protons of momentum 120 GeV/c tracked by a high-resolution pixel telescope. Particular attention was directed to the study of the charge-collection, the charge-sharing among adjacent pixels and the achievable position resolution. The performance of the single-crystal detector was excellent and comparable to the best available silicon pixel-detectors. The measured average detection-efficiency was near unity, ε = 0.99860±0.00006, and the position-resolution for shared hits was about 6 μm. On the other hand, the performance of the polycrystalline detector was hampered by its lower charge collection distance and the readout chip threshold. A new readout chip, capable of operating at much lower threshold (around 1 ke$-$), would be required to fully exploit the potential performance of the polycrystalline diamond pixel-detector.

  10. Benzene oxidation at diamond electrodes: comparison of microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskov, Yu V; Krotova, M D; Elkin, V V; Varnin, V P; Teremetskaya, I G; Saveliev, A V; Ralchenko, V G

    2012-08-27

    A comparative study of benzene oxidation at boron-doped diamond (BDD) and nitrogenated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) anodes in 0.5 M K(2)SO(4) aqueous solution is conducted by using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown by measurements of differential capacitance and anodic current that during the benzene oxidation at the BDD electrode, adsorption of a reaction intermediate occurs, which partially blocks the electrode surface and lowers the anodic current. At the NCD electrode, benzene is oxidized concurrently with oxygen evolution, a (quinoid) intermediate being adsorbed at the electrode. The adsorption and the electrode surface blocking are reflected in the impedance-frequency and impedance-potential complex-plane plots. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aichi; Hara, Hiroshi; Irifune, Tetsuo; Adachi, Shintaro; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2018-05-01

    Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layers have been developed for electrical transport measurements under high pressure. These designed diamonds were grown on a bottom diamond anvil via a nanofabrication process combining microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and electron beam lithography. The resistance measurements of a high-quality FeSe superconducting single crystal under high pressure were successfully demonstrated by just putting the sample and gasket on the bottom diamond anvil directly. The superconducting transition temperature of the FeSe single crystal was increased to up to 43 K by applying uniaxial-like pressure.

  12. Lattice Parameter of Polycrystalline Diamond in the Low-Temperature Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszkowicz, W.; Piszora, P.; Lasocha, W.; Margiolaki, I.; Brunelli, M.; Fitch, A.

    2010-01-01

    The lattice parameter for polycrystalline diamond is determined as a function of temperature in the 4-300 K temperature range. In the range studied, the lattice parameter, expressed in angstrom units, of the studied sample increases according to the equation a = 3.566810(12) + 6.37(41) x 10 -14 T 4 (approximately, from 3.5668 to 3.5673 A). This increase is larger than that earlier reported for pure single crystals. The observed dependence and the resulting thermal expansion coefficient are discussed on the basis of literature data reported for diamond single crystals and polycrystals. (authors)

  13. Radiation hard 3D diamond sensors for vertex detectors at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00336619; Quadt, Arnulf; Grosse-Knetter, Jörn; Weingarten, Jens

    Diamond is a good candidate to replace silicon as sensor material in the innermost layer of a tracking detector at HL-LHC, due to its high radiation tolerance. After particle fluences of $10^{16}\\,{\\rm protons/cm^2}$, diamond sensors are expected to achieve a higher signal to noise ratio than silicon. In order to use low grade polycrystalline diamonds as sensors, electrodes inside the diamond bulk, so called 3D electrodes, are produced. Typically, this kind of diamond material has a lower charge collection distance (CCD) than higher grade diamond, which results in a decreased signal amplitude. With 3D electrodes it is possible to achieve full charge collection even in samples with low CCDs by decoupling the spacing of the electrodes from the thickness of the diamond bulk. The electrodes are produced using a femtosecond laser, which changes the phase of the diamond material. The phase changed material is conductive and identified as nanocrystalline graphite using Raman spectroscopy. Due to a crater like struct...

  14. Morphological and electrochemical studies of spherical boron doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes de Barros, R.C. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Ferreira, N.G. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Azevedo, A.F. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Corat, E.J. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Sumodjo, P.T.A. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Serrano, S.H.P. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: shps@iq.usp.br

    2006-08-14

    Morphological and electrochemical characteristics of boron doped diamond electrode in new geometric shape are presented. The main purpose of this study is a comparison among voltammetric behavior of planar glassy carbon electrode (GCE), planar boron doped diamond electrode (PDDE) and spherical boron doped diamond electrode (SDDE), obtained from similar experimental parameters. SDDE was obtained by the growth of boron doped film on textured molybdenum tip. This electrode does not present microelectrode characteristics. However, its voltammetric peak current, determined at low scan rates, is largest associated to the smallest {delta}E {sub p} values for ferrocyanide system when compared with PDDE or GCE. In addition, the capacitance is about 200 times smaller than that for GCE. These results show that the analytical performance of boron doped diamond electrodes can be implemented just by the change of sensor geometry, from plane to spherical shape.

  15. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  16. CVD polycrystalline diamond. A novel neutron detector and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Polycrystalline Diamond film has been investigated as a low noise sensor for beta particles, gammas and neutrons using High Energy Physics technologies. Its advantages and disadvantages have been explored in comparison with other particle detectors such as silicon detector and other plastic scintillators. The performance and characteristic of the diamond detector have been fully studied and discussed. These studies will lead to a better understanding of how CVD diamonds perform as a detector and how to improve their performance under various conditions. A CVD diamond detector model has been proposed which is an attempt to explain the behaviour of such an extreme detector material. A novel neutron detector is introduced as a result of these studies. A good thermal and fast neutron detector can be fabricated with CVD diamond with new topologies. This detector will perform well without degradation in a high neutron radiation environment, as diamond is known to be radiation hard. It also offers better neutrons and gammas discrimination for high gamma background applications compared to other semiconductor detectors. A full simulation of the detector has also been done using GEANT, a Monte-Carlo simulation program for particle detectors. Simulation results show that CVD diamond detectors with this novel topology can detect neutrons with great directionality. Experimental work has been done on this detector in a nuclear reactor environment and accelerator source. A novel neutron source which offers a fast pulse high-energy neutrons has also been studied. With this detector, applications in neutron spectrometer for low-Z material have been pursued with various neutron detection techniques. One of these is a low-Z material identification system. The system has been designed and simulated for contraband luggage interrogation using the detector and the novel neutron source. Also other neutron related applications have been suggested. (author)

  17. CVD polycrystalline diamond. A novel neutron detector and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    1998-07-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Polycrystalline Diamond film has been investigated as a low noise sensor for beta particles, gammas and neutrons using High Energy Physics technologies. Its advantages and disadvantages have been explored in comparison with other particle detectors such as silicon detector and other plastic scintillators. The performance and characteristic of the diamond detector have been fully studied and discussed. These studies will lead to a better understanding of how CVD diamonds perform as a detector and how to improve their performance under various conditions. A CVD diamond detector model has been proposed which is an attempt to explain the behaviour of such an extreme detector material. A novel neutron detector is introduced as a result of these studies. A good thermal and fast neutron detector can be fabricated with CVD diamond with new topologies. This detector will perform well without degradation in a high neutron radiation environment, as diamond is known to be radiation-hard. It also offers better neutrons and gammas discrimination for high gamma background applications compared to other semiconductor detectors. A full simulation of the detector has also been done using GEANT, a Monte Carlo simulation program for particle detectors. Simulation results show that CVD diamond detectors with this novel topology can detect neutrons with great directionality. Experimental work has been done on this detector in a nuclear reactor environment and accelerator source. A novel neutron source which offers a fast pulse high-energy neutrons has also been studied. With this detector, applications in neutron spectrometry for low-Z material have been pursued with various neutron detection techniques. One of these is a low-Z material identification system. The system has been designed and simulated for contraband luggage interrogation using the detector and the novel neutron source. (author)

  18. Cathodoluminescence characteristics of polycrystalline diamond films grown by cyclic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Soo-Hyung; Park, Chang-Kyun; Park, Jin-Seok

    2002-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited using a cyclic deposition method where the H 2 plasma for etching (t E ) and the CH 4 +H 2 plasma for growing (t G ) are alternately modulated with various modulation ratios (t E /t G ). From the measurement of full width at half maximum and I D /I G intensity ratio obtained from the Raman spectra, it was found that diamond defects and non-diamond carbon phases were reduced a little by adopting the cyclic deposition method. From the cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics measured for deposited films, the nitrogen-related band (centered at approximately 590 nm) as well as the so-called band-A (centered at approximately 430 nm) were observed. As the cyclic ratio t E /t G increased, the relative intensity ratio of band-A to nitrogen-related band (I A /I N ) was found to monotonically decrease. In addition, analysis of X-ray diffraction spectra and scanning electron microscope morphologies showed that CL characteristics of deposited diamond films were closely related to their crystal orientations and morphologies

  19. Tribological performance of polycrystalline tantalum-carbide-incorporated diamond films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mahtab; Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Ahmed, E.; Malik, Abdul Sattar; Shah, Z. A.; Ahmad, Naseeb; Mehtab, Ujala; Raza, Rizwan

    2018-05-01

    Polycrystalline tantalum-carbide-incorporated diamond coatings have been made on unpolished side of Si (100) wafer by hot filament chemical vapor deposition process. Morphology of the coatings has been found to vary from (111) triangular-facetted to predominantly (111) square-faceted by increasing the concentration of tantalum carbide. The results have been compared to those of a diamond reference coating with no tantalum content. An increase in roughness has been observed with the increase of tantalum carbide (TaC) due to change in morphology of the diamond films. It is noticed that roughness of the coatings increases as grains become more square-faceted. It is found that diamond coatings involving tantalum carbide are not as resistant as diamond films with no TaC content and the coefficient of friction for such coatings with microcrystalline grains can be manipulated to 0·33 under high vacuum of 10-7 Torr. Such a low friction coefficient value enhances tribological behavior of unpolished Si substrates and can possibly be used in sliding applications.

  20. Diamond Pixel Detectors and 3D Diamond Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Results from detectors of poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposited (pCVD) diamond are presented. These include the first analysis of data of the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). The DBM module consists of pCVD diamond sensors instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end electronics. Six diamond telescopes, each with three modules, are placed symmetrically around the ATLAS interaction point. The DBM tracking capabilities allow it to discriminate between particles coming from the interaction point and background particles passing through the ATLAS detector. Also, analysis of test beam data of pCVD DBM modules are presented. A new low threshold tuning algorithm based on noise occupancy was developed which increases the DBM module signal to noise ratio significantly. Finally first results from prototypes of a novel detector using pCVD diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk, forming a 3D diamond device, are discussed. 3D devices based on pCVD diamond were successfully tested with test beams at CERN. The measured charge is compared to that of a strip detector mounted on the same pCVD diamond showing that the 3D device collects significantly more charge than the planar device.

  1. Polycrystalline Diamond Coating of Additively Manufactured Titanium for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Aaqil; Tran, Nhiem; Lau, Desmond W; Elbourne, Aaron; Zhan, Hualin; Stacey, Alastair D; Mayes, Edwin L H; Sarker, Avik; Ivanova, Elena P; Crawford, Russell J; Tran, Phong A; Gibson, Brant C; Greentree, Andrew D; Pirogova, Elena; Fox, Kate

    2018-03-14

    Additive manufacturing using selective laser melted titanium (SLM-Ti) is used to create bespoke items across many diverse fields such as medicine, defense, and aerospace. Despite great progress in orthopedic implant applications, such as for "just in time" implants, significant challenges remain with regards to material osseointegration and the susceptibility to bacterial colonization on the implant. Here, we show that polycrystalline diamond coatings on these titanium samples can enhance biological scaffold interaction improving medical implant applicability. The highly conformable coating exhibited excellent bonding to the substrate. Relative to uncoated SLM-Ti, the diamond coated samples showed enhanced mammalian cell growth, enriched apatite deposition, and reduced microbial S. aureus activity. These results open new opportunities for novel coatings on SLM-Ti devices in general and especially show promise for improved biomedical implants.

  2. Electrochemical applications of CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor-Moreno, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Diamond technology has claimed an important role in industry since non-expensive methods of synthesis such as chemical vapour deposition allow to elaborate cheap polycrystalline diamond. This fact has increased the interest in the scientific community due to the outstanding properties of diamond. Since Pleskov published in 1987 the first paper in electrochemistry, many researchers around the world have studied different aspects of diamond electrochemistry such as reactivity, electrical structure, etc. As part of this worldwide interest these studies reveal new information about diamond electrodes. These studies report investigation of diamond electrodes characterized using structural techniques like scanning electrode microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A new electrochemical theory based on surface states is presented that explains the metal and the semiconductor behaviour in terms of the doping level of the diamond electrode. In an effort to characterise the properties of diamond electrodes the band edges for hydrogen and oxygen terminated surface are located in organic solvent, hence avoiding possible interference that are present in aqueous solution. The determination of the band edges is performed by Mott-Schottky studies. These allow the calculation of the flat band potential and therefore the band edges. Additional cyclic voltammetric studies are presented for both types of surface termination. Mott-Schottky data and cyclic voltammograms are compared and explained in terms of the band edge localisation. Non-degenerately p-type semiconductor behaviour is presented for hydrogen terminated boron doped diamond. Graphitic surface states on oxidised surface boron doped diamond are responsible for the electrochemistry of redox couples that posses similar energy. Using the simple redox couple 1,4-benzoquinone effect of surface termination on the chemical behaviour of diamond is presented. Hydrogen sublayers in diamond electrodes seem to play an important role for the

  3. Polycrystalline diamond on self-assembled detonation nanodiamond: a viable route for fabrication of all-diamond preformed microcomponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terranova, M L; Orlanducci, S; Tamburri, E; Guglielmotti, V; Toschi, F; Hampai, D; Rossi, M

    2008-01-01

    Surface assisted self-assembly of detonation nanodiamond particles (with typical sizes in the range 4-10 nm) has been obtained using different fractions of colloidal aqueous dispersions as starting material. The relationship between dispersion properties and structure/geometry of the aggregates deposited on Si or glass plates has been investigated. A series of differently shaped free-standing nanodiamond structures has been prepared, analysed and used as templates for the growth of polycrystalline diamond layers by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. The possibility of obtaining textured coating with a relatively strong preferred orientation (within a solid angle of about 0.6 srad) is also reported. Overall, the coupling of nanodiamond self-assembling to the CVD diamond growth enables one to produce specimens with complex 3D architectures. The proposed microfabrication methodology could represent a viable route for the production of free-standing all-diamond microcomponents, with tailored shapes and predefined crystalline features, to be used for advanced electronic applications

  4. Polycrystalline diamond on self-assembled detonation nanodiamond: a viable route for fabrication of all-diamond preformed microcomponents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M L; Orlanducci, S; Tamburri, E; Guglielmotti, V; Toschi, F [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, MINASlab, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Hampai, D [INFN-LNF Via E Fermi 40, Frascati (Italy); Rossi, M [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' , Via Antonio Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    Surface assisted self-assembly of detonation nanodiamond particles (with typical sizes in the range 4-10 nm) has been obtained using different fractions of colloidal aqueous dispersions as starting material. The relationship between dispersion properties and structure/geometry of the aggregates deposited on Si or glass plates has been investigated. A series of differently shaped free-standing nanodiamond structures has been prepared, analysed and used as templates for the growth of polycrystalline diamond layers by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. The possibility of obtaining textured coating with a relatively strong <110> preferred orientation (within a solid angle of about 0.6 srad) is also reported. Overall, the coupling of nanodiamond self-assembling to the CVD diamond growth enables one to produce specimens with complex 3D architectures. The proposed microfabrication methodology could represent a viable route for the production of free-standing all-diamond microcomponents, with tailored shapes and predefined crystalline features, to be used for advanced electronic applications.

  5. Polycrystalline diamond RF MOSFET with MoO3 gate dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyang Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the radio frequency characteristics of the diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor with MoO3 gate dielectric for the first time. The device with 2-μm gate length was fabricated on high quality polycrystalline diamond. The maximum drain current of 150 mA/mm at VGS = -5 V and the maximum transconductance of 27 mS/mm were achieved. The extrinsic cutoff frequency of 1.2 GHz and the maximum oscillation frequency of 1.9 GHz have been measured. The moderate frequency characteristics are attributed to the moderate transconductance limited by the series resistance along the channel. We expect that the frequency characteristics of the device can be improved by increasing the magnitude of gm, or fundamentally decreasing the gate-controlled channel resistance and series resistance along the channel, and down-scaling the gate length.

  6. Potential and pH dependence of photocurrent transients for boron-doped diamond electrodes in aqueous electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, S.J.; Mahe, L.S.A.; Rosseinsky, D.R.; Winlove, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    Using illumination at energies below the intrinsic diamond energy gap, photocurrent transients have been recorded for boron-doped diamond (BDD) as an electrode in an aqueous electrolyte of 0.1 M KH 2 PO 4 . The commercially-supplied BDD was in the form of a free-standing, polycrystalline film grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), with a boron acceptor concentration of ≥10 20 cm −3 . The effects of mechanical polishing of the BDD, of electrochemical hydrogen evolution and of electrochemical oxygen evolution (in 0.1 M KH 2 PO 4 ), on the potential dependence of the photocurrent transients have been examined. Measurements of the cathodic photocurrent at light switch-on have been used to determine the photocurrent onset potential as a measure of the flatband potential. Comparison with and between related literature observations has shown broad agreement across considerably varying BDD/electrolyte systems. The flatband potential shifted positively following electrochemical oxygen evolution, indicating the formation of oxygen-containing groups on the diamond surface, these increasing the potential drop across the Helmholtz layer. For the electrochemically oxidised electrode, the cathodic photocurrent transient at a fixed potential changed reproducibly with changing solution pH, owing to the participation of the oxygen-containing surface groups in acid–base equilibrium with the solution. This clear demonstration of BDD as a photoelectrochemical pH sensor is in principle extendable to mapping the spatial variation in pH across a BDD surface by use of a focussed light spot

  7. Comparative investigation of smooth polycrystalline diamond films on dental burs by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Htet; Ahmed, Waqar; Rego, Christopher; Jackson, Mark; Polini, Riccardo

    2006-04-01

    Depositions of hot filament chemical vapor-deposited diamond on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) rotary cutting dental burs are presented. Conventional dental tools made of sintered polycrystalline diamond have a number of problems associated with the heterogeneity of the crystallite, decreased cutting efficiency, and short life. A preferential (111) faceted diamond was obtained after 15 h of deposition at a growth rate of 1.1 µm/h. Diamond-coated WC-Co dental burs and conventional sintered burs are mainly used in turning, milling, and drilling operations for machining metal ceramic hard alloys such as CoCr, composite teeth, and aluminum alloy in the dental laboratory. The influence of structure, the mechanical characteristics of both diamond grains and hard alloys on the wear behavior, as well as the regimen of grinding on diamond wear are considered. Erosion wear properties are also investigated under air-sand erosion testing. After machining with excessive cutting performance, calculations can be made on flank and crater wear areas. Diamond-coated WC-Co dental burs offered significantly better erosion and wear resistance compared with uncoated WC-Co tools and sintered burs.

  8. Voltammetric and impedance behaviours of surface-treated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F. B.; Jing, B.; Cui, Y.; Di, J. J.; Qu, M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical performances of hydrogen- and oxygen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the surface morphologies, phase structures, and chemical states of the two diamond films were analysed by scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the potential window is narrower for the hydrogen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film than for the oxygen-terminated one. The diamond film resistance and capacitance of oxygen-terminated diamond film are much larger than those of the hydrogen-terminated diamond film, and the polarization resistances and double-layer capacitance corresponding to oxygen-terminated diamond film are both one order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to the hydrogen-terminated diamond film. The electrochemical behaviours of the two diamond film electrodes are discussed

  9. Fabrication of polycrystalline diamond refractive X-ray lens by femtosecond laser processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kononenko, T.V.; Ralchenko, V.G.; Ashkinazi, E.E.; Konov, V.I. [General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Polikarpov, M.; Ershov, P. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Functional Nanomaterials, Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, S.; Yunkin, V. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Snigireva, I. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2016-03-15

    X-ray planar compound refractive lenses were fabricated from a polycrystalline diamond plate grown by chemical vapor deposition, by precise through cutting with femtosecond laser pulses. The lens geometry and the surface morphology were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy, while the material structure modification was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The results of the preliminary lens test at 9.25-keV X-rays are presented. (orig.)

  10. Fabrication of polycrystalline diamond refractive X-ray lens by femtosecond laser processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononenko, T.V.; Ralchenko, V.G.; Ashkinazi, E.E.; Konov, V.I.; Polikarpov, M.; Ershov, P.; Kuznetsov, S.; Yunkin, V.; Snigireva, I.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray planar compound refractive lenses were fabricated from a polycrystalline diamond plate grown by chemical vapor deposition, by precise through cutting with femtosecond laser pulses. The lens geometry and the surface morphology were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy, while the material structure modification was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The results of the preliminary lens test at 9.25-keV X-rays are presented. (orig.)

  11. Electrochemical reduction of oxygen on gold and boron-doped diamond electrodes in ambient temperature, molten acetamide-urea-ammonium nitrate eutectic melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilimon, V.S.; Venkata Narayanan, N.S.; Sampath, S.

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of oxygen has been studied on gold, boron-doped diamond (BDD) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in a ternary eutectic mixture of acetamide (CH 3 CONH 2 ), urea (NH 2 CONH 2 ) and ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ). Cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), chronoamperometry and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry techniques have been employed to follow oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The mechanism for the electrochemical reduction of oxygen on polycrystalline gold involves 2-step, 2-electron pathways of O 2 to H 2 O 2 and further reduction of H 2 O 2 to H 2 O. The first 2-electron reduction of O 2 to H 2 O 2 passes through superoxide intermediate by 1-electron reduction of oxygen. Kinetic results suggest that the initial 1-electron reduction of oxygen to HO 2 is the rate-determining step of ORR on gold surfaces. The chronoamperometric and RDE studies show a potential dependent change in the number of electrons on gold electrode. The oxygen reduction reaction on boron-doped diamond (BDD) seems to proceed via a direct 4-electron process. The reduction of oxygen on the glassy carbon (GC) electrode is a single step, irreversible, diffusion limited 2-electron reduction process to peroxide.

  12. Organophosphonate biofunctionalization of diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, R; Csiki, R; Wiesinger, M; Sachsenhauser, M; Stutzmann, M; Garrido, J A; Cattani-Scholz, A; Speranza, Giorgio; Janssens, S D; Haenen, K

    2014-08-27

    The modification of the diamond surface with organic molecules is a crucial aspect to be considered for any bioapplication of this material. There is great interest in broadening the range of linker molecules that can be covalently bound to the diamond surface. In the case of protein immobilization, the hydropathicity of the surface has a major influence on the protein conformation and, thus, on the functionality of proteins immobilized at surfaces. For electrochemical applications, particular attention has to be devoted to avoid that the charge transfer between the electrode and the redox center embedded in the protein is hindered by a thick insulating linker layer. This paper reports on the grafting of 6-phosphonohexanoic acid on OH-terminated diamond surfaces, serving as linkers to tether electroactive proteins onto diamond surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the formation of a stable layer on the surface. The charge transfer between electroactive molecules and the substrate is studied by electrochemical characterization of the redox activity of aminomethylferrocene and cytochrome c covalently bound to the substrate through this linker. Our work demonstrates that OH-terminated diamond functionalized with 6-phosphonohexanoic acid is a suitable platform to interface redox-proteins, which are fundamental building blocks for many bioelectronics applications.

  13. Single-crystal and polycrystalline diamond erosion studies in Pilot-PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, D.; Aussems, D.; Ning, N.; Bystrov, K.; Gicquel, A.; Achard, J.; Brinza, O.; Addab, Y.; Martin, C.; Pardanaud, C.; Khrapak, S.; Cartry, G.

    2018-03-01

    Diamond is a promising candidate for enhancing the negative-ion surface production in the ion sources for neutral injection in fusion reactors; hence evaluation of its reactivity towards hydrogen plasma is of high importance. Single crystal and polycrystalline diamond samples were exposed in Pilot-PSI with the D+ flux of (4‒7)·1024 m-2s-1 and the impact energy of 7-9 eV per deuteron at different surface temperatures; under such conditions physical sputtering is negligible, however chemical sputtering is important. Net chemical sputtering yield Y = 9.7·10-3 at/ion at 800 °C was precisely measured ex-situ using a protective platinum mask (5 × 10 × 2 μm) deposited beforehand on a single crystal followed by the post-mortem analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The structural properties of the exposed diamond surface were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Gross chemical sputtering yields were determined in-situ by means of optical emission spectroscopy of the molecular CH A-X band for several surface temperatures. A bell-shaped dependence of the erosion yield versus temperature between 400 °C and 1200 °C was observed, with a maximum yield of ∼1.5·10-2 at/ion attained at 900 °C. The yields obtained for diamond are relatively high (0.5-1.5)·10-2 at/ion, comparable with those of graphite. XPS analysis shows amorphization of diamond surface within 1 nm depth, in a good agreement with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. MD was also applied to study the hydrogen impact energy threshold for erosion of [100] diamond surface at different temperatures.

  14. Thermally stimulated currents in polycrystalline diamond films and their application to ultraviolet dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajkov, E.; Prawer, S.

    1999-01-01

    Quantifying individual exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is imperative to understanding the epidemiology of UVR related skin cancer. The development of personal UVR dosimeters is hence essential for obtaining data regarding individual UVR exposure, which can then be used to establish appropriate protective measures for occupational and recreational exposure. Because diamond is a tissue equivalent material and has a wide band-gap, CVD polycrystalline diamond has been proposed for use in solar-blind UV dosimetry. It has been reported that the photoconductivity in polycrystalline diamond films is enhanced after UV illumination Photo-generated carriers can be trapped at some deep levels after illumination. Because these levels are deep the thermal release of carriers is a slow process at room temperature. Therefore the new carrier distribution reached after illumination can result in a metastable state because the temperature is too low to restore the initial equilibrium. The sample can be bought back to initial equilibrium by heating. If the current is recorded during heating of the samples one can observe current peaks corresponding to the thermal release of trapped carriers, the so-called thermally stimulated currents (TSC). From first-order kinetics, we find that the TSC intensity is proportional to the initial density of trapped carriers, n to . Since n to varies with the radiation dose, the measurement of TSC can find an application in radiation dosimetry since the measurement of TSC gives a direct measure of that dose. Nitrogen can be used to introduce deep traps in diamond. This investigation will involve examining the affect of the nitrogen concentration on the irradiation response of the films. Furthermore, we will analyse the fading rate of the TSC signal. If diamond films are to have a practical application in UVR dosimetry, then ideally we require a linear relationship between the dose response and the TSC, and we also require a low fading rate

  15. Fabrication and characterization of an all-diamond tubular flow microelectrode for electroanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Laura A; Vidotti, Marcio; Iacobini, James G; Kelly, Chris; Newton, Mark E; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2011-07-15

    The development of the first all-diamond hydrodynamic flow device for electroanalytical applications is described. Here alternate layers of intrinsic (insulating), conducting (heavily boron doped), and intrinsic polycrystalline diamond are grown to create a sandwich structure. By laser cutting a hole through the material, it is possible to produce a tubular flow ring electrode of a characteristic length defined by the thickness of the conducting layer (for these studies ∼90 μm). The inside of the tube can be polished to 17 ± 10 nm surface roughness using a diamond impregnanted wire resulting in a coplanar, smooth, all-diamond surface. The steady-state limiting current versus volume flow rate characteristics for the one electron oxidation of FcTMA(+) are in agreement with those expected for laminar flow in a tubular electrode geometry. For dopamine detection, it is shown that the combination of the reduced fouling properties of boron doped diamond, coupled with the flow geometry design where the products of electrolysis are washed away downstream of the electrode, completely eradicates fouling during electrolysis. This paves the way for incorporation of this flow design into online electroanalytical detection systems. Finally, the all diamond tubular flow electrode system described here provides a platform for future developments including the development of ultrathin ring electrodes, multiple apertures for increased current response, and multiple, individually addressable ring electrodes incorporated into the same flow tube.

  16. Laser beam machining of polycrystalline diamond for cutting tool manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyński, Dominik; Ostrowski, Robert; Zwolak, Marek; Bryk, Witold

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns application of DPSS Nd: YAG 532nm pulse laser source for machining of polycrystalline WC based diamond inserts (PCD). The goal of the research was to determine optimal laser cutting parameters for cutting tool shaping. Basic criteria to reach the goal was cutting edge quality (minimalization of finishing operations), material removal rate (time and cost efficiency), choice of laser beam characteristics (polarization, power, focused beam diameter). The research was planned and realised and analysed according to design of experiment rules (DOE). The analysis of the cutting edge was prepared with use of Alicona Infinite Focus measurement system.

  17. Recent Results from Beam Tests of 3D and Pad pCVD Diamond Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wallny, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Results from prototypes of a detector using chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond with embedded resistive electrodes in the bulk forming a 3D diamond device are presented. A detector system consisting of 3D devices based on poly-crystalline CVD (pCVD) diamond was connected to a multi-channel readout and successfully tested in a 120 GeV/c proton beam at CERN proving for the first time the feasibility of the 3D detector concept in pCVD for particle tracking applications. We also present beam test results on the dependence of signal size on incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on poly-crystalline CVD diamond. The detectors were tested in a 260 MeV/c pion beam over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2 . The pulse height of the sensors was measured with pad readout electronics at a peaking time of 7 ns. Our data from the 2015 beam tests at PSI indicate that the pulse height of poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensor irradiated to 5×1014 neq/cm2 is independent of particle flux...

  18. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond electrodes: optimization towards neural stimulation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, David J; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Stacey, Alastair; Fox, Kate; Meffin, Hamish; Prawer, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Diamond is well known to possess many favourable qualities for implantation into living tissue including biocompatibility, biostability, and for some applications hardness. However, conducting diamond has not, to date, been exploited in neural stimulation electrodes due to very low electrochemical double layer capacitance values that have been previously reported. Here we present electrochemical characterization of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond electrodes grown in the presence of nitrogen (N-UNCD) that exhibit charge injection capacity values as high as 163 µC cm(-2) indicating that N-UNCD is a viable material for microelectrode fabrication. Furthermore, we show that the maximum charge injection of N-UNCD can be increased by tailoring growth conditions and by subsequent electrochemical activation. For applications requiring yet higher charge injection, we show that N-UNCD electrodes can be readily metalized with platinum or iridium, further increasing charge injection capacity. Using such materials an implantable neural stimulation device fabricated from a single piece of bio-permanent material becomes feasible. This has significant advantages in terms of the physical stability and hermeticity of a long-term bionic implant.

  19. Modeling of diamond radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, L.; Mainwood, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have built up a computer simulation of the detection mechanism in the diamond radiation detectors. The diamond detectors can be fabricated from a chemical vapour deposition polycrystalline diamond film. In this case, the trapping-detrapping and recombination at the defects inside the grains and at the grain boundaries degrade the transport properties of the material and the charge induction processes. These effects may strongly influence the device's response. Previous simulations of this kind of phenomena in the diamond detectors have generally been restricted to the simple detector geometries and homogeneous distribution of the defects. In our model, the diamond film (diamond detector) is simulated by a grid. We apply a spatial and time discretization, regulated by the grid resolution, to the equations describing the charge transport and, by using the Shockley-Ramo theorem, we calculate the signal induced on the electrodes. In this way, we can simulate the effects of the nonhomogeneous distributions of the trapping, recombination, or scattering centers and can investigate the differences observed when different particles, energies, and electrode configurations are used. The simulation shows that the efficiency of the detector increases linearly with the average grain size, that the charge collection distance is small compared to the dimensions of a single grain, and that for small grains, the trapping at the intragrain defects is insignificant compared to the effect of the grain boundaries

  20. Anodic oxidation with doped diamond electrodes: a new advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Alexander; Stadelmann, Manuela; Blaschke, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond anodes allow to directly produce OH· radicals from water electrolysis with very high current efficiencies. This has been explained by the very high overvoltage for oxygen production and many other anodic electrode processes on diamond anodes. Additionally, the boron-doped diamond electrodes exhibit a high mechanical and chemical stability. Anodic oxidation with diamond anodes is a new advanced oxidation process (AOP) with many advantages compared to other known chemical and photochemical AOPs. The present work reports on the use of diamond anodes for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from several industrial wastewaters and from two synthetic wastewaters with malic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) acid. Current efficiencies for the COD removal between 85 and 100% have been found. The formation and subsequent removal of by-products of the COD oxidation has been investigated for the first time. Economical considerations of this new AOP are included

  1. Influence of coil current modulation on polycrystalline diamond film deposition by irradiation of Ar/CH4/H2 inductively coupled thermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsuin, Toshiki; Tanaka, Yasunori; Arai, T.; Uesugi, Y.; Ishijima, T.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the application of an Ar/CH4/H2 inductively coupled thermal plasma with and without coil current modulation to synthesise diamond films. Induction thermal plasma with coil current modulation is referred to as modulated induction thermal plasma (M-ITP), while that without modulation is referred to as non-modulated ITP (NM-ITP). First, spectroscopic observations of NM-ITP and M-ITP with different modulation waveforms were made to estimate the composition in flux from the thermal plasma by measuring the time evolution in the spectral intensity from the species. Secondly, we studied polycrystalline diamond film deposition tests on a Si substrate, and we studied monocrystalline diamond film growth tests using the irradiation of NM-ITP and M-ITP. From these tests, diamond nucleation effects by M-ITP were found. Finally, following the irradiation results, we attempted to use a time-series irradiation of M-ITP and NM-ITP for polycrystalline diamond film deposition on a Si substrate. The results indicated that numerous larger diamond particles were deposited with a high population density on the Si substrate by time-series irradiation.

  2. Assessment of Electrodes Prepared from Wafers of Boron-doped Diamond for the Electrochemical Oxidation of Waste Lubricants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.T.; Sullivan, I.A.; Newey, A.W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation using boron-doped diamond electrodes is being investigated as a treatment process for radioactively contaminated oily wastes. Previously, it was shown that electrodes coated with a thin film of diamond were able to oxidise a cutting oil but not a mineral oil. These tests were inconclusive, because the electrodes lost their diamond coating during operation. Accordingly, an electrode prepared from a 'solid' wafer of boron-doped diamond is being investigated to determine whether it will oxidise mineral oils. The electrode has been tested with sucrose, a cutting oil and an emulsified mineral oil. Before and after each test, the state of the electrode was assessed by cyclic voltammetry with the ferro/ferricyanide redox couple. Analysis of the cyclic voltammogram suggested that material accumulated on the surface of the electrode during the tests. The magnitude of the effect was in the order: - emulsified mineral oil > cutting oil > sucrose. Despite this, the results indicated that the electrode was capable of oxidising the emulsified mineral oil. Confirmatory tests were undertaken in the presence of alkali to trap the carbon dioxide, but they had to be abandoned when the adhesive holding the diamond in the electrode was attacked by the alkali. Etching of the diamond wafer was also observed at the end of the tests. Surface corrosion is now regarded as an intrinsic part of the electrochemical oxidation on diamond, and it is expected that the rate of attack will determine the service life of the electrodes. (authors)

  3. Why diamond dimensions and electrode geometry are crucial for small photon beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsolat, F.; Tromson, D.; Tranchant, N.; Pomorski, M.; Bergonzo, P.; Bassinet, C.; Huet, C.; Derreumaux, S.; Chea, M.; Cristina, K.; Boisserie, G.; Buchheit, I.; Marchesi, V.; Gaudaire-Josset, S.; Lisbona, A.; Lazaro, D.; Hugon, R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent use of very small photon beams (down to 4 mm) in stereotactic radiotherapy requires new detectors to accurately determine the delivered dose. Diamond detectors have been presented in the literature as an attractive candidate for this application, due to their small detection volume and the diamond atomic number (Z = 6) which is close to water effective atomic number (Zeff ∼ 7.42). However, diamond exhibits a density 3.51 times greater than that of water and recent studies using Monte Carlo simulations have demonstrated the drawback of a high-density detector on small beam output factors. The current study focuses on geometrical parameters of diamond detector, namely, the diamond dimensions and the electrode geometry, in order to solve the dosimetric issues still observed in small photon beams with diamond detectors. To give better insights to these open questions, we have used both computational method and experimental analysis. This study highlighted that reducing diamond dimensions is crucial for small beam output factor measurements and to limit the influence of its high density. Furthermore, electrodes covering the whole diamond surface were essential for a dose rate independence of the diamond detector. The optimal dosimeter derived from this work presented small diamond dimensions of approximately 1 × 1 × 0.15 mm 3 , with diamond-like-carbon electrodes covering the whole diamond surface. A dose rate independence of this diamond detector (better than 0.5% over a wide range of dose rates available on a stereotactic dedicated facility) was obtained due to the electrode geometry. Concerning the output factor measurements, a good agreement (better than 1.1%) was observed between this carbon material detector and two types of passive dosimeters (LiF microcubes and EBT2 radiochromic films) for all beam sizes except the smallest field of 0.6 × 0.6 cm 2 with a deviation of 2.6%. This new study showed the high performance of this

  4. Why diamond dimensions and electrode geometry are crucial for small photon beam dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsolat, F.; Tromson, D.; Tranchant, N.; Pomorski, M.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bassinet, C.; Huet, C. [IRSN, PRP-HOM/SDE/LDRI, 31 Av. de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Derreumaux, S. [IRSN, PRP-HOM/SER/UEM, 31 Av. de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Chea, M.; Cristina, K.; Boisserie, G. [Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital, 47-83 Blvd de l' Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Buchheit, I.; Marchesi, V. [Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine, 6 Av. de Bourgogne, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Gaudaire-Josset, S.; Lisbona, A. [Institut de Cancérologie de l' Ouest, Blvd Prof. Jacques Monod, 44805 Saint-Herblain (France); Lazaro, D.; Hugon, R. [CEA, LIST, LM2S, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-12-21

    Recent use of very small photon beams (down to 4 mm) in stereotactic radiotherapy requires new detectors to accurately determine the delivered dose. Diamond detectors have been presented in the literature as an attractive candidate for this application, due to their small detection volume and the diamond atomic number (Z = 6) which is close to water effective atomic number (Zeff ∼ 7.42). However, diamond exhibits a density 3.51 times greater than that of water and recent studies using Monte Carlo simulations have demonstrated the drawback of a high-density detector on small beam output factors. The current study focuses on geometrical parameters of diamond detector, namely, the diamond dimensions and the electrode geometry, in order to solve the dosimetric issues still observed in small photon beams with diamond detectors. To give better insights to these open questions, we have used both computational method and experimental analysis. This study highlighted that reducing diamond dimensions is crucial for small beam output factor measurements and to limit the influence of its high density. Furthermore, electrodes covering the whole diamond surface were essential for a dose rate independence of the diamond detector. The optimal dosimeter derived from this work presented small diamond dimensions of approximately 1 × 1 × 0.15 mm{sup 3}, with diamond-like-carbon electrodes covering the whole diamond surface. A dose rate independence of this diamond detector (better than 0.5% over a wide range of dose rates available on a stereotactic dedicated facility) was obtained due to the electrode geometry. Concerning the output factor measurements, a good agreement (better than 1.1%) was observed between this carbon material detector and two types of passive dosimeters (LiF microcubes and EBT2 radiochromic films) for all beam sizes except the smallest field of 0.6 × 0.6 cm{sup 2} with a deviation of 2.6%. This new study showed the high performance

  5. Diamond detector technology: status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Harris; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H P; Bellini,, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; De Boer, W; Dehning, B; Dorfer, C; Dunser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Mcfadden, N; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Reichmann, M; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz, D; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Schreiner, T; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Taylor, Aaron; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, Stephen; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2017-01-01

    The status of material development of poly-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident par-ticle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition the first beam test results from 3D detectors made with poly-crystalline CVD diamond are presented. Finally the first analysis of LHC data from the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) which is based on pixelated poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors bump-bonded to pixel readout elec-tronics is shown.

  6. Conductivity of boron-doped polycrystalline diamond films: influence of specific boron defects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ashcheulov, Petr; Šebera, Jakub; Kovalenko, Alexander; Petrák, Václav; Fendrych, František; Nesládek, M.; Taylor, Andrew; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Frank, Otakar; Kavan, Ladislav; Dračínský, Martin; Hubík, Pavel; Vacík, Jiří; Kraus, I.; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 10 (2013), , "443-1"-"443-9" ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011165; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019; GA ČR GA13-31783S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11076 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 238201 - MATCON Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : polycrystalline diamond layer * conductivity B doping Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CG - Electrochemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2013

  7. Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission from nitrogen doped and undoped polycrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfimchev, S., E-mail: sergeyel@tx.technion.ac.il; Chandran, M.; Akhvlediani, R.; Hoffman, A.

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen related centers in diamond film are mainly responsible for visible sub-band-gap photoelectron emission. • The influence of film thickness and substrate on the measured photoelectron emission yields was not found. • Nanocrystalline diamonds have low electron emission yields most likely because of high amount of defects. • Visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission may increase with temperature due to electron trapping/detrapping processes. - Abstract: In this study the origin of visible sub-band gap photoelectron emission (PEE) from polycrystalline diamond films is investigated. The PEE yields as a function of temperature were studied in the wavelengths range of 360–520 nm. Based on the comparison of electron emission yields from diamond films deposited on silicon and molybdenum substrates, with different thicknesses and nitrogen doping levels, we suggested that photoelectrons are generated from nitrogen related centers in diamond. Our results show that diamond film thickness and substrate material have no significant influence on the PEE yield. We found that nanocrystalline diamond films have low electron emission yields, compared to microcrystalline diamond, due to the presence of high amount of defects in the former, which trap excited electrons before escaping into the vacuum. However, the low PEE yield of nanocrystalline diamond films was found to increase with temperature. The phenomenon was explained by the trap assisted photon enhanced thermionic emission (ta-PETE) model. According to the ta-PETE model, photoelectrons are trapped by shallow traps, followed by thermal excitation at elevated temperatures and escape into the vacuum. Activation energies of trap levels were estimated for undoped nanocrystalline, undoped microcrystalline and N-doped diamond films using the Richardson-Dushman equation, which gives 0.13, 0.39 and 0.04 eV, respectively. Such low activation energy of trap levels makes the ta-PETE process very

  8. Electrophoretic preparation and characterization of porous electrodes from diamond nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Lyda La Torre; Soto, Keyla; Tryk, Donald A; Cabrera, Carlos R [Department of Chemistry and Center of Nanoscale Materials, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PO Box 23346 San Juan, PR 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico)

    2007-04-15

    We carried out chemical purification of commercially available diamond nanoparticles by refluxing in aqueous HNO{sub 3} and characterized the samples by spectroscopic and surface techniques before and after purification. As a first step in the preparation of electrodes for electrochemistry, we have electrophoretically deposited thin, highly uniform films of controlled thickness (1-8 {mu}m) on silicon substrates using the purified diamond nanoparticles. These have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All films obtained were homogeneous in thickness and without macroscopic holes or cracks. Such structures could also be used in many other applications such as fuel cells or lithium batteries. We have performed cyclic voltammetry experiments with these electrodes. The voltammograms of diamond nanoparticles electrophoretically deposited on silicon indicate hydrogen evolution. This demonstrates that the material is useful as electrocatalitic support. This conclusion is supported by the cyclic voltammograms obtained using ferrycyanide (III) chloride and hexaamineruthenium (III) chloride complexes as redox probes. However, these redox probes showed very small peak currents. This behavior could be improved by doping the diamond nanoparticles with an impurity such as boron.

  9. Electrophoretic preparation and characterization of porous electrodes from diamond nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros, Lyda La Torre; Soto, Keyla; Tryk, Donald A; Cabrera, Carlos R

    2007-01-01

    We carried out chemical purification of commercially available diamond nanoparticles by refluxing in aqueous HNO 3 and characterized the samples by spectroscopic and surface techniques before and after purification. As a first step in the preparation of electrodes for electrochemistry, we have electrophoretically deposited thin, highly uniform films of controlled thickness (1-8 μm) on silicon substrates using the purified diamond nanoparticles. These have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All films obtained were homogeneous in thickness and without macroscopic holes or cracks. Such structures could also be used in many other applications such as fuel cells or lithium batteries. We have performed cyclic voltammetry experiments with these electrodes. The voltammograms of diamond nanoparticles electrophoretically deposited on silicon indicate hydrogen evolution. This demonstrates that the material is useful as electrocatalitic support. This conclusion is supported by the cyclic voltammograms obtained using ferrycyanide (III) chloride and hexaamineruthenium (III) chloride complexes as redox probes. However, these redox probes showed very small peak currents. This behavior could be improved by doping the diamond nanoparticles with an impurity such as boron

  10. Transient photoresponse of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond electrodes in saline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnood, Arman, E-mail: arman.ahnood@unimelb.edu.au; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Stacey, Alastair; Prawer, Steven [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Simonov, Alexandr N.; Spiccia, Leone [School of Chemistry and the ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Laird, Jamie S. [CSIRO, Minerals Resources Flagship, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Maturana, Matias I. [National Vision Research Institute, Australian College of Optometry, Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); NeuroEngineering Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ibbotson, Michael R. [National Vision Research Institute, Australian College of Optometry, Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Integrative Brain Function, Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2016-03-07

    Beyond conventional electrically-driven neuronal stimulation methods, there is a growing interest in optically-driven approaches. In recent years, nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) has emerged as a strong material candidate for use in electrically-driven stimulation electrodes. This work investigates the electrochemical activity of N-UNCD in response to pulsed illumination, to assess its potential for use as an optically-driven stimulation electrode. Whilst N-UNCD in the as-grown state exhibits a weak photoresponse, the oxygen plasma treated film exhibits two orders of magnitude enhancement in its sub-bandgap open circuit photovoltage response. The enhancement is attributed to the formation of a dense network of oxygen-terminated diamond nanocrystals at the N-UNCD surface. Electrically connected to the N-UNCD bulk via sub-surface graphitic grain boundaries, these diamond nanocrystals introduce a semiconducting barrier between the sub-surface graphitic semimetal and the electrolyte solution, leading to a photovoltage under irradiation with wavelengths of λ = 450 nm and shorter. Within the safe optical exposure limit of 2 mW mm{sup −2}, charge injection capacity of 0.01 mC cm{sup −2} is achieved using a 15 × 15 μm electrode, meeting the requirements for extracellular and intercellular stimulation. The nanoscale nature of processes presented here along with the diamond's biocompatibility and biostability open an avenue for the use of oxygen treated N-UNCD as optically driven stimulating electrodes.

  11. Transient photoresponse of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond electrodes in saline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnood, Arman; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Stacey, Alastair; Prawer, Steven; Simonov, Alexandr N.; Spiccia, Leone; Laird, Jamie S.; Maturana, Matias I.; Ibbotson, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Beyond conventional electrically-driven neuronal stimulation methods, there is a growing interest in optically-driven approaches. In recent years, nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) has emerged as a strong material candidate for use in electrically-driven stimulation electrodes. This work investigates the electrochemical activity of N-UNCD in response to pulsed illumination, to assess its potential for use as an optically-driven stimulation electrode. Whilst N-UNCD in the as-grown state exhibits a weak photoresponse, the oxygen plasma treated film exhibits two orders of magnitude enhancement in its sub-bandgap open circuit photovoltage response. The enhancement is attributed to the formation of a dense network of oxygen-terminated diamond nanocrystals at the N-UNCD surface. Electrically connected to the N-UNCD bulk via sub-surface graphitic grain boundaries, these diamond nanocrystals introduce a semiconducting barrier between the sub-surface graphitic semimetal and the electrolyte solution, leading to a photovoltage under irradiation with wavelengths of λ = 450 nm and shorter. Within the safe optical exposure limit of 2 mW mm"−"2, charge injection capacity of 0.01 mC cm"−"2 is achieved using a 15 × 15 μm electrode, meeting the requirements for extracellular and intercellular stimulation. The nanoscale nature of processes presented here along with the diamond's biocompatibility and biostability open an avenue for the use of oxygen treated N-UNCD as optically driven stimulating electrodes.

  12. Near-infrared refractive index of synthetic single crystal and polycrystalline diamonds at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, V. Yu.; Bushuev, E. V.; Popovich, A. F.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Ashkinazi, E. E.; Ralchenko, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    We measured the refractive index n(T) and thermo-optical coefficient β(T) = (1/n)(dn/dT) of high quality synthetic diamonds from room temperature to high temperatures, up to 1520 K, in near-infrared spectral range at wavelength 1.56 μm, using a low-coherence interferometry. A type IIa single crystal diamond produced by high pressure-high temperature technique and a transparent polycrystalline diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition were tested and revealed a very close n(T) behavior, with n = 2.384 ± 0.001 at T = 300 K, monotonically increasing to 2.428 at 1520 K. The n(T) data corrected to thermal expansion of diamond are well fitted with 3rd order polynomials, and alternatively, with the Bose-Einstein model with an effective oscillator frequency of 970 cm-1. Almost linear n(T) dependence is observed above 800 K. The thermo-optical coefficient is found to increase monotonically from (0.6 ± 0.1) × 10-5 K-1 (300 K) to (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10-5 K-1 (1300 K) with a tendency to saturation at >1200 K. These β(T) values are an order of magnitude lower than those known for Si, GaAs, and InP. The obtained results significantly extend the temperature range, where the refractive index of diamond was previously measured.

  13. A sandwich-like differential B-dot based on EACVD polycrystalline diamond slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Yu, Y.; Xu, L.; Zhou, H. Y.; Qiu, C. J.

    2018-06-01

    In this article, we present a method of mass production of a standardized high-performance differential B-dot magnetic probe together with the magnetic field measurement in a pulsed current device with the current up to hundreds of kilo-Amperes. A polycrystalline diamond slice produced in an Electron Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition device is used as the base and insulating material to imprint two symmetric differential loops for the magnetic field measurement. The SP3 carbon bond in the cubic lattice structure of diamond is confirmed by Raman spectra. The thickness of this slice is 20 μm. A gold loop is imprinted onto each surface of the slice by using the photolithography technique. The inner diameter, width, and thickness of each loop are 0.8 mm, 50 μm, and 1 μm, respectively. It provides a way of measuring the pulsed magnetic field with a high spatial and temporal resolution, especially in limited space. This differential magnetic probe has demonstrated a very good common-mode rejection rate through the pulsed magnetic field measurement.

  14. Diamond-Based Supercapacitors: Realization and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Nebel, Christoph E

    2016-10-26

    In this Spotlight on Applications, we describe our recent progress on the fabrication of surface-enlarged boron-doped polycrystalline diamond electrodes, and evaluate their performance in supercapacitor applications. We begin with a discussion of the fabrication methods of porous diamond materials. The diamond surface enlargement starts with a top-down plasma etching method. Although the extra surface area provided by surface roughening or nanostructuring provides good outcome for sensing applications, a capacitance value <1 mF cm -2 or a surface-enlargement factor <100 fail to meet the requirement of a practical supercapacitor. Driven by the need for large surface areas, we recently focused on the tempated-growth method. We worked on both supported and free-standing porous diamond materials to enhance the areal capacitance to the "mF cm -2 " range. With our newly developed free-standing diamond paper, areal capacitance can be multiplied by stacking multilayers of the electrode material. Finally, considering the fact that there is no real diamond-based supercapacitor device up to now, we fabricated the first prototype pouch-cell device based on the free-standing diamond paper to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that the diamond paper is suitable for operation in high potential windows (up to 2.5 V) in aqueous electrolyte with a capacitance of 0.688 mF cm -2 per layer of paper (or 0.645 F g -1 ). Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the operation frequency of the device exceeds 30 Hz. Because of the large potential window and the ability to work at high frequency, the specific power of the device reached 1 × 10 5 W kg -1 . In the end, we made estimations on the future target performance of diamond supercapacitors based on the existing information.

  15. The Development of Open Water-lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Thrust Bearings for Use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, Craig, H.; Khonsari, Michael,, M; Lingwall, Brent

    2012-11-28

    Polycrstalline diamond (PCD) bearings were designed, fabricated and tested for marine-hydro-kinetic (MHK) application. Bearing efficiency and life were evaluated using the US Synthetic bearing test facility. Three iterations of design, build and test were conducted to arrive at the best bearing design. In addition life testing that simulated the starting and stopping and the loading of real MHK applications were performed. Results showed polycrystalline diamond bearings are well suited for MHK applications and that diamond bearing technology is TRL4 ready. Based on life tests results bearing life is estimated to be at least 11.5 years. A calculation method for evaluating the performance of diamond bearings of round geometry was also investigated and developed. Finally, as part of this effort test bearings were supplied free of charge to the University of Alaska for further evaluation. The University of Alaska test program will subject the diamond bearings to sediment laden lubricating fluid.

  16. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond electrodes for neural interfaces: in vivo biocompatibility evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alcaide, M.; Taylor, Andrew; Fjorback, M.; Zachar, V.; Pennisi, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, Mar (2016), 1-9, č. článku 87. ISSN 1662-453X Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * neuroprosthetic interfaces * neural electrodes * boron-doped diamond * titanium nitride * foreign body reaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.566, year: 2016

  17. A diamond-based electrode for detection of neurochemicals in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E. Bennet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS, a surgical technique to treat certain neurologic and psychiatric conditions, relies on pre-determined stimulation parameters in an open-loop configuration. The major advancement in DBS devices is a closed-loop system that uses neurophysiologic feedback to dynamically adjust stimulation frequency and amplitude. Stimulation-driven neurochemical release can be measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV, but existing FSCV electrodes rely on carbon fiber, which degrades quickly during use and is therefore unsuitable for chronic neurochemical recording. To address this issue, we developed durable, synthetic boron-doped diamond-based electrodes capable of measuring neurochemical release in humans. Compared to carbon fiber electrodes, they were more than two orders-of-magnitude more physically-robust and demonstrated longevity in vitro without deterioration. Applied for the first time in humans, diamond electrode recordings from thalamic targets in patients (n=4 undergoing DBS for tremor produced signals consistent with adenosine release at a sensitivity comparable to carbon fiber electrodes.

  18. Thermal characterization of polycrystalline diamond thin film heat spreaders grown on GaN HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ramaneti, Rajesh; Anaya, Julian; Korneychuk, Svetlana; Derluyn, Joff; Sun, Huarui; Pomeroy, James; Verbeeck, Johan; Haenen, Ken; Kuball, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) was grown onto high-k dielectric passivated AlGaN/GaN-on-Si high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures, with film thicknesses ranging from 155 to 1000 nm. Transient thermoreflectance results were combined with device thermal simulations to investigate the heat spreading benefit of the diamond layer. The observed thermal conductivity (κDia) of PCD films is one-to-two orders of magnitude lower than that of bulk PCD and exhibits a strong layer thickness dependence, which is attributed to the grain size evolution. The films exhibit a weak temperature dependence of κDia in the measured 25-225 °C range. Device simulation using the experimental κDia and thermal boundary resistance values predicts at best a 15% reduction in peak temperature when the source-drain opening of a passivated AlGaN/GaN-on-Si HEMT is overgrown with PCD.

  19. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yuan; Zhou, Yanli; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2012-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC), carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitiv...

  20. Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes for the Electrochemical Oxidation and Cleavage of Peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeser, Julien; Alting, Niels F. A.; Permentier, Hjalmar P.; Bruins, Andries P.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of peptides and proteins is traditionally performed on carbon-based electrodes. Adsorption caused by the affinity of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids toward these surfaces leads to electrode fouling. We compared the performance of boron-doped diamond (BDD) and glassy

  1. The Immunosuppressive drug – Rapamycin – Electroanalytical Sensing Using Boron- Doped Diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanković, Dalibor M.; Kalcher, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: This paper presents for the first time the study of electrochemical behavior of well known immunosuppressant drug – rapamycin (sirolimus) using boron-doped diamond electrode. Rapamycin provided single and oval-shaped oxidation peak at +1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl electrode in Britton–Robinson buffer solution at pH 3 confirming highly irreversible behavior of analyte at boron-doped diamond electrode. A differential pulse voltammetry was used for quantification of tested drug under the optimum experimental conditions. The calibration curve was linear over the range from 0.5 to 19.5 μM (R 2 = 0.9976) with detection limit of 0.22 μM. Repeatability of ten successfully measurements of three different concentrations (5, 10 and 15 μM) was 2.5, 1.9 and 1,7 %, respectively. Influence of most common biomolecules presented in urine samples was evaluated. The suggested analytical methodology was successfully applied for determination of rapamycin in four urine samples with excellent recoveries. The developed approach could be beneficial in analysis of rapamycin in biological samples using boron-doped diamond electrode as up-to-date electrochemical sensor and could represent inexpensive analytical alternative to separation methods

  2. Nanopores creation in boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Rouzbeh; Nezhad Shirazi, Ali Hossein; Alajlan, Naif; Rabczuk, Timon

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, molecular dynamic simulations have been conducted to investigate the nanopores creation on 10% of boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene by silicon and diamond nanoclusters. Two types of nanoclusters based on silicon and diamond are used to investigate their effect for the fabrication of nanopores. Therefore, three different diameter sizes of the clusters with five kinetic energies of 10, 50, 100, 300 and 500 eV/atom at four different locations in boron or nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene nanosheets have been perused. We also study the effect of 3% and 6% of boron doped polycrystalline graphene with the best outcome from 10% of doping. Our results reveal that the diamond cluster with diameter of 2 and 2.5 nm fabricates the largest nanopore areas on boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene, respectively. Furthermore, the kinetic energies of 10 and 50 eV/atom can not fabricate nanopores in some cases for silicon and diamond clusters on boron doped polycrystalline graphene nanosheets. On the other hand, silicon and diamond clusters fabricate nanopores for all locations and all tested energies on nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene. The area sizes of nanopores fabricated by silicon and diamond clusters with diameter of 2 and 2.5 nm are close to the actual area size of the related clusters for the kinetic energy of 300 eV/atom in all locations on boron doped polycrystalline graphene. The maximum area and the average maximum area of nanopores are fabricated by the kinetic energy of 500 eV/atom inside the grain boundary at the center of the nanosheet and in the corner of nanosheet with diameters of 2 and 3 nm for silicon and diamond clusters on boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene.

  3. Research on electrodischarge drilling of polycrystalline diamond with increased gap voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczypiec, Sebastian; Bizoń, Wojciech; Żyra, Agnieszka

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the machining characteristics of polycrystalline diamond (PCD). Machining of PCD by conventional technologies is not an effective solution. Due to presence of cobalt this material can be machined by application of electrical discharges. On the other side, electrical conductivity of PCD is on the limit of electrodischarge machining (EDM) possibilities. Proposed paper reports experimental investigation on electrodischarge drilling of PCD samples. The test were carried out with application on of high-voltage (up to 550 V) pulse power unit for two kinds of dielectrics: carbon based (Exxsol D80) and de-ionized water. As output parameters machining accuracy (side gap), material removal rate were selected. Also, based on SEM photographs and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, a qualitative evaluation of the obtained results was presented.

  4. Large-volume static compression using nano-polycrystalline diamond for opposed anvils in compact cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuchi, T; Sasaki, S; Ohno, Y; Osakabe, T; Odake, S; Kagi, H

    2010-01-01

    In order to extend the pressure regime of intrinsically low-sensitivity methods of measurement, such as neutron scattering and NMR, sample volume to be compressed in compact opposed-anvil cells is desired to be significantly increased. We hereby conducted a series of experiments using two types of compact cells equipped with enforced loading mechanisms. Super-hard nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) anvils were carefully prepared for large-volume compression in these cells. These anvils are harder, larger and stronger than single crystal diamond anvils, so that they could play an ideal role to accept the larger forces. Supported and unsupported anvil geometries were separately tested to evaluate this expectation. In spite of insufficient support to the anvils, pressures to 14 GPa were generated for the sample volume of > 0.1 mm 3 , without damaging the NPD anvils. These results demonstrate a large future potential of compact cells equipped with NPD anvils and enforced loading mechanism.

  5. Nitrogen-doped diamond electrode shows high performance for electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Yanming; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A metal-free nitrogen-doped diamond electrode was synthesized. • The electrode exhibits high electrocatalytic activity for nitrobenzene reduction. • The electrode exhibits high selectivity for reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline. • High energy efficiency was obtained compared with graphite electrode. -- Abstract: Effective electrode materials are critical to electrochemical reduction, which is a promising method to pre-treat anti-oxidative and bio-refractory wastewater. Herein, nitrogen-doped diamond (NDD) electrodes that possess superior electrocatalytic properties for reduction were fabricated by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology. Nitrobenzene (NB) was chosen as the probe compound to investigate the material's electro-reduction activity. The effects of potential, electrolyte concentration and pH on NB reduction and aniline (AN) formation efficiencies were studied. NDD exhibited high electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for reduction of NB to AN. The NB removal efficiency and AN formation efficiency were 96.5% and 88.4% under optimal conditions, respectively; these values were 1.13 and 3.38 times higher than those of graphite electrodes. Coulombic efficiencies for NB removal and AN formation were 27.7% and 26.1%, respectively; these values were 4.70 and 16.6 times higher than those of graphite electrodes under identical conditions. LC–MS analysis revealed that the dominant reduction pathway on the NDD electrode was NB to phenylhydroxylamine (PHA) to AN

  6. Diamond pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, D.; Barbero, M.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Brom, J-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Cristinziani, M.; Costa, S.; D'Alessandro, R.; Boer, W. de; Dobos, D.; Dolenc, I.; Dulinski, W.; Duris, J.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10 16 protons/cm 2 illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  7. Diamond pixel modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, D. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada); Barbero, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bellini, V. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); Belyaev, V. [MEPHI Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brom, J-M. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Bruzzi, M. [INFN/University of Florence (Italy); Chren, D. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Claus, G. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Cristinziani, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Costa, S. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Department of Energetics/INFN Florence (Italy); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dobos, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dolenc, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dulinski, W. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Duris, J. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eusebi, R. [FNAL, Batavia (United States); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Technik, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2011-04-21

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  8. Electrochemical protein cleavage in a microfluidic cell with integrated boron doped diamond electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Floris Teunis Gerardus; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Liwei; Odijk, Mathieu; Olthuis, Wouter; Permentier, Hjalmar P.; Bischoff, Rainer P.H.; van den Berg, Albert

    2015-01-01

    We present a microfluidic electrochemical cell with integrated boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes which is designed for high electrochemical conversion efficiencies. With our newest developments, we aim to exploit the benefits of BDD as a novel electrode material to conduct tyrosine- and

  9. CVD Diamond Sensors In Detectors For High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00334150; Trischuk, William

    At the end of the next decade an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is planned which requires the development of new radiation tolerant sensor technology. Diamond is an interesting material for use as a particle detector in high radiation environments. The large band gap ($5.47\\,\\text{eV}$) and the large displacement energy suggest that diamond is a radiation tolerant detector material. In this Thesis the capability of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond as such a sensor technology is investigated. The radiation damage constant for $800\\,\\text{MeV}$ protons is measured using single crystalline CVD (scCVD) and polycrystalline CVD (pCVD) diamonds irradiated to particle fluences up to $12 \\times 10^{15}\\,\\text{p/cm}^2$. In addition the signal response of a pCVD diamond detector after an irradiation to $12 \\times 10^{15}\\,\\text{p/cm}^2$ is investigated to determine if such a detector can be operated efficiently in the expected HL-LHC environment. By using electrodes em...

  10. Charge transport and X-ray dosimetry performance of a single crystal CVD diamond device fabricated with pulsed laser deposited electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, M.A.E.; Abdel-Rahman, M.A.E.; Lohstroh, A.; Bryant, P.; Jayawardena, I.

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of amorphous Carbon mixed with Nickel (C/Ni) as electrodes for a diamond radiation detector using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) was demonstrated previously as a novel technique for producing near-tissue equivalent X-ray dosimeters based on polycrystalline diamond. In this study, we present the first characterisation of a single crystal CVD diamond sandwich detector (of 80 nm thickness) fabricated with this method, labelled SC-C/Ni. To examine the performance of PLD C/Ni as an electrical contact, alpha spectroscopy and x-ray induced photocurrents were studied as a function of applied bias voltage at room temperature and compared to those of polycrystalline CVD diamond detectors (PC-C/Ni); the spectroscopy data allows us to separate electron and hole contributions to the charge transport, whereas the X-ray data was investigated in terms of, linearity and dose rate dependence, sensitivity, signal to noise ratio, photoconductive gain, reproducibility and time response (rise and fall-off times). In the case of electron sensitive alpha induced signals, a charge collection efficiency (CCE) higher than 90 % has been observed at a bias of -40 V and 100 % CCE at -300 V, with an energy resolution of ∼3 % for 5.49 MeV alpha particles. The hole sample showed very poor spectroscopy performance for hole sensitive signals up to 200 Volt; this inhibited a similar numerical analysis to be carried out in a meaningful way. The dosimetric characteristic show a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) of ∼7.3x10 3 , an approximately linear relationship between the photocurrent and the dose rate and a sensitivity of 4.87 μC/Gy.mm 3 . The photoconductive gain is estimated to around 20, this gain might be supported by hole trapping effects as indicated in the alpha spectroscopy. The observed rise and fall-off times are less than 2 and 0.56 seconds, respectively - and mainly reflect the switching time of the X-ray tube used.The reproducibility of (0.504 %) approaches the value

  11. Broader energy distribution of CO adsorbed at polycrystalline Pt electrode in comparison with that at Pt(111) electrode in H_2SO_4 solution confirmed by potential dependent IR/visible double resonance sum frequency generation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shuo; Noguchi, Hidenori; Uosaki, Kohei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical SFG spectroscopy is an efficient in situ probe of electronic structure at electrochemical interface. • Electrooxidation performances of CO adsorbed on polycrystalline Pt and Pt(111) electrodes were compared. • The enhanced SFG signal of CO on Pt electrodes was observed due to a vibrational-electronic double resonance effect. • The broader energy distribution of 5sa state of CO on polycrystalline Pt than on Pt(111) is proved by SFG results. - Abstract: Electrochemical cyclic voltammetry and potential dependent double resonance sum frequency generation (DR-SFG) spectroscopy were performed on CO adsorbed on polycrystalline Pt and Pt(111) electrodes in H_2SO_4 solution to examine the effect of substrate on the electronic structure of CO. The dependence of SFG intensity on potential and visible energy for atop CO band was observed on both polycrystalline and single crystalline Pt electrodes. Enhancement of the SFG intensity was determined to be a direct result of a surface electronic resonance of the visible/SF light with the electronic transition from Fermi level of Pt to the 5σ_a anti-bonding state of adsorbed CO, in agreement with previous results. Interestingly, when compared to the Pt(111) electrode, the distribution width of the intensity enhancement region on polycrystalline Pt is broader than on Pt(111). This suggests that the energy distribution of the 5σ_a state of CO on polycrystalline Pt surface is broader than that on Pt(111) due to the complex surface structure of the polycrystalline Pt electrode.

  12. Electroluminescence from a diamond device with ion-beam-micromachined buried graphitic electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forneris, J., E-mail: jacopo.forneris@unito.it [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Battiato, A.; Gatto Monticone, D. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Picollo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Amato, G.; Boarino, L.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I.P.; Enrico, E.; Genovese, M.; Moreva, E.; Traina, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), Torino (Italy); Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Roma “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Olivero, P. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    Focused MeV ion microbeams are suitable tools for the direct writing of conductive graphitic channels buried in an insulating diamond bulk, as demonstrated in previous works with the fabrication of multi-electrode ionizing radiation detectors and cellular biosensors. In this work we investigate the suitability of the fabrication method for the electrical excitation of color centers in diamond. Differently from photoluminescence, electroluminescence requires an electrical current flowing through the diamond sub-gap states for the excitation of the color centers. With this purpose, buried graphitic electrodes with a spacing of 10 μm were fabricated in the bulk of a detector-grade CVD single-crystal diamond sample using a scanning 1.8 MeV He{sup +} micro-beam. The current flowing in the gap region between the electrodes upon the application of a 450 V bias voltage was exploited as the excitation pump for the electroluminescence of different types of color centers localized in the above-mentioned gap. The bright light emission was spatially mapped using a confocal optical microscopy setup. The spectral analysis of electroluminescence revealed the emission from neutrally-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV{sup 0}, λ{sub ZPL} = 575 nm), as well as from cluster crystal dislocations (A-band, λ = 400–500 nm). Moreover, an electroluminescence signal with appealing spectral features (sharp emission at room temperature, low phonon sidebands) from He-related defects was detected (λ{sub ZPL} = 536.3 nm, λ{sub ZPL} = 560.5 nm); a low and broad peak around λ = 740 nm was also observed and tentatively ascribed to Si-V or GR1 centers. These results pose interesting future perspectives for the fabrication of electrically-stimulated single-photon emitters in diamond for applications in quantum optics and quantum cryptography.

  13. Understanding anodic wear at boron doped diamond film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, Brian P.; Hubler, David K.; Farrell, James

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the mechanisms associated with anodic wear of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to measure changes in electrode response and surface chemistry as a function of the charge passed and applied current density. Density functional theory (DFT) modeling was used to evaluate possible reaction mechanisms. The initial hydrogen-terminated surface was electrochemically oxidized at lower potentials than water oxidation (≤ 1.83 V/SHE), and was not catalyzed by the hydrogen-terminated surface. In the region where water oxidation produces hydroxyl radicals (OH·), the hydrogen-terminated surface may also be oxidized by chemical reaction with OH·. Oxygen atoms became incorporated into the surface via reaction of carbon atoms with OH·, forming both C = O and C-OH functional groups, that were also detected by XPS measurements. Experimental and DFT modeling results indicate that the oxygenated diamond surface lowers the potential for activationless water oxidation from 2.74 V/SHE for the hydrogen terminated surface to 2.29 V/SHE for the oxygenated surface. Electrode wear was accelerated at high current densities (i.e., 500 mA cm −2 ), where SEM results indicated oxidation of the BDD film resulted in significant surface roughening. These results are supported by EIS measurements that document an increase in the double-layer capacitance as a function of the charge passed. DFT simulations provide a possible mechanism that explains the observed diamond oxidation. DFT simulation results indicate that BDD edge sites (=CH 2 ) can be converted to COOH functional groups, which are further oxidized via reactions with OH· to form H 2 CO 3(aq.) with an activation energy of 58.9 kJ mol −1

  14. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  15. Influence of electrodes on the photon energy deposition in CVD-diamond dosimeters studied with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorka, B; Nilsson, B; Fernandez-Varea, J M; Svensson, R; Brahme, A

    2006-01-01

    A new dosimeter, based on chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond as the active detector material, is being developed for dosimetry in radiotherapeutic beams. CVD-diamond is a very interesting material, since its atomic composition is close to that of human tissue and in principle it can be designed to introduce negligible perturbations to the radiation field and the dose distribution in the phantom due to its small size. However, non-tissue-equivalent structural components, such as electrodes, wires and encapsulation, need to be carefully selected as they may induce severe fluence perturbation and angular dependence, resulting in erroneous dose readings. By introducing metallic electrodes on the diamond crystals, interface phenomena between high- and low-atomic-number materials are created. Depending on the direction of the radiation field, an increased or decreased detector signal may be obtained. The small dimensions of the CVD-diamond layer and electrodes (around 100 μm and smaller) imply a higher sensitivity to the lack of charged-particle equilibrium and may cause severe interface phenomena. In the present study, we investigate the variation of energy deposition in the diamond detector for different photon-beam qualities, electrode materials and geometric configurations using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. The prototype detector was produced from a 50 μm thick CVD-diamond layer with 0.2 μm thick silver electrodes on both sides. The mean absorbed dose to the detector's active volume was modified in the presence of the electrodes by 1.7%, 2.1%, 1.5%, 0.6% and 0.9% for 1.25 MeV monoenergetic photons, a complete (i.e. shielded) 60 Co photon source spectrum and 6, 18 and 50 MV bremsstrahlung spectra, respectively. The shift in mean absorbed dose increases with increasing atomic number and thickness of the electrodes, and diminishes with increasing thickness of the diamond layer. From a dosimetric point of view, graphite would be an almost perfect electrode

  16. On the generation of surface depressions in polishing polycrystalline diamond compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Fengzai; Chen, Yiqing; Zhang, Liangchi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the surface depressions generated during the polishing of the (1 1 1) surfaces of polycrystalline diamond (PCD) compacts when using the dynamic friction polishing (DFP) method. It was found that surface depressions of six-sided faces along octahedral planes were the typical features created by the DFP. Although the size of the well-developed depressions can vary significantly, the rectilinear edges are always aligned with the directions. Pronounced {1 1 1} planar defects (i.e., twins) were revealed underneath a depression apex. The interception of the defect plane with the polished surface accounts for the generation of the aligned depressions and for the discernible asymmetry of the pyramidal faces with respect to the (1 1 1) plane. It was revealed that the attached debris layer on the PCD surfaces contained sp 2 -bounded amorphous carbon and nano-sized crystals. (paper)

  17. Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, B.

    1999-01-01

    The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement

  18. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczemska, Anna T.; Witkowski, Dariusz; Ralchenko, Victor; Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry; Lysko, Jan M.; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Bodzenta, Jerzy; Hassard, John

    2011-01-01

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare TM was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  19. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczemska, Anna T., E-mail: anna.karczemska@p.lodz.pl [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Witkowski, Dariusz [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Ralchenko, Victor, E-mail: ralchenko@nsc.gpi.ru [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Lysko, Jan M., E-mail: jmlysko@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalkowski, Mateusz, E-mail: petr.louda@vslib.cz [Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Czech Republic); Bodzenta, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.bodzenta@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 2 Krzywoustego str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Hassard, John, E-mail: j.hassard@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare{sup TM} was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  20. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped diamond (BDD thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC, carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitivity, and fast response. Electrochemical reactions perform at the interface between electrolyte solutions and the electrodes surfaces, so the surface structures and properties of the BDD electrodes are important for electrochemical detection. In this paper, the recent advances of BDD electrodes with different surfaces including nanostructured surface and chemically modified surface, for the construction of various electrochemical biosensors, were described.

  1. Behaviour of polycrystalline fluoride-selective membrane electrode in aqueous-organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manakova, L.I.; Bausova, N.V.; Moiseev, V.E.; Bamburov, V.G.; Sivoplyas, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    The behaviour of polycrystalline fluoride membrane electrode (RFME) in aqueous-organic media has been studied when the content of the organic component (methanol, ethanol, acetone, dioxane) has been changed from 20 to 80 mass%. Since LaF 3 is the base of the membrane, its solubility has been studied depending on the organic component content in the solution. It has been established that LaF 3 solubility decreases with increasing content of of the organic component. This explains the effect of the composition of an aqueous-organic solvent on the electrode sensitivity. The electrode sensitivity rises with increasing content of the organic component in an aqueous-organic solvent. A greater decrease of LaF 3 solubility in aqueous-organic solvents as compared with that of LaCl 3 , La(NO 3 ) 3 , and La 2 (SO 4 ) 3 causes a higher selectivity of RFME with respect to the anions under study

  2. Metal ion analysis in contaminated water samples using anodic stripping voltammetry and a nanocrystalline diamond thin-film electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonthalia, Prerna; McGaw, Elizabeth; Show, Yoshiyuki; Swain, Greg M.

    2004-01-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin-film electrodes were employed for the detection and quantification of Ag (I), Cu (II), Pb (II), Cd (II), and Zn (II) in several contaminated water samples using anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV). Diamond is an alternate electrode that possesses many of the same attributes as Hg and, therefore, appears to be a viable material for this electroanalytical measurement. The nanocrystalline form has been found to perform slightly better than the more conventional microcrystalline form of diamond in this application. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPASV) was used to detect these metal ions in lake water, well water, tap water, wastewater treatment sludge, and soil. The electrochemical results were compared with data from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) and or atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) measurements of the same samples. Diamond is shown to function well in this electroanalytical application, providing a wide linear dynamic range, a low limit of quantitation, excellent response precision, and good response accuracy. For the analysis of Pb (II), bare diamond provided a response nearly identical to that obtained with a Hg-coated glassy carbon electrode

  3. Cyclic voltammetric response of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on a polycrystalline gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoxia; Yang Nianjun; Wan Qijin

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on a polycrystalline gold electrode occurred at almost same potentials but their reduction did at different peak potentials. The redox reaction mechanisms of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were rationalized by the formation/disappearance of the new nitrogen-oxygen bonds in the pyridine rings by means of cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. The anodic currents of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were controlled by diffusion, while the cathodic ones by adsorption. The difference in the cathodic peak potentials of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on the polycrystalline gold electrode is attributed to the effect of the electron densities of remote substituents on the pyridine rings. The cathodic peak currents at about 0.20 V were linear with their concentrations in the range of 2.4 mM to 2.7 μM and 2.4 mM to 3.3 μM with detection limits of 0.27 and 0.33 μM for nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, respectively. Voltammetry was then adopted for the selective monitoring the content of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in pharmaceuticals

  4. Detection of DNA nucleotides on pretreated boron doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbellini, Gustavo S.; Uliana, Carolina V.; Yamanaka, Hideko [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The individual detection and equimolar mixture of DNA nucleotides guanosine monophosphate (GMP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), thymidine (TMP) and cytidine (CMP) 5'-monophosphate using square wave voltammetry was performed on boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes cathodically (Red-DDB) and anodically (Oxi-DDB) pretreated. The oxidation of individual DNA nucleotides was more sensitive on Oxi-BDD electrode. In a simultaneous detection of nucleotides, the responses of GMP, AMP, TMP and CMP were very adequate on both treated electrodes. Particularly, more sensitive and separate peaks for TMP and CMP on Oxi-BDD and Red-BDD electrodes, respectively, were observed after deconvolution procedure. The detection of nucleotides in aqueous solutions will certainly contribute for genotoxic evaluation of substances and hybridization reactions by immobilizing ss or ds-DNA on BDD surface. (author)

  5. Friction and wear properties of diamonds and diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    The recent development of chemical vapor deposition techniques for diamond growth enables bearings to be designed which exploit diamond's low friction and extreme resistance to wear. However, currently produced diamond coatings differ from natural diamond surfaces in that they are polycrystalline and faceted, and often contain appreciable amounts of non-diamond material (i.e. graphitic or amorphous carbon). Roughness, in particular, influences the friction and wear properties; rough coatings severely abrade softer materials, and can even wear natural diamond sliders. Nevertheless, the best available coatings exhibit friction coefficients as low as those of natural diamond and are highly resistant to wear. This paper reviews the tribological properties of natural diamond, and compares them with those of chemical vapor deposited diamond coatings. Emphasis is placed on the roles played by roughness and material transfer in controlling frictional behavior. (orig.)

  6. Electrochemical evaluation and determination of antiretroviral drug fosamprenavir using boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2010-05-01

    Fosamprenavir is a pro-drug of the antiretroviral protease inhibitor amprenavir and is oxidizable at solid electrodes. The anodic oxidation behavior of fosamprenavir was investigated using cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry at boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes. In cyclic voltammetry, depending on pH values, fosamprenavir showed one sharp irreversible oxidation peak or wave depending on the working electrode. The mechanism of the oxidation process was discussed. The voltammetric study of some model compounds allowed elucidation of the possible oxidation mechanism of fosamprenavir. The aim of this study was to determine fosamprenavir levels in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples by means of electrochemical methods. Using the sharp oxidation response, two voltammetric methods were described for the determination of fosamprenavir by differential pulse and square-wave voltammetry at the boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes. These two voltammetric techniques are 0.1 M H(2)SO(4) and phosphate buffer at pH 2.0 which allow quantitation over a 4 x 10(-6) to 8 x 10(-5) M range using boron-doped diamond and a 1 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-4) M range using glassy carbon electrodes, respectively, in supporting electrolyte. All necessary validation parameters were investigated and calculated. These methods were successfully applied for the analysis of fosamprenavir pharmaceutical dosage forms, human serum and urine samples. The standard addition method was used in biological media using boron-doped diamond electrode. No electroactive interferences from the tablet excipients or endogenous substances from biological material were found. The results were statistically compared with those obtained through an established HPLC-UV technique; no significant differences were found between the voltammetric and HPLC methods.

  7. Thin polycrystalline diamond films protecting zirconium alloys surfaces: from technology to layer analysis and application in nuclear facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ashcheulov, Petr; Škoda, R.; Škarohlíd, J.; Taylor, Andrew; Fekete, Ladislav; Fendrych, František; Vega, R.; Shao, L.; Kalvoda, L.; Vratislav, S.; Cháb, Vladimír; Horáková, K.; Kůsová, Kateřina; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Sajdl, P.; Macák, J.; Johnson, S.; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 359, Dec (2015), s. 621-628 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05095S; GA TA ČR TA04020156; GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029 Grant - others:SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : metal coatings * thin polycrystalline diamond film * impedance spectroscopy * Raman spectroscopy * XPS Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2015

  8. Electrochemical degradation of chlorobenzene on boron-doped diamond and platinum electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lei; Zhao Guohua; Wu Meifen; Lei Yanzhu; Geng Rong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the electrochemical degradation of chlorobenzene (CB) was investigated on boron-doped diamond (BDD) and platinum (Pt) anodes, and the degradation kinetics on these two electrodes was compared. Compared with the total mineralization with a total organic carbon (TOC) removal of 85.2% in 6 h on Pt electrode, the TOC removal reached 94.3% on BDD electrode under the same operate condition. Accordingly, the mineralization current efficiency (MCE) during the mineralization on BDD electrode was higher than that on the Pt electrode. Besides TOC, the conversion of CB, the productions and decay of intermediates were also monitored. Kinetic study indicated that the decay of CB on BDD and Pt electrodes were both pseudo-first-order reactions, and the reaction rate constant (k s ) on BDD electrode was higher than that on Pt electrode. The different reaction mechanisms on the two electrodes were investigated by the variation of intermediates concentrations. Two different reaction pathways for the degradation of CB on BDD electrode and Pt electrode involving all these intermediates were proposed.

  9. Selective deposition of polycrystalline diamond films using photolithography with addition of nanodiamonds as nucleation centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okhotnikov, V V; Linnik, S A; Gaidaichuk, A V; Shashev, D V; Nazarova, G Yu; Yurchenko, V I

    2016-01-01

    A new method of selective deposition of polycrystalline diamond has been developed and studied. The diamond coatings with a complex, predetermined geometry and resolution up to 5 μm were obtained. A high density of polycrystallites in the coating area was reached (up to 32·10 7 pcs/cm 2 ). The uniformity of the film reached 100%, and the degree of the surface contamination by parasitic crystals did not exceed 2%. The technology was based on the application of the standard photolithography with an addition of nanodiamond suspension into the photoresist that provided the creation of the centers of further nucleation in the areas which require further overgrowth. The films were deposited onto monocrystalline silicon substrates using the method of “hot filaments” in the CVD reactor. The properties of the coating and the impact of the nanodiamond suspension concentration in the photoresist were also studied. The potential use of the given method includes a high resolution, technological efficiency, and low labor costs compared to the standard methods (laser treatment, chemical etching in aggressive environments,). (paper)

  10. Selective deposition of polycrystalline diamond films using photolithography with addition of nanodiamonds as nucleation centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhotnikov, V. V.; Linnik, S. A.; Gaidaichuk, A. V.; Shashev, D. V.; Nazarova, G. Yu; Yurchenko, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    A new method of selective deposition of polycrystalline diamond has been developed and studied. The diamond coatings with a complex, predetermined geometry and resolution up to 5 μm were obtained. A high density of polycrystallites in the coating area was reached (up to 32·107 pcs/cm2). The uniformity of the film reached 100%, and the degree of the surface contamination by parasitic crystals did not exceed 2%. The technology was based on the application of the standard photolithography with an addition of nanodiamond suspension into the photoresist that provided the creation of the centers of further nucleation in the areas which require further overgrowth. The films were deposited onto monocrystalline silicon substrates using the method of “hot filaments” in the CVD reactor. The properties of the coating and the impact of the nanodiamond suspension concentration in the photoresist were also studied. The potential use of the given method includes a high resolution, technological efficiency, and low labor costs compared to the standard methods (laser treatment, chemical etching in aggressive environments,).

  11. Thin polycrystalline diamond films protecting zirconium alloys surfaces: From technology to layer analysis and application in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcheulov, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Škoda, R.; Škarohlíd, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technická 4, Prague 6, CZ-160 07 (Czech Republic); Taylor, A.; Fekete, L.; Fendrych, F. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vega, R.; Shao, L. [Texas A& M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering TAMU-3133, College Station, TX TX 77843 (United States); Kalvoda, L.; Vratislav, S. [Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Cháb, V.; Horáková, K.; Kůsová, K.; Klimša, L.; Kopeček, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Sajdl, P.; Macák, J. [University of Chemistry and Technology, Power Engineering Department, Technická 3, Prague 6, CZ-166 28 (Czech Republic); Johnson, S. [Nuclear Fuel Division, Westinghouse Electric Company, 5801 Bluff Road, Hopkins, SC 29209 (United States); Kratochvílová, I., E-mail: krat@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In this work we showed that films prepared by MW-LA-PECVD technology can be used as anticorrosion protective layer for Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings at elevated temperatures (950 °C) when α phase of zirconium changes to β phase (more opened for oxygen/hydrogen diffusion). Quality of PCD films was examined by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM, AFM and SIMS analysis. • The polycrystalline diamond films were of high quality - without defects and contaminations. After hot steam oxidation (950 °C) a high level of structural integrity of PCD layer was observed. Both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} C phases were present in the protective PCD layer. Higher resistance and a lower degree of impedance dispersion was found in the hot steam oxidized PCD coated Zircaloy2 samples, which may suggest better protection of the Zircaloy2 surface. The PCD layer blocks the hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface thus protecting the material from degradation. • Hot steam oxidation tests confirmed that PCD coated Zircaloy2 surfaces were effectively protected against corrosion. Presented results demonstrate that the PCD anticorrosion protection can significantly prolong service life of Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings in nuclear reactors even at elevated temperatures. - Abstract: Zirconium alloys can be effectively protected against corrosion by polycrystalline diamond (PCD) layers grown in microwave plasma enhanced linear antenna chemical vapor deposition apparatus. Standard and hot steam oxidized PCD layers grown on Zircaloy2 surfaces were examined and the specific impact of polycrystalline Zr substrate surface on PCD layer properties was investigated. It was found that the presence of the PCD coating blocks hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface and protects Zircaloy2 material from degradation. PCD anticorrosion protection of Zircaloy2 can significantly prolong life of Zircaloy2 material in nuclear reactors even at temperatures above Zr

  12. First dose-map measured with a polycrystalline diamond 2D dosimeter under an intensity modulated radiotherapy beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaringella, M., E-mail: scaringella@gmail.com [Università di Firenze, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, Firenze (Italy); Zani, M. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Università di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sperimentali e Cliniche, Firenze (Italy); Baldi, A. [Università di Firenze, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Università di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sperimentali e Cliniche, Firenze (Italy); Pace, E.; Sio, A. de [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Università di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Talamonti, C. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Università di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sperimentali e Cliniche, Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Università di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    A prototype of bidimensional dosimeter made on a 2.5×2.5 cm{sup 2} active area polycrystalline Chemical Vapour Deposited (pCVD) diamond film, equipped with a matrix of 12×12 contacts connected to the read-out electronics, has been used to evaluate a map of dose under Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) fields for a possible application in pre-treatment verifications of cancer treatments. Tests have been performed under a 6–10 MVRX beams with IMRT fields for prostate and breast cancer. Measurements have been taken by measuring the 144 pixels in different positions, obtained by shifting the device along the x/y axes to span a total map of 14.4×10 cm{sup 2}. Results show that absorbed doses measured by our pCVD diamond device are consistent with those calculated by the Treatment Planning System (TPS)

  13. Status of the R&D activity on diamond particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Bellini, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; de Boer, W.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K. K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Perera, L.; Pernicka, M.; Polesello, P.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    2003-09-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond has been proposed as a radiation-hard alternative to silicon in the extreme radiation levels occurring close to the interaction region of the Large Hadron Collider. Due to an intense research effort, reliable high-quality polycrystalline CVD diamond detectors, with up to 270 μm charge collection distance and good spatial uniformity, are now available. The most recent progress on the diamond quality, on the development of diamond trackers and on radiation hardness studies are presented and discussed.

  14. Direct electrochemistry of blue copper proteins at boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, James P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Chemistry Research Laboratory, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Foord, John S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Chemistry Research Laboratory, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: john.foord@chem.ox.ac.uk

    2005-05-05

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is a promising electrode material for use in the spectro-electrochemical study of redox proteins and, in this investigation, cyclic voltammetry was used to obtain quasi-reversible electrochemical responses from two blue copper proteins, parsley plastocyanin and azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No voltammetry was observed at the virgin electrodes, but signals were observed if the electrodes were anodised, or abraded with alumina, prior to use. Plastocyanin, which has a considerable overall negative charge and a surface acidic patch which is important in forming a productive electron transfer complex with its redox partners, gave a faradaic signal at pre-treated BDD only in the presence of neomycin, a positively charged polyamine. The voltammetry of azurin, which has a small overall charge and no surface acidic patch, was obtained identically in the presence and absence of neomycin. Investigations were also carried out into the voltammetry of two site-directed mutants of azurin, M64E azurin and M44K azurin, each of which introduce a charge into the protein's surface hydrophobic patch. The oxidizing and cleaning effects of the BDD electrode pre-treatments were studied electrochemically using two inorganic probe ions, Fe(China){sub 6} {sup 3-} and Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6} {sup 3+}, and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). All of the electrochemical results are discussed in relation to the electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions to the protein/diamond electrochemical interaction.

  15. Direct electrochemistry of blue copper proteins at boron-doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEvoy, James P.; Foord, John S.

    2005-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is a promising electrode material for use in the spectro-electrochemical study of redox proteins and, in this investigation, cyclic voltammetry was used to obtain quasi-reversible electrochemical responses from two blue copper proteins, parsley plastocyanin and azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No voltammetry was observed at the virgin electrodes, but signals were observed if the electrodes were anodised, or abraded with alumina, prior to use. Plastocyanin, which has a considerable overall negative charge and a surface acidic patch which is important in forming a productive electron transfer complex with its redox partners, gave a faradaic signal at pre-treated BDD only in the presence of neomycin, a positively charged polyamine. The voltammetry of azurin, which has a small overall charge and no surface acidic patch, was obtained identically in the presence and absence of neomycin. Investigations were also carried out into the voltammetry of two site-directed mutants of azurin, M64E azurin and M44K azurin, each of which introduce a charge into the protein's surface hydrophobic patch. The oxidizing and cleaning effects of the BDD electrode pre-treatments were studied electrochemically using two inorganic probe ions, Fe(China) 6 3- and Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ , and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). All of the electrochemical results are discussed in relation to the electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions to the protein/diamond electrochemical interaction

  16. Diamond detectors for high energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäni, L.; Alexopoulos, A.; Artuso, M.; Bachmair, F.; Bartosik, M.; Beacham, J.; Beck, H.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Bentele, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bes, A.; Brom, J.-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Cerv, M.; Chiodini, G.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Collot, J.; Cumalat, J.; Dabrowski, A.; D'Alessandro, R.; Dauvergne, D.; de Boer, W.; Dorfer, C.; Dünser, M.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Forcolin, G.; Forneris, J.; Frais-Kölbl, H.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Gallin-Martel, M. L.; Gan, K. K.; Gastal, M.; Giroletti, C.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Golubev, A.; Gorišek, A.; Grigoriev, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grummer, A.; Gui, B.; Guthoff, M.; Haughton, I.; Hiti, B.; Hits, D.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hofmann, T.; Hosslet, J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hügging, F.; Hutton, C.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Kagan, H.; Kanxheri, K.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R.; Kassel, F.; Kis, M.; Konovalov, V.; Kramberger, G.; Kuleshov, S.; Lacoste, A.; Lagomarsino, S.; Lo Giudice, A.; Lukosi, E.; Maazouzi, C.; Mandic, I.; Mathieu, C.; Menichelli, M.; Mikuž, M.; Morozzi, A.; Moss, J.; Mountain, R.; Murphy, S.; Muškinja, M.; Oh, A.; Oliviero, P.; Passeri, D.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Picollo, F.; Pomorski, M.; Potenza, R.; Quadt, A.; Re, A.; Reichmann, M.; Riley, G.; Roe, S.; Sanz, D.; Scaringella, M.; Schaefer, D.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Scorzoni, A.; Seidel, S.; Servoli, L.; Smith, S.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanier, S.; Stenson, K.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Tannenwald, B.; Taylor, A.; Traeger, M.; Tromson, D.; Trischuk, W.; Tuve, C.; Uplegger, L.; Velthuis, J.; Venturi, N.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, S.; Wallny, R.; Wang, J. C.; Weingarten, J.; Weiss, C.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Yamouni, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2018-01-01

    Beam test results of the radiation tolerance study of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond against different particle species and energies is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition functionality of poly-crystalline CVD diamond 3D devices was demonstrated in beam tests and 3D diamond detectors are shown to be a promising technology for applications in future high luminosity experiments.

  17. Optical engineering of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Rabeau, James R

    2013-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.

  18. Status of the R and D activity on diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bellini, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M. E-mail: bruzzi@fi.infn.it; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Perera, L.; Pernicka, M.; Polesello, P.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2003-09-21

    Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond has been proposed as a radiation-hard alternative to silicon in the extreme radiation levels occurring close to the interaction region of the Large Hadron Collider. Due to an intense research effort, reliable high-quality polycrystalline CVD diamond detectors, with up to 270 {mu}m charge collection distance and good spatial uniformity, are now available. The most recent progress on the diamond quality, on the development of diamond trackers and on radiation hardness studies are presented and discussed.

  19. CVD diamond deposition onto dental burs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Sein, H.

    2001-01-01

    A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system has been modified to enable non-planar substrates, such as metallic wires and dental burs, to be uniformly coated with thin polycrystalline diamond films. Initially, diamond deposition was carried out on titanium and tantalum wires in order to test and optimize the system. High growth rates of the order of approx. 8 /hr were obtained when depositing diamond on titanium wires using the vertical filament arrangement. However, lower growth rates of the order of 4-5meu m/hr were obtained with diamond deposition on tantalum wires. To extend the work towards a practical biomedical application tungsten carbide dental burs were coated with diamond films. The as-grown films were found to be polycrystalline and uniform over the cutting tip. Finally, the costs relating to diamond CVD onto dental burs have been presented in this paper. The costs relating to coating different number of burs at a time and the effect of film thickness on costs have been included in this investigation. (author)

  20. Recent Advances in Diamond Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Trischuk, W.

    2008-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2012, ATLAS and CMS are planning for detector upgrades for their innermost layers requiring radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is now planned for all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as an alternate sensor for use very close to the interaction region of the super LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences available. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10^16 protons/cm^2 showing that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve allowing one t...

  1. Effect of graphite particle size and content on the formation mechanism of detonation polycrystalline diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Y.; Cao, Y.; Liu, R.; Shang, S. Y.; Huang, F. L.

    2018-03-01

    The formation mechanism of detonation polycrystalline diamond (DPD) generated from the detonation of a mixed RDX/graphite explosive is investigated. It is found experimentally that the DPD conversion rate decreases with both the content and the particle size of the graphite. Moreover, the particle sizes of the generated DPD powder are analyzed, which shows that, with the decrease in the graphite particle size, the mean number diameter of DPD decreases, but the mean volume diameter increases. In addition, with the help of scanning electron microscopy, it is observed that the in situ phase change occurs in the graphite particles, by which the small particles combine to form numerous large DPD particles. Based on both the experimental data and the classical ZND detonation model, we divide such a DPD synthesis process into two stages: In the first stage, the in situ phase change from graphite to diamond is dominant, supplemented by some coalescence growth at high pressure and temperature, which is affected mainly by the detonation performance of the mixed explosive under consideration. In the second stage, the graphitization of DPD caused by the residual heat is dominant, which is affected mainly by the unloading rate of the particle temperature.

  2. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A.; McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used

  3. The effect of dose enhancement near metal interfaces on synthetic diamond based X-ray dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamoudi, D.; Lohstroh, A.; Albarakaty, H.

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of dose enhancement on the photocurrent performance at metallic interfaces in synthetic diamond detectors based X-ray dosimeters as a function of bias voltages. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the BEAMnrc code were carried out to simulate the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and compared against the equivalent photocurrent ratio from experimental investigations. The MC simulation results show that the sensitive region for the absorbed dose distribution covers a few micrometers distances from the interface. Experimentally, two single crystals (SC) and one polycrystalline (PC) synthetic diamond samples were fabricated into detectors with carbon based electrodes by boron and carbon ion implantation. Subsequently; the samples were each mounted inside a tissue equivalent encapsulation to minimize unintended fluence perturbation. Dose enhancement was generated by placing copper, lead or gold near the active volume of the detectors using 50 kVp and 100 kVp X-rays relevant for medical dosimetry. The results show enhancement in the detectors' photocurrent performance when different metals are butted up to the diamond bulk as expected. The variation in the photocurrent measurement depends on the type of diamond samples, their electrodes' fabrication and the applied bias voltages indicating that the dose enhancement near the detector may modify their electronic performance.

  4. Nanofocusing optics for synchrotron radiation made from polycrystalline diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, O J L; Alianelli, L; Malik, A M; Pape, I; May, P W; Sawhney, K J S

    2014-04-07

    Diamond possesses many extreme properties that make it an ideal material for fabricating nanofocusing x-ray optics. Refractive lenses made from diamond are able to focus x-ray radiation with high efficiency but without compromising the brilliance of the beam. Electron-beam lithography and deep reactive-ion etching of silicon substrates have been used in a transfer-molding technique to fabricate diamond optics with vertical and smooth sidewalls. Latest generation compound refractive lenses have seen an improvement in the quality and uniformity of the optical structures, resulting in an increase in their focusing ability. Synchrotron beamline tests of two recent lens arrays, corresponding to two different diamond morphologies, are described. Focal line-widths down to 210 nm, using a nanocrystalline diamond lens array and a beam energy of E = 11 keV, and 230 nm, using a microcrystalline diamond lens at E = 15 keV, have been measured using the Diamond Light Source Ltd. B16 beamline. This focusing prowess is combined with relatively high transmission through the lenses compared with silicon refractive designs and other diffractive optics.

  5. Optically transparent composite diamond/Ti electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ashcheulov, Petr; Taylor, Andrew; More Chevalier, Joris; Kovalenko, A.; Remeš, Zdeněk; Drahokoupil, Jan; Hubík, Pavel; Fekete, Ladislav; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Remiášová, Jarmila; Kohout, Michal; Frank, Otakar; Kavan, Ladislav; Mortet, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, Aug (2017), s. 179-189 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088; GA ČR GA13-31783S Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568; AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně; AV ČR(CZ) MSM100101602 Program:Program na podporu mezinárodní spolupráce začínajících výzkumných pracovníků Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : diamond * transparent film * composite electrode * conductive thin film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 6.337, year: 2016

  6. Monitoring the evolution of boron doped porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant by OCT and in vivo impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hébert, Clément; Cottance, Myline; Degardin, Julie; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaelle; Bergonzo, Philippe; Picaud, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Boron doped Diamond proved to be a very attractive material for neural interfacing, especially with the retina, where reduce glia growth is observed with respect to other materials, thus facilitating neuro-stimulation over long terms. In the present study, we integrated diamond microelectrodes on a polyimide substrate and investigated their performances for the development of neural prosthesis. A full description of the microfabrication of the implants is provided and their functionalities are assessed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A porous structure of the electrode surface was thus revealed and showed promising properties for neural recording or stimulation. Using the flexible implant, we showed that is possible to follow in vivo the evolution of the electric contact between the diamond electrodes and the retina over 4 months by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The position of the implant was also monitored by optical coherence tomography to corroborate the information given by the impedance measurements. The results suggest that diamond microelectrodes are very good candidates for retinal prosthesis. - Highlights: • Microfabrication of porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant • Electrochemical characterization of microelectrode for neural interfacing • In vivo impedance spectroscopy of retinal tissue

  7. Monitoring the evolution of boron doped porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant by OCT and in vivo impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hébert, Clément, E-mail: clement.hebert@icn2.cat [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191 (France); Cottance, Myline [Université Paris-Est, ESYCOM-ESIEE Paris, Noisy le Grand (France); Degardin, Julie [INSERM, U968, Institut de la Vision, Paris (France); Scorsone, Emmanuel [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191 (France); Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaelle [Université Paris-Est, ESYCOM-ESIEE Paris, Noisy le Grand (France); Bergonzo, Philippe [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette 91191 (France); Picaud, Serge [INSERM, U968, Institut de la Vision, Paris (France)

    2016-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Boron doped Diamond proved to be a very attractive material for neural interfacing, especially with the retina, where reduce glia growth is observed with respect to other materials, thus facilitating neuro-stimulation over long terms. In the present study, we integrated diamond microelectrodes on a polyimide substrate and investigated their performances for the development of neural prosthesis. A full description of the microfabrication of the implants is provided and their functionalities are assessed using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A porous structure of the electrode surface was thus revealed and showed promising properties for neural recording or stimulation. Using the flexible implant, we showed that is possible to follow in vivo the evolution of the electric contact between the diamond electrodes and the retina over 4 months by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The position of the implant was also monitored by optical coherence tomography to corroborate the information given by the impedance measurements. The results suggest that diamond microelectrodes are very good candidates for retinal prosthesis. - Highlights: • Microfabrication of porous diamond electrode on flexible retinal implant • Electrochemical characterization of microelectrode for neural interfacing • In vivo impedance spectroscopy of retinal tissue.

  8. Factors influencing voltammetric reduction of 5-nitroquinoline at boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vosáhlová, J.; Zavázalová, J.; Petrák, Václav; Schwarzová-Pecková, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 1 (2016), s. 21-29 ISSN 0026-9247 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : voltammetry * boron-doped diamond electrode * boron concentration * reduction * electrochemistry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  9. Comparison of electrocatalytic characterization of boron-doped diamond and SnO2 electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Jiangwei; Feng, Yujie; Liu, Junfeng; Qu, Youpeng; Cui, Fuyi

    2013-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) and SnO 2 electrodes were prepared by direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition (DC-PCVD) and sol–gel method, respectively. Electrochemical characterization of the two electrodes were investigated by phenol electrochemical degradation, accelerated service life test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) in phenol solution, polarization curves in H 2 SO 4 . The surface morphology and crystal structure of two electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed a considerable difference between the two electrodes in their electrocatalytic activity, electrochemical stability and surface properties. Phenol was readily mineralized to CO 2 at BDD electrode, favoring electrochemical combustion, but its degradation was much slower at SnO 2 electrode. The service life of BDD electrode was 10 times longer than that of SnO 2 . Higher electrocatalytic activity and electrochemical stability of BDD electrode arise from its high oxygen evolution potential and the physically absorbed hydroxyl radicals (·OH) on electrode surface.

  10. Neutron Detection at JET Using Artificial Diamond Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, M.; Angelone, M.; Lattanzi, D.; Milani, E.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Popovichev, S.; Murari, A.

    2006-01-01

    Three CVD diamond detectors are installed and operated at Joint European Torus, Culham laboratory. Diamond detectors are very promising detectors to be used in fusion environment due to their radiation hardness, gamma discrimination properties, fast response and spectroscopy properties. The aim of this work is to test and qualify artificial diamond detectors as neutron counters and spectrometers on a large fusion device. Two of these detectors are polycrystalline CVD diamond films of thickness 30 mm and 40 mm respectively while the third detector is a monocrystalline CVD of 110 mm thickness. The first polycrystalline diamond is covered with 4 mm of LiF 95 % enriched in 6 Li and enclosed inside a polyethylene moderator cap. This detector is used with a standard electronic chain made with a charge preamplifier, shaping amplifier and threshold discriminator. It is used to measure the time-dependent total neutron yield produced by JET plasma and its signal is compared with JET fission chambers. The second polycrystalline diamond is connected with a fast (1 GHz) preamplifier and a threshold discriminator via a long (about 100 m) double screened cable. This detector is used to detect the 14 MeV neutrons produced by triton burn-up using the reaction 12 C (n, α) 9 Be which occurs in diamond and a proper discriminator threshold. The response of this detector is fast and the electronic is far from the high radiation environment. Its signal is used in comparison with JET silicon diodes. The third monocrystalline diamond is also connected using a standard electronic and is used to demonstrate the feasibility of 14 MeV neutron spectrometry at about 3% peak resolution taking advantage of the spectrometer properties of monocrystalline diamonds. The results obtained are presented in this work. (author)

  11. Plasma etching treatment for surface modification of boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Takeshi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Ito, Hiroyuki [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Kusakabe, Kazuhide [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Ohkawa, Kazuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Fujishima, Akira [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Kawai, Takeshi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)]. E-mail: kawai@ci.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2007-03-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin film surfaces were modified by brief plasma treatment using various source gases such as Cl{sub 2}, CF{sub 4}, Ar and CH{sub 4}, and the electrochemical properties of the surfaces were subsequently investigated. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, Cl and F atoms were detected on the BDD surfaces after 3 min of Cl{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasma treatments, respectively. From the results of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical AC impedance measurements, the electron-transfer rate for Fe(CN){sub 6} {sup 3-/4-} and Fe{sup 2+/3+} at the BDD electrodes was found to decrease after Cl{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasma treatments. However, the electron-transfer rate for Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6} {sup 2+/3+} showed almost no change after these treatments. This may have been related to the specific interactions of surface halogen (C-Cl and C-F) moieties with the redox species because no electrical passivation was observed after the treatments. In addition, Raman spectroscopy showed that CH{sub 4} plasma treatment of diamond surfaces formed an insulating diamond-like carbon thin layer on the surfaces. Thus, by an appropriate choice of plasma source, short-duration plasma treatments can be an effective way to functionalize diamond surfaces in various ways while maintaining a wide potential window and a low background current.

  12. Chemical Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes for Applications to Biosensors and Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svítková, Jana; Ignat, Teodora; Švorc, Ľubomír; Labuda, Ján; Barek, Jiří

    2016-05-03

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is a prospective electrode material that possesses many exceptional properties including wide potential window, low noise, low and stable background current, chemical and mechanical stability, good biocompatibility, and last but not least exceptional resistance to passivation. These characteristics extend its usability in various areas of electrochemistry as evidenced by increasing number of published articles over the past two decades. The idea of chemically modifying BDD electrodes with molecular species attached to the surface for the purpose of creating a rational design has found promising applications in the past few years. BDD electrodes have appeared to be excellent substrate materials for various chemical modifications and subsequent application to biosensors and biosensing. Hence, this article presents modification strategies that have extended applications of BDD electrodes in electroanalytical chemistry. Different methods and steps of surface modification of this electrode material for biosensing and construction of biosensors are discussed.

  13. Note: Evaluation of microfracture strength of diamond materials using nano-polycrystalline diamond spherical indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, H.; Hamaki, K.; Harano, K.

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-hard and high-strength spherical indenters with high precision and sphericity were successfully prepared from nanopolycrystalline diamond (NPD) synthesized by direct conversion sintering from graphite under high pressure and high temperature. It was shown that highly accurate and stable microfracture strength tests can be performed on various super-hard diamond materials by using the NPD spherical indenters. It was also verified that this technique enables quantitative evaluation of the strength characteristics of single crystal diamonds and NPDs which have been quite difficult to evaluate.

  14. Electrochemiluminescence of fluorescein in alkaline solution at a polycrystalline gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Mingjuan; Cui Hua

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of fluorescein at a polycrystalline gold electrode was studied under conventional cyclic voltammetric conditions. Five ECL peaks were observed at 0.94 (ECL-1), 1.51 (ECL-2), 1.34 (ECL-3), -0.06 (ECL-4), -0.73 to -1.11 V (ECL-5, a broad weak wave) (vs. SCE), respectively, on the curve of ECL intensity versus potential. These ECL peaks were found to depend on the pH of the solution, supporting electrolyte, potential scan ranges and directions. The emitter of ECL peaks was identified as fluorescein or eosin Y produced on the electrode by analyzing the ECL spectra and fluorescence spectra. The mechanisms for ECL peaks have been proposed due to the reactions of fluorescein and the electro-oxidation product of fluorescein with various oxygen-containing species in the solution or electrogenerated at different applied potentials such as O 2 , O 2 .- , HO 2 - , and BrO - . Singlet molecular oxygen was generated during the reactions and transferred its energy to the ECL emitter such as fluorescein or eosin Y, emitting light

  15. The study and the realization of radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jany, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique. The influence of surface treatments, contact technology and diamond growth parameters on the diamond detectors characteristics was investigated in order to optimise the detector response to alpha particles. The first part of the study focused on the electrical behaviour of as-deposited diamond surface, showing a p type conduction and its influence on the leakage current of the device. A surface preparation process was established in order to reduce the leakage current of the device by surface dehydrogenation using an oxidising step. Several methods to form and treat electrical contacts were also investigated showing that the collection efficiency of the device decreases after contact annealing. In the second part, we reported the influence of the diamond deposition parameters on the characteristics of the detectors. The increase of the deposition temperature and/or methane concentration was shown to lead η to decrease. In contrast, η was found to increase with the micro-wave power. The evolution of the diamond detector characteristics results from the variation in sp 2 phases incorporation and in the crystallography quality of the films. These defects increase the leakage current and reduce the carrier mobility and lifetime. Measurements carried out on detectors with different thicknesses showed that the physical properties varies along the growth direction, improving with the film thickness. Finally, the addition of nitrogen (> 10 ppm) in the gas mixture during diamond deposition was found to strongly reduce the collection efficiency of the detectors. To conclude the study, we fabricated and characterised diamond devices which were used for thermal neutron detection and for the intensity and shape measurement of VUV and soft X-ray pulses. (author)

  16. Electrochemical Incineration of Phenolic Compounds from the Hydrocarbon Industry Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Medel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical incineration using boron-doped diamond electrodes was applied to samples obtained from a refinery and compared to the photo-electro-Fenton process in order to selectively eliminate the phenol and phenolic compounds from a complex matrix. Due to the complex chemical composition of the sample, a pretreatment to the sample in order to isolate the phenolic compounds was applied. The effects of the pretreatment and of pH on the degradation of the phenolic compounds were evaluated. The results indicate that the use of a boron-doped diamond electrode in an electrochemical incineration process mineralizes 99.5% of the phenolic sample content. Working in acidic medium (pH = 1, and applying 2 A at 298 K under constant stirring for 2 hours, also results in the incineration of the reaction intermediates reflected by 97% removal of TOC. In contrast, the photo-electro-Fenton process results in 99.9% oxidation of phenolic compounds with only a 25.69% removal of TOC.

  17. The water decomposition reactions on boron-doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suffredini, Hugo B.; Machado, Sergio A.S; Avaca, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical processes occurring at both edges of the wide electrochemical window of the boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode were studied by polarization curves experiments to evaluate the apparent energy of activation for the rate determining step in each reaction. It was found that the hydrogen evolution reaction occurs by a Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism with the first step being the RDS. Moreover, the apparent energy of activation calculated from the Tafel plots presented a value as high as 150 kJ mol -1 , indicating the formation of the M-H intermediate that is characteristic for the Volmer step. On the other hand, the apparent energy of activation for the oxygen evolution reaction was found to be 106 kJ mol -1 suggesting that the RDS in this mechanism is the initial adsorption step. In this way, it was demonstrated that the interaction between water molecules and the electrode surface is strongly inhibited on BDD thus justifying the extended potential window observed for this material. (author)

  18. The water decomposition reactions on boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suffredini Hugo B

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical processes occurring at both edges of the wide electrochemical window of the boron doped diamond (BDD electrode were studied by polarization curves experiments to evaluate the apparent energy of activation for the rate determining step in each reaction. It was found that the hydrogen evolution reaction occurs by a Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism with the first step being the RDS. Moreover, the apparent energy of activation calculated from the Tafel plots presented a value as high as 150 kJ mol-1, indicating the formation of the M-H intermediate that is characteristic for the Volmer step. On the other hand, the apparent energy of activation for the oxygen evolution reaction was found to be 106 kJ mol-1 suggesting that the RDS in this mechanism is the initial adsorption step. In this way, it was demonstrated that the interaction between water molecules and the electrode surface is strongly inhibited on BDD thus justifying the extended potential window observed for this material.

  19. Nanosecond formation of diamond and lonsdaleite by shock compression of graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, D; Ravasio, A; Gauthier, M; Gericke, D O; Vorberger, J; Frydrych, S; Helfrich, J; Fletcher, L B; Schaumann, G; Nagler, B; Barbrel, B; Bachmann, B; Gamboa, E J; Göde, S; Granados, E; Gregori, G; Lee, H J; Neumayer, P; Schumaker, W; Döppner, T; Falcone, R W; Glenzer, S H; Roth, M

    2016-03-14

    The shock-induced transition from graphite to diamond has been of great scientific and technological interest since the discovery of microscopic diamonds in remnants of explosively driven graphite. Furthermore, shock synthesis of diamond and lonsdaleite, a speculative hexagonal carbon polymorph with unique hardness, is expected to happen during violent meteor impacts. Here, we show unprecedented in situ X-ray diffraction measurements of diamond formation on nanosecond timescales by shock compression of pyrolytic as well as polycrystalline graphite to pressures from 19 GPa up to 228 GPa. While we observe the transition to diamond starting at 50 GPa for both pyrolytic and polycrystalline graphite, we also record the direct formation of lonsdaleite above 170 GPa for pyrolytic samples only. Our experiment provides new insights into the processes of the shock-induced transition from graphite to diamond and uniquely resolves the dynamics that explain the main natural occurrence of the lonsdaleite crystal structure being close to meteor impact sites.

  20. Effect of doping on electronic states in B-doped polycrystalline CVD diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsherif, O S; Vernon-Parry, K D; Evans-Freeman, J H; May, P W

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution Laplace deep-level transient spectroscopy (LDLTS) and thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS) have been used to determine the effect of boron (B) concentration on the electronic states in polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition diamond thin films grown on silicon by the hot filament method. A combination of high-resolution LDLTS and direct-capture cross-sectional measurements was used to investigate whether the deep electronic states present in the layers originated from point or extended defects. There was good agreement between data on deep electronic levels obtained from DLTS and TAS experiments. Two hole traps, E1 (0.29 eV) and E2 (0.53 eV), were found in a film with a boron content of 1 × 10 19 cm −3 . Both these levels and an additional level, E3 (0.35 eV), were found when the B content was increased to 4 × 10 19 cm −3 . Direct capture cross-sectional measurements of levels E1 and E2 show an unusual dependence on the fill-pulse duration which is interpreted as possibly indicating that the levels are part of an extended defect. The E3 level found in the more highly doped film consisted of two closely spaced levels, both of which show point-like defect characteristics. The E1 level may be due to B-related extended defects within the grain boundaries, whereas the ionization energy of the E2 level is in agreement with literature values from ab initio calculations for B–H complexes. We suggest that the E3 level is due to isolated B-related centres in bulk diamond. (paper)

  1. Electrolyte influence on the Cu nanoparticles electrodeposition onto boron doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Jorge Tadao; Santos, Laura Camila Diniz; Couto, Andrea Boldarini; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Neidenei Gomes

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the electrolyte influence on deposition and dissolution processes of Cu nanoparticles on boron doped diamond electrodes (DDB). Morphological, structural and electrochemical analysis showed BDD films with good reproducibility, quality and reversible in a specific redox system. Electrodeposition of Cu nanoparticles on DDB electrodes in three different solutions was influenced by pH and ionic strength of the electrolytic medium. Analyzing the process as function of the scan rate, it was verified a better efficiency in 0,5 mol L -1 Na 2 SO 4 solution. Under the influence of the pH and ionic strength, Cu nanoparticles on DDB may be obtained with different morphologies and it was important for defining the desired properties. (author)

  2. Assessment of Boron Doped Diamond Electrode Quality and Application to In Situ Modification of Local pH by Water Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tania L; Macpherson, Julie V

    2016-01-06

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes have shown considerable promise as an electrode material where many of their reported properties such as extended solvent window, low background currents, corrosion resistance, etc., arise from the catalytically inert nature of the surface. However, if during the growth process, non-diamond-carbon (NDC) becomes incorporated into the electrode matrix, the electrochemical properties will change as the surface becomes more catalytically active. As such it is important that the electrochemist is aware of the quality and resulting key electrochemical properties of the BDD electrode prior to use. This paper describes a series of characterization steps, including Raman microscopy, capacitance, solvent window and redox electrochemistry, to ascertain whether the BDD electrode contains negligible NDC i.e. negligible sp(2) carbon. One application is highlighted which takes advantage of the catalytically inert and corrosion resistant nature of an NDC-free surface i.e. stable and quantifiable local proton and hydroxide production due to water electrolysis at a BDD electrode. An approach to measuring the local pH change induced by water electrolysis using iridium oxide coated BDD electrodes is also described in detail.

  3. Assessment of Boron Doped Diamond Electrode Quality and Application to In Situ Modification of Local pH by Water Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Tania L.; Macpherson, Julie V.

    2016-01-01

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes have shown considerable promise as an electrode material where many of their reported properties such as extended solvent window, low background currents, corrosion resistance, etc., arise from the catalytically inert nature of the surface. However, if during the growth process, non-diamond-carbon (NDC) becomes incorporated into the electrode matrix, the electrochemical properties will change as the surface becomes more catalytically active. As such it is important that the electrochemist is aware of the quality and resulting key electrochemical properties of the BDD electrode prior to use. This paper describes a series of characterization steps, including Raman microscopy, capacitance, solvent window and redox electrochemistry, to ascertain whether the BDD electrode contains negligible NDC i.e. negligible sp2 carbon. One application is highlighted which takes advantage of the catalytically inert and corrosion resistant nature of an NDC-free surface i.e. stable and quantifiable local proton and hydroxide production due to water electrolysis at a BDD electrode. An approach to measuring the local pH change induced by water electrolysis using iridium oxide coated BDD electrodes is also described in detail. PMID:26779959

  4. Heavy-ion irradiation induced diamond formation in carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daulton, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    The basic mechanisms of metastable phase formation produced under highly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions within high-energy particle tracks are investigated. In particular, the possible formation of diamond by heavy-ion irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature is examined. This work was motivated, in part, by earlier studies which discovered nanometer-grain polycrystalline diamond aggregates of submicron-size in uranium-rich carbonaceous mineral assemblages of Precambrian age. It was proposed that the radioactive decay of uranium formed diamond in the fission particle tracks produced in the carbonaceous minerals. To test the hypothesis that nanodiamonds can form by ion irradiation, fine-grain polycrystalline graphite sheets were irradiated with 400 MeV Kr ions. The ion irradiated graphite (and unirradiated graphite control) were then subjected to acid dissolution treatments to remove the graphite and isolate any diamonds that were produced. The acid residues were then characterized by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The acid residues of the ion-irradiated graphite were found to contain ppm concentrations of nanodiamonds, suggesting that ion irradiation of bulk graphite at ambient temperature can produce diamond

  5. Fabrication and characterization of composite TiO{sub 2} nanotubes/boron-doped diamond electrodes towards enhanced supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobaszek, M. [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Siuzdak, K.; Sawczak, M. [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St., 80-231 Gdansk (Poland); Ryl, J. [Department of Electrochemistry, Corrosion and Material Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Bogdanowicz, R., E-mail: rbogdan@eti.pg.gda.pl [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2016-02-29

    The composite TiO{sub 2} nanotubes/boron-doped diamond electrodes were deposited using Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition resulting in the improved electrochemical performance. This composite electrode can deliver high specific capacitance of 7.46 mF cm{sup −2} comparing to boron-doped diamond (BDD) deposited onto flat Ti plate (0.11 mF cm{sup −2}).The morphology and composition of composite electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. According to XPS and Raman analyses, the structure of TiO{sub 2} was greatly changed during Chemical Vapor Deposition process: formation of Ti{sup 3+} sites, partial anatase to rutile transformation and titanium carbide phase formation. This effect is attributed to the simultaneous presence of activated hydrogen and carbon in the plasma leading to enhanced dehydration of NTs (nanotubes) followed by carbon bonding. The enhanced capacitive effect of TiO{sub 2} NT/BDD could be recognized as: (1) the unique synergistic morphology of NTs and BDD providing more efficient conducting pathway for the diffusion of ions and (2) partial decomposition of NTs and transformation towards to TiC and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} fractions. Finally, highly ordered titania nanotubes produced via simply, quick and controllable method — anodization, could act as promising substrate for conductive BDD layer deposition and further application of such composites for supercapacitor construction. - Highlights: • The TiO{sub 2} nanotube (NT)/diamond electrode delivers capacitance of 7.46 mF cm{sup −2}. • The NTs are not affected by diamond growth process and keep their pristine shape. • The BDD overlayer fully encapsulates TiO{sub 2} NTs exhibiting typical columnar growth. • The activated hydrogen and carbon in the plasma lead to enhanced dehydration of NTs. • The presence of TiC and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} fractions introducing additional capacitance.

  6. RF characteristic of MESFET on H-terminated DC arc jet CVD diamond film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.L.; Li, C.M.; Zhu, R.H.; Guo, J.C.; Chen, L.X.; Wei, J.J.; Hei, L.F.; Wang, J.J.; Feng, Z.H.; Guo, H.; Lv, F.X.

    2013-01-01

    Diamond has been considered to be a potential material for high-frequency and high-power electronic devices due to the excellent electrical properties. In this paper, we reported the radio frequency (RF) characteristic of metal-semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) on polycrystalline diamond films prepared by direct current (DC) arc jet chemical vapor deposition (CVD). First, 4 in polycrystalline diamond films were deposited by DC arc jet CVD in gas recycling mode with the deposition rate of 14 μm/h. Then the polished diamond films were treated by microwave hydrogen plasma and the 0.2 μm-gate-length MESFET was fabricated by using Au mask photolithography and electron beam (EB) lithography. The surface conductivity of the H-terminated diamond film and DC and RF performances of the MESFET were characterized. The results demonstrate that, the carrier mobility of 24.6 cm 2 /V s and the carrier density of 1.096 × 10 13 cm −2 are obtained on the surface of H-terminated diamond film. The FET shows the maximum transition frequency (f T ) of 5 GHz and the maximum oscillation frequency (f max ) of 6 GHz at V GS = −0.5 V and V DS = −8 V, which indicates that H-terminated DC arc jet CVD polycrystalline diamond is suitable for the development of high frequency devices.

  7. Electrochemical characterization of doped diamond-coated carbon fibers at different boron concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, E.C. [INPE, CP 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12201-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail: erica@las.inpe.br; Diniz, A.V. [INPE, CP 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12201-970 (Brazil); Trava-Airoldi, V.J. [INPE, CP 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12201-970 (Brazil); Ferreira, N.G. [CTA-Divisao de Materiais, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP 12228-904 (Brazil)

    2005-08-01

    Doped diamond films have been deposited on carbon fibers (felt) obtained from polyacrylonitrile at different levels of boron doping. For a successful coating of the fibers, an ultrasonic pretreatment in a bath of diamond powder dissolved in hexane was required. Films were grown on both sample sides, simultaneously, by hot filament-assisted chemical vapour deposition technique at 750 deg. C from a 0.5% H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} mixture at a total pressure of 6.5 x 10{sup 3} Pa. Boron was obtained from H{sub 2} forced to pass through a bubbler containing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} dissolved in methanol. The doping level studied corresponds to films with acceptor concentrations in the range of 6.5 x 10{sup 18} to 1.5 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -} {sup 3}, obtained from Mott-Schottky plots. Scanning electron microscopy analyses evidenced fibers totally covered with high quality polycrystalline boron-doped diamond film, also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy spectra. Diamond electrodes grown on carbon fibers demonstrated similar electrochemical behavior obtained from films on Si substrate, for ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple as a function of boron content. The boron content influences electrochemical surface area. A lower boron concentration provides a higher growth rate that results in a higher surface area.

  8. Undoped CVD diamond films for electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinska, Lidia; Fabisiak, Kazimierz; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Kowalska, Magdalena; Popielarski, Pawel; Szybowicz, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    By using different deposition conditions, the CVD diamond films with different qualities and orientation were grown by the hot-filament CVD technique. The object of this article is to summarize and discuss relation between structural, physical and electrochemical properties of different diamond electrodes. The physical properties of the Hot Filament CVD microcrystalline diamond films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In presented studies two different electrodes were used of the diamond grain sizes around 200 nm and 10 μm, as it was estimated from SEM picture. The diamond layers quality was checked on basis of FWHM (Full width at Half Maximum) of 1332 cm −1 diamond Raman peak. The ratio of sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds was determined by 1550 cm −1 G band and 1350 cm −1 D band in the Raman spectrum. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using (CV) cyclic voltammetry measurements in aqueous solutions. The sensitivity of undoped diamond electrodes depends strongly on diamond film quality and concentration of amorphous carbon phase in the diamond layer

  9. Development and Characterization of a Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Multi Electrode Array Realized with Ion Beam Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Picollo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ~mΩ·cm by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16‑channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3 to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release.

  10. Novel morphology of chemical vapor deposited diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, C.J. [I3N and Department of Physics, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); TEMA and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, A.J.S.; Abe, I.; Pinto, J.L. [I3N and Department of Physics, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Gracio, J. [TEMA and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Buijnsters, J.G. [Institute for Molecules and Materials (IMM), Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    We have obtained simultaneously nanocrystalline and {l_brace}100{r_brace} faceted large-grained polycrystalline diamond films not only on different substrates but also on the same substrate in only one deposition run using a novel approach for substrate arrangement. Furthermore, interesting unusual morphologies and microstructures composed by non-faceted nanostructures and terminated with large smooth {l_brace}100{r_brace} facet-like belt are found near the edges of the top square sample. The morphology variation is likely caused by the so called edge effect, where a strong variation in temperature is also present. We have modelled the temperature distribution on the substrates by computer simulations using the finite element method. The novel feature, namely the coexistence of oval non-faceted nanocrystalline diamond grains and large smooth {l_brace}100{r_brace} facet-like belt in one diamond grain, is in the transition from {l_brace}100{r_brace} faceted polycrystalline diamond to cauliflower-like nanocrystalline diamond. The formation mechanism is discussed based on the temperature analysis and other simulation results described in the literature. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Fabrication of Nickel/nanodiamond/boron-doped diamond electrode for non-enzymatic glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Wei; Li, Mingji; Gao, Sumei; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Xu, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoguo; Yang, Baohe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanodiamonds (NDs) were electrophoretically deposited on the BDD film. • The NDs significantly extended the potential window. • Ni/NDs/BDD electrode was prepared by electrodeposition. • The electrode shows good catalytic activity for glucose oxidation. - Abstract: A stable and sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor was prepared by modifying a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode with nickel (Ni) nanosheets and nanodiamonds (NDs). The NDs were electrophoretically deposited on the BDD surface, and acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent electrodeposition of Ni. The morphology and composition of the modified BDD electrodes were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The Ni nanosheet-ND modified BDD electrode exhibited good current response towards the non-enzymatic oxidation of glucose in alkaline media. The NDs significantly extended the potential window. The response to glucose was linear over the 0.2–1055.4-μM range. The limit of detection was 0.05 μM, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The Ni nanosheet-ND/BDD electrode exhibited good selectivity, reproducibility and stability. Its electrochemical performance, low cost and simple preparation make it a promising non-enzymatic glucose sensor.

  12. Indigenous development of diamond detectors for monitoring neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Arvind; Amit Kumar; Topkar, Anita; Pithawa, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    High purity synthetic chemically vapor deposited (CVD) diamond has several outstanding characteristics that make it as an important material for detector applications specifically for extreme environmental conditions like high temperature, high radiation, and highly corrosive environments. Diamond detectors are especially considered promising for monitoring fast neutrons produced by the D-T nuclear fusion reactions in next generation fusion facilities such as ITER. When fast neutrons interact with carbon, elastic, inelastic and (n,α) type reactions can occur. These reactions can be employed for the detection of fast neutrons using diamond. We have initiated the development of diamond detectors based on synthetic CVD substrates. In this paper, the first test of a polycrystalline CVD diamond detector with fast neutrons is reported. The test results demonstrate that this detector can be used for monitoring fast neutrons. The diamond detectors have been fabricated using 5 mm x 5 mm, 300 μm polycrystalline diamond substrates. Aluminum metallization has been used on both sides of the detector to provide electrical contacts. The performance of fabricated detectors was first evaluated using current and capacitance measurements. The leakage current was observed to be stable and about a few pAs for voltages up to 300V. The capacitance-voltage characteristics showed a constant capacitance which is as expected. To confirm the response of the detector to charged particles, the pulse height spectrum (PHS) was obtained using 238 Pu- 239 Pu dual α- source. The PHS showed a continuum without any peak due to polycrystalline nature of diamond film. The response of the detector to fast neutrons has been studied using the fast neutron facility at NXF, BARC. The PHS obtained for a neutron yield of 4 x 10 8 n/s is shown. The average counts per second (cps) measured for diamond detector for different neutron yields is shown. The plot shows linearity with coefficient of determination R

  13. CE with a boron-doped diamond electrode for trace detection of endocrine disruptors in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Damien J; Zhou, Lin; Luong, John H T; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2013-07-01

    Off-line SPE and CE coupled with electrochemical detection have been used for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F, 4-ethylphenol, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether in bottled drinking water. The use of boron-doped diamond electrode as an electrochemical detector in amperometric mode that provides a favorable analytical performance for detecting these endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as lower noise levels, higher peak resolution with enhanced sensitivity, and improved resistance against electrode passivation. The oxidative electrochemical detection of the endocrine-disrupting compounds was accomplished by boron-doped diamond electrode poised at +1.4 V versus Ag/AgCl without electrode pretreatment. An off-line SPE procedure (Bond Elut® C18 SPE cartridge) was utilized to extract and preconcentrate the compounds prior to separation and detection. The minimum concentration detectable for all four compounds ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 μM, having S/N equal to three. After exposing the plastic bottle water container under sunlight for 7 days, the estimated concentration of BPA in the bottled drinking water was estimated to be 0.03 μM. This proposed approach has great potential for rapid and effective determination of BPA content present in water packaging of plastic bottles that have been exposed to sunlight for an extended period of time. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Method to fabricate micro and nano diamond devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Anderson, Richard J.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Skinner, Jack L.; Rye, Michael J.

    2017-04-11

    A method including forming a diamond material on the surface of a substrate; forming a first contact and a separate second contact; and patterning the diamond material to form a nanowire between the first contact and the second contact. An apparatus including a first contact and a separate second contact on a substrate; and a nanowire including a single crystalline or polycrystalline diamond material on the substrate and connected to each of the first contact and the second contact.

  15. Growing of synthetic diamond boron-doped films for analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Rita de Cassia Mendes de; Suarez-Iha, Maria Encarnacion Vazquez; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Iha, Koshun

    1999-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology affords the possibility of producing synthetic diamond film electrodes, with several advantageous properties due the unique characteristics of diamond. In this work, we present the study of boron-doped diamond films growth on molybdenum and silicon substrates, using boron trioxide as dopant in a filament assisted CVD reactor. The objective was to obtain semiconductor diamond for use as electrode. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy to confirm morphology and doping levels. We have assembled electrodes with the various samples, Pt, Mo, Si and diamond, by utilizing brass and left as base materials. The electrodes were tested in neutralization potentiometric titrations for future use in electroanalysis. Boron-doped electrodes have very good performance compared with Pt, widely used in analytical chemistry. (author)

  16. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraimovitch, D., E-mail: dimitryf@mail.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Lefeuvre, G. [Micron Semiconductor Ltd. Royal Buildings, Marlborough Road, Lancing Business Park, BN15 8SJ (United Kingdom); Ruzin, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-11

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  17. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraimovitch, D.; Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S.; Lefeuvre, G.; Ruzin, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  18. Prospects for the synthesis of large single-crystal diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khmelnitskiy, R A

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of diamond have stimulated the study of and search for its applications in many fields, including optics, optoelectronics, electronics, biology, and electrochemistry. Whereas chemical vapor deposition allows the growth of polycrystalline diamond plates more than 200 mm in diameter, most current diamond application technologies require large-size (25 mm and more) single-crystal diamond substrates or films suitable for the photolithography process. This is quite a challenge, because the largest diamond crystals currently available are 10 mm or less in size. This review examines three promising approaches to fabricating large-size diamond single crystals: growing large-size single crystals, the deposition of heteroepitaxial diamond films on single-crystal substrates, and the preparation of composite diamond substrates. (reviews of topical problems)

  19. Boron-doped diamond electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation and cleavage of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeser, Julien; Alting, Niels F A; Permentier, Hjalmar P; Bruins, Andries P; Bischoff, Rainer

    2013-07-16

    Electrochemical oxidation of peptides and proteins is traditionally performed on carbon-based electrodes. Adsorption caused by the affinity of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids toward these surfaces leads to electrode fouling. We compared the performance of boron-doped diamond (BDD) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation and cleavage of peptides. An optimal working potential of 2000 mV was chosen to ensure oxidation of peptides on BDD by electron transfer processes only. Oxidation by electrogenerated OH radicals took place above 2500 mV on BDD, which is undesirable if cleavage of a peptide is to be achieved. BDD showed improved cleavage yield and reduced adsorption for a set of small peptides, some of which had been previously shown to undergo electrochemical cleavage C-terminal to tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) on porous carbon electrodes. Repeated oxidation with BDD electrodes resulted in progressively lower conversion yields due to a change in surface termination. Cathodic pretreatment of BDD at a negative potential in an acidic environment successfully regenerated the electrode surface and allowed for repeatable reactions over extended periods of time. BDD electrodes are a promising alternative to GC electrodes in terms of reduced adsorption and fouling and the possibility to regenerate them for consistent high-yield electrochemical cleavage of peptides. The fact that OH-radicals can be produced by anodic oxidation of water at elevated positive potentials is an additional advantage as they allow another set of oxidative reactions in analogy to the Fenton reaction, thus widening the scope of electrochemistry in protein and peptide chemistry and analytics.

  20. Increased charge storage capacity of titanium nitride electrodes by deposition of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; McDonald, Matthew; Sørensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of depositing a thin layer of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) on titanium nitride (TiN) coated electrodes and the effect this has on charge injection properties. The charge storage capacity increased by applying the B-NCD film...

  1. Protein-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Andreas; Schmich, Evelyn; Garrido, Jose A; Hernando, Jorge; Catharino, Silvia C R; Walter, Stefan; Feulner, Peter; Kromka, Alexander; Steinmüller, Doris; Stutzmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Diamond exhibits several special properties, for example good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, that make it particularly suitable for biofunctionalization and biosensing. Here we show that proteins can be attached covalently to nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Moreover, we show that, although the biomolecules are immobilized at the surface, they are still fully functional and active. Hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films were modified by using a photochemical process to generate a surface layer of amino groups, to which proteins were covalently attached. We used green fluorescent protein to reveal the successful coupling directly. After functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes with the enzyme catalase, a direct electron transfer between the enzyme's redox centre and the diamond electrode was detected. Moreover, the modified electrode was found to be sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Because of its dual role as a substrate for biofunctionalization and as an electrode, nanocrystalline diamond is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.

  2. Role of high microwave power on growth and microstructure of thick nanocrystalline diamond films: A comparison with large grain polycrystalline diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. J.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Girão, A. V.; Pereira, S.; Shi, Fa-Nian; Soares, M. R.; Costa, F.; Neves, A. J.; Pinto, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we study the growth habit of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films by exploring the very high power regime, up to 4 kW, in a 5 kW microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) reactor, through addition of a small amount of nitrogen and oxygen (0.24%) into 4% CH4 in H2 plasma. The coupled effect of high microwave power and substrate temperature on NCD growth behaviour is systematically investigated by varying only power, while fixing the remaining operating parameters. When the power increases from 2 kW to 4 kW, resulting also in rise of the Si substrate temperature higher than 150 °C, the diamond films obtained maintain the NCD habit, while the growth rate increases significantly. The highest growth rate of 4.6 μm/h is achieved for the film grown at 4 kW, which represents a growth rate enhancement of about 15 times compared with that obtained when using 2 kW power. Possible factors responsible for such remarkable growth rate enhancement of the NCD films are discussed. The evolution of NCD growth characteristics such as morphology, microstructure and texture is studied by growing thick films and comparing it with that of large grain polycrystalline (PCD) films. One important characteristic of the NCD films obtained, in contrast to PCD films, is that irrespective of deposition time (i.e. film thickness), their grain size and surface roughness remain in the nanometer range throughout the growth. Finally, based on our present and previous experimental results, a potential parameter window is established for fast growth of NCD films under high power conditions.

  3. Diamond particle detectors systems in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Kock Kiam

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using diamond detect or s has matured from devices based on a rather large pads to highly granular pixelated device s . The ATLAS experiment has recently installed a diamond pixel detector, the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), to measure the luminosity in the upgraded LHC with higher instantaneous luminosity. Polycrystalline diamonds were used to fabricate the diamond pixel modules. The design , production, and test beam result s are described. CMS also has a similar plan to construct a diamond based luminosity monitor, the Pixel Luminos ity Telescope s (PLT) . In a pilot run using single crystal diamond, the pulse height was found to depend on the luminosity . Consequently the collaboration decided to use silicon instead due to time constrain ts .

  4. Optically transparent boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films for spectroelectrochemical measurements on different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobaszek, M.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Pluciński, J.; Siuzdak, K.; Skowroński, Ł.

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication process of optically transparent boron nanocrystalline diamond (B- NCD) electrode on silicon and quartz substrate was shown. The B-NCD films were deposited on the substrates using Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MWPACVD) at glass substrate temperature of 475 °C. A homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology with high sp 3 content in B-NCD films and film thickness depending from substrate in the range of 60-300 nm was obtained. The high refraction index and transparency in visible (VIS) wavelength range was achieved. Moreover, cyclic voltammograms (CV) were recorded to determine reaction reversibility at the B-NCD electrode. CV measurements in aqueous media consisting of 1 mM K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ] in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 demonstrated relatively fast kinetics expressed by a redox peak splitting below 503 mV for B-NCD/silicon and 110 mv for B-NCD/quartz

  5. Formation of diamonds out of hydrocarbon gas in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krason, J.; Szymanski, A.; Savkevitch, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of formation of polycrystalline diamonds being discussed dint he context of a very rapid, dynamic decomposition of the hydrocarbon gas, initially biogenic or thermogenic condensed in gas hydrates, naturally locked and highly compressed in the hosting rocks. Gas hydrates are of solid, ice-like composition, mostly of hydrocarbon. Gas hydrates, composed of polyhedral cages, may have two types of structural forms: the body-centered structure or Structure I (small molecules) and diamond lattice or Structure II (large molecules). The crystal structure of the gas hydrate depends on the geometry of gas molecules. The thermodynamic conditions required for stabilization and preservation of the gas hydrates can be changed. Thus, in this concept, the principal source for at least some diamond deposits can originally be highly condensed hydrocarbons. In this case, if all the above indicated thermodynamic conditions and processes are met, naturally precondensed hydrocarbons can be directly converted into polycrystalline, extremely coherent diamonds

  6. Comparison of glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes: Resistance to biofouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouillon, Raphael, E-mail: raphael.trouillon06@imperial.ac.u [Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); O' Hare, Danny [Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    Carbon based electrodes are widely used for in vivo and in vitro electrochemical studies. In particular, monoamine neurochemistry has been investigated using carbon microfibre electrodes. Similarly, glassy carbon (GC) is the preferred material for many biochemical applications, such as electrochemical detection in chromatography. More recently, boron doped diamond (BDD) has been utilized for biosensing, as its carbon sp{sup 3} structure is expected to provide better resistance to analyte fouling. However, the main factor limiting the use of electrochemical sensors for biological studies is the effect of the biological matrix. Indeed, in vivo or in situ measurements expose the sensor to a complex matrix of proteins, which adsorb on the sensing surface and interfere with the electrochemical measurements. Here, we compare the performance of three carbon based electrodes: GC, GC with low surface oxides and BDD. The redox species ruthenium(III) hexaammine (outer-sphere), ferrocyanide (surface sensitive) and the biologically significant dopamine have been investigated in protein and blood-mimicking matrices. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to examine the effect of spectator molecules and reaction products on electrode mechanisms. Our results show that BDD generally exhibits the best performance for most conditions and reactions and should therefore be preferred for measurements in biologically fouling environments. Furthermore, surface oxides seem also to improve resistance of the GC electrode to biofouling.

  7. Comparison of glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes: Resistance to biofouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trouillon, Raphael; O'Hare, Danny

    2010-01-01

    Carbon based electrodes are widely used for in vivo and in vitro electrochemical studies. In particular, monoamine neurochemistry has been investigated using carbon microfibre electrodes. Similarly, glassy carbon (GC) is the preferred material for many biochemical applications, such as electrochemical detection in chromatography. More recently, boron doped diamond (BDD) has been utilized for biosensing, as its carbon sp 3 structure is expected to provide better resistance to analyte fouling. However, the main factor limiting the use of electrochemical sensors for biological studies is the effect of the biological matrix. Indeed, in vivo or in situ measurements expose the sensor to a complex matrix of proteins, which adsorb on the sensing surface and interfere with the electrochemical measurements. Here, we compare the performance of three carbon based electrodes: GC, GC with low surface oxides and BDD. The redox species ruthenium(III) hexaammine (outer-sphere), ferrocyanide (surface sensitive) and the biologically significant dopamine have been investigated in protein and blood-mimicking matrices. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to examine the effect of spectator molecules and reaction products on electrode mechanisms. Our results show that BDD generally exhibits the best performance for most conditions and reactions and should therefore be preferred for measurements in biologically fouling environments. Furthermore, surface oxides seem also to improve resistance of the GC electrode to biofouling.

  8. Simultaneous detection of iodine and iodide on boron doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Stéphane; Comninellis, Christos; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-01-15

    Individual and simultaneous electrochemical detection of iodide and iodine has been performed via cyclic voltammetry on boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in a 1M NaClO(4) (pH 8) solution, representative of typical environmental water conditions. It is feasible to compute accurate calibration curve for both compounds using cyclic voltammetry measurements by determining the peak current intensities as a function of the concentration. A lower detection limit of about 20 μM was obtained for iodide and 10 μM for iodine. Based on the comparison between the peak current intensities reported during the oxidation of KI, it is probable that iodide (I(-)) is first oxidized in a single step to yield iodine (I(2)). The latter is further oxidized to obtain IO(3)(-). This technique, however, did not allow for a reasonably accurate detection of iodate (IO(3)(-)) on a BDD electrode. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Controlled sp(2) Functionalization of Boron Doped Diamond as a Route for the Fabrication of Robust and Nernstian pH Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Zoë J; Borrill, Alexandra J; Newland, Jonathan C; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2016-01-05

    The development of a voltammetric boron doped diamond (BDD) pH sensor is described. To obtain pH sensitivity, laser micromachining (ablation) is utilized to introduce controlled regions of sp(2) carbon into a high quality polycrystalline BDD electrode. The resulting sp(2) carbon is activated to produce electrochemically reducible quinone groups using a high temperature acid treatment, followed by anodic polarization. Once activated, no further treatment is required. The quinone groups show a linear (R(2) = 0.999) and Nernstian (59 mV/(pH unit)) pH-dependent reductive current-voltage response over a large analyzable pH range, from pH 2 to pH 12. Using the laser approach, it is possible to optimize sp(2) coverage on the BDD surface, such that a measurable pH response is recorded, while minimizing background currents arising from oxygen reduction reactions on sp(2) carbon in the potential region of interest. This enables the sensor to be used in aerated solutions, boding well for in situ analysis. The voltammetric response of the electrode is not compromised by the presence of excess metal ions such as Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+). Furthermore, the pH sensor is stable over a 3 month period (the current time period of testing), can be stored in air between measurements, requires no reactivation of the surface between measurements, and can be reproducibly fabricated using the proposed approach. The efficacy of this pH sensor in a real-world sample is demonstrated with pH measurements in U.K. seawater.

  10. Boron doped diamond electrodes for the dopamine identification by anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojs, M.; Behul, M.; Michniak, P.; Rehacek, V.; Tvarozek, V.; Vesely, M.; Rossberg, M.; Schaaf, P.

    2012-01-01

    Polycrystalline BDD films 200-280 nm thick (Fig. 1) were produced in the double bias enhanced HF CVD reactor with sheet resistivity ∼ 100 Ω/sq. As a substrate, highly conductive (0.008-0.024 Ωcm) N (100) type silicon substrate was used with ∼ 200 nm wet SiO 2 oxide. Throughout the deposition, gas flows in reaction chamber were controlled to be 1 % CH 4 in H 2 and trymethylboron (TMB) in the range of 0-200 sccm (corresponding to 0-13 333 ppm of B/C). We have compared different measurements in presence of biological molecules (DA) with various BDD electrodes. These electrodes exhibited very high sensitivity, long-therm stability and high reproducibility. A very good performance (LOD = 6.02, R 2 =0.9921) of the BDD surface has been demonstrated only for very high 10 000 ppm B/C ratio (B doping levels n = 3.6·10 21 cm -3 ) for surface sensitive reactions in complex biological matrices. (authors)

  11. Mechanical pretreatment for improved adhesion of diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Mohlfeld, A.; Gey, C.; Winkler, J.

    1999-01-01

    Diamond coatings are mainly used in cutting processes due to their tribological characteristics. They show a high hardness, low friction coefficient, high wear resistance and good chemical inertness. In relation to polycrystalline diamond (PCD)-tipped cutting inserts, especially the advantageous chemical stability of diamond coatings is superior as no binder phases between diamond grains are used. However, the deposition of adherent high-quality diamond coatings has been found difficult. Thus, substrate pretreatment is utilised to improve film adhesion. This investigation is based on water peening of the substrate material before coating. The investigation revealed best results for diamond film adhesion on pretreated substrates compared to conventional diamond coatings on cemented carbide tools applied with the CVD hot-filament process. In final cutting tests with increased film adhesion trough water peened cutting tools an improved wear behavior was detected. (orig.)

  12. Diamond growth in oxygen-acetylene flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Mario S.; Nagai, Y. Ernesto; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    1995-01-01

    What was supposed to be a laboratory curiosity in the 80's, in recent years the low pressure process for the production of man-made diamond turned out to be a major target for research and development of many high-tech companies. The main reason for such an interest stems on the possibility of coating many materials with a diamond film possessing the same amazing properties of the bulk natural diamond. Polycrystalline diamond film has been deposited on Mo substrate by using oxygen-acetylene flame of a welding torch. The substrate temperature has been held constant about 700 d eg C by means of a water cooled mount designed properly. Precision flowmeters have been used to control the flow ratio oxygen/acetylene, a key parameter for the success in diamond growth. Diamond has been detected by X-ray diffraction, a fast foolproof technique for crystal identification. Another method of analysis often used in Raman spectroscopy, which is able to exhibit amorphous structure besides crystalline phase. (author)

  13. New developments in CVD diamond for detector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; de Boer, W.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Dulinski, W.; Doroshenko, J.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K. K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K. T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternative sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC and other machines where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last seven years the RD42 collaboration has developed diamond detectors and tested them with LHC electronics towards the end of creating a device usable by experiments. The most recent results of this work are presented. Recently, a new form of CVD diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with poly-crystalline CVD material. The first tests of this material are also presented.

  14. New developments in CVD diamond for detector applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W. [HEPHY, Vienna (Austria); Berdermann, E. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A. [LETI/DEIN/SPE/CEA Saclay (France); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bogani, F. [LENS, Florence (Italy); Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M. [University of Florence (Italy); Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W. [LEPSI, IN2P3/CNRS-ULP, Strasbourg (France); Conway, J.; Doroshenko, J. [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); D' Angelo, P.; Furetta, C. [INFN, Milano (Italy); Dabrowski, W. [UMM, Cracow (Poland); Delpierre, P.; Fallou, A. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Eijk, B. van [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fischer, P. [Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Fizzotti, F. [University of Torino (Italy); Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2004-07-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternative sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC and other machines where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last seven years the RD42 collaboration has developed diamond detectors and tested them with LHC electronics towards the end of creating a device usable by experiments. The most recent results of this work are presented. Recently, a new form of CVD diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with poly-crystalline CVD material. The first tests of this material are also presented. (orig.)

  15. New developments in CVD diamond for detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Conway, J.; Doroshenko, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Furetta, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Fallou, A.; Eijk, B. van; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternative sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC and other machines where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last seven years the RD42 collaboration has developed diamond detectors and tested them with LHC electronics towards the end of creating a device usable by experiments. The most recent results of this work are presented. Recently, a new form of CVD diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with poly-crystalline CVD material. The first tests of this material are also presented. (orig.)

  16. Electrochemical deposition of the first Cd monolayer on polycrystalline Pt and Au electrodes: an Upd study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Mauro C. dos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The underpotential deposition of Cd on polycrystalline Pt and Au was studied by voltammetry at stationary and rotating ring-disc electrodes. On Pt, the Cd ads dissolution peaks overlap those related to the oxidation of Hads, thus hindering the precise evaluation of desorption charges. A model proposed to calculate such charges from voltammetry at stationary electrodes revealed a value of 285 muC cm-2 for the monolayer dissolution, which corresponds to a coverage of 90% with Cd ads presenting an electrosorption valence of 0.5. Rotating ring-disc experiments fully confirmed such values. The misfit between atomic radii of Cd and Pt justifies the less-than-100% coverage. On the other hand, on Au, the absence of Hads simplifies the procedure for determination of dissolution charges for the Cd monolayer. Here, a value of only 41 muC cm-2 was calculated, which corresponds to a maximum coverage of 15%, with the electrosorption valence of 0.5. The results obtained in the collecting experiments with the rotating electrode are in complete agreement with those values.

  17. Preparation and reactivity of carboxylic acid-terminated boron-doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedziolka-Joensson, Joanna; Boland, Susan; Leech, Donal; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports on the formation of carboxy-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. The carboxylic acid termination was prepared in a controlled way by reacting photochemically oxidized BDD with succinic anhydride. The resulting interface was readily employed for the linking of an amine-terminated ligand such as an osmium complex bearing an amine terminal group. The interfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Contact angle measurements were used to follow the changes in surface wetting properties due to surface functionalization. The chemical reactivity of the carboxyl-terminated BDD was investigated by covalent coupling of the acid groups to an amine-terminated osmium complex.

  18. Electrochemical performance of porous diamond-like carbon electrodes for sensing hormones, neurotransmitters, and endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago A; Zanin, Hudson; May, Paul W; Corat, Evaldo J; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-12-10

    Porous diamond-like carbon (DLC) electrodes have been prepared, and their electrochemical performance was explored. For electrode preparation, a thin DLC film was deposited onto a densely packed forest of highly porous, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VACNT). DLC deposition caused the tips of the carbon nanotubes to clump together to form a microstructured surface with an enlarged surface area. DLC:VACNT electrodes show fast charge transfer, which is promising for several electrochemical applications, including electroanalysis. DLC:VACNT electrodes were applied to the determination of targeted molecules such as dopamine (DA) and epinephrine (EP), which are neurotransmitters/hormones, and acetaminophen (AC), an endocrine disruptor. Using simple and low-cost techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, analytical curves in the concentration range from 10 to 100 μmol L(-1) were obtained and excellent analytical parameters achieved, including high analytical sensitivity, good response stability, and low limits of detection of 2.9, 4.5, and 2.3 μmol L(-1) for DA, EP, and AC, respectively.

  19. Alpha particle response study of polycrstalline diamond radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit; Topkar, Anita [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Chemical vapor deposition has opened the possibility to grow high purity synthetic diamond at relatively low cost. This has opened up uses of diamond based detectors for wide range of applications. These detectors are most suitable for harsh environments where standard semiconductor detectors cannot work. In this paper, we present the fabrication details and performance study of polycrystalline diamond based radiation detector. Effect of different operating parameters such as bias voltage and shaping time for charge collection on the performance of detector has been studied.

  20. Thermal diffusivity of diamond films using a laser pulse technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, S.; Winfree, W.P.; Crews, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited using a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. A laser pulse technique was developed to measure the thermal diffusivity of diamond films deposited on a silicon substrate. The effective thermal diffusivity of a diamond film on silicon was measured by observing the phase and amplitude of the cyclic thermal waves generated by laser pulses. An analytical model is presented to calculate the effective inplane (face-parallel) diffusivity of a two-layer system. The model is used to reduce the effective thermal diffusivity of the diamond/silicon sample to a value for the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of the diamond film

  1. Stable and highly efficient electrochemical production of formic acid from carbon dioxide using diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsui, Keisuke; Iwakawa, Hitomi; Ikemiya, Norihito [Department of Chemistry, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); Nakata, Kazuya [Photocatalysis International Research Center, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba (Japan); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); JST-ACCEL, Yokohama (Japan)

    2018-03-01

    High faradaic efficiencies can be achieved in the production of formic acid (HCOOH) by metal electrodes, such as Sn or Pb, in the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). However, the stability and environmental load in using them are problematic. The electrochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to HCOOH was investigated in a flow cell using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. BDD electrodes have superior electrochemical properties to metal electrodes, and, moreover, are highly durable. The faradaic efficiency for the production of HCOOH was as high as 94.7 %. Furthermore, the selectivity for the production of HCOOH was more than 99 %. The rate of the production was increased to 473 μmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} at a current density of 15 mA cm{sup -2} with a faradaic efficiency of 61 %. The faradaic efficiency and the production rate are almost the same as or larger than those achieved using Sn and Pb electrodes. Furthermore, the stability of the BDD electrodes was confirmed by 24 h operation. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Stable and Highly Efficient Electrochemical Production of Formic Acid from Carbon Dioxide Using Diamond Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsui, Keisuke; Iwakawa, Hitomi; Ikemiya, Norihito; Nakata, Kazuya; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2018-03-01

    High faradaic efficiencies can be achieved in the production of formic acid (HCOOH) by metal electrodes, such as Sn or Pb, in the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). However, the stability and environmental load in using them are problematic. The electrochemical reduction of CO 2 to HCOOH was investigated in a flow cell using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. BDD electrodes have superior electrochemical properties to metal electrodes, and, moreover, are highly durable. The faradaic efficiency for the production of HCOOH was as high as 94.7 %. Furthermore, the selectivity for the production of HCOOH was more than 99 %. The rate of the production was increased to 473 μmol m -2  s -1 at a current density of 15 mA cm -2 with a faradaic efficiency of 61 %. The faradaic efficiency and the production rate are almost the same as or larger than those achieved using Sn and Pb electrodes. Furthermore, the stability of the BDD electrodes was confirmed by 24 h operation. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Total inorganic arsenic detection in real water samples using anodic stripping voltammetry and a gold-coated diamond thin-film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Swain, Greg M

    2007-06-12

    An accurate method for total inorganic arsenic determination in real water samples was developed using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and a Au-coated boron-doped diamond thin-film electrode. Keys to the method are the use of a conducting diamond platform and solid phase extraction for sample preparation. In the method, the As(III) present in the sample is first detected by DPASV. The As(V) present is then reduced to As(III) by reaction with Na2SO3 and this is followed by a second detection of As(III) by DPASV. Interfering metal ions (e.g., Cu(II)) that cause decreased electrode response sensitivity for arsenic in real samples are removed by solid phase extraction as part of the sample preparation. For example, Cu(II) caused a 30% decrease in the As stripping peak current at a solution concentration ratio of 3:1 (Cu(II)/As(III)). This loss was mitigated by passage of the solution through a Chelex 100 cation exchange resin. After passage, only a 5% As stripping current response loss was seen. The effect of organic matter on the Au-coated diamond electrode response for As(III) was also evaluated. Humic acid at a 5 ppm concentration caused only a 9% decrease in the As stripping peak charge for Au-coated diamond. By comparison, a 50% response decrease was observed for Au foil. Clearly, the chemical properties of the diamond surface in the vicinity of the metal deposits inhibit molecular adsorption on at least some of the Au surface. The method provided reproducible and accurate results for total inorganic arsenic in two contaminated water samples provided by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The total inorganic As concentration in the two samples, quantified by the standard addition method, was 23.2+/-2.9 ppb for UV plant influent water and 16.4+/-0.9 ppb for Well 119 water (n=4). These values differed from the specified concentrations by less than 4%.

  4. Total inorganic arsenic detection in real water samples using anodic stripping voltammetry and a gold-coated diamond thin-film electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yang; Swain, Greg M.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate method for total inorganic arsenic determination in real water samples was developed using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and a Au-coated boron-doped diamond thin-film electrode. Keys to the method are the use of a conducting diamond platform and solid phase extraction for sample preparation. In the method, the As(III) present in the sample is first detected by DPASV. The As(V) present is then reduced to As(III) by reaction with Na 2 SO 3 and this is followed by a second detection of As(III) by DPASV. Interfering metal ions (e.g., Cu(II)) that cause decreased electrode response sensitivity for arsenic in real samples are removed by solid phase extraction as part of the sample preparation. For example, Cu(II) caused a 30% decrease in the As stripping peak current at a solution concentration ratio of 3:1 (Cu(II)/As(III)). This loss was mitigated by passage of the solution through a Chelex 100 cation exchange resin. After passage, only a 5% As stripping current response loss was seen. The effect of organic matter on the Au-coated diamond electrode response for As(III) was also evaluated. Humic acid at a 5 ppm concentration caused only a 9% decrease in the As stripping peak charge for Au-coated diamond. By comparison, a 50% response decrease was observed for Au foil. Clearly, the chemical properties of the diamond surface in the vicinity of the metal deposits inhibit molecular adsorption on at least some of the Au surface. The method provided reproducible and accurate results for total inorganic arsenic in two contaminated water samples provided by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The total inorganic As concentration in the two samples, quantified by the standard addition method, was 23.2 ± 2.9 ppb for UV plant influent water and 16.4 ± 0.9 ppb for Well 119 water (n = 4). These values differed from the specified concentrations by less than 4%

  5. Hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films by high-temperature annealing at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, V.; Ullien, D.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Sachdeva, S.; Murthy, D.H.K.; Savenije, T.J.; Ahmad, H.A.; Nunney, T.S.; Janssens, S.D.; Haenen, K.; Nesládek, M.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; De Smet, L.C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    A high-temperature procedure to hydrogenate diamond films using molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was explored. Undoped and doped chemical vapour deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were treated according to our annealing method using a H2 gas flow down to ?50 ml/min (STP) at

  6. Nanostructured Diamond Device for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijalkowski, M; Karczemska, A; Lysko, J M; Zybala, R; KozaneckI, M; Filipczak, P; Ralchenko, V; Walock, M; Stanishevsky, A; Mitura, S

    2015-02-01

    Diamond is increasingly used in biomedical applications because of its unique properties such as the highest thermal conductivity, good optical properties, high electrical breakdown voltage as well as excellent biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Diamond has also been introduced as an excellent substrate to make the functional microchip structures for electrophoresis, which is the most popular separation technique for the determination of analytes. In this investigation, a diamond electrophoretic chip was manufactured by a replica method using a silicon mold. A polycrystalline 300 micron-thick diamond layer was grown by the microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) technique onto a patterned silicon substrate followed by the removal of the substrate. The geometry of microstructure, chemical composition, thermal and optical properties of the resulting free-standing diamond electrophoretic microchip structure were examined by CLSM, SFE, UV-Vis, Raman, XRD and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and by a modified laser flash method for thermal property measurements.

  7. Design of lithium cobalt oxide electrodes with high thermal conductivity and electrochemical performance using carbon nanotubes and diamond particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eungje; Salgado, Ruben Arash; Lee, Byeongdu; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Rajh, Tijana; Johnson, Christopher; Balandin, Alexander A.; Shevchenko, Elena V.

    2018-04-01

    Thermal management remains one of the major challenges in the design of safe and reliable Li-ion batteries. We show that composite electrodes assembled from commercially available 100 μm long carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and LiCoO2 (LCO) particles demonstrate the in-plane thermal conductivity of 205.8 W/m*K. This value exceeds the thermal conductivity of dry conventional laminated electrodes by about three orders of magnitude. The cross-plane thermal conductivity of CNT-based electrodes is in the same range as thermal conductivities of conventional laminated electrodes. The CNT-based electrodes demonstrate a similar capacity to conventional laminated design electrodes, but revealed a better rate performance and stability. The introduction of diamond particles into CNT-based electrodes further improves the rate performance. Our lightweight, flexible electrode design can potentially be a general platform for fabricating polymer binder- and aluminum and copper current collector- free electrodes from a broad range of electrochemically active materials with efficient thermal management.

  8. Anodic oxidation of wastewater containing the Reactive Orange 16 Dye using heavily boron-doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorini, F.L.; Braga, N.A.; Alves, S.A.; Lanza, M.R.V.; Baldan, M.R.; Ferreira, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrochemical advanced oxidation process was studied using BDD based anodes with different boron concentrations. → The difference between the non-active and active anodes for organics degradation. → The influence of morphologic and structural properties of BDD electrodes on the RO-16 dye degradation. - Abstract: Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films grown on the titanium substrate were used to study the electrochemical degradation of Reactive Orange (RO) 16 Dye. The films were produced by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique using two different boron concentrations. The growth parameters were controlled to obtain heavily doped diamond films. They were named as E1 and E2 electrodes, with acceptor concentrations of 4.0 and 8.0 x 10 21 atoms cm -3 , respectively. The boron levels were evaluated from Mott-Schottky plots also corroborated by Raman's spectra, which characterized the film quality as well as its physical property. Scanning Electron Microscopy showed well-defined microcrystalline grain morphologies with crystal orientation mixtures of (1 1 1) and (1 0 0). The electrode efficiencies were studied from the advanced oxidation process (AOP) to degrade electrochemically the Reactive Orange 16 azo-dye (RO16). The results were analyzed by UV/VIS spectroscopy, total organic carbon (TOC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. From UV/VIS spectra the highest doped electrode (E2) showed the best efficiency for both, the aromaticity reduction and the azo group fracture. These tendencies were confirmed by the TOC and chromatographic measurements. Besides, the results showed a direct relationship among the BDD morphology, physical property, and its performance during the degradation process.

  9. Response of CVD diamond detectors to alpha radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souw, E.-K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Meilunas, R.J. [Northrop-Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714-3582 (United States)

    1997-11-21

    This article describes some results from an experiment with CVD diamond films used as {alpha} particle detectors. It demonstrates that bulk polarization can be effectively stopped within a reasonable time interval. This will enable detector calibration and quantitative measurement. A possible mechanism for the observed polarization quenching is discussed. It involves two types of carrier traps and a tentative band-gap model derived from the results of photoconductive current measurements. The experiment was set up mainly to investigate {alpha} detection properties of polycrystalline diamond films grown by the technique of microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. For comparison, two commercially purchased diamond wafers were also investigated, i.e., one grown by the DC arc jet method, and the other, a type-IIa natural diamond wafer (not preselected). The best response to {alpha} particles was obtained using diamond thin-films grown by the microwave PECVD method, followed by the type-IIa natural diamond, and finally, the CVD diamond grown by the DC arc jet technique. (orig.). 43 refs.

  10. Realization of a diamond based high density multi electrode array by means of Deep Ion Beam Lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picollo, F.; Battiato, A.; Bernardi, E.; Boarino, L.; Enrico, E.; Forneris, J.; Gatto Monticone, D.; Olivero, P.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we report about a parallel-processing ion beam fabrication technique whereby high-density sub-superficial graphitic microstructures can be created in diamond. Ion beam implantation is an effective tool for the structural modification of diamond: in particular ion-damaged diamond can be converted into graphite, therefore obtaining an electrically conductive phase embedded in an optically transparent and highly insulating matrix. The proposed fabrication process consists in the combination of Deep Ion Beam Lithography (DIBL) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling. FIB micromachining is employed to define micro-apertures in the contact masks consisting of thin (<10 μm) deposited metal layers through which ions are implanted in the sample. A prototypical single-cell biosensor was realized with the above described technique. The biosensor has 16 independent electrodes converging inside a circular area of 20 μm diameter (typical neuroendocrine cells size) for the simultaneous recording of amperometric signals

  11. Investigation of defects in CVD diamond: Influence for radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, M.J.; Tromson, D.; Bergonzo, P.; Barrett, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we present the potentialities of CVD diamond as an ionisation chamber for radiotherapy applications. Trapping levels present in CVD diamond are characterised using Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) method with X-ray sources. The influence of the corresponding defects on the detector response is investigated and compared to those observed in natural diamond. Also, their spatial distribution across a large area polycrystalline diamond ionisation chamber is discussed. Results show the relative influence of two different populations of trapping levels in CVD diamond whose effect is crucial for radiotherapy applications. To partially overcome the defect detrimental effects, we propose to use CVD diamond ionisation chambers at moderate temperatures from 70 to 100 deg. C that could be provided by self heating of the device, for a dramatically improved stability and reproducibility

  12. Morphological and electrochemical properties of boron-doped diamond films on carbon cloths with enhanced surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.L.G.; Ferreira, N.G.; Corat, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of doped diamond electrodes (10 17 -10 19 B cm -3 ) grown on carbon fiber cloths in H 2 SO 4 0.1 mol L -1 electrolyte were investigated. Cyclic voltammograms of B-doped diamond/carbon fiber cloth and carbon fiber cloth electrodes showed that both kinds of electrodes possess similar working potential windows of about 2.0 V. The electrode capacitance was determined by impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry measurements and very close values were obtained. The capacitance values of the diamond film on carbon fiber cloths were 180 times higher than the ones of diamond films on Si. In this paper we have also discussed the capacitance frequency dependence of diamond/carbon cloth electrodes

  13. Radiation hard diamond sensors for future tracking applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in experimental particle physics in the coming decade depends crucially upon the ability to carry out experiments in high-radiation areas. In order to perform these complex and expensive experiments, new radiation hard technologies must be developed. This paper discusses the use of diamond detectors in future tracking applications and their survivability in the highest radiation environments. We present results of devices constructed with the newest polycrystalline and single crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond and their tolerance to radiation

  14. Surface Potential of Polycrystalline Hematite in Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Preočanin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface potential of polycrystalline hematite in aqueous sodium perchlorate environment as a function of pH was examined. Surface potential of hematite was obtained from measured electrode potential of a nonporous polycrystalline hematite electrode. Acidic solution was titrated with base, and the backward titration with acid was performed. Substantial hysteresis was obtained which enabled location of the point of zero potential and equilibrium values of surface potentials. The theoretical interpretation of the equilibrium data was performed by applying the surface complexation model and the thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the first and the second step of surface protonation was obtained as logK1∘=11.3;logK2∘=2.8.

  15. Amperometric Determination of Sulfite by Gas Diffusion- Sequential Injection with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawon Chailapakul

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A gas diffusion sequential injection system with amperometric detection using aboron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the determination of sulfite. A gasdiffusion unit (GDU was used to prevent interference from sample matrices for theelectrochemical measurement. The sample was mixed with an acid solution to generategaseous sulfur dioxide prior to its passage through the donor channel of the GDU. Thesulfur dioxide diffused through the PTFE hydrophobic membrane into a carrier solution of 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 8/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in the acceptor channel of theGDU and turned to sulfite. Then the sulfite was carried to the electrochemical flow cell anddetected directly by amperometry using the boron-doped diamond electrode at 0.95 V(versus Ag/AgCl. Sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the carrier solution to preventelectrode fouling. This method was applicable in the concentration range of 0.2-20 mgSO32−/L and a detection limit (S/N = 3 of 0.05 mg SO32−/L was achieved. This method wassuccessfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wines and the analytical resultsagreed well with those obtained by iodimetric titration. The relative standard deviations forthe analysis of sulfite in wines were in the range of 1.0-4.1 %. The sampling frequency was65 h−1.

  16. High Q diamond hemispherical resonators: fabrication and energy loss mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, Jonathan J; Bancu, Mirela G; Bauer, Joseph M; Cook, Eugene H; Kumar, Parshant; Nyinjee, Tenzin; Perlin, Gayatri E; Ricker, Joseph A; Teynor, William A; Weinberg, Marc S; Newton, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We have fabricated polycrystalline diamond hemispheres by hot-filament CVD (HFCVD) in spherical cavities wet-etched into a high temperature glass substrate CTE matched to silicon. Hemispherical resonators 1.4 mm in diameter have a Q of up to 143 000 in the fundamental wineglass mode, for a ringdown time of 2.4 s. Without trimming, resonators have the two degenerate wineglass modes frequency matched as close as 2 Hz, or 0.013% of the resonant frequency (∼16 kHz). Laser trimming was used to match resonant modes on hemispheres to 0.3 Hz. Experimental and FEA energy loss studies on cantilevers and hemispheres examine various energy loss mechanisms, showing that surface related losses are dominant. Diamond cantilevers with a Q of 400 000 and a ringdown time of 15.4 s were measured, showing the potential of polycrystalline diamond films for high Q resonators. These resonators show great promise for use as hemispherical resonant gyroscopes (HRGs) on a chip. (paper)

  17. Degradation of microcystin-RR using boron-doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyong; Fu Degang; Gu Zhongze

    2009-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs), produced by blue-green algae, are one of the most common naturally occurring toxins found in natural environment. The presence of MCs in drinking water sources poses a great threat to people's health. In this study, the degradation behavior of microcystin-RR on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was investigated under galvanostatic conditions. Such parameters as reaction time, supporting electrolyte and applied current density were varied in order to determine their effects on this oxidation process. The experimental results revealed the suitability of electrochemical processes employing BDD electrode for removing MC-RR from the solution. However, the efficient removal of MC-RR only occurred in the presence of sodium chloride that acted as redox mediators and the reaction was mainly affected by the chloride concentration (c NaCl ) and applied current density (I appl ). Full and quick removal of 0.50 μg/ml MC-RR in solution was achieved when the operating conditions of c NaCl and I appl were 20 mM and 46.3 mA/cm 2 , or 35 mM and 18.2 mA/cm 2 respectively. The kinetics for MC-RR degradation followed a pesudo-first order reaction in most cases, indicating the process was under mass transfer control. As a result of its excellent performance, the BDD technology could be considered as a promising alternative to promote the degradation of MC-RR than chlorination in drinking water supplies.

  18. Analysis of the application of poly-nanocrystalline diamond tools for ultra precision machining of steel with ultrasonic assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetz, M.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.; Bulla, B.; Schottka, K.; Robertson, D. J.

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-precision diamond turning enables the manufacturing of parts with mirror-like surfaces and highest form accuracies out of non-ferrous, a few crystalline and plastic materials. Furthermore, an ultrasonic assistance has the ability to push these boundaries and enables the machining of materials like steel, which is not possible in a conventional way due to the excessive tool wear caused by the affinity of carbon to iron. Usually monocrystalline diamonds tools are applied due to their unsurpassed cutting edge properties. New cutting tool material developments have shown that it is possible to produce tools made of nano-polycrystalline diamonds with cutting edges equivalent to monocrystalline diamonds. In nano-polycrystalline diamonds ultra-fine grains of a few tens of nanometers are firmly and directly bonded together creating an unisotropic structure. The properties of this material are described to be isotropic, harder and tougher than those of the monocrystalline diamonds, which are unisotropic. This publication will present machining results from the newest investigations of the process potential of this new polycrystalline cutting material. In order to provide a baseline with which to characterize the cutting material cutting experiments on different conventional machinable materials like Cooper or Aluminum are performed. The results provide information on the roughness and the topography of the surface focusing on the comparison to the results while machining with monocrystalline diamond. Furthermore, the cutting material is tested in machining steel with ultrasonic assistance with a focus on tool life time and surface roughness. An outlook on the machinability of other materials will be given.

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of the deep electrochemical oxidation of sodium diclofenac on a boron-doped diamond electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedenyapina, M. D.; Borisova, D. A.; Rosenwinkel, K.-H.; Weichgrebe, D.; Stopp, P.; Vedenyapin, A. A.

    2013-08-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the deep oxidation of sodium diclofenac on a boron-doped diamond electrode are studied to develop a technique for purifying wastewater from pharmaceutical products. The products of sodium diclofenac electrolysis are analyzed using cyclic voltammetry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. It is shown that the toxicity of the drug and products of its electrolysis decreases upon its deep oxidation.

  20. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergonzo, P; Tromson, D; Mer, C; Guizard, B; Marshall, R D; Foulon, F

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-i...

  1. Indirect Voltammetric Sensing Platforms For Fluoride Detection on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode Mediated via [FeF6]3− and [CeF6]2− Complexes Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culková, Eva; Tomčík, Peter; Švorc, Ľubomír; Cinková, Kristína; Chomisteková, Zuzana; Durdiak, Jaroslav; Rievaj, Miroslav; Bustin, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Very simple and sensitive electroanalytical technique based on synergistic combination of reaction electrochemistry (specificity) and bare boron-doped diamond electrode (sensitivity) for the detection of fluorides in drinking water was developed as variant based on dynamic electrochemistry to ISE analysis. It is based on the formation of electroinactive fluoride complexes with Fe(III) and Ce(IV) ions decreasing such diffusion current of free metal on boron-doped diamond electrode. Due to low background signal of boron-doped diamond electrode reasonably low detection limits of the order of 10 −6 mol L −1 for linear sweep voltammetric method using formation of [FeF 6 ] 3− and 10 −7 mol L −1 in a square-wave variant of this technique have been achieved. This is approximately 1–2 orders lower than in the case of platinum comb-shaped interdigitated microelectrode array. Linear sweep voltammetric method based on [CeF 6 ] 2− complex formation has lower sensitivity and may be suitable for samples with higher content of fluoride and not to analysis of drinking water

  2. Radiation monitoring with CVD diamonds and PIN diodes at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruinsma, M. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Burchat, P. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Curry, S. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)], E-mail: scurry@slac.stanford.edu; Edwards, A.J. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Kagan, H.; Kass, R. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kirkby, D. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Majewski, S.; Petersen, B.A. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2007-12-11

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has been using two polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (pCVD) diamonds and 12 silicon PIN diodes for radiation monitoring and protection of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT). We have used the pCVD diamonds for more than 3 years, and the PIN diodes for 7 years. We will describe the SVT and SVT radiation monitoring system as well as the operational difficulties and radiation damage effects on the PIN diodes and pCVD diamonds in a high-energy physics environment.

  3. Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, R S; Brandon, J R; Clewes, S L; Dhillon, H K; Dodson, J M; Friel, I; Inglis, P N; Madgwick, T D; Markham, M L; Mollart, T P; Perkins, N; Scarsbrook, G A; Twitchen, D J; Whitehead, A J; Wilman, J J; Woollard, S M

    2009-01-01

    Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer audio, magnetometry and novel lasers. Often the material is synthesized in planar form; however, non-planar geometries are also possible and enable a number of key applications. This paper reviews the material properties and characteristics of single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond, and how these can be utilized, focusing particularly on optics, electronics and electrochemistry. It also summarizes how CVD diamond can be tailored for specific applications, on the basis of the ability to synthesize a consistent and engineered high performance product.

  4. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  5. Low resistance polycrystalline diamond thin films deposited by hot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    silicon wafers using a hydrocarbon gas (CH4) highly diluted with H2 at low pressure in a hot filament chemi- cal vapour ... the laser spot was focused on the sample surface using a ... tative spectra of diamond thin films with a typical dia-.

  6. High speed dry machining of MMCs with diamond tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing use of metal matrix composites (MMCs) has raised new issues in their machining. Industrial demands for higher speed and dry machining of MMCs with improved component production to closer tolerances have driven the development of new tool materials. In particular, the wear characteristics of synthetic diamond tooling satisfy many of the requirements imposed in cutting these highly abrasive workpieces. The use of diamond tool materials, such as polycrystalline diamond (PCD), has resulted in tool life improvements which, allied with environmental considerations, show great potential for the development of dry cutting. This paper explores the wear characteristics of PCD, which is highly suited to the dry machining of particulate silicon carbide MMCs. Also, two further diamond tool materials are evaluated - chemical vapor deposition (CVD) thick layer diamond and synthetic single crystal diamond. Their suitability for the efficient machining of high volume fraction MMC materials is shown and their potential impact an the subsequent acceptance and integration of MMCs into engineering components is discussed. (author)

  7. Covalent modification of boron-doped diamond electrodes with an imidazolium-based ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Mei [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 19723 Jingshi Road, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Schneider, Amene [Austrian Centre of Competence for Tribology, Viktor Kaplan Strasse 2, 2700, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Niedziolka-Joensson, Joanna; Marcon, Lionel [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ghodbane, Slimane; Steinmueller-Nethl, Doris [Rho-BeSt Coating GmbH, Exlgasse 20a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Li Musen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 19723 Jingshi Road, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Szunerits, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.szunerits@iri.univ-lille1.f [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, UMR 8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-02-01

    An ionic liquid (IL, 1-(methylcarboxylic acid)-3-octylimidazolium-bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) was covalently coupled onto a boron-doped diamond (BDD) surface through an esterification reaction. The resulting surface was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle and electrochemical measurements. Selective electron transfer towards positively and negatively charged redox species was recorded. While the presence of Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-} could be detected on the IL-modified BDD interface, no surface-immobilized Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} was recorded. The IL-modified BDD electrode showed in addition changes in surface wettability when immersed into aqueous solution containing different anions.

  8. The interfacial capacitance of an oxidised polycrystalline gold electrode in an aqueous HClO4 electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grdeń, M.

    2013-01-01

    The interfacial capacitance of a polycrystalline gold electrode electrochemically oxidised in an aqueous 0.1 M HClO 4 electrolyte has been investigated by means of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. From 1.3 to 3 monolayers of Au atoms were oxidised under constant potential conditions and for various oxidation times. The capacitance of the oxidised layers was analysed as a function of the electrode potential and the extent of the surface oxidation. It was found that the interfacial capacitance decreases upon surface oxidation. The components of the interfacial capacitance of the oxidised layer: the double layer capacitance and the capacitance of the oxidised layer; have been separated. The capacitance of the double layer of the oxidised surface was found to be comparable to the capacitance measured for the metallic surface. - Highlights: • The impedance spectra for thin layers of Au oxides/hydroxides were acquired. • Separate determination of the double layer and the oxide capacitances of oxidised Au • The double layer capacitances of oxidised and non-oxidised Au surfaces are comparable

  9. Polymerisation occurrence in the anodic oxidation of phosphite on a boron-doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrucci, Elisabetta; Montanaro, Daniele; Merli, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The electrogeneration of polymeric phosphorus compounds during the anodic oxidation of aqueous solutions of phosphites on a boron-doped diamond electrode has been studied. Although the main oxidation product is orthophosphate, the results indicate the simultaneous generation of short-chain and cyclic compounds containing two and three phosphorus atoms whose evolution has been followed by ion chromatography. The effect on the reaction yield of several operative parameters such as current density, pH, temperature and initial phosphite concentration has been investigated. Consistently with the data presented, a new process for the generation of polymeric phosphates is obtained

  10. Diamond as a scaffold for bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kate; Palamara, Joseph; Judge, Roy; Greentree, Andrew D

    2013-04-01

    Diamond is an attractive material for biomedical implants. In this work, we investigate its capacity as a bone scaffold. It is well established that the bioactivity of a material can be evaluated by examining its capacity to form apatite-like calcium phosphate phases on its surface when exposed to simulated body fluid. Accordingly, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition were exposed to simulated body fluid and assessed for apatite growth when compared to the bulk silicon. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that both UNCD and PCD are capable of acting as a bone scaffold. The composition of deposited apatite suggests that UNCD and PCD are suitable for in vivo implantation with UNCD possible favoured in applications where rapid osseointegration is essential.

  11. Improved stability of titanium based boron-doped chemical vapor deposited diamond thin-film electrode by modifying titanium substrate surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, P.Y.; Lin, F.Y.; Shih, H.C.; Ralchenko, V.G.; Varnin, V.P.; Pleskov, Yu.V.; Hsu, S.F.; Chou, S.S.; Hsu, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    The film quality and electrochemical properties of BDD (boron-doped diamond) thin films grown by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique on titanium substrates that had been subjected to a range of pre-treatment processes were evaluated. The pre-roughened Ti-substrates are shown to support more adherent BDD films. It is evident that acid-etching the Ti-substrate involves surface hydrogenation that enhances nucleation and formation of diamond thereon. The prepared BDD film exhibits wide potential window and electrochemical reversibility. It also demonstrated a better long-term electrochemical stability based on the low variation in voltametric background current upon the exposing of the electrodes to repeated cycles of electrochemical metal deposition/stripping process

  12. Effect of substrate roughness on growth of diamond by hot filament ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Polycrystalline diamond coatings are grown on Si (100) substrate by hot filament CVD technique. We investigate ... toughness of the film as the crystal changes its phase from monocrystalline to .... is a characteristic of graphite. We mark the.

  13. Diamond detector time resolution for large angle tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodini, G., E-mail: chiodini@le.infn.it [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Fiore, G.; Perrino, R. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Pinto, C.; Spagnolo, S. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Dip. di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Uni. del Salento (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The applications which have stimulated greater interest in diamond sensors are related to detectors close to particle beams, therefore in an environment with high radiation level (beam monitor, luminosity measurement, detection of primary and secondary-interaction vertices). Our aims is to extend the studies performed so far by developing the technical advances needed to prove the competitiveness of this technology in terms of time resolution, with respect to more usual ones, which does not guarantee the required tolerance to a high level of radiation doses. In virtue of these goals, measurements of diamond detector time resolution with tracks incident at different angles are discussed. In particular, preliminary testbeam results obtained with 5 GeV electrons and polycrystalline diamond strip detectors are shown.

  14. Growth, characterization and device development in monocrystalline diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. F.; Glass, J. T.; Nemanich, R. J.; Bozeman, S. P.; Sowers, A. T.

    1995-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies concerned with interface interactions of diamond with Si, Ni, and Ni3Si substrates have been conducted. Oriented diamond films deposited on (100) Si were characterized by polar Raman, polar x-ray diffraction (XRD), and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). These sutides showed that the diamond(100)/Si(100) interface adopted the 3:2-match arrangement rather than a 45 deg rotation. Extended Hueckel tight-binding (EHTB) electronic structure calculations for a model system revealed that the interface interaction favors the 3:2-match arrangement. Growth on polycrystalline Ni3Si resulted in oriented diamond particles; under the same growth conditions, graphite was formed on the nickel substrate. Our EHTB electronic structure calculations showed that the (111) and (100) surfaces of Ni3Si have a strong preference for diamond nucleation over graphite nucleation, but this was not the case for the (111) and (100) surfaces of Ni.

  15. Application of heat treatment and dispersive strengthening concept in interlayer deposition to enhance diamond film adherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Chiiruey [Tatung Inst. of Technol., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mech. Eng.; Kuo Chengtzu; Chang Rueyming [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 30050 (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-10-31

    Two different deposition processes were carried out to enhance adherence of diamond films on WC+3-5%Co substrate with Ti-Si as the interlayer. One process can be called two-step diamond deposition process. Another process can be called interlayer heat treatment process. Diamond films were deposited by a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system. Ti and Si interlayer are deposited by DC sputter and an E-gun, respectively. Film morphologies, interface structure and film quality were examined by SEM, XRD, Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The residual stresses and adhesion strengths of the films were determined by Raman spectroscopy and indentation adhesion testing, respectively. Comparing the regular one-step diamond deposition process with the present two different new processes, the average dP/dX values, which are a measure of the adherence of the film, are 354 kgf/mm, 494 kgf/mm and 787 kgf/mm, respectively. In other words, the interlayer heat treatment process gives the best film adherence on average. For the two-step diamond deposition process, the interlayer thickness and the percent diamond surface coverage of the first diamond deposition step are the main parameters, and there exists an optimum Ti thickness and percent diamond coverage for the best film adherence. The main contribution to better film adherence is not a large difference in residual stress, but is due to the following reasons. The interlayer heat treatment can transform amorphous Si to polycrystalline Si, and may form strong TiC and SiC bonding. The polycrystalline Si and the diamond particles from the first diamond deposition step can be an effective seeds to enhance diamond nucleation. (orig.) 11 refs.

  16. Detection of trace levels of Pb2+ in tap water at boron-doped diamond electrodes with anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoe, Diana; Spataru, Nicolae; Kawasaki, Ryuji; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Spataru, Tanta; Tryk, Donald A.; Fujishima, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were used to investigate the possibility of detecting trace levels of lead by linear-sweep anodic stripping voltammetry. The low limit of detection (2 nM) is an advantage compared to other electrode materials, and it was found that at low pH values, copper concentrations that are usually present in drinking water do not affect to a large extent the detection of lead. These findings recommend anodic stripping voltammetry at the BDD electrodes as a suitable mercury-free method for the determination of trace levels of lead in drinking water. The results obtained for the lead detection in tap water real samples are in excellent agreement with those found by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), demonstrating the practical analytical utility of the method

  17. The Magnetic Properties Of Aggregate Polycrystalline Diamond: Implications For Carbonado Petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleteschka, Gunther; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wasilewski, Peter J.; Hill, Hugh G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Carbonados are a type of diamond, which are made up of many aggregrates of small crystalline diamonds or microdiamonds. The term "carbonado" comes from the Portuguese word carbonated. They are only found in sedimentary deposits in the Central African Republic (CAR) and the Bahia Province of Brazil. They were once the source of the world's supply of industrial diamonds. Their origin is uncertain but several mutually exclusive hypotheses have been proposed. This theories are: (1) extraterrestrial, that is they formed from the dust cloud of original solar nebulae; (2) produced by the high temperatures and pressures of the Earth's mantle; (3) or as the result of an extra-terrestrial impact into a carbon rich layer of sediment. Our study was done to further the understanding of their origin. We measured the magnetic properties on some twenty samples from the CAR. An earlier study was done on whole samples of carbonados and the "common" or kimberlitic diamond. Our work differed in that we started at the surface and subsequently removed the surface layers (by days of acid immersion) into the interior; measuring the magnetic properties at each interval. This procedure permits us to monitor the distribution of magnetic substances within the samples. Our results showed that the magnetic carriers are distributed on the surface including the open pores and that the carbonado interior is essentially non-magnetic. This result suggests that the initial formation environment was deficient in magnetic particles. Such a situation could indicate that their formation was the result of an extra-terrestrial body impacting carbon-rich sediment. Obviously, more work will be required on isotopic and chemical analyses before a more detailed ori-in can be determined.

  18. Natural and CVD type diamond detectors as dosimeters in hadrontherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Rafaele, L.; Sabini, M.G.; De Angelis, C.; Onori, S.; Pacilio, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S.

    2003-01-01

    Diamond is potentially a suitable material for use as radiation dosimeter; the wide band gap results in low dark currents and low sensitivity to visible light, the high carrier mobility can give rapid response, the very high density of strong bonds in the crystal structure make diamond very resistant to radiation damage; moreover it is tissue equivalent. The more recent advances in the synthesis of polycrystalline diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) techniques have allowed the synthesis of material with electronic properties suitable for dosimetric application. In this paper we will report the results obtained in the study of the response of a natural diamond dosimeter and a CVD one irradiated with 62 AMeV proton beams to demonstrate their possible application in protontherapy

  19. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrode arrays monitor cardiac action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybeck, Vanessa; Edgington, Robert; Bongrain, Alexandre; Welch, Joseph O; Scorsone, Emanuel; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The expansion of diamond-based electronics in the area of biological interfacing has not been as thoroughly explored as applications in electrochemical sensing. However, the biocompatibility of diamond, large safe electrochemical window, stability, and tunable electronic properties provide opportunities to develop new devices for interfacing with electrogenic cells. Here, the fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) electrodes and their interfacing with cardiomyocyte-like HL-1 cells to detect cardiac action potentials are presented. A nonreductive means of structuring doped and undoped diamond on the same substrate is shown. The resulting BNCD electrodes show high stability under mechanical stress generated by the cells. It is shown that by fabricating the entire surface of the MEA with NCD, in patterns of conductive doped, and isolating undoped regions, signal detection may be improved up to four-fold over BNCD electrodes passivated with traditional isolators. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Mechanistic Switching by Hydronium Ion Activity for Hydrogen Evolution and Oxidation over Polycrystalline Platinum Disk and Platinum/Carbon Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2014-07-22

    Fundamental electrochemical reactions, namely the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), are re-evaluated under various pH conditions over polycrystalline Pt disk electrodes and Pt/C electrodes to investigate the overpotential and Tafel relations. Kinetic trends are observed and can be classified into three pH regions: acidic (1-5), neutral (5-9), and alkaline (9-13). Under neutral conditions, in which H2O becomes the primary reactant, substantial overpotential, which is not affected by pH and the supporting electrolyte type, is required for electrocatalysis in both directions. This ion independence, including pH, suggests that HER/HOR performance under neutral conditions solely reflects the intrinsic electrocatalytic activity of Pt in the rate determining steps, which involve electron transfer with water molecules. A global picture of the HER/HOR, resulting from mechanistic switching accompanied by change in pH, is detailed.

  1. Magnetic and cytotoxic properties of hot-filament chemical vapour deposited diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Hudson, E-mail: hudsonzanin@gmail.com [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Peterlevitz, Alfredo Carlos; Ceragioli, Helder Jose [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues, Ana Amelia; Belangero, William Dias [Laboratorio de Biomateriais em Ortopedia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Cinco de Junho 350 CEP 13083970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Baranauskas, Vitor [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotonica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N.400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    Microcrystalline (MCD) and nanocrystalline (NCD) magnetic diamond samples were produced by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) on AISI 316 substrates. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) measurements indicated the presence of Fe, Cr and Ni in the MCD and NCD samples, and all samples showed similar magnetisation properties. Cell viability tests were realised using Vero cells, a type of fibroblastic cell line. Polystyrene was used as a negative control for toxicity (NCT). The cells were cultured under standard cell culture conditions. The proliferation indicated that these magnetic diamond samples were not cytotoxic. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycrystalline diamonds doped with Fe, Cr and Ni acquire ferromagnetic properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CVD diamonds have been prepared with magnetic and semiconductor properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro/nanocrystalline diamonds show good cell viability with fibroblast proliferation.

  2. Zero bias thermally stimulated currents in synthetic diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, R.; Miglio, S.; Bruzzi, M.; Bogani, F.; De Sio, A.; Pace, E.

    2009-06-01

    Zero bias thermally stimulated currents (ZBTSCs) have been observed in single crystal high pressure high temperature (HPHT) and polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (pCVD) diamond films. The ZBTSC technique is characterized by an increased sensitivity with respect to a standard TSC analysis. Due to the absence of the thermally activated background current, new TSC peaks have been observed in both HPHT and pCVD diamond films, related to shallow activation energies usually obscured by the emission of the dominant impurities. The ZBTSC peaks are explained in terms of defect discharge in the nonequilibrium potential distribution created by a nonuniform traps filling at the metal-diamond junctions. The electric field due to the charged defects has been estimated in a quasizero bias TSC experiment by applying an external bias.

  3. A 3D diamond detector for particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artuso, M. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L. [ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Bartosik, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Beacham, J. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Bellini, V. [INFN/University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Belyaev, V. [MEPHI Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bentele, B. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Berdermann, E. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bergonzo, P. [CEA-LIST Technologies Avancees, Saclay (France); Bes, A. [LPSC-Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Brom, J-M. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Bruzzi, M. [INFN/University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Cerv, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Chau, C. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chiodini, G. [INFN-Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Chren, D. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Cindro, V. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Claus, G. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Collot, J. [LPSC-Grenoble, Grenoble (France); and others

    2016-07-11

    In the present study, results towards the development of a 3D diamond sensor are presented. Conductive channels are produced inside the sensor bulk using a femtosecond laser. This electrode geometry allows full charge collection even for low quality diamond sensors. Results from testbeam show that charge is collected by these electrodes. In order to understand the channel growth parameters, with the goal of producing low resistivity channels, the conductive channels produced with a different laser setup are evaluated by Raman spectroscopy.

  4. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Guizard, B.; Marshall, R.D.; Foulon, F.

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-industrial basis, CVD diamond detectors have been fabricated for nuclear industry applications in hostile environments. Such devices can operate in harsh environments and overcome limitations encountered with the standard semiconductor materials. Of these, this paper presents devices for the monitoring of the alpha activity in corrosive nuclear waste solutions, such as those encountered in nuclear fuel assembly reprocessing facilities, as well as diamond-based thermal neutron detectors exhibiting a high neutron to gamma selectivity. All these demonstrate the effectiveness of a demanding industrial need that relies on the remarkable resilience of CVD diamond

  5. Enhanced selectivity of boron doped diamond electrodes for the detection of dopamine and ascorbic acid by increasing the film thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yao; Long, Hangyu [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ma, Li, E-mail: marycsupm@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wei, Quiping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Site [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yu, Zhiming [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hu, Jingyuan [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Peizhi [Key laboratory of interface science and engineering in advanced materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024,PR China (China); Wang, Yijia [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Meng, Lingcong [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, West Midlands CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • BDD electrodes with different thickness have been fabricated. • BDD electrodes are used for simultaneous detection of DA and AA. • Anodic pretreatment enhance the separation of DA and AA oxidation peak potential. • Thicker BDD electrode show better performance for DA detection coexisting with AA. - Abstract: In this paper, boron doped diamond (BDD) with different thickness were prepared by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The performance of BDD electrodes for detecting dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra reveal the grain size increases and the film quality improves with the increase of film thickness. Electrochemical test show that the transfer coefficient in [Fe{sub 3} (CN) {sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} redox system increases with the increase of the film thickness. The results of selectivity and sensitivity for DA mixed with AA detection show that 8h-BDD and 12h-BDD electrodes possess well selective separated oxidation peaks of DA and AA, and the 12h-BDD electrode exhibits optimal sensitivity until the DA concentration drops to 1 μ M.

  6. Neutron detection at jet using artificial diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, M.; Angelone, M.; Lattanzi, D.; Marinelli, M.; Milani, E.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Popovichev, S.; Montereali, R.M.; Vincenti, M.A.; Murari, A.

    2007-01-01

    Artificial diamond neutron detectors recently proved to be promising devices to measure the neutron production on large experimental fusion machines. Diamond detectors are very promising detectors to be used in fusion environment due to their radiation hardness, low sensitivity to gamma rays, fast response and high energy resolution. High quality 'electronic grade' diamond films are produced through microwave chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Two CVD diamond detectors have been installed and operated at joint European torus (JET), Culham Science Centre, UK. One of these detectors was a polycrystalline CVD diamond film; about 12 mm 2 area and 30 μm thickness while the second was a monocrystalline film of about 5 mm 2 area and 20 μm thick. Both diamonds were covered with 2 μm of lithium fluoride (LiF) 95% enriched in 6 Li. The LiF layer works as a neutron-to-charged particle converter so these detectors can measure thermalized neutrons. Their output signals were compared to JET total neutron yield monitors (KN1 diagnostic) realized with a set of uranium fission chambers. Despite their small active volumes the diamond detectors were able to measure total neutron yields with good reliability and stability during the recent JET experimental campaign of 2006

  7. A large area diamond-based beam tagging hodoscope for ion therapy monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallin-Martel, M.-L.; Abbassi, L.; Bes, A.; Bosson, G.; Collot, J.; Crozes, T.; Curtoni, S.; Dauvergne, D.; De Nolf, W.; Fontana, M.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Krimmer, J.; Lacoste, A.; Marcatili, S.; Morse, J.; Motte, J.-F.; Muraz, J.-F.; Rarbi, F. E.; Rossetto, O.; Salomé, M.; Testa, É.; Vuiart, R.; Yamouni, M.

    2018-01-01

    The MoniDiam project is part of the French national collaboration CLaRyS (Contrôle en Ligne de l'hAdronthérapie par RaYonnements Secondaires) for on-line monitoring of hadron therapy. It relies on the imaging of nuclear reaction products that is related to the ion range. The goal here is to provide large area beam detectors with a high detection efficiency for carbon or proton beams giving time and position measurement at 100 MHz count rates (beam tagging hodoscope). High radiation hardness and intrinsic electronic properties make diamonds reliable and very fast detectors with a good signal to noise ratio. Commercial Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) poly-crystalline, heteroepitaxial and monocrystalline diamonds were studied. Their applicability as a particle detector was investigated using α and β radioactive sources, 95 MeV/u carbon ion beams at GANIL and 8.5 keV X-ray photon bunches from ESRF. This facility offers the unique capability of providing a focused ( 1 μm) beam in bunches of 100 ps duration, with an almost uniform energy deposition in the irradiated detector volume, therefore mimicking the interaction of single ions. A signal rise time resolution ranging from 20 to 90 ps rms and an energy resolution of 7 to 9% were measured using diamonds with aluminum disk shaped surface metallization. This enabled us to conclude that polycrystalline CVD diamond detectors are good candidates for our beam tagging hodoscope development. Recently, double-side stripped metallized diamonds were tested using the XBIC (X Rays Beam Induced Current) set-up of the ID21 beamline at ESRF which permits us to evaluate the capability of diamond to be used as position sensitive detector. The final detector will consist in a mosaic arrangement of double-side stripped diamond sensors read out by a dedicated fast-integrated electronics of several hundreds of channels.

  8. Applications of diamond films and related materials; Proceedings of the 1st International Conference, Auburn, AL, Aug. 17-22, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua (Editor); Yoshikawa, Manasori (Editor); Murakawa, Masao (Editor); Feldman, Albert (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference discusses the nucleation and growth of diamond from hydrocarbons, the cutting tool performance of CVD thick-film diamond, the characterization of CVD diamond grinding powder, industrial applications of crystalline diamond-coated tools, standardized SEM tribometry of diamond-coated substrates, residual stress in CVD diamond films, the optical properties of CVD diamond films, polycrystalline diamond films for optical applications, and diamond growth on ferrous metals. Also discussed are ion beam-irradiation smoothing of diamond films, electronic circuits on diamond substrates, diamond-laminated surfaces for evaporative spray cooling, electron devices based on the unique properties of diamond, diamond cold cathodes, thin-film diamond microstructure applications, Schottky diodes from flame-grown diamond, diamond films for thermionic applications, methods of diamond nucleation and selective deposition, high-rate/large-area diamond film production, halogen-assisted diamond growth, the economics of diamond technology, and the optical and mechanical properties of diamondlike films.

  9. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films

  10. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitfils, A.

    2007-09-01

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  11. Structural and functional characterization of HPHT diamond crystals used in photoconductive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, E.; Pini, A. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Vinattieri, A.; Bogani, F.; Santoro, M.; Messina, G.; Santangelo, S.; Sato, Y.

    2000-09-01

    Diamond films are extensively studied for applications as functional material for UV photoconductors. CVD-grown polycrystalline diamond films show very interesting performances, but their complete exploitation is actually limited by a slow time response if compared to other materials, by a relatively high concentration of structural defects, impurities and grain boundaries, which may affect the collection length of photogenerated charges. High-quality single crystal diamonds could solve some of these problems. The absence of grain boundaries can produce longer collection lengths. The nitrogen and impurity contents can be reduced and then large type-IIa diamond single-crystals can be obtained. In this work, a detailed structural and functional characterization of type Ib HPHT diamond crystals has been carried out and the results have been compared to similar characterizations of CVD films to evaluate the different behavior, taking also into account that these high pressure high temperature (HPHT) diamond crystals contain several tens ppm of nitrogen. (orig.)

  12. Microfabrication, characterization and in vivo MRI compatibility of diamond microelectrodes array for neural interfacing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hébert, Clément, E-mail: clement.hebert@cea.fr [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Warnking, Jan; Depaulis, Antoine [INSERM, U836, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Garçon, Laurie Amandine [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CEA/INAC/SPrAM/CREAB, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mermoux, Michel [Université Grenoble Alpes, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LEPMI, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Eon, David [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Mailley, Pascal [CEA-LETI-DTBS Minatec, 17 rue des Martyres, 38054 Grenoble (France); Omnès, Franck [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-01-01

    Neural interfacing still requires highly stable and biocompatible materials, in particular for in vivo applications. Indeed, most of the currently used materials are degraded and/or encapsulated by the proximal tissue leading to a loss of efficiency. Here, we considered boron doped diamond microelectrodes to address this issue and we evaluated the performances of a diamond microelectrode array. We described the microfabrication process of the device and discuss its functionalities. We characterized its electrochemical performances by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in saline buffer and observed the typical diamond electrode electrochemical properties, wide potential window and low background current, allowing efficient electrochemical detection. The charge storage capacitance and the modulus of the electrochemical impedance were found to remain in the same range as platinum electrodes used for standard commercial devices. Finally we observed a reduced Magnetic Resonance Imaging artifact when the device was implanted on a rat cortex, suggesting that boron doped-diamond is a very promising electrode material allowing functional imaging. - Highlights: • Microfabrication of all-diamond microelectrode array • Evaluation of as-grown nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond for electrical neural interfacing • MRI compatibility of nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond.

  13. Study of Electrochemical Oxidation and Quantification of the Pesticide Pirimicarb Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selva, Thiago Matheus Guimarães; De Araujo, William Reis; Bacil, Raphael Prata; Paixão, Thiago Regis Longo Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A complete electro-oxidation mechanism of the pesticide Pirimicarb was proposed. •The electrochemical mechanism was supported by voltammetry techniques and mass spectrometry data. •An electroanalytical method using boron-doped diamond electrode was proposed to quantify Pirimicarb in natural waters. •The proposed analytical method is simple, low-cost, accurate and portable. -- Abstract: An electrochemical study of the carbamate pesticide pirimicarb (PMC), which acts on the central nervous system, was performed using a boron-doped diamond working electrode. Cyclic, differential pulse, and square-wave voltammetry experiments across a wide pH range (2.0 to 8.0) showed three irreversible oxidation processes in the voltammetric behavior of PMC. The two first processes were pH-dependent, while the third was not. The three oxidation process were independent of each other, and each involved the transfer of one electron. A reaction proposal for the electrochemical oxidation of PMC is shown, and it is supported by mass spectrometry experiments. After this, an analytical method for PMC quantification in water samples by differential pulse (DP) voltammetry is proposed. The optimal DP voltammetric parameters (step potential, amplitude potential, and scan rate) were optimized using experimental design, and an analytical curve was obtained from 2.0 to 219 μmol L −1 with an estimated detection limit of 1.24 μmol L −1 . The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by the addition and recovery method, with recoveries ranging from 88.6 to 96.3%. Some highlights of the proposed analytical method are its simplicity, reliability, and portability.

  14. Polycrystalline V2O5/Na0.33V2O5 electrode material for Li+ ion redox supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikandan, Ramu; Justin Raj, C.; Rajesh, Murugesan; Kim, Byung Chul; Park, Sang Yeup; Cho, Bo-Bae; Yu, Kook Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different polycrystalline V 2 O 5 /Na 0.33 V 2 O 5 nanostructures were synthesized via simple co-precipitation technique. • The various molar ratios of NaOH precipitator determine the morphology, structural and electrochemical properties of V/Na. • The equimolar ratio of reactant and precipitator shows the formation of ∼96% of pure crystalline phase of V 2 O 5 . • Li + ions intercalation and deintercalation process enhanced the specific capacitance. - Abstract: This work essentially offers a new kind of V 2 O 5 /Na 0.33 V 2 O 5 as electrochemical active material for the development of Li + ion redox supercapacitors. Here, polycrystalline mixed phase of V 2 O 5 /Na 0.33 V 2 O 5 (V/Na) nanostructures are synthesized via simple co-precipitation technique. The various molar ratio of precipitator (NaOH) in the synthesis process displays different nanostructures of V/Na. The structural and morphological properties of V/Na samples are studied using physico-chemical analysis methods. The electrochemical properties of V/Na nanostructured samples are performed using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques in 1 M LiClO 4 aqueous electrolyte. The sample V/Na synthesized using equimolar ratio of vanadium salt and precipitator displayed nanopellet morphology, which exhibited the highest capacitance value of 334 Fg −1 at 1 Ag −1 discharge current density. Moreover, these polycrystalline V/Na nanostructured electrodes show excellent electrochemical properties with comparable stability after 1000 charge/discharge cycles.

  15. Spallation Neutron Source SNS Diamond Stripper Foil Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Robert W.; Plum, Michael A.; Wilson, Leslie L.; Feigerle, Charles S.; Borden, Michael J.; Irie, Y.; Sugai, I.; Takagi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond stripping foils are under development for the SNS. Freestanding, flat 300 to 500 (micro)g/cm 2 foils as large as 17 x 25 mm 2 have been prepared. These nano-textured polycrystalline foils are grown by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in a corrugated format to maintain their flatness. They are mechanically supported on a single edge by a residual portion of their silicon growth substrate; fine foil supporting wires are not required for diamond foils. Six foils were mounted on the SNS foil changer in early 2006 and have performed well in commissioning experiments at reduced operating power. A diamond foil was used during a recent experiment where 15 (micro)C of protons, approximately 64% of the design value, were stored in the ring. A few diamond foils have been tested at LANSCE/PSR, where one foil was in service for a period of five months (820 C of integrated injected charge) before it was replaced. Diamond foils have also been tested in Japan at KEK (640 keV H - ) where their lifetimes slightly surpassed those of evaporated carbon foils, but fell short of those for Sugai's new hybrid boron carbon (HBC) foils.

  16. Designing 3D Multihierarchical Heteronanostructures for High-Performance On-Chip Hybrid Supercapacitors: Poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene)-Coated Diamond/Silicon Nanowire Electrodes in an Aprotic Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradilla, David; Gao, Fang; Lewes-Malandrakis, Georgia; Müller-Sebert, Wolfgang; Gentile, Pascal; Boniface, Maxime; Aldakov, Dmitry; Iliev, Boyan; Schubert, Thomas J S; Nebel, Christoph E; Bidan, Gérard

    2016-07-20

    A versatile and robust hierarchically multifunctionalized nanostructured material made of poly(3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene) (PEDOT)-coated diamond@silicon nanowires has been demonstrated to be an excellent capacitive electrode for supercapacitor devices. Thus, the electrochemical deposition of nanometric PEDOT films on diamond-coated silicon nanowire (SiNW) electrodes using N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide ionic liquid displayed a specific capacitance value of 140 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 1 mV s(-1). The as-grown functionalized electrodes were evaluated in a symmetric planar microsupercapacitor using butyltrimethylammonium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide aprotic ionic liquid as the electrolyte. The device exhibited extraordinary energy and power density values of 26 mJ cm(-2) and 1.3 mW cm(-2) within a large voltage cell of 2.5 V, respectively. In addition, the system was able to retain 80% of its initial capacitance after 15 000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles at a high current density of 1 mA cm(-2) while maintaining a Coulombic efficiency around 100%. Therefore, this multifunctionalized hybrid device represents one of the best electrochemical performances concerning coated SiNW electrodes for a high-energy advanced on-chip supercapacitor.

  17. Thermoluminescence properties of undoped diamond films deposited using HF CVD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paprocki K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural diamond has been considered as a perspective material for clinical radiation dosimetry due to its tissuebiocompatibility and chemical inertness. However, the use of natural diamond in radiation dosimetry has been halted by the high market price. The recent progress in the development of CVD techniques for diamond synthesis, offering the capability of growing high quality diamond layers, has renewed the interest in using this material in radiation dosimeters having small geometricalsizes. Polycrystalline CVD diamond films have been proposed as detectors and dosimeters of β and α radiation with prospective applications in high-energy photon dosimetry. In this work, we present a study on the TL properties of undoped diamond film samples grown by the hot filament CVD (HF CVD method and exposed to β and α radiation. The glow curves for both types of radiation show similar character and can be decomposed into three components. The dominant TL peaks are centered at around 610 K and exhibit activation energy of the order of 0.90 eV.

  18. Diamond Growth in the Subduction Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Frost, D. J.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Leroy, C.; Estève, I.

    2014-12-01

    Natural diamonds are fabulous probes of the deep Earth Interior. They are the evidence of the deep storage of volatile elements, carbon at first, but also hydrogen and chlorine trapped as hydrous fluids in inclusions. The study of diamond growth processes in the lithosphere and mantle helps for our understanding of volatile elements cycling between deep reservoirs. We know now that inclusion-bearing diamonds similar to diamonds found in nature (i.e. polycrystalline, fibrous and coated diamonds) can grow in hydrous fluids or melts (Bureau et al., GCA 77, 202-214, 2012). Therefore, we propose that the best environment to promote such diamonds is the subduction factory, where highly hydrous fluids or melts are present. When oceanic plates are subducted in the lithosphere, they carry an oceanic crust soaked with seawater. While the slabs are traveling en route to the mantle, dehydration processes generate saline fluids highly concentrated in NaCl. In the present study we have experimentally shown that diamonds can grow from the saline fluids (up to 30 g/l NaCl in water) generated in subducted slabs. We have performed multi-anvil press experiments at 6-7 GPa and from 1300 to 1400°C during 6:00 hours to 30:00 hours. We observed large areas of new diamond grown in epitaxy on pure diamond seeds in salty hydrous carbonated melts, forming coated gems. The new rims are containing multi-component primary inclusions. Detailed characterizations of the diamonds and their inclusions have been performed and will be presented. These experimental results suggest that multi-component salty fluids of supercritical nature migrate with the slabs, down to the deep mantle. Such fluids may insure the first stage of the deep Earth's volatiles cycling (C, H, halogen elements) en route to the transition zone and the lower mantle. We suggest that the subduction factory may also be a diamond factory.

  19. γ radiation thermoluminescence performance of HFCVD diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastelum, S.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-01-01

    Polycrystalline chemically vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films have been proposed as detectors and dosimeters of ionizing radiation with prospective applications in high-energy photon dosimetry applications. We present a comparison study on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of two diamond film samples grown by the hot filament CVD method having thickness of 180 and 500 μm and exposed to γ radiation in the 1-300 Gy dose range. The 180 μm thick sample deposited on silicon substrate displayed a TL glow curve peaked at 145 deg. C. The 500 μm, which was a free standing sample, exhibited higher intensity and a well defined first order kinetics TL glow peak around 289 deg. C. Both diamond samples showed a linear dose behavior in the 1-50 Gy range and sublinear behavior for higher doses. The 180 and 500 μm samples presented about 80% and 30% TL losses in a 24 h period, respectively, with both samples showing excellent TL reproducibility. The results indicate that the 500 μm CVD diamond film exhibited a good TL behavior adequate for γ radiation dosimetry

  20. High pressure sintering (HP-HT) of diamond powders with titanium and titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworska, L.

    1999-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond compacts for cutting tools are mostly manufactured using high pressure sintering (HP-HT). The standard diamond compacts are prepared by diamond powders sintering with metallic binding phase. The first group of metallic binder are metals able to solve carbon - Co, Ni. The second group of metal binders are carbide forming elements - Ti, Cr, W and others. The paper describes high pressure sintering of diamond powder with titanium and nonstoichiometry titanium carbide for cutting tool application. A type of binding phase has the significant influence on microstructure and mechanical properties of diamond compacts. Very homogeneous structure was achieved in case of compacts obtained from metalized diamond where diamond-TiC-diamond connection were predominant. In the case of compacts prepared by mechanical mixing of diamond with titanium powders the obtained structure was nonhomogeneous with titanium carbide clusters. They had more diamond to diamond connections. These compacts compared to the compact made of metallized diamond have greater wear resistance. In the case of the diamond and TiC 0.92 sintering the strong bonding of TiC diamond grains was obtained. The microstructure observations for diamond with 5% wt. Ti and diamond with 5% wt. TiC 0.92 (the initial composition) compacts were performed in transmission microscope. For two type of compacts the strong bonding phase TiC without defects is creating. (author)

  1. Diamond-based photoconductors for deep UV detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducci, A.; Bruzzi, M.; De Sio, A.; Donato, M.G.; Faggio, G.; Marinelli, M.; Messina, G.; Milani, E.; Morgada, M.E.; Pace, E.; Pucella, G.; Santangelo, S.; Scoccia, M.; Scuderi, S.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2006-01-01

    This work reports on the development and characterization of bi-dimensional deep-UV sensor arrays based on synthetic diamond to address the requirements of space-born astrophysical experiments. The material was synthesized at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' where both heteroepitaxial polycrystalline diamond films and homoepitaxial single-crystal diamonds are grown using a tubular MWCVD reactor. The quality of chemical vapour deposited diamond was characterized by cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy and thermally stimulated currents. Then, suitable samples were selected and used to fabricate photoconductive single-pixel and 2D array devices by evaporating metal contacts on the growth surface. The electro-optical characterization of the devices was carried out in a wide spectral region, ranging from 120 to 2400 nm. A deuterium lamp and a 0.5 m vacuum monochromator were used to measure the detector responsivity under continuous monochromatic irradiation in the 120-250 nm spectral range, while an optical parametric oscillator tunable laser producing 5 ns pulses was used as light source from 210 up to 2400 nm. Time response, signal-to-noise ratio, responsivity and visible rejection factor were evaluated and the results are hereafter summarized

  2. TiO2-NT electrodes modified with Ag and diamond like carbon (DLC) for hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Evrim; Baz, Zeynep; Esen, Ramazan; Yazici Devrim, Birgül

    2017-10-01

    In present work, the two-step anodization technique was applied for synthesis of TiO2 nanotube (NT). Silver and diamond like carbon (DLC) were coated on the surface of as prepared TiO2-NT using chemical reduction method and MW ECR plasma system. The morphology, composition and structure of the electrodes were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that Ag nanoparticles, having size in the range of 48-115 nm, are evenly distributed on the top, inside and outside surface of TiO2-NT and when DLC was coated on the surface of TiO2-NT and TiO2-NT-Ag, the top of nanotubes were partially open and the pore diameter of hexagonal structure decreased from 165 nm to of 38-80 nm. On the other hand, the microhardness test and contact angle measurements revealed that additions of Ag and diamond like carbon have a positive effect on the mechanical properties of TiO2-NT film. The electrocatalytic properties of the electrodes towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) were investigated by the electrochemical measurements recorded in 1 M KOH solution. In addition, long-term durability of electrodes towards HER and the energy consumption of alkaline electrolysis were investigated. The energy requirement showed that while the deposition of silver provides approximately 14.95% savings of the energy consumption, the DLC coating causes increase in energy consumption.

  3. Diamond-turning HP-21 beryllium to achieve an optical surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.K.; Hauschildt, H.W.; Bryan, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Investigation of diamond turning on beryllium was made in anticipation of obtaining an optical finish. Although results of past experiences were poor, it was decided to continue diamond turning on beryllium beyond initial failures. By changing speed and using coolant, partial success was achieved. Tool wear was the major problem. Tests were made to establish and plot wear as a function of cutting speed and time. Slower speeds did cause lower wear rates, but at no time did wear reach an acceptable level. The machine, tools, and procedure used were chosen based on the results of preliminary attempts and on previous experience. It was unnecessary to use an air-bearing spindle because tool failure governed the best finish that could be expected. All tools of diamond composition, whether single crystal or polycrystalline, wore at unacceptable rates. Based on present technology, it must be concluded that beryllium cannot be feasibly diamond turned to achieve an optical finish. (22 fig.)

  4. Templated synthesis, characterization, and sensing application of macroscopic platinum nanowire network electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, D. H.; Kou, R.; Gil, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    properties of the electrodes, such as electrochemical active area and methanol oxidation, have also been studied. Compared with conventional polycrystalline Pt electrodes, these novel nanowire network electrodes possess high electrochemical active areas and demonstrate higher current densities and a lower...... onset potential for methanol electro-oxidation. Enzymatic Pt nanowire-network-based sensors show higher sensitivity for glucose detection than that using conventional polycrystalline Pt electrode. Such macroscopic nanowire network electrodes provide ideal platforms for sensing and other device......Abstract: Novel platinum nanowire network electrodes have been fabricated through electrodeposition using mesoporous silica thin films as templates. These electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, and scanning electron microscope. The electrochemical...

  5. Fabrication of a Microfluidic Device with Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes for Electrochemical Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takeshi; Shibano, Shuhei; Maeda, Hideto; Sugitani, Ai; Katayama, Michinobu; Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    A prototype microfluidic device using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes patterned on an alumina chip was designed and fabricated. Electrochemical microfluidic devices have advantages in that the amount of sample required is small, the measurement throughput is high, different functions can be integrated on a single device, and they are highly durable. In using the device for the flow injection analysis of oxalic acid, the application of a brief conditioning step ensured that the reproducibility of the current signal was excellent. Furthermore, the fabricated system also performed as a prototype of “elimination-detection flow system”, in which interfering species are eliminated using “elimination electrodes” prior to the species reaching the “detection electrode”. The fabricated device reduced the current due to interfering species by 78%. Designs of devices to improve this efficiency are also discussed.

  6. An SFG and DFG investigation of polycrystalline Au, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu electrodes in contact with aqueous solutions containing KCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Busson, Bertrand; De Gaudenzi, Gian Pietro; Mele, Claudio; Tadjeddine, Abderrahmane

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the behaviour of polycrystalline Au, Au-Cu (Cu 25%) and Au-Ag-Cu (Ag 10%, Cu 15%) electrodes in contact with neutral aqueous solutions of KCN has been studied as a function of potential by means of in situ sum frequency generation (SFG) and difference frequency generation (DFG) spectroscopies. The potential-dependent spectra have been analysed quantitatively with a model for the second-order non-linear susceptibility accounting for vibrational and electronic effects. The potential-dependence of the CN - stretching band position and of the free-electron contribution to the real part of the non-resonant component of the second-order susceptibility have been accounted for. Spectroelectrochemical results were complemented by cyclic voltammetric measurements. The chief stress in this work has been placed on systematising and quantifying the interaction between the vibrational and electronic structures of the electrodic interfaces studied. The effects of adsorbates on the electronic structure of the adsorbing electrode, as a function of electrode alloy composition and applied potential are particularly critical for the understanding of Au-alloy electrochemistry in the presence of cyanide and cyanocomplexes. The systematic comparison of SFG and DFG spectra measured under the same electrochemical conditions for Au, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu electrodes discloses a rich phenomenology related to the electronic structure of the interface

  7. An SFG and DFG investigation of polycrystalline Au, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu electrodes in contact with aqueous solutions containing KCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzini, Benedetto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, v. Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)]. E-mail: benedetto.bozzini@unile.it; Busson, Bertrand [CLIO-LCP, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); De Gaudenzi, Gian Pietro [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, v. Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Mele, Claudio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universita di Lecce, v. Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tadjeddine, Abderrahmane [UDIL-CNRS, Bat. 201, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2007-01-16

    In this paper, the behaviour of polycrystalline Au, Au-Cu (Cu 25%) and Au-Ag-Cu (Ag 10%, Cu 15%) electrodes in contact with neutral aqueous solutions of KCN has been studied as a function of potential by means of in situ sum frequency generation (SFG) and difference frequency generation (DFG) spectroscopies. The potential-dependent spectra have been analysed quantitatively with a model for the second-order non-linear susceptibility accounting for vibrational and electronic effects. The potential-dependence of the CN{sup -} stretching band position and of the free-electron contribution to the real part of the non-resonant component of the second-order susceptibility have been accounted for. Spectroelectrochemical results were complemented by cyclic voltammetric measurements. The chief stress in this work has been placed on systematising and quantifying the interaction between the vibrational and electronic structures of the electrodic interfaces studied. The effects of adsorbates on the electronic structure of the adsorbing electrode, as a function of electrode alloy composition and applied potential are particularly critical for the understanding of Au-alloy electrochemistry in the presence of cyanide and cyanocomplexes. The systematic comparison of SFG and DFG spectra measured under the same electrochemical conditions for Au, Au-Cu and Au-Ag-Cu electrodes discloses a rich phenomenology related to the electronic structure of the interface.

  8. Synthetic diamond devices for medical dosimetry applied to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, C.

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this thesis, lead in the framework of an integrated European project entitled M.A.E.S.T.R.O. for ' Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radio Oncology', was to develop and test synthetic diamond detector in clinical environment for new modalities used in radiotherapy. Diamond is a good candidate for the detection of high energy beams in medical fields. It can be used for passive dosimetry, as thermoluminescent dosimeters or for active dosimetry as ionisation chambers. These two applications are presented here. Concerning the thermoluminescence, several impurities or dopants (boron, phosphorus, and nitrogen) have been incorporated in the diamond films during growth, in order to modify the material dosimetric properties and a detailed study of nitrogen-containing films is proposed. The second part presents the results obtained in active dosimetry. Two guide lines were followed: the measurement set-up optimisation and the material modification. The first dosimetric studies under radiotherapy beams concerning nitrogen-containing polycrystalline diamond as well as high purity single crystal diamond are conclusive. The detectors behaviours are in agreement with the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  9. Raman spectroscopy study of the influence of processing conditions on the structure of polycrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurti, R.; Shanov, V.; Singh, R.N.; Mamedov, S.; Boolchand, P.

    2006-01-01

    Diamond films are prepared by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition on Si (100) substrates using the H 2 -Ar-CH 4 gases. Raman scattering data, including the peak position, intensity, area, and width, are analyzed in depth and used to obtain the sp 3 - and sp 2 -bonded carbon contents and the nature of internal stresses in the films. Polarization behavior of the Raman peaks is analyzed to assess its role on the quantitative analysis of the diamond films, which suggested that the 1150 cm -1 Raman peak in nanocrystalline diamond films could be attributed to sp 2 -bonded carbon. The role of the H 2 /Ar content in the gas mixture and substrate temperature on the characteristics of the diamond film is studied. Thickness and grain size of diamond films are also determined by scanning electron microscopy and related to the deposition conditions and Raman results. Deposition conditions, which led to highest sp 3 -bonded carbon content and growth rate, are identified

  10. Development and Characterization of Diamond and 3D-Silicon Pixel Detectors with ATLAS-Pixel Readout Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10^16 particles per cm^2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 × 50 um^2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm^2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 × 6 cm^2). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection ...

  11. Vertically aligned nanowires from boron-doped diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nianjun; Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Osawa, Eiji; Nebel, Christoph E

    2008-11-01

    Vertically aligned diamond nanowires with controlled geometrical properties like length and distance between wires were fabricated by use of nanodiamond particles as a hard mask and by use of reactive ion etching. The surface structure, electronic properties, and electrochemical functionalization of diamond nanowires were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as electrochemical techniques. AFM and STM experiments show that diamond nanowire etched for 10 s have wire-typed structures with 3-10 nm in length and with typically 11 nm spacing in between. The electrode active area of diamond nanowires is enhanced by a factor of 2. The functionalization of nanowire tips with nitrophenyl molecules is characterized by STM on clean and on nitrophenyl molecule-modified diamond nanowires. Tip-modified diamond nanowires are promising with respect to biosensor applications where controlled biomolecule bonding is required to improve chemical stability and sensing significantly.

  12. D.C. Arcjet Diamond Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Derrek Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films synthesized by a D.C. (direct current) arcjet device was reported for the first time in 1988. This device is capable of higher diamond growth rates than any other form of diamond CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process due to its inherent versatility with regard to the enthalpy and fluid properties of the diamond-depositing vapor. Unfortunately, the versatility of this type of device is contrasted by many difficulties such as arc stability and large heat fluxes which make applying it toward diamond deposition a difficult problem. The purpose of this work was to convert the dc arcjet, which is primarily a metallurgical device, into a commercially viable diamond CVD process. The project was divided into two parts: process development and diagnostics. The process development effort concentrated on the certain engineering challenges. Among these was a novel arcjet design that allowed the carbon-source gas to be injected downstream of the tungsten cathode while still facilitating mixture with the main gas feed. Another engineering accomplishment was the incorporation of a water -cooled substrate cooler/spinner that maintained the substrate at the proper temperature, provided the substrate with a large thermal time constant to reduce thermal shock of the diamond film, and enabled the system to achieve a four -inch diameter growth area. The process diagnostics effort concentrated on measurements aimed at developing a fundamental understanding of the properties of the plasma jet such as temperature, plasma density, Mach number, pressure at the substrate, etc. The plasma temperature was determined to be 5195 K by measuring the rotational temperature of C _2 via optical emission spectroscopy. The Mach number of the plasma jet was determined to be ~6.0 as determined by the ratio of the stagnation pressures before and after the shock wave in the plasma jet. The C_2 concentration in the plasma jet was determined to be {~10 }^{12} cm^ {-3} by

  13. Calculation of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from highly stressed polycrystalline materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, M. J., E-mail: macdonm@umich.edu [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Vorberger, J. [Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Gamboa, E. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Drake, R. P. [Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, Applied Physics, and Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Calculations of Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from polycrystalline materials have typically been done in the limit of small deviatoric stresses. Although these methods are well suited for experiments conducted near hydrostatic conditions, more robust models are required to diagnose the large strain anisotropies present in dynamic compression experiments. A method to predict Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns for arbitrary strains has been presented in the Voigt (iso-strain) limit [Higginbotham, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 174906 (2014)]. Here, we present a method to calculate Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from highly stressed polycrystalline samples in the Reuss (iso-stress) limit. This analysis uses elastic constants to calculate lattice strains for all initial crystallite orientations, enabling elastic anisotropy and sample texture effects to be modeled directly. The effects of probing geometry, deviatoric stresses, and sample texture are demonstrated and compared to Voigt limit predictions. An example of shock-compressed polycrystalline diamond is presented to illustrate how this model can be applied and demonstrates the importance of including material strength when interpreting diffraction in dynamic compression experiments.

  14. Diamond-based electrodes for organic photovoltaic devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovalenko, Alexander; Ashcheulov, Petr; Guerrero, A.; Heinrichová, P.; Fekete, Ladislav; Vala, M.; Weiter, M.; Kratochvílová, Irena; Garcia-Belmonte, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 134, Mar (2015), s. 73-79 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020156 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic photovoltaic s * boron doped diamond * chemical vapor deposition Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 4.732, year: 2015

  15. Influence of boron concentration on growth characteristic and electro-catalytic performance of boron-doped diamond electrodes prepared by direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yujie; Lv Jiangwei; Liu Junfeng; Gao Na; Peng Hongyan; Chen Yuqiang

    2011-01-01

    A series of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were prepared by direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition (DC-PCVD) with different compositions of CH 4 /H 2 /B(OCH 3 ) 3 gas mixture. A maximum growth rate of 0.65 mg cm -2 h -1 was obtained with CH 4 /H 2 /B(OCH 3 ) 3 radio of 4/190/10 and this growth condition was also a turning point for discharge plasma stability which arose from the addition of B(OCH 3 ) 3 that changed electron energy distribution and influenced the plasma reaction. The surface coating structure and electro-catalytic performance of the BDD electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Hall test, and electrochemical measurement and electro-catalytic oxidation in phenol solution. It is suggested that the boron doping level and the thermal stress in the films are the main factors affecting the electro-catalytic characteristics of the electrodes. Low boron doping level with CH 4 /H 2 /B(OCH 3 ) 3 ratio of 4/199/1 decreased the films electrical conductivity and its electro-catalytic activity. When the carrier concentration in the films reached around 10 20 cm -3 with CH 4 /H 2 /B(OCH 3 ) 3 ratio over a range of 4/195/5-4/185/15, the thermal stress in the films was the key reason that influenced the electro-catalytic activity of the electrodes for its effect on diamond lattice expansion. Therefore, the BDD electrode with modest CH 4 /H 2 /B(OCH 3 ) 3 ratio of 4/190/10 possessed the best phenol removal efficiency.

  16. Rotary Ultrasonic Machining of Poly-Crystalline Cubic Boron Nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruc Marcel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly-crystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN is one of the hardest material. Generally, so hard materials could not be machined by conventional machining methods. Therefore, for this purpose, advanced machining methods have been designed. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM is included among them. RUM is based on abrasive removing mechanism of ultrasonic vibrating diamond particles, which are bonded on active part of rotating tool. It is suitable especially for machining hard and brittle materials (such as glass and ceramics. This contribution investigates this advanced machining method during machining of PCBN.

  17. Fluorination of Boron-Doped Diamond Film Electrodes for Minimization of Perchlorate Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Pralay; Chaplin, Brian P

    2017-08-23

    This research investigated the effects of surface fluorination on both rates of organic compound oxidation (phenol and terephthalic acid (TA)) and ClO 4 - formation at boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anodes at 22 °C. Different fluorination methods (i.e., electrochemical oxidation with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), radio frequency plasma, and silanization) were used to incorporate fluorinated moieties on the BDD surface, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The silanization method was found to be the most effective fluorination method using a 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane precursor to form a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the oxygenated BDD surface. The ClO 4 - formation decreased from rates of 0.45 ± 0.03 mmol m -2 min -1 during 1 mM NaClO 3 oxidation and 0.28 ± 0.01 mmol m -2 min -1 during 10 mM NaCl oxidation on the BDD electrode to below detectable levels (layer on the BDD surface that inhibited charge transfer via steric hindrance and hydrophobic effects. The surface coverages and thicknesses of the fluorinated films controlled the charge transfer rates, which was confirmed by estimates of film thicknesses using XPS and density functional theory simulations. The aliphatic silanized electrode also showed very high stability during OH • production. Perchlorate formation rates were below the detection limit (<0.12 μmoles m -2 min -1 ) for up to 10 consecutive NaClO 3 oxidation experiments.

  18. Hydrogen doped thin film diamond. Properties and application for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looi, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The face centered cubic allotrope of carbon, diamond, is a semiconducting material which possesses a valuable combination of extreme properties such as super-hardness, highest thermal conductivity, chemical hardness, radiation hardness, wide bandgap and others. Advances in chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology have lead to diamond becoming available in previously unattainable forms for example over large areas and with controllable purity. This has generated much research interest towards developing the knowledge and processing technology that would be necessary to fully exploit these extreme properties. Electronic devices fabricated on oxidised boron doped polycrystalline CVD diamond (PCD) displayed very poor and inconsistent characteristic. As a result, many electronic applications of polycrystalline diamond films were confined to ultra-violet (UV) and other forms of device which relied on the high intrinsic resistivity on undoped diamond films. If commercially accessible PCD films are to advance in areas which involve sophisticated electronic applications or to compete with existing semiconductors, the need for a more reliable and fully ionised dopant is paramount. This thesis describes a unique dopant discovered within the growth surface of PCD films. This dopant is related to hydrogen which arises during the growth of diamond films. The aim of this study is to characterise and identify possible applications for this form of dopant. The mechanism for carrier generation remains unknown and based on the experimental results in this work, a model is proposed. The Hall measurements conducted on this conductive layer revealed a p-type nature with promising properties for electronic device application. A more detail study based on electrical and surface science methods were carried out to identify the stability and operating conditions for this dopant. The properties of metal-semiconductor contacts on these surfaces were investigated. The fundamental knowledge

  19. Elasticity and hardness of nano-polycrystalline boron nitrides: The apparent Hall-Petch effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakubo, A.; Ogi, H.; Hirao, M.; Sumiya, H.

    2014-01-01

    Nano-polycrystalline boron nitride (BN) is expected to replace diamond as a superhard and superstiff material. Although its hardening was reported, its elasticity remains unclear and the as-measured hardness could be significantly different from the true value due to the elastic recovery. In this study, we measured the longitudinal-wave elastic constant of nano-polycrystalline BNs using picosecond ultrasound spectroscopy and confirmed the elastic softening for small-grain BNs. We also measured Vickers and Knoop hardness for the same specimens and clarified the relationship between hardness and stiffness. The Vickers hardness significantly increased as the grain size decreased, while the Knoop hardness remained nearly unchanged. We attribute the apparent increase in Vickers hardness to the elastic recovery and propose a model to support this insight.

  20. Oxidation of carbon monoxide, hydrogen peroxide and water at a boron doped diamond electrode: the competition for hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisacik, Izzet; Stefanova, Ana; Ernst, Siegfried; Baltruschat, Helmut

    2013-04-07

    Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes have an extremely high over-voltage for oxygen evolution from water, which favours its use in oxidation processes of other compounds at high potentials. We used a rotating ring disc (RRDE) assembly and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) in order to monitor the consumption or the production of species in the course of the electrode processes. By intercepting the intermediate of the electrochemical water oxidation with chemical reactions we demonstrate clearly, albeit indirectly, that in the water oxidation process at BDD above 2.5 V the first step is the formation of ˙OH radicals. The electro-oxidation of CO to CO2 at BDD electrodes proceeds only via a first attack by ˙OH radicals followed by a further electron transfer to the electrode. At potentials below the onset of oxygen evolution from water, H2O2 is oxidised by a direct electron transfer to the BDD electrode, while at higher potentials, two different reactions paths compete for the ˙OH radicals formed in the first electron transfer from water: one, where these ˙OH radicals react with each other followed by further electron transfers leading to O2 on the one hand and one, where ˙OH radicals react with other species like H2O2 or CO with subsequent electron transfers on the other hand.

  1. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, and resistant types of bacteria in hospital effluent and their effective degradation by boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mackuľak, T.; Vojs, M.; Grabic, R.; Golovko, O.; Staňová, A.; Birošová, L.; Medveďová, A.; Híveš, J.; Gál, M.; Kromka, Alexander; Hanusová, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 1 (2016), s. 93-103 ISSN 0026-9247. [35th International Conference on Modern Electrochemical Methods (MEM). Jetřichovice, 18.05.2015-22.05.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hospital wastewater * antibiotics * ecology * boron-doped diamond electrode * mass spectroscopy * pharmaceuticals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  2. Diamonds are forever: drill bit advances may offer cheaper and stronger alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.

    2001-02-01

    The rise to prominence of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) and diamond-impregnated drill bits, slowly providing stiff competition to the roller-cone type bits that for many years was the standard in the drilling industry, is discussed. A roller-cone drill bit, although much improved by heat treatment of the metal and the addition of tungsten carbide, is still mostly steel. It works by crushing the rock by overcoming its compressive strength, whereas PDC drill bits shear the rock away in a manner similar to scraping ice from a car windshield. PDC bits typically have three to six cutting surfaces, each one edged with a row of polycrystalline diamond cutters, bonded to a tungsten carbide base by a process called microwave sintering. Compared to roller cones, PDCs drill at least twice as fast, especially in the soft rock and clay where they have been used principally. In addition to saving rig time, PDC bits can handle longer runs; in the right application it is possible to drill the total depth of a well with only one bit. The microwave-sintered tungsten carbide also has higher corrosion resistance than the same material bonded under high pressure; PDCs are also less subject to mechanical failure than roller cones which use moveable bearings, seals and rotating cones. 1 photo.

  3. Development of Diamond Tracking Detectors for High Luminosity Experiments at the LHC, HL-LHC and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Harris (Ohio State)

    2018-01-01

    The RD42 collaboration at CERN is leading the effort to develop radiation tolerant devices based on polycrystalline Chemical Vapor Deposition (pCVD) diamond as a material for tracking detectors operating in harsh radiation environments. Diamond has properties that make it suitable for such detector applications. During the last few years the RD42 group has succeeded in producing and characterising a number of devices to address specific issues related to their use at the LHC and HL-LHC. Herein we present the status of the RD42 project with emphasis on recent beam test results and our proposed three year research plan. In particular, we review recent results on the stability of signal size on incident particle rate in diamond detectors over a range of particle fluxes up to 20 MHz/cm2, on the radiation tolerance of CVD diamond, on the diamond work with ATLAS and CMS, on the results of 3D diamond detectors fabricated in pCVD diamond and on the work with diamond manufacturers. In addition, we present the details ...

  4. Electronic and optical properties of diamond/organic semiconductor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Wojciech; Garrido, Jose; Niedermeier, Martin; Stutzmann, Martin [Walter Schottky Institute, TU Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Williams, Oliver; Haenen, Ken [Institute for Materials Research, University of Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, BE-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Different diamond substrates (single crystalline: SCD, poly-crystalline: PCD and nano-crystalline: NCD) were used to investigate the electronic and optical properties of the diamond/organic semiconductor heterostructures. Layers of a poly[ethynyl-(2-decyloxy-5methoxy)benzene] - PEB, pentacene and 4-nitro-biphenyl-4-diazonium cations - Ph-Ph-NO{sub 2} were prepared by spin coating, thermal evaporation and grafting, respectively. The measurements of the electronic transport along the organic layer were performed using a Hg probe as well as Hall effect measurements in the temperature range 70-400 K. The I-V characteristics of the B-doped diamond/organic semiconductor heterostructures were measured at room temperature by means of the Hg probe. Undoped IIa and undoped PCD films were used for a study of the optical and optoelectronic properties of prepared heterostructures. The influence of the organic layer homogeneity and layer thickness on the optical properties will be discussed. Furthermore, preliminary data on perpendicular and parallel transport in the heterostructures layer will be reported.

  5. Stagnant zone formation on diamond cutting tools during machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izman, S.; Tamin, M.N.; Mon, T.T.; Venkatesh, V.C.; Shaharoun, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Formation of an intact region on the rake face of cutting tool during machining is quite common phenomenon but its significance in maintaining tool edge sharpness has not been recognized by many researchers. This region is sometimes called stagnant zone. It is believed that when an intact zone present on the rake face, it delays the crater wear progress and hence maintaining the tool edge sharpness longer. This paper investigates the effect of edge radius, surface roughness of the rake face and cutting parameters on the formation of stagnant zone on two different type of diamond tools i.e. polycrystalline diamond PCD-KD100 and diamond-coated inserts when machining titanium alloy. The used inserta and post-processed chips were examined under FESEM and optical microscope after cutting at three different conditions. Experimental results show that the speed and feel, the tool edge radius, and the tool rake surface roughness significantly affect the stagnant zone formation. (author)

  6. Performance of CVD diamond as an optically and thermally stimulated luminescence dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciado-Flores, S.; Schreck, M.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Bernal, R.; Cruz-Vazquez, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-01-01

    Diamond is a material with extreme physical properties. Its radiation hardness, chemical inertness and tissue equivalence qualify it as an ideal material for radiation dosimetry. In the present work, the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of a 10 μm thick CVD diamond (polycrystalline diamond films prepared by chemical vapor deposition) film were studied in order to test its performance as a beta radiation dosemeter. The TL response is composed of four main TL glow peaks; two of these are in the range of 150-200 deg. C and two additional peaks in the 250-400 deg. C temperature range. The integrated TL as a function of radiation dose is linear up to 100 Gy and increases with increasing dose exposure. The dose dependence of the integrated OSL exhibits a similar behavior. The observed OSL/TL behavior for the CVD diamond film clearly demonstrate its capability for applications in radiation dosimetry with special relevance in medical dosimetry owing to the diamond's intrinsic material properties. (authors)

  7. Highly sensitive detection of influenza virus by boron-doped diamond electrode terminated with sialic acid-mimic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Teruhiko; Ujie, Michiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Akahori, Miku; Einaga, Yasuaki; Sato, Toshinori

    2016-08-09

    The progression of influenza varies according to age and the presence of an underlying disease; appropriate treatment is therefore required to prevent severe disease. Anti-influenza therapy, such as with neuraminidase inhibitors, is effective, but diagnosis at an early phase of infection before viral propagation is critical. Here, we show that several dozen plaque-forming units (pfu) of influenza virus (IFV) can be detected using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode terminated with a sialic acid-mimic peptide. The peptide was used instead of the sialyloligosaccharide receptor, which is the common receptor of influenza A and B viruses required during the early phase of infection, to capture IFV particles. The peptide, which was previously identified by phage-display technology, was immobilized by click chemistry on the BDD electrode, which has excellent electrochemical characteristics such as low background current and weak adsorption of biomolecules. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that H1N1 and H3N2 IFVs were detectable in the range of 20-500 pfu by using the peptide-terminated BDD electrode. Our results demonstrate that the BDD device integrated with the receptor-mimic peptide has high sensitivity for detection of a low number of virus particles in the early phase of infection.

  8. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10 16 particles per cm 2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 μm 2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm 2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm 2 ). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  9. Development of CVD Diamond for Industrial Applications Final Report CRADA No. TC-2047-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olstad, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jory, H. [Communications and Power Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Vikharov, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-08

    This project was a collaborative effort to develop and demonstrate a new millimeter microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition(CVD) process for manufacturing large diamond disks with greatly reduced processing times and costs from those now available. In the CVD process, carbon based gases (methane) and hydrogen are dissociated into plasma using microwave discharge and then deposited layer by layer as polycrystalline diamond onto a substrate. The available low frequency (2.45GHz) microwave sources used elsewhere (De Beers) result in low density plasmas and low deposition rates: 4 inch diamond disks take 6-8 weeks to process. The new system developed in this project uses a high frequency 30GHz Gyrotron as the microwave source and a quasi-optical CVD chamber resulting in a much higher density plasma which greatly reduced the diamond processing times (1-2 weeks)

  10. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuezhang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Wei Qiuping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yu Zhiming, E-mail: zhiming@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nucleation density was increased to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp{sup 3}-bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  11. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuezhang; Wei Qiuping; Yu Zhiming; Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. ► The nucleation density was increased to 10 11 cm −2 . ► Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. ► Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp 3 -bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10 11 cm −2 , and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  12. Radiation hardness of diamond and silicon sensors compared

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Wim; Furgeri, Alexander; Mueller, Steffen; Sander, Christian; Berdermann, Eleni; Pomorski, Michal; Huhtinen, Mika

    2007-01-01

    The radiation hardness of silicon charged particle sensors is compared with single crystal and polycrystalline diamond sensors, both experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that for Si- and C-sensors, the NIEL hypothesis, which states that the signal loss is proportional to the Non-Ionizing Energy Loss, is a good approximation to the present data. At incident proton and neutron energies well above 0.1 GeV the radiation damage is dominated by the inelastic cross section, while at non-relativistic energies the elastic cross section prevails. The smaller inelastic nucleon-Carbon cross section and the light nuclear fragments imply that at high energies diamond is an order of magnitude more radiation hard than silicon, while at energies below 0.1 GeV the difference becomes significantly smaller.

  13. Unexpected pressure induced ductileness tuning in sulfur doped polycrystalline nickel metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The sulfur induced embrittlement of polycrystalline nickel (Ni metal has been a long-standing mystery. It is suggested that sulfur impurity makes ductile Ni metal brittle in many industry applications due to various mechanisms, such as impurity segregation and disorder-induced melting etc. Here we report an observation that the most ductile measurement occurs at a critical sulfur doping concentration, 14 at.% at pressure from 14 GPa up to 29 GPa through texture evolution analysis. The synchrotron-based high pressure texturing measurements using radial diamond anvil cell (rDAC X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques reveal that the activities of slip systems in the polycrystalline nickel metal are affected by sulfur impurities and external pressures, giving rise to the changes in the plastic deformation of the nickel metal. Dislocation dynamics (DD simulation on dislocation density and velocity further confirms the pressure induced ductilization changes in S doped Ni metal. This observation and simulation suggests that the ductilization of the doped polycrystalline nickel metal can be optimized by engineering the sulfur concentration under pressure, shedding a light on tuning the mechanical properties of this material for better high pressure applications.

  14. Unexpected pressure induced ductileness tuning in sulfur doped polycrystalline nickel metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng; Yang, Yan; Tan, Liuxi; Lei, Jialin; Guo, Shengmin; Chen, Bin; Yan, Jinyuan; Yang, Shizhong

    2018-02-01

    The sulfur induced embrittlement of polycrystalline nickel (Ni) metal has been a long-standing mystery. It is suggested that sulfur impurity makes ductile Ni metal brittle in many industry applications due to various mechanisms, such as impurity segregation and disorder-induced melting etc. Here we report an observation that the most ductile measurement occurs at a critical sulfur doping concentration, 14 at.% at pressure from 14 GPa up to 29 GPa through texture evolution analysis. The synchrotron-based high pressure texturing measurements using radial diamond anvil cell (rDAC) X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques reveal that the activities of slip systems in the polycrystalline nickel metal are affected by sulfur impurities and external pressures, giving rise to the changes in the plastic deformation of the nickel metal. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulation on dislocation density and velocity further confirms the pressure induced ductilization changes in S doped Ni metal. This observation and simulation suggests that the ductilization of the doped polycrystalline nickel metal can be optimized by engineering the sulfur concentration under pressure, shedding a light on tuning the mechanical properties of this material for better high pressure applications.

  15. Voltammetric determination of mixtures of caffeine and chlorogenic acid in beverage samples using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardım, Yavuz; Keskin, Ertugrul; Şentürk, Zühre

    2013-11-15

    Herein, a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode that is anodically pretreated was used for the simultaneous determination of caffeine (CAF) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) by cyclic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The dependence of peak current and potential on pH, scan rate, accumulation parameters and other experimental variables were studied. By using square-wave stripping mode after 60 s accumulation under open-circuit voltage, the BDD electrode was able to separate the oxidation peak potentials of CAF and CGA present in binary mixtures by about 0.4V in Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 1.0. The limits of detection were 0.107 µg mL(-1) (5.51×10(-7) M) for CAF, and 0.448 µg mL(-1) (1.26×10(-6) M) for CGA. The practical applicability of this methodology was tested in commercially available beverage samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Leygraf, Christofer H.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

  17. Microfabrication, characterization and in vivo MRI compatibility of diamond microelectrodes array for neural interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Clément; Warnking, Jan; Depaulis, Antoine; Garçon, Laurie Amandine; Mermoux, Michel; Eon, David; Mailley, Pascal; Omnès, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Neural interfacing still requires highly stable and biocompatible materials, in particular for in vivo applications. Indeed, most of the currently used materials are degraded and/or encapsulated by the proximal tissue leading to a loss of efficiency. Here, we considered boron doped diamond microelectrodes to address this issue and we evaluated the performances of a diamond microelectrode array. We described the microfabrication process of the device and discuss its functionalities. We characterized its electrochemical performances by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in saline buffer and observed the typical diamond electrode electrochemical properties, wide potential window and low background current, allowing efficient electrochemical detection. The charge storage capacitance and the modulus of the electrochemical impedance were found to remain in the same range as platinum electrodes used for standard commercial devices. Finally we observed a reduced Magnetic Resonance Imaging artifact when the device was implanted on a rat cortex, suggesting that boron doped-diamond is a very promising electrode material allowing functional imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphology of Diamond Layers Grown on Different Facets of Single Crystal Diamond Substrates by a Microwave Plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 Gas Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny E. Ashkinazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial growth of diamond films on different facets of synthetic IIa-type single crystal (SC high-pressure high temperature (HPHT diamond substrate by a microwave plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 gas mixture with the high concentration (4% of nitrogen is studied. A beveled SC diamond embraced with low-index {100}, {110}, {111}, {211}, and {311} faces was used as the substrate. Only the {100} face is found to sustain homoepitaxial growth at the present experimental parameters, while nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are produced on other planes. This observation is important for the choice of appropriate growth parameters, in particular, for the production of bi-layer or multilayer NCD-on-microcrystalline diamond (MCD superhard coatings on tools when the deposition of continuous conformal NCD film on all facet is required. The development of the film morphology with growth time is examined with SEM. The structure of hillocks, with or without polycrystalline aggregates, that appear on {100} face is analyzed, and the stress field (up to 0.4 GPa within the hillocks is evaluated based on high-resolution mapping of photoluminescence spectra of nitrogen-vacancy NV optical centers in the film.

  19. The Use of Boron-doped Diamond Electrode on Yeast-based Microbial Fuel Cell for Electricity Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzhola, G.; Tribidasari, A. I.; Endang, S.

    2018-01-01

    The dependency of fossil energy in Indonesia caused the crude oil production to be drastically decreased since 2001, while energy consumption increased. In addition, The use of fossil energy can cause several environmental problems. Therefore, we need an alternative environment-friendly energy as solution for these problems. A microbial fuel cell is one of the prospective alternative source of an environment-friendly energy source to be developed. In this study, Boron-doped diamond electrode was used as working electrode and Candida fukuyamaensis as biocatalyst in microbial fuel cell. Different pH of anode compartment (pH 6.5-7.5) and mediator concentration (10-100 μM) was used to produce an optimal electricity. MFC was operated for 3 hours. During operation, the current and voltage density was measured with potensiostat. The maximum power and current density are 425,82 mW/m2 and 440 mA/m2, respectively, for MFC using pH 7.5 at anode compartment without addition of methylene blue. The addition of redox mediator is lowering the produced electricity because of its anti microbial properties that can kill the microbe.

  20. Preparation of TiO2/boron-doped diamond/Ta multilayer films and use as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Li, Mingji; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe

    2015-12-01

    We report nanostructured TiO2/boron-doped diamond (BDD)/Ta multilayer films and their electrochemical performances as supercapacitor electrodes. The BDD films were grown on Ta substrates using electron-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Ti metal layers were deposited on the BDD surfaces by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, and nanostructured TiO2/BDD/Ta thin films were prepared by electrochemical etching and thermal annealing. The successful formation of TiO2 and Ta layered nanostructures was demonstrated using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies. The electrochemical responses of these electrodes were evaluated by examining their use as electrical double-layer capacitors, using cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance measurements. When the TiO2/BDD/Ta film was used as the working electrode with 0.1 M Na2SO4 as the electrolyte, the capacitor had a specific capacitance of 5.23 mF cm-2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 for a B/C ratio of 0.1% w/w. Furthermore, the TiO2/BDD/Ta film had improved electrochemical stability, with a retention of 89.3% after 500 cycles. This electrochemical behavior is attributed to the quality of the BDD, the surface roughness and electrocatalytic activities of the TiO2 layer and Ta nanoporous structures, and the synergies between them. These results show that TiO2/BDD/Ta films are promising as capacitor electrodes for special applications.

  1. Adhesion analysis of polycrystalline diamond films on molybdenum by means of scratch, indentation and sand abrasion testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijnsters, J.G.; Shankar, P.; Enckevort, W.J.P. van; Schermer, J.J.; Meulen, J.J. ter

    2005-01-01

    Diamond films have been grown by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on molybdenum substrates under different growth conditions. The films grown with increasing substrate temperatures show a higher interconnection of diamond grains, whereas increasing methane concentrations in the 0.5-4.0%

  2. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical samples by differential pulse voltammetry using a boron-doped diamond electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Amanda B.; Guimaraes, Carlos F.R.C.; Verly, Rodrigo M.; Silva, Leonardo M. da [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Torres, Livia M.F.C.; Carvalho, Junior, Alvaro D.; Santos, Wallans T. P. dos, E-mail: wallanst@ufvjm.edu.br [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2014-03-15

    This work presents a simple, fast and low-cost methodology for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol (PC) and ibuprofen (IB) in pharmaceutical formulations by differential pulse voltammetry using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. A well-defined oxidation peak was observed using the BDD electrode for each analyte (0.85 V for PC and 1.72 V for IB (vs. Ag/AgCl)) in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution containing 10% (v/v) of ethanol. Calibration curves for the simultaneous determination of PC and IB showed a linear response for both drugs in a concentration range of 20 to 400 μmol L{sup -1} (r{sup 2} = 0.999), with a detection limit of 7.1 μmol L{sup -1} for PC and 3.8 μmol L{sup -1} for IB. The addition-recovery studies in samples were about 100% and the results were validated by chromatographic methods. (author)

  3. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical samples by differential pulse voltammetry using a boron-doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Amanda B.; Guimaraes, Carlos F.R.C.; Verly, Rodrigo M.; Silva, Leonardo M. da; Torres, Livia M.F.C.; Carvalho Junior, Alvaro D.; Santos, Wallans T. P. dos

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a simple, fast and low-cost methodology for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol (PC) and ibuprofen (IB) in pharmaceutical formulations by differential pulse voltammetry using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. A well-defined oxidation peak was observed using the BDD electrode for each analyte (0.85 V for PC and 1.72 V for IB (vs. Ag/AgCl)) in 0.1 mol L -1 H 2 SO 4 solution containing 10% (v/v) of ethanol. Calibration curves for the simultaneous determination of PC and IB showed a linear response for both drugs in a concentration range of 20 to 400 μmol L -1 (r 2 = 0.999), with a detection limit of 7.1 μmol L -1 for PC and 3.8 μmol L -1 for IB. The addition-recovery studies in samples were about 100% and the results were validated by chromatographic methods. (author)

  4. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  5. Investigation of the electric field in irradiated diamond sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassel, Florian; Barvich, Tobias; Boer, Wim de; Dierlamm, Alexander; Eber, Robert; Nuernberg, Andreas; Steck, Pia [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); Dabrowski, Anne; Guthoff, Moritz [CERN (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The Beam Condition Monitoring Leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the CMS experiment at the LHC. As detectors 32 poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors are positioned in a ring around the beam pipe at a distance of +/-1.8 m and +/-14.4 m from the interaction point. The radiation hardness of the diamond sensors in terms of measured signal during operation was significantly lower than expected based on laboratory measurements. At high particle rates, like they occur during the operation of the LHC, charge carriers can be trapped in defects created by radiation. This space charge is expected to modify the electrical field in the sensor bulk and hence to reduce the charge collection efficiency. This modified electrical field has been indirectly measured in the laboratory using the Transient Current Technique (TCT) method in irradiated single crystal CVD diamond. This rate dependent effect was simulated with the software 'SILVACO ATLAS' and the obtained electrical field was used to calculate a TCT measurement pulse. The results of the TCT measurements will be compared to the simulation.

  6. Interaction of organophosphorus pesticides with DNA nucleotides on a Boron-doped diamond electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbellini, Gustavo S.; Uliana, Carolina V.; Yamanaka, Hideko, E-mail: gustgarb@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2013-12-01

    Diamond electrode was used to evaluate the interaction of the nucleotides guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) with the pesticides chlorpyrifos, methamidophos and monocrotophos. Changes were observed in the currents and peak potentials of the nucleotide voltammograms in the presence of the pesticides, with dependence on the pesticide concentration (from 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} to 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}) and the interaction time (from 1 min to 4 h). This is probably due to binding of the pesticides to the nitrogenous bases present in the nucleotides, which could lead to problems in the DNA replication and biological functions of nucleotides. The pesticides showed stronger interaction with AMP than with GMP. Studies of the interaction of 50 Micro-Sign g mL{sup -1} DNA with the pesticides (from 30 min to 4 h and from 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 6.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}) did not reveal any peaks relating to double helix opening or DNA unwinding. (author)

  7. Effect of absorbing coating on ablation of diamond by IR laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononenko, T. V.; Pivovarov, P. A.; Khomich, A. A.; Khmel'nitskii, R. A.; Konov, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    We study the possibility of increasing the efficiency and quality of laser ablation microprocessing of diamond by preliminary forming an absorbing layer on its surface. The laser pulses having a duration of 1 ps and 10 ns at a wavelength of 1030 nm irradiate the polycrystalline diamond surface coated by a thin layer of titanium or graphite. We analyse the dynamics of the growth of the crater depth as a function of the number of pulses and the change in optical transmission of the ablated surface. It is found that under irradiation by picosecond pulses the preliminary graphitisation allows one to avoid the laser-induced damage of the internal diamond volume until the appearance of a self-maintained graphitised layer. The absorbing coating (both graphite and titanium) much stronger affects ablation by nanosecond pulses, since it reduces the ablation threshold by more than an order of magnitude and allows full elimination of a laser-induced damage of deep regions of diamond and uncontrolled explosive ablation in the nearsurface layer.

  8. Temperature-dependent stress in diamond-coated AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ižák, Tibor; Jirásek, Vít; Vanko, G.; Dzuba, J.; Kromka, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, Sep (2016), s. 305-312 ISSN 0264-1275 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-16549P Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) SAV-16-02 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thermally induced stress * Raman spectroscopy * polycrystalline diamond film * GaN Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.364, year: 2016

  9. Mercury-free sono-electroanalytical detection of lead in human blood by use of bismuth-film-modified boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruusma, Jaanus [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Tartu, Jakobi 2, 51013, Tartu (Estonia); Banks, Craig E.; Compton, Richard G. [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, OX1 3QZ, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2004-06-01

    We report the electroanalytical determination of lead by anodic stripping voltammetry at in-situ-formed, bismuth-film-modified, boron-doped diamond electrodes. Detection limits in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} nitric acid solution of 9.6x10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} (0.2 ppb) and 1.1x10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} (2.3 ppb) were obtained after 60 and 300 s deposition times, respectively. An acoustically assisted deposition procedure was also investigated and found to result in improved limits of detection of 2.6 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} (5.4 ppb) and 8.5 x 10{sup -10} mol L{sup -1} (0.18 ppb) for 60 and 300 s accumulation times, respectively. Furthermore, the sensitivity obtained under quiescent and insonated conditions increased from 5.5 (quiescent) to 76.7 A mol{sup -1} L (insonated) for 60 s accumulation and from 25.8 (quiescent) to 317.6 A mol{sup -1} L (insonated) for 300 s accumulation. Investigation of the use of ultrasound with diluted blood revealed detection limits of the order of 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} were achievable with excellent inter- and intra-reproducibility and sensitivity of 411.9 A mol{sup -1} L. For the first time, electroanalytical detection of lead in diluted blood is shown to be possible by use of insonated in-situ-formed bismuth-film-modified boron-doped diamond electrodes. This method is a rapid, sensitive, and non-toxic means of clinical sensing of lead in whole human blood. (orig.)

  10. Computational assignment of redox states to Coulomb blockade diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Stine T; Arcisauskaite, Vaida; Hansen, Thorsten; Kongsted, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Kurt V

    2014-09-07

    With the advent of molecular transistors, electrochemistry can now be studied at the single-molecule level. Experimentally, the redox chemistry of the molecule manifests itself as features in the observed Coulomb blockade diamonds. We present a simple theoretical method for explicit construction of the Coulomb blockade diamonds of a molecule. A combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method is invoked to calculate redox energies and polarizabilities of the molecules, including the screening effect of the metal leads. This direct approach circumvents the need for explicit modelling of the gate electrode. From the calculated parameters the Coulomb blockade diamonds are constructed using simple theory. We offer a theoretical tool for assignment of Coulomb blockade diamonds to specific redox states in particular, and a study of chemical details in the diamonds in general. With the ongoing experimental developments in molecular transistor experiments, our tool could find use in molecular electronics, electrochemistry, and electrocatalysis.

  11. Experimental Setup for Diamond Grinding Using Electrochemical InProcess Controlled Dressing (ECD of Grinding Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shavva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective method for finish machining of hard-metals and alloys is to use the diamond grinding wheels for grinding. An application of diamond wheels significantly increases the employee output, reduces costs, and raises manufacturing efficiency with achieving the high performance properties of treated surfaces.During grinding a working surface of diamond wheel wears out. It adversely affects the cutting capability of the diamond grains, and depending on the grinding conditions can occur through different mechanisms. Wear of diamond wheel causes distortion of its shape and reduces cutting properties. However, dressing of diamond wheels is a complicated and time-consuming operation in terms of manufacturing technique.Methods to make dressing of diamond grinding wheel have different types of classification. Classification of dressing methods by the type of energy used is as follows: mechanical, chemical, electrophysical, electromechanical, and electrochemical. All these methods have their advantages and disadvantages.Electrochemical method of dressing is the most productive and efficient. Electrochemical method comprises anode-mechanical dressing and electrochemical (electrolytic one. The paper presents the electrochemical in-process dressing (ECD and the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID.The source of energy, grinding a wheel with metal bond, and an electrode are necessary for providing ELID. The ELID consists of several stages. The first stage is preliminary electrolytic dressing of diamond wheel. The electrolyte is placed into the gap between the wheel and electrode. The bond of the wheel is oxidized. An insulating layer is formed. It reduces an electrical conductivity of the wheel and controls consumption of diamond grains, as well as polishes the surface of the work piece. Further, the insulating layer is destroyed. The cycle of dressing begins anew.The ECD proceeds in the same way as ELID. However during the ECD-process there

  12. Simultaneous square-wave voltammetric determination of aspartame and cyclamate using a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Roberta Antigo; de Carvalho, Adriana Evaristo; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2008-07-30

    A simple and highly selective electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aspartame and cyclamate in dietary products at a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. In square-wave voltammetric (SWV) measurements, the BDD electrode was able to separate the oxidation peak potentials of aspartame and cyclamate present in binary mixtures by about 400 mV. The detection limit for aspartame in the presence of 3.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) cyclamate was 4.7x10(-7) mol L(-1), and the detection limit for cyclamate in the presence of 1.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) aspartame was 4.2x10(-6) mol L(-1). When simultaneously changing the concentration of both aspartame and cyclamate in a 0.5 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid solution, the corresponding detection limits were 3.5x10(-7) and 4.5x10(-6) mol L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) obtained was 1.3% for the 1.0x10(-4) mol L(-1) aspartame solution (n=5) and 1.1% for the 3.0x10(-3) mol L(-1) cyclamate solution. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of aspartame in several dietary products with results similar to those obtained using an HPLC method at 95% confidence level.

  13. Experimental approach to controllably vary protein oxidation while minimizing electrode adsorption for boron-doped diamond electrochemical surface mapping applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Carlee S; Hettich, Robert L

    2013-01-02

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent (i.e., hydroxyl radicals) for these measurements; however, these approaches range significantly in their complexity and expense of operation. This research expands upon earlier work to enhance the controllability of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as an easily accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals in order to oxidize a range of intact proteins. Efforts to modulate the oxidation level while minimizing the adsorption of protein to the electrode involved the use of relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber. Additionally, a different cell activation approach using variable voltage to supply a controlled current allowed us to precisely tune the extent of oxidation in a protein-dependent manner. In order to gain perspective on the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface, studies were conducted to monitor protein concentration during electrolysis and gauge changes in the electrode surface between cell activation events. This report demonstrates the successful use of BDD electrochemistry for greater precision in generating a target number of oxidation events upon intact proteins.

  14. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond nanowires with enhanced electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalini, Jayakumar; Lin, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Ting-Hsun; Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Chen, Huang-Chin; Lin, I.-Nan; Lee, Chi-Young; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    The effects of N 2 incorporation in Ar/CH 4 plasma on the electrochemical properties and microstructure of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films are reported. While the electrical conductivity of the films increased monotonously with increasing N 2 content (up to 25%) in the plasma, the electrochemical behavior was optimized for UNCD films grown in (Ar–10% N 2 )/CH 4 plasma. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the main factor resulting in high conductivity in the films was the formation of needle-like nanodiamond grains and the induction graphite layer encapsulating these grains. The electrochemical process for N 2 -incorporated UNCD films can readily be activated due to the presence of nanographite along the grain boundaries of the films. The formation of needle-like diamond grains was presumably due to the presence of CN species that adhered to the existing nanodiamond clusters, which suppressed radial growth of the nanodiamond crystals, promoting anisotropic growth and the formation of needle-like nanodiamond. The N 2 -incorporated UNCD films outperformed other electrochemical electrode materials, such as boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon, in that the UNCD electrodes could sense dopamine, urea, and ascorbic acid simultaneously in the same mixture with clear resolution

  15. Superior quality diamond heel inserts improve cutting structure and seal life in abrasive and directional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Tyler; Scott, Dan; Nelms, Derek [Society of Petroleum Engineers (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, continuous improvements over the last century have led to the development of increasingly efficient drilling equipment. Among the new technologies is the polycrystalline diamond compact bit which has become more efficient than roller cone bits for several applications; the utilization of roller cone bits is now restricted to tough applications such as directional drilling and drilling through hard and abrasive formations. The aim of this paper is to present the development of improved roller cone bits using new designs and diamond inserts of superior quality. Two case studies on the use of improved roller cone bits are presented herein. Results showed that the novel diamond inserts combined with the design improvements provide better wear resistance. This paper demonstrated that roller cone bits have achieved greater reliability and longevity thanks to the new generation of diamond inserts and to design improvements.

  16. Low drift and small hysteresis characteristics of diamond electrolyte-solution-gate FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yoshinori; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated drift and hysteresis characteristics on an electrolyte-solution-gate field-effect transistor (SGFET) with a unique structure using polycrystalline diamond and verified the possibility as chemical sensors and biosensors. Silicon-based ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) have not yet solved such time-related issues due to the chemical instability of the passivation layer covering on SiO 2 and that is why the Si-ISFET is not wide spread. First of all, we have confirmed that the pH sensitivities of oxygen- and amine-terminated diamond surfaces are 20 mV/pH and 48 mV/pH, respectively, whereas that of hydrogen-terminated surface is only 7 mV/pH. Drift characteristics measurement on diamond SGFET reveals that diamond SGFETs with any surface termination are more stable in electrolyte solution than Si-ISFETs with typical passivation membranes. Hysteresis width, which is known to be a more serious cause of measurement error than drift, proves to be 0.39 mV on amine-terminated SGFET. This is less than 1/10 compared with common Si 3 N 4 -ISFET. These results can be explained by high tolerance of diamond against ions in solution due to intrinsic chemical stability and densely packed structure of diamond itself. In this work, we bear out that diamond SGFET is a promising platform for highly sensitive biosensor application owing to the superiority in terms of time response and resulting measurement accuracy.

  17. Study on the Microstructure and Electrical Properties of Boron and Sulfur Codoped Diamond Films Deposited Using Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atomic-scale microstructure and electron emission properties of boron and sulfur (denoted as B-S codoped diamond films grown on high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP diamond and Si substrates were investigated using atom force microscopy (AFM, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS measurement techniques. The films grown on Si consisted of large grains with secondary nucleation, whereas those on HTHP diamond are composed of well-developed polycrystalline facets with an average size of 10–50 nm. SIMS analyses confirmed that sulfur was successfully introduced into diamond films, and a small amount of boron facilitated sulfur incorporation into diamond. Large tunneling currents were observed at some grain boundaries, and the emission character was better at the grain boundaries than that at the center of the crystal. The films grown on HTHP diamond substrates were much more perfect with higher quality than the films deposited on Si substrates. The local I-V characteristics for films deposited on Si or HTHP diamond substrates indicate n-type conduction.

  18. Growth, characterization, and device development in monocrystalline diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert F.

    1991-12-01

    The nucleation of diamond grains on an unscratched silicon wafer is enhanced by four order of magnitude relative to scratched substrates by using negative bias enhanced microwave plasma CVD in a 2 percent methane/hydrogen plasma for an initial period. In vacuo surface analysis has revealed that the actual nucleation occurs on the amorphous C coating present on the thin SiC layer which forms as the product of the initial reaction with the Si surface. It is believed that the C forms critical clusters which are favorable for diamond nucleation. Similar enhancement was observed together with the occurrence of textured diamond films in the use of bias pretreatment of cubic Beta SiC substrates. Approximately 50 percent of the initial diamond nuclei were aligned with the SiC substrate. In contrast, the use of the biasing pretreatment for one hour on polycrystalline substrates resulted in only about 7 percent coverage with diamond particles. Numerous techniques have been used to analyze the nucleation and growth phenomena, especially micro Raman and scanning tunneling microscopy. The latter technique has shown that the morphology of doped and undoped diamond nuclei are similar, as well as the fact that significant concentrations of vacancy related defects are present. In device related-studies, UV-photoemission studies have shown that TiC occurs at the Ti-diamond (100) interface after a 400 C anneal. The Schottky barrier height from this metal on p-type diamond was determined to be 1.0 eV. Indications of negative electron affinity (NEA) was observed and attributed to emission of electrons that are quasi-thermalized to the bottom of the conduction band. A disordered surface removes the NEA. The microwave performance of p-type (beta-doped) diamond MESFET's at 10 GHz has been further investigated. Elevated temperatures may be necessary to obtain sufficient free charge densities in the conducting channel but this will result in degraded device performance. Each of these

  19. Titanyl phthalocyanine ambipolar thin film transistors making use of carbon nanotube electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Nicola; Valitova, Irina; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Ranzieri, Paolo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Santato, Clara; Martel, Richard; Cicoira, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    The capability of efficiently injecting charge carriers into organic films and finely tuning their morphology and structure is crucial to improve the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, we investigate OTFTs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the source-drain electrodes and, as the organic semiconductor, thin films of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). While CNT electrodes have shown an unprecedented ability to improve charge injection in OTFTs, SuMBD is an effective technique to tune film morphology and structure. Varying the substrate temperature during deposition, we were able to grow both amorphous (low substrate temperature) and polycrystalline (high substrate temperature) films of TiOPc. Regardless of the film morphology and structure, CNT electrodes led to superior charge injection and transport performance with respect to benchmark Au electrodes. Vacuum annealing of polycrystalline TiOPc films with CNT electrodes yielded ambipolar OTFTs.

  20. Electrochemical treatment of wastewaters containing 4-chlororesorcinol using boron doped diamond anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, B.; Abdelatif, G.

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of aqueous wastes polluted with 4-chlororesorcinol has been studied on boron-doped diamond electrodes on acidic medium. The voltammetric results showed that in the potential region where the supporting electrolyte is stable, reactions occur, resulting in the loss of activity due to electrode fouling. Galvanostatic electrolysis study showed that the oxidation of these wastes in single-compartment electrochemical flow cell with boron doped diamond anodes deal to the complete mineralization of the organics but is no indication of electrode fouling. Resorcinol, 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene, benzoquinone, maleic, fumaric, and oxalic acids have been detected as soluble organics and chlorides (Cl - ) and hypochlorites (ClO - ) as mineral products during the electrolysis of 4-chlororesorcinol. The electrochemical oxidation of 4-chlororesorcinol consists of a sequence of steps: Release of Cl and/or hydroxylation of the aromatic ring; formation of quinonic compounds; oxidative opening of aromatic ring to form carboxylic acids; and oxidation of carboxylic acids to carbon dioxide. Both, direct oxidation at boron doped diamond surface and mediated oxidation by powerful oxidants electrogenerated from electrolyte oxidation at anode surface are involved in these stages. (author)

  1. Diamond synthesis at atmospheric pressure by microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemawan, Kadek W.; Gou, Huiyang; Hemley, Russell J. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Rd., NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    Polycrystalline diamond has been synthesized on silicon substrates at atmospheric pressure, using a microwave capillary plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. The CH{sub 4}/Ar plasma was generated inside of quartz capillary tubes using 2.45 GHz microwave excitation without adding H{sub 2} into the deposition gas chemistry. Electronically excited species of CN, C{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, CH, H{sub β}, and H{sub α} were observed in the emission spectra. Raman measurements of deposited material indicate the formation of well-crystallized diamond, as evidenced by the sharp T{sub 2g} phonon at 1333 cm{sup −1} peak relative to the Raman features of graphitic carbon. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images reveal that, depending on the growth conditions, the carbon microstructures of grown films exhibit “coral” and “cauliflower-like” morphologies or well-facetted diamond crystals with grain sizes ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm.

  2. An all optical system for studying temperature induced changes in polycrystalline diamond deposited on a tungsten carbide substrate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this poster the authors discussed the ability to heat an industrial diamond sample by means of optical absorption of a CO2 laser beam, and then measure the resulting temperature on the surface of the diamond optically by means of radiometry...

  3. Adhesion analysis of polycrystalline diamond films on molybdenum by means of scratch, indentation and sand abrasion testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buijnsters, J.G. [Applied Physics, IMM, Department of Applied Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Shankar, P. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102 (India); Enckevort, W.J.P. van [Solid State Chemistry, IMM, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schermer, J.J. [Experimental Solid State Physics III, IMM, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meulen, J.J. ter [Applied Physics, IMM, Department of Applied Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: htmeulen@sci.kun.nl

    2005-03-01

    Diamond films have been grown by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on molybdenum substrates under different growth conditions. The films grown with increasing substrate temperatures show a higher interconnection of diamond grains, whereas increasing methane concentrations in the 0.5-4.0% range lead to a transition from micro- towards nanocrystalline films. X-ray diffraction analysis shows Mo{sub 2}C interlayer formation. Indentation, scratch and sand erosion tests are used to evaluate the adhesion strength of the diamond films. Using steel ball indenters (diameter 750 {mu}m), indentation and scratch adhesion tests are performed up to final loads of 200 N. Upon indentation, the load values at which diamond film failure such as flaking and detachment is first observed, increase for increasing temperatures in the deposition temperature range of 450-850 deg C. The scratch adhesion tests show critical load values in the range of 16-40 N normal load for films grown for 4 h. In contrast, diamond films grown for 24 h at a methane concentration of 0.5% do not show any failure at all upon scratching up to 75 N. Film failure upon indenting and scratching is also found to decrease for increasing methane concentration in the CVD gas mixture. The sand abrasion tests show significant differences in coating failure for films grown at varying CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} ratios. In contrast to the other tests, here best coating performance is observed for the films deposited with a methane concentration of 4%.

  4. A simple square-wave voltammetric method for the determination of scopolamine in pharmaceuticals using a boron-doped diamond electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Birkheur Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple procedure is described for the determination of scopolamine by square-wave voltammetry using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode. Cyclic voltammetry studies indicate that the oxidation of scopolamine is irreversible at a peak potential of 1.59 V (vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L-1 KCl in a 0.50 mol L-1 sulfuric acid solution. Under optimized conditions, the analytical curve obtained was linear (r = 0.9996 for the scopolamine concentration range of 1.0 to 110 µmol L-1, with a detection limit of 0.84 µmol L-1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of scopolamine in pharmaceutical formulations with minimum sample preparation.

  5. Simultaneous Chronoamperometric Sensing of Ascorbic Acid and Acetaminophen at a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Radovan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry (CV and chronoamperometry (CA have been used to sense and determine simultaneously L-ascorbic acid (AA and acetaminophen (AC at a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution. The calibration plots of anodic current peak versus concentration obtained from CV and CA data for both investigated compounds in single and di-component solutions over the concentration range 0.01 mM – 0.1 mM proved to be linear, with very good correlation parameters. Sensitivity values and RSD of 2-3% were obtained for various situations, involving both individual and simultaneous presence of AA and AC. The chronoamperometric technique associated with standard addition in sequential one step and/or two successive and continuous chronoamperograms at two characteristic potential levels represented a feasible option for the simultaneous determination of AA and AC in real sample systems such as pharmaceutical formulations. The average values indicated by the supplier were confirmed to a very close approximation from chronoamperomgrams by using several additions with the application of suitable current correction factors.

  6. Electrochemical oxidation of amoxicillin in its pharmaceutical formulation at boron doped diamond (BDD electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneil Quand-Meme Gnamba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, voltammetric andelectrolysis experiments have been carried out on a conductive boron dopeddiamond (BDD electrode in solution containing amoxicillin in itspharmaceutical formulation. The physical characterization of the BDD surface byscanning electron microscopy (SEM reveals a polycrystalline structure withgrain sizes ranging between 0.3 and 0.6 µm. With Raman spectroscopy, BDDsurface is composed of diamons (Csp3 type carbon (Csp3and graphitic type carbon (Csp2. The electrochemical characterization of the BDD electrode in sulfuric acid electrolyte showed a wide potential window worthing 2.74 V. The oxidation of Amoxicillin showed an irreversible anodic wave on the voltammogram in the domain of water stability indicating a direct oxidation of amoxicillin at BDD surface. The treatment of Amoxicillin in the synthetic wastewaters under various constant current densities 20, 50, 100, 135 mA cm-2 on BDD showed that Amoxicillin is highly reducedunder 100 mA cm-2 reaching 92% of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODremoval after 5 h of electrolysis. Investigation performed in perchloric acidas supporting electrolyte led to 87% of COD removal after 5 h of electrolysis.Mineralization of amoxicillin occurs on BDD and the chemical oxygen demandremoval was higher in sulfuric acid than in perchloric acid owing to theinvolvement of the in-situ formed persulfate and perchlorate  to the degradation process mainly in the bulkof the solution. The instantaneous current efficiency (ICE presents anexponential decay indicating that the process was limited by diffusion. Thespecific energy consumed after 5h of the amoxicillin electrolysis was 0.096 kWh COD-1and 0.035 kWh COD-1 in sulfuric acid and in perchloric acidrespectively.

  7. Anodic voltammetry of zolmitriptan at boron-doped diamond electrode and its analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, B; Canbaz, D

    2010-04-01

    The electrooxidative behavior and determination of zolmitriptan at a boron-doped diamond electrode were investigated using cyclic, linear sweep, differential pulse and square wave voltammetric techniques. Zolmitriptan undergoes irreversible oxidation at a peak potential of about +0.9 V (vs Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl). DPV and SWV techniques are proposed for the determination of zolmitriptan in phosphate buffer at pH 3.03, which allows quantitation over the two different ranges (8 x 10(-7) - 8 x 10(-6) M and 1 x 10(-5) - 1 x 10(-4) M) in supporting electrolyte for both methods. A linear response was obtained in phosphate buffer over two different ranges (6 x 10(-7) - 8 x 10(-6) M and 1 x 10(-5) - 1 x 10(-4) M) for spiked serum samples at pH 3.03 for both techniques. The repeatability and reproducibility of the methods for all media were determined. The standard addition method was used in serum. Precision and accuracy were also checked in all media. No electroactive interferences from the excipients and endegenous substances were found in the pharmaceutical dosage form and the biological sample, respectively.

  8. Ultrasonically Assisted Single Point Diamond Turning of Optical Mold of Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To realize high efficiency, low/no damage and high precision machining of tungsten carbide used for lens mold, a high frequency ultrasonic vibration cutting system was developed at first. Then, tungsten carbide was precisely machined with a polycrystalline diamond (PCD tool assisted by the self-developed high frequency ultrasonic vibration cutting system. Tool wear mechanism was investigated in ductile regime machining of tungsten carbide. The cutter back-off phenomenon in the process was analyzed. The subsequent experimental results of ultra-precision machining with a single crystal diamond tool showed that: under the condition of high frequency ultrasonic vibration cutting, nano-scale surface roughness can be obtained by the diamond tool with smaller tip radius and no defects like those of ground surface were found on the machined surface. Tool wear mechanisms of the single crystal diamond tool are mainly abrasive wear and micro-chipping. To solve the problem, a method of inclined ultrasonic vibration cutting with negative rake angle was put forward according to force analysis, which can further reduce tool wear and roughness of the machined surface. The investigation was important to high efficiency and quality ultra-precision machining of tungsten carbide.

  9. An Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond Electrochemical Surface Mapping Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Carlee S; Hettich, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative protein surface mapping has become a powerful approach for measuring the solvent accessibility of folded protein structures. A variety of techniques exist for generating the key reagent – hydroxyl radicals – for these measurements; however, these approaches range significantly in their complexity and expense of operation. This research expands upon earlier work to enhance the controllability of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrochemistry as an easily accessible tool for producing hydroxyl radicals in order to oxidize a range of intact proteins. Efforts to modulate oxidation level while minimizing the adsorption of protein to the electrode involved the use of relatively high flow rates to reduce protein residence time inside the electrochemical flow chamber. Additionally, a different cell activation approach using variable voltage to supply a controlled current allowed us to precisely tune the extent of oxidation in a protein-dependent manner. In order to gain perspective on the level of protein adsorption onto the electrode surface, studies were conducted to monitor protein concentration during electrolysis and gauge changes in the electrode surface between cell activation events. This report demonstrates the successful use of BDD electrochemistry for greater precision in generating a target number of oxidation events upon intact proteins. PMID:23210708

  10. Titanyl phthalocyanine ambipolar thin film transistors making use of carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppedè, Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Ranzieri, Paolo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Valitova, Irina; Cicoira, Fabio; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Santato, Clara; Martel, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The capability of efficiently injecting charge carriers into organic films and finely tuning their morphology and structure is crucial to improve the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, we investigate OTFTs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the source-drain electrodes and, as the organic semiconductor, thin films of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). While CNT electrodes have shown an unprecedented ability to improve charge injection in OTFTs, SuMBD is an effective technique to tune film morphology and structure. Varying the substrate temperature during deposition, we were able to grow both amorphous (low substrate temperature) and polycrystalline (high substrate temperature) films of TiOPc. Regardless of the film morphology and structure, CNT electrodes led to superior charge injection and transport performance with respect to benchmark Au electrodes. Vacuum annealing of polycrystalline TiOPc films with CNT electrodes yielded ambipolar OTFTs. (paper)

  11. Performance of diamond and point attack coal cutter picks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [CSIRO, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Division of Exploration and Mining

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents results of laboratory experiments and field trials of PDC (Polycrystalline Diamond Compact) and PA (Point Attack) coal cutter picks. Laboratory cutting tests included linear rock and coal cutting and turning rock cutting. The following parameters were measured to assess performance of PDC and PA cutter picks: cutting force, normal force, specific energy consumption, yield, dust generation and ignitional characteristics (temperature rise). Field trials were conducted on a longwall shearer. Performance of both types of pick interims of pick life and dust generation were assessed. 3 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Sequential Electrodeposition of Platinum-Ruthenium at Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes for Methanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana González-González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential electrodeposition of Pt and Ru on boron-doped diamond (BDD films, in 0.5 M H2SO4 by cyclic voltammetry, has been prepared. The potential cycling, in the aqueous solutions of the respective metals, was between 0.00 and 1.00 V versus Ag/AgCl. The catalyst composites, Pt and PtRu, deposited on BDD film substrates, were tested for methanol oxidation. The modified diamond surfaces were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy-X-ray fluorescence-energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The scanning Auger electron spectroscopy mapping showed the ruthenium signal only in areas where platinum was electrodeposited. Ruthenium does not deposit on the oxidized diamond surface of the boron-doped diamond. Particles with 5–10% of ruthenium with respect to platinum exhibited better performance for methanol oxidation in terms of methanol oxidation peak current and chronoamperometric current stability. The electrogenerated •OH radicals on BDD may interact with Pt surface, participating in the methanol oxidation as shown in oxidation current and the shift in the peak position. The conductive diamond surface is a good candidate as the support for the platinum electrocatalyst, because it ensures catalytic activity, which compares with the used carbon, and higher stability under severe anodic and cathodic conditions.

  13. Rhombic Coulomb diamonds in a single-electron transistor based on an Au nanoparticle chemically anchored at both ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Yasuo; Onuma, Yuto; Sakamoto, Masanori; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Majima, Yutaka

    2016-02-28

    Rhombic Coulomb diamonds are clearly observed in a chemically anchored Au nanoparticle single-electron transistor. The stability diagrams show stable Coulomb blockade phenomena and agree with the theoretical curve calculated using the orthodox model. The resistances and capacitances of the double-barrier tunneling junctions between the source electrode and the Au core (R1 and C1, respectively), and those between the Au core and the drain electrode (R2 and C2, respectively), are evaluated as 4.5 MΩ, 1.4 aF, 4.8 MΩ, and 1.3 aF, respectively. This is determined by fitting the theoretical curve against the experimental Coulomb staircases. Two-methylene-group short octanedithiols (C8S2) in a C8S2/hexanethiol (C6S) mixed self-assembled monolayer is concluded to chemically anchor the core of the Au nanoparticle at both ends between the electroless-Au-plated nanogap electrodes even when the Au nanoparticle is protected by decanethiol (C10S). This is because the R1 value is identical to that of R2 and corresponds to the tunneling resistances of the octanedithiol chemically bonded with the Au core and the Au electrodes. The dependence of the Coulomb diamond shapes on the tunneling resistance ratio (R1/R2) is also discussed, especially in the case of the rhombic Coulomb diamonds. Rhombic Coulomb diamonds result from chemical anchoring of the core of the Au nanoparticle at both ends between the electroless-Au-plated nanogap electrodes.

  14. Diamonds are forever : roller bits once ruled the roost, but PDC drillbits have emerged as oilpatch champions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2008-06-15

    Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits are used in over 60 per cent of wells currently being drilled. PDC bits use thumb-sized diamond-impregnated cutters fixed into the body of the bit in order to shear the rock. Certain rock formations that contain large amounts of chert or pyrite can destroy PDCs, which are ideally suited for use in offshore wells which have soft, homogenous rock sections. This article discussed recent research programs conducted to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of PDCs and improve their cutting efficiency through the analysis of cutter geometry, material composition, and processing conditions. Researchers have now discovered that diamond chips of 10 microns performed better than chips of 70 microns. Cutters were found to be more durable when cobalt was used as a binder to sinter the diamond chips. PDCs are now being used extensively by the oil sands industry due to their abrasion resistance. Research is ongoing in order to improve the performance of PDC drill bits. 2 figs.

  15. Enhancing the electrochemical oxidation of acid-yellow 36 azo dye using boron-doped diamond electrodes by addition of ferrous ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva-Rodriguez, M.; Hernandez-Ramirez, A.; Peralta-Hernandez, J.M.; Bandala, Erick R.; Quiroz-Alfaro, Marco A.

    2009-01-01

    This work shows preliminary results on the electrochemical oxidation process (EOP) using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for acidic yellow 36 oxidation, a common azo dye used in textile industry. The study is centred in the synergetic effect of ferrous ions and hydroxyl free radicals for improving discoloration of azo dye. The assays were carried out in a typical glass cell under potentiostatic conditions. On experimental conditions, the EOP was able to partially remove the dye from the reaction mixture. The reaction rate increased significantly by addition of Fe 2+ (1 mM as ferrous sulphate) to the system and by (assumed) generation of ferrate ion [Fe(VI)] over BDD electrode. Ferrate is considered as a highly oxidizing reagent capable of removing the colorant from the reaction mixture, in synergistic action with the hydroxyl radicals produced on the BDD surface. Further increases in the Fe 2+ concentration lead to depletion of the reaction rate probably due to the hydroxyl radical scavenging effect of Fe 2+ excess in the system.

  16. The study and the realization of radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique; Etude et realisation de detecteurs de rayonnements a base de films de diamant polycristallin elabores par depot chimique en phase vapeur assiste par plasma micro-onde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jany, Ch

    1998-10-29

    The aim of this work was to develop radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique. The influence of surface treatments, contact technology and diamond growth parameters on the diamond detectors characteristics was investigated in order to optimise the detector response to alpha particles. The first part of the study focused on the electrical behaviour of as-deposited diamond surface, showing a p type conduction and its influence on the leakage current of the device. A surface preparation process was established in order to reduce the leakage current of the device by surface dehydrogenation using an oxidising step. Several methods to form and treat electrical contacts were also investigated showing that the collection efficiency of the device decreases after contact annealing. In the second part, we reported the influence of the diamond deposition parameters on the characteristics of the detectors. The increase of the deposition temperature and/or methane concentration was shown to lead {eta} to decrease. In contrast, {eta} was found to increase with the micro-wave power. The evolution of the diamond detector characteristics results from the variation in sp{sup 2} phases incorporation and in the crystallography quality of the films. These defects increase the leakage current and reduce the carrier mobility and lifetime. Measurements carried out on detectors with different thicknesses showed that the physical properties varies along the growth direction, improving with the film thickness. Finally, the addition of nitrogen (> 10 ppm) in the gas mixture during diamond deposition was found to strongly reduce the collection efficiency of the detectors. To conclude the study, we fabricated and characterised diamond devices which were used for thermal neutron detection and for the intensity and shape measurement of VUV and soft X-ray pulses. (author)

  17. Electrical conductivity enhancement by boron-doping in diamond using first principle calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mahtab; Ahmed, Ejaz; Hussain, Fayyaz; Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Raza, Rizwan

    2015-04-01

    Boron doping in diamond plays a vital role in enhancing electrical conductivity of diamond by making it a semiconductor, a conductor or even a superconductor. To elucidate this fact, partial and total density of states has been determined as a function of B-content in diamond. Moreover, the orbital charge distributions, B-C bond lengths and their population have been studied for B-doping in pristine diamond thin films by applying density functional theory (DFT). These parameters have been found to be influenced by the addition of different percentages of boron atoms in diamond. The electronic density of states, B-C bond situations as well as variations in electrical conductivities of diamond films with different boron content and determination of some relationship between these parameters were the basic tasks of this study. Diamond with high boron concentration (∼5.88% B-atoms) showed maximum splitting of energy bands (caused by acceptor impurity states) at the Fermi level which resulted in the enhancement of electron/ion conductivities. Because B atoms either substitute carbon atoms and/or assemble at grain boundaries (interstitial sites) inducing impurity levels close to the top of the valence band. At very high B-concentration, impurity states combine to form an impurity band which accesses the top of the valence band yielding metal like conductivity. Moreover, bond length and charge distributions are found to decrease with increase in boron percentage in diamond. It is noted that charge distribution decreased from +1.89 to -1.90 eV whereas bond length reduced by 0.04 Å with increasing boron content in diamond films. These theoretical results support our earlier experimental findings on B-doped diamond polycrystalline films which depict that the addition of boron atoms to diamond films gives a sudden fall in resistivity even up to 105 Ω cm making it a good semiconductor for its applications in electrical devices.

  18. The importance of surface morphology in controlling the selectivity of polycrystalline copper for CO(2) electroreduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Wei; Peterson, Andrew A; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This communication examines the effect of the surface morphology of polycrystalline copper on electroreduction of CO(2). We find that a copper nanoparticle covered electrode shows better selectivity towards hydrocarbons compared with the two other studied surfaces, an electropolished copper elect...

  19. A novel paper-based device coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond electrode for cholesterol detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nantaphol, Siriwan [Electrochemistry and Optical Spectroscopy Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chailapakul, Orawon, E-mail: corawon@chula.ac.th [Electrochemistry and Optical Spectroscopy Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Siangproh, Weena, E-mail: weenasi@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Wattanna, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand)

    2015-09-03

    A novel paper-based analytical device (PAD) coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond (AgNP/BDD) electrode was first developed as a cholesterol sensor. The AgNP/BDD electrode was used as working electrode after modification by AgNPs using an electrodeposition method. Wax printing was used to define the hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas on filter paper, and then counter and reference electrodes were fabricated on the hydrophilic area by screen-printing in house. For the amperometric detection, cholesterol and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were directly drop-cast onto the hydrophilic area, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} produced from the enzymatic reaction was monitored. The fabricated device demonstrated a good linearity (0.39 mg dL{sup −1} to 270.69 mg dL{sup −1}), low detection limit (0.25 mg dL{sup −1}), and high sensitivity (49.61 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}). The precision value for ten replicates was 3.76% RSD for 1 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In addition, this biosensor exhibited very high selectivity for cholesterol detection and excellent recoveries for bovine serum analysis (in the range of 99.6–100.8%). The results showed that this new sensing platform will be an alternative tool for cholesterol detection in routine diagnosis and offers the advantages of low sample/reagent consumption, low cost, portability, and short analysis time. - Highlights: • Novel PAD coupled with AgNP/BDDE for cholesterol determination was developed. • Wide linear range, low detection limit and high selectivity were achieved. • This sensor was successfully applied for cholesterol determination in bovine serum. • This platform offers the advantages of low sample/reagent consumption and low cost.

  20. A novel paper-based device coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond electrode for cholesterol detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nantaphol, Siriwan; Chailapakul, Orawon; Siangproh, Weena

    2015-01-01

    A novel paper-based analytical device (PAD) coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond (AgNP/BDD) electrode was first developed as a cholesterol sensor. The AgNP/BDD electrode was used as working electrode after modification by AgNPs using an electrodeposition method. Wax printing was used to define the hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas on filter paper, and then counter and reference electrodes were fabricated on the hydrophilic area by screen-printing in house. For the amperometric detection, cholesterol and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were directly drop-cast onto the hydrophilic area, and H 2 O 2 produced from the enzymatic reaction was monitored. The fabricated device demonstrated a good linearity (0.39 mg dL −1 to 270.69 mg dL −1 ), low detection limit (0.25 mg dL −1 ), and high sensitivity (49.61 μA mM −1  cm −2 ). The precision value for ten replicates was 3.76% RSD for 1 mM H 2 O 2 . In addition, this biosensor exhibited very high selectivity for cholesterol detection and excellent recoveries for bovine serum analysis (in the range of 99.6–100.8%). The results showed that this new sensing platform will be an alternative tool for cholesterol detection in routine diagnosis and offers the advantages of low sample/reagent consumption, low cost, portability, and short analysis time. - Highlights: • Novel PAD coupled with AgNP/BDDE for cholesterol determination was developed. • Wide linear range, low detection limit and high selectivity were achieved. • This sensor was successfully applied for cholesterol determination in bovine serum. • This platform offers the advantages of low sample/reagent consumption and low cost.

  1. Concentration and electrode material dependence of the voltammetric response of iodide on platinum, glassy carbon and boron-doped diamond in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, Cameron L.; Bond, Alan M.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F.; Mahon, Peter J.; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The electro-oxidation of iodide has been investigated as a function of concentration using steady-state microelectrode voltammetry, transient cyclic voltammetry and linear-sweep semi-integral voltammetry on platinum, glassy carbon and boron-doped diamond electrodes in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. Two oxidation processes are observed on all of the investigated electrode materials, with the first being assigned to the oxidation of iodide to triiodide (confirmed by UV/visible spectroscopy) and the second being attributed to the oxidation of triiodide to iodine. Iodide oxidation is kinetically more facile on platinum compared to glassy carbon or boron-doped diamond. At elevated bulk iodide concentrations, the nucleation and growth of sparingly soluble electrogenerated iodine at the electrode surface was observed and imaged in situ using optical microscopy. The diffusion coefficient of iodide was determined to be 2.59 (±0.04) × 10 −7 cm 2 s −1 and independent of the bulk concentration of iodide. The steady-state iodide oxidation current measured at a platinum microelectrode was found to be a linear function of iodide concentration, as expected if there are no contributions from non-Stokesian mass-transport processes (electron hopping and/or Grotthuss-type exchange) under the investigated conditions

  2. Study of the diamond and diamond like films formation and technology development for the films precipitation on solid surface for wear resistance increasing of tools, machine and mechanism parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanbekov, Z.; Bekmuhambetov, E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the project: The purpose of the project is a development and a creation of an effective technology of the diamond and diamond like films precipitation on materials, including refractory metals, semiconductors and composite on the carbon fibers base. The study method includes the experimental investigation of the base surface structure and properties, preparation of the surface for diamond and diamond like coats growing. The precipitation of above mentioned films will be carried out from the plasma being formed from carbon gas medium at low pressure. The main purposes of the project are: - development of the technology for obtaining the films with specified properties; provision of required rate -of the precipitation; - decreasing of temperature; - manufacturing of the functioning laboratory stand with further developing of a pilot- - commercial plant for diamond and diamond like coating. It is supposed to develop a method of the monocrystal diamond films growing, that are useful for semiconductor devices manufacturing The methods: A thermo-emission and ECR methods will be used for investigation of the diamond and diamond like films formation and growth processes. The plant that will be used for the first method is a two electrode construction. Refractory metals (W,Re) being heated up to 2500 Kelvin degrees, are usually used as an actuating electrode. The second one is a base on which the precipitation is carrying out. Refractory metals, steel, silicon can be used as the base. Actuating medium is a mixture of carbon and inert gases. The second method is based on a principle of a plasma formation with use of 2.45 GHz Shf radiation power. An ECR-plasma is formed in conjunction with magnetic field in the actuating chamber. This method allows to precipitate high quality films at lower pressure. Expected results: The main purpose of the project is to assimilate the high effective technology of the diamond and diamond like films precipitation on different

  3. Dosimetric characterization of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond film irradiated with UV and beta radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2003-03-01

    Diamond is an excellent prospect for clinical radiation dosimetry due to its tissue-equivalence properties and being chemically inert. The use of diamond in radiation dosimetry has been halted by the high market price; although recently the capability of growing high quality polycrystalline has renewed the interest in using diamond films as detectors and dosimeters. In the present work we have characterized the dosimetric properties of diamond films synthesized by using chemical vapor deposition. The thermoluminescence (TL) of UV and beta exposed samples shows a glow curve composed of at least four peaks; one located around 587 K presents excellent TL properties suitable for dosimetric applications with ionizing and non ionizing radiation. The TL excitation spectrum exhibits maximum TL efficiency at 220 nm. The samples show regions of linear as well as supralinear behavior as a function or irradiation dose. The linear dose dependence was found for up to sixteen minutes of UV irradiation and 300 Gy for beta irradiated samples. The activation energy and the frequency factor were determined and found in the range of 0.32 - 0.89 eV and 1.1x10^2 - 2x10^8s_-1, respectively. The observed TL performance is reasonable appropriate to justify further investigation of diamond films as radiation dosimeters.

  4. Mechanism-Based FE Simulation of Tool Wear in Diamond Drilling of SiCp/Al Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Junfeng; Pang, Siqin; Xie, Lijing; Gao, Feinong; Hu, Xin; Yi, Jie; Hu, Fang

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this work is to analyze the micro mechanisms underlying the wear of macroscale tools during diamond machining of SiC p /Al6063 composites and to develop the mechanism-based diamond wear model in relation to the dominant wear behaviors. During drilling, high volume fraction SiC p /Al6063 composites containing Cu, the dominant wear mechanisms of diamond tool involve thermodynamically activated physicochemical wear due to diamond-graphite transformation catalyzed by Cu in air atmosphere and mechanically driven abrasive wear due to high-frequency scrape of hard SiC reinforcement on tool surface. An analytical diamond wear model, coupling Usui abrasive wear model and Arrhenius extended graphitization wear model was proposed and implemented through a user-defined subroutine for tool wear estimates. Tool wear estimate in diamond drilling of SiC p /Al6063 composites was achieved by incorporating the combined abrasive-chemical tool wear subroutine into the coupled thermomechanical FE model of 3D drilling. The developed drilling FE model for reproducing diamond tool wear was validated for feasibility and reliability by comparing numerically simulated tool wear morphology and experimentally observed results after drilling a hole using brazed polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated tools. A fairly good agreement of experimental and simulated results in cutting forces, chip and tool wear morphologies demonstrates that the developed 3D drilling FE model, combined with a subroutine for diamond tool wear estimate can provide a more accurate analysis not only in cutting forces and chip shape but also in tool wear behavior during drilling SiC p /Al6063 composites. Once validated and calibrated, the developed diamond tool wear model in conjunction with other machining FE models can be easily extended to the investigation of tool wear evolution with various diamond tool geometries and other machining processes in cutting different

  5. Raman Microscopic Analysis of Internal Stress in Boron-Doped Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E. Bennet

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the induced stress on undoped and boron-doped diamond (BDD thin films by confocal Raman microscopy is performed in this study to investigate its correlation with sample chemical composition and the substrate used during fabrication. Knowledge of this nature is very important to the issue of long-term stability of BDD coated neurosurgical electrodes that will be used in fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, as potential occurrence of film delaminations and dislocations during their surgical implantation can have unwanted consequences for the reliability of BDD-based biosensing electrodes. To achieve a more uniform deposition of the films on cylindrically-shaped tungsten rods, substrate rotation was employed in a custom-built chemical vapor deposition reactor. In addition to visibly preferential boron incorporation into the diamond lattice and columnar growth, the results also reveal a direct correlation between regions of pure diamond and enhanced stress. Definite stress release throughout entire film thicknesses was found in the current Raman mapping images for higher amounts of boron addition. There is also a possible contribution to the high values of compressive stress from sp2 type carbon impurities, besides that of the expected lattice mismatch between film and substrate.

  6. Single crystal diamond detectors grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuve, C.; Angelone, M.; Bellini, V.; Balducci, A.; Donato, M.G.; Faggio, G.; Marinelli, M.; Messina, G.; Milani, E.; Morgada, M.E.; Pillon, M.; Potenza, R.; Pucella, G.; Russo, G.; Santangelo, S.; Scoccia, M.; Sutera, C.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2007-01-01

    The detection properties of heteropitaxial (polycrystalline, pCVD) and homoepitaxial (single crystal, scCVD) diamond films grown by microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in the Laboratories of Roma 'Tor Vergata' University are reported. The pCVD diamond detectors were tested with α-particles from different sources and 12 C ions produced by 15MV Tandem accelerator at Southern National Laboratories (LNS) in Catania (Italy). pCVDs were also used to monitor 14MeV neutrons produced by the D-T plasma at Joint European Torus (JET), Culham, U.K. The limit of pCVDs is the poor energy resolution. To overcome this problem, we developed scCVD diamonds using the same reactor parameters that optimized pCVD diamonds. scCVD were grown on a low cost (100) HPHT single crystal substrate. A detector 110μm thick was tested under α-particles and under 14MeV neutron irradiation. The charge collection efficiency spectrum measured under irradiation with a triple α-particle source shows three clearly resolved peaks, with an energy resolution of about 1.1%. The measured spectra under neutron irradiation show a well separated C(n,α 0 ) 9 Be12 reaction peak with an energy spread of 0.5MeV for 14.8MeV neutrons and 0.3MeV for 14.1MeV neutrons, which are fully compatible with the energy spread of the incident neutron beams

  7. Effects of temperature and Mo2C layer on stress and structural properties in CVD diamond film grown on Mo foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Fen; Wei, Qiuping; Yu, Z.M.; Luo, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiongwei; Long, Hangyu; Wu, Xianzhe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Polycrystalline diamond films were grown on Mo foil substrates by HF-CVD. •We investigated the temperature dependence of the film stress for each sample. •We show that how the thermal stress and intrinsic stress affects the total stress. •The stress of Mo foil substrate obtained by XRD was investigated in this study. •The effect of Mo 2 C interface layer for stress of multilayer system was considered. -- Abstract: Polycrystalline diamond films have been prepared by hot-filament-assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) on Mo foils. The morphology, growth rate, phase composition, element distribution and residual stress of the films at different temperature were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrum, field emission electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. Results show that the residual stress of the diamond films is compressive. The thermal stress plays a decisive role in the total stress, while the intrinsic stress can change the trend of the total stress. The residual stress of substrate gradually changes from tensile stress to compressive stress with the increase of the deposited temperature. A Mo 2 C interlayer is formed during deposition process, and this layer has an important influence on the stresses of films and substrates

  8. Diamond brazing - interfacial reactions and wetting; Loeten von Diamant - Grenzflaechenreaktionen und Benetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillmann, W.; Osmanda, A.M.; Yurchenko, S. [Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstofftechnologie, Universitaet Dortmund, Leonhard-Euler-Str. 2, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Theisen, W. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Lehrstuhl Werkstofftechnik (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Diamond tools are increasingly gaining importance as cutting materials for various construction materials. The quality of synthetic diamonds, monocrystalline as well as polycrystalline or CVD-diamonds has been significantly improved over the last years. Integrating these cutting materials requires adequate joining technologies that produce sound joints without exposing the temperature sensitive diamond to too elevated temperatures. The paper highlights current developments in the joining of synthetic diamonds to steel and cemented carbide. Owing to their covalent atomic bonding diamonds cannot easily be wetted and joined by employing conventional brazing alloys. Hence, active agents are needed to foster an interfacial reaction. Different active filler concepts are presented and discussed regarding their joint formation. The brazing temperatures influence not only possible diamond degradation but also the interfacial decomposition of the diamond due to the formation of corresponding reaction layers.Active brazing, monocrystalline. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Diamantwerkstoffe erlangen zunehmend Bedeutung als Schneidmaterialien in Diamantwerkzeugen fuer die Bearbeitung verschiedener Konstruktionswerkstoffe. Die Qualitaet von synthetischen Diamanten, sowohl monokristallinen als auch polykristallinen oder CVD-Diamantschichten konnte in den letzten Jahren deutlich verbessert werden. Die Integration dieser Schneidstoffe erfordert eine angepasste Fuegetechnologie, die fehlerfreie Verbunde bereitstellt, ohne die gegenueber hohen Temperaturen empfindlichen Diamanten zu hohen Temperaturen auszusetzen. Der Beitrag zeigt aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Fuegetechnik von synthetischen Diamanten mit Stahl und Hartmetall auf. Infolge ihrer kovalenten atomaren Bindungen koennen Diamanten nicht ohne weiteres mit herkoemmlichen Lotwerkstoffen benetzt und gefuegt werden. Daher sind reaktive Elemente notwendig, die eine Grenzflaechenreaktion forcieren

  9. Diamond nanoparticles as a support for Pt and PtRu catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La-Torre-Riveros, Lyda; Guzman-Blas, Rolando; Méndez-Torres, Adrián E; Prelas, Mark; Tryk, Donald A; Cabrera, Carlos R

    2012-02-01

    Diamond in nanoparticle form is a promising material that can be used as a robust and chemically stable catalyst support in fuel cells. It has been studied and characterized physically and electrochemically, in its thin film and powder forms, as reported in the literature. In the present work, the electrochemical properties of undoped and boron-doped diamond nanoparticle electrodes, fabricated using the ink-paste method, were investigated. Methanol oxidation experiments were carried out in both half-cell and full fuel cell modes. Platinum and ruthenium nanoparticles were chemically deposited on undoped and boron doped diamond nanoparticles through the use of NaBH(4) as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as a surfactant. Before and after the reduction process, samples were characterized by electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. The ink-paste method was also used to prepare the membrane electrode assembly with Pt and Pt-Ru modified undoped and boron-doped diamond nanoparticle catalytic systems, to perform the electrochemical experiments in a direct methanol fuel cell system. The results obtained demonstrate that diamond supported catalyst nanomaterials are promising for methanol fuel cells.

  10. The effect of ammonia upon the electrocatalysis of hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction on polycrystalline platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Hernandez-Fernandez, Patricia; Stephens, Ifan E.L.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ammonium ions on the catalysis of hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction is studied by means of rotating ring-disk electrode experiments on polycrystalline platinum in perchloric acid. While ammonium does not affect the hydrogen oxidation reaction, the oxygen reduction reaction...

  11. Determination of propylthiouracil in pharmaceuticals by differential pulse voltammetry using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Elen Romao [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Trench, Aline Barrios; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando, E-mail: bello@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-09-15

    A simple procedure is described for the determination of propylthiouracil (PTU) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. Cyclic voltammetry studies indicate that the oxidation of PTU is irreversible at a peak potential of 1.42 V (vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L{sup -1} KCl)) in a Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer solution (pH 2.0). Under optimized conditions, the obtained analytical curve was linear (r = 0.9985) for the PTU concentration range of 1.0 to 29.1 {mu}mol L{sup -1} in a BR buffer solution (pH 2.0), with a detection limit of 0.90 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of PTU in pharmaceutical samples, with results in agreement at a 95% confidence level with those obtained using an official titration method. (author)

  12. Low temperature diamond growth by linear antenna plasma CVD over large area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izak, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Potocky, Stepan; Kromka, Alexander; Varga, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there is a great effort to increase the deposition area and decrease the process temperature for diamond growth which will enlarge its applications including use of temperature sensitive substrates. In this work, we report on the large area (20 x 30 cm 2 ) and low temperature (250 C) polycrystalline diamond growth by pulsed linear antenna microwave plasma system. The influence of substrate temperature varied from 250 to 680 C, as controlled by the table heater and/or by microwave power, is studied. It was found that the growth rate, film morphology and diamond to non-diamond phases (sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds) are influenced by the growth temperature, as confirmed by SEM and Raman measurements. The surface chemistry and growth processes were studied in terms of activation energies (E a ) calculated from Arrhenius plots. The activation energies of growth processes were very low (1.7 and 7.8 kcal mol -1 ) indicating an energetically favourable growth process from the CO 2 -CH 4 -H 2 gas mixture. In addition, from activation energies two different growth regimes were observed at low and high temperatures, indicating different growth mechanism. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Fabrication and application of boron doped diamond BDD electrode in olive mill wastewater treatment in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshad Jum'h

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A boron doped diamond (BDD electrode was employed in an electrochemical reactor to oxidize the phenolic content of Jordanian olive mill wastewater. The BDD anode was fabricated using hot filament chemical vapor deposition on niobium and the morphology of the BDD electrode was characterized using an atomic force microscope. Then, electrolysis batch runs were carried out at laboratory scale to test the effect of different process parameters, namely, initial chemical oxygen demand (COD load (72.9, 33.8, and 0.18 g/L, the addition of Na2SO4 as supporting electrolyte, and adding NaCl along with Na2SO4, on the efficiency of the treatment process. The results were reported in terms of COD, color and turbidity removal, and pH variation. The experiments revealed that electrochemical oxidation using BDD significantly reduced the COD by 85% with no supporting electrolytes. It was observed that adding Na2SO4 with NaCl brought the COD removal to higher than 90% after 7 hours of treatment for COD loads of 72.9 and 33.8 g/L, and after 2 hours for a COD load of 0.18 g/L. Likewise, color was completely removed regardless of the initial COD load. The turbidity for samples with 72.9 and 33.8 g/L as COD load reached a minimal value of 2.5 and 1 NTU respectively.

  14. Square-wave voltammetric determination of fungicide fenfuram in real samples on bare boron-doped diamond electrode, and its corrosion properties on stainless steels used to produce agricultural tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brycht, Mariola; Skrzypek, Sławomira; Kaczmarska, Kinga; Burnat, Barbara; Leniart, Andrzej; Gutowska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: • A bare boron-doped diamond electrode was first used to determine fenfuram. • A sensitive voltammetric procedure for the determination of fenfuram was developed. • The sensor showed high sensitivity, selectivity, and wide linear range. • The procedure was successfully applied to detect fenfuram in real samples. • The effect of fenfuram on the uniform and pitting corrosion of steel was stated. -- Abstract: A simple, selective, and sensitive electroanalytical method for the determination of a novel fungicide, fenfuram (Fnf), on a bare boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) was developed. For the first time, the electrochemical oxidation of Fnf at BDDE at about 1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode in 0.35 mol L −1 sulfuric acid was investigated. To select the optimum experimental conditions, the effects of the supporting electrolyte, pH, frequency, amplitude, and step potential were studied. The developed method allowed the determination of Fnf in the concentration range of 2.4 × 10 −5 to 2.6 × 10 −4 mol L −1 (LOD = 6.3 × 10 −6 mol L −1 , LOQ = 2.1 × 10 −5 mol L −1 ). The validation of the method was carried out. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to determine Fnf in the spiked natural water samples collected from Polish rivers and in the spiked triticale seed samples by the standard addition method. To understand the Fnf electrode mechanism, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique was applied. The oxidation mechanism was also confirmed using mass spectrometry with the electrospray ionization (ESI-MS) technique. Using electrochemical techniques, the effect of Fnf on the corrosion properties of stainless steel which is used to produce agricultural tools was studied

  15. Growth of high quality AlN films on CVD diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-xian; Liu, Hao; Liu, Sheng; Li, Cheng-ming; Wang, Yi-chao; An, Kang; Hua, Chen-yi; Liu, Jin-long; Wei, Jun-jun; Hei, Li-fu; Lv, Fan-xiu

    2018-02-01

    A highly oriented AlN layer has been successfully grown along the c-axis on a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Structural, morphological and mechanical properties of the heterostructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nano-indentation and Four-probe meter. A compact AlN film was demonstrated on the diamond layer, showing columnar grains and a low surface roughness of 1.4 nm. TEM results revealed a sharp AlN/diamond interface, which was characterized by the presence of a distinct 10 nm thick buffer layer resulting from the initial AlN growth stage. The FWHM of AlN (002) diffraction peak and its rocking curve are as low as 0.41° and 3.35° respectively, indicating a highly preferred orientation along the c-axis. AlN sputtered films deposited on glass substrates show a higher bulk resistivity (up to 3 × 1012 Ω cm), compared to AlN films deposited on diamond (∼1010 Ω cm). Finally, the film hardness and Young's modulus of AlN films on diamond are 25.8 GPa and 489.5 GPa, respectively.

  16. Dye-sensitization of boron-doped diamond foam: champion photoelectrochemical performance of diamond electrodes under solar light illumination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsová, Hana; Kavan, Ladislav; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Yeap, W. S.; Verstappen, P.; Maes, W.; Haenen, K.; Gao, F.; Nebel, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 99 (2015), s. 81069-81077 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : dye-sensitized solar cells * electrochemistry * diamonds Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  17. Enhanced electrochemical response in oxidative differential pulse voltammetry of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid at carboxyl-terminated boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Takeshi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)], E-mail: t.kondo@ci.kagu.tus.ac.jp; Niwano, Yu; Tamura, Akira; Imai, Junichi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Honda, Kensuke [Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi 753-8521 (Japan); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-0012 (Japan); Tryk, Donald A. [Fuel Cell Nanomaterials Center, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Fujishima, Akira [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Kawai, Takeshi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    The differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) peak for dopamine (DA) oxidation was found to be highly amplified by the addition of ascorbic acid (AA) when carboxyl-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were used as the working electrode. The DP voltammogram for a solution containing DA and AA obtained using a 4-pentenoic acid-modified BDD (4PA-BDD) electrode showed well-separated oxidation peaks for DA and AA at 0.4 and 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. In addition, as the DA concentration increased at constant AA concentration, a simultaneous increase in the DA peak current density and decrease in the AA peak current density were observed. The slope of the calibration curve for the [DA] range of 1-10 {mu}M in the presence of AA (500 {mu}M) was seven times larger than that obtained in the absence of AA. Such an enhancement was found to be more efficient at 4PA-BDD than at oxidized-BDD, partly due to simple electrostatic effects and partly due to suppression of the polymerization of DA oxidation products by the terminal carboxyl groups. The enhanced detection method using a carboxyl-terminated BDD electrode should be an effective analytical tool, especially for determining low concentrations of DA in the presence of high concentrations of AA.

  18. Enhanced electrochemical response in oxidative differential pulse voltammetry of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid at carboxyl-terminated boron-doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Niwano, Yu; Tamura, Akira; Imai, Junichi; Honda, Kensuke; Einaga, Yasuaki; Tryk, Donald A.; Fujishima, Akira; Kawai, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    The differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) peak for dopamine (DA) oxidation was found to be highly amplified by the addition of ascorbic acid (AA) when carboxyl-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were used as the working electrode. The DP voltammogram for a solution containing DA and AA obtained using a 4-pentenoic acid-modified BDD (4PA-BDD) electrode showed well-separated oxidation peaks for DA and AA at 0.4 and 0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. In addition, as the DA concentration increased at constant AA concentration, a simultaneous increase in the DA peak current density and decrease in the AA peak current density were observed. The slope of the calibration curve for the [DA] range of 1-10 μM in the presence of AA (500 μM) was seven times larger than that obtained in the absence of AA. Such an enhancement was found to be more efficient at 4PA-BDD than at oxidized-BDD, partly due to simple electrostatic effects and partly due to suppression of the polymerization of DA oxidation products by the terminal carboxyl groups. The enhanced detection method using a carboxyl-terminated BDD electrode should be an effective analytical tool, especially for determining low concentrations of DA in the presence of high concentrations of AA

  19. Effects of crystalline quality and electrode material on fatigue in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Johnson, L.; Safari, A.; Ramesh, R.; Sands, T.; Gilchrist, H.; Keramidas, V. G.

    1993-07-01

    Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 (PZT)/Y1Ba2Cu3O(x) (YBCO) heterostructures were grown by pulsed laser deposition, in which PZT films were epitaxial, highly oriented, or polycrystalline. These PZT films were obtained by varying the deposition temperature from 550 to 760 C or by using various substrates such as SrTiO3 (100), MgO (100), and r-plane sapphire. PZT films with Pt top electrodes exhibited large fatigue with 35-50 percent loss of the remanent polarization after 10 exp 9 cycles, depending on the crystalline quality. Polycrystalline films showed better fatigue resistance than epitaxial or highly oriented films. However, PZT films with both top and bottom YBCO electrodes had significantly improved fatigue resistance for both epitaxial and polycrystalline films. Electrode material seems to be a more important parameter in fatigue than the crystalline quality of the PZT films.

  20. Preparation of TiO{sub 2}/boron-doped diamond/Ta multilayer films and use as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Chao, E-mail: sc_sq1988@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Hongji, E-mail: hongjili@yeah.net [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Cuiping, E-mail: licp226@126.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Mingji, E-mail: limingji@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Qu, Changqing, E-mail: quchangqing@tjut.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yang, Baohe, E-mail: bhyang207@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • BDD film was deposited on Ta substrate by hot filament CVD method. • Ti layer was deposited on BDD film by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • Nanostructured TiO{sub 2}/BDD/nanoporous Ta films were prepared. • The films exhibit good capacitance performance and excellent stability. - Abstract: We report nanostructured TiO{sub 2}/boron-doped diamond (BDD)/Ta multilayer films and their electrochemical performances as supercapacitor electrodes. The BDD films were grown on Ta substrates using electron-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Ti metal layers were deposited on the BDD surfaces by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, and nanostructured TiO{sub 2}/BDD/Ta thin films were prepared by electrochemical etching and thermal annealing. The successful formation of TiO{sub 2} and Ta layered nanostructures was demonstrated using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies. The electrochemical responses of these electrodes were evaluated by examining their use as electrical double-layer capacitors, using cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge/discharge and impedance measurements. When the TiO{sub 2}/BDD/Ta film was used as the working electrode with 0.1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as the electrolyte, the capacitor had a specific capacitance of 5.23 mF cm{sup −2} at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} for a B/C ratio of 0.1% w/w. Furthermore, the TiO{sub 2}/BDD/Ta film had improved electrochemical stability, with a retention of 89.3% after 500 cycles. This electrochemical behavior is attributed to the quality of the BDD, the surface roughness and electrocatalytic activities of the TiO{sub 2} layer and Ta nanoporous structures, and the synergies between them. These results show that TiO{sub 2}/BDD/Ta films are promising as capacitor electrodes for special applications.

  1. Low propagation loss in a one-port SAW resonator fabricated on single-crystal diamond for super-high-frequency applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Odawara, Tatsuya; Yamada, Haruya; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya; Torii, Hironori; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi

    2013-05-01

    Diamond has the highest known SAW phase velocity, sufficient for applications in the gigahertz range. However, although numerous studies have demonstrated SAW devices on polycrystalline diamond thin films, all have had much larger propagation loss than single-crystal materials such as LiNbO3. Hence, in this study, we fabricated and characterized one-port SAW resonators on single-crystal diamond substrates synthesized using a high-pressure and high-temperature method to identify and minimize sources of propagation loss. A series of one-port resonators were fabricated with the interdigital transducer/ AlN/diamond structure and their characteristics were measured. The device with the best performance exhibited a resonance frequency f of 5.3 GHz, and the equivalent circuit model gave a quality factor Q of 5509. Thus, a large fQ product of approximately 2.9 × 10(13) was obtained, and the propagation loss was found to be only 0.006 dB/wavelength. These excellent properties are attributed mainly to the reduction of scattering loss in a substrate using a single-crystal diamond, which originated from the grain boundary of diamond and the surface roughness of the AlN thin film and the diamond substrate. These results show that single-crystal diamond SAW resonators have great potential for use in low-noise super-high-frequency oscillators.

  2. High voltage performance of a dc photoemission electron gun with centrifugal barrel-polished electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Bullard, D.; Hannon, F.; Wang, Y.; Poelker, M.

    2017-09-01

    The design and fabrication of electrodes for direct current (dc) high voltage photoemission electron guns can significantly influence their performance, most notably in terms of maximum achievable bias voltage. Proper electrostatic design of the triple-point junction shield electrode minimizes the risk of electrical breakdown (arcing) along the insulator-cable plug interface, while the electrode shape is designed to maintain work, we describe a centrifugal barrel-polishing technique commonly used for polishing the interior surface of superconducting radio frequency cavities but implemented here for the first time to polish electrodes for dc high voltage photoguns. The technique reduced polishing time from weeks to hours while providing surface roughness comparable to that obtained with diamond-paste polishing and with unprecedented consistency between different electrode samples. We present electrode design considerations and high voltage conditioning results to 360 kV (˜11 MV/m), comparing barrel-polished electrode performance to that of diamond-paste polished electrodes. Tests were performed using a dc high voltage photogun with an inverted-geometry ceramic insulator design.

  3. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry; Proprietes thermoluminescentes du diamant CVD: applications a la dosimetrie des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitfils, A

    2007-09-15

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  4. Characterization of diamond film and bare metal photocathodes as a function of temperature and surface preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurter, R P; Moir, D C; Devlin, D J [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    High current photocathodes using bare metal and polycrystalline diamond films illuminated by ultraviolet lasers are being developed at Los Alamos for use in a new generation of linear induction accelerators. These photocathodes must be able to produce multiple 60 ns pulses separated by several to tens of nanoseconds. The vacuum environment in which the photocathodes must operate is {sup 1}0-5 torr. (author). 9 figs., 10 refs.

  5. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  6. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Leonard C. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ishida, Takanobu [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between -0.24 and +1.25 VSCE while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-ρ-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  7. Electric field deformation in diamond sensors induced by radiation defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassel, Florian; Boer, Wim de; Boegelspacher, Felix; Dierlamm, Alexander; Mueller, Thomas; Steck, Pia [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); Dabrowski, Anne; Guthoff, Moritz [CERN (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    The BCML system is a beam monitoring device in the CMS experiment at the LHC. As detectors 32 poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors are positioned in a ring around the beam pipe at a distance of ±1.8 m and ±14.4 m from the interaction point. The radiation hardness of the diamond sensors in terms of measured signal during operation was significantly lower than expected from laboratory measurements. At high particle rates, such as those occurring during the operation of the LHC, a significant fraction of the defects act as traps for charge carriers. This space charge modifies the electrical field in the sensor bulk leading to a reduction of the charge collection efficiency (CCE). A diamond irradiation campaign was started to investigate the rate dependent electrical field deformation with respect to the radiation damage. Besides the electrical field measurements via the Transient Current Technique, the CCE was measured. The experimental results were used to create an effective trap model that takes the radiation damage into account. Using this trap model the rate dependent electrical field deformation and the CCE were simulated with the software ''SILVACO TCAD''. This talk compares the experimental measurement results with the simulations.

  8. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of polycrystalline boron doped diamond layers with hydrogen and oxygen terminated surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Petrák, Václav; Frank, Otakar; Kavan, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, MAY 2015 (2015), s. 70-76 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Boron doped diamond * Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy * Aqueous electrolyte solution Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.125, year: 2015

  9. Electrodeposition of a Pt-PrO{sub 2-x} electrocatalyst on diamond electrodes for the oxidation of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liang; Hu, Jingping; Foord, John S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Chemistry Research Laboratory, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    The electrodeposition of Pt-PrO{sub 2-x} nanostructures on boron-doped diamond electrodes was explored by decorating platinum nanoparticles with praseodymium oxide, for application as an electrocatalyst in the electrooxidation of methanol in direct methanol fuel cells. A high loading of platinum with good stability was deposited by adopting a two-stage protocol, which involved a stepped potential route and a chronoamperometric approach. Praseodymium oxide was then coated on the platinum particles from solutions containing praseodymium nitrate and hydrogen peroxide. The porous microstructure of the resulting catalyst was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope, along with electrochemical measurement. The addition of praseodymium oxide to the Pt resulted in a higher catalytic activity profile for methanol oxidation along with an improved resistance to poisoning effects caused by incompletely oxidized carbonaceous species. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Electrolyte influence on the Cu nanoparticles electrodeposition onto boron doped diamond electrode; Influencia do eletrolito na eletrodeposicao de nanoparticulas de Cu sobre eletrodo de diamante dopado com boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Jorge Tadao; Santos, Laura Camila Diniz; Couto, Andrea Boldarini; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Neidenei Gomes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the electrolyte influence on deposition and dissolution processes of Cu nanoparticles on boron doped diamond electrodes (DDB). Morphological, structural and electrochemical analysis showed BDD films with good reproducibility, quality and reversible in a specific redox system. Electrodeposition of Cu nanoparticles on DDB electrodes in three different solutions was influenced by pH and ionic strength of the electrolytic medium. Analyzing the process as function of the scan rate, it was verified a better efficiency in 0,5 mol L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. Under the influence of the pH and ionic strength, Cu nanoparticles on DDB may be obtained with different morphologies and it was important for defining the desired properties. (author)

  11. Surface modification on 304 SS by plasma-immersed ion implantation to improve the adherence of a CVD diamond film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nono, M.C.A.; Corat, E.J. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)); Ueda, M.; Stellati, C.; Barroso, J.J.; Conrad, J.R.; Shamim, M.; Fetherston, P.; Sridharan, K.

    1999-02-01

    The weak adherence of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films on steel substrates is an important factor that limits the technological applications of these materials. We are interested in enhancing the film-to-substrate adherence by using substrate surfaces with a previous modification by plasma-immersed ion implantation (PIII). In this work we present and discuss the preliminary results on phase formation, microstructure and adherence evaluations. CVD diamond films were deposited on 304 SS, the surface of which was modified by implanted carbon ions. The samples were first submitted to implantation with 30 keV carbon ions at different doses. Later, these surfaces were examined by Auger spectroscopy (SAM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. We observed a metastable carbide phase formed from carbon and iron, which is considered to be a good polycrystalline material for the nucleation of CVD diamond crystals. The CVD diamond nucleation and film growth were observed by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. These results are discussed with the emphasis on the carbon diffusion barrier on the substrate surfaces. The preliminary results of diamond growth were encouraging. (orig.) 7 refs.

  12. Electrochemical determination of resveratrol in dietary supplements at a boron-doped diamond electrode in the presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide using square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yardim Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive electroanalytical methodology for the determination of resveratrol is presented for the first time using adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a bare boron-doped diamond (BDD electrode. In cyclic voltammetry, resveratrol shows one irreversible and an adsorption-controlled oxidation peak at a BDD electrode. The voltammetric results indicated that in the presence of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, the BDD electrode remarkably enhanced the oxidation of resveratrol, which leads to an improvement in the peak current with a shift of the peak potential to more positive values. Using the square-wave stripping mode, the compound yielded a well-defined voltammetric response in 0.1 M nitric acid solution containing 100 μmol L-1 hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide at 0.74 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, after 60 s accumulation at the open-circuit condition. A linear calibration graph was obtained in the concentration range 0.025 to 60.0 μg mL-1, with a detection limit of 0.0063 μg mL-1. The applicability of the proposed method was verified by analysis of resveratrol in commercial dietary supplements.

  13. Highly efficient and energy-saving sectional treatment of landfill leachate with a synergistic system of biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation on a boron-doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guohua; Pang Yaning; Liu Lei; Gao Junxia; Lv Baoying

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a synergistic combination of the biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation (SBEO) of landfill leachate with sectional treatment on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode is proposed. The first stage involves the synergistic system of biochemical treatment and electrochemical oxidation. Then, the second stage is followed by individual biochemical treatment. Comparisons among the SBEO, electrochemical oxidation, biochemical treatment and biochemical treatment with the pretreatment of electrochemical oxidation are made systematically, which show that this method is both highly efficient and energy-saving. The higher TOC removal and low energy cost on the BDD electrode can be explained by the conversion of the bio-refractory pollutants to biodegradable organics in the electrochemical oxidation process, improving the current efficiency and reducing the energy cost. The treated wastewater is degraded only with biochemical treatment in the second stage, which further improves efficiency and reduced the energy cost.

  14. Electroless oxidation of diamond surfaces in ceric and ferricyanide solutions: An easy way to produce 'C-O' functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N., E-mail: nathalie.simon@uvsq.f [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180, Universite de Versailles-St-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats Unis, 78000 Versailles (France); Charrier, G.; Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180, Universite de Versailles-St-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats Unis, 78000 Versailles (France)

    2010-08-01

    Despite many works are devoted to oxidation of diamond surfaces, it is still a challenge, to successfully produce well defined 'C-O' functions, particularly for functionalization purposes. In this paper we describe and compare, for the first time, the 'electroless' oxidation of as-deposited polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) films in ceric and ferricyanide solutions at room temperature. Both reactions efficiently generate oxygen functionalities on BDD surface. While a higher amount of 'C-O' moieties is produced with Ce{sup 4+} as oxidizing agent, the use of ferricyanide specie seems the most interesting to specifically generate hydroxyl groups. Additionally, this easy to perform oxidative method appears not damaging for diamond surfaces and adapted to conductive or non-conductive materials. The resulting surfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle and capacitance-voltage analysis.

  15. Gas-sensing behaviour of ZnO/diamond nanostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davydova, Marina; Laposa, A.; Smarhak, J.; Kromka, Alexander; Neykova, Neda; Náhlík, J.; Kroutil, J.; Drahokoupil, Jan; Voves, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, Jan (2018), s. 22-29 ISSN 2190-4286 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-06054P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : density functional theory (DFT) * gas sensor * interdigital electrodes * nanocrystalline diamond * sensitivity * zinc oxide (ZnO) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.127, year: 2016

  16. Synthesis of platinum and platinum–ruthenium-modified diamond nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La-Torre-Riveros, Lyda; Abel-Tatis, Emely; Méndez-Torres, Adrián E.; Tryk, Donald A.; Prelas, Mark; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of developing dimensionally stable-supported catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell application, Pt and Pt–Ru catalyst nanoparticles were deposited onto undoped and boron-doped diamond nanoparticles (BDDNPs) through a chemical reduction route using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. As-received commercial diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) were purified by refluxing in aqueous nitric acid solution. Prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were employed to characterize the as-received and purified DNPs. The purified diamond nanoparticulates, as well as the supported Pt and Pt–Ru catalyst systems, were subjected to various physicochemical characterizations, such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, TEM, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. Physicochemical characterization showed that the sizes of Pt and Pt–Ru particles were only a few nanometers (2–5 nm), and they were homogeneously dispersed on the diamond surface (5–10 nm). The chemical reduction method offers a simple route to prepare the well-dispersed Pt and Pt–Ru catalyst nanoparticulates on undoped and BDDNPs for their possible employment as an advanced electrode material in direct methanol fuel cells.

  17. Electrochemical oxidation and electroanalytical determination of xylitol at a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Anabel S; Sanches, Fátima A C; Magalhães, Renata R; Costa, Daniel J E; Ribeiro, Williame F; Bichinho, Kátia M; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Araújo, Mário C U

    2014-02-01

    Xylitol is a reduced sugar with anticariogenic properties used by insulin-dependent diabetics, and which has attracted great attention of the pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and dental industries. The detection of xylitol in different matrices is generally based on separation techniques. Alternatively, in this paper, the application of a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode allied to differing voltammetric techniques is presented to study the electrochemical behavior of xylitol, and to develop an analytical methodology for its determination in mouthwash. Xylitol undergoes two oxidation steps in an irreversible diffusion-controlled process (D=5.05 × 10(-5)cm(2)s(-1)). Differential pulse voltammetry studies revealed that the oxidation mechanism for peaks P1 (3.4 ≤ pH ≤ 8.0), and P2 (6.0 ≤ pH ≤ 9.0) involves transfer of 1H(+)/1e(-), and 1e(-) alone, respectively. The oxidation process P1 is mediated by the (•)OH generated at the BDD hydrogen-terminated surface. The maximum peak current was obtained at a pH of 7.0, and the electroanalytical method developed, (employing square wave voltammetry) yielded low detection (1.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1)), and quantification (4.5 × 10(-6) mol L(-1)) limits, associated with good levels of repeatability (4.7%), and reproducibility (5.3%); thus demonstrating the viability of the methodology for detection of xylitol in biological samples containing low concentrations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anodic stripping voltammetry of synthesized CdS nanoparticles at boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, Mohammad; Ivandini, Tribidasari A., E-mail: ivandini.tri@sci.ui.ac.id; Saepudin, Endang [Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Keio University (Japan)

    2016-04-19

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using reverse micelles microreactor methods. By using different washing treatments, UV-Vis spectroscopy showed that the absorption peaks appeared at 465 nm, 462 nm, 460 nm, and 459 nm respectively for CdS nanoparticles without and with 1, 2, and 3 times washing treatments using pure water. In comparison with the absorbance peak of bulk CdS at 512 nm, the shifted absorption peaks, indicates that the different sizes of CdS can be prepared. Anodic stripping voltammetry of the CdS nanoparticles was then studied at a boron-doped diamond electrode using 0.1 M KClO{sub 4} and 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} as the electrolytes. A scan rate of 100 mV/s with a deposition potential of -1000 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) for 60 s at a potential scan from -1600 mV to +800 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied as the optimum condition of the measurements. Highly-accurate linear calibration curves (R{sup 2} = 0.99) in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} with the sensitivity of 0.075 mA/mM and the limit of detection of 81 µM in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} can be achieved, which is promising for an application of CdS nanoparticles as a label for biosensors.

  19. Electroreduction of CO{sub 2} using copper-deposited on boron-doped diamond (BDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panglipur, Hanum Sekar; Ivandini, Tribidasari A., E-mail: ivandini.tri@sci.ui.ac.id [Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Keio University (Japan); Wibowo, Rahmat

    2016-04-19

    Electroreduction of CO{sub 2} was studied at copper-modified boron-doped diamond (Cu-BDD) electrodes as the working electrode. The Cu-BDD electrodes were prepared by electrochemical reduction with various concentrations of CuSO{sub 4} solutions. FE-SEM was utilized to characterize the electrodes. At Cu-BDD electrodes, a reduction peak at around -1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl) attributtable to CO{sub 2} reductions could be observed by cyclic voltammetry technique of CO{sub 2} bubbled in water containing 0.1M NaCl. Accordingly, electroreduction of CO{sub 2} was conducted at -1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl) using amperometry technique. The chemical products of the electroreduction analyzed by using HPLC showed the formation of formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetic acid at Cu-BDD electrodes.

  20. Ion beam induced charge and cathodoluminescence imaging of response uniformity of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sellin, P J; Galbiati, A; Maghrabi, M; Townsend, P D

    2002-01-01

    The uniformity of response of CVD diamond radiation detectors produced from high quality diamond film, with crystallite dimensions of >100 mu m, has been studied using ion beam induced charge imaging. A micron-resolution scanning alpha particle beam was used to produce maps of pulse height response across the device. The detectors were fabricated with a single-sided coplanar electrode geometry to maximise their sensitivity to the surface region of the diamond film where the diamond crystallites are highly ordered. High resolution ion beam induced charge images of single crystallites were acquired that demonstrate variations in intra-crystallite charge transport and the termination of charge transport at the crystallite boundaries. Cathodoluminescence imaging of the same crystallites shows an inverse correlation between the density of radiative centres and regions of good charge transport.

  1. Fractals in several electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunyong, E-mail: zhangchy@njau.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou Academy of Southeast University, Dushuhu lake higher education town, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wu, Jingyu [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Fu, Degang [Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou Academy of Southeast University, Dushuhu lake higher education town, Suzhou 215123 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Fractal geometry was employed to characterize three important electrode materials. • The surfaces of all studied electrodes were proved to be very rough. • The fractal dimensions of BDD and ACF were scale dependent. • MMO film was more uniform than BDD and ACF in terms of fractal structures. - Abstract: In the present paper, the fractal properties of boron-doped diamond (BDD), mixed metal oxide (MMO) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrode have been studied by SEM imaging at different scales. Three materials are self-similar with mean fractal dimension in the range of 2.6–2.8, confirming that they all exhibit very rough surfaces. Specifically, it is found that MMO film is more uniform in terms of fractal structure than BDD and ACF. As a result, the intriguing characteristics make these electrodes as ideal candidates for high-performance decontamination processes.

  2. i-anvils : in situ measurements of pressure, temperature and conductivity in diamond anvil cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch, P.; Bureau, H.; Kubsky, S.; Meijer, J.; Datchi, F.; Ninet, S.; Estève, I.

    2011-12-01

    The precise determination of the pressure and temperature conditions during diamond anvils cells (DAC) experiments is of primary importance. Such determinations are critical more especially for the fields corresponding to "low pressures" (micro-structures are implanted in the diamond anvil lattice a few micrometers below the surface, the sensors are located a few μm below the center of the diamond culet (sample chamber position). When conductive electrodes are implanted at the position of the sample chamber on the culet of the anvil, instead of P,T sensors, they allow in situ measurements of electrical properties of the loaded sample at high P,T conditions in a DAC. The principle consists of applying an electrical potential across the structures through external contacts placed on the slopes of the anvil. The resistivity of these structures is sensitive to pressure and temperature applied in the sample chamber. The electrical transport properties of the sample can be measured the same way when electrodes have been implanted on the culet. Here we will present our last progresses, more especially using the focus ion beam (FIB) technology to perform contacts and electrodes. Progresses about the i-anvils connexions with the electronic devices will also be shown. We will present the last P and T sensors calibrations. Furnaces are also introduced through Boron implantation into the anvils, allowing the possibility to reach intermediate temperatures between externally heated DAC (up to 1100°C) and laser heated DAC (from 1500°C to a few thousands). Preliminary tests and the interest of such devices will be discussed at the meeting. A new diamond anvil cell has been especially designed for this purpose. This DAC allows in situ spectroscopies and X-Ray characterisation of geological fluids in their equilibrium conditions in the crust and in the upper mantle. Preliminary results will be presented.

  3. Development and application of a labmade apparatus using open-source “arduino” hardware for the electrochemical pretreatment of boron-doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Thalles Ramon; Betim, Fernando Silva; Ferreira, Rafael de Queiroz

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • BDD electrodes use an electrochemical pretreatment (anodic and/or cathodic) to restore their original characteristics and promote the reproduction of previous voltammograms; • Automatic system can carefully reproduce the electrochemical pretreatment of BDD electrode quickly and efficiently; • Open source platform “Arduino” can be used to developed a labmade apparatus to control a BDD electrode pretreatment system for analytical purposes; • The main advantages of this labmade apparatus are: low supporting electrolyte consumption (20 mL), a total time for each pretreatment of 80 seconds and an average cost of production below US$ 200. - Abstract: Every day, new electroanalytical methodologies are developed to supplant the established spectrometric and chromatographic methods due to their versatility, low cost and ability to perform measurements without sample treatment. Electroanalytical techniques have provided an alternative to quantify substances due to the direct relationship between the analyte concentration and some electrical property of the system. However, this ratio between the concentration and peak current is valid only if the electrochemically active area of the working electrode is constant in each electrochemical test. For years, classic polarography ensured the reproducibility of the mercury electrode surface due to its liquid state at room temperature. However, this metal has a high toxicity, driving the search for new inert materials for their replacement, most notably boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. This electrode material has, among other attractive advantages for electroanalysis, a potential range higher than that of the mercury working electrode under the same conditions. Solid electrodes are, in general, polished to promote the reproducibility of their electrochemical performance. For BDD, the use of an electrochemical pretreatment (anodic and/or cathodic) has been sufficient to restore their original

  4. The fabrication and evaluation of diamond cold cathodes for field emitter display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, N.A.

    1998-08-01

    Semiconducting diamond is a candidate wide-band gap material for applications in vacuum microelectronic devices. Its potential use in components that are operated at high frequencies, handle high powers or are subjected to extremes of temperature and radiation have yet to be commercially realised. The work presented below sets out to determine whether semiconducting diamond is a suitable material for such active electronic devices by examining the most efficient means of initiating electron emission from Chemical Vapour Deposited (CVD), semiconducting diamond. Novel methods are reported for the incorporation of impurity atoms of Nitrogen and Phosphorus into CVD diamond that employ ion-implantation techniques. Demonstration of the efficient incorporation of these impurities to form donor states with low activation energies into polycrystalline diamond would facilitate efficient room temperature operation of pn junctions devices. The effectiveness of boron as a p-type dopant in CVD diamond films has enabled the investigation of potential field emitter structures using different boron concentrations in order to identify their respective conduction mechanisms and to make a comparison of their relative electron emission performance. It has been concluded that efficient electron emission is observed to originate from the interface of n + -p, silicon/diamond heterojunctions that employ thin p-type regions which are less than 5μm thick. The emission current may be controlled by the application of a low voltage forward bias of less than 1 volt. Only the np junction containing 400 ppm of boron in the p-diamond layer demonstrated forward biased electron emission. It is proposed that carrier conduction across the junction interface involves recombination and tunnelling steps between interface trap states. Furthermore it is believed that due to the junction interface being in direct contact with vacuum, within this region of the emitter structure, a surface conduction emission

  5. Growth of carbon fibres, sheets and tubes on diamond films under high power plasma etching conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalpando, I. [Centro de Investigacion de los Recursos Naturales, Antigua Normal Rural, Salaices, Lopez, Chihuahua (Mexico); John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B., E-mail: isaelav@hotmail.com [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14-4AS (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-01

    The application of diamond as a plasma facing material for fusion reactors can be limited by unknown reactions between diamond and the chamber materials transported by the plasma. Transformation of diamond to other structures can cause problems such as contamination of the plasma with loose particles or retention of gases. We have seen that diamond thin films are eroded under hydrogen plasma etching, but if silicon is present the growth of various carbon structures on diamond films is observed. We have produced carbon with different morphologies on diamond films including fibres, sheets with flower-like shapes and tubes and proposed growth mechanisms based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Sample surfaces contain silicon and are oxidised having COO and CO groups as seen by XP S analysis. Raman analyses revealed a spectrum typical for graphite combined with that from diamond that remains on the surface after hydrogen bombardment. The results of this sturdy show the experimental conditions in which carbon fibres, sheets and tubes are produced under high-power hydrogen etching of diamond films and open the possibility to other applications such as catalysts, sensors and the production of electrodes. (Author)

  6. Growth of carbon fibres, sheets and tubes on diamond films under high power plasma etching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalpando, I.; John, P.; Wilson, J. I. B.

    2017-01-01

    The application of diamond as a plasma facing material for fusion reactors can be limited by unknown reactions between diamond and the chamber materials transported by the plasma. Transformation of diamond to other structures can cause problems such as contamination of the plasma with loose particles or retention of gases. We have seen that diamond thin films are eroded under hydrogen plasma etching, but if silicon is present the growth of various carbon structures on diamond films is observed. We have produced carbon with different morphologies on diamond films including fibres, sheets with flower-like shapes and tubes and proposed growth mechanisms based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Sample surfaces contain silicon and are oxidised having COO and CO groups as seen by XP S analysis. Raman analyses revealed a spectrum typical for graphite combined with that from diamond that remains on the surface after hydrogen bombardment. The results of this sturdy show the experimental conditions in which carbon fibres, sheets and tubes are produced under high-power hydrogen etching of diamond films and open the possibility to other applications such as catalysts, sensors and the production of electrodes. (Author)

  7. Kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction at tin-adatoms-modified gold electrodes in acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md. Rezwan; Ohsaka, Takeo

    2009-01-01

    In the present report, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at polycrystalline gold (Au (poly)) electrode in situ modified by the underpotential deposition (upd) of Sn-adatoms is addressed. The ORR was investigated at the Sn-adatoms-modified Au (poly) electrode by the hydrodynamic voltammetric technique with a view to evaluating the various related kinetic parameters. The results demonstrated that the underpotential deposited Sn-adatoms on the Au (poly) electrode substantially promoted the activity of the electrode towards an exclusive one-step four-electron ORR forming H 2 O as the final product.

  8. Kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction at tin-adatoms-modified gold electrodes in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md. Rezwan [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: mrmche@yahoo.com; Ohsaka, Takeo [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: ohsaka@echem.titech.ac.jp

    2009-10-01

    In the present report, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at polycrystalline gold (Au (poly)) electrode in situ modified by the underpotential deposition (upd) of Sn-adatoms is addressed. The ORR was investigated at the Sn-adatoms-modified Au (poly) electrode by the hydrodynamic voltammetric technique with a view to evaluating the various related kinetic parameters. The results demonstrated that the underpotential deposited Sn-adatoms on the Au (poly) electrode substantially promoted the activity of the electrode towards an exclusive one-step four-electron ORR forming H{sub 2}O as the final product.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition diamond based multilayered radiation detector: Physical analysis of detection properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaviva, S.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Dolbnya, I.; Sawhney, K.; Tartoni, N.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, solid state photovoltaic Schottky diodes, able to detect ionizing radiation, in particular, x-ray and ultraviolet radiation, have been developed at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata'. We report on a physical and electrical properties analysis of the device and a detailed study of its detection capabilities as determined by its electrical properties. The design of the device is based on a metal/nominally intrinsic/p-type diamond layered structure obtained by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of homoepitaxial single crystal diamond followed by thermal evaporation of a metallic contact. The device can operate in an unbiased mode by using the built-in potential arising from the electrode-diamond junction. We compare the expected response of the device to photons of various energies calculated through Monte Carlo simulation with experimental data collected in a well controlled experimental setup i.e., monochromatic high flux x-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV, available at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (U.K.).

  10. Isolation and dispersion of reduced metal particles using the surface dipole moment of F-terminated diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Furuta, M. [Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, School of Science, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Kondo, T. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Fujishima, A. [Kanagawa Advanced Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1, Sakato, Takastu-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Honda, K. [Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, School of Science, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: khonda@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    2009-04-30

    Cu particles that have been reductively generated at the oxidized surface of a boron-doped diamond electrode (O-BDD) can be removed from the electrode's surface by the repulsive electrostatic force of the surface dipole moment during a potential cycle of a solution of Cu{sup 2+} ions. The objective of this study was to isolate various metal particles other than Cu by use of a fluorine-terminated BDD surface (F-BDD) with a stronger surface dipole moment than O-BDD, and to clarify the mechanism of the metal particles' separation from the electrode. During the potential cycle treatment of Cu{sup 2+} ions using F-BDD, the reionization of the reduced Cu could be suppressed in the presence of dissolved oxygen, and the Cu particles were separated from the electrode surface as CuO. A similar result was seen with O-BDD. The degree of separation of the Cu particles could be drastically enhanced by raising the upper potential limit in the potential cycle from +0.2 to +0.8 V. By setting the upper potential to a potential greater than the metal-metal oxide equilibrium line in the potential-pH equilibrium diagram of the Cu-water system (Pourbaix Diagram), oxidation of the reduced metal surface by reaction with dissolved oxygen could be accelerated and the surface of metal particles could be insulated. The Cu particles were forced from the BDD surface by the electrostatic repulsion from the surface dipole moment of F-BDD. Also, it turned out that the physical adsorption of chloride ions (Cl{sup -}) on the electrode surface intensified the electrostatic repulsive force between the F- or O-BDD surface and the metal particles, and thus increased the degree of the metal particles' separation. For Zn with a metal-metal oxide equilibrium potential of approximately -0.8 V at pH 7, complete separation of the Zn particles was achieved with F-BDD by setting the upper potential limit to +0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), decreasing the Zn{sup 2+} concentration (1/10 that of Cu{sup 2

  11. Photovoltaic effect in transition metal modified polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas; Chrisey, Douglas B; Pradhan, Dhiren Kumar; Katiyar, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Pankaj; Scott, J F; Katiyar, Ram S; Coondoo, Indrani; Panwar, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    We report photovoltaic (PV) effect in multiferroic Bi 0.9 Sm 0.1 Fe 0.95 Co 0.05 O 3 (BSFCO) thin films. Transition metal modified polycrystalline BiFeO 3 (BFO) thin films have been deposited on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si substrate successfully through pulsed laser deposition (PLD). PV response is observed under illumination both in sandwich and lateral electrode configurations. The open-circuit voltage (V oc ) and the short-circuit current density (J sc ) of the films in sandwich electrode configuration under illumination are measured to be 0.9 V and −0.051 µA cm −2 . Additionally, we report piezoresponse for BSFCO films, which confirms ferroelectric piezoelectric behaviour. (paper)

  12. Electron field emission from boron doped microcrystalline diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.; Baranauskas, V.; Fontana, M.; Ceragioli, H.J.; Peterlevitz, A.C.; Mallik, K.; Degasperi, F.T.

    2007-01-01

    Field emission properties of hot filament chemical vapor deposited boron doped polycrystalline diamond have been studied. Doping level (N B ) of different samples has been varied by the B/C concentration in the gas feed during the growth process and doping saturation has been observed for high B/C ratios. Threshold field (E th ) for electron emission as function of B/C concentration has been measured, and the influences of grain boundaries, doping level and surface morphology on field emission properties have been investigated. Carrier transport through conductive grains and local emission properties of surface sites have been figured out to be two independent limiting effects in respect of field emission. Emitter current densities of 500 nA cm -2 were obtained using electric fields less than 8 V/μm

  13. Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA): direct electrochemical oxidation on carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, T A; Oliveira-Brett, A M

    2013-02-01

    The direct electrochemical behaviour of peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) adsorbed on glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes surface, was studied over a wide pH range by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. MsrA oxidation mechanism occurs in three consecutive, pH dependent steps, corresponding to the oxidation of tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine amino acid residues. At the glassy carbon electrode, the first step corresponds to the oxidation of tyrosine and tryptophan residues and occurs for the same potential. The advantage of boron doped diamond electrode was to enable the separation of tyrosine and tryptophan oxidation peaks. On the second step occurs the histidine oxidation, and on the third, at higher potentials, the second tryptophan oxidation. MsrA adsorbs on the hydrophobic carbon electrode surface preferentially through the three hydrophobic domains, C1, C2 and C3, which contain the tyrosine, tryptophan and histidine residues, and tryptophan exists only in these regions, and undergo electrochemical oxidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  15. Phosphate-mediated electrochemical adsorption of cisplatin on gold electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, Adam; Figueiredo, Marta C.; Koper, Marc T.M.; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Rodriguez, Paramaconi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The potential-dependent adsorption and deposition of cisplatin on polycrystalline gold electrode is mediated by the adsorption of phosphate anions on gold electrode. •Quantitative analysis suggests that the stoichiometry of the phosphate species and the cisplatin adsorbed was 1:1. •Upon reduction of the phosphate-mediated cisplatin adsorption, the platinum deposits are formed by 3D nanoclusters -- Abstract: This manuscript reports the potential-dependent adsorption and deposition of cisplatin on polycrystalline gold electrode. It was found that this process is mediated by the adsorption of phosphate anions on the gold electrode and that the maximum coverage of Pt adsorbed is given by the maximum coverage of phosphate adsorbed at a given potential. The interaction of cisplatin with the phosphate groups was confirmed by in situ FTIR spectroscopy under external reflexion configuration. Quantitative analysis suggests that the stoichiometry of the phosphate species and the cisplatin adsorbed was 1:1. Moreover, the relationship between the charge of the Pt deposited and the charge of the electrochemical surface area of the Pt deposited on the gold electrodes indicates that 3D nanoclusters of a few atoms of Pt were formed over the gold electrode upon the electrochemical reduction of the adsorbed cisplatin. The Pt nanoclusters formed under these conditions were later evaluated for the oxidation of a monolayer of carbon monoxide. The Pt nanoclusters showed a high overpotential for the oxidation of the carbon monoxide monolayer and the high oxidation overpotential was attributed to the absence of adsorption sites for OH species on the Pt clusters: only at potentials where the OH species are adsorbed at the edge between the Pt nanocluster and the gold support, the oxidation of the carbon monoxide on the Pt nanoparticles takes place.

  16. Grinding With Diamond Burs and Hydrothermal Aging of a Y-TZP Material: Effect on the Material Surface Characteristics and Bacterial Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Dam; Pereira, Gkr; Kantorski, K Z; Exterkate, Ram; Kleverlaan, C J; Valandro, L F; Zanatta, F B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of grinding with diamond burs and low-temperature aging on the material surface characteristics and bacteria adhesion on a yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) surface. Y-TZP specimens were made from presintered blocks, sintered as recommended by the manufacturer, and assigned into six groups according to two factors-grinding (three levels: as sintered, grinding with extra-fine diamond bur [25-μm grit], and grinding with coarse diamond bur [181-μm grit]) and hydrothermal aging-to promote low-temperature degradation (two levels: presence/absence). Phase transformation (X-ray diffractometer), surface roughness, micromorphological patterns (atomic force microscopy), and contact angle (goniometer) were analyzed. Bacterial adhesion (colony-forming units [CFU]/biofilm) was quantified using an in vitro polymicrobial biofilm model. Both the surface treatment and hydrothermal aging promoted an increase in m-phase content. Roughness values increased as a function of increasing bur grit sizes. Grinding with a coarse diamond bur resulted in significantly lower values of contact angle (p0.05). Grinding with diamond burs and hydrothermal aging modified the Y-TZP surface properties; however, these properties had no effect on the amount of bacteria adhesion on the material surface.

  17. CdTe polycrystalline films on Ni foil substrates by screen printing and their photoelectric performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Huizhen; Ma, Jinwen; Mu, Yannan; Su, Shi; Lv, Pin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Liying; Li, Xue; Liu, Li; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The sintered CdTe polycrystalline films by a simple screen printing. • The flexible Ni foil was chose as substrates to reduce the weight of the electrode. • The compact CdTe film was obtained at 550 °C sintering temperature. • The photoelectric activity of the CdTe polycrystalline films was excellent. - Abstract: CdTe polycrystalline films were prepared on flexible Ni foil substrates by sequential screen printing and sintering in a nitrogen atmosphere for the first time. The effect of temperature on the quality of the screen-printed film was investigated in our work. The high-quality CdTe films were obtained after sintering at 550 °C for 2 h. The properties of the sintered CdTe films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and UV–visible spectroscopy. The high-quality CdTe films have the photocurrent was 2.04 mA/cm 2 , which is higher than that of samples prepared at other temperatures. Furthermore, CdCl 2 treatment reduced the band gap of the CdTe film due to the larger grain size. The photocurrent of photoelectrode based on high crystalline CdTe polycrystalline films after CdCl 2 treatment improved to 2.97 mA/cm 2 , indicating a potential application in photovoltaic devices

  18. Radiation damage in the diamond based beam condition monitors of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Guthoff, Moritz; Dabrowski, Anne; De Boer, Wim; Stickland, David; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) of the CMS detector at the LHC is a protection device similar to the LHC Beam Loss Monitor system. While the electronics used is the same, poly-crystalline Chemical Vapor Deposition (pCVD) diamonds are used instead of ionization chambers as the BCM sensor material. The main purpose of the system is the protection of the silicon Pixel and Strip tracking detectors by inducing a beam dump, if the beam losses are too high in the CMS detector. By comparing the detector current with the instantaneous luminosity, the BCM detector ef fi ciency can be monitored. The number of radiation-induced defects in the diamond, reduces the charge collection distance, and hence lowers the signal. The number of these induced defects can be simulated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation. The cross-section for creating defects increases with decreasing energies of the impinging particles. This explains, why diamond sensors mounted close to heavy calorimeters experience more radiation damage, becaus...

  19. Production and testing of a synthetic diamond film radiation dosimeter for radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Fidanzio, A; Venanzi, C; Pinzari, F; Piermattei, A

    2002-01-01

    A detector, constituted by a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond film, has been made for on-line radiotherapy beam analysis in terms of dose distributions in water equivalent material. Preliminary results are reported which evidence that the leakage current can be a limiting parameter for an efficient collection of the charge carriers produced by the ionizing radiation. A signal to noise ratio near to 100 has been obtained. A priming effect similar to that found in natural diamond devices has also been evidenced, and a stable detector response was obtained after an accumulated dose of 5 Gy. The linearity has been achieved between the detector reading and the dose. The detector sensitivity resulted was equal to 77 nC/Gy per mm sup 3 of detector sensitive volume. A power law with exponent DELTA less than one has been found between detector reading and dose rate. However, when the dose rate dependence was corrected, the percentage depth doses, along an X-ray beam central axis, was in agreement with ...

  20. Synthetic diamond devices for medical dosimetry applied to radiotherapy; Etude et developpement de dispositifs en diamant synthetique pour la dosimetrie medicale: applications en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descamps, C

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this thesis, lead in the framework of an integrated European project entitled M.A.E.S.T.R.O. for ' Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radio Oncology', was to develop and test synthetic diamond detector in clinical environment for new modalities used in radiotherapy. Diamond is a good candidate for the detection of high energy beams in medical fields. It can be used for passive dosimetry, as thermoluminescent dosimeters or for active dosimetry as ionisation chambers. These two applications are presented here. Concerning the thermoluminescence, several impurities or dopants (boron, phosphorus, and nitrogen) have been incorporated in the diamond films during growth, in order to modify the material dosimetric properties and a detailed study of nitrogen-containing films is proposed. The second part presents the results obtained in active dosimetry. Two guide lines were followed: the measurement set-up optimisation and the material modification. The first dosimetric studies under radiotherapy beams concerning nitrogen-containing polycrystalline diamond as well as high purity single crystal diamond are conclusive. The detectors behaviours are in agreement with the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  1. Synthetic diamond devices for medical dosimetry applied to radiotherapy; Etude et developpement de dispositifs en diamant synthetique pour la dosimetrie medicale: applications en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descamps, C

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this thesis, lead in the framework of an integrated European project entitled M.A.E.S.T.R.O. for ' Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radio Oncology', was to develop and test synthetic diamond detector in clinical environment for new modalities used in radiotherapy. Diamond is a good candidate for the detection of high energy beams in medical fields. It can be used for passive dosimetry, as thermoluminescent dosimeters or for active dosimetry as ionisation chambers. These two applications are presented here. Concerning the thermoluminescence, several impurities or dopants (boron, phosphorus, and nitrogen) have been incorporated in the diamond films during growth, in order to modify the material dosimetric properties and a detailed study of nitrogen-containing films is proposed. The second part presents the results obtained in active dosimetry. Two guide lines were followed: the measurement set-up optimisation and the material modification. The first dosimetric studies under radiotherapy beams concerning nitrogen-containing polycrystalline diamond as well as high purity single crystal diamond are conclusive. The detectors behaviours are in agreement with the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  2. Boron doped diamond sensor for sensitive determination of metronidazole: Mechanistic and analytical study by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, Hafedh Belhadj; Brahim, Mabrouk Ben; Abdelhédi, Ridha; Samet, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    The performance of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the detection of metronidazole (MTZ) as the most important drug of the group of 5-nitroimidazole was proven using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. A comparison study between BDD, glassy carbon and silver electrodes on the electrochemical response was carried out. The process is pH-dependent. In neutral and alkaline media, one irreversible reduction peak related to the hydroxylamine derivative formation was registered, involving a total of four electrons. In acidic medium, a prepeak appears probably related to the adsorption affinity of hydroxylamine at the electrode surface. The BDD electrode showed higher sensitivity and reproducibility analytical response, compared with the other electrodes. The higher reduction peak current was registered at pH 11. Under optimal conditions, a linear analytical curve was obtained for the MTZ concentration in the range of 0.2–4.2 μmol L"−"1, with a detection limit of 0.065 μmol L"−"1. - Highlights: • SWV for the determination of MTZ • Boron-doped diamond as a new electrochemical sensor • Simple and rapid detection of MTZ • Efficiency of BDD for sensitive determination of MTZ

  3. Electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid by [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-} redox couple electrostatically trapped in cationic N,N-dimethylaniline polymer film electropolymerized on diamond electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Protiva Rani [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Saha, Madhu Sudan [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Okajima, Takeyoshi [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Ohsaka, Takeo [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: ohsaka@echem.titech.ac.jp

    2006-06-01

    Multinegatively charged metal complex, hexacyanoferrate ([Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 4-}), was electrostatically trapped in the cationic polymer film of N,N-dimethylaniline (PDMA) which was electrochemically deposited on the boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode by controlled-potential electro-oxidation of the monomer. This ferrocyanide-trapped PDMA film was used to catalyze the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA). Increase in the oxidation current response with a negative shift of the anodic peak potential was observed at the cationic PDMA film-coated BDD (PDMA|BDD) electrode, compared with that at the bare BDD electrode. A more drastic enhancement in the oxidation peak current as well as more negative shift of oxidation potential was found at the ferrocyanide-trapped PDMA film-coated BDD ([Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-}|PDMA|BDD) electrode. This [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-}|PDMA|BDD electrode can be used as an amperometric sensor of AA. Ferrocyanide, electrostatically trapped in the polymer film shows more electrocatalytic activity than that coordinatively attached to the polymer film or dissolved in the solution phase. The electrocatalytic current depends on the surface coverage of ferricyanide, {gamma} {sub Fe}, within the polymer film. Diffusion coefficient (D) of AA in the solution was estimated by rotating disk electrode voltammetry: D = (5.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. The second-order rate constant for the catalytic oxidation of AA by ferricyanide was also estimated to be 9.0 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. In the hydrodynamic amperometry using the [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-}|PDMA|BDD electrode, a successive addition of 1 {mu}M AA caused the successive increase in current response with equal amplitude and the sensitivity was calculated as 0.233 {mu}A cm{sup -2} {mu}M{sup -1}.

  4. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  5. Diamond-based heat spreaders for power electronic packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemet, Thomas

    As any semiconductor-based devices, power electronic packages are driven by the constant increase of operating speed (higher frequency), integration level (higher power), and decrease in feature size (higher packing density). Although research and innovation efforts have kept these trends continuous for now more than fifty years, the electronic packaging technology is currently facing a challenge that must be addressed in order to move toward any further improvements in terms of performances or miniaturization: thermal management. Thermal issues in high-power packages strongly affect their reliability and lifetime and have now become one of the major limiting factors of power modules development. Thus, there is a strong need for materials that can sustain higher heat flux levels while safely integrating into the electronic package architecture. In such context, diamond is an attractive candidate because of its outstanding thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and high electrical resistivity. Its low heat capacity relative to metals such as aluminum or copper makes it however preferable for heat spreading applications (as a heat-spreader) rather than for dissipating the heat flux itself (as a heat sink). In this study, a dual diamond-based heat-spreading solution is proposed. Polycrystalline diamond films were grown through laser-assisted combustion synthesis on electronic substrates (in the U.S) while, in parallel, diamond-reinforced copper-matrix composite films were fabricated through tape casting and hot pressing (in France). These two types of diamond-based heat-spreading films were characterized and their microstructure and chemical composition were related to their thermal performances. Particular emphasize was put on the influence of interfaces on the thermal properties of the materials, either inside a single material (grain boundaries) or between dissimilar materials (film/substrate interface, matrix/reinforcement interface). Finally, the packaging

  6. Electron transfer reactions to probe the electrode/solution interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitanio, F.; Guerrini, E.; Colombo, A.; Trasatti, S. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry

    2008-07-01

    The reactions that occur at the interface between an electrode and an electrolyte were examined with particular reference to the interaction of different electrode surfaces with redox couples. A semi-integration or convolution technique was used to study the kinetics of electron transfer on different electrode materials with different hydrophilic behaviour, such as Boron-Doped-Diamond (BDD), Au and Pt. Standard reversible redox couples were also investigated, including (Fe3+/2+, Fe(CN)63-/4-, Ru(NH3)63+/2+, Co(NH3)63+/2+, Ir4+/3+, V4+/5+ and V3+/2+). The proposed method proved to be simple, straightforward and reliable since the obtained kinetic information was in good agreement with data in the literature. It was concluded that the kinetics of the electrode transfer reactions depend on the chemical nature of the redox couple and electrode material. The method should be further extended to irreversible couples and other electrode materials such as mixed oxide electrodes. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Commissioning and first operation of the pCVD diamond ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Dobos, D

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of the ATLAS Beam Conditions Monitor is to protect the ATLAS Inner Detector silicon trackers from high radiation doses caused by LHC beam incidents, e.g. magnet failures. The BCM uses in total 16 1x1 cm2 500 μm thick polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (pCVD) diamond sensors. They are arranged in 8 positions around the ATLAS LHC interaction point. Time difference measurements with sub nanosecond resolution are performed to distinguish between particles from a collision and spray particles from a beam incident. An abundance of the latter leads the BCM to provoke an abort of the LHC beam. A FPGA based readout system with a sampling rate of 2.56 GHz performs the online data analysis and interfaces the results to ATLAS and the beam abort system. The BCM diamond sensors, the detector modules and their readout system are described. Results of the operation with the first LHC beams are reported and results of commissioning and timing measurements (e.g. with cosmic muons) in preparation for first ...

  8. Anodic stripping voltammetry of gold nanoparticles at boron-doped diamond electrodes and its application in immunochromatographic strip tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Wicaksono, Wiyogo P; Saepudin, Endang; Rismetov, Bakhadir; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-03-01

    Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) of colloidal gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in 50 mM HClO4. A deposition time of 300 s at-0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was fixed as the condition for the ASV. The voltammograms showed oxidation peaks that could be attributed to the oxidation of gold. These oxidation peaks were then investigated for potential application in immunochromatographic strip tests for the selective and quantitative detection of melamine, in which AuNPs were used as the label for the antibody of melamine. Linear regression of the oxidation peak currents appeared in the concentration range from 0.05-0.6 μg/mL melamine standard, with an estimated LOD of 0.069 μg/mL and an average relative standard deviation of 8.0%. This indicated that the method could be considered as an alternative method for selective and quantitative immunochromatographic applications. The validity was examined by the measurements of melamine injected into milk samples, which showed good recovery percentages during the measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemical Sensing and Assessment of Parabens in Hydro- Alcoholic Solutions and Water Using a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Ostafe

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrochemical behaviour of several parabens preservatives, i.e. esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-4-hydroxybenzoates as methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-parabens (MB, EB, and PB, has been investigated at a commercial boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE, especially in the anodic potential range, in both hydro-alcoholic and aqueous media. The cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements yielded calibration plots with very good linearity (R2 between 0.990 and 0.998 and high sensitivity, useful for detection and analytical applications. The determination of the characteristics of individual compounds, of an “overall paraben index”, the assessment of the stability and the saturation solubility in water, and the amperometric sensing and determination in double distilled, tap and river water matrix of the relatively slightly soluble investigated parabens have been carried out using electrochemical alternative. Estimated water solubility was correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient. Several ideas regarding stability and persistence of the presumptive eco-toxic investigated preservatives in the environment or water systems have been adjacently discussed.

  10. Lateral overgrowth of diamond film on stripes patterned Ir/HPHT-diamond substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Feng; Chang, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhangcheng; Liu, Zongchen; Fu, Jiao; Zhao, Dan; Shao, Guoqing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Shaopeng; Liang, Yan; Zhu, Tianfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xing

    2018-05-01

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of diamond films on patterned Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates have been carried out by microwave plasma CVD system. Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates are fabricated by photolithographic and magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology of the as grown ELO diamond film is characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The quality and stress of the ELO diamond film are investigated by surface etching pit density and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two ultraviolet photodetectors are fabricated on ELO diamond area and non-ELO diamond area prepared on same substrate, and that one on ELO diamond area indicates better photoelectric properties. All results indicate quality of ELO diamond film is improved.

  11. Performance and perspectives of the diamond based Beam Condition Monitor for beam loss monitoring at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080862

    2015-01-01

    At CMS, a beam loss monitoring system is operated to protect the silicon detectors from high particle rates, arising from intense beam loss events. As detectors, poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors are placed around the beam pipe at several locations inside CMS. In case of extremely high detector currents, the LHC beams are automatically extracted from the LHC rings.Diamond is the detector material of choice due to its radiation hardness. Predictions of the detector lifetime were made based on FLUKA monte-carlo simulations and irradiation test results from the RD42 collaboration, which attested no significant radiation damage over several years.During the LHC operational Run1 (2010 â?? 2013), the detector efficiencies were monitored. A signal decrease of about 50 times stronger than expectations was observed in the in-situ radiation environment. Electric field deformations due to charge carriers, trapped in radiation induced lattice defects, are responsible for this signal decrease. This so-called polarizat...

  12. Diamond identifaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    X-ray topography on diamonds allows for unique identification of diamonds. The method described consists of the registration of crystal defects, inclusions etc. of a diamond, resulting in a 'finger print' of the individual jewel which can only be changed by its complete destruction

  13. Deposition and micro electrical discharge machining of CVD-diamond layers incorporated with silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, R.; Berger, T.; Prieske, M.; Börner, R.; Hackert-Oschätzchen, M.; Zeidler, H.; Schubert, A.

    2017-10-01

    In metal forming, lubricants have to be used to prevent corrosion or to reduce friction and tool wear. From an economical and ecological point of view, the aim is to avoid the usage of lubricants. For dry deep drawing of aluminum sheets it is intended to apply locally micro-structured wear-resistant carbon based coatings onto steel tools. One type of these coatings are diamond layers prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Due to the high strength of diamond, milling processes are unsuitable for micro-structuring of these layers. In contrast to this, micro electrical discharge machining (micro EDM) is a suitable process for micro-structuring CVD-diamond layers. Due to its non-contact nature and its process principle of ablating material by melting and evaporating, it is independent of the hardness, brittleness or toughness of the workpiece material. In this study the deposition and micro electrical discharge machining of silicon incorporated CVD-diamond (Si-CVD-diamond) layers were presented. For this, 10 µm thick layers were deposited on molybdenum plates by a laser-induced plasma CVD process (LaPlas-CVD). For the characterization of the coatings RAMAN- and EDX-analyses were conducted. Experiments in EDM were carried out with a tungsten carbide tool electrode with a diameter of 90 µm to investigate the micro-structuring of Si-CVD-diamond. The impact of voltage, discharge energy and tool polarity on process speed and resulting erosion geometry were analyzed. The results show that micro EDM is a suitable technology for micro-structuring of silicon incorporated CVD-diamond layers.

  14. Electron transfer at boron-doped diamond electrodes modified by graphitic micro-domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahe, E.; Devilliers, D. [Pierre et Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France). Electrochemistry Lab.; Comninellis, C. [Lausanne Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne (Switzerland). Groupe de Genie Electrochimique

    2006-07-01

    Boron-doped (BDD) electrodes have been used in electrolysis procedures for the last 10 years. The mechanical stability of the electrode, its large electrochemical window and its low capacitive current place this new electrode material as an alternative for replacing more costly or toxic materials such as mercury. However, the ferri/ferrocyanide system of boron-doped electrodes has shown contradictory results in the literature. This study proposed a cathodic pre-treatment which relied on the presence of residual graphitic domains formed during the preparation of the BDD film. An experiment was conducted in which the doping procedure was used to control the amount of graphitic phase on the electrode with highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) grafted on the BDD surface. Surface characterization with Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was then carried out using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electroanalytical determination of the amount of graphitic micro-domains was described and a pulse procedure was proposed which obtained a reproducible surface state. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Magnetron sputtered diamond-like carbon microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of quantal catecholamine release from cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuanfang; Chen, Xiaohui; Gupta, Sanju; Gillis, Kevin D.; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2008-01-01

    Carbon electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry due to their low cost, wide potential window, and low and stable background noise. Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFE) are commonly used to electrochemically measure “quantal” catecholamine release via exocytosis from individual cells, but it is difficult to integrate CFEs into lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report the development of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) microelectrodes on a chip to monitor quantal release of catecholamines...

  16. Resistive switching in polycrystalline YMnO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bogusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a unipolar, nonvolatile resistive switching in polycrystalline YMnO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and sandwiched between Au top and Ti/Pt bottom electrodes. The ratio of the resistance in the OFF and ON state is larger than 103. The observed phenomena can be attributed to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments within the multiferroic YMnO3 film. The generation of conductive paths under applied electric field is discussed in terms of the presence of grain boundaries and charged domain walls inherently formed in hexagonal YMnO3. Our findings suggest that engineering of the ferroelectric domains might be a promising route for designing and fabrication of novel resistive switching devices.

  17. On the development of a dual-layered diamond-coated tool for the effective machining of titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Rao, Balkrishna C; Ramachandra Rao, M S

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the development of a dual-layered diamond-coated tungsten carbide tool for machining titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy. A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique was used to synthesize diamond films on tungsten carbide tools. A boron-doped diamond interlayer was added to a microcrystalline diamond layer in an attempt to improve the interface adhesion strength. The dual-layered diamond-coated tool was employed in machining at cutting speeds in the range of 70 to 150 m min −1 with a lower feed and a lower depth of cut of 0.5 mm rev −1 and 0.5 mm, respectively, to operate in the transition from adhesion- to diffusion-tool-wear and thereby arrive at suitable conditions for enhancing tool life. The proposed tool was then compared, on the basis of performance under real-time cutting conditions, with commercially available microcrystalline diamond, nanocrystalline diamond, titanium nitride and uncoated tungsten carbide tools. The life and surface finish of the proposed dual-layered tool and uncoated tungsten carbide were also investigated in interrupted cutting such as milling. The results of this study show a significant improvement in tool life and finish of Ti-6Al-4V parts machined with the dual-layered diamond-coated tool when compared with its uncoated counterpart. These results pave the way for the use of a low-cost tool, with respect to, polycrystalline diamond for enhancing both tool life and machining productivity in critical sectors fabricating parts out of titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The application of this coating technology can also be extended to the machining of non-ferrous alloys owing to its better adhesion strength. (paper)

  18. Multilayer CVD Diamond Coatings in the Machining of an Al6061-15 Vol % Al2O3 Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadmehdi Shabani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic cutting inserts coated with ten-fold alternating micro- and nanocrystalline diamond (MCD/NCD layers grown by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD were tested in the machining of an Al based metallic matrix composite (MMC containing 15 vol % Al2O3 particles. Inserts with total coating thicknesses of approximately 12 µm and 24 µm were produced and used in turning: cutting speed (v of 250 to 1000 m·min−1; depth of cut (DOC from 0.5 to 3 mm and feed (f between 0.1 and 0.4 mm·rev−1. The main cutting force increases linearly with DOC (ca. 294 N per mm and with feed (ca. 640 N per mm·rev−1. The thicker coatings work within the following limits: DOC up to 1.5 mm and maximum speeds of 750 m·min−1 for feeds up to 0.4 mm·rev−1. Flank wear is predominant but crater wear is also observed due to the negative tool normal rake. Layer-by-layer wear of the tool rake, and not total delamination from the substrate, evidenced one of the advantages of using a multilayer design. The MCD/NCD multilayer diamond coated indexable inserts have longer tool life than most CVD diamond systems and behave as well as most polycrystalline diamond (PCD tools.

  19. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol and penicillin V by square-wave voltammetry at a bare boron-doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Švorc, Ľubomír; Sochr, Jozef; Tomčík, Peter; Rievaj, Miroslav; Bustin, Dušan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Unmodified BDD electrode = sensitive electrochemical sensor for drugs determination. ► No special pretreatment of samples except simple dilution. ► Selective method, common compounds present in urine do not interfere in high excess. ► Simultaneous determination of PAR and PEN has yet not been published in literature. - Abstract: A simple, sensitive and selective square-wave voltammetry method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and penicillin V on a bare (unmodified) boron-doped diamond electrode has been developed. The good potential separation of about 0.35 V between the oxidation peak potentials of both drugs present in mixture was found. It was found by cyclic voltammetry that paracetamol gave quasireversible wave and penicillin V provided irreversible oxidation peak. The effect of supporting electrolyte, pH and scan rate on voltammetric response of both drugs was studied to select the optimum experimental conditions. The optimal conditions for quantitative simultaneous determination were obtained in acetate buffer solution at pH 5.0. The oxidation peak of paracetamol and penicillin V showed a systematic increase in peak currents with increase of their concentration. The calibration curves for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol and penicillin V exhibited the good linear responses within the concentration range from 0.4 to 100 μM for both drugs. The detection limit was established to 0.21 and 0.32 μM for paracetamol and penicillin V, respectively. The method proved the good sensitivity, repeatability (RSD of 1.5 and 2.1% for mixture solution of 10 μM PCM and PEN) and selectivity when influence of interferents commonly existing in human urine was negligible. The practical analytical utility of proposed method was demonstrated by simultaneous determination of paracetamol and penicillin V in human urine samples, with results similar to those obtained using a high-performance liquid chromatography method as an

  20. Boron doped diamond sensor for sensitive determination of metronidazole: Mechanistic and analytical study by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammar, Hafedh Belhadj, E-mail: hbelhadjammar@yahoo.fr; Brahim, Mabrouk Ben; Abdelhédi, Ridha; Samet, Youssef

    2016-02-01

    The performance of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the detection of metronidazole (MTZ) as the most important drug of the group of 5-nitroimidazole was proven using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. A comparison study between BDD, glassy carbon and silver electrodes on the electrochemical response was carried out. The process is pH-dependent. In neutral and alkaline media, one irreversible reduction peak related to the hydroxylamine derivative formation was registered, involving a total of four electrons. In acidic medium, a prepeak appears probably related to the adsorption affinity of hydroxylamine at the electrode surface. The BDD electrode showed higher sensitivity and reproducibility analytical response, compared with the other electrodes. The higher reduction peak current was registered at pH 11. Under optimal conditions, a linear analytical curve was obtained for the MTZ concentration in the range of 0.2–4.2 μmol L{sup −1}, with a detection limit of 0.065 μmol L{sup −1}. - Highlights: • SWV for the determination of MTZ • Boron-doped diamond as a new electrochemical sensor • Simple and rapid detection of MTZ • Efficiency of BDD for sensitive determination of MTZ.

  1. Diamond identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of producing sets of records of the internal defects of diamonds as a means of identification of the gems by x-ray topography are described. To obtain the records one can either use (a) monochromatic x-radiation reflected at the Bragg angle from crystallographically equivalent planes of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections from each such plane being recorded from a number of directions of view, or (b) white x-radiation incident upon the diamond in directions having a constant angular relationship to each equivalent axis of symmetry of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections being recorded for each direction of the incident x-radiation. By either method an overall point-to-point three dimensional representation of the diamond is produced. (U.K.)

  2. A Comparative Analysis of 2-(Thiocyanomethylthio-Benzothiazole Degradation Using Electro-Fenton and Anodic Oxidation on a Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Vázquez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 2-(Thiocyanomethylthio-benzothiazole (TCMTB is used as fungicide in the paper, tannery, paint, and coatings industries, and its study is important as it is considered toxic to aquatic life. In this study, a comparison of direct anodic oxidation (AO using a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD and electro-Fenton (EF processes for TCMTB degradation in acidic chloride and sulfate media using a FM01-LC reactor was performed. The results of the electrolysis processes studied in the FM01-LC reactor showed a higher degradation of TCMTB with the anodic oxidation process than with the electro-Fenton process, reaching 81% degradation for the former process versus 47% degradation for the latter process. This difference was attributed to the decrease in H2O2 during the EF process, due to parallel oxidation of chlorides. The degradation rate and current efficiency increased as a function of volumetric flow rate, indicating that convection promotes anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton processes. The results showed that both AO and EF processes could be useful strategies for TCMTB toxicity reduction in wastewaters.

  3. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward deep blue nano hope diamonds: heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Steffen; Janssen, Wiebke; Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Yeap, Weng Siang; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Krueger, Anke

    2014-06-24

    The production of boron-doped diamond nanoparticles enables the application of this material for a broad range of fields, such as electrochemistry, thermal management, and fundamental superconductivity research. Here we present the production of highly boron-doped diamond nanoparticles using boron-doped CVD diamond films as a starting material. In a multistep milling process followed by purification and surface oxidation we obtained diamond nanoparticles of 10-60 nm with a boron content of approximately 2.3 × 10(21) cm(-3). Aberration-corrected HRTEM reveals the presence of defects within individual diamond grains, as well as a very thin nondiamond carbon layer at the particle surface. The boron K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure demonstrates that the B atoms are tetrahedrally embedded into the diamond lattice. The boron-doped diamond nanoparticles have been used to nucleate growth of a boron-doped diamond film by CVD that does not contain an insulating seeding layer.

  5. Rapid and sensitive electrochemical determination of codeine in pharmaceutical formulations and human urine using a boron-doped diamond film electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Švorc, Ľubomír; Sochr, Jozef; Svítková, Jana; Rievaj, Miroslav; Bustin, Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel electrochemical sensor for the determination of codeine is presented. ► Codeine provided a single oxidation peak at +1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl in BRBS at pH 7. ► Detection limit of 0.08 μM was achieved without electrode surface modification. ► Benefits of method: rapidity, low cost, low elaborateness and high repeatability. ► Possibility for drug quality control and drug analysis of biological samples. - Abstract: An unmodified boron-doped diamond film electrode was used for the first time as a sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor for the determination of codeine by the use of differential pulse voltammetry. Codeine provided a single well-defined oxidation peak at +1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl in Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 7.0. Using the optimal differential pulse voltammetric conditions (modulation amplitude of 50 mV, modulation time of 40 ms and scan rate of 50 mV s −1 ), the detection limit of 0.08 μM, the linear response of peak current on codeine concentration in the range from 0.1 to 60 μM (R 2 = 0.998, n = 6) and relative standard deviation of 0.9% at 10 μM concentration level (n = 10) were achieved without any electrode surface modification. The influence of potential interfering agents on the current response was also studied and the results indicated that the proposed method was sufficiently selective. The method was successfully applied in the determination of codeine in real samples including pharmaceutical tablets and human urine with results similar to those declared by manufacturer and obtained by reference high-performance liquid chromatography method, respectively. The typical benefits of the method may be summarized as: rapidity (20 determinations per hour), sensitivity and selectivity, low cost and elaborateness, simplicity, wide linear concentration range, low detection limit and excellent repeatability. It might also represent the competitive alternative to the existing analytical methods in monitoring of

  6. Probing Electrode Heterogeneity Using Fourier-Transformed Alternating Current Voltammetry: Application to a Dual-Electrode Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sze-Yin; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V; Zhang, Jie; Bond, Alan M

    2017-03-07

    Quantitative studies of electron transfer processes at electrode/electrolyte interfaces, originally developed for homogeneous liquid mercury or metallic electrodes, are difficult to adapt to the spatially heterogeneous nanostructured electrode materials that are now commonly used in modern electrochemistry. In this study, the impact of surface heterogeneity on Fourier-transformed alternating current voltammetry (FTACV) has been investigated theoretically under the simplest possible conditions where no overlap of diffusion layers occurs and where numerical simulations based on a 1D diffusion model are sufficient to describe the mass transport problem. Experimental data that meet these requirements can be obtained with the aqueous [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+/2+ redox process at a dual-electrode system comprised of electrically coupled but well-separated glassy carbon (GC) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. Simulated and experimental FTACV data obtained with this electrode configuration, and where distinctly different heterogeneous charge transfer rate constants (k 0 values) apply at the individual GC and BDD electrode surfaces, are in excellent agreement. Principally, because of the far greater dependence of the AC current magnitude on k 0 , it is straightforward with the FTACV method to resolve electrochemical heterogeneities that are ∼1-2 orders of magnitude apart, as applies in the [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+/2+ dual-electrode configuration experiments, without prior knowledge of the individual kinetic parameters (k 0 1 and k 0 2 ) or the electrode size ratio (θ 1 :θ 2 ). In direct current voltammetry, a difference in k 0 of >3 orders of magnitude is required to make this distinction.

  7. Application of polycrystalline diffusion barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsymbal, V.A.; Kolupaev, I.N.

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of contacts of the electronic equipment at the raised temperatures is connected with active diffusion redistribution of components contact - metalized systems (CMS) and phase production on interphase borders. One of systems diffusion barriers (DB) are polycrystalline silicide a film, in particular silicides of the titan. Reception disilicide the titan (TiSi 2 ) which on the parameters is demanded for conditions of microelectronics from known silicides of system Ti-Si, is possible as a result of direct reaction of a film of the titan and a substrate of silicon, and at sedimentation of layer Ti-Si demanded stoichiometric structure. Simultaneously there is specific problem polycrystalline diffusion a barrier (PDB): the polycrystalline provides structural balance and metastability film disilicide, but leaves in it borders of grains - easy local ways of diffusion. In clause the analysis diffusion permeability polycrystalline and polyphase DB is made and recommendations for practical methods of increase of blocking properties PDB are made.

  8. Detection of diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.O.; Blondeel, E.J.G.; Taylor, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond particles are distinguished from non-diamond, associated particles on the basis of their higher refractive index. The particles are brought to a specific location, typically in a stream of water flowing full in a vertical duct, and a beam of collimated electromagnetic radiation is directed at them. An array of radiation detectors is provided to detect refracted and/or reflected radiation. The array is so configured that the responses of the detectors, considered collectively, will be indicative of the presence of a diamond when a diamond is in fact present. However, when a particle having a substantially lower refractive index is present, the responses of the detectors will not be so indicative. The diamond and non-diamond particles can subsequently be sorted from one another

  9. An evaluation of electron diamond type EDO2E and EDO3 diamond radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, D.A.; Wilson, R.

    1977-12-01

    Observations on the response of two d.c. mode (EDO2E) and three pulse mode (EDO3) diamond probes to beta and gamma radiation are reported. In the d.c. mode, response to gamma exposure rates from 1 R h -1 to >6x10 4 R h -1 were measured, currents of approximately 5x10 -13 A and approximately 3x10 -9 A respectively at 20 0 C being observed. The dark current was approximately 3x10 -13 A at 20 0 C and doubled for every 3 to 4 0 C temperature rise. In the pulse mode the count rate was approximately linear with gamma exposure rate from 10 mR h -1 to > 300 R h -1 . The detection of beta particles was limited to energies > or approximately equal 0.8 MeV. Over the temperature range -5 0 C to 50 0 C the count rate for one probe increased by a factor of 1.25 whereas a second probe showed a decrease of 1.4. There is scope for major improvement of diamond detectors as reported by Kozlov et al (1977a) who have eliminated certain undesirable effects by careful selection and the provision of special electrodes. (author)

  10. Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.

  11. Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate at low concentration on coinage and transition-metal electrodes in acid solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dima, G.E.; Vooys, de A.C.A.; Koper, M.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    A comparative study was performed to determine the reactivity of nitrate ions at 0.1 M on eight different polycrystalline electrodes (platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, copper, silver and gold) in acidic solution using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and differential

  12. Diamond semiconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polowczyk, M.; Klugmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    Many efforts to apply the semiconducting diamond for construction of electronic elements: resistors, thermistors, photoresistors, piezoresistors, hallotrons, pn diodes, Schottky diodes, IMPATT diodes, npn transistor, MESFETs and MISFETs are reviewed. Considering the possibilities of acceptor and donor doping, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of diamond as well as high electric-field breakdown points, that diamond devices could be used at about 30-times higher frequency and more then 8200 times power than silicon devices. Except that, due to high heat resistant of diamond, it is concluded that diamond devices can be used in environment at high temperature, range of 600 o C. (author)

  13. Direct electrodeposition of metal nanowires on electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambirasi, Arianna; Cattarin, Sandro; Musiani, Marco; Vazquez-Gomez, Lourdes; Verlato, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    A method for decorating the surface of disk electrodes with metal nanowires is presented. Cu and Ni nanowires with diameters from 1.0 μm to 0.2 μm are directly deposited on the electrode surface using a polycarbonate membrane filter template maintained in contact with the metal substrate by the soft homogeneous pressure of a sponge soaked with electrolyte. The morphologic and structural properties of the deposit are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The latter shows that the head of nanowires with diameter of 0.4 μm is ordinarily polycrystalline, and that of nanowires with diameter of 0.2 μm is almost always monocrystalline for Cu and frequently also for Ni. Cyclic voltammetries and impedance investigations recorded in alkaline solutions at representative Ni electrodes decorated with nanowires provide consistent values of roughness factor, in the range 20-25.

  14. Highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for bisphenol A detection based on a diazonium-functionalized boron-doped diamond electrode modified with a multi-walled carbon nanotube-tyrosinase hybrid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehani, Nedjla; Fortgang, Philippe; Saddek Lachgar, Mohamed; Baraket, Abdoullatif; Arab, Madjid; Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Kherrat, Rochdi; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    A highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for the detection of Bisphenol A (BPA) in water has been developed by immobilizing tyrosinase onto a diazonium-functionalized boron doped diamond electrode (BDD) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The fabricated biosensor exhibits excellent electroactivity towards o-quinone, a product of this enzymatic reaction of BPA oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase. The developed BPA biosensor displays a large linear range from 0.01 nM to 100 nM, with a detection limit (LOD) of 10 pM. The feasibility of the proposed biosensor has been demonstrated on BPA spiked water river samples. Therefore, it could be a promising and reliable analytical tool for on-site monitoring of BPA in waste water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Noble gas studies in vapor-growth diamonds: Comparison with shock-produced diamonds and the origin of diamonds in ureilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Junichi; Fukunaga, Kazuya; Ito, Keisuke (Kobe Univ. (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    The authors synthesized vapor-trowth diamonds by two kinds of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using microwave (MWCVD) and hot filament (HFCVD) ionization of gases, and examined elemental abundances and isotopic compositions of the noble gases trapped in the diamonds. It is remarkable that strong differences existed in the noble gas concentrations in the two kinds of CVD diamonds: large amounts of noble gases were trapped in the MWCVD diamonds, but not in the HFCVD diamonds. The heavy noble gases (Ar to Xe) in the MWCVD diamonds were highly fractionated compared with those in the ambient atmosphere, and are in good agreement with the calculated fractionation patterns for plasma at an electron temperature of 7,000-9,000 K. These results strongly suggest that the trapping mechanism of noble gases in CVD diamonds is ion implantation during diamond growth. The degrees of fractionation of heavy noble gases were also in good agreement with those in ureilites. The vapor-growth hypothesis is discussed in comparison with the impact-shock hypothesis as a better model for the origin of diamonds in ureilites. The diamond (and graphite, amorphous carbon, too) may have been deposited on early condensates such as Re, Ir, W, etc. This model explains the chemical features of vein material in ureilites; the refractory siderophile elements are enriched in carbon and noble gases and low in normal siderophiles. The vapor-growth model is also compatible with the oxygen isotopic data of ureilites which suggests that nebular processes are primarily responsible for the composition of ureilites.

  16. Liquid jet impingement cooling with diamond substrates for extremely high heat flux applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienhard V, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The combination of impinging jets and diamond substrates may provide an effective solution to a class of extremely high heat flux problems in which very localized heat loads must be removed. Some potential applications include the cooling of high-heat-load components in synchrotron x-ray, fusion, and semiconductor laser systems. Impinging liquid jets are a very effective vehicle for removing high heat fluxes. The liquid supply arrangement is relatively simple, and low thermal resistances can be routinely achieved. A jet's cooling ability is a strong function of the size of the cooled area relative to the jet diameter. For relatively large area targets, the critical heat fluxes can approach 20 W/mm 2 . In this situation, burnout usually originates at the outer edge of the cooled region as increasing heat flux inhibits the liquid supply. Limitations from liquid supply are minimized when heating is restricted to the jet stagnation zone. The high stagnation pressure and high velocity gradients appear to suppress critical flux phenomena, and fluxes of up to 400 W/mm 2 have been reached without evidence of burnout. Instead, the restrictions on heat flux are closely related to properties of the cooled target. Target properties become an issue owing to the large temperatures and large temperature gradients that accompany heat fluxes over 100 W/mm 2 . These conditions necessitate a target with both high thermal conductivity to prevent excessive temperatures and good mechanical properties to prevent mechanical failures. Recent developments in synthetic diamond technology present a possible solution to some of the solid-side constraints on heat flux. Polycrystalline diamond foils can now be produced by chemical vapor deposition in reasonable quantity and at reasonable cost. Synthetic single crystal diamonds as large as 1 cm 2 are also available

  17. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  18. A comparison of diamond growth rate using in-liquid and conventional plasma chemical vapor deposition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Inoue, Toru

    2009-01-01

    In order to make high-speed deposition of diamond effective, diamond growth rates for gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition are compared. A mixed gas of methane and hydrogen is used as the source gas for the gas-phase deposition, and a methanol solution of ethanol is used as the source liquid for the in-liquid deposition. The experimental system pressure is in the range of 60-150 kPa. While the growth rate of diamond increases as the pressure increases, the amount of input microwave energy per unit volume of diamond is 1 kW h/mm 3 regardless of the method used. Since the in-liquid deposition method provides a superior cooling effect through the evaporation of the liquid itself, a higher electric input power can be applied to the electrodes under higher pressure environments. The growth rate of in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process is found to be greater than conventional gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process under the same pressure conditions.

  19. A comparison of diamond growth rate using in-liquid and conventional plasma chemical vapor deposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Inoue, Toru

    2009-06-01

    In order to make high-speed deposition of diamond effective, diamond growth rates for gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition are compared. A mixed gas of methane and hydrogen is used as the source gas for the gas-phase deposition, and a methanol solution of ethanol is used as the source liquid for the in-liquid deposition. The experimental system pressure is in the range of 60-150 kPa. While the growth rate of diamond increases as the pressure increases, the amount of input microwave energy per unit volume of diamond is 1 kW h/mm3 regardless of the method used. Since the in-liquid deposition method provides a superior cooling effect through the evaporation of the liquid itself, a higher electric input power can be applied to the electrodes under higher pressure environments. The growth rate of in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process is found to be greater than conventional gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process under the same pressure conditions.

  20. Recognition of diamond grains on surface of fine diamond grinding wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwei HUO; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG; Dongming GUO; Chun YANG

    2008-01-01

    The accurate evaluation of grinding wheel sur-face topography, which is necessary for the investigation of the grinding principle, optimism, modeling, and simu-lation of a grinding process, significantly depends on the accurate recognition of abrasive grains from the measured wheel surface. A detailed analysis of the grain size distri-bution characteristics and grain profile wavelength of the fine diamond grinding wheel used for ultra-precision grinding is presented. The requirements of the spatial sampling interval and sampling area for instruments to measure the surface topography of a diamond grinding wheel are discussed. To recognize diamond grains, digital filtering is used to eliminate the high frequency disturb-ance from the measured 3D digital surface of the grinding wheel, the geometric features of diamond grains are then extracted from the filtered 3D digital surface, and a method based on the grain profile frequency characteris-tics, diamond grain curvature, and distance between two adjacent diamond grains is proposed. A 3D surface pro-filer based on scanning white light interferometry is used to measure the 3D surface topography of a #3000 mesh resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, and the diamond grains are then recognized from the 3D digital surface. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.

  1. Fabrication of cone-shaped boron doped diamond and gold nanoelectrodes for AFM-SECM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdic, A; Lugstein, A; Bertagnolli, E [Solid State Electronics Institute, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Wu, M; Gollas, B [Competence Centre for Electrochemical Surface Technology, Viktor Kaplan Strasse 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pobelov, I; Wandlowski, T [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Freiestrasse 3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Leonhardt, K; Denuault, G, E-mail: alois.lugstein@tuwien.ac.at [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-08

    We demonstrate a reliable microfabrication process for a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) measurement tool. Integrated cone-shaped sensors with boron doped diamond (BDD) or gold (Au) electrodes were fabricated from commercially available AFM probes. The sensor formation process is based on mature semiconductor processing techniques, including focused ion beam (FIB) machining, and highly selective reactive ion etching (RIE). The fabrication approach preserves the geometry of the original AFM tips resulting in well reproducible nanoscaled sensors. The feasibility and functionality of the fully featured tips are demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, showing good agreement between the measured and calculated currents of the cone-shaped AFM-SECM electrodes.

  2. Anisotropic diamond etching through thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiraku; Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio

    2018-04-27

    Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour. Diamond under Ni films was selectively etched, with no etching at other locations. A diamond-etching rate of approximately 8.7 μm/min (1000 °C) was successfully achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this rate is considerably greater than those reported so far for other diamond-etching processes, including plasma processes. The anisotropy observed for this diamond etching was considerably similar to that observed for Si etching using KOH.

  3. Catalytic growth of carbon nanowires on composite diamond/silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellam, Amine [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Département CP2S (UMR CNRS 7198), Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Miska, Patrice [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Département P2M (UMR CNRS 7198), Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Ghanbaja, Jaafar [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Département CP2S (UMR CNRS 7198), Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Barrat, Silvère, E-mail: Silvere.Barrat@ijl.nancy-universite.fr [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Département CP2S (UMR CNRS 7198), Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) films and carbon nanowires (CNWs) provide individually highly attractive properties for science and technology applications. The possibility of carbon composite materials made from a combination of these materials remains a potential approach widely discussed in literature but modestly investigated. We report in this work an early attempt to explore this opportunity in the light of some specific experimental considerations. Carbon nanowires (CNWs) are grown at low temperature without the conventional use of external hydrocarbon vapor source on silicon substrates partially covered by a thin film of coalesced micrometric CVD diamond. Composite substrates constituted by PCD on silicon were first cleaned with H{sub 2} plasma then used for the PVD deposition of 5 nm Ni thin films. Then, samples were heat treated in a CVD reactor at 580 °C in the presence of pure H{sub 2} pressure of 60 hPa at different annealing times. Comparative effect of annealing time on the dewetting of Ni thin films and the subsequent CNWs growth process was considered in this work using systematic observations by SEM. Possible mechanisms underlying CNWs growth in pure H{sub 2} gas were proposed. The nature and structure of these CNWs have been investigated by TEM microscopy and by Raman spectroscopy on the sample showing the highest CNWs density.

  4. Enhanced extraction of silicon-vacancy centers light emission using bottom-up engineered polycrystalline diamond photonic crystal slabs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondič, Lukáš; Varga, Marián; Hruška, Karel; Fait, J.; Kapusta, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2017), s. 2972-2981 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-09692Y; GA MŠk LD15003; GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : photonic crystal * diamond * silicon vacancy center Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 13.942, year: 2016

  5. Ligand substitution and selective surface coordination studies of iodine and 2,5-dihydroxythiophenol at platinum electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, G.M.; Soriaga, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The relative surface coordination strengths of 2,5-dihydroxythiophenol (DHT) and iodine at a smooth polycrystalline platinum electrode have been investigated by thin-layer electrochemical techniques. The competitive chemisorption was studied by exposing the Pt electrode to solutions of varying mole fractions of I and DHT. Studies of ligand substitution were carried out by the introduction of an iodine-coated Pt electrode into DHT solutions, and the introduction of a DHT-coated into I solutions. Surface coverage measurements indicated that DHT is preferentially adsorbed and will displace chemisorbed iodine at the Pt electrode. Chemisorbed DHT is not appreciably displaced by iodine. These results and their contribution to the trend in the selective surface coordination chemistry of platinum electrodes will be discussed

  6. Diamond and Diamond-Like Materials as Hydrogen Isotope Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, L.R.; Barbero, R.S.; Carroll, D.W.; Archuleta, T.; Baker, J.; Devlin, D.; Duke, J.; Loemier, D.; Trukla, M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop diamond and diamond-like thin-films as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. Hydrogen embrittlement limits the life of boost systems which otherwise might be increased to 25 years with a successful non-reactive barrier. Applications in tritium processing such as bottle filling processes, tritium recovery processes, and target filling processes could benefit from an effective barrier. Diamond-like films used for low permeability shells for ICF and HEDP targets were also investigated. Unacceptable high permeabilities for hydrogen were obtained for plasma-CVD diamond-like-carbon films

  7. Comparison between beryllium and diamond-backing plates in diamond-anvil cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periotto, Benedetta; Nestola, Fabrizio; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2011-01-01

    A direct comparison between two complete intensity datasets, collected on the same sample loaded in two identical diamond-anvil pressure cells equipped, respectively, with beryllium and diamond backing plates was performed. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of diamond-backing plates...

  8. Use of ion selective electrodes for potentiometric analysis of solutions containing cadmium and cyanide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.V.; Glazkova, E.N.; Izmajlova, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Technique for cadmium potentiometric determination in the cadmium-plating cyanide electrolyte, which countains Cd(CN) n 2-n (n=1,2,3,4) complexes, is developed. Reactions of cadmium precipitation in the form of diethyldithiocarbamate serve as the ground for determination technique. Polycrystalline membrane electrodes with hard contact are used as indicator electrodes. Pd, Ni, Cu, Ag do not interfere with cadmium determination, Fe, Zn, Bi may coprecipitate with cadmium. Determination limit of cadmium ions is 5x10 -3 M

  9. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  10. Evaluation of Niobium as Candidate Electrode Material for DC High Voltage Photoelectron Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    BastaniNejad, M.; Mohamed, Abdullah; Elmustafa, A. A.; Adderley, P.; Clark, J.; Covert, S.; Hansknecht, J.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M.; Mammei, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The field emission characteristics of niobium electrodes were compared to those of stainless steel electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of eight electrodes were evaluated: two 304 stainless steel electrodes polished to mirror-like finish with diamond grit and six niobium electrodes (two single-crystal, two large-grain, and two fine-grain) that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Upon the first application of high voltage, the best large-grain and single-crystal niobium electrodes performed better than the best stainless steel electrodes, exhibiting less field emission at comparable voltage and field strength. In all cases, field emission from electrodes (stainless steel and/or niobium) could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode was biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (< 10 pA) at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of 18:7 MV/m.

  11. Silicon solar cell performance deposited by diamond like carbon thin film ;Atomic oxygen effects;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Abbas Ail; Eshaghi, Akbar; Karami, Esmaeil

    2017-09-01

    In this research, a diamond-like carbon thin film was deposited on p-type polycrystalline silicon solar cell via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method by using methane and hydrogen gases. The effect of atomic oxygen on the functioning of silicon coated DLC thin film and silicon was investigated. Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the DLC thin film. Photocurrent-voltage characteristics of the silicon solar cell were carried out using a solar simulator. The results showed that atomic oxygen exposure induced the including oxidation, structural changes, cross-linking reactions and bond breaking of the DLC film; thus reducing the optical properties. The photocurrent-voltage characteristics showed that although the properties of the fabricated thin film were decreased after being exposed to destructive rays, when compared with solar cell without any coating, it could protect it in atomic oxygen condition enhancing solar cell efficiency up to 12%. Thus, it can be said that diamond-like carbon thin layer protect the solar cell against atomic oxygen exposure.

  12. FOR INFORMATION: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 TéL: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 30 November PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium CVD Diamond Radiation Sensors For Application In Very High Radiation Environments by Prof. Peter Weilhammer / University and INFN Perugia and CERN After an introduction into the basic properties and operating principles of CVD diamond radiation sensor material, measurements of charge carrier collection and leakage currents in single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamonds will be presented. Results from measurements of the effective mobilities and carrier lifetime of electrons and holes, using the Transient Current Technique (TCT), will be shown. Radiation hardness of CVD polycrystalline diamonds will be discussed. A summary of radiation hardness measurements, carried out over several years, will be presented for polycrystalline material. Performance of diamond trackin...

  13. A multidimensional high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Leonardo S; de Moraes, Marcela C; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Cass, Quezia B

    2009-11-10

    The development and validation of a multidimensional HPLC method using an on-line clean-up column coupled with amperometric detection employing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in bovine milk are presented. Aliquots of pre-prepared skim-milk samples were directly injected into a RAM octyl-BSA column in order to remove proteins that otherwise would interfere with milk analysis. After exclusion of the milk proteins, SMX and TMP were transferred to the analytical column (an octyl column) and the separation of the compounds from one another and from other endogenous milk components was achieved. SMX and TMP were detected amperometrically at 1.25V vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0molL(-1) KCl). Results with good linearity in the concentration ranges 50-800 and 25-400microgL(-1) for SMX and TMP, respectively, were obtained and no fouling of the BDD electrode was observed within the experimental period of several hours. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 10% for both drugs and the obtained LOD values for SMX and TMP were 25.0 and 15.0microgL(-1), respectively.

  14. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of elementary technologies for low-cost polycrystalline cell modules; Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Takessho cell module tei cost ka yoso gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on development of elementary technologies for low-cost polycrystalline cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of elementary technologies for mass production, fast surface machining, fast electrode forming and fast forming of junctions and antireflection films were studied. Surface machining by rotating grindstone was studied as fast cutting of fine grooves on Si substrates, resulting in possible fast machining superior in shape accuracy. Electrode properties equivalent or superior to previous ones were obtained by fast electrode forming using a fast printing/sintering equipment even at transfer speed 7.5 times as high as that of conventional methods. Simultaneous fast forming of junctions and antireflection films were achieved by heat treatment after deposition on Si substrate surfaces while heat-decomposing Ti and P compound gas. (2) On development of module structure, an optimum cell group angle, low reflection rate at glass surface, and fast wiring were studied. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Advances in Thermionic Energy Conversion through Single-Crystal n-Type Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz A. M. Koeck

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermionic energy conversion, a process that allows direct transformation of thermal to electrical energy, presents a means of efficient electrical power generation as the hot and cold side of the corresponding heat engine are separated by a vacuum gap. Conversion efficiencies approaching those of the Carnot cycle are possible if material parameters of the active elements at the converter, i.e., electron emitter or cathode and collector or anode, are optimized for operation in the desired temperature range. These parameters can be defined through the law of Richardson–Dushman that quantifies the ability of a material to release an electron current at a certain temperature as a function of the emission barrier or work function and the emission or Richardson constant. Engineering materials to defined parameter values presents the key challenge in constructing practical thermionic converters. The elevated temperature regime of operation presents a constraint that eliminates most semiconductors and identifies diamond, a wide band-gap semiconductor, as a suitable thermionic material through its unique material properties. For its surface, a configuration can be established, the negative electron affinity, that shifts the vacuum level below the conduction band minimum eliminating the surface barrier for electron emission. In addition, its ability to accept impurities as donor states allows materials engineering to control the work function and the emission constant. Single-crystal diamond electrodes with nitrogen levels at 1.7 eV and phosphorus levels at 0.6 eV were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition where the work function was controlled from 2.88 to 0.67 eV, one of the lowest thermionic work functions reported. This work function range was achieved through control of the doping concentration where a relation to the amount of band bending emerged. Upward band bending that contributed to the work function was attributed to

  16. Diamond film growth with modification properties of adhesion between substrate and diamond film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setasuwon P.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond film growth was studied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD. A special equipment was build in-house, employing a welding torch, and substrate holder with a water-cooling system. Acetylene and oxygen were used as combustion gases and the substrate was tungsten carbide cobalt. It was found that surface treatments, such as diamond powder scratching or acid etching, increase the adhesion and prevent the film peel-off. Diamond powder scratching and combined diamond powder scratching with acid etching gave the similar diamond film structure with small grain and slightly rough surface. The diamond film obtained with both treatments has high adhesion and can withstand internal stress better than ones obtained by untreated surface or acid etching alone. It was also found that higher substrate temperature produced smoother surface and more uniform diamond grain.

  17. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M [Downers Grove, IL

    2009-08-11

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  18. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  19. Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: δ13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.; Aulbach, S.; Deines, P.

    Diamonds from the Kankan area in Guinea formed over a large depth profile beginning within the cratonic mantle lithosphere and extending through the asthenosphere and transition zone into the lower mantle. The carbon isotopic composition, the concentration of nitrogen impurities and the nitrogen aggregation level of diamonds representing this entire depth range have been determined. Peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds of lithospheric origin from Kankan have carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C: peridotitic -5.4 to -2.2‰ eclogitic -19.7 to -0.7‰) and nitrogen characteristics (N: peridotitic 17-648 atomic ppm; eclogitic 0-1,313 atomic ppm; aggregation from IaA to IaB) which are generally typical for diamonds of these two suites worldwide. Geothermobarometry of peridotitic and eclogitic inclusion parageneses (worldwide sources) indicates that both suites formed under very similar conditions within the cratonic lithosphere, which is not consistent with a derivation of diamonds with light carbon isotopic composition from subducted organic matter within subducting oceanic slabs. Diamonds containing majorite garnet inclusions fall to the isotopically heavy side (δ13C: -3.1‰ to +0.9‰) of the worldwide diamond population. Nitrogen contents are low (0-126 atomic ppm) and one of the two nitrogen-bearing diamonds shows such a low level of nitrogen aggregation (30% B-centre) that it cannot have been exposed to ambient temperatures of the transition zone (>=1,400 °C) for more than 0.2 Ma. This suggests rapid upward transport and formation of some Kankan diamonds pene-contemporaneous to Cretaceous kimberlite activity. Similar to these diamonds from the asthenosphere and the transition zone, lower mantle diamonds show a small shift towards isotopic heavy compositions (-6.6 to -0.5‰, mode at -3.5‰). As already observed for other mines, the nitrogen contents of lower mantle diamonds were below detection (using FTIRS). The mutual shift of sublithospheric diamonds towards

  20. Characterization and electrocatalytic application of silver modified polypyrrole electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. DEKANSKI

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver modified polypyrrole electrodeswere preparedwith the aim of testing them for the electrooxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline solution. The modification of polypyrrole by immersion in aqueous AgNO3 solution was studied by cyclic voltammetry and vacuum techniques (AES and XPS. The influence of time of immersion and the thickness of the polypyrrole film, prepared by electrochemical polymerization, on the modification of the polymer were examined. The results acquired from both electrochemical and spectroscopic examinations show that immersion of a polypyrrole electrode in a AgNO3 solution results in its modificationwith silver, which is deposited in the elemental state on the surface. The quantity of silver deposited depends not only on the immersion time but also on the thickness of the polymer film. A modified PPy/Ag electrode exhibits catalytic activity for the electrooxidation of CH2O in NaOH. In spite of the low quantity of silver, the activity of the electrode for this reaction is comparable to that of a polycrystalline silver electrode.

  1. The versatility of hot-filament activated chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Lothar; Hoefer, Markus; Kroeger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    In the field of activated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of polycrystalline diamond films, hot-filament activation (HF-CVD) is widely used for applications where large deposition areas are needed or three-dimensional substrates have to be coated. We have developed processes for the deposition of conductive, boron-doped diamond films as well as for tribological crystalline diamond coatings on deposition areas up to 50 cm x 100 cm. Such multi-filament processes are used to produce diamond electrodes for advanced electrochemical processes or large batches of diamond-coated tools and parts, respectively. These processes demonstrate the high degree of uniformity and reproducibility of hot-filament CVD. The usability of hot-filament CVD for diamond deposition on three-dimensional substrates is well known for CVD diamond shaft tools. We also develop interior diamond coatings for drawing dies, nozzles, and thread guides. Hot-filament CVD also enables the deposition of diamond film modifications with tailored properties. In order to adjust the surface topography to specific applications, we apply processes for smooth, fine-grained or textured diamond films for cutting tools and tribological applications. Rough diamond is employed for grinding applications. Multilayers of fine-grained and coarse-grained diamond have been developed, showing increased shock resistance due to reduced crack propagation. Hot-filament CVD is also used for in situ deposition of carbide coatings and diamond-carbide composites, and the deposition of non-diamond, silicon-based films. These coatings are suitable as diffusion barriers and are also applied for adhesion and stress engineering and for semiconductor applications, respectively

  2. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    CERN Document Server

    Kassel, Florian; Dabrowski, Anne; de Boer, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field,...

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao; Luo Fei; Long Hua; Hu Shaoliu; Li Bo; Wang Youqing

    2005-01-01

    Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials

  4. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall

    2009-09-01

    Natural diamond has been valued for its appearance and mechanical properties for at least two thousand years. As a gem stone diamond is unsurpassed. However, scientific work, especially in the last 20 years, has demonstrated that diamond has numerous surprising properties and many unique ones. Some of the extreme properties have been known for many years, but the true scale of diamond's other highly desirable features is still only coming to light as control in the synthesis of diamond, and hence material perfection, improves. The ultimate prize for man-made diamond is surely not in the synthesis of gem stones, but in delivering technological solutions enabled by diamond to the challenges facing our society today. If the special properties are to be exploited to their full potential, at least four crucial factors must be considered. First, there must be sufficient scientific understanding of diamond to make applications effective, efficient and economical. Secondly, the means of fabrication and control of properties have to be achieved so that diamond's role can be optimised. Thirdly, it is not enough that its properties are superior to existing materials: they must be so much better that it is worth initiating new technologies to exploit them. Finally, any substantial applications will have to address the society's major needs worldwide. The clear technology drivers for the 21st century come from the biomedical technologies, the demand for energy subject to global constraints, and the information technologies, where perhaps diamond will provide the major enabling technology [1]. The papers in this volume concern the solid state physics of diamond, and primarily concern the first two factors: understanding, and control of properties. They address many of the outstanding basic problems, such as the identification of existing defects, which affect the material's properties, both desirable and less so. Regarding future substantial applications, one paper discusses

  5. Glass and antimony electrodes for long-term pH monitoring: a dynamic in vitro comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geus, W. P.; Smout, A. J.; Kooiman, J. C.; Lamers, C. B.; Gues, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of combined glass microelectrodes with monocrystalline and polycrystalline antimony electrodes with external reference in a 24-h dynamic in vitro study. DESIGN AND METHODS: In an artificial stomach, the pH of the contents titrated from pH1-7 and back by NaOH and

  6. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Robert P [Kingwood, TX

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  7. Optimization of actinides trace precipitation on diamond/Si PIN sensor for alpha-spectrometry in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Q.T.; Pomorski, M.; Sanoit, J. de; Mer-Calfati, C.; Scorsone, E.; Bergonzo, P.

    2014-01-01

    We report here on a new approach for the detection and identification of actinides (Pu, Am, Cm, etc). This approach is based on the use of a novel device consisting of a boron doped nanocrystalline diamond film deposited onto a silicon PIN diode alpha particle sensor. The actinides concentration is probed in situ in the measuring solution using a method based on electro-precipitation that can be carried out via the use of a doped diamond electrode. The device allows probing directly both alpha-particles activity and energy in liquid solutions. In this work, we address the optimization of the actinides electro-precipitation step onto the sensor. The approach is based on fine tuning the pH of the electrolyte, the nature of the supporting electrolytes (Na_2SO_4 or NaNO_3), the electrochemical cell geometry, the current density value, the precipitation duration as well as the sensor surface area. The deposition efficiency was significantly improved with values reaching for instance up to 81.5% in the case of electro-precipitation of 5.96 Bq "2"4"1Am on the sensor. The diamond/silicon sensor can be reused after measurement by performing a fast decontamination step at high yields 99%, where the "2"4"1Am electro-precipitated layer is quickly removed by applying an anodic current (+2 mA.cm"-"2 for 10 minutes) to the boron doped nanocrystalline diamond electrode in aqueous solution. This study demonstrated that alpha-particle spectroscopic measurements could be made feasible for the first time in aqueous solutions after an electrochemical deposition process, with theoretical detections thresholds as low as 0.24 Bq.L"-"1. We believe that this approach can be of very high interest for alpha-particle spectroscopy in liquids for actinides trace detection. (authors)

  8. Investigation of charge multiplication in single crystalline CVD diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muškinja, M.; Cindro, V.; Gorišek, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kagan, H. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University (United States); Kramberger, G., E-mail: Gregor.Kramberger@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mandić, I. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuž, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Phan, S.; Smith, D.S. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University (United States); Zavrtanik, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-01-01

    A special metallization pattern was created on a single crystalline diamond detector aimed at creating high enough electric field for impact ionization in the detector material. Electric field line focusing through electrode design and very high bias voltages were used to obtain high electric fields. Previous measurements and theoretical calculations indicated that drifting charge multiplication by impact ionization could take place. A large increase of induced charge was observed for the smallest dot electrode which points to charge multiplication while for the large dot and pad detector structure no such effect was observed. The evolution of induced currents was also monitored with the transient current technique. Induced current pulses with duration of order 1 μs were measured. The multiplication gain was found to depend on the particle rate.

  9. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, James C. [KINIK Company, 64, Chung-San Rd., Ying-Kuo, Taipei Hsien 239, Taiwan (China) and National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China) and National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sung@kinik.com.tw; Sung, Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sung, Emily [Johnson and Johnson, Freemont, CA (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry.

  10. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, James C.; Sung, Michael; Sung, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry

  11. The Influence of Tool Composite's Structure During Process of Diamond Grinding of Ceramic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlik Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the tests performed during the grinding process of the ceramic materials: – polycrystalline ceramics (Zirconium ZrO2 and mono-crystalline ceramics (sapphire α-Al2O3 by the diamond tools. Studies have shown that the concentration (thickening of the tool composite changes the tool's pore structure when using suitable wetted adamantine additives. Such modified composite has positive impact on tribological properties of the subsurface layer of the machined components. This is manifested by the reduction of the surface roughness and reduction of the vibration amplitude of the coefficient of friction. The possibilities of the positive effects when using wetted additives on the tool's composite during the pressing (briquetting stage confirm the study results.

  12. Electrochemical degradation of diuron and dichloroaniline at BDD electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polcaro, Anna Maria; Mascia, Michele; Palmas, Simonetta; Vacca, Annalisa

    2004-01-01

    The degradation of diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) has been studied at boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. A three electrode impinging jet cell was used to improve the mass transfer of the reactant to the electrode surface. In the whole range of experimental conditions examined, the reactants were completely mineralised and passivation of the electrode surface was not observed. HPLC and ionic chromatography analyses revealed that the reaction involves the oxidative ring-cleavage and the formation of stoichiometric amounts of chloride and ammonium ions. Depending on the specific experimental conditions, short-chained organic acids were also identified as intermediate products. Values of global current efficiencies greater than 20% were obtained even operating with low reactant concentration (0.17 mM for diuron and 2 mM for dichloroaniline) provided that a suitable ratio between applied current and mass transfer rate was guaranteed

  13. Electrochemical degradation of diuron and dichloroaniline at BDD electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, Anna Maria; Mascia, Michele; Palmas, Simonetta; Vacca, Annalisa

    2004-02-15

    The degradation of diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) has been studied at boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. A three electrode impinging jet cell was used to improve the mass transfer of the reactant to the electrode surface. In the whole range of experimental conditions examined, the reactants were completely mineralised and passivation of the electrode surface was not observed. HPLC and ionic chromatography analyses revealed that the reaction involves the oxidative ring-cleavage and the formation of stoichiometric amounts of chloride and ammonium ions. Depending on the specific experimental conditions, short-chained organic acids were also identified as intermediate products. Values of global current efficiencies greater than 20% were obtained even operating with low reactant concentration (0.17 mM for diuron and 2 mM for dichloroaniline) provided that a suitable ratio between applied current and mass transfer rate was guaranteed.

  14. Development of solar-driven electrochemical and photocatalytic water treatment system using a boron-doped diamond electrode and TiO2 photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Kazuya; Murakami, Taketoshi; Fujishima, Akira; Yao, Yanyan; Tryk, Donald A; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance, environmentally friendly water treatment system was developed. The system consists mainly of an electrochemical and a photocatalytic oxidation unit, with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and TiO(2) photocatalyst, respectively. All electric power for the mechanical systems and the electrolysis was able to be provided by photovoltaic cells. Thus, this system is totally driven by solar energy. The treatment ability of the electrolysis and photocatalysis units was investigated by phenol degradation kinetics. An observed rate constant of 5.1 x 10(-3)dm(3)cm(-2)h(-1) was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis for the electrolysis, and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constant of 5.6 microM(-1)min(-1) was calculated by kinetic analysis of the photocatalysis. According to previous reports, these values are sufficient for the mineralization of phenol. In a treatment test of river water samples, large amounts of chemical and biological contaminants were totally wet-incinerated by the system. This system could provide 12L/day of drinking water from the Tama River using only solar energy. Therefore, this system may be useful for supplying drinking water during a disaster. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 3D Textural and Geochemical Analyses on Carbonado Diamond: Insights from Pores and the Minerals within Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckley, S. A.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonado is an enigmatic variety of polycrystalline diamond found only in placer deposits and Proterozoic metaconglomerates in Brazil and the Central African Republic with unknown primary origin. These highly porous black nodules possess a narrow range of isotopically light carbon (δ13C -31 to -24 ‰), a primarily crustal inclusion suite unusually enriched in REEs and actinides filling the pore spaces, a crystallization age from 2.6 to 3.8 Ga, and other atypical features which have led to a variety of formation theories from extra-solar to deep mantle. We have completed the first multi-sample 3D textural analysis on nine carbonados using high resolution X-ray CT (XCT), with follow-up geochemical work. We have documented a variety of textures in both pore structure and mineralogy within pores. All pore textures feature a preferred orientation. Spatial coherence in pore fillings in some specimens suggest that secondary minerals formed by in-situ breakdown of primary inclusion phases. This, combined with the presence of pseudomorphs, support the hypothesis that elements comprising the secondary minerals within the pore spaces are actually primary. SEM-EDS analysis of one carbonado's exterior revealed the presence of zircon; XCT analysis of the complete volume indicates zircon is present only on the exterior of that specimen, but may be interior to others. Anticipated follow-up work will include LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating and REE analysis of the zircon, and step-leaching and ICP analysis of some specimens. Periodic XCT imaging will allow us to trace leaching progress and effectiveness. To provide further context for our observed pore fabrics, we also analyzed a framesite, a less porous polycrystalline diamond found in kimberlites thought to crystallize shortly before eruption. Both diamond varieties have bladed/elongated pores forming a foliation with a moderate lineation. The similarity in fabrics suggests a similar process could have formed both carbonados and

  16. Modification of a Polycrystalline Gold Electrode by Thiolated Calix[4]arene and Undecanethiol: Self-assembly Process versus Electrochemical Deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šustrová, Barbora; Štulík, Karel; Mareček, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2013), s. 4367-4383 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645; GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Thiolated calixarene * Polycrystalline gold * Surface modification Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  17. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  18. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Corrigan, Dennis; Venkatesan, Srini; Young, Rosa; Fierro, Christian; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  19. Tl and OSL dosimetry of diamond films CVD pure and unpurified with boron-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendrez, R.; Pedroza M, M.; Chernov, V.; Ochoa N, J.D.; Bernal, R.; Barboza F, M.; Castaneda, B.; Goncalves, J.A.N.; Sandonato, G.M.; Cruz Z, E.; Preciado F, S.; Cruz V, C.; Brown, F.; Schreck, M.

    2004-01-01

    The diamond is a material that possesses extreme physical properties, such as its hardness to the radiation, its low chemical reactivity besides its equivalence to the human tissue, which qualify him as an ideal material for radiation dosimetry. In this work, it was studied the thermal and optically stimulated response (Tl and OSL) of polycrystalline diamond films grown by the technique of CVD pure and contaminated with Boron-carbon (B/C) with the intention of characterizing their efficiency like a dosemeter for radiation in a range of 0 - 3000 Gy. For the case of the films without impurities, the Tl curve presents four main peaks, two of them in an interval of temperatures of 150-200 C and other two additional around of 250-400 C. The dependence of the response of integrated Tl and that of OSL always maintained a lineal relationship with the exhibition dose up to 100 Gy. The behavior of the films contaminated with B/C (2000 - 20000 ppm) was established through experiments that involved the signal of OSL and their relationship with the Tl response. It was found that this processes are correlated, since the electrons caught in the traps of low temperature (50 - 250 C) of the Tl they are the electrons that recombining with more probability to provide the signal of OSL. According to these results it is possible to propose the diamond films as a good candidate for dosimetry to, using the traditional technique of Tl so much as well as the but recent of OSL. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of niobium as candidate electrode material for dc high voltage photoelectron guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BastaniNejad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The field emission characteristics of niobium electrodes were compared to those of stainless steel electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of eight electrodes were evaluated: two 304 stainless steel electrodes polished to mirrorlike finish with diamond grit and six niobium electrodes (two single-crystal, two large-grain, and two fine-grain that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Upon the first application of high voltage, the best large-grain and single-crystal niobium electrodes performed better than the best stainless steel electrodes, exhibiting less field emission at comparable voltage and field strength. In all cases, field emission from electrodes (stainless steel and/or niobium could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode was biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (<10  pA at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of 18.7  MV/m.

  1. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical and physical origins of the anomalously large enhancement of the Raman scattering cross section for molecules adsorbed on silver electrodes in an electrochemical cell were investigated. The effect of the chemical reactions which occur during the anodization/activation procedure were studied using the Ag-CN system. It was shown that the function of the anodization process is to roughen the electrode surface and create an activated site for bonding to the cyanide. A new nonelectrochemical technique for activating the silver surface, along with a study of the enhanced cyanide Raman scattering in different background electrolytes, showed that the Raman active entity on the surface must be a silver-cyanide complex. In order to study the physical mechanism of the enhancement, the angular dependence of the scattered radiation was measured from pyridine adsorbed on an evaporated silver electrode. Both polycrystalline and single crystalline silver films were used. The angular dependence of the scattered radiation from these films showed that the metal surface was controlling the directional properties of the scattered radiation, and not the polarizability tensor of the adsorbate. Based on these experimental results, it was concluded that for weakly roughened silver electrodes the source of the anomalous enhancement is due to a resonant Raman scattering process

  2. The mechanism of persistent photoconductivity induced by minority carrier trapping effect in ultraviolet photo-detector made of polycrystalline diamond film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lanxi; Chen Xuekang; Wu Gan; Guo Wantu; Cao Shengzhu; Shang Kaiwen; Han Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Performances of long persistent photoconductivity, high responsivity and high photoconductive gain were observed in a metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photo-detector fabricated on a microcrystalline diamond film. Charge-based deep level transient spectroscopy measurement confirmed that a shallow level with activation energy of 0.21 eV and capture cross section of 9.9 × 10 −20 cm 2 is presented in the band gap of the diamond film. The shallow level may not act as effective recombination center due to the so small activation energy according to Schockly-Read-Hall statistics. The persistent photoconductivity relaxation fits in with the so called “barrier-limited recombination” model, which may be a minority carrier trapping effect related recombination process. The photo-induced minority carriers (electrons in this paper) may be trapped by the shallow level during light irradiation process and then de-trap slowly via thermal excitation or tunneling effect after removing the light source, which contributes to the persistent photoconductivity. The trapping effect can also reduce the probability of carrier recombination, resulting in the high responsivity and the high gain.

  3. Diamond nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Beha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition.

  4. Sensing of phosgene by a porous-like nanocrystalline diamond layer with buried metallic electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davydova, Marina; Stuchlík, M.; Rezek, Bohuslav; Larsson, K.; Kromka, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 188, NOV (2013), s. 675-680 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI2/736; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * phosgene * surface conductivity * gas sensor * SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2013.07.079

  5. Nanostructuring of biosensing electrodes with nanodiamonds for antibody immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Patel, Kush; Schexnider, Andrew; Banu, Shirin; Radadia, Adarsh D

    2014-02-25

    While chemical vapor deposition of diamond films is currently cost prohibitive for biosensor construction, in this paper, we show that sonication-assisted nanostructuring of biosensing electrodes with nanodiamonds (NDs) allows harnessing the hydrolytic stability of the diamond biofunctionalization chemistry for real-time continuous sensing, while improving the detector sensitivity and stability. We find that the higher surface coverages were important for improved bacterial capture and can be achieved through proper choice of solvent, ND concentration, and seeding time. A mixture of methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide provides the highest surface coverage (33.6 ± 3.4%) for the NDs with positive zeta-potential, compared to dilutions of dimethyl sulfoxide with acetone, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, or water. Through impedance spectroscopy of ND-seeded interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), we found that the ND seeds serve as electrically conductive islands only a few nanometers apart. Also we show that the seeded NDs are amply hydrogenated to be decorated with antibodies using the UV-alkene chemistry, and higher bacterial captures can be obtained compared to our previously reported work with diamond films. When sensing bacteria from 10(6) cfu/mL E. coli O157:H7, the resistance to charge transfer at the IDEs decreased by ∼ 38.8%, which is nearly 1.5 times better than that reported previously using redox probes. Further in the case of 10(8) cfu/mL E. coli O157:H7, the charge transfer resistance changed by ∼ 46%, which is similar to the magnitude of improvement reported using magnetic nanoparticle-based sample enrichment prior to impedance detection. Thus ND seeding allows impedance biosensing in low conductivity solutions with competitive sensitivity.

  6. Optical and electrical properties of boron doped diamond thin conductive films deposited on fused silica glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficek, M.; Sobaszek, M.; Gnyba, M. [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Ryl, J. [Department of Electrochemistry, Corrosion and Material Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Gołuński, Ł. [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Smietana, M.; Jasiński, J. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, 75 Koszykowa St., 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Caban, P. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska St., 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Bogdanowicz, R., E-mail: rbogdan@eti.pg.gda.pl [Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Growth of 60% of transmittance diamond films with resistivity as low as 48 Ω cm. • Two step seeding process of fused silica: plasma hydrogenation and wet seeding. • Nanodiamond seeding density of 2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} at fused silica substrates. • High refractive index (2.4 @550 nm) was achieved for BDD films deposited at 500 °C. - Abstract: This paper presents boron-doped diamond (BDD) film as a conductive coating for optical and electronic purposes. Seeding and growth processes of thin diamond films on fused silica have been investigated. Growth processes of thin diamond films on fused silica were investigated at various boron doping level and methane admixture. Two step pre-treatment procedure of fused silica substrate was applied to achieve high seeding density. First, the substrates undergo the hydrogen plasma treatment then spin-coating seeding using a dispersion consisting of detonation nanodiamond in dimethyl sulfoxide with polyvinyl alcohol was applied. Such an approach results in seeding density of 2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. The scanning electron microscopy images showed homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology with minimal grain size of 200 nm for highly boron doped films. The sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio was calculated using Raman spectra deconvolution method. A high refractive index (range of 2.0–2.4 @550 nm) was achieved for BDD films deposited at 500 °C. The values of extinction coefficient were below 0.1 at λ = 550 nm, indicating low absorption of the film. The fabricated BDD thin films displayed resistivity below 48 Ohm cm and transmittance over 60% in the visible wavelength range.

  7. Multi-material gate poly-crystalline thin film transistors: Modeling and simulation for an improved gate transport efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, Amit; Mangla, Tina; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional potential distribution formulation is presented for multi-material gate poly-crystalline silicon thin film transistors. The developed formulation incorporates the effects due to traps and grain-boundaries. In short-channel devices, short-channel effects and drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) effect exists, and are accounted for in the analysis. The work aims at the reduction of DIBL effect and grain-boundary effects i.e. to reduce the potential barriers generated in the channel by employing gate-engineered structures. A study of work-functions and electrode lengths of multi-material gate electrode is done to suppress the potential barriers, hot electron effect and to improve the carrier transport efficiency. Green's function approach is adopted for the two-dimensional potential solution. The results obtained show a good agreement with simulated results, thus, demonstrating the validity of our model

  8. Probing Growth-Induced Anisotropic Thermal Transport in High-Quality CVD Diamond Membranes by Multifrequency and Multiple-Spot-Size Time-Domain Thermoreflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhe; Bougher, Thomas; Bai, Tingyu; Wang, Steven Y; Li, Chao; Yates, Luke; Foley, Brian M; Goorsky, Mark; Cola, Baratunde A; Faili, Firooz; Graham, Samuel

    2018-02-07

    understanding of thermal conductivity inhomogeneity in high-quality CVD polycrystalline diamond that is important for applications in the thermal management of high-power electronics.

  9. Superhard nanophase cutter materials for rock drilling applications; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, O.; Tompa, G.; Sadangi, R.; Kear, B.; Wilson, C.; Yan, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Low Pressure-High Temperature (LPHT) System has been developed for sintering of nanophase cutter and anvil materials. Microstructured and nanostructured cutters were sintered and studied for rock drilling applications. The WC/Co anvils were sintered and used for development of High Pressure-High Temperature (HPHT) Systems. Binderless diamond and superhard nanophase cutter materials were manufactured with help of HPHT Systems. The diamond materials were studied for rock machining and drilling applications. Binderless Polycrystalline Diamonds (BPCD) have high thermal stability and can be used in geothermal drilling of hard rock formations. Nanophase Polycrystalline Diamonds (NPCD) are under study in precision machining of optical lenses. Triphasic Diamond/Carbide/Metal Composites (TDCC) will be commercialized in drilling and machining applications

  10. A multidimensional high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in bovine milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Leonardo S.; Moraes, Marcela C. de; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C.P. 676, 13560-970 Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Cass, Quezia B., E-mail: quezia@pesquisador.cnpq.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C.P. 676, 13560-970 Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil)

    2009-11-10

    The development and validation of a multidimensional HPLC method using an on-line clean-up column coupled with amperometric detection employing a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in bovine milk are presented. Aliquots of pre-prepared skim-milk samples were directly injected into a RAM octyl-BSA column in order to remove proteins that otherwise would interfere with milk analysis. After exclusion of the milk proteins, SMX and TMP were transferred to the analytical column (an octyl column) and the separation of the compounds from one another and from other endogenous milk components was achieved. SMX and TMP were detected amperometrically at 1.25 V vs. Ag/AgCl (3.0 mol L{sup -1} KCl). Results with good linearity in the concentration ranges 50-800 and 25-400 {mu}g L{sup -1} for SMX and TMP, respectively, were obtained and no fouling of the BDD electrode was observed within the experimental period of several hours. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were less than 10% for both drugs and the obtained LOD values for SMX and TMP were 25.0 and 15.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively.

  11. A multidimensional high performance liquid chromatography method coupled with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode for the simultaneous determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Leonardo S.; Moraes, Marcela C. de; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Cass, Quezia B.

    2009-01-01

    The development and validation of a multidimensional HPLC method using an on-line clean-up column coupled with amperometric detection employing a boron-doped diamon