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Sample records for polyaromatic hydrocarbons pahs

  1. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels from two industrial zones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels from two industrial zones (Sihwa and Banwal) located in An-san city ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... method (HVAS-Sibata) was employed to collect airborne PAHs in both the particulate and gas phases. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Sources of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); Kildebestemmelse af polyaromatiske kulbrinter (PAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egsgaard, H. [Forskningscenetr Risoe, Ald. for Plantebiologi og Biokemi (DK); Larsen, E. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Ald. for Optic og Fluid Dynamik (Denmark)

    2000-03-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons including PAH compounds are thermally and chemically very stable compounds and are formed by gasification/pyrolysis of biomass. With reference to the tar compounds present in the produced gas from updraft gasifiers the sources responsible for the formation of naphthalene and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons have been investigated. The focus has been on thermal and oxidative conversions of compounds related to the lignin building blocks. Thus, phenols, 2-methoxy-phenols and 4-substituted-2-methoxy-phenols were investigated by introducing water solutions of the compounds into a continuos flow system operating in the temperature range 600-850 deg. C. The pyrolysis products were identified by GC/MS. The tar compounds reveal a well-defined and characteristic thermal transformation. Phenol is a strong source to naphthalene and indenes while 2-methoxyphenols are sources to aromatic oxo-compounds such as cinnamaldehyde. More complex systems are sources to higer PAH compounds. Thus, oligomers of phenol and 2-methoxyphenol give dibenzofuran and oligomers of isoeugenol are important sources to acenaphthylene. It is characteristic that the simple tar compounds investigated undergo loss of CO and hereby loss of the aromatic structure. The intermediary compounds are very reactive cyclo-pentadienes entering Diels-Alder reactions. The later products are transformed to aromatic compounds. The results may facilitate the determination of optimum conditions for updraft gasifiers and hence a reduction of PAH formation. (au)

  3. Distribution Pattern of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution Pattern of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils in the Vicinity of Fuel Stations in Abraka, Nigeria. ... (0.00191mg.kg-1). Investigation also reveals that all tested samples are contaminated, with mean values ranging between 0.000207±0.00026mg.kg-1 and 0.002123±0.00303mg.kg-1. Similarly, spearmen's ...

  4. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs using rhizosphere technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Bisht

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e.polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective.

  5. Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using rhizosphere technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Bhargava, Bhavya; Sharma, Shivesh; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Krishan D.

    2015-01-01

    The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of PAHs from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomons fluoresens , Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective. PMID:26221084

  6. Distribution Pattern of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    result in mild toxic effects or mortality depending upon exposure. ... are done through underground tanks and pipes respectively. .... to high vapour pressure and Henry's law constant of .... hydrocarbons in motor vehicle fuels and exhaust.

  7. Chronic polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination is a marginal driver for community diversity and prokaryotic predicted functioning in coastal sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Jeanbille

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic microorganisms are key players in the recycling of organic matter and recalcitrant compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in coastal sediments. Despite their ecological importance, the response of microbial communities to chronic PAH pollution, one of the major threats to coastal ecosystems, has received very little attention. In one of the largest surveys performed so far on coastal sediments, the diversity and composition of microbial communities inhabiting both chronically contaminated and non-contaminated coastal sediments were investigated using high-throughput sequencing on the 18S and 16S rRNA genes. Prokaryotic alpha-diversity showed significant association with salinity, temperature, and organic carbon content. The effect of particle size distribution was strong on eukaryotic diversity. Similarly to alpha-diversity, beta-diversity patterns were strongly influenced by the environmental filter, while PAHs had no influence on the prokaryotic community structure and a weak impact on the eukaryotic community structure at the continental scale. However, at the regional scale, PAHs became the main driver shaping the structure of bacterial and eukaryotic communities. These patterns were not found for PICRUSt predicted prokaryotic functions, thus indicating some degree of functional redundancy. Eukaryotes presented a greater potential for their use as PAH contamination biomarkers, owing to their stronger response at both regional and continental scales.

  8. Biodegrader metabolic expansion during polyaromatic hydrocarbons rhizoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, C.L.; Susilawati, E.; Kravchenko, A.N. [Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Thomas, J.C. [Dept. of Natural Sciences, Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Root-microbe interactions are considered to be the primary process of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phytoremediation, since bacterial degradation has been shown to be the dominant pathway for environmental PAH dissipation. However, the precise mechanisms driving PAH rhizostimulation symbiosis remain largely unresolved. In this study, we assessed PAH degrading bacterial abundance in contaminated soils planted with 18 different native Michigan plant species. Phenanthrene metabolism assays suggested that each plant species differentially influenced the relative abundance of PAH biodegraders, though they generally were observed to increase heterotrophic and biodegradative cell numbers relative to unplanted soils. Further study of > 1800 phenanthrene degrading isolates indicated that most of the tested plant species stimulated biodegradation of a broader range of PAH compounds relative to the unplanted soil bacterial consortia. These observations suggest that a principal contribution of planted systems for PAH bioremediation may be via expanded metabolic range of the rhizosphere bacterial community. (orig.)

  9. Bioremediation of high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons co-contaminated with metals in liquid and soil slurries by metal tolerant PAHs degrading bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-11-01

    Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated soils in the presence of heavy metals have proved to be difficult and often challenging due to the ability of toxic metals to inhibit PAH degradation by bacteria. In this study, a mixed bacterial culture designated as consortium-5 was isolated from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. The ability of this consortium to utilise HMW PAHs such as pyrene and BaP as a sole carbon source in the presence of toxic metal Cd was demonstrated. Furthermore, this consortium has proven to be effective in degradation of HMW PAHs even from the real long term contaminated MGP soil. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the great potential of this consortium for field scale bioremediation of PAHs in long term mix contaminated soils such as MGP sites. To our knowledge this is the first study to isolate and characterize metal tolerant HMW PAH degrading bacterial consortium which shows great potential in bioremediation of mixed contaminated soils such as MGP.

  10. Sediment Sampling for Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Mobile Bay and Mississippi Sound in 2013 (NODC Accession 0116480)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sediment samples were collected at ten sites within Mobile Bay and Mississippi Sound on January 28, 2013, for PAH analysis. All samples tested were below detection...

  11. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and - to a lesser degree - composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils

  12. Enhanced biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Linz, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) have focused on enhancing destruction of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present as pollutants in manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils. The factor that bears the most restrictive influence on successful biological PAH degradation is low pollutant transfer from soil into an aqueous environment where biotreatment processes can take place. Physical and chemical enhancements were used in conjunction with biological processes. Physical enhancements overcame the mass transfer problem and made possible the biological destruction of aromatic hydrocarbons. One- to three-ring aromatic hydrocarbons were readily biodegraded in liquid, soil slurry, and -- to a lesser degree -- composted soil systems. Four- to six-ring PAHs remained persistent but were effectively destroyed when chemical co-treatments were used. Combined biological/chemical/physical processes are currently being tested to achieve the most extensive PAH degradation possible for MGP soils. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Phytoremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, anilines and phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Patricia J; Campanella, Bruno F; Castro, Paula M L; Harms, Hans; Lichtfouse, Eric; Schäffner, Anton R; Smrcek, Stanislav; Werck-Reichhart, Daniele

    2002-01-01

    Phytoremediation technologies based on the combined action of plants and the microbial communities that they support within the rhizosphere hold promise in the remediation of land and waterways contaminated with hydrocarbons but they have not yet been adopted in large-scale remediation strategies. In this review plant and microbial degradative capacities, viewed as a continuum, have been dissected in order to identify where bottle-necks and limitations exist. Phenols, anilines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were selected as the target classes of molecule for consideration, in part because of their common patterns of distribution, but also because of the urgent need to develop techniques to overcome their toxicity to human health. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the pollutant, the emerging picture suggests that plants will draw pollutants including PAHs into the plant rhizosphere to varying extents via the transpiration stream. Mycorrhizosphere-bacteria and -fungi may play a crucial role in establishing plants in degraded ecosystems. Within the rhizosphere, microbial degradative activities prevail in order to extract energy and carbon skeletons from the pollutants for microbial cell growth. There has been little systematic analysis of the changing dynamics of pollutant degradation within the rhizosphere; however, the importance of plants in supplying oxygen and nutrients to the rhizosphere via fine roots, and of the beneficial effect of microorganisms on plant root growth is stressed. In addition to their role in supporting rhizospheric degradative activities, plants may possess a limited capacity to transport some of the more mobile pollutants into roots and shoots via fine roots. In those situations where uptake does occur (i.e. only limited microbial activity in the rhizosphere) there is good evidence that the pollutant may be metabolised. However, plant uptake is frequently associated with the inhibition of plant growth and an

  14. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8 + T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4 + T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents

  15. Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S.

    1996-01-01

    A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model

  16. Predicting the bioaccumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic animals in sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A. I.; Leppänen, M. T.; Akkanen, J.; Sormunen, A. J.; Leonards, P. E.G.; van Hattum, B.; van Vliet, L. A.; Brack, W.; Smedes, F.; Kukkonen, J. V.K.

    2016-01-01

    There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in

  17. 6-Electron exchange function as a simple estimator of aromaticity in large polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandado, Marcos; Mosquera, Ricardo A.

    2009-02-01

    The 6-electron exchange function (6-EEF) is defined and calculated for a series of large polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It is shown that the 6-EEF, computed at selected points in space, is able to reproduce in PAHs the same relative values as the multicenter electron delocalization indices with an affordable computational cost and without using any definition of the atom in the molecule. Calculations for a series of D 6h PAHs ranging from C 6H 6 to C 216H 36 are performed. The results can be extrapolated to even larger PAHs and allow predicting the behaviour of a benzene ring in an infinite sheet of graphite.

  18. Pseudomonads Rule Degradation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons in Aerated Sediment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wald, J.; Hroudová, Miluše; Jansa, Jan; Vrchotová, B.; Macek, T.; Uhlík, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1268 (2015) ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : biodegradation * polyaromatic hydrocarbons * stable isotope probing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.165, year: 2015

  19. Tuning electronic properties of graphene nanoflake polyaromatic hydrocarbon through molecular charge-transfer interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vaishali; Dabhi, Shweta D.; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2018-05-01

    By means of first principles calculation we have tuned the electronic properties of graphene nanoflake polyaromatic hydrocarbon via molecular charge transfer. Acceptor/donor Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) organic molecules are adsorbed on polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in order to introduce the charge transfer. The substrate's n- or p- type nature depends on the accepting/donating behavior of dopant molecules. Two different classes of PAH (extended form of triangulene) namely Bow-tie graphene nanoflake (BTGNF) and triangular zigzag graphene nanoflake (TZGNF). It is revealed that all the TCNQ and TTF modified graphene nanoflakes exhibit significant changes in HOMO-LUMO gap in range from 0.58 eV to 0.64 eV and 0.01 eV to 0.05 eV respectively. The adsorption energies are in the range of -0.05 kcal/mol to -2.6 kcal/mol. The change in work function is also calculated and discussed, the maximum charge transfer is for TCNQ adsorbed BTGNF. These alluring findings in the tuning of electronic properties will be advantageous for promoting graphene nanoflake polyaromatic hydrocarbon for their applications in electronic devices.

  20. Modelling Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons "online" with the GEOS-Chem Europe and Asia regional models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivatt, P.; Evans, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogens and so are restricted by international treaties. PAHs are mainly emitted into the atmosphere by domestic (heating and cooking), natural (forest fires burning), as well as some industrial processes (coke ovens). PAHs partition between the gas and particle phase (notably carbonaceous particles) based on their volatility. In recent years, interest has turned to the possible health effects of their oxidation products (both nitrogenated and oxygenated) as it has been suggested that these oxidation products may be even more carcinogenic than the parent PAHs. To increase our understanding of the processes controlling the regional concentrations of PAHs and their oxidation products an "online" PAH model has been developed within the GEOS-Chem framework. This provides for the representation of the coupled aerosol/gas phase chemistry of the parent PAH and its secondary oxidation products. Benzo[a]pyrene is used as an exemplar but the methodology is flexible and the approach can be used for any PAH species. Comparisons are made with observations and the sources of variability discussed.

  1. Improved bioavailability and biodegradation of a model polyaromatic hydrocarbon by a biosurfactant producing bacterium of marine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Palashpriya; Mukherjee, Soumen; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2008-07-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic pollutants mostly derived from the processing and combustion of fossil fuels and cause human health hazards. In the present study a marine biosurfactant producing strain of Bacillus circulans was used to increase the bioavailability and consequent degradation of a model polyaromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene. Although the organism could not utilize anthracene as the sole carbon source, it showed better growth and biosurfactant production in an anthracene supplemented glycerol mineral salts medium (AGlyMSM) compared to a normal glycerol mineral salts medium (GlyMSM). The biosurfactant product showed high degree of emulsification of various hydrocarbons. Analysis by gas chromatography (GC), high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the biosurfactant could effectively entrap and solubilize PAH. Thin layer chromatographic analysis showed that anthracene was utilized as a carbon substrate for the production of biosurfactant. Thus organic pollutant anthracene was metabolized and converted to biosurfactants facilitating its own bioremediation.

  2. Hepatic clearance of 6 polyaromatic aromatic hydrocarbons by isolated trout livers: Prediction from in vitro clearance by liver S9 fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    An isolated perfused trout liver preparation was used to evaluate in vitro-to-in vivo metabolism extrapolation procedures for fish. Hepatic clearance (CLH) studies were conducted with six polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) using an experimental design wherein each liver acted as it...

  3. Photodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in passive air samplers: Field testing different deployment chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkow, Michael E.; Kennedy, Karen E.; Huckins, James N.; Holling, Neil; Komarova, Tatiana; Mueller, Jochen F.

    2006-01-01

    Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were loaded with deuterated anthracene and pyrene as performance reference compounds (PRCs) and deployed at a test site in four different chambers (open and closed box chamber, bowl chamber and cage chamber) for 29 days. The losses of PRCs and the uptake of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the ambient air were quantified. UV-B levels measured in each deployment chamber indicated that SPMDs would be exposed to the most UV-B in the cage chamber and open box chamber. Significantly less PAHs were quantified in SPMDs deployed in the cage chamber and open box chamber compared to samplers from the other two chambers, suggesting that photodegradation of PAHs had occurred. The loss of PRCs confirmed these results but also showed that photodegradation was occurring in the closed box chamber. The bowl chamber appears to provide the best protection from the influence of direct photodegradation. - Photodegradation/loss of PAHs occurs from passive air samplers (SPMDs) deployed in various sampler chambers

  4. Ambient water quality criteria for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.

    1993-08-13

    Ambient water quality criteria are established for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in British Columbia. Major sources of PAH in the atmosphere and aquatic environments include, for the atmosphere, forest and prairie fires, agricultural burning, refuse burning, enclosed incineration, and heating and power, and for the aquatic environment, petroleum spillage, atmospheric deposition, wastewaters, surface land runoff, and biosynthesis. Details are presented of PAH and their characteristics, forms and transformations, occurrence in the environment, drinking water concerns, aquatic life concerns, wildlife concerns, livestock water supply concerns, and irrigation concerns. Application of criteria for aquatic life is discussed including phototoxic vs long term criteria, assessment of existing water quality, setting water quality objectives, and PAH levels in smoked fish. 221 refs., 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. Predicting the bioaccumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic animals in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuikka, A.I., E-mail: anitat@student.uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Leppänen, M.T., E-mail: Matti.T.Leppanen@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Laboratories/Research and Innovation Laboratory, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Akkanen, J., E-mail: jarkko.akkanen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Sormunen, A.J., E-mail: Arto.Sormunen@mamk.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Leonards, P.E.G., E-mail: pim.leonards@vu.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hattum, B. van, E-mail: bert.vanhattum@deltares.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vliet, L.A. van, E-mail: lavanvliet@hotmail.com [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management/RIKZ, P.O. Box 207, 9750 AE Haren (Netherlands); Brack, W., E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Smedes, F., E-mail: smedes@recetox.muni.cz [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management/RIKZ, P.O. Box 207, 9750 AE Haren (Netherlands); and others

    2016-09-01

    There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in sediment dry matter or pore water. The predicted tissue concentrations were compared to the measured ones after 28-day laboratory test using oligochaeta worms (Lumbriculus variegatus). The second objective was to compare the bioaccumulation of PAHs and PCBs in the laboratory test with the in situ bioaccumulation of these compounds. Using the traditional organic carbon-water partitioning model, tissue concentrations were greatly overestimated, based on the concentrations in the sediment dry matter. Use of an additional correction factor for black carbon with a two-carbon model, significantly improved the bioaccumulation predictions, thus confirming that black carbon was important in binding the chemicals and reducing their accumulation. The predicted PAH tissue concentrations were, however, high compared to the observed values. The chemical concentrations were most accurately predicted from their freely dissolved pore water concentrations, determined using equilibrium passive sampling. The patterns of PCB and PAH accumulation in sediments for laboratory-exposed L. variegatus were similar to those in field-collected Lumbriculidae worms. Field-collected benthic invertebrates and L. variegatus accumulated less PAHs than PCBs with similar lipophilicity. The biota to sediment accumulation factors of PAHs tended to decrease with increasing sediment organic carbon normalized concentrations. The presented data yields bioconcentration factors (BCF) describing the chemical water-lipid partition, which were found to be higher than the octanol-water partition coefficients, but on a similar level with BCFs drawn from relevant literature. In conclusion, using the two-carbon model method

  6. Mechanisms behind the generation of protonated ions for polyaromatic hydrocarbons by atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Arif; Choi, Cheol Ho; Choi, Myoung Choul; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-17

    In this study, the mechanism behind the generation of protonated polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ions without heteroatoms by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is investigated. Comparing data obtained by APPI of anthracene dissolved either in toluene or perdeuterated toluene suggests that toluene acts as a source of protons and that breakage of C-H bonds in the toluene molecule is important for the overall protonation reaction. Our data describing an Arrhenius-type temperature-dependent relationship between the signal intensities of molecular and protonated ions suggest a mechanistic relation between the generated molecular and protonated ions. The APPI protonation mechanism that best explains the observed phenomena is composed of two reactions: electron transfer followed by hydrogen transfer. This two-step mechanism for APPI was originally suggested by Syage (Syage, J. A. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2004, 15 , 1521-1533). Further quantum mechanical study shows that an energetically favorable ion-molecular complex can be generated as a result of electron transfer from toluene to PAH, which subsequently facilitates hydrogen transfer. This suggests that both electron transfer and hydrogen transfer can occur as a "concerted" reaction through the ion-molecular complex precursor state, which is consistent with experimental results. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that the dynamic nature of the APPI process is clearly revealed by combined experimental and quantum mechanical studies.

  7. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation potential of a new acid tolerant, diazotrophic P-solubilizing and heavy metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus sp. MTS-7 isolated from long-term mixed contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    An isolate of Cupriavidus (strain MTS-7) was identified from a long-term PAHs and heavy metals mixed contaminated soil with the potential to biodegrade both LMW and HMW PAHs with added unique traits of acid and alkali tolerance, heavy metal tolerance, self-nutrient assimilation by N fixation and P solubilization. This strain completely degraded the model 3 (150 mg L(-1) Phe), 4 (150 mg L(-1) Pyr) and 5 (50 mg L(-1) BaP) ring PAHs in 4, 20 and 30 days, respectively. It could mineralize 90-100% of PAHs (200 mg L(-1) of Phe and Pyr) within 15 days across pH ranging from 5 to 8 and even in the presence of toxic metal contaminations. During biodegradation, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 5 (Cu(2+)) and 3 (Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+)) mg L(-1) of the potentially bioavailable metal ions and over 17 mg L(-1) metal levels was lethal for the microbe. Further, it could fix 217-274 μg mL(-1) of N and solubilize 79-135 μg mL(-1) of P while PAHs degradation. MTS-7 as a superior candidate could be thus used in the enhanced bioaugmentation and/or phytoremediation of long-term mixed contaminated sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxic effects of some major polyaromatic hydrocarbons found in crude oil and aquatic sediments on Scenedesmus subspicatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djomo, J.E. [Universite de Dschang Cameroun, Toulouse (France). Laboratoire de Biologie Animale; Dauta, A. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). CESAC; Ferrier, V. [UMR-CNRS 9925 affiliee a l' INSERM, Toulouse (France); Narbonne, J.F. [Universite de Bordeaux I, Talence (France). Laboratoire de Toxicologie Alimentaire; Monkiedje, A.; Njine, T. [Universite de Yaounde 1, Cameroun, Toulouse (France). Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie Animales; Garrigues, P. [Universite de Bordeaux I, Talence (France). UPRES A 5472 CNRS

    2004-04-01

    The green alga, Scenedesmus subspicatus was exposed for 7 days to a series of PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) of increased molecular weight from two to five rings [naphthalene (Nap), anthracene (Ant), phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)]. The toxicity measured as population growth inhibition by individual PAH to the S. subspicatus followed the order: BaP>Pyr>Ant>Phe>Nap. These results confirmed that the toxicity potential of PAHs seems to be strongly influenced by their physico-chemical properties (aqueous solubility, K{sub ow}, coefficient of volatilization, etc.) and the conditions of algae culture (light, presence of nitrate ions, etc.). Consequently, Nap, Phe and Ant having low K{sub ow} values and low coefficient of volatilization values were less toxic than BaP with the highest k{sub ow} value, indicating for example why Nap with the lowest EC{sub 50} value was nearly 2x10{sup 5} times lower than that of BaP. Moreover, nitrate ions seemed to act directly on the degree of hydroxylated radical reactivity of PAHs, since BaP always remained the most toxic of the compounds tested. The results were also agreed with the QSAR model for toxicity prediction of PAHs to many aquatic organisms. (author)

  9. First-principles investigation on the electronic efficiency and binding energy of the contacts formed by graphene and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon anchoring groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang; Tu, Xingchen; Wang, Hao; Hou, Shimin, E-mail: smhou@pku.edu.cn [Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sanvito, Stefano [School of Physics, AMBER and CRANN Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2015-04-28

    The electronic efficiency and binding energy of contacts formed between graphene electrodes and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anchoring groups have been investigated by the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that PAH molecules always bind in the interior and at the edge of graphene in the AB stacking manner, and that the binding energy increases following the increase of the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms constituting the PAH molecule. When we move to analyzing the electronic transport properties of molecular junctions with a six-carbon alkyne chain as the central molecule, the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contacts is found to depend on the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the corresponding PAH anchoring group, rather than its size. To be specific, the smaller is the HOMO-LUMO gap of the PAH anchoring group, the higher is the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contact. Although the HOMO-LUMO gap of a PAH molecule depends on its specific configuration, PAH molecules with similar atomic structures show a decreasing trend for their HOMO-LUMO gap as the number of fused benzene rings increases. Therefore, graphene-conjugated molecule-graphene junctions with high-binding and high-conducting graphene-PAH contacts can be realized by choosing appropriate PAH anchor groups with a large area and a small HOMO-LUMO gap.

  10. First-principles investigation on the electronic efficiency and binding energy of the contacts formed by graphene and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon anchoring groups

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yang; Tu, Xingchen; Wang, Hao; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. The electronic efficiency and binding energy of contacts formed between graphene electrodes and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anchoring groups have been investigated by the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that PAH molecules always bind in the interior and at the edge of graphene in the AB stacking manner, and that the binding energy increases following the increase of the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms constituting the PAH molecule. When we move to analyzing the electronic transport properties of molecular junctions with a six-carbon alkyne chain as the central molecule, the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contacts is found to depend on the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the corresponding PAH anchoring group, rather than its size. To be specific, the smaller is the HOMO-LUMO gap of the PAH anchoring group, the higher is the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contact. Although the HOMO-LUMO gap of a PAH molecule depends on its specific configuration, PAH molecules with similar atomic structures show a decreasing trend for their HOMO-LUMO gap as the number of fused benzene rings increases. Therefore, graphene-conjugated molecule-graphene junctions with high-binding and high-conducting graphene-PAH contacts can be realized by choosing appropriate PAH anchor groups with a large area and a small HOMO-LUMO gap.

  11. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil ..... hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish from the Red Sea Coast of Yemem. ... smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. J.

  12. Persistence profile of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in shallow and deep Gulf waters and sediments: Effect of water temperature and sediment–water partitioning characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tansel, B.; Fuentes, C.; Sanchez, M.; Predoi, K.; Acevedo, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The half-lives of PAHs in the deep waters (over 1000 m) are about twice longer than the shallow areas (100–150 m). ► In the water column, anthracene levels can decrease by 50% within 1–2 days. ► The half-lives of the PAHs in the sediments are significantly longer than those in the water column. ► The half-life of pyrene in the shallow and deep sediments is 9 and 16 years, respectively. - Abstract: Persistence profiles of selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed depending on temperature variations in the water column and water–sediment interactions in the Gulf of Mexico. The PAHs studied include anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene. The half-lives of PAHs in the deep waters (over 1000 m) are about twice as long as those in the shallow areas (100–150 m), and almost 2.5 times as long as those in the top layer (0–10 m) of the water column. The half-lives of the PAHs in the sediments are significantly longer. Among the PAHs studied, chrysene is the most persistent in the water column, and pyrene is the most persistent in the sediments. The half-life of chrysene in the shallow and deep waters is over 2.5 and about 5 years, respectively. For pyrene, the half-life in the shallow and deep sediments is about 9 and 16 years, respectively.

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  14. First-principles investigation on the electronic efficiency and binding energy of the contacts formed by graphene and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon anchoring groups

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yang

    2015-04-28

    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. The electronic efficiency and binding energy of contacts formed between graphene electrodes and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anchoring groups have been investigated by the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that PAH molecules always bind in the interior and at the edge of graphene in the AB stacking manner, and that the binding energy increases following the increase of the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms constituting the PAH molecule. When we move to analyzing the electronic transport properties of molecular junctions with a six-carbon alkyne chain as the central molecule, the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contacts is found to depend on the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the corresponding PAH anchoring group, rather than its size. To be specific, the smaller is the HOMO-LUMO gap of the PAH anchoring group, the higher is the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contact. Although the HOMO-LUMO gap of a PAH molecule depends on its specific configuration, PAH molecules with similar atomic structures show a decreasing trend for their HOMO-LUMO gap as the number of fused benzene rings increases. Therefore, graphene-conjugated molecule-graphene junctions with high-binding and high-conducting graphene-PAH contacts can be realized by choosing appropriate PAH anchor groups with a large area and a small HOMO-LUMO gap.

  15. Enthalpies of solution, enthalpies of fusion and enthalpies of solvation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons: Instruments for determination of sublimation enthalpy at 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomonov, Boris N., E-mail: boris.solomonov@ksu.ru; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Nagrimanov, Ruslan N.; Mukhametzyanov, Timur A.; Novikov, Vladimir B.

    2015-12-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solution enthalpies of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured at 298.15 K. • Solution enthalpy of aromatic hydrocarbons in benzene is equal to their fusion enthalpy. • Method for calculation of solvation enthalpy of aromatic hydrocarbons was proposed. • Approach for estimation of aromatic hydrocarbons sublimation enthalpy was developed. • Obtained sublimation enthalpies coincide well with the recommended literature data. - Abstract: In this work a simple method for calculation of solvation enthalpies of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in various solvents at 298.15 K was proposed. According to this method the enthalpy of solvation of any polyaromatic hydrocarbon in a particular solvent can be calculated on the basis of the general formula of the compound, the solvation enthalpy of benzene in the same solvent and parameter related to the contribution of hydrogen atom into solvation enthalpy. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by the comparison of calculated and experimentally measured values of solvation enthalpies of PAHs in benzene, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile. This method was used for determination of the sublimation enthalpy of PAHs at 298.15 K based on the general relationship between the enthalpy of sublimation/vaporization of the compound of interest and its enthalpies of solution and solvation in the same solvent at 298.15 K. Enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution of several PAHs were measured in acetonitrile, benzene and tetrahydrofuran at 298.15 K. It was shown that solution enthalpies of PAHs in benzene at 298.15 K are approximately equal to their fusion enthalpies at the melting temperature. Solvation enthalpies of 15 PAHs at 298.15 K calculated according to the proposed method together with corresponding fusion enthalpy values (at the melting temperature) were used to calculate the sublimation enthalpy values at 298.15 K. Comparison of the obtained results with recommended values of

  16. Ectomycorrhizas impede phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) both within and beyond the rhizosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joner, Erik J. [Laboratoire des Interactions Microorganismes-Mineraux-Matiere Organique dans les Sols (LIMOS), Universite H. Poincare Nancy 1, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)]. E-mail: erik.joner@jordforsk.no; Leyval, Corinne [Laboratoire des Interactions Microorganismes-Mineraux-Matiere Organique dans les Sols (LIMOS), Universite H. Poincare Nancy 1, P.O. Box 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Colpaert, Jan V. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Environmental Biology Group, Hasselt University, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2006-07-15

    Exploitation of mycorrhizas to enhance phytoremediation of organic pollutants has received attention recently due to their positive effects on establishment of plants in polluted soils. Some evidence exist that ectomycorrhizas enhance the degradation of pollutants of low recalcitrance, while less easily degradable polyaromatic molecules have been degraded only by some of these fungi in vitro. Natural polyaromatic (humic) substances are degraded more slowly in soil where ectomycorrhizal fungi are present, thus phytoremediation of recalcitrant pollutants may not benefit from the presence of these fungi. Using a soil spiked with three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and an industrially polluted soil (1 g kg{sup -1} of {sigma}12 PAHs), we show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus bovinus, forming hydrophobic mycelium in soil that would easily enter into contact with hydrophobic pollutants, impedes rather than promotes PAH degradation. This result is likely to be a nutrient depletion effect caused by fungal scavenging of mineral nutrients. - The ectomycorrhizal fungus S. bovinus impeded degradation of PAHs in soil, probably due to its negative effect on the availability of mineral nutrients of more potent PAH degraders.

  17. Ectomycorrhizas impede phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) both within and beyond the rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joner, Erik J.; Leyval, Corinne; Colpaert, Jan V.

    2006-01-01

    Exploitation of mycorrhizas to enhance phytoremediation of organic pollutants has received attention recently due to their positive effects on establishment of plants in polluted soils. Some evidence exist that ectomycorrhizas enhance the degradation of pollutants of low recalcitrance, while less easily degradable polyaromatic molecules have been degraded only by some of these fungi in vitro. Natural polyaromatic (humic) substances are degraded more slowly in soil where ectomycorrhizal fungi are present, thus phytoremediation of recalcitrant pollutants may not benefit from the presence of these fungi. Using a soil spiked with three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and an industrially polluted soil (1 g kg -1 of Σ12 PAHs), we show that the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus bovinus, forming hydrophobic mycelium in soil that would easily enter into contact with hydrophobic pollutants, impedes rather than promotes PAH degradation. This result is likely to be a nutrient depletion effect caused by fungal scavenging of mineral nutrients. - The ectomycorrhizal fungus S. bovinus impeded degradation of PAHs in soil, probably due to its negative effect on the availability of mineral nutrients of more potent PAH degraders

  18. Application of Fenton's reagent as a pretreatment step in biological degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, R.L.; Gauger, W.K.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fenton's reagent (H 2 O 2 and Fe ++ ) has been used for chemical oxidation of numerous organic compounds in water treatment schemes. In this study, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) applied Fenton's treatment to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-contaminated soils. Fenton's treatment was very reactive with PAHs, causing rapid modification of the parental compounds to oxidized products and complete degradation to CO 2 . This treatment was more effective on chemically reactive PAHs, such as benzo(a)pyrene and phenanthrene. Important parameters and conditions for Fenton's treatment of PAHs in solution and soil matrices have been identified. As much as 99% of the PAHs on soil matrices can be removed by treatment with Fenton's reagent

  19. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  20. The microbial nitrogen cycling potential in marine sediments is impacted by polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Scott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During petroleum hydrocarbon exposure the composition and functional dynamics of marine microbial communities are altered, favoring bacteria that can utilize this rich carbon source. Initial exposure of high levels of hydrocarbons in aerobic surface sediments can enrich growth of heterotrophic microorganisms having hydrocarbon degradation capacity. As a result, there can be a localized reduction in oxygen potential, if the sediments are aerobic, within the surface layer of marine sediments resulting in anaerobic zones. We hypothesized that increasing exposure to elevated hydrocarbon concentrations would positively correlate with an increase in denitrification processes and the net accumulation of dinitrogen. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen cycling identified in 6 metagenomes from sediments contaminated by polyaromatic hydrocarbons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and 3 metagenomes from sediments associated with natural oil seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel. An additional 8 metagenomes from uncontaminated sediments from the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for comparison. We predicted relative changes in metabolite turnover as a function of the differential microbial gene abundances, which showed predicted accumulation of metabolites associated with denitrification processes, including anammox, in the contaminated samples compared to uncontaminated sediments, with the magnitude of this change being positively correlated to the hydrocarbon concentration and exposure duration. These data highlight the potential impact of hydrocarbon inputs on N cycling processes in marine sediments and provide information relevant for system scale models of nitrogen metabolism in affected ecosystems.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  2. Towards unsupervised polyaromatic hydrocarbons structural assignment from SA-TIMS-FTMS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Paolo; Marin, Rebecca; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    With the advent of high resolution ion mobility analyzers and their coupling to ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometers, there is a need to further develop a theoretical workflow capable of correlating experimental accurate mass and mobility measurements with tridimensional candidate structures. In the present work, a general workflow is described for unsupervised tridimensional structural assignment based on accurate mass measurements, mobility measurements, in silico 2D-3D structure generation, and theoretical mobility calculations. In particular, the potential of this workflow will be shown for the analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from Coal Tar SRM 1597a using selected accumulation - trapped ion mobility spectrometry (SA-TIMS) coupled to Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). The proposed workflow can be adapted to different IMS scenarios, can utilize different collisional cross-section calculators and has the potential to include MS n and IMS n measurements for faster and more accurate tridimensional structural assignment.

  3. The role of diesel exhaust particles and their associated polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the induction of allergic airway disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Sanchez, D.

    1997-01-01

    The increase in allergic airway disease has paralleled the increase in the use of fossil fuels. Studies were undertaken to examine whether extracts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from diesel exhaust particles (DEP) (PAH-DEP) acted as mucosal adjuvants to help initiate or enhance immunoglobulin E (IgE) production in response to common inhaled allergens. In vitro studies demonstrated that PAH-DEP enhanced IgE production by tonsilar B-cells in the presence of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and CD40 monoclonal antibody, and altered the nature of the IgE produced, i.e. a decrease in the CH4'-CHe5 variant, a marker for differentiation of IgE-producing B-cells, and an increase in the M2' variant. In vivo nasal provocation studies using 0.30 mg DEP in saline also showed enhanced IgE production in the human upper respiratory mucosa, accompanied by a reduced CH4'-CHe5 mRNA splice variant. The effect of DEP were also isotype-specific, with no effect on IgG, IgA, IgM, or albumin, but it produced a small increase in the IgG 4 subclass. The ability of DEP to act as an adjuvant to the ragweed allergen Amb a I was examined by nasal provocation in ragweed allergic subjects using 0.3 mg DEP, Amb a I, or both. Although allergen and DEP each enhanced ragweed-specific IgE, DEP plus allergen promoted a 16-times greater antigen-specific IgE production. Nasal challenge with DEP also influenced cytokine production. Ragweed challenge resulted in a weak response, DEP challenge caused a strong but non-specific response, while allergen plus DEP caused a significant increase in the expression of mRNA for TH 0 and TH 2 -type cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) with a pronounced inhibitory effect on IFN-γ gene expression. These studies suggest that DEP can enhance B-cell differentiation, and by initiating and elevating IgE production, may play an important role in the increased incidence of allergic airway disease. (au)

  4. Do 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Represent PAH Air Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samburova, Vera; Zielinska, Barbara; Khlystov, Andrey

    2017-08-15

    Estimation of carcinogenic potency based on analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranked by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the most popular approach within scientific and environmental air quality management communities. The majority of PAH monitoring projects have been focused on particle-bound PAHs, ignoring the contribution of gas-phase PAHs to the toxicity of PAH mixtures in air samples. In this study, we analyzed the results of 13 projects in which 88 PAHs in both gas and particle phases were collected from different sources (biomass burning, mining operation, and vehicle emissions), as well as in urban air. The aim was to investigate whether 16 particle-bound U.S. EPA priority PAHs adequately represented health risks of inhalation exposure to atmospheric PAH mixtures. PAH concentrations were converted to benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent (BaPeq) toxicity using the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach. TEFs of PAH compounds for which such data is not available were estimated using TEFs of close isomers. Total BaPeq toxicities (∑ 88 BaPeq) of gas- and particle-phase PAHs were compared with BaPeq toxicities calculated for the 16 particle-phase EPA PAH (∑ 16EPA BaPeq). The results showed that 16 EPA particle-bound PAHs underrepresented the carcinogenic potency on average by 85.6% relative to the total (gas and particle) BaPeq toxicity of 88 PAHs. Gas-phase PAHs, like methylnaphthalenes, may contribute up to 30% of ∑ 88 BaPeq. Accounting for other individual non-EPA PAHs (i.e., benzo(e)pyrene) and gas-phase PAHs (i.e., naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene) will make the risk assessment of PAH-containing air samples significantly more accurate.

  5. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from crude oil in sandy-beach microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepo, J.E.; Cripe, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using triplicate microcosm chambers for each treatment of a simulated oil spill on a beach. The treatments were sterile control, 10 ppm of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant added to the seawater and bi-weekly inoculation of the microcosms with two marine bacteria that produce biosurfactants but degrade only n-alkanes. The results showed that raw seawater cycled through the microcosms over a 30-day period led to a substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, and other polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It was not possible to detect PAH in pooled test system effluents. The oiled-beach microcosms were run with sterile synthetic seawater to differentiate between wash out and degradation. Depletion of n-alkanes was noticed in the systems inoculated with the alkane-degrading microbes and virtually all the aromatic analytes were recoverable from the oiled sand. The other two treatments permitted the recovery of all the analytes (PAH or alkanes). Under aerobic conditions, the biodegradation by microorganisms indigenous to natural seawater supported that lower molecular weight PAH were substantially depleted, but not the n-alkanes under similar conditions. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Effect of Smoking on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Manage. Vol. 22 (2) 293 - 297. February 2018. Full-text Available Online at ... aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in raw and smoked samples of catfish (Clarias ... inferred that the smoking process generally increased the mean total PAH levels in the fish .... with 5 g of anhydrous sodium sulphate in a laboratory.

  7. Computational investigation of the effects of perfluorination on the charge-transport properties of polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardia, R.; Malloci, G.; Bosin, A.; Serra, G.; Cappellini, G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic computational study of the effects of perfluorination on the charge-transport properties of three homologous classes of polyaromatic hydrocarbons of interest for molecular electronics: acenes, pyrenes, and circumacenes. By means of Density Functional Theory calculations we first obtained the key molecular properties for transport of both holes and electrons. We then used these parameters in the framework of Marcus theory to compare charge-transfer rates in the high temperatures regime for both unsubstituted and perfluorinated molecules. We additionally estimated the relative charge-mobility of each unsubstituted (perfluorinated) molecule with respect to unsubstituted (perfluorinated) pentacene. We found in all cases that perfluorination reduces the charge-transfer rate in absolute terms. This is largely due to the higher values of the molecular reorganization energies predicted for perfluorinated compounds. Interestingly, however, the charge-transfer rates for both holes and electrons of perfluorinated species are remarkably similar, especially for the larger species. In addition, in the case of the larger circumacenes the charge-mobility values relative to pentacene values are found to increase upon perfluorination.

  8. Computational investigation of the effects of perfluorination on the charge-transport properties of polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardia, R. [Università degli studi di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (Cagliari) (Italy); Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR – IOM), UOS di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Malloci, G., E-mail: giuliano.malloci@dsf.unica.it [Università degli studi di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (Cagliari) (Italy); Bosin, A.; Serra, G. [Università degli studi di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (Cagliari) (Italy); Cappellini, G., E-mail: giancarlo.cappellini@dsf.unica.it [Università degli studi di Cagliari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato (Cagliari) (Italy); Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR – IOM), UOS di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, I-09042 Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy)

    2016-10-20

    We present a systematic computational study of the effects of perfluorination on the charge-transport properties of three homologous classes of polyaromatic hydrocarbons of interest for molecular electronics: acenes, pyrenes, and circumacenes. By means of Density Functional Theory calculations we first obtained the key molecular properties for transport of both holes and electrons. We then used these parameters in the framework of Marcus theory to compare charge-transfer rates in the high temperatures regime for both unsubstituted and perfluorinated molecules. We additionally estimated the relative charge-mobility of each unsubstituted (perfluorinated) molecule with respect to unsubstituted (perfluorinated) pentacene. We found in all cases that perfluorination reduces the charge-transfer rate in absolute terms. This is largely due to the higher values of the molecular reorganization energies predicted for perfluorinated compounds. Interestingly, however, the charge-transfer rates for both holes and electrons of perfluorinated species are remarkably similar, especially for the larger species. In addition, in the case of the larger circumacenes the charge-mobility values relative to pentacene values are found to increase upon perfluorination.

  9. Retention of heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons from road water in a constructed wetland and the effect of de-icing

    KAUST Repository

    Tromp, Karin

    2012-02-01

    A full-scale remediation facility including a detention basin and a wetland was tested for retention of heavy metals and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water drained from a motorway in The Netherlands. The facility consisted of a detention basin, a vertical-flow reed bed and a final groundwater infiltration bed. Water samples were taken of road water, detention basin influent and wetland effluent. By using automated sampling, we were able to obtain reliable concentration averages per 4-week period during 18 months. The system retained the PAHs very well, with retention efficiencies of 90-95%. While environmental standards for these substances were surpassed in the road water, this was never the case after passage through the system. For the metals the situation was more complicated. All metals studied (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni) had concentrations frequently surpassing environmental standards in the road water. After passage through the system, most metal concentrations were lower than the standards, except for Cu and Zn. There was a dramatic effect of de-icing salts on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, in the effluent leaving the system. For Cu, the concentrations even became higher than they had ever been in the road water. It is advised to let the road water bypass the facility during de-icing periods. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. The hydrogen coverage of interstellar PAHs [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Allamandola, L.J.; Barker, J.R.; Cohen, M.

    1986-02-01

    The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) rupture due to the absorption of a uv photon has been calculated. The results show that small PAHs (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense uv fields, while large PAHs (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar PAHs lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar PAHs are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in PAHs. This new feature shows that interstellar PAHs are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar PAHs. In particular, it seems that very condensed PAHs, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar PAH mixture as expected from stability arguments

  11. [Comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) contents in bakery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Witczak, Agata

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of well-known chemical carcinogens with a wide distribution in the environment and formed by the incomplete combustion of organic substances. PAHs have attracted most attention because of their carcinogenic potential. PAHs have been found as contaminants in different food categories such as dairy products, smoked and barbecued meat, vegetables, fruits, oils, coffee, tea, and cereals. Processing of food at high temperatures increases the amount of PAHs in the food Diet is the major source of human exposure to PAHs. The major dietary source of PAH are oils and fats, cereals products and vegetables. The aims of this study were to determine the content levels of 23 PAHs in various sorts of bread. The analytical procedure was based Soxhlet extraction with n--hexane and cleaned up in aflorisil cartridge. Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled to mass spectrometry (HP 5973). The total concentration of PAHs was low end varied between 2.61 microg/kg to 43.4 microg/kg. Furthermore, the results revealed differences in concentrations of PAHs between rind and bread-crumb.

  12. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... (PAHs) in selected water bodies in the Niger Delta. Chimezie Anyakora and ... production, foundries), transportation, burning (e.g. forest, straw, agriculture ..... the Red Sea Coast of Yemen (DouAbul et al., 1997), a comparable ...

  13. Multiresidue analysis of multiclass pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in fatty fish by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and evaluation of matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Niladri S; Utture, Sagar; Banerjee, Kaushik; Ahammed Shabeer, T P; Kamble, Narayan; Mathew, Suseela; Ashok Kumar, K

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports a selective and sensitive method for multiresidue determination of 119 chemical residues including pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in high fatty fish matrix. The novel sample preparation method involved extraction of the target analytes from homogenized fish meat (5 g) in acetonitrile (15 mL, 1% acetic acid) after three-phase partitioning with hexane (2 mL) and the remaining aqueous layer. An aliquot (1.5 mL) of the acetonitrile layer was aspirated and subjected to two-stage dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) cleanup and the residues were finally estimated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring (GC-MS/MS). The co-eluted matrix components were identified on the basis of their accurate mass by GC with quadrupole time of flight MS. Addition of hexane during extraction and optimized dSPE cleanup significantly minimized the matrix effects. Recoveries at 10, 25 and 50 μg/kg were within 60-120% with associated precision, RSD<11%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Barbecuing is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A validated method that employed pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Silica and analytical determination by GC-MS was applied...

  15. Effect of smoking on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of smoking on proximate composition, energy values and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in raw and smoked samples of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Crude protein was higher in the tilapia sample for both raw and smoked samples.

  16. EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET-B LIGHT AND POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBON EXPOSURE ON SEA URCHIN DEVELOPMENT AND BACTERIAL BIOLUMINESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are relatively common contaminants of the Gulf of Mexico and may be activated to more toxic metabolites by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light. A marine bacterial bioassay system (Vibrio fischeri) which focused on the reduction of luciferase-mediate...

  17. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritash, A.K.; Kaushik, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H 2 O, CO 2 (aerobic) or CH 4 (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the rate can

  18. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haritash, A.K., E-mail: akharitash@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India); Kaushik, C.P. [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana (India)

    2009-09-30

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} (aerobic) or CH{sub 4} (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  19. Study of remobilization polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkessam, L.; Vessigaud, S.; Laboudigue, A.; Vessigaud, S.; Perrin-Ganier, C.; Schiavon, M.; Denys, S.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originate from many pyrolysis processes. They are widespread environmental pollutants because some of them present toxic and genotoxic properties. In coal pyrolysis sites such as former manufactured gas plants and coke production plants, coal tar is a major source of PAHs. The management of such sites requires better understanding of the mechanisms that control release of PAHs to the biosphere. Determining total PAH concentrations is not sufficient since it does not inform about the pollutants availability to environmental processes. The fate and transport of PAHs in soil are governed by sorption and microbial processes which are well documented. Globally, enhancing retention of the compounds by a solid matrix reduces the risk of pollutant dispersion, but decreases their accessibility to microbial microflora. Conversely, the remobilization of organics from contaminated solid matrices represents a potential hazard since these pollutants can reach groundwater resources. However the available data are often obtained from laboratory experiments in which many field parameters can not be taken into account (long term, temperature, co-pollution, ageing phenomenon, heterogenous distribution of pollution). The present work focuses on the influence assessment and understanding of some of these parameters on PAHs remobilization from heavily polluted matrices in near-field conditions (industrial contaminated matrices, high contact time, ..). Results concerning effects of temperature and physical state of pollution (dispersed among the soil or condensed in small clusters or in coal tar) are presented. (authors)

  20. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH during woodworking operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Danisman Bruschweiler

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC. Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools.To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common woodworking operations, PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n=30 were collected.Wood dust was generated using tree different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF, beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personnel sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAHs concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatographic-ion trap mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS.Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24 – 7.95 ppm with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal exposures to PAHs observed were between 37.5-119.8 ng m-3 among workers during wood working operations.Our results suggest that PAH exposures during woodworking operation are present and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  1. 75 FR 8937 - Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures AGENCY... Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures'' (EPA/635/R-08/012A). The draft document was prepared by the National... 27, 2010. The listening session on the draft document for PAH mixtures will be held on April 7, 2010...

  2. Multispecies and monoculture rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors investigated the potential of multispecies rhizoremediation and monoculture rhizoremediation in decontaminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Plant-mediated PAH dissipation was evaluated using...

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PAH-related DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewa, Błaszczyk; Danuta, Mielżyńska-Švach

    2017-08-01

    Investigations on the impact of chemicals on the environment and human health have led to the development of an exposome concept. The exposome refers to the totality of exposures received by a person during life, including exposures to life-style factors, from the prenatal period to death. The exposure to genotoxic chemicals and their reactive metabolites can induce chemical modifications of DNA, such as, for example, DNA adducts, which have been extensively studied and which play a key role in chemically induced carcinogenesis. Development of different methods for the identification of DNA adducts has led to adopting DNA adductomic approaches. The ability to simultaneously detect multiple PAH-derived DNA adducts may allow for the improved assessment of exposure, and offer a mechanistic insight into the carcinogenic process following exposure to PAH mixtures. The major advantage of measuring chemical-specific DNA adducts is the assessment of a biologically effective dose. This review provides information about the occurrence of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their influence on human exposure and biological effects, including PAH-derived DNA adduct formation and repair processes. Selected methods used for determination of DNA adducts have been presented.

  4. Water-Sediment Partition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Nansi Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guizhai; Diao, Youjiang

    2018-06-01

    Based on field data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediment in Nansi Lake. The concentrations and the partitioning characteristic of PAHs in the water and sediment were studied. The lgKd of high molecular weight PAHs were higher than the low molecular weight PAHs. The most of PAHs Kd values were negligible correlated with TOC, soluble salt, clay and pH of the sediment in Nansi Lake.

  5. THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF VERY LARGE IRREGULAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs): OBSERVATIONAL PROBES OF ASTRONOMICAL PAH GEOMETRY, SIZE, AND CHARGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Peeters, Els; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    The mid-infrared (IR) spectra of six large, irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with formulae (C 84 H 24 -C 120 H 36 ) have been computed using density functional theory (DFT). Trends in the dominant band positions and intensities are compared to those of large, compact PAHs as a function of geometry, size, and charge. Irregular edge moieties that are common in terrestrial PAHs, such as bay regions and rings with quartet hydrogens, are shown to be uncommon in astronomical PAHs. As for all PAHs comprised solely of C and H reported to date, mid-IR emission from irregular PAHs fails to produce a strong CC str band at 6.2 μm, the position characteristic of the important, class A astronomical PAH spectra. Earlier studies showed that inclusion of nitrogen within a PAH shifts this to 6.2 μm for PAH cations. Here we show that this band shifts to 6.3 μm in nitrogenated PAH anions, close to the position of the CC stretch in class B astronomical PAH spectra. Thus, nitrogenated PAHs may be important in all sources and the peak position of the CC stretch near 6.2 μm appears to directly reflect the PAH cation to anion ratio. Large irregular PAHs exhibit features at 7.8 μm but lack them near 8.6 μm. Hence, the 7.7 μm astronomical feature is produced by a mixture of small and large PAHs while the 8.6 μm band can only be produced by large compact PAHs. As with the CC str , the position and profile of these bands reflect the PAH cation to anion ratio.

  6. Chitosan/CNTs green nanocomposite membrane: Synthesis, swelling and polyaromatic hydrocarbons removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, Saira; Yasin, Tariq; Hassan, Safia; Riaz, Muhammad; Nawaz, Mohsan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were irradiated in air at 100 kGy under gamma radiations. The Raman spectroscopy of γ-treated CNTs showed distinctive changes in the absorption bands. The CNTs were mixed with blend of chitosan (Cs)/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and crosslinked with silane. The chemical reactions between the components affected the position and intensities of the infrared bands. Scanning electron micrograph of Cs/CNTs nanocomposite membrane showed the homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in the polymer matrix. The addition of CNTs lowered its swelling in water. Naphthalene (NAPH) was selected as a model compound and its removal was studied using HPLC technique. This membrane showed fast uptake of NAPH and 87% was removed from water within 30 min. The NAPH loaded membrane showed strong chemical interactions and cannot be desorbed. The fast uptake of PAHs and the green nature of this membrane made them suitable candidates for clean-up purposes. - Highlights: • Radiation modified CNTs and chitosan gave nanocomposite membranes. • This membrane showed hydrogel properties. • This membrane was used for the removal of naphthalene. • The green nature made them suitable candidates for clean-up purposes of PAH

  7. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Austin sediments after a ban on pavement sealers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMott, R.P.; Gauthier, T.D.; Wiersema, J.M.; Crenson, G. [ENVIRON International, Tampa, FL (USA)

    2010-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were measured in stream sediments collected before and after a municipal ban on the use of coal-tar-based pavement sealers in Austin, Texas. Samples were collected in October 2005, prior to the ban, and again in April, 2008, approximately 2 years after the ban. Differences in total PAH concentrations between samples collected before and after the ban show no net change in PAH levels in Austin stream sediments. Results of hydrocarbon fingerprinting reveal subtle differences in PAH profiles that appear to reflect the effects of weathering rather than a change in PAH sources.

  9. Chitosan/CNTs green nanocomposite membrane: synthesis, swelling and polyaromatic hydrocarbons removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Saira; Yasin, Tariq; Hassan, Safia; Riaz, Muhammad; Nawaz, Mohsan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were irradiated in air at 100 kGy under gamma radiations. The Raman spectroscopy of γ-treated CNTs showed distinctive changes in the absorption bands. The CNTs were mixed with blend of chitosan (Cs)/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and crosslinked with silane. The chemical reactions between the components affected the position and intensities of the infrared bands. Scanning electron micrograph of Cs/CNTs nanocomposite membrane showed the homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in the polymer matrix. The addition of CNTs lowered its swelling in water. Naphthalene (NAPH) was selected as a model compound and its removal was studied using HPLC technique. This membrane showed fast uptake of NAPH and 87% was removed from water within 30 min. The NAPH loaded membrane showed strong chemical interactions and cannot be desorbed. The fast uptake of PAHs and the green nature of this membrane made them suitable candidates for clean-up purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban treatment sludge to the air during PAH removal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Cindoruk, S Siddik; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the amounts of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) penetrating into air during PAH removal applications from the urban treatment sludge were investigated. The effects of the temperature, photocatalyst type, and dose on the PAH removal efficiencies and PAH evaporation were explained. The sludge samples were taken from an urban wastewater treatment plant located in the city of Bursa, with 585,000 equivalent population. The ultraviolet C (UV-C) light of 254 nm wavelength was used within the UV applications performed on a specially designed setup. Internal air of the setup was vacuumed through polyurethane foam (PUF) columns in order to collect the evaporated PAHs from the sludge during the PAH removal applications. All experiments were performed with three repetitions. The PAH concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was observed that the amounts of PAHs penetrating into the air were increased with increase of temperature, and more than 80% of PAHs migrated to the air consisted of 3-ring compounds during the UV and UV-diethylamine (DEA) experiments at 38 and 53 degrees C. It was determined that 40% decrease was ensured in sigma12 (total of 12) PAH amounts with UV application and 13% of PAHs in sludge penetrated into the air. In the UV-TiO2 applications, a maximum 80% of sigma12 PAH removal was obtained by adding 0.5% TiO2 of dry weight of sludge. The quantity of PAH penetrating into air did not exceed 15%. UV-TiO2 applications ensured high levels of PAH removal in the sludge and also reduced the quantity of PAH penetrating into the air. Within the scope of the samples added with DEA, there was no increase in PAH removal efficiencies and the penetration of PAHs into air was not decreased. In light of these data, it was concluded that UV-TiO2 application is the most suitable PAH removal alternative that restricts the convection of PAH pollution.

  11. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Grutters, M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of

  12. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A.R.; de Lipthay, J.R.; Reichenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse pollution of surface soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is problematic in terms of the large areas and volumes of polluted soil. The levels and effects of diffuse PAH pollution at a motorway site were investigated. Surface soil was sampled with increasing distance from...... in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot...... the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of PAHs, amounts of bioaccessible PAHs, total bacterial populations, PAH degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of C-14-PAHs, and mutagenicity. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled...

  13. Inventory, distribution, and origin of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in sea water, the surface microlayer, and the aerosols in the tropical Eastern Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty, J C; Saliot, A; Tissier, M J

    1978-03-20

    Hydrocarbons have been analyzed in several samples from ''Midlante'' cruise, Cape Verde islands-Canary islands, in the Eastern tropical Atlantic: subsurface water, sea surface microlayer collected by a metallic screen and aerosols collected by filtration of large air volumes at about 12 m. above the sea surface. Detailed analysis of aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons has been made by computerized gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. This study of the air/sea interface indicates a discontinuity in hydrocarbon composition between the underlying water and the microlayer and a similarity between the surface microlayer and the aerosols. The origin of the collected aerosols is essentially marine with a minor terrestrial contribution. The hydrocarbon pattern shows that, superimposed on the typical marine components, a contribution from smokes of natural and industrial origin and/or from pollution associated with crude oil sea slicks is present.

  14. Biological risk and pollution history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Zhou, Xizhen; Xia, Lihua; Geng, Xinhua

    2014-08-15

    Chinese government has taken various measures to alleviate pollution caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Pearl River Delta since the economic reform in 1978, but the effectiveness of these measures remains largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the biological risk and pollution history of PAHs by measuring the concentrations of 28 PAHs in the surface and core sediments, respectively, in Nansha mangrove. Results found that the biological risk of PAHs was low without obvious spatial variation. The PAH concentration along the depth gradient indicated that PAH pollution was stabilized since the early 1990s while the source of PAHs has gradually changed from combustion of coal to petroleum products. This implied that the mitigation measures taken by the Chinese government were effective. Compared to marine bottom sediment, we propose that using mangrove sediment can provide a more accurate and precise estimate of pollution history of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Urinary arsenic, pesticides, heavy metals, phthalates, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polyfluoroalkyl compounds are associated with sleep troubles in adults: USA NHANES, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2017-01-01

    Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged, but the effects on sleep health were less studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships of different sets of environmental chemicals and common sleep troubles in a national and population-based setting. Data were retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005-2006 including demographics, serum measurements, lifestyle factors, self-reported sleep troubles, and urinary environmental chemical concentrations. Statistical analyses including descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test, and survey-weighted logistic regression models were performed. Of all 5563 Americans aged 18-85, 2331 (42.0%) had wake-up at night, 2914 (52.5%) felt unrested during the day, 740 (13.4%) had leg jerks while sleeping, and 1059 (19.1%) had leg cramps for 2+ times a month. Higher levels of urinary arsenic, phthalates, and polyfluoroalkyl compounds were associated with wake-up at night. Higher levels of urinary 4-tert-octylphenol and polyfluoroalkyl compounds were associated with being unrested during the day. Higher levels of urinary arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polyfluoroalkyl compounds were associated with leg jerks while sleeping. Higher levels of urinary pesticides, heavy metals, phthalates, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons were associated with leg cramps while sleeping. However, there were no significant associations with other environmental chemicals such as parabens, bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclosan, perchlorate, nitrate, or thiocyanate. Eliminating arsenic, heavy metals, phthalate, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polyfluoroalkyl compounds to improve sleep health might be considered while understanding the biological pathway with a longitudinal or experimental approach in future research would be suggested.

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Oxygenated PAH (OPAH) Air–Water Exchange during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water–air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m3 and 0.3 and 27 ng/m3, respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air–water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10 000 ng/m2/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m2/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air–water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and oxygenated PAH (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

    2015-01-06

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology.

  18. Kandungan Senyawa Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH di Teluk Jakarta (Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Hydrocarbons (PAH Content in Jakarta Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasmi Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    , including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons organic compounds (PAH. These organic compounds are toxic to marine life. This study determines the content of PAH in sea water and sediments in relation to marine life and to find out the source of the PAH compounds in the Bay of Jakarta. Measurement of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon levels were carried out in March 2011. Sea water samples were taken by using a water sampler and sediment samples taken using a grab at 15 sites. PAH content were analyzed using gas chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector. The results showed that the content of PAH in seawater in the western part of Jakarta Bay > middle > east. The content of PAH in the western of Jakarta Bay ranged from 201,57 to 474,68 ppb with PAH total 1404,68 ppb, in the middle area ranged from 104,61 to 337,07 ppb with PAH total 825,63 ppb, and in the eastern part ranged from 8.72 to 115,39 ppb with PAH total 806,73 ppb. This means that seawater in the western part receives the PAH compound more than the others. However, the content of PAH in sediments in the western part < middle < eastern. This means that sediment in the western part of Jakarta Bay accumulates PAH compound less than the others areas. The content of PAH in the western part of Jakarta Bay ranged from 1.92 to 64.241 ppm with PAH total 107,931 ppm, in middle part ranged from 16.14 to 77.71 ppb with PAH total 170,61 ppm, and in the eastern part range 8,72 to 115.39 ppm with PAH total 252,25 ppm. This means that sediment in the western area of Jakarta Bay accumulates the PAH compound less than the others. Sources of PAH in seawater and sediment came from several sources namely from combustion of organic material, combustion of petroleum, and from petroleum. PAH content in seawater has passed the Threshold Limit Value stated by KMNLH for marine life and also has passed the threshold value stated the Ministry of Environment and Handbook for Sediment Quality Assessment for marine organism. Key words: Jakarta Bay

  19. Non-covalent Interactions of Graphene with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zygouri, Panagiota; Potsi, Georgia; Mouzourakis, Eleftherios; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2015-01-01

    In this mini review we discuss the interactions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with graphene and the experimental approaches developed so far to create novel graphene/PAH hybrids and composite systems. The utilization of these systems in electrical, biomedical and polymer-reinforcement

  20. Susceptibility of eastern oyster early life stages to road surface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemical compounds that are mostly : anthropogenic in nature, and they can become persistent organic contaminants in aquatic : ecosystems. Runoff from impervious surfaces is one of the many ways ...

  1. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  2. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Khuzestan province, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Josephine; Poulsen, Kristoffer Gulmark; Knudsen, Sofie B.

    2016-01-01

    of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution. A four-component principal component analysis (PCA) model was obtained. While principal component 1 (PC1) was related to the total concentration of PAHs, the remaining PCs described three distinct sources: PC2 and PC3 collectively differentiate between...

  3. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Asia: A review from 1999 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.-F.; Fang, G.-C.; Chen, J.-C.; Wu, Y.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in both gaseous and particulate phases. These compounds are considered to be atmospheric contaminants and are human carcinogens. Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulate and gaseous phases of PAH in Asia over the past 5 years. This work compares and discusses different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods. The main PAH sources are traffic exhausts (AcPy, FL, Flu, PA, Pyr, CHR, BeP) and industrial emissions (BaP, BaA, PER, BeP, COR, CYC). PAH concentrations are highest in areas of traffic, followed by the urban sites, and lowest in rural sites. Meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed and humidity, strongly affect PAH concentrations at all sampling sites. This work elucidates the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia. - This work summarizes the characteristics, sources and distribution, and the healthy impacts of atmospheric PAH species in Asia

  4. Distribution and origin sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in sediment of Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Shuhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim

    2010-01-01

    Alkyl and parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in marine sediment sample collected from ten locations along Sarawak coastal areas were extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The source identification of PAH pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas were identify by ratios technique of An/ An+phen, Fl/ Fl +Py, B[a]A/ (B[a]A+Chry) and total Methyl Phen/ Phen. The total alkyl and parent PAHs concentration varies from 36.5 - 277.4 ng/ g dry weight (d.w.) with a mean concentration of 138.2 ng/ g d.w. The ratio values of PAHs pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas are clearly indicating the PAHs pollutions are originated from petroleum (petrogenic) and petroleum combustion (pyrolytic). However, the origin sources of PAHs pollution in a few stations were uncertain due to mixing sources of PAHs. (author)

  5. Influence of smoking parameters on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Danish smoked fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, J. H.; Højgård, A.

    2010-01-01

    were also tested in a pilot plant study with smoked trout as a model fish. In addition to confirming that increased combustion temperatures and usage of common alder in comparison with beech increased Sigma PAH25, it was also revealed that the PAH concentration decreased in the order fish skin >> outer......A new method for the analysis of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in fish was developed, validated, and used for the quantification of PAHs in 180 industrially smoked fish products. The method included pressurized liquid extraction, gel-permeation chromatography (Bio-beads S-X3...... smoking, and for other fish species direct smoking leads to higher sigma PAH25 than indirect smoking. Also, the usage of common alder increases the PAH contamination compared with beech. The effects of smoking time, combustion temperatures, and two types of smoke-generating material on the Sigma PAH25...

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  8. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rivers and estuaries in Malaysia: a widespread input of petrogenic PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Takada, Hideshige; Tsutsumi, Shinobu; Ohno, Kei; Yamada, Junya; Kouno, Eriko; Kumata, Hidetoshi

    2002-05-01

    This is the first publication on the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in riverine and coastal sediments in South East Asia where the rapid transfer of land-based pollutants into aquatic environments by heavy rainfall and runoff waters is of great concern. Twenty-nine Malaysian riverine and coastal sediments were analyzed for PAHs (3-7 rings) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Total PAHs concentrations in the sediment ranged from 4 to 924 ng/g. Alkylated homologues were abundant for all sediment samples. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P), an index of petrogenic PAHs contribution, was more than unity for 26 sediment samples and more than 3 for seven samples for urban rivers covering a broad range of locations. The MP/P ratio showed a strong correlation with the total PAHs concentrations, with an r2 value of 0.74. This ratio and all other compositional features indicated that Malaysian urban sediments are heavily impacted by petrogenic PAHs. This finding is in contrast to other studies reported in many industrialized countries where PAHs are mostly of pyrogenic origin. The MP/P ratio was also significantly correlated with higher molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene, suggesting unique PAHs source in Malaysia which contains both petrogenic PAHs and pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and hopanes fingerprints indicated that used crankcase oil is one of the major contributors of the sedimentary PAHs. Two major routes of inputs to aquatic environments have been identified: (1) spillage and dumping of waste crankcase oil and (2) leakage of crankcase oils from vehicles onto road surfaces, with the subsequent washout by street runoff. N-Cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA), a molecular marker of street dust, was detected in the polluted sediments. NCBA and other biomarker profiles confirmed our hypothesis of the input from street dust contained the leaked crankcase oil. The fingerprints excluded crude oil

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal tar standard reference material - SRM 1597a updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Poster, Dianne L.; Rimmer, Catherine A.; Schubert, Patricia; Sander, Lane C.; Schantz, Michele M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Leigh, Stefan D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Statistical Engineering Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Moessner, Stephanie [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); GMP/Comparator Labs, Werthenstein Chemie AG, Industrie Nord, Schachen (Switzerland)

    2010-09-15

    SRM 1597 Complex Mixture of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar, originally issued in 1987, was recently reanalyzed and reissued as SRM 1597a with 34 certified, 46 reference, and 12 information concentrations (as mass fractions) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) including methyl-substituted PAHs and PASHs. The certified and reference concentrations (as mass fractions) were based on results of analyses of the coal tar material using multiple analytical techniques including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry on four different stationary phases and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. SRM 1597a is currently the most extensively characterized SRM for PAHs and PASHs. (orig.)

  10. Pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in sediments and organisms from Salina Cruz Port, Oaxaca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, A.V.; Villanueva, S.; Diaz, G.; Pica, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The presence and levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in [sediments and biota from the Port of Salina Cruz, Oaxaca; were evaluated by means of gas capillary chromatography using columns of high resolution. The results show a seasonal variability of the PAH's concentrations in sediments being higher in the port area and lower in oceanic sediments. The increase of the PAH's levels in Crassostrea iridiscens and Penaeus stylirostris is important and related to the bioaccumulation process. The presence of PAH's conformed by 4 y 5 benzene rings in these species must be noted specially because they have carcinogenic properties and their effects on the local fisheries should be considered. (Author)

  11. APPLICATION OF FENTON’S REAGENT ON REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONs (PAHs IN SPIKED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursiah La Nafie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem associated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs contaminated site in environmental media have received increasing attention. To resolve such problems, innovative in situ methods are urgently required. This work investigated the feasibility of using Fenton's Reagent to remediate PAHs in spiked soil. PAHs were spiked into soil to simulate contaminated soil. Fenton's Reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+ and surfactant were very efficient in destruction of PAHs including naphthalene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo(apyrene from spiked soil. It was indicated by the fact that more than 96% of PAHs were degraded in the solution and the spiked soil.   Keywords: Environmental, Fenton's Reagent, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Spiked soil.

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their Bioaccessibility in Meat: a Tool for Assessing Human Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Elliyana Nadia; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Selamat, Jinap; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily formed as a result of thermal treatment of food, especially barbecuing or grilling. Contamination by PAHs is due to generation by direct pyrolysis of food nutrients and deposition from smoke produced through incomplete combustion of thermal agents. PAHs are ubiquitous compounds, well-known to be carcinogenic, which can reach the food in different ways. As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, dietary intake of PAHs is of increasing concern for assessing cancer risk in the human body. In addition, the risks associated with consumption of barbecued meat may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentrations of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. Since total PAHs always overestimate the actual amount that is available for absorption by the body, bioaccessibility of PAHs is to be preferred. Bioaccessibility of PAHs in food is the fraction of PAHs mobilized from food matrices during gastrointestinal digestion. An in vitro human digestion model was chosen for assessing the bioaccessibility of PAHs in food as it offers a simple, rapid, low cost alternative to human and animal studies; providing insights which may not be achievable in in vivo studies. Thus, this review aimed not only to provide an overview of general aspects of PAHs such as the formation, carcinogenicity, sources, occurrence, and factors affecting PAH concentrations, but also to enhance understanding of bioaccessibility assessment using an in vitro digestion model.

  13. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mediate cadmium toxicity to an emergent wetland species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Rengel, Zed; Meney, Kathy; Pantelic, Ljiljana; Tomanovic, Radmila

    2011-01-01

    Growth and pollutant removal by emergent wetland plants may be influenced by interactions among mixed pollutants in constructed wetlands. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) x polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) x plant treatments on growth of Juncus subsecundus, Cd and PAH removal from soil and the total number of microorganisms in soil. Growth and biomass of J. subsecundus were significantly influenced by interaction of Cd and PAHs, significantly decreasing with either Cd or PAH additions, but with the effect of Cd on plant growth being stronger than that of PAHs. The mixture of low Cd and low PAH lessened Cd toxicity to plants, resulting in improved plant growth and increased Cd accumulation in plant tissues, thus enhancing Cd removal by plants. The dissipation of PAHs in soils was significantly influenced by interactions of Cd, PAH and plant presence or absence. The total number of microorganisms in soils was significantly increased by the PAH additions. The interactive effect of Cd and PAHs on plant growth may be linked to the changes in the abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere, probably via a positive effect of PAH metabolites and/or phytohormones produced by microorganisms on plant growth.

  14. Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Concentrations in Soils from Bursa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify regional variations in soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in Bursa, Turkey, and to determine the distributions and sources of various PAH species and their possible sources. Surface soil samples were collected from 20 different locations. The PAH concentrations in soil samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations (∑12 PAH) varied spatially between 8 and 4970 ng/g dry matter (DM). The highest concentrations were measured in soils taken from traffic+barbecue+ residential areas (4970 ng/g DM) and areas with cement (4382 ng/g DM) and iron-steel (4000 ng/g DM) factories. In addition, the amounts of ∑7 carcinogenic PAH ranged from 1 to 3684 ng/g DM, and between 5 and 74 % of the total PAHs consisted of such compounds. Overall, 4-ring PAH compounds (Fl, Pyr, BaA and Chr) were dominant in the soil samples, with 29-82 % of the ∑12 PAH consisting of 4-ring PAH compounds. The ∑12 BaPeq values ranged from 0.1 to 381.8 ng/g DM. Following an evaluation of the molecular diagnostic ratios, it was concluded that the PAH pollution in Bursa soil was related to pyrolytic sources; however, the impact of petrogenic sources should not be ignored.

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Exposure and DNA Adduct Semi-Quantitation in Archived Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are combustion products of organic materials, mixtures of which contain multiple known and probable human carcinogens. PAHs occur in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in char-broiled meats and fish. Human exposure to PAHs occurs by inhalation, ingestion and topical absorption, and subsequently formed metabolites are either rendered hydrophilic and excreted, or bioactivated and bound to cellular macromolecules. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts (DNA binding products, considered a necessary step in PAH-initiated carcinogenesis, has been widely studied in experimental models and has been documented in human tissues. This review describes immunohistochemistry (IHC studies, which reveal localization of PAH-DNA adducts in human tissues, and semi-quantify PAH-DNA adduct levels using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS. These studies have shown that PAH-DNA adducts concentrate in: basal and supra-basal epithelium of the esophagus, cervix and vulva; glandular epithelium of the prostate; and cytotrophoblast cells and syncitiotrophoblast knots of the placenta. The IHC photomicrographs reveal the ubiquitous nature of PAH-DNA adduct formation in human tissues as well as PAH-DNA adduct accumulation in specific, vulnerable, cell types. This semi-quantative method for PAH-DNA adduct measurement could potentially see widespread use in molecular epidemiology studies.

  16. Bioremediation of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil by native soil microbiota and bioaugmentation with isolated microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isis Serrano; Santos, Eder da Costa dos; Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin de; Faria, Andréia Fonseca de; Franciscon, Elisangela; Grossman, Matthew; Durrant, Lucia Regina

    2009-10-01

    Biodegradation of a mixture of PAHs was assessed in forest soil microcosms performed either without or with bioaugmentation using individual fungi and bacterial and a fungal consortia. Respiratory activity, metabolic intermediates and extent of PAH degradation were determined. In all microcosms the low molecular weight PAH's naphthalene, phenanthrene and anthracene, showed a rapid initial rate of removal. However, bioaugmentation did not significantly affect the biodegradation efficiency for these compounds. Significantly slower degradation rates were demonstrated for the high molecular weight PAH's pyrene, benz[a]anthracene and benz[a]pyrene. Bioaugmentation did not improve the rate or extent of PAH degradation, except in the case of Aspergillus sp. Respiratory activity was determined by CO(2) evolution and correlated roughly with the rate and timing of PAH removal. This indicated that the PAHs were being used as an energy source. The native microbiota responded rapidly to the addition of the PAHs and demonstrated the ability to degrade all of the PAHs added to the soil, indicating their ability to remediate PAH-contaminated soils.

  17. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF PAH IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan; Ricca, Alessandra; Allamandola, Louis J.; Bouwman, Jordy; Linnartz, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H 2 O, pyrene:H 2 O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H 2 O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H 2 O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H 2 O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) n ] and quinones [PAH(O) n ] for all PAH:H 2 O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO 2 and H 2 CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) n and PAH(O) n to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H 2 O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes

  18. PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF PAH IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan [NASA Ames Research Center, PO Box 1, M/S 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ricca, Alessandra; Allamandola, Louis J. [SETI Institute, 189 North Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bouwman, Jordy [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Toernooiveld 5, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Linnartz, Harold [Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, NL2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-01-20

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H{sub 2}O, pyrene:H{sub 2}O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H{sub 2}O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H{sub 2}O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H{sub 2}O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) {sub n} ] and quinones [PAH(O) {sub n} ] for all PAH:H{sub 2}O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) {sub n} and PAH(O) {sub n} to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H{sub 2}O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.

  19. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH Catechols and PAH o-Quinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Jin, Yi; Huang, Meng; Penning, Trevor M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR) catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quinones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox-cycling of PAH o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, PAH catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which PAH o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of PAH and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis. PMID:23162467

  20. Phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by cv. Crioula: A Brazilian alfalfa cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Wilber S; Manoel, Evelin A; Santos, Noemi S; Nunes, Rosane O; Domiciano, Giselli C; Soares, Marcia R

    2018-07-03

    This work aimed to evaluate the phytoremediation capacity of the alfalfa cultivar Crioula in soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), primary pollutants with mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Alfalfa was grown from seed for 40 days on soil amended with anthracene, pyrene, and phenanthrene. Soil and plant tissue was collected for biometric assay, dry mass analysis, and PAH analysis by liquid chromatography. Increased total PAH concentration was associated with decreases in plant biomass, height, and internode length. The Crioula cultivar had a satisfactory phytoremediation effect, reducing total PAH concentration (300 ppm) in the experimental soil by 85% in 20 days, and by more than 95% in 40 days. The PAH showed a tendency to be removed in the temporal order: phenanthrene before pyrene before anthracene, and the removal ratio was influenced by the initial soil concentration of each PAH.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of east coast peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Suhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Wee Boon Siong; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Ariffin Talib

    2007-01-01

    The polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of concern due to their persistent in the marine ecosystem, thus its can cause long-term adverse effect to the marine life. In this study the concentrations of PAHs in east coast Peninsular Malaysia sediments were determined. About ten stations along the east coast of the coastal area were selected to collect sediments sample using grab sampler. The PAHs from the sediment samples were soxhlet extracted using mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (DCM). Fractionation was done using the silica-alumina column. About 17 compounds of the PAHs were determined using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS model QP5050A). The Σ PAHs was found in the range between 0.26 μg/ g to 0.59 μg/ g dry weight. The data from the study signified that the main source of PAHs in the sediment of the east coast peninsular Malaysia is originated from the pyrolytic source. (author)

  2. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs. -- Highlights: • The alternative and advancement in extraction agents to remove PAHs from soil using soil washing technology is summarised. • The soil regulations for PAH level in various countries are summarized for reference to researchers. • The concentration levels of PAHs in soil at present and the need for soil remediation is presented. -- The efficiency of the extraction agent plays a significant role in soil washing of PAH-contaminated soil

  3. Biomonitoring seasonal variation of urban air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Ficus benghalensis leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar; Tripathi, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    Temporal and seasonal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in leaves of Ficus benghalensis were investigated in Varanasi city (India). Leaf samples were collected from six sites from urban area of Varanasi and from a control site. PAH extraction was done by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In January total leaf PAHs concentrations at all the urban sites were twice higher as compared to other season's viz. summer and rainy. In contrast, at the control site leaf PAHs concentrations showed lower values than urban sites. The maximum concentrations of total PAHs in winter were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs which increases with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The temporal variation of medium molecular weight PAHs was similar both at the urban and remote sites. These results support biomonitoring ability of Ficus benghalensis leaves to temporal variations in PAHs contamination. - Biomonitoring PAHs in atmosphere using F. benghalensis leaves for its temporal and seasonal variation is cost effective as well as easier

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of Xiamen, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jinping [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Guangdong Environmental Monitoring Centre, Guangzhou 510308 (China); Zhang, Fuwang; Xu, Lingling [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jinsheng, E-mail: jschen@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xu, Ya [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2011-11-15

    An intensive sampling program was conducted from October 2008 to September 2009 at the five different environmental sites in Xiamen, Fujian Province, to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the gaseous and particulate phase, respectively. The PAHs concentrations at different sites were quite distinct during four seasons. The average concentrations of PAHs in winter were about 8.4 times higher than those in spring, and the concentrations of background were 0.56 times lower than those of industrial area. In addition, the higher temperature in summer affected the particle/gas partitioning of PAHs and led to the higher concentrations of gaseous PAHs. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs, which were employed to indicate the primary sources of PAHs in Xiamen, showed that the traffic vehicle exhaust was the largest contributor and the primary source for PAHs in Xiamen, especially in urban area; while the stationary combustion processes, such as petrochemical factories and power plants, were mainly responsible for PAHs sources in the industrial areas. The health risk of PAHs in the particulate phase was higher than those of the gaseous phase at the five sampling sites. The average toxic equivalent (BaP{sub eq}) of the benzo[a]pyrene values for PAHs were 0.14, 0.32, 1.38 and 3.59 ng m{sup -3} in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Furthermore, the results of average BaP{sub eq} in all four seasons indicated that the health risks of particulate PAHs were higher than those of the gaseous PAHs at different sampling sites.

  5. Enhanced Accessibility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Heterocyclic PAHs in Industrially Contaminated Soil after Passive Dosing of a Competitive Sorbate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humel, Stefan; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Sumetzberger-Hasinger, Marion

    2017-01-01

    To assess the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) it is important to understand the binding mechanisms between specific soil constituents and the organic pollutant. In this study, sorptive bioaccessibility extraction (SBE) was applied to quantify the accessible PAH fraction...... in industrially contaminated soil with and without passive dosing of a competitive sorbate. SBE experiments revealed an accessible PAH fraction of 41 ± 1% (∑16 US EPA PAHs + 5 further PAHs). The passive dosing of toluene below its saturation level revealed competitive binding and resulted in an average increase.......4% PAH. We explain increased PAH desorption after addition of toluene by competitive adsorption to high-affinity sorption sites while acknowledging that toluene could additionally have increased PAH mobility within the soil matrix. Findings suggest that the presence of copollutants at contaminated sites...

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Content in Cattle Hides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Scrap rubber tyre is used as fuel for singeing animal carcasses in third world countries despite the fact that it can .... test method and the quantification of the PAH analytes using ... waste, SW-846 methods) with some modifications.

  7. Dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the rhizosphere: Synthesis through meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Bin; He Yan; Chen Huaihai; Xu Jianming; Rengel, Zed

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread and persistent organic pollutants with high carcinogenic effect and toxicity; their behavior and fate in the soil-plant system have been widely investigated. In the present paper, meta-analysis was used to explore the interaction between plant growth and dissipation of PAHs in soil based on the large body of published literature. Plants have a promoting effect on PAH dissipation in soils. There was no difference in PAH dissipation between soils contaminated with single and mixed PAHs. However, plants had a more obvious effect on PAH dissipation in freshly-spiked soils than in long-term field-polluted soils. Additionally, a positive effect of the number of microbial populations capable of degrading PAHs was observed in the rhizosphere compared with the bulk soil. Our meta-analysis established the importance of the rhizosphere effect on PAH dissipation in variety of the soil-plant systems. - The meta-analysis provides the first quantitative evidence of the positive effect of rhizosphere processes on PAH dissipation.

  8. Impact of soil organic matter on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, N.; Xue, M.; Tao, S.

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge on the distribution of hydrophobic organic contaminants in soils can provide better understanding for their fate in the environment. In the present study, the n-butanol extraction and humic fractionation were applied to investigate the impact of SOM on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicated that 80.5%-94.8% of the target PAHs could be extracted by n-butanol and 63.1%-94.6% of PAHs were associated with fulvic acid (FA). Concentrations of un-extracted PAHs increased significantly with the increasing soil organic matter (SOM), however, such an association was absent for the extractable fractions. The results suggested that the sequestration played a critical role in the accumulation of PAHs in soils. SOM also retarded the diffusion of PAHs into the humin fractions. It implied that sequestration in SOM was critical for PAH distribution in soils, while the properties of PAH compounds also had great influences. - Soil organic matter played an important role in the distribution of PAHs in soils through sequestration.

  9. Recent Advances in Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAHs in the Far Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Ricca, Alessandra; Tucker, Jonathan; Boersma, Christiaan; Bauschlicher, Charles, Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Over 25 years of observations and laboratory work have shown that the mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 microns, which originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. PAHs dominate the mid-IR emission from many galactic and extragalactic objects. As such, this material tracks a wide variety of astronomical processes, making this spectrum a powerful probe of the cosmos Apart from bands in the mid-IR, PAHs have bands spanning the Far-IR (FIR) and emission from these FIR features should be present in astronomical sources showing the Mid-IR PAH bands. However, with one exception, the FIR spectral characteristics are known only for a few neutral small PAHs trapped in salt pellets or oils at room temperature, data which is not relevant to astrophysics. Furthermore, since most emitting PAHs responsible for the mid-IR astronomical features are ionized, the absence of any experimental or theoretical PAH ion FIR spectra will make it impossible to correctly interpret the FIR data from these objects. In view of the upcoming Herschel space telescope mission and SOFIA's FIR airborne instrumentation, which will pioneer the FIR region, it is now urgent to obtain PAH FIR spectra. This talk will present an overview recent advances in the laboratory spectroscopy of PAHs, Highlighting the FIR spectroscopy along with some quantum calculations.

  10. Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils after forest fires in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jung; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the influence of biomass burning on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils, temporal trends and profiles of 16 US Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs were studied in soil and ash samples collected 1, 5, and 9 months after forest fires in South Korea. The levels of PAHs in the burnt soils 1 month after the forest fires (mean, 1,200 ng/g dry weight) were comparable with those of contaminated urban soils. However, 5 and 9 months after the forest fires, these levels decreased considerably to those of general forest soils (206 and 302 ng/g, respectively). The burnt soils and ash were characterized by higher levels of light PAHs with two to four rings, reflecting direct emissions from biomass burning. Five and 9 months after the forest fires, the presence of naphthalene decreased considerably, which indicates that light PAHs were rapidly volatilized or degraded from the burnt soils. The temporal trend and pattern of PAHs clearly suggests that soils in the forest-fire region can be contaminated by PAHs directly emitted from biomass burning. However, the fire-affected soils can return to the pre-fire conditions over time through the washout and wind dissipation of the ash with high content of PAHs as well as vaporization or degradation of light PAHs.

  11. Landfill leachate as a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to Malaysian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Geik, Kho Hiaw; Lee, Wong Yoon; Hayet, Razahidi

    2005-01-01

    Organic chemicals of environmental concern are those with known or potentially deleterious effects on natural resources and humans. These compounds are referred to as micro-organic pollutants. Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most important classes of anthropogenic micro-organic pollutants that have long been the interest of environmental chemists. This concern arises primarily from the fact that a small fraction of the PAHs generated and released to environment has been ...

  12. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA, rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6. The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73 μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error. The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4 with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4. The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  13. Source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Palm Beach County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Wilson, Christina; Wu, Chang-Yu; Stormer, James E

    2016-04-01

    Due to concerns about adverse health effects associated with inhalation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 30 ambient air samples were obtained at an air quality monitoring station in Palm Beach County, Florida, from March 2013 to March 2014. The ambient PAH concentration measurements and fractional emission rates of known sources were incorporated into a chemical mass balance model, CMB8.2, developed by EPA, to apportion contributions of three major PAH sources including preharvest sugarcane burning, mobile vehicles, and wildland fires. Strong association between the number of benzene rings and source contribution was found, and mobile vehicles were identified to be the prevailing source (contribution≥56%) for the observed PAHs concentration with lower molecular weights (four or fewer benzene rings) throughout the year. Preharvest sugarcane burning was the primary contributing source for PAHs with relatively higher molecular weights (five or more benzene rings) during the sugarcane burning season (from October to May of the next year). Source contribution of wildland fires varied among PAH compounds but was consistently lower than for sugarcane burning during the sugarcane harvest season. Determining the major sources responsible for ground-level PAHs serves as a tool to improving management strategies for PAH emitting sources and a step toward better protection of the health of residents in terms of exposure to PAHs. The results obtain insight into temporal dominance of PAH polluting sources for those residential areas located near sugarcane burning facilities and have implications beyond Palm Beach County, in areas with high concerns of PAHs and their linked sources. Source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Palm Beach County, Florida, meant to estimate contributions of major sources in PAH concentrations measured at Belle Glade City of Palm Beach County. Number of benzene rings was found to be the key parameter

  14. A directional passive air sampler for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, S.; Liu, Y.N.; Lang, C.; Wang, W.T.; Yuan, H.S.; Zhang, D.Y.; Qiu, W.X.; Liu, J.M.; Liu, Z.G.; Liu, S.Z.; Yi, R.; Ji, M.; Liu, X.X.

    2008-01-01

    A passive air sampler was developed for collecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air mass from various directions. The airflow velocity within the sampler was assessed for its responses to ambient wind speed and direction. The sampler was examined for trapped particles, evaluated quantitatively for influence of airflow velocity and temperature on PAH uptake, examined for PAH uptake kinetics, calibrated against active sampling, and finally tested in the field. The airflow volume passing the sampler was linearly proportional to ambient wind speed and sensitive to wind direction. The uptake rate for an individual PAH was a function of airflow velocity, temperature and the octanol-air partitioning coefficient of the PAH. For all PAHs with more than two rings, the passive sampler operated in a linear uptake phase for three weeks. Different PAH concentrations were obtained in air masses from different directions in the field test. - A novel directional passive air sampler was developed and tested for monitoring PAHs in air masses from different directions

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten PAH (Σ10 PAH) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total PAH content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in PAH levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of PAHs increased, their removal rates also increased. Total PAH level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. PAH removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage.

  17. Gas-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in vehicle exhaust: A method for collection and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigl, W.O.; Chladek, E.

    1990-01-01

    Gas-phase polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted at low levels in vehicle exhaust compared to other hydrocarbon emissions. A method has been developed involving the trapping of gas phase emissions on Tenax, a macrorecticular porous polymer, followed by thermal desorption onto a capillary gas chromatography column. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for the chemical analysis. A detection limit of 0.05 ng was achieved for several gas-phase PAH. This high sensitivity enables the speciation and quantitation of gas-phase PAH collected from a dilution tube during standard driving (test) cycles. The method was demonstrated for the analysis of 9 PAH in the exhaust from a 1987 vehicle (with and without catalyst) during the hot start transient phase of the EPA urban dynamometer driving schedule. The PAH measured include naphthalene, 2-methyl- and 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The four most abundant PAH observed are naphthalene, 2-methyl and 1-methylnaphthalene, and biphenyl, in that order

  18. Biodegradation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microbial consortia in soil and slurry phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Chungui; Li, Qi; Gong, Zongqiang

    2008-01-15

    Microbial consortia isolated from aged oil-contaminated soil were used to degrade 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (15.72 mgkg(-1)) in soil and slurry phases. The three microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria-fungi complex) could degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the highest PAH removals were found in soil and slurry inoculated with fungi (50.1% and 55.4%, respectively). PAHs biodegradation in slurry was lower than in soil for bacteria and bacteria-fungi complex inoculation treatments. Degradation of three- to five-ring PAHs treated by consortia was observed in soil and slurry, and the highest degradation of individual PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, and benz(a)anthracene) appeared in soil (45.9-75.5%, 62-83.7% and 64.5-84.5%, respectively) and slurry (46.0-75.8%, 50.2-86.1% and 54.3-85.7%, respectively). Therefore, inoculation of microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria-fungi complex) isolated from in situ contaminated soil to degrade PAHs could be considered as a successful method.

  19. Concentrations of PAHs (Polycyclicaromatic Hydrocarbons Pollutant in Sediment of The Banten Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khozanah Munawir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Banten Bay is end of stream for a few rivers from Banten mainland where many manufactures and petrochemical industries are built. This may give environmental pressure of water quality of the bay due to pollutant input, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs. This study is to identify those pollutants and determine their total concentration and distribution in sediments. Surface sediment samples were collected in four zones: inner coastline within the bay, middle bay, coastline off the bay and outer of the Bay in April 2016. PAH components were extracted and measured using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levels of total PAHs in sediments in inner coastline within the bay ranged between 0.381-2.654 ppm with an average of 1.288 ppm, middle of the bay ranged between 0.747-1.762 ppm with an average of 1.198 ppm, outer of the bay ranged between 0.192-1.394 ppm with an average of 0.921 ppm, and east coast of the bay ranged between 0.191-1.394 ppm and an average of 0.778 ppm. The levels of total PAH contamination is apparently lower than those of PAH threshold in sediments (i.e. 4.5 ppm. Keywords: PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Banten Bay

  20. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Daria; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Matamoros, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...

  1. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during the filtration of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, M.; Schueth, C.; Pyka, W.

    1992-01-01

    Filtration experiments were preformed for three selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH-Fluorene, Fluoranthene and Benz(b)-fluoranthene) dissolved in water by varying filter materials, filter-pore sizes and filter equipment. The rate of recovery of PAH depended on the materials and methods applied. Organic filter materials showed a by far stronger sorption than inorganic materials. The losses for organic filters increased up to 100% with decreasing pore-size. The percentage loss was observed to increase with increasing octanol-water distribution coefficient (K OW ). Saturation tests revealed that the amount of water, necessary to saturate the filtration apparatus with and without filter-paper, also increased with the K OW . For BBF several liters would be necessary for saturation. It can be concluded, that the filtration of water samples, analysed for PAH, can lead to considerable errors in the analytical results, particularly for those PAH with log K OW larger than 5. (orig.)

  2. Genome-wide identification of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and their roles in response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hui-Su; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-02-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is one of the largest gene families and is highly conserved in all domains. The ABC proteins play roles in several biological processes, including multi-xenobiotic resistance (MXR), by functioning as transporters in the cellular membrane. They also mediate the cellular efflux of a wide range of substrates against concentration gradients. In this study, 37 ABC genes belonging to eight distinct subfamilies were identified in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana and annotated based on a phylogenetic analysis. Also, the functions of P-glycoproteins (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), conferring MXR, were verified using fluorescent substrates and specific inhibitors. The activities of MXR-mediated ABC proteins and their transcriptional level were examined in response to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), main components of the water-accommodated fraction. This study increases the understanding of the protective role of MXR in response to PAHs over the comparative evolution of ABC gene families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Infrared absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar PAHs [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The mid-infrared interstellar emission spectrum with features at 3050, 1610, 1300, 1150, and 885 cm -1 (3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7 and 11.3 microns) is discussed in terms of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) hypothesis. This hypothesis is based on the suggestive, but inconclusive comparison between the interstellar emission spectrum with the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of a few PAHs. The fundamental vibrations of PAHs and PAH-like species which determine the ir and Raman properties are discussed. Interstellar ir band emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited PAHs which have been excited by ultraviolet photons. The excitation/emission process is described in general and the ir fluorescence from one PAH, chrysene, is traced in detail. Generally, there is sufficient energy to populate several vibrational levels in each mode. Molecular vibrational potentials are anharmonic and emission from these higher levels will fall at lower frequencies and produce weak features to the red of the stronger fundamentals. This process is also described and can account for some spectroscopic details of the interstellar emission spectra previously unexplained. Analysis of the interstellar spectrum shows that PAHs containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the emission. 43 refs., 11 figs

  4. Infrared absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The mid-infrared interstellar emission spectrum with features at 3050, 1610, 1300, 1150, and 885 cm/sup -1/ (3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7 and 11.3 microns) is discussed in terms of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) hypothesis. This hypothesis is based on the suggestive, but inconclusive comparison between the interstellar emission spectrum with the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of a few PAHs. The fundamental vibrations of PAHs and PAH-like species which determine the ir and Raman properties are discussed. Interstellar ir band emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited PAHs which have been excited by ultraviolet photons. The excitation/emission process is described in general and the ir fluorescence from one PAH, chrysene, is traced in detail. Generally, there is sufficient energy to populate several vibrational levels in each mode. Molecular vibrational potentials are anharmonic and emission from these higher levels will fall at lower frequencies and produce weak features to the red of the stronger fundamentals. This process is also described and can account for some spectroscopic details of the interstellar emission spectra previously unexplained. Analysis of the interstellar spectrum shows that PAHs containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the emission. 43 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bin Qi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA–DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(apyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution.

  6. Exposure Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) in Childcare Centers of Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitlada, C.; Pentamwa, P.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to characterize airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as of particulate and vapor phases variation. The samples were collected from the childcare centers where divided into urban and rural areas in Nakhon Ratchasima Province of Thailand. The airborne samples were collected from five childcare centers during the dry season in the year 2017. The PAHs species were determined by the gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GS/MS) method. Results show that the total concentrations of PAHs were higher than vapor phase that both similar in urban area and rural area. The dominant PAHs compounds of both urban and rural areas were benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(a,h)anthracene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of PAHs in municipality (urban) childcare centers were higher than rural childcare centers area of Nakhon Ratchasima province. The risks associated with exposure to PAHs were evaluated using the TEF approach. The estimated value of lifetime lung cancer risks children in urban were significantly (p < 0.05) 2 times of children in rural, thus demonstrating that exposure to PAHs at levels found at urban site may be cause potential health risks.

  7. Current state of knowledge in microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Ghosal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed towards removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of

  8. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner. Microbial degradation of PAHs depends on various environmental conditions, such as nutrients, number and kind of the microorganisms, nature as well as chemical property of the PAH being degraded. A wide variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species have the potential to degrade/transform PAHs, among which bacteria and fungi mediated degradation has been studied most extensively. In last few decades microbial community analysis, biochemical pathway for PAHs degradation, gene organization, enzyme system, genetic regulation for PAH degradation have been explored in great detail. Although, xenobiotic-degrading microorganisms have incredible potential to restore contaminated environments inexpensively yet effectively, but new advancements are required to make such microbes effective and more powerful in removing those compounds, which were once thought to be recalcitrant. Recent analytical chemistry and genetic engineering tools might help to improve the efficiency of degradation of PAHs by microorganisms, and minimize uncertainties of successful bioremediation. However, appropriate implementation of the potential of naturally occurring microorganisms for field bioremediation could be considerably enhanced by optimizing certain factors such as bioavailability, adsorption and mass transfer of PAHs. The main

  9. Dry Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) at a Suburban Site in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xincheng; Wang, Weiyu; Zhu, Xianlei

    2017-04-01

    A great amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been generated by industrial production, waste incineration and landfill, traffic and road dust etc. They are emitted into atmosphere and afterwards enter into water body and soil through deposition, resulting in wide distribution of PAHs in environment. However, the dry deposition of PAHs from atmosphere has not been well studied, especially in the aspects of its characteristics, environmental and health effects, sources and mechanism. This study measured PAHs dry deposition in the northwest suburban area of Beijing. Dry deposition samples (i.e. dustfall samples) were collected at the sampling site located in China University of Petroleum - Beijing in 2012-2016. And PAHs in the samples were determined by GC/MS. The dry deposition flux of 16 US EPA priority PAHsPAH16) was 2.58 μg/(m^2·d), which was lower than those in other regions of North China. Its seasonal variability was more significant than annual variability (p spring > autumn > summer. The amount of ΣPAH16 removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition process accounted for only 1.2% of their emissions, indicating that the atmosphere self-purification capacity was quite limited and emission reduction measures would play a key role in controlling PAHs air pollution. However, PAHs dry deposition would deteriorate soil quality since the content of ΣPAH16 in dustfall was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that in soil in the same area. Dermal exposure resulting from PAHs dry deposition was not the major route. The sources of PAHs dry deposition varied with seasons. The profile and specific ratios of PAHs showed that in winter, domestic coal combustion was the main source of PAHs with the contribution up to 77%; in spring and summer, the impact of coal combustion decreased and the contribution of vehicle exhaust increased to 30% - 45%; in fall, in addition to coal combustion and vehicle exhaust, the impact of biomass burning was observed

  10. Mobile sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH: Results of samples collected in a roadway tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, B.A. Jr.; Gordon, G.E.; Wise, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    A recent review article emphasized the need for further characterizations of the carbonaceous fraction of mobile source emissions, particularly with the impending removal of lead alkyl octane boosters and bromine-containing lead scavengers from regular leaded gasolines. The lead and bromine emitted from the combustion of these fuels have been used as tracers of mobile source emissions for a number of years. Single vehicle emission studies have shed light on the relationship between engine operating parameters and the chemical characteristics of the emissions but they are not suitable for use in source apportionment studies which require emission data from a large number of different vehicles. Air particulate samples collected near a busy highway or in a roadway tunnel would be more appropriate for use in estimating the mobile source contribution of organic compounds to a region. Suspended particle samples collected in a heavily-travelled roadway tunnel (Baltimore Harbor Tunnel, Baltimore, Maryland) were characterized for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some nitro-PAH by gas and liquid chromatographic techniques. These samples included those collected on Teflon filters and on glass fiber filters for investigating any differences in samples collected on an inert (Teflon) and more reactive (glass-fiber) medium. All samples collected on Teflon were backed-up with polyurethane foam plugs (PUF) which trapped any inherent vapor-phase PAH as well as any compounds ''blown-off'' the particles during collection

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmospheres of two French alpine valleys: sources and temporal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marchand

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine valleys represent some of the most important crossroads for international heavy-duty traffic in Europe, but the full impact of this traffic on air quality is not known due to a lack of data concerning these complex systems. As part of the program "Pollution des Vallées Alpines" (POVA, we performed two sampling surveys of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in two sensitive valleys: the Chamonix and Maurienne Valleys, between France and Italy. Sampling campaigns were performed during the summer of 2000 and the winter of 2001, with both periods taking place during the closure of the "Tunnel du Mont-Blanc". The first objective of this paper is to describe the relations between PAH concentrations, external parameters (sampling site localization, meteorological parameters, sources, and aerosol characteristics, including its carbonaceous fraction (OC and EC. The second objective is to study the capacity of PAH profiles to accurately distinguish the different emission sources. Temporal evolution of the relative concentration of an individual PAH (CHR and the PAH groups BghiP+COR and BbF+BkF is studied in order to differentiate wood combustion, gasoline, and diesel emissions, respectively. The results show that the total particulate PAH concentrations were higher in the Chamonix valley during both seasons, despite the cessation of international traffic. Seasonal cycles, with higher concentrations in winter, are also stronger in this valley. During winter, particulate PAH concentration can reach very high levels (up to 155 ng.m-3 in this valley during cold anticyclonic periods. The examination of sources shows the impact during summer of heavy-duty traffic in the Maurienne valley and of gasoline vehicles in the Chamonix valley. During winter, Chamonix is characterized by the strong influence of wood combustion in residential fireplaces, even if the temporal evolution of specific PAH ratios are difficult to interpret. Information on sources

  12. Exchangeable cations-mediated photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on smectite surface under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hanzhong, E-mail: jiahz@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Li, Li [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Yue [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); School of Geology and Mining Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Li, Xiyou [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Wang, Chuanyi, E-mail: cywang@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Graphical abstract: Roles of exchangeable cations in PAHs photodegradation on clay surafces under visible light. - Highlights: • Photolysis rate are strongly dependent on the type of cations on clay surface. • The strength of “cation–π” interactions governs the photodegradation rate of PAHs. • Several exchangeable cations could cause a shift in the absorption spectrum of PAHs. • Exchangeable cations influence the type and amount of reactive intermediates. - Abstract: Clay minerals saturated with different exchangeable cations are expected to play various roles in photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via direct and/or indirect pathways on clay surfaces. In the present study, anthracene and phenanthrene were selected as molecule probes to investigate the roles of exchangeable cations on their photodegradation under visible light irradiation. For five types of cation-modified smectite clays, the photodegradation rate of anthracene and phenanthrene follows the order: Fe{sup 3+} > Al{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} >> Ca{sup 2+} > K{sup +} > Na{sup +}, which is consistent with the binding energy of cation–π interactions between PAHs and exchangeable cations. The result suggests that PAHs photolysis rate depends on cation–π interactions on clay surfaces. Meanwhile, the deposition of anthracene at the Na{sup +}-smectite and K{sup +}-smectite surface favors solar light absorption, resulting in enhanced direct photodecomposition of PAHs. On the other hand, smectite clays saturated with Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cu{sup 2+} are highly photoreactive and can act as potential catalysts giving rise to oxidative radicals such as O{sub 2}{sup −}· , which initiate the transformation of PAHs. The present work provides valuable insights into understanding the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and sheds light on the development of technologies for contaminated land remediation.

  13. Sediment-porewater partition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Lanzhou Reach of Yellow River, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yong [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Xu Jian, E-mail: xujian@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang Ping; Sun Hongwen; Dai Shugui [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment has drawn much attention around the world. The occurrence of 16 priority PAHs in the sediments and corresponding porewaters in Lanzhou Reach of Yellow River, China, and their partitioning behavior between the two phases were investigated. The results demonstrated that the total PAH levels in the sediments were positively correlated with the sediment clay contents (R{sup 2} = 0.756). Concentrations of total PAHs in porewaters ranged from 48.2 to 206 {mu}g/L, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (InP) was the most abundant compound measured in the porewater samples with a mean value of 42.9 {mu}g/L. The compositions of PAHs in porewaters were dominated by their compositions in the sediment samples. The in situ organic carbon normalized partition coefficients (logK{sub oc}{sup '}) of the PAHs between sediments and porewaters were significantly correlated with their octanol-water partition coefficients (log K{sub ow}) when log K{sub ow} values were less than 5.5 (naphthalene (Nap) excluded). logK{sub oc}{sup '} values of 14 PAHs were lower than those predicted by the Karickhoff relationship. This discrepancy was largest for InP, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBA), and benzo[ghi]perylene (BgP). The results in present study showed the tendency of PAHs release from sediment to porewater, indicating that PAHs sequestered in the sediments may be a pollution source to aquatic ecosystem.

  14. Exchangeable cations-mediated photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on smectite surface under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Hanzhong; Li, Li; Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Yue; Li, Xiyou; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Roles of exchangeable cations in PAHs photodegradation on clay surafces under visible light. - Highlights: • Photolysis rate are strongly dependent on the type of cations on clay surface. • The strength of “cation–π” interactions governs the photodegradation rate of PAHs. • Several exchangeable cations could cause a shift in the absorption spectrum of PAHs. • Exchangeable cations influence the type and amount of reactive intermediates. - Abstract: Clay minerals saturated with different exchangeable cations are expected to play various roles in photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via direct and/or indirect pathways on clay surfaces. In the present study, anthracene and phenanthrene were selected as molecule probes to investigate the roles of exchangeable cations on their photodegradation under visible light irradiation. For five types of cation-modified smectite clays, the photodegradation rate of anthracene and phenanthrene follows the order: Fe 3+ > Al 3+ > Cu 2+ >> Ca 2+ > K + > Na + , which is consistent with the binding energy of cation–π interactions between PAHs and exchangeable cations. The result suggests that PAHs photolysis rate depends on cation–π interactions on clay surfaces. Meanwhile, the deposition of anthracene at the Na + -smectite and K + -smectite surface favors solar light absorption, resulting in enhanced direct photodecomposition of PAHs. On the other hand, smectite clays saturated with Fe 3+ , Al 3+ , and Cu 2+ are highly photoreactive and can act as potential catalysts giving rise to oxidative radicals such as O 2 − · , which initiate the transformation of PAHs. The present work provides valuable insights into understanding the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and sheds light on the development of technologies for contaminated land remediation

  15. Identification of petroleum hydrocarbons using a reduced number of PAHs selected by Procrustes rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Varela, R; Andrade, J M; Muniategui, S; Prada, D; Ramírez-Villalobos, F

    2010-04-01

    Identifying petroleum-related products released into the environment is a complex and difficult task. To achieve this, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of outstanding importance nowadays. Despite traditional quantitative fingerprinting uses straightforward univariate statistical analyses to differentiate among oils and to assess their sources, a multivariate strategy based on Procrustes rotation (PR) was applied in this paper. The aim of PR is to select a reduced subset of PAHs still capable of performing a satisfactory identification of petroleum-related hydrocarbons. PR selected two subsets of three (C(2)-naphthalene, C(2)-dibenzothiophene and C(2)-phenanthrene) and five (C(1)-decahidronaphthalene, naphthalene, C(2)-phenanthrene, C(3)-phenanthrene and C(2)-fluoranthene) PAHs for each of the two datasets studied here. The classification abilities of each subset of PAHs were tested using principal components analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and Kohonen neural networks and it was demonstrated that they unraveled the same patterns as the overall set of PAHs. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, B.; Bryniok, D.; Vorbeck, C.; Lutz, M.; Ackermann, B.; Freier-Schroeder, D.; Knackmuss, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Productive degradation of the higher molecular PAHs benz(a)anthracene (four rings), benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(k)fluoranthene (five rings) through pure bacterial cultures is demonstrated in this paper for the first time. Consequently, a degradation potential for lower and higher molecular polycyclic aromatics up to five rings exists both in the ground of the fromer coking site and in the ground of the former gas works of Stuttgart. Further samples from contaminated soils, coking waste water and sediments showed similar results. This suggests that the bacterial flora present in the soil itself can be successfully used to clean up contaminated ground. (orig.) [de

  17. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3–6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles ( 125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors. - Highlights: • PAHs and particle size in core sediments were used to evaluate the role of eolian particles in delivering pyrogenic PAHs. • Changes of PAH sources closely followed local historical socioeconomic development since 1980s. • Changes of particulate sources from eolian to lacustrine reflected the evolving history of the lake. • Significant correlations between pyrogenic PAHs and eolian particles indicated potential risk from inhalation exposure. • Petroleum source PAHs are likely to stick to coarse particles and accumulate in lake sediments by surface runoff

  18. Soil sealing degree as factor influencing urban soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendyk Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II and totally impervious surface (III. Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS. Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.

  19. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures on freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in sewage sludge-derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Anna; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge pyrolysis on freely dissolved (Cfree) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents in biochars. Four sewage sludges with varying properties and PAH contents were pyrolysed at temperatures of 500 °C, 600 °C or 700 °C. Cfree PAH contents were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM). The contents of Cfree PAHs in the sludges ranged from 262 to 294 ng L(-1). Sewage sludge-derived biochars have from 2.3- to 3.4-times lower Cfree PAH contents comparing to corresponding sewage sludges. The Cfree PAH contents in the biochars ranged between 81 ng L(-1) and 126 ng L(-1). As regards agricultural use of biochar, the lower contents of Cfree PAHs in the biochars compared to the sewage sludges makes biochar a safer material than sewage sludge in terms of PAH contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Content in Cattle Hides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Vol. 21 (6) 1105-1110. Full-text Available Online at www.ajol.info and ... Keywords: Cattle hide, meat, tyre, singeing, hydrocarbons ... on the substance used as fuel for meat processing. .... through the centrifuge at 200 rpm for 5 min. The.

  1. Sedimentary records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote lakes across the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiqiang; Xie, Ting; Li, An; Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon; Wu, Guangjian; Jing, Chuanyong

    2016-07-01

    Sediment cores from five lakes across the Tibetan Plateau were used as natural archives to study the time trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The depositional flux of PAHs generally showed an increasing trend from the deeper layers towards the upper layer sediments. The fluxes of PAHs were low with little variability before the 1950s, and then gradually increased to the late 1980s, with a faster increasing rate after the 1990s. This temporal pattern is clearly different compared with those remote lakes across the European mountains when PAHs started to decrease during the period 1960s-1980s. The difference of the temporal trend was attributed to differences in the economic development stages and energy structure between these regions. PAHs are dominated by the lighter 2&3-ring homologues with the averaged percentage over 87%, while it is notable that the percentage of heavier 4-6 ring PAHs generally increased in recent years, which suggests the contribution of local high-temperature combustion sources becoming more predominant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exchangeable cations-mediated photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on smectite surface under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hanzhong; Li, Li; Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Yue; Li, Xiyou; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-04-28

    Clay minerals saturated with different exchangeable cations are expected to play various roles in photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via direct and/or indirect pathways on clay surfaces. In the present study, anthracene and phenanthrene were selected as molecule probes to investigate the roles of exchangeable cations on their photodegradation under visible light irradiation. For five types of cation-modified smectite clays, the photodegradation rate of anthracene and phenanthrene follows the order: Fe(3+)>Al(3+)>Cu(2+)>Ca(2+)>K(+)>Na(+), which is consistent with the binding energy of cation-π interactions between PAHs and exchangeable cations. The result suggests that PAHs photolysis rate depends on cation-π interactions on clay surfaces. Meanwhile, the deposition of anthracene at the Na(+)-smectite and K(+)-smectite surface favors solar light absorption, resulting in enhanced direct photodecomposition of PAHs. On the other hand, smectite clays saturated with Fe(3+), Al(3+), and Cu(2+) are highly photoreactive and can act as potential catalysts giving rise to oxidative radicals such as O2(-) , which initiate the transformation of PAHs. The present work provides valuable insights into understanding the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and sheds light on the development of technologies for contaminated land remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation and in situ assessment of photodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in semipermeable membrane devices deployed in ocean water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarova, Tatiana V. [University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (EnTox), 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Queensland (Australia)], E-mail: t.komarova@uq.edu.au; Bartkow, Michael E. [University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (EnTox), 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Queensland (Australia); Rutishauser, Sibylle [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), Department of Environmental Toxicology, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Carter, Steve [Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Service (QHFSS), Queensland (Australia); Mueller, Jochen F. [University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (EnTox), 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Queensland (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in water using four different methods: a typical SPMD cage with and without a mesh cover, a bowl chamber and without any protection. In addition to routinely used performance reference compounds (PRCs), perdeuterated dibenz[a,h]anthracene was added. Due to its high sampler to water partition coefficient no measurable clearance due to diffusion was expected during the deployment period, hence any observed loss could be attributed to photodegradation. The loss of PRCs was measured and SPMD-based water concentrations determined. Results showed that a typical SPMD deployment cage covered with mesh provided the best protection from photodegradation. Samplers which had undergone the highest photodegradation underestimated PAH water concentrations by up to a factor of 5 compared to the most protected SPMDs. This study demonstrates that the potential for photodegradation needs to be addressed when samplers are deployed in water of low turbidity. - Our study indicates that photodegradation of PAHs occurs from passive water samplers (SPMDs) deployed in different devices.

  4. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production from alkylphenols, mono and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons using Bacillus sp. CYR1: A new strategy for wealth from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswar Reddy, M; Mawatari, Yasuteru; Yajima, Yuka; Seki, Chigusa; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Chang, Young-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    In the present study five different types of alkylphenols, each of the two different types of mono and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons were selected for degradation, and conversion into poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) using the Bacillus sp. CYR1. Strain CYR1 showed growth with various toxic organic compounds. Degradation pattern of all the organic compounds at 100 mg/l concentration with or without addition of tween-80 were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Strain CYR1 showed good removal of compounds in the presence of tween-80 within 3 days, but it took 6 days without addition of tween-80. Strain CYR1 showed highest PHB production with phenol (51 ± 5%), naphthalene (42 ± 4%), 4-chlorophenol (32 ± 3%) and 4-nonylphenol (29 ± 3%). The functional groups, structure, and thermal properties of the produced PHB were analyzed. These results denoted that the strain Bacillus sp. CYR1 can be used for conversion of different toxic compounds persistent in wastewaters into useable biological polyesters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for in situ degradation of mono-and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in alluvial sediments based on microcosm experiments with 13C-labeled contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morasch, B.; Hoehener, P.; Hunkeler, D.

    2007-01-01

    A microcosm study was conducted to investigate the degradation of mono- and polyaromatic hydrocarbons under in situ-like conditions using alluvial sediments from the site of a former cokery. Benzene, naphthalene, or acenaphthene were added to the sediments as 13 C-labeled substrates. Based on the evolution of 13 C-CO 2 determined by gas chromatography isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) it was possible to prove mineralization of the compound of interest in the presence of other unknown organic substances of the sediment material. This new approach was suitable to give evidence for the intrinsic biodegradation of benzene, naphthalene, and acenaphthene under oxic and also under anoxic conditions, due to the high sensitivity and reproducibility of 13 C/ 12 C stable isotope analysis. This semi-quantitative method can be used to screen for biodegradation of any slowly degrading, strongly sorbing compound in long-term experiments. - A method based on 13 C-labeled substrates was developed to determine the intrinsic biodegradation potential of aromatic pollutants under oxic and under anoxic conditions

  6. Development of a magnetic solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Xie, Jiawen; Jin, Jing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Zhijian; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Liang, Ying

    2015-07-01

    A novel magnetic solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography method was established to analyze polyaromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples. The extraction conditions, including the amount of extraction agent, extraction time, pH and the surface structure of the magnetic extraction agent, were optimized. The results showed that the amount of extraction agent and extraction time significantly influenced the extraction performance. The increase in the specific surface area, the enlargement of pore size, and the reduction of particle size could enhance the extraction performance of the magnetic microsphere. The optimized magnetic extraction agent possessed a high surface area of 1311 m(2) /g, a large pore size of 6-9 nm, and a small particle size of 6-9 μm. The limit of detection for phenanthrene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene in the developed analysis method was 3.2 and 10.5 ng/L, respectively. When applied to river water samples, the spiked recovery of phenanthrene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene ranged from 89.5-98.6% and 82.9-89.1%, respectively. Phenanthrene was detected over a concentration range of 89-117 ng/L in three water samples withdrawn from the midstream of the Huai River, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene was below the detection limit. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) present in sampled cooked food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm Naa-Dedei, L.M.

    2010-07-01

    The study was conducted to determine the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the following traditionally prepared food: smoked and grilled Scomba japonicus, grilled meat (khebab) and bread sampled from some Ghanaian markets. By way of preparation of traditional food, some food comes into direct contact with smoke or extremely high temperature which are potential sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon generation. Levels of 20 individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons including acenaphthene, acenaphtyelene, anthanthrene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, cyclopenta(cd)pyrene, dibenzo(ah)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were determined in 11 smoked and 5 grilled fish, 4 grilled pieces of meat and 3 loaves of baked bread using gas chromatographic techniques with flame ionization detector. Benzo(a)pyrene, which is one of the few PAH for which a legal limit exists in different types of food matrices and other high molecular weight PAHs suspected to be carcinogenic have been detected in high concentrations in most samples. Bread samples gave mean polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations of up to 20.39 μg/kg while khebab samples gave mean polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations of up to 67.61 μg/kg. There was positive correlation of 0.987 between levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in khebab samples from locations Osu and Atomic down. There was a positive correlation in the concentrations of the high molecular weight PAHs in all smoked fishes from four locations with values between 0.954 and 0.999 for the correlation between any two groups. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration determined in smoked fish samples deceased in terms of location according to the order Winneba > Madina > Chorkor > Ada.

  8. The use of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) alkyl homologues in determining petroleum source identification and weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Sauer, T.C.; Wong, W.M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques utilizing double ratio plots of selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) alkyl homologues were used to identify and distinguish crude oils and refined petroleum products from each other and to distinguish petroleum sources in complex pollutant regimes. Petroleum samples were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into saturated and aromatic (PAH) hydrocarbon fractions. The saturated hydrocarbon fractions were then analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) to obtain a resolved/unresolved alkane fingerprint of each oil. The aromatic fractions of the oils were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for PAH and selected alkyl homologues. Comparisons of the saturated hydrocarbon fingerprints indicated that some oils were indistinguishable based on the alkane fingerprint alone. Another double ratio plot of the alkyl chrysenes and alkyl dibenzothiophenes was effective in establishing the weathering of oil in environmental samples which were processed using the same analytical techniques, since the dibenzothiophenes are degraded more rapidly than the chrysenes. The application of selected ratios in oil spill source identification in complex environmental samples from Suisin Bay California and Boston Harbor are discussed. The use of ratios to measure the extent of weathering in oil spill samples from Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska is examined

  9. Adsorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS from Aqueous Solutions on Different Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smol Marzena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the possibility and effectiveness of PAHs removal from a model aqueous solution, during the sorption on the selected sorbents. Six PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene listed by EPA for the analysis in the environmental samples were determined. Model aqueous solution was prepared with RESTEK 610 mix PAHs standard. After the sorption process, decrease in the concentration of individual hydrocarbons was observed. The removal percentage was dependent on the type of sorbent (quartz sand, mineral sorbent, activated carbon. The highest efficiency (98.1% was observed for activated carbon.. The results shows that the sorption processes can be used in aqueous solutions treatment procedures.

  10. Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 PAHs and nine nitro-PAHs. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic PAHs) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of PAHs except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-PAHs except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important PAHs and nitro-PAHs. PMID:26265155

  11. Germination of Lepidium sativum as a method to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal from contaminated soil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of Lepidium sativum germination to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated in soil(s) artificially and historically contaminated with mixtures of PAR The level of germination of L. sativum decreased with increasing...

  12. Microplastics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Xiamen coastal areas: Implications for anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guowen; Liu, Mengyang; Zhou, Qian; He, Haixia; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Haibo; Hu, Jiahui; Huang, Qinghui; Luo, Yongming; Ke, Hongwei; Chen, Bin; Xu, Xiangrong; Cai, Minggang

    2018-09-01

    Microplastics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated to study the influence of human activities and to find their possible relationship on the coastal environments, where the coastal areas around Xiamen are undergoing intensive processes of industrialization and urbanization in the southeast China. The abundance of microplastics in Xiamen coastal areas was 103 to 2017particles/m 3 in surface seawater and 76 to 333 particles/kg in sediments. Concentrations of dissolved PAHs varied from 18.1 to 248ng/L in surface seawater. The abundances of microplastics from the Western Harbor in surface seawater and sediments were higher than those from other areas. Foams were dominated in surface seawater samples, however, no foams were found in sediments samples. The microscope selection and FTIR analysis suggested that polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) were dominant microplastics. The cluster analysis results demonstrated that fibers and granules had the similar sources, and films had considerably correlation with all types of PAHs (3 or 4-ring PAHs and alkylated PAHs). Plastic film mulch from agriculture practice might be a potential source of microplastics in study areas. Results of our study support that river runoff, watershed area, population and urbanization rate influence the distribution of microplastics in estuarine surface water, and the prevalence of microplastic pollution calls for monitoring microplastics at a national scale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution of urban stormwater runoff: a dynamic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Lin, Zhongrong; Li, Hao; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2014-05-15

    Urban stormwater runoff delivers a significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mostly of atmospheric origin, to receiving water bodies. The PAH pollution of urban stormwater runoff poses serious risk to aquatic life and human health, but has been overlooked by environmental modeling and management. This study proposed a dynamic modeling approach for assessing the PAH pollution and its associated environmental risk. A variable time-step model was developed to simulate the continuous cycles of pollutant buildup and washoff. To reflect the complex interaction among different environmental media (i.e. atmosphere, dust and stormwater), the dependence of the pollution level on antecedent weather conditions was investigated and embodied in the model. Long-term simulations of the model can be efficiently performed, and probabilistic features of the pollution level and its risk can be easily determined. The applicability of this approach and its value to environmental management was demonstrated by a case study in Beijing, China. The results showed that Beijing's PAH pollution of road runoff is relatively severe, and its associated risk exhibits notable seasonal variation. The current sweeping practice is effective in mitigating the pollution, but the effectiveness is both weather-dependent and compound-dependent. The proposed modeling approach can help identify critical timing and major pollutants for monitoring, assessing and controlling efforts to be focused on. The approach is extendable to other urban areas, as well as to other contaminants with similar fate and transport as PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Santander Bay, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguri, J; Verde, J; Irabien, A

    2002-07-01

    Samples of intertidal surface sediments (0-2 cm) were collected in 17 stations of the Santander Bay, Cantabric Sea, Northern Spain. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16, were analysed by HPLC and MS detection. Surface sediments show a good linear correlation among the parameters of the experimental organic matter evaluation, where total carbon (TC) and loss on ignition (LOI) are approximately 2.5 and 5 times total organic carbon (TOC). A wide range of TOC from 0.08% to 4.1%, and a broad distribution of the sum of sigma16PAHs, from 0.02 to 344.6 microg/g d.w., which can be correlated by an exponential equation to the TOC, has been identified. A qualitative relationship may be established between the industrial input along the rivers and the concentration of sigma6PAHs in the sediments of the estuaries: Boo estuary (8404-4631 microg/g OC), Solia-San Salvador estuaries (305-113 microg/g OC) and Cubas estuary (31-32 microg/g OC). This work shows a dramatic change in the spatial distribution in the concentration of PAHs of intertidal surface sediments. The left edge of the Bay has the main traffic around the city and the major source of PAHs is from combustion processes and estuarine inputs, leading to medium values of PAHs in the sediments; the right edge of the Bay has much lesser anthropogenic activities leading to lower values of PAHs in sediments. The distribution of individual PAHs in sediments varies widely depending on their structure and molecular weight; the 4-6 ring aromatics predominate in polluted sediments due to their higher persistence. The isomer ratio does not allow any clear identification of the PAHs origin. Environmental evaluation according to Dutch guidelines and consensus sediment quality guidelines based on ecotoxicological data leads to the same conclusion, sediments in the Santander Bay show a very different environmental quality depending on the spatial position from heavily polluted/medium effects to non

  15. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the rhizosphere and myco-rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyval, C.; Beguiristain, T.; Corgie, S.; Joner, E.

    2005-01-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can reach high concentrations in soils due to man-made pollution related to industrial, agricultural or urban activities. Such concentrations can reach toxic values and create major environmental and health problems. One of the first entry point of pollutants in plant ecosystems is the rhizosphere, defined as the soil under the influence of roots. In the rhizosphere, the plant release root exudates, feeding soil microorganisms, and take up water and nutrients. Among the rhizosphere inhabitants, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous root symbiotic fungi, contributing to plant growth and plant nutrition. In PAH-polluted soils, biodegradation of PAH increases, which is attributed to increased microbial activity in the rhizosphere..We studied the contribution of the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants to the biodegradation of PAH in the rhizosphere, taking into account microbial community structure. Different experiments were performed with industrial contaminated soils and PAH-spiked soils, in pot cultures as well as compartmented devices allowing to analyze rhizosphere processes in consecutive sections as a function of distance to roots. Clover and ryegrass, inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae were used.. After different time periods, plants were harvested, biomass and mycorrhizal root colonization were estimated. Microbial Density of microbial heterotrophs and of degrading bacteria was estimated by MPN techniques in micro-plates. Microbial community structure was estimated by DNA extraction from the rhizosphere, amplification by PCR and analysed by TGGE (temperature gradient gel electrophoresis), or by PLFA (phospholipid fatty acid analysis). PAH in soil were extracted by Soxhlet and analysed by GC-MS. We showed that the concentration of PAH increased with the distance to roots (Corgie et al, 2003) and was lower in the myco

  16. Strong Impact on the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-Degrading Community of a PAH-Polluted Soil but Marginal Effect on PAH Degradation when Priming with Bioremediated Soil Dominated by Mycobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R.; Schmidt, Stine; Hybholdt, Trine K.

    2007-01-01

    Bioaugmentation of soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often disappointing because of the low survival rate and low activity of the introduced degrader bacteria. We therefore investigated the possibility of priming PAH degradation in soil by adding 2% of bioremediated soil...... with a high capacity for PAH degradation. The culturable PAH-degrading community of the bioremediated primer soil was dominated by Mycobacterium spp. A microcosm containing pristine soil artificially polluted with PAHs and primed with bioremediated soil showed a fast, 100- to 1,000-fold increase in numbers...... of culturable phenanthrene-, pyrene-, and fluoranthene degraders and a 160-fold increase in copy numbers of the mycobacterial PAH dioxygenase gene pdo1. A nonpolluted microcosm primed with bioremediated soil showed a high rate of survival of the introduced degrader community during the 112 days of incubation...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential and diversity of microbial consortia enriched from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacosa, Hernando Pactao, E-mail: hernando.bacosa@utexas.edu [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Marine Science Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 750 Channel View Drive, Port Aransas, TX 78373 (United States); Inoue, Chihiro [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Most bacterial consortia from tsunami sediment degraded PAH mixture and pyrene. • The consortia were dominated by known and unknown PAHs-degrading bacteria. • Dokdonella clone is a potential new species and PAH degrader from tsunami sediment. • PAH-RHDα is better than nidA gene for estimating pyrene-degraders in the consortia. • First report on the PAH degradation and PAH-degrading bacteria from tsunami sediment. - Abstract: The Great East Japan Earthquake caused tsunamis and resulted in widespread damage to human life and infrastructure. The disaster also resulted in contamination of the environment by chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study was conducted to investigate the degradation potential and describe the PAH-degrading microbial communities from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan. PAH-degrading bacteria were cultured by enrichment using PAH mixture or pyrene alone as carbon and energy sources. Among the ten consortia tested for PAH mixture, seven completely degraded fluorene and more than 95% of phenanthrene in 10 days, while only four consortia partially degraded pyrene. Six consortia partially degraded pyrene as a single substrate. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that each sample was dominated by unique microbial populations, regardless of sampling location. The consortia were dominated by known PAHs degraders including Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingobium; and previously unknown degraders such as Dokdonella and Luteimonas. A potentially novel and PAH-degrading Dokdonella was detected for the first time. PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) gene was shown to be more effective than nidA in estimating pyrene-degrading bacteria in the enriched consortia. The consortia obtained in this study are potential candidates for remediation of PAHs contaminated soils.

  18. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients on the Dutch market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martena, M J; Grutters, M M P; De Groot, H N; Konings, E J M; Rietjens, I M C M

    2011-01-01

    Food supplements can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has defined 16 priority PAH that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic and identified eight priority PAH (PAH8) or four of these (PAH4) as good indicators of the toxicity and occurrence of PAH in food. The current study aimed to determine benzo[a]pyrene and other EFSA priority PAH in different categories of food supplements containing botanicals and other ingredients. From 2003 to 2008, benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the limit of quantification (LOQ) in 553 (44%) of 1258 supplements with a lower-bound mean of 3.37 µg kg(-1). In 2008 and 2009, benzo[a]pyrene and 12 other EFSA priority PAH were determined in 333 food supplements. Benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the LOQ in 210 (63%) food supplements with a lower-bound mean of 5.26 µg kg(-1). Lower-bound mean levels for PAH4 and PAH8(-indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) were 33.5 and 40.5 µg kg(-1), respectively. Supplements containing resveratrol, Ginkgo biloba, St. John's wort and propolis showed relatively high PAH4 levels in 2008 and 2009. Before 2008, supplements with these ingredients and also dong quai, green tea or valerian contained relatively high benzo[a]pyrene levels. On average, PAH4 intake resulting from food supplement use will be at the lower end of the range of contributions of main food groups to PAH4 exposure, although individual food supplements can contribute significantly to PAH4 exposure. Regular control of EFSA indicator PAH levels in food supplements may prove a way forward to reduce further the intake of PAH from food.

  19. Effect of single and mixed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on plant biomass yield and PAH dissipation during phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Batty, Lesley Claire

    2018-04-27

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sites have a mixture of PAH of varying concentration which may affect PAH dissipation differently to contamination with a single PAH. In this study, pot experiments investigated the impact of PAH contamination on Medicago sativa, Lolium perenne, and Festuca arundinacea biomass and PAH dissipation from soils spiked with phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Flu), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in single and mixed treatments. Stimulatory or inhibitory effects of PAH contamination on plant biomass yields were not different for the single and mixed PAH treatments. Results showed significant effect of PAH treatments on plant growth with an increased root biomass yield for F. arundinacea in the Phe (175%) and Flu (86%) treatments and a root biomass decrease in the mixed treatment (4%). The mean residual PAHs in the planted treatments and unplanted control for the single treatments were not significantly different. B[a]P dissipation was enhanced for single and mixed treatments (71-72%) with F. arundinacea compared to the unplanted control (24-50%). On the other hand, B[a]P dissipation was inhibited with L. perenne (6%) in the single treatment and M. sativa (11%) and L. perenne (29%) in the mixed treatment. Abiotic processes had greater contribution to PAH dissipation compared to rhizodegradation in both treatments. In most cases, a stimulatory effect of PAH contamination on plant biomass yield without an enhancement of PAH dissipation was observed. Plant species among other factors affect the relative contribution of PAH dissipation mechanisms during phytoremediation. These factors determine the effectiveness and suitability of phytoremediation as a remedial strategy for PAH-contaminated sites. Further studies on impact of PAH contamination, plant selection, and rhizosphere activities on soil microbial community structure and remediation outcome are required.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential and diversity of microbial consortia enriched from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacosa, Hernando Pactao; Inoue, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Most bacterial consortia from tsunami sediment degraded PAH mixture and pyrene. • The consortia were dominated by known and unknown PAHs-degrading bacteria. • Dokdonella clone is a potential new species and PAH degrader from tsunami sediment. • PAH-RHDα is better than nidA gene for estimating pyrene-degraders in the consortia. • First report on the PAH degradation and PAH-degrading bacteria from tsunami sediment. - Abstract: The Great East Japan Earthquake caused tsunamis and resulted in widespread damage to human life and infrastructure. The disaster also resulted in contamination of the environment by chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study was conducted to investigate the degradation potential and describe the PAH-degrading microbial communities from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan. PAH-degrading bacteria were cultured by enrichment using PAH mixture or pyrene alone as carbon and energy sources. Among the ten consortia tested for PAH mixture, seven completely degraded fluorene and more than 95% of phenanthrene in 10 days, while only four consortia partially degraded pyrene. Six consortia partially degraded pyrene as a single substrate. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that each sample was dominated by unique microbial populations, regardless of sampling location. The consortia were dominated by known PAHs degraders including Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingobium; and previously unknown degraders such as Dokdonella and Luteimonas. A potentially novel and PAH-degrading Dokdonella was detected for the first time. PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) gene was shown to be more effective than nidA in estimating pyrene-degrading bacteria in the enriched consortia. The consortia obtained in this study are potential candidates for remediation of PAHs contaminated soils

  1. Silica Supported Platinum Catalysts for Total Oxidation of the Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Naphthalene: An Investigation of Metal Loading and Calcination Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Sellick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A range of catalysts comprising of platinum supported on silica, prepared by an impregnation method, have been studied for the total oxidation of naphthalene, which is a representative Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. The influence of platinum loading and calcination temperature on oxidation activity was evaluated. Increasing the platinum loading up to 2.5 wt.% increased the catalyst activity, whilst a 5.0 wt.% catalyst was slightly less active. The catalyst containing the optimum 2.5 wt.% loading was most active after calcination in air at 550 °C. Characterisation by carbon monoxide chemisorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that low platinum dispersion to form large platinum particles, in combination with platinum in metallic and oxidised states was important for high catalyst activity. Catalyst performance improved after initial use in repeat cycles, whilst there was slight deactivation after prolonged time-on-stream.

  2. Development of a screening method for the determination of total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggin, R.; Strup, P.; Billets, S.

    1983-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent an important class of organic compounds from an environmental standpoint, due to known human carcinogenicity of some members. Consequently, there is a great need for monitoring the PAH concentration of a variety of media, including water and industrial wastewater. Recently, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) developed a sensitive analytical method, designated Test Method 610, for the determination of priority pollutant PAHs in aqueous industrial discharges. This method employs reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) and fluorescence detection to determine all sixteen priority pollutant PAHs in a single chromatographic separation

  3. Multiwall carbon nanotube- zirconium oxide nanocomposite hollow fiber solid phase microextraction for determination of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water, coffee and tea samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Mahnaz Nozohour; Yamini, Yadollah; Asiabi, Hamid

    2018-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of hollow fiber solid-phase microextraction (HF-SPME) followed by HPLC-UV to determine the ultra-trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model analytes in complex coffee and tea samples. HF-SPME can be effectively used as an alternative to the direct immersion SPME (DI-SPME) method in complex matrices. The DI-SPME method suffers from serious limitation in dirty and complicated matrices with low sample clean-up, while the HF-SPME method has high clean-up and selectivity due to the high porosity of hollow fiber that can pick out analyte from complicated matrices. As a hollow fiber sorbent, a novel multiwall carbon nanotube/zirconium oxide nanocomposite (MWCNT/ZrO 2 ) was fabricated. The excellent adsorption of PAHs on the sorbent was attributed to the dominant roles of π-π stacking interaction and hydrophobic interaction. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the wide linear range of 0.1-200 μg L -1 with coefficients of determination better than 0.998 and low detection limits of 0.033-0.16 μg L -1 with satisfactory precision (RSD tea samples were in the range of 92.0-106.0%. Compared to other methods, MWCNT/ZrO 2 hollow fiber solid phase microextraction demonstrated a good capability for determination of PAHs in complex coffee and tea samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Source characterization and exposure modeling of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Shahir; Li, Lianfa; Dang, Andy; Chung, Judith H.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Wu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Airborne exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated with adverse health outcomes. Because personal air measurements of PAHs are labor intensive and costly, spatial PAH exposure models are useful for epidemiological studies. However, few studies provide adequate spatial coverage to reflect intra-urban variability of ambient PAHs. In this study, we collected 39-40 weekly gas-phase PAH samples in southern California twice in summer and twice in winter, 2009, in order to characterize PAH source contributions and develop spatial models that can estimate gas-phase PAH concentrations at a high resolution. A spatial mixed regression model was constructed, including such variables as roadway, traffic, land-use, vegetation index, commercial cooking facilities, meteorology, and population density. Cross validation of the model resulted in an R2 of 0.66 for summer and 0.77 for winter. Results showed higher total PAH concentrations in winter. Pyrogenic sources, such as fossil fuels and diesel exhaust, were the most dominant contributors to total PAHs. PAH sources varied by season, with a higher fossil fuel and wood burning contribution in winter. Spatial autocorrelation accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in total PAH concentrations for both winter (56%) and summer (19%). In summer, other key variables explaining the variance included meteorological factors (9%), population density (15%), and roadway length (21%). In winter, the variance was also explained by traffic density (16%). In this study, source characterization confirmed the dominance of traffic and other fossil fuel sources to total measured gas-phase PAH concentrations while a spatial exposure model identified key predictors of PAH concentrations. Gas-phase PAH source characterization and exposure estimation is of high utility to epidemiologist and policy makers interested in understanding the health impacts of gas-phase PAHs and strategies to reduce emissions.

  5. Accumulation of policyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface litter and soils in four forests in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, D.; Perlinger, J. A.; Zielinska, B.

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic environmental pollutants originating from the incomplete combustion of organic material, both from natural or anthropogenic sources. Once emitted, they can be transported across thousands of kilometers impacting remote environments. Here, we characterize the distribution of 23 PAHs and 9 oxygenated PAHs (Σ32PAH) in litter and soils in four remote forests in the United States. Concentrations of Σ32PAH in fresh surface litter (Oi layers) showed very low levels in three of the four forests (mixed coniferous forest in Maine, deciduous blue oak forest in California, and a coniferous forest in Washington State), with PAHs levels much lower than those reported in previous studies from Europe. The analysis showed that PAHs represented a mix of regional background sources. Highest PAH levels were observed in a coniferous forest floor in Florida, attributable to frequent prescribed burning of understory vegetation at this site, and supported by high contributions of retene (>7%; compared to atmospheric deposition. Within mineral soils, Σ32PAH:OC ratios increased with depth (Ah horizons: 750±198 ng g-1; B horizons: 1,202±97 ng g-1), indicating that vertical transfer in mineral soils leads to significant accumulation of PAH in subsoils. ΣPAH:OC increases observed in deeper soil layers may be attributed to slower mineralization rates of PAHs compared to OC, plus vertical transport as indicated by preferential enrichment of PAHs with low Kow (i.e., more water-soluble PAHs). Finally, percentage of potentially biologically produced PAH (Σ Naph+Phen+Pery) were low and consistent across the litter/soil horizons, suggesting that biological production is minor or absent at our sites.

  6. Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from an urban reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanke, Hirohide; Uchida, Masao; Okuda, Tomoaki; Yoneda, Minoru; Takada, Hideshige; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from fossil fuel combustion ( 14 C-free) and biomass burning (contemporary 14 C) was carried out using a recently developed compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) method for a sediment core from an urban reservoir located in the central Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan. The 14 C abundance of PAHs in the sediments was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) after extraction and purification by three types of column chromatography, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and, subsequently, by a preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) system. This method yielded a sufficient quantity of pure compounds and allowed a high degree of confidence in the determination of 14 C. The fraction modern values (f M ) of individual PAHs (phenanthrene, alkylphenanthrenes, fluoranthene, pyrene and benz[a]anthracene) in the sediments ranged from 0.06 to 0.21. These results suggest that sedimentary PAHs (those compounds mentioned above) were derived mostly from fossil fuel combustion. Three sectioned-downcore profiles (∼40 cm) of the 14 C abundance in phenanthrene and alkylphenanthrenes showed a decreasing trend with depth, that was anti-correlated with the trend of ΣPAHs concentration. The f M values of phenanthrene were also larger than those of alkylphenanthrenes in each section of the core. This result indicates that phenanthrene received a greater contribution from biomass burning than alkylphenanthrenes throughout the core. This finding highlights the method used here as an useful approach to elucidate the source and origin of PAHs in the environment

  7. Using quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) to predict toxic endpoints for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Erica D; Autenrieth, Robin L; Burghardt, Robert C; Donnelly, K C; McDonald, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) offer a reliable, cost-effective alternative to the time, money, and animal lives necessary to determine chemical toxicity by traditional methods. Additionally, humans are exposed to tens of thousands of chemicals in their lifetimes, necessitating the determination of chemical toxicity and screening for those posing the greatest risk to human health. This study developed models to predict toxic endpoints for three bioassays specific to several stages of carcinogenesis. The ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase assay (EROD), the Salmonella/microsome assay, and a gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) assay were chosen for their ability to measure toxic endpoints specific to activation-, induction-, and promotion-related effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Shape-electronic, spatial, information content, and topological descriptors proved to be important descriptors in predicting the toxicity of PAH in these bioassays. Bioassay-based toxic equivalency factors (TEF(B)) were developed for several PAH using the quantitative structure-toxicity relationships (QSTR) developed. Predicting toxicity for a specific PAH compound, such as a bioassay-based potential potency (PP(B)) or a TEF(B), is possible by combining the predicted behavior from the QSTR models. These toxicity estimates may then be incorporated into a risk assessment for compounds that lack toxicity data. Accurate toxicity predictions are made by examining each type of endpoint important to the process of carcinogenicity, and a clearer understanding between composition and toxicity can be obtained.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Cited by the United States Food and Drug Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthery W

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The yields of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined from cigarette mainstream smoke condensate extracts using Gas Chromatography- Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. The method has been validated for ISO and Health Canada Intense (HCI smoking protocols. Quantifiable levels (ISO means 0.16 to 365 ng/cig; HCI means 0.33 to 1595 ng/cig; n = 30 of 15 PAHs were found in the Kentucky reference cigarette K3R4F. The coefficient of variance (CV was derived from ten determinations each run in triplicate. The CV range was 8.7% to 24.8% (ISO and 6.6% to 24.3% (HCI. The limit of detection (LOD based on empirical precision was ≤ 0.06 ng/cig (ISO and ≤ 0.20 ng/cig (HCI for all components except naphthalene (2.89 and 9.62 ng/cig, respectively. The yields from 5 unspecified branded cigarettes (Samples A-E and 2 other reference cigarettes, K1R5F and the CORESTA monitor CM7, were determined under ISO smoking conditions. The same 15 PAHs were detected as in the K3R4F; however, cigarettes with lower yields of total particulate matter (TPM were found to contain significantly less PAHs. One component was measured below the limit of quantification (LOQ in Sample E and 2 components were < LOQ in the K1R5F.

  9. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air: a pilot study among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethery, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Amanda J; Fisher, Mandy; Sjödin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Foster, Warren; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have linked increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and adverse fetal health outcomes. Urinary PAH metabolites are of interest for exposure assessment if they can predict PAHs in air. We investigated exposure to PAHs by collecting air and urine samples among pregnant women pre-selected as living in "high" (downtown and close to steel mills, n=9) and "low" (suburban, n=10) exposure areas. We analyzed first-morning urine voids from all 3 trimesters of pregnancy for urinary PAH metabolites and compared these to personal air PAH/PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) samples collected in the 3rd trimester. We also evaluated activities and home characteristics, geographic indicators and outdoor central site PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) (all trimesters). Personal air exposures to the lighter molecular weight (MW) PAHs were linked to indoor sources (candles and incense), whereas the heavier PAHs were related to outdoor sources. Geometric means of all personal air measurements were higher in the "high" exposure group. We suggest that centrally monitored heavier MW PAHs could be used to predict personal exposures for heavier PAHs only. Urine metabolites were only directly correlated with their parent air PAHs for phenanthrene (Pearson's r=0.31-0.45) and fluorene (r=0.37-0.58). Predictive models suggest that specific metabolites (3-hydroyxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene) may be related to their parent air PAH exposures. The metabolite 2-hydroxynaphthalene was linked to smoking and the metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene was linked to dietary exposures. For researchers interested in predicting exposure to airborne lighter MW PAHs using urinary PAH metabolites, we propose that hydroxyfluorene and hydroxyphenanthrene metabolites be considered.

  10. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis. The concentration of Benzo[a]Pyrene, BaP (EU and National limit value: 1 ng m-3 in PM10), varied from 0.065 ng m-3 during autumn time to 0.872 ng m-3 in spring time (NA01) and from 0.120 ng m-3 during autumn time to 1.48 ng m-3 of winter time (NA02) with four overshoots. In NA02 the trend of Σ12 PAHs was comparable to NA01 but were observed higher values than NA01. In fact, the mean concentration of Σ12 PAHs, in urban-traffic site was generally 2 times greater than in urban-background site in all the campaigns. PAHs with 5 and 6 ring, many of which are suspected carcinogens or genotoxic agents, (i.e Benzo[a]Pyrene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Fluoranthene, Benzo[k]Fluoranthene and Benzo[g,h,i]Perylene), had a large contribution (∼50-55%) of total PAHs concentration in PM10 in two sites and in each of the campaigns. Diagnostic ratio analysis and PCA suggested a substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied sites. The use of Toxicity Equivalence Quantity (TEQ

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmosphere of the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gaffke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of publications on the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of the Baltic Sea Region (BSR. It indicates the main emission sources of these substances, related to anthropogenic activity. These include incomplete combustion of fuels in engines on land and from marine transportation, as well as the burning of coal in the community sector. High PAH concentrations in the air are also related to increased industrial activity in urban areas. In the Baltic Sea Region, Germany and Poland have been determined to be responsible for the greatest proportion of PAH emissions. However, the highest number of exceedances of the accepted annual norm for benzo(apyrene concentrations was recorded in Poland.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential and diversity of microbial consortia enriched from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, Hernando Pactao; Inoue, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused tsunamis and resulted in widespread damage to human life and infrastructure. The disaster also resulted in contamination of the environment by chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study was conducted to investigate the degradation potential and describe the PAH-degrading microbial communities from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan. PAH-degrading bacteria were cultured by enrichment using PAH mixture or pyrene alone as carbon and energy sources. Among the ten consortia tested for PAH mixture, seven completely degraded fluorene and more than 95% of phenanthrene in 10 days, while only four consortia partially degraded pyrene. Six consortia partially degraded pyrene as a single substrate. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that each sample was dominated by unique microbial populations, regardless of sampling location. The consortia were dominated by known PAHs degraders including Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingobium; and previously unknown degraders such as Dokdonella and Luteimonas. A potentially novel and PAH-degrading Dokdonella was detected for the first time. PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) gene was shown to be more effective than nidA in estimating pyrene-degrading bacteria in the enriched consortia. The consortia obtained in this study are potential candidates for remediation of PAHs contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils under freeze-thaw cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Anne; Schönborn, Maike; Eschenbach, Annette

    2010-05-01

    The arctic region will be one of the most affected regions by climate change due to the predicted temperature rise. As a result of anthropogenic actions as mining, exploration and refining as well as atmospheric transport pollutions can be found in arctic soils. Therefore questions on the behaviour of organic contaminants in permafrost influenced soils are of high relevance. First investigations showed that permafrost can act as a semi-permeable layer for PAH (Curtosi et al., 2007). Therefore it can be assumed that global warming could result in a mobilization of PAH in these permafrost influenced soils. On the other hand a low but detectable mineralization of organic hydrocarbons by microorganisms under repeated freeze-thaw cycles was analysed (Börresen et al. 2007, Eschenbach et al. 2000). In this study the behaviour and distribution of PAH under freezing and periodically freezing and thawing were investigated in laboratory column experiments with spiked soil materials. Two soil materials which are typical for artic regions, a organic matter containing melt water sand and a well decomposed peat, were homogeneously spiked with a composite of a crude oil and the PAH anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene. After 14days preincubation time the soil material was filled in the laboratory columns (40cm high and 10 cm in diameter). Based on studies by Chuvilin et al. (2001) the impact of freezing of the upper third of the column from the surface downwards was examined. The impact of freezing was tested in two different approaches the first one with a single freezing step and the second one with a fourfold repeated cycle of freezing and thawing which takes about 6 or 7 days each. The experimental design and very first results will be shown and discussed. In some experiments with the peat a higher concentration of anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene could be detected below the freezing front in the unfrozen part of the column. Whereas the concentration of PAH had slightly decreased in

  14. NP-PAH Interaction Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset presents concentrations of organic pollutants, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds, in water samples. Water samples of known volume and concentration...

  15. [Characteristics and sources of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during haze period in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jing-Chun; Tan, Ji-Hua; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2009-06-15

    PM10 (particulates matter with aerodynamic diameter Guangzhou city between March 2002 and June 2003. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied during haze and non-haze periods in both summer and winter. PAHs pollution was serious in haze period compared with that in non-haze period, especially in winter. Compared with non-haze period, Phe, Ant, Flu, Pyr, BaA, Chr, IcdP, DahA and BghiP were more abundant in haze period in summer, and BaF, BeP, BaP, Pery, IcdP, DahA and BghiP were more abundant in haze period in winter. The BEQ values were 3.5 ng x m(-3), 3.35 ng x m(-3), 1.43 ng x m(-3) and 13.0 ng x m(-3) in non-haze in summer, in haze in summer, in non-haze in winter and in haze in winter, respectively. The BEQ values in non-haze in summer, in haze in summer and in non-haze in winter in Guangzhou (average: 2.76 ng x m(-3)) were relatively low in Chinese cities, and comparable with oversea cities. However, the BEQ value in haze in winter was relatively high in Chinese cities. It indicated that haze in winter would impair human health seriously. The diagnostic ratios suggested gasoline and diesel vehicle emission were main sources of PAHs in summer, and diesel vehicle and coal combustion emission were main sources of PAHs in winter; PAHs may come from both local sources and long-range transportation in non-haze in winter.

  16. Seasonal Variations and Sources of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Chengdu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air of Chengdu, a southwest city of China, were determined from March 2015 to February 2016. Here, two diagnostic ratios (DR were determined and a principal component analysis/multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR analysis was performed to identify the sources of PAHs during the four seasons. The gaseous and particle phase samples were analyzed separately. The sampled air had a gas-to particle ratio of 4.21, and between 18.7% and 31.3% of the total detected PAHs were found in the particulate phase. The total concentration of all 16-PAHs combined (gas + particles varied from 176.94 in summer to 458.95 ng·m−3 in winter, with a mean of 300.35 ± 176.6 ng·m−3. In the gas phase, phenanthrene(Phe was found at the highest concentrations in all four seasons, while benzo[b]fluoranthene(BbF and (in winter chrysene(Chr were the highest in the particle phase. The DR of Fluroanthene (Flua/(Flua + Pyrene (Pyr was higher in the gas phase than in the particle phase, while the Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene(IcdP/(IcdP + Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP ratio was more variable in the gas than that in the particle phase. The main sources for both phases were a mixture of liquid fossil fuel combustion and the burning of biomass and coal, with clear seasonal variation. Principal Component Analysis/Multiple Linear Regression (PCA/MLR analysis identified the main PAH sources as coal burning (52% with motor vehicle exhaust and coke (48% in spring; coal (52%, coke (21%, and motor vehicle exhaust (27% in summer; coal (47%, vehicle exhaust (34%, and coke (19% in autumn; and coal (58% and vehicle exhaust (42% in winter.

  17. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying, E-mail: zsy6311@163.com

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3–6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles (< 65 μm) were the predominant particle size (56–97%). Lacustrine source (with the peak towards 200–400 μm) and eolian sources derived from short (2.0–10 and 30–65 μm) and long (0.4–1.0 μm) distance suspension were indentified from frequency distribution pattern of particle size. Significant correlations between 3–6 ring PAHs (especially carcinogenic 5–6 ring PAHs) and 10–35 μm particulate fractions indicated that eolian particles played an important role in adsorbing pyrogenic PAHs. Petroleum source of PAHs was only identified during the 1980s in one core sediments, in which positive correlations between 2-ring PAHs and particulate fractions of > 125 μm were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors. - Highlights: • PAHs and particle size in core sediments were used to evaluate the role of eolian particles in delivering pyrogenic PAHs. • Changes of PAH sources closely followed local historical socioeconomic development since 1980s. • Changes of particulate sources from eolian to lacustrine reflected the

  18. Occurrence and distribution of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater, sediments and corals from Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Nan; Jiang, Chunxia; Yang, Tinghan; Li, Ping; Wang, Haihua; Xie, Yanli; Li, Sennan; Zhou, Hailong; Diao, Xiaoping

    2018-05-15

    The levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in corals, ambient seawater and sediments of Hainan Island, China, using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAHs (∑PAHs) concentrations ranged from 273.79 to 407.82ng/L in seawater. Besides, the concentrations of ∑PAHs in corals 333.88-727.03ng/g dw) were markedly (P corals. The highest concentration of ∑PAHs was detected at site S2 in Pavona decussate, which also bore the highest ∑PAHs levels in both seawater and sediments. The massive corals were more enriched with PAHs than the branching corals. Although 2 and 3-ring PAHs were predominant and accounted for 69.27-80.46% of the ∑PAHs in corals and ambient environment, the levels of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4-6 ring) in corals also demonstrated their potential dangers for corals and organisms around coral reefs. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) refers to an index of the pollutant absorbed by aquatic organisms from the surrounding sediments. The poor correlation between log BSAF and log K ow (hydrophobicity) indicated that PAHs in corals maybe not bioaccumulate from the ambient sediments but through pathways like absorbing from seawater, symbiosis, and feeding. Based on our data, long-term ecological monitoring in typical coral reef ecosystems combined with ecotoxicological tests of PAHs on corals is necessary to determine the impacts of PAHs on coral reefs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai: the spatio-temporal variation and source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Bi, Chunjuan; Wang, Dongqi; Yu, Zhongjie; Chen, Zhenlou

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the dry and wet deposition fluxes of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Shanghai, China. The flux sources were traced based on composition and spatio-temporal variation. The results show that wet deposition concentrations of PAHs ranged from 0.07 to 0.67 mg·L-1 and were correlated with temperature ( P<0.05). Dry deposition of PAHs concentrations ranged from 3.60-92.15 mg·L-1 and were higher in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. The annual PAH average fluxes were 0.631 mg·m-2·d-1 and 4.06 mg·m-2·d-1 for wet and dry deposition, respectively. The highest wet deposition of PAH fluxes was observed in summer, while dry deposition fluxes were higher in winter and spring. Atmospheric PAHs were deposited as dry deposition in spring and winter, yet wet deposition was the dominant pathway during summer. Total atmospheric PAH fluxes were higher in the northern areas than in the southern areas of Shanghai, and were also observed to be higher in winter and spring. Annual deposition of atmospheric PAHs was about 10.8 t in across all of Shanghai. Wet deposition of PAHs was primarily composed of two, three, or four rings, while dry deposition of PAHs was composed of four, five, or six rings. The atmospheric PAHs, composed of four, five, or six rings, primarily existed in the form of particulates. Coal combustion and vehicle emissions were the dominant sources of PAH in the observed area of downtown Shanghai. In suburban areas, industrial pollution, from sources such as coke oven, incinerator, and oil fired power plant, was as significant as vehicle emissions in contributing to the deposition of PAHs.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their transfer into and dislocation within soil; Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAH) und ihre Verlagerung im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, H W; Niehaus, R; Mueller, U; Bueker, I [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    In order to assess the terrestrial hazard potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it is vital to investigate their nuisance concentrations and deposition to soil and plants as well as their dislocation in soil. This was the object of the first part of the research programme ``Locational evaluation of chemical soil pollution``, conducted by the national research institutions. It was headed ``Analysis of exposure`` and comprised the following individual contributions: 1. Integrated long-term measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil air at ground level (FZJ), 2. Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations at the Scheyern experimental station as well as at the motorway by-passing Munich to the east (A 99), near Kirchheim (GSF), 3. Investigations regarding PAH exposure via the air pathway and inclusion of acquired data in substance flows made up for the east-German dry zone (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ), 4. Simulation of PAH concentration and deposition in south-western Germany (FZK). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) im terrestrischen Bereich sind daher Untersuchungen ueber die Immissionskonzentrationen und die Deposition auf Boeden und Pflanzen sowie ueber ihre Verlagerung im Boden von essentieller Bedeutung. Die Bearbeitung dieser Thematik erfolgte im Teilbereich I `Eintragsanalyse` des AGF-Programms `Standortgerechte Bewertung chemischer Bodenbelastungen` mit folgenden Einzelbeitraegen: 1. Integrierende Langzeitmessung von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen in bodennaher Luft, (FZJ) 2. Bestimmung der PAH-Immissionskonzentrationen am Versuchsgut Scheyern sowie an der oestlichen Autobahnumgehung von Muenchen (A 99) bei Kirchheim, (GSF) 3. Untersuchungen zum Eintrag von PAH ueber den Luftpfad und Einbeziehung der Daten in Stoffkreislaeufe im Mitteldeutschen Trockengebiet (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ) 4. Simulation der PAH-Konzentration und

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their transfer into and dislocation within soil; Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAH) und ihre Verlagerung im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerbeck, H.W.; Niehaus, R.; Mueller, U.; Bueker, I. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physikalische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In order to assess the terrestrial hazard potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it is vital to investigate their nuisance concentrations and deposition to soil and plants as well as their dislocation in soil. This was the object of the first part of the research programme ``Locational evaluation of chemical soil pollution``, conducted by the national research institutions. It was headed ``Analysis of exposure`` and comprised the following individual contributions: 1. Integrated long-term measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil air at ground level (FZJ), 2. Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations at the Scheyern experimental station as well as at the motorway by-passing Munich to the east (A 99), near Kirchheim (GSF), 3. Investigations regarding PAH exposure via the air pathway and inclusion of acquired data in substance flows made up for the east-German dry zone (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ), 4. Simulation of PAH concentration and deposition in south-western Germany (FZK). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Zur Abschaetzung des Gefaehrdungspotentials von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) im terrestrischen Bereich sind daher Untersuchungen ueber die Immissionskonzentrationen und die Deposition auf Boeden und Pflanzen sowie ueber ihre Verlagerung im Boden von essentieller Bedeutung. Die Bearbeitung dieser Thematik erfolgte im Teilbereich I `Eintragsanalyse` des AGF-Programms `Standortgerechte Bewertung chemischer Bodenbelastungen` mit folgenden Einzelbeitraegen: 1. Integrierende Langzeitmessung von Polycyclischen Aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen in bodennaher Luft, (FZJ) 2. Bestimmung der PAH-Immissionskonzentrationen am Versuchsgut Scheyern sowie an der oestlichen Autobahnumgehung von Muenchen (A 99) bei Kirchheim, (GSF) 3. Untersuchungen zum Eintrag von PAH ueber den Luftpfad und Einbeziehung der Daten in Stoffkreislaeufe im Mitteldeutschen Trockengebiet (Bad Lauchstaedt), (UFZ) 4. Simulation der PAH-Konzentration und

  2. Ability of natural attenuation and phytoremediation using maize (Zea mays L.) to decrease soil contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from biomass fly ash in comparison with PAHs-spiked soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košnář, Zdeněk; Mercl, Filip; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2018-05-30

    A 120-day pot experiment was conducted to compare the ability of natural attenuation and phytoremediation approaches to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil amended with PAHs-contaminated biomass fly ash. The PAH removal from ash-treated soil was compared with PAHs-spiked soil. The removal of 16 individual PAHs from soil ranged between 4.8% and 87.8% within the experiment. The natural attenuation approach led to a negligible total PAH removal. The phytoremediation was the most efficient approach for PAH removal, while the highest removal was observed in the case of ash-treated soil. The content of low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs and the total PAHs in this treatment significantly decreased (P <.05) over the whole experiment by 47.6% and 29.4%, respectively. The tested level of PAH soil contamination (~1600 µg PAH/kg soil dry weight) had no adverse effects on maize growth as well on the biomass yield. In addition, the PAHs were detected only in maize roots and their bioaccumulation factors were significantly lower than 1 suggesting negligible PAH uptake from soil by maize roots. The results showed that PAHs of ash origin were similarly susceptible to removal as spiked PAHs. The presence of maize significantly boosted the PAH removal from soil and its aboveground biomass did not represent any environmental risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in indoor dusts of Guizhou, southwest of China: status, sources and potential human health risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yang

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were analyzed for 136 indoor dust samples collected from Guizhou province, southwest of China. The ∑18PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.18 μg•g-1 to 14.20 μg•g-1 with the mean value of 6.78 μg•g-1. The highest Σ18PAHs concentration was found in dust samples from orefields, followed by city, town and village. Moreover, the mean concentration of Σ18PAHs in indoor dust was at least 10% higher than that of outdoors. The 4-6 rings PAHs, contributing more than 70% of ∑18PAHs, were the dominant species. PAHs ratios, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA were applied to evaluate the possible sources. Two major origins of PAHs in indoor dust were identified as vehicle emissions and coal combustion. The mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR due to human exposure to indoor dust PAHs in city, town, village and orefield of Guizhou province, China was 6.14×10-6, 5.00×10-6, 3.08×10-6, 6.02×10-6 for children and 5.92×10-6, 4.83×10-6, 2.97×10-6, 5.81×10-6 for adults, respectively.

  4. Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Gjerdrum, Thor; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Background: The negative health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well established for modern human populations but have so far not been studied in prehistoric contexts. PAHs are the main component of fossil bitumen, a naturally occurring material used by past societies such as the Chumash Indians in California as an adhesive, as a waterproofing agent, and for medicinal purposes. The rich archaeological and ethnohistoric record of the coastal Chumash suggests that they were exposed to multiple uptake pathways of bituminous PAHs, including direct contact, fume inhalation, and oral uptake from contaminated water and seafood. Objectives: We investigated the possibility that PAHs from natural bitumen compromised the health of the prehistoric Chumash Indians in California. Conclusions: Exposure of the ancient Chumash Indians to toxic PAHs appears to have gradually increased across a period of 7,500 years because of an increased use of bitumen in the Chumash technology, together with a dietary shift toward PAH-contaminated marine food. Skeletal analysis indicates a concurrent population health decline that may be related to PAH uptake. However, establishing such a connection is virtually impossible without knowing the actual exposure levels experienced by these populations. Future methodological research may provide techniques for determining PAH levels in ancient skeletal material, which would open new avenues for research on the health of prehistoric populations and on the long-term effects of human PAH exposure. PMID:21596651

  5. Distribution, origin and potential toxicological significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.F.; Kao, C.M.; Dong, C.D.; Chen, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    The European Union and the United States Environmental Protection Agency have placed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on a priority pollutant list because they represent the largest group of compounds that are mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic and could pose potential threat to the ecological environment. There are both natural and anthropogenic sources of PAHs, and their effects can be both widespread and permanent. This study investigated the distribution of PAHs in sediments collected at the river outfalls, fishing ports, shipyards and industrial docks of Kaohsiung Harbour in Taiwan. Sediment samples from 12 locations were collected in 2006 and characterized for 17 different PAHs, organic matter and grain size. The study revealed that the contaminant sources for the PAH found at the steel industrial docks were different from the other zones of the Kaohsiung Harbour. Molecular indices suggest that coal combustion may be the possible source of PAHs in the industrial dock, while petroleum combustion may be the source in the other zones. In comparison with the sediment quality guidelines of the United States, the levels of PAHs at the industrial docs of Kaohsiung Harbour exceeded the effects range low (ERL), and could therefore cause acute biological damage. However, the lower levels of PAHs at the other zones would not cause adverse biological effects. The study suggests that industrial activities played important roles in the leaching of PAHs into the environment, and the results could help develop strategies for sediment remediation. 38 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  6. Polyaromatic hydrocabons in soil – practical options for remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Wagelmans, M.

    2016-01-01

    High levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil are regularly reported worldwide, particularly in industrialized areas. Through traffic and industrial production PAH generation will further increase. Although better insights in bioavailability of PAHs have led to more balanced

  7. Repair of DNA damage induced by anthanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) without bay or fjord regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Johannessen, Christian; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental pollutants, formed during incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas. Several PAHs have carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies, but these compounds must be activated in order to exert their mutagenic effects. One of the principal pathways...... proposed for metabolic activation of PAHs involves the cytochrome P450 enzymes. The DNA damaging potential of cytochrome P450-activated PAHs is generally associated with their bay and fjord regions, and the DNA repair response of PAHs containing such regions has been thoroughly studied. However, little...... in response to DNA damage induced by cytochrome P450-activated anthanthrene. In cell extracts, functional nucleotide excision repair (NER) and mismatch repair (MMR) activities were necessary to trigger a response to anthanthrene metabolite-induced DNA damage. In cell cultures, NER was responsible...

  8. Reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petroleum-contaminated soil using thermal desorption technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkebakken, D.M.; Davis, H.A.; Ghosh, S.B.; Beardsley, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil typically requires the selection of a treatment option that addresses the removal of both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) compounds, can be readily removed from the soil by a variety of well-established technologies. The semivolatile organic compounds, especially the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) that are characteristic of petroleum-contaminated soil, are not as amenable to conventional treatment. Low temperature thermal volatilization (LTTV) can be a viable treatment technology depending on the initial contaminant concentrations present and applicable cleanup objectives that must be attained. A-two-phase treatability study was conducted at 14 former underground storage tank (UST) sites to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of LTTV for remediation of approximately 31,000 tons of PAH-contaminated soil. The PAHs of primary concern included benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenz(a,h) anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. During Phase 1, LTTV operational parameters were varied by trial-and-error and changes in soil treatment effectiveness were monitored. Phase B of the treatability study incorporated the appropriate treatment regime established during Phase 1 to efficiently remediate the remaining contaminated soil

  9. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases (AKRs in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH-catechols and PAH o-Quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quiniones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox cycling of PAH o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, PAH catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which PAH o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of PAH and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis.

  10. Oxygen-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) in urban soils of Bratislava, Slovakia: Patterns, relation to PAHs and vertical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A.; Sobocka, Jaroslava; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We determined concentrations, sources, and vertical distribution of OPAHs and PAHs in soils of Bratislava. The Σ14 OPAHs concentrations in surface soil horizons ranged 88-2692 ng g -1 and those of Σ34 PAHs 842-244,870 ng g -1 . The concentrations of the Σ9 carbonyl-OPAHs (r = 0.92, p = 0.0001) and the Σ5 hydroxyl-OPAHs (r = 0.73, p = 0.01) correlated significantly with Σ34 PAHs concentrations indicating the close association of OPAHs with parent-PAHs. OPAHs were quantitatively dominated by 9-fluorenone, 9,10-anthraquinone, 1-indanone and benzo[a]anthracene-7,12-dione. At several sites, individual carbonyl-OPAHs had higher concentrations than parent PAHs. The concentration ratios of several OPAHs to their parent-PAHs and contribution of the more soluble OPAHs (1-indanone and 9-fluorenone) to Σ14 OPAHs concentrations increased with soil depth suggesting that OPAHs were faster vertically transported in the study soils by leaching than PAHs which was supported by the correlation of subsoil:surface soil ratios of OPAH concentrations at several sites with K OW . - Research highlights: → Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are closely associated with PAHs in all studied urban soils. → The concentrations of OPAHs in urban soils of Bratislava are similar as in other European and North American cities. → Concentrations of OPAHs are frequently higher than those of the corresponding parent-PAHs. → For 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-naphthaldehyde, 2-biphenylcarboxaldehyde and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride there are indications for abiotic or biological production. → The OPAHs are faster vertically transported in soils than their parent-PAHs. - OPAHs and PAHs in urban soils are closely associated but OPAHs are faster translocated than PAHs.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in continental shelf sediment of China: Implications for anthropogenic influences on coastal marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liangying; Wang Jizhong; Wei Gaoling; Guan Yufeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Sediments collected from the continental shelf of China, embracing Yellow Sea, inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS), and the South China Sea (SCS), were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of anthropogenic PAHs (Σ 18 PAH) were 27–224 ng/g dry weight, with an average of 82 ng/g. Sedimentary PAHs in the continental shelf off China were mainly derived from mixed residues of biomass, coal, and petroleum combustion. Fluvial transport and atmospheric deposition mainly accounted for sediment PAHs in the ECS inner shelf and Yellow Sea (and the SCS), respectively. Furthermore, statistically higher levels of Σ 18 PAH (28–224 ng/g; mean 110 ng/g) in the Yellow Sea sediment than in the SCS sediment (28–109 ng/g; mean 58 ng/g) were probably resulted from higher PAH emissions from coke industry and domestic coal combustion in North China than in South China. - Highlights: ► Coal and biomass combustion was the main origin of PAHs in coastal marine sediment of China. ► Fluvial transport was the main mode for transporting PAHs to the East China Sea inner shelf. ► Atmospheric deposition largely accounted for sediment PAHs in Yellow Sea and the South China Sea. ► Regional energy use pattern in China was responsible for the spatial distribution of PAHs in coastal marine sediment. - Sources, compositions and spatial distributions of PAHs in continental shelf sediments off China are analyzed to estimate anthropogenic influences.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration levels, pattern, source identification and soil toxicity assessment in urban traffic soil of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Swapnil; Sinha, Alok; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess and understand potential health risk and to examine the impact of vehicular traffic on the contamination status of urban traffic soils in Dhanbad City with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eight urban traffic sites and two control/rural site surface soils were analyzed and the contents of 13 priority PAHs was determined. Total PAH concentration at traffic sites ranged from 1.019 μg g(-1) to 10.856 μg g(-1) with an average value of 3.488 μg g(-1). At control/rural site, average concentration of total PAHs was found to be 0.640 μg g(-1). PAH pattern was dominated by four- and five-ring PAHs (contributing >50% to the total PAHs) at all the eight traffic sites. On the other hand, rural soil showed a predominance of low molecular weight three-ring PAHs (contributing >30% to the total PAHs). Indeno[123-cd]pyrene/benz[ghi]perylene (IP/BgP) ratio indicated that PAH load at the traffic sites is predominated by the gasoline-driven vehicles. The ratio of Ant/(Ant+Phe) varied from 0.03 to 0.44, averaging 0.10; Fla/(Fla+Pyr) from 0.39 to 0.954, averaging 0.52; BaA/(BaA+Chry) from 0.156 to 0.60, averaging 0.44; and IP/(IP+BgP) from 0.176 to 0.811, averaging 0.286. The results indicated that vehicular emission was the major source for PAHs contamination with moderate effect of coal combustion and biomass combustion. Carcinogenic potency of PAH load in traffic soil was nearly 6.15 times higher as compared to the control/rural soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying carcinogenic activity of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through electronic and topological indices

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, R S; Barone, P M V B

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of planar molecules, abundant in urban environment, which can induce chemical carcinogenesis. Their carcinogenic power varies in a large range, from very strong carcinogens to inactive ones. In a previous study, we proposed a methodology to identify the PAHs carcinogenic activity exploring electronic and topological indices. In the present work, we show that it is possible to simplify that methodology and expand its applicability to include methylated PAHs compounds. Using very simple rules, we can predict their carcinogenic activity with high accuracy (approx 89%).

  14. Distribution and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoke aerosols from burning of selected garden wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Tay Joo; Seng, Tan Hock; Mohd Radzi Abas; Norhayati Mohd Tahir

    2008-01-01

    A study has been carried out to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from the burning of five types of typical garden wastes viz, Bachang, Mango, Jackfruit, Jambu Air litter fall and a type of Grass. The samples were burned to the ember and respective smoke aerosols emitted during the burning period were sampled using high volume filtration on a pre-cleaned glass fibre filters. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted using dichloromethane-methanol (3:1) as solvent and the extracts fractionated on silica-alumina column. Detection and quantification of PAHs compounds were carried out using GC-MS. Results indicated that burning resulted in the formation of significant amount of PAHs compounds in all samples; total PAHs compounds emitted were in the range of 0.41 to 42.2 μg/ m 3 . The major PAHs compound exhibited in all smoke samples were three to four rings PAHs (example fluoranthene and pyrene) with lesser amount of five to six rings (example benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i) perylene) and two rings PAHs (example acenaphthylene). The BaP equivalency results showed that the potential health risk from these garden wastes smoke were very significant; total BaP equivalency values were in the range of 5.60 E+04 pg/ m 3 - 4.98 E+06 pg/ m 3 with Jambu Air smoke exhibited the highest potential health risk. (author)

  15. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, antioxidant levels and behavioral development of children ages 6-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkinger, Jeanine M; Stigter, Laura; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Wang, Shuang; Roen, Emily L; Majewska, Renata; Kieltyka, Agnieszka; Mroz, Elzbieta; Perera, Frederica P

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure has been shown to increase DNA adduct levels and to affect neurodevelopment. Micronutrients may modify the adverse effect of PAH on neurodevelopment. Thus, we examined if micronutrient concentrations modified the association between PAH exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes. 151 children from a birth cohort who had micronutrient concentrations measured in cord blood and completed the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL), between the ages of 6 and 9 years, were evaluated. Prenatal airborne PAH exposure was measured by personal air monitoring. The betas and 95% CI for the associations of antioxidant concentrations and PAH exposure with each of the outcomes of CBCL raw score and dichotomized standardized T-score (based on clinical cutpoints) were estimated, respectively, by multivariable poisson and logistic models. Children below the median for alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentrations, compared to those above, were more likely to have thought problems, aggressive behavior and externalizing problems (pPAH in relation to CBCL symptoms (e.g., internalizing and externalizing problems, pPAH exposure. Future research to confirm these findings are warranted given the importance of identifying modifiable factors for reducing harmful PAH effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regional modelling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: WRF-Chem-PAH model development and East Asia case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Qing; Lammel, Gerhard; Gencarelli, Christian N.; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Chen, Ying; Přibylová, Petra; Teich, Monique; Zhang, Yuxuan; Zheng, Guangjie; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Zhang, Qiang; Herrmann, Hartmut; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Spichtinger, Peter; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2017-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hazardous pollutants, with increasing emissions in pace with economic development in East Asia, but their distribution and fate in the atmosphere are not yet well understood. We extended the regional atmospheric chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research Forecast model with Chemistry module) to comprehensively study the atmospheric distribution and the fate of low-concentration, slowly degrading semivolatile compounds. The WRF-Chem-PAH model reflects the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It was applied for PAHs covering a wide range of volatility and hydrophobicity, i.e. phenanthrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, in East Asia. Temporally highly resolved PAH concentrations and particulate mass fractions were evaluated against observations. The WRF-Chem-PAH model is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions. Sensitivity study shows that the heterogeneous reaction with ozone and the homogeneous reaction with the nitrate radical significantly influence the fate and distributions of PAHs. The methods to implement new species and to correct the transport problems can be applied to other newly implemented species in WRF-Chem.

  17. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Karin; Santarelli, Francesco; Vasold, Rudolf; Penning, Randolph; Sidoroff, Alexis; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  18. Ancient water bottle use and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure among California Indians: a prehistoric health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Smith, Kevin; Wallin, Cecilia; Ahmed, Trifa M; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2017-06-23

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the main toxic compounds in natural bitumen, a fossil material used by modern and ancient societies around the world. The adverse health effects of PAHs on modern humans are well established, but their health impacts on past populations are unclear. It has previously been suggested that a prehistoric health decline among the native people living on the California Channel Islands may have been related to PAH exposure. Here, we assess the potential health risks of PAH exposure from the use and manufacture of bitumen-coated water bottles by ancient California Indian societies. We replicated prehistoric bitumen-coated water bottles with traditional materials and techniques of California Indians, based on ethnographic and archaeological evidence. In order to estimate PAH exposure related to water bottle manufacture and use, we conducted controlled experiments to measure PAH contamination 1) in air during the manufacturing process and 2) in water and olive oil stored in a completed bottle for varying periods of time. Samples were analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for concentrations of the 16 PAHs identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants. Eight PAHs were detected in concentrations of 1-10 μg/m 3 in air during bottle production and 50-900 ng/L in water after 2 months of storage, ranging from two-ring (naphthalene and methylnaphthalene) to four-ring (fluoranthene) molecules. All 16 PAHs analyzed were detected in olive oil after 2 days (2 to 35 μg/kg), 2 weeks (3 to 66 μg/kg), and 2 months (5 to 140 μg/kg) of storage. For ancient California Indians, water stored in bitumen-coated water bottles was not a significant source of PAH exposure, but production of such bottles could have resulted in harmful airborne PAH exposure.

  19. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lehner

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  20. Black Tattoos Entail Substantial Uptake of Genotoxicpolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Human Skin and Regional Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Karin; Santarelli, Francesco; Vasold, Rudolf; Penning, Randolph; Sidoroff, Alexis; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC – DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1–0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1–11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body. PMID:24670978

  1. Distribution of particle-phase hydrocarbons, PAHs and OCPs in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shui-Ping; Tao, Shu; Zhang, Zhi-Huan; Lan, Tian; Zuo, Qian

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the total suspended particles (TSP) collected from 13 different locations in Tianjin, China, where intensive coal burning for domestic heating in winter takes place and a large quantity of pesticides had been produced and applied. Carbon preference index (CPI), carbon number maximum (C max) of n-alkane and plant wax index (%wax C n) indicate that n-alkanes come from both biogenic and petrogenic sources, and biogenic source contributes more n-alkanes in autumn than in winter. Petroleum biomarkers as indicators of petrogenic source such as hopanes and steranes were also detected in both seasons' samples. The sum of 16 PAH concentrations (∑PAH) ranged from 69.3 to 2170 ng m -3 in winter and from 7.01 to 40.0 ng m -3 in autumn. Seasonal variations were mainly attributed to the difference in coal combustion emission and meteorological conditions. The results of a source diagnostic analysis suggest that PAHs in TSP mainly come from coal combustion. Seven OCPs (four hexachlorohexanes (HCHs) and three dichlorodipheny-trichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs)) were detected in most samples. Concentrations of the sum of α-, β-, δ- and γ-HCH (∑HCH) and the sum of p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDD and p, p'-DDE (∑DDT) in autumn varied in the ranges of 0.002-0.9 ng m -3 and 0.025-2.21 ng m -3 with the average±standard deviation values of 0.127±0.241 ng m -3 and 0.239±0.546 ng m -3, respectively. In winter, ∑HCH and ∑DDT in TSP ranged from 0.071 to 5.35 ng m -3 and from 0.416 to 3.14 ng m -3 with the average±standard deviation values 1.05±1.88 ng m -3 and 0.839±0.713 ng m -3, respectively. Both of the illegal application of technical HCH and DDT and the volatilization from topsoil contributed to the particle-phase contents of HCHs and DDTs in the atmosphere.

  2. Monitoring system for the study of autotrophic biofilms in bioremediation of polyaromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarie, Jean P.; Bruttig, A.; Miller, Gordon H.; Hill, Walter; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1999-02-01

    carcinogens in laboratory animal assays. The parent homocyclic species, which contain only carbon and hydrogen, are the familiar polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. In addition to the PAH compounds, there are thousands of substituted compounds that could have various substituent groups, such as alkyl, amino, chloro, cyano, hydroxy, oxy, or thio groups. In this study we investigate anthracene and pyrene as PAH model systems. A portable fiberoptic instrument capable of real-time measurements has been developed for field screening these PAHs in surface water and natural algae systems. Our preliminary studies investigated the detection limits of anthracene and pyrene and the adsorption properties of two algae using fluorescence monitoring. An exposure study of the algae to 5 ppb anthracene was performed to investigate the ability of the algae to adsorb PAHs.

  3. Development of a Relative Potency Factor (Rpf) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. ...

  4. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly.

  5. Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration for the Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Mixtures in Underground Contaminated Water in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aoudia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in diesel contaminated underground water in Oman (Rustaq, Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry was first used to determine the different concentrations in a standard mixture containing 16 PAHs. Retention time and calibration curves were obtained for all aromatic compounds and were used to identify a given analyte as well as its concentration in the contaminated underground water. Micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF was then used to treat standard aqueous solution of PAHs at low concentration (~ 1 ppb using an edible nonionic surfactant (Tween 80. The totality of the mixture components was completely rejected. Within the experimental detection limit (± 0.01 ppb, the residual PAH concentrations were less than 0.01 ppb in accord with the allowed concentrations in drinking water. Likewise, excellent rejections of PAHs in MEUF treatment of diesel contaminated underground water at an Omani site (Rustaq were observed. The concentration of PAHs was reduced to less than 0.01 ppb, the accepted limit for the most toxic member of the PAH group (benzo(apyrene.

  6. Effects of soil organic matter on the development of the microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, N.; Xue, M.; Lu, S.T.; Tao, S.

    2011-01-01

    The microbial activity in soils was a critical factor governing the degradation of organic micro-pollutants. The present study was conducted to analyze the effects of soil organic matter on the development of degradation potentials for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Most of the degradation kinetics for PAHs by the indigenous microorganisms developed in soils can be fitted with the Logistic growth models. The microbial activities were relatively lower in the soils with the lowest and highest organic matter content, which were likely due to the nutrition limit and PAH sequestration. The microbial activities developed in humic acid (HA) were much higher than those developed in humin, which was demonstrated to be able to sequester organic pollutants stronger. The results suggested that the nutrition support and sequestration were the two major mechanisms, that soil organic matter influenced the development of microbial PAHs degradation potentials. - Research highlights: → PAH degradation kinetics obey Logistic model. → Degradation potentials depend on soil organic carbon content. → Humin inhibits the development of PAH degradation activity. → Nutrition support and sequestration regulate microbial degradation capacity. - Soil organic matter regulated PAH degradation potentials through nutrition support and sequestration.

  7. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  8. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Persian Gulf and its Biodegradability Using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nahid

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are the main pollutants in oil pollution. PAHs accumulation in aqueous phase causes some aquatic and human diseases Biodegradation methods of PAHs removal were studied using flasks and a reactor. Standard sampling was performed from polluted areas in Persian Gulf and samples were analyzed. COD, TOC, PAHs and heavy metals were determined. Results Showed that, Emam Hassan (EM, Deilam and Shaghab were most polluted areas (PAHs equals 9.8, 4.2, 2.7ppm respectively and samples from the dept showed more pollution than from the surface. For the biological treatment, most active species of bacteria were isolated from the soil of the polluted stations. Most of them are among Pseudomonas, gram and catalazet+. Rotating biological contactor packed (RBCp by providing high acclimation time for the microbial mass, found very suitable process for removal of PHAs. The pure bacterial culture from EM showed, 80% removal efficiency for naphthalene. As the biodegradation of PAHs take a long time, RBCp reactor was selected and the ability of mixed culture in removal of pollutants was studied. The bioreactor was run in two stages. The acclimatization stage took place in 30 days and evaluation of bioreactor in terms of effluent COD concentration and MLSS with initial COD influent of 600 mg/l was operated. COD and PAHs removal of 73 and 66 percent were found respectively while the influent COD was 1200 mg/l.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in continental shelf sediment of China: implications for anthropogenic influences on coastal marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Wei, Gao-Ling; Guan, Yu-Feng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-08-01

    Sediments collected from the continental shelf of China, embracing Yellow Sea, inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS), and the South China Sea (SCS), were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentrations of anthropogenic PAHs (Σ(18)PAH) were 27-224 ng/g dry weight, with an average of 82 ng/g. Sedimentary PAHs in the continental shelf off China were mainly derived from mixed residues of biomass, coal, and petroleum combustion. Fluvial transport and atmospheric deposition mainly accounted for sediment PAHs in the ECS inner shelf and Yellow Sea (and the SCS), respectively. Furthermore, statistically higher levels of Σ(18)PAH (28-224 ng/g; mean 110 ng/g) in the Yellow Sea sediment than in the SCS sediment (28-109 ng/g; mean 58 ng/g) were probably resulted from higher PAH emissions from coke industry and domestic coal combustion in North China than in South China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during pan frying of beefsteak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Svendsen, Kristin

    2010-04-01

    Cooking with gas or electric stoves produces fumes, especially during frying, that contain a range of harmful and potentially mutagenic compounds as well as high levels of fine and ultrafine particles. The aim of this study was to see if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and higher mutagenic aldehydes which were collected in the breathing zone of the cook, could be detected in fumes from the frying of beefsteak. The frying was performed in a model kitchen in conditions similar to those in a Western European restaurant kitchen. The levels of PAHs (16 EPA standard) and higher aldehydes (trans,trans-2,4-decadienal, 2,4-decadienal, trans-trans-2,4-nonadienal, trans-2-decenal, cis-2-decenal, trans-2-undecenal, 2-undecenal) were measured during frying on an electric or gas stove with margarine or soya bean oil as the frying fat. The number concentration of particles electric stove causes increased occupational exposure to some of the components in cooking fumes which may cause adverse health effects.

  12. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (pah) In The Bulk Precipitation of The Seine Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motelay-Massei, A.; Ollivon, D.; Garban, B.; Chevreuil, M.

    The evolution of industry and the rising of population have resulted in deep changes in the quality of the environment. Nowadays much more often the attention of analysts is focused on the presence of organic pollutants in precipitation, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or pesticides. Atmospheric inputs play a significant role in semivolatile chemicals cycling and alter so the hydrological cycle. PAHs are semi- volatile organic contaminants of great environmental concern because of their car- cinogenic properties. PAHs are produced primarily during incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and wood. Major sources of PAHs to urban atmosphere include au- tomobile traffic, home heating, municipal incinerators and industrial emissions. De- spite their production in urban and industrial sites, PAHs occur at high concentra- tions in rural areas due to their persistence and ability to be transported over long distances. The aim of this investigation was to obtain information about occurrence of organic trace components in precipitation in the Seine Estuary. It was also of in- terest to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of PAHs in the bulk (wet and dry) deposition occurring in the estuary region and to estimate PAH deposition flux on watershed (urban, industrial or rural). Precipitation samples were collected at four locations in the Seine Estuary: the first is an industrial site (Le Havre), two are urban sites (Rouen, representative of urban area influenced by heavy traffic and Notre-Dame de Gravenchon, near from an industrial center) and the last one is ru- ral (Evreux). Each of the sites is located close to a meteorological station. Sam- pling is performed weekly since March 2001. In our analytical conditions, "total PAH" includes 15 compounds: naphthalene (NAP), acenaphtene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), anthracene (ANT), fluoranthene (FTH), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (Bk

  13. Isolation and characterization of bacteria capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organophosphorus pesticides from PAH-contaminated soil in Hilo, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Harada, Renee M; Li, Qing X

    2007-07-11

    Nineteen bacterial strains were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil in Hilo, HI, and characterized by two different spray-plated methods, turbidity test in liquid medium, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Analysis of the soil showed 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a range from 0.6 to 30 mg/kg of dry weight each and 12 PAH metabolites. Five distinct bacterial strains (C3, C4, P1-1, JS14, and JS19b1) selected from preliminary plating and turbidity tests were further tested for PAH degradation through single PAH degradation assay. Strains C3, C4, and P1-1 degraded phenanthrene (40 mg/L) completely during 7 days of incubation. Strain JS14 degraded fluoranthene (40 mg/L) completely during 10 days of incubation. Strain JS19b1 degraded 100% of phenanthrene (40 mg/L) in 7 days, 77% of fluorene (40 mg/L) in 14 days, 97% of fluoranthene (40 mg/L) in 10 days, and 100% of pyrene (40 mg/L) in 14 days. Turbidity tests showed that strains P1-1, JS14, and JS19b1 utilized several organophosphorus pesticides as growth substrate. P1-1 can degrade carbofenothion, chlorfenvinphos, diazinon, fonofos, and pirimiphos-methyl. JS14 can transform chlorfenvinphos and diazinon. JS19b1 can break down diazinon, pirimiphos-methyl, and temephos.

  14. Measurements of gas and particle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air at urban, rural and near-roadway sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, G. C.; Herbrandson, C.; Krause, M. J.; Schmitt, C.; Lippert, C. J.; McMahon, C. R.; Ellickson, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gas and particle phases over two years using high volume samplers equipped with quartz fiber filters and XAD-4 at a rural site, an urban site, and a site adjacent to a heavily trafficked roadway. Overall results were generally as expected, in that concentrations increased from rural to urban to near-roadway sites, and PAHs with high vapor pressures (liquid subcooled, PoL) and low octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) were mainly in the gas phase, while those with low PoL and high Koa were predominantly in the particle phase. Intermediate PAHs existed in both phases with the phase distribution following a seasonal pattern of higher gas phase concentrations in summer due to temperature effects. The overall pattern of phase distribution was consistent with PAH properties and ambient conditions and was similar at all three sites. The particle-bound fraction (ϕ) was well-described empirically by nonlinear regressions with log Koa and log PoL as predictors. Adsorption and absorption models underestimated the particle-bound fraction for most PAHs. The dual aerosol-air/soot-air model generally represented the gas-particle partitioning better than the other models across all PAHs, but there was a tendency to underestimate the range in the particle-bound fraction seen in measurements. There was a statistically insignificant tendency for higher PAHs in the particle phase at the near roadway site, and one piece of evidence that PAHs may be enriched on ultrafine particles at the near roadway site. Understanding the phase and particle size distributions of PAHs in highly polluted, high exposure microenvironments near traffic sources will help shed light on potential health effects.

  15. Modeling personal particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pb-pah) exposure in human subjects in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Tjoa, Thomas; Li, Lianfa; Jaimes, Guillermo; Delfino, Ralph J

    2012-07-11

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) has been linked to various adverse health outcomes. Personal PAH exposures are usually measured by personal monitoring or biomarkers, which are costly and impractical for a large population. Modeling is a cost-effective alternative to characterize personal PAH exposure although challenges exist because the PAH exposure can be highly variable between locations and individuals in non-occupational settings. In this study we developed models to estimate personal inhalation exposures to particle-bound PAH (PB-PAH) using data from global positioning system (GPS) time-activity tracking data, traffic activity, and questionnaire information. We conducted real-time (1-min interval) personal PB-PAH exposure sampling coupled with GPS tracking in 28 non-smoking women for one to three sessions and one to nine days each session from August 2009 to November 2010 in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California. Each subject filled out a baseline questionnaire and environmental and behavior questionnaires on their typical activities in the previous three months. A validated model was used to classify major time-activity patterns (indoor, in-vehicle, and other) based on the raw GPS data. Multiple-linear regression and mixed effect models were developed to estimate averaged daily and subject-level PB-PAH exposures. The covariates we examined included day of week and time of day, GPS-based time-activity and GPS speed, traffic- and roadway-related parameters, meteorological variables (i.e. temperature, wind speed, relative humidity), and socio-demographic variables and occupational exposures from the questionnaire. We measured personal PB-PAH exposures for 180 days with more than 6 h of valid data on each day. The adjusted R2 of the model was 0.58 for personal daily exposures, 0.61 for subject-level personal exposures, and 0.75 for subject-level micro-environmental exposures. The amount of time in vehicle (averaging 4.5% of total

  16. Electron transport in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/boron nitride hybrid structures: density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, S F K S; Namiranian, Afshin; Soleimani, Maryam; Jamaati, Maryam

    2018-02-07

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of two types of junction based on single polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAHs embedded in boron nitride (h-BN) nanoribbons, using nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) and density functional theory (DFT). In the PAH junctions, a Fano resonance line shape at the Fermi energy in the transport feature can be clearly seen. In hybrid junctions, structural asymmetries enable interactions between the electronic states, leading to observation of interface-based transport. Our findings reveal that the interface of PAH/h-BN strongly affects the transport properties of the structures.

  17. Interactions between Pteris vittata L. genotypes and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium (Alcaligenes sp.) in arsenic uptake and PAH-dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu; Zhu, Ganghui; Liao, Xiaoyong; Yan, Xiulan

    2017-11-01

    The effects of two Pteris vittata L. accessions and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium (Alcaligenes sp.) on arsenic (As) uptake and phenanthrene dissipation were studied. The Alcaligenes sp. survived in the rhizosphere and improved soil As bioavailability with co-exposure. However, bacterial inoculation altered Pteris vittata L. stress tolerance, and substantially affected the As distribution in the rhizosphere of the two P. vittata accessions. Bacterial inoculation was beneficial to protect the Guangxi accession against the toxic effects, and significantly increased plant As and phenanthrene removal ratios by 27.8% and 2.89%, respectively. In contrast, As removal was reduced by 29.8% in the Hunan accession, when compared with corresponding non-inoculated treatments. We conclude that plant genotype selection is critically important for successful microorganism-assisted phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with As and PAHs, and appropriate genotype selection may enhance remediation efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Mixtures Using Diffusion-Ordered NMR Spectroscopy and Adsorption by Powdered Activated Carbon and Biochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong An

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in air and water sources is a key part of environmental chemistry research, since most PAHs are well known to be associated with negative health impacts on humans. This study explores an approach for analyzing PAH mixtures with advanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopic techniques including high-resolution one-dimensional (1D NMR spectroscopy and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY NMR. With this method, different kinds of PAHs can be detected and differentiated from a mixture with high resolution. The adsorption process of PAH mixtures by PAC and biochar was studied to understand the mechanism and assess the method.

  19. Application of radiocarbon analysis and receptor modeling to the source apportionment of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The radiocarbon tracer technique was used to demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be used for quantitative receptor modeling of air pollution. Fine-particle samples were collected during December, 1985, in Albuquerque, NM. Motor vehicles (fossil) and residential wood combustion (RWC, modern) were the major PAH-sources. For each sample, the PAH-fraction was solvent-extracted, isolated by liquid chromatography, and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The PAH-fractions from sixteen samples were analyzed for 14 C by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Radiocarbon data were used to calculate the relative RWC contribution (f RWC ) for samples analyzed for 14 C. Normalized concentrations of a prospective motor vehicle tracer, benzo(ghi)perylene (BGP) had a strong, negative correlation with f RWC . Normalized BGP concentrations were used to apportion sources for samples not analyzed for 14 C. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) vs. ADCS and BGP was used to estimate source profiles for use in Target Factor Analysis (TFA). Profiles predicted by TFA were used in Chemical Mass Balances (CMBs). For non-volatile, stable PAHs, agreement between observed and predicted concentrations was excellent. The worst fits were observed for the most volatile PAHs and for coronene. The total RWC contributions predicted by CMBs correlated well with the radiocarbon data

  20. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A.R.; de Lipthay, J.R.; Reichenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of PAHs, amounts of bioaccessible PAHs, total bacterial populations, PAH degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of C-14-PAHs, and mutagenicity. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled...... in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot...... particles. The increased PAH level close to the pavement was reflected in slightly increased mutagenic activity (1 m, 0.32 +/- 0.08 revertants g(-1) soil; background/24 m: 0.08 +/- 0.04), determined by the Salmonella/microsome assay of total extractable PAHs activated by liver enzymes. The potential...

  1. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of Pulau Tinggi, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ezzati Sulhi Abdul; Halim, Izzyan Syazwani Abdul; Ali, Masni Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Surface sediments samples were collected at 11 stations around the Pulau Tinggi, Johor in September 2015. A total of 15 PAHs were determined and quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations of surface sediments from Pulau Tinggi ranged from 39.61 ng/g to 149.2 ng/g and they were classified as being in low to moderate pollution range. Individual PAH analysis showed that two and three rings PAHs were the most frequently detected isomers and accounted for 22 - 46% of the total PAH concentrations. The sources of PAHs were evaluated by employing diagnostic ratiosof specific PAH compounds.PAH ratios analysis showed a prevalence of pyrogenic PAH origin at most of the stations with exception of only a few stations.

  2. THE CHARGE STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ACROSS REFLECTION NEBULAE: PAH CHARGE BALANCE AND CALIBRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The PAH emission is broken down into PAH charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the PAH emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional PAH band strength approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for the PAH charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μ m PAH band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the PAH ionized fraction ( f i ). The PAH ionized fraction is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates the PAH ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μ m PAH band is evaluated as a tracer for PAH ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μ m PAH band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the PAH ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, PAH spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the PAH emission observed from NGC 2023.

  3. THE CHARGE STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ACROSS REFLECTION NEBULAE: PAH CHARGE BALANCE AND CALIBRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The PAH emission is broken down into PAH charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the PAH emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional PAH band strength approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for the PAH charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μ m PAH band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the PAH ionized fraction ( f {sub i} ). The PAH ionized fraction is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates the PAH ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μ m PAH band is evaluated as a tracer for PAH ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μ m PAH band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the PAH ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, PAH spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the PAH emission observed from NGC 2023.

  4. Simple Bioremediation Treatments for the Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the Polluted Desert Soil of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Gounaim, Marzooq Yousuf; Abu-Shady, Abdulsatar

    2004-01-01

    A soil microcosm test was designed to evaluate the influence of mixing polluted desert soil with clay soil (which is used as an amendment material and for immobilization of bacterial cells) on the biodegradation of petroleum polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Residual PAHs in this type of polluted soil were quantified by using GC analysis. At the begining of experiment 16 PAHs were resolved, of which the mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds flouranthene and pyrene were more frequent than the otherPAHs (14% and 12.4% respectively). Results of total PAH biodegradation show that mixing this polluted desert soil with clay soil or its water extract stimulated the biodegradation of 85.8%-89.1% of these compounds. This is contrast to 61.7%-75.5% in the absence of clay soil. Moreover when the mixed bacterial culture was immobilized in this clay soil 94.4% of total of total PAHs were degraded. On the other hand, the free cells of mixed culture succeeded to remove only 75.5% of these compounds. In this study the six-ranged PAHs were completely degraded in the presence of clay soil. A particularly notable distinction between the immobilized culture (T3) and other treatment in this biodegradation study is the greater efficiency of the immobilized culture to degrade the individuals of the 16 PAHs, especially the carcinogenic compounds: flouranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a) pyrene and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene. These results lead to the conclusion that mixing the polluted desert soil with clay soil and/or its water extract seems to be a simple cost effective bioremediation method. (author)

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) skin permeation rates change with simultaneous exposures to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Spring, Philipp; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Jimenez, Silvia; Sutter, Benjamin; Vernez, David; Berthet, Aurelie

    2018-05-01

    Road construction workers are simultaneously exposed to two carcinogens; solar ultraviolet (UV-S) radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bitumen emissions. The combined exposure may lead to photogenotoxicity and enhanced PAH skin permeation rates. Skin permeation rates (J) for selected PAHs in a mixture (PAH-mix) or in bitumen fume condensate (BFC) with and without UV-S co-exposures were measured with in vitro flow-through diffusion cells mounted with human viable skin and results compared. Possible biomarkers were explored. Js were greater with UV-S for naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene in BFC (0.08-0.1 ng/cm 2 /h) compared to without (0.02-0.26 ng/cm 2 /h). This was true for anthracene, pyrene, and chrysene in the PAH-mix. Naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the PAH-mix had greater Js without (0.97-13.01 ng/cm 2 /h) compared to with UV-S (0.40-6.35 ng/cm 2 /h). Time until permeation (T lags ) in the PAH-mix were generally shorter compared to the BFC, and they ranged from 1 to 13 h. The vehicle matrix could potentially be the reason for this discrepancy as BFC contains additional not identified substances. Qualitative interpretation of p53 suggested a dose-response with UV-S, and somewhat with the co-exposures. MMP1, p65 and cKIT were not exploitable. Although not statistically different, PAHs permeate human viable skin faster with simultaneous exposures to UV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Water quality concerns due to forest fires: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination of groundwater from mountain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilha, C; Carvalho, A; Guimarães, P; Espinha Marques, J

    2014-01-01

    Water quality alterations due to forest fires may considerably affect aquatic organisms and water resources. These impacts are cumulative as a result of pollutants mobilized from fires, chemicals used to fight fire, and postfire responses. Few studies have examined postfire transport into water resources of trace elements, including the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are organic pollutants produced during combustion and are considered carcinogenic and harmful to humans. PAH are also known to adversely affect survival, growth, and reproduction of many aquatic species. This study assessed the effects of forest wildfires on groundwater from two mountain regions located in protected areas from north and central Portugal. Two campaigns to collect water samples were performed in order to measure PAH levels. Fifteen of 16 studied PAH were found in groundwater samples collected at burned areas, most of them at concentrations significantly higher than those found in control regions, indicating aquifer contamination. The total sum of PAH in burned areas ranged from 23.1to 95.1 ng/L with a median of 62.9 ng/L, which is one- to sixfold higher than the average level measured in controls (16.2 ng/L). In addition, in control samples, the levels of light PAH with two to four rings were at higher levels than heavy PAH with five or six rings, thus showing a different profile between control and burned sites. The contribution of wildfires to groundwater contamination by PAH was demonstrated, enabling a reliable assessment of the impacts on water quality and preparation of scientifically based decision criteria for postfire forest management practices.

  7. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Gibert, Oriol [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Marti, Vicens [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)]. E-mail: vicens.marti@upc.edu; Diez, Sergi [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Environmental Geology Department, ICTJA-CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Romo, Javier [Environmental Service of Barcelona Harbour Authority, Carretera de la Circumval.lacio, s/n, Tram VI, Sector 6, Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep Maria [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, Joan de [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour.

  8. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier; Gibert, Oriol; Marti, Vicens; Diez, Sergi; Romo, Javier; Bayona, Josep Maria; Pablo, Joan de

    2007-01-01

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour

  9. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on microbial community structure and PAH ring hydroxylating dioxygenase gene abundance in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawulski, Przemyslaw; Clipson, Nicholas; Doyle, Evelyn

    2014-11-01

    Development of successful bioremediation strategies for environments contaminated with recalcitrant pollutants requires in-depth knowledge of the microorganisms and microbial processes involved in degradation. The response of soil microbial communities to three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenanthrene (3-ring), fluoranthene (4-ring) and benzo(a)pyrene (5-ring), was examined. Profiles of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities were generated using molecular fingerprinting techniques (TRFLP, ARISA) and multivariate statistical tools were employed to interpret the effect of PAHs on community dynamics and composition. The extent and rate of PAH removal was directly related to the chemical structure, with the 5-ring PAH benzo(a)pyrene degraded more slowly than phenathrene or fluoranthene. Bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities were all significantly affected by PAH amendment, time and their interaction. Based on analysis of clone libraries, Actinobacteria appeared to dominate in fluoranthene amended soil, although they also represented a significant portion of the diversity in phenanthrene amended and unamended soils. In addition there appeared to be more γ-Proteobacteria and less Bacteroidetes in soil amended with either PAH compared to the control. The soil bacterial community clearly possessed the potential to degrade PAHs as evidenced by the abundance of PAH ring hydroxylating (PAH-RHDα) genes from both gram negative (GN) and gram positive (GP) bacteria in PAH-amended and control soils. Although the dioxygenase gene from GP bacteria was less abundant in soil than the gene associated with GN bacteria, significant (p PAH-RHDα gene were observed during phenanthrene and fluoranthene degradation, whereas there was no significant difference in the abundance of the GN PAH-RHDα gene during the course of the experiment. Few studies to-date have examined the effect of pollutants on more than one microbial community in soil. The current study provides

  10. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Major and Trace Elements in Simulated Rainfall Runoff from Parking Lots, Austin, Texas, 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Wilson, Jennifer T

    2004-01-01

    Samples of creek bed sediment collected near seal-coated parking lots in Austin, Texas, by the City of Austin during 2001-02 had unusually elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs...

  11. The Influence of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Bioavailability and Toxicity to Soil Microbial Communities in Alfalfa Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may affect bioavailability and toxicity of organic contaminants due to their adsorption properties. Recent studies have observed the influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other organic contaminants. Greenh...

  12. Determination of the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to soil at Scheyern and Kirchheim near Munich; Bestimmung der Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAHs) an den Standorten Scheyern und Kirchheim bei Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainz, A; Wiedenmann, M; Maguhn, J [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    Task force 1, ``Analysis of the exposure of soils``, carried out comprehensive and site-specific measurements of the transfer of environmental chemicals into soil by means of the example of s-triazines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work was in four parts: a: Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations in selected sites (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt); b: Measurement of wet deposition, development and use of methods for the determination of dry deposition; c: Statements regarding large-area PAH transfer into soil in Germany; d: Modelling of the rates of dry deposition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe der Arbeitsgruppe 1 `Belastungsanalyse von Boeden`: Flaechendeckende sowie standortbezogene Erfassung der Eintraege von Umweltchemikalien am Beispiel der s-Triazine und PAHs. a: Bestimmung der Immissionskonzentrationen von PAHs an den Schwerpunktstandorten (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt) b: Messung der Nassen Deposition, Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung der Trockenen Deposition c: Aussagen ueber flaechendeckende Eintraege von PAHs in der Bundesrepublik d: Modellierung der Trockendepositionsraten. (orig.)

  13. Determination of the deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to soil at Scheyern and Kirchheim near Munich; Bestimmung der Eintraege von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAHs) an den Standorten Scheyern und Kirchheim bei Muenchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainz, A.; Wiedenmann, M.; Maguhn, J. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    Task force 1, ``Analysis of the exposure of soils``, carried out comprehensive and site-specific measurements of the transfer of environmental chemicals into soil by means of the example of s-triazines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work was in four parts: a: Determination of PAH nuisance concentrations in selected sites (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt); b: Measurement of wet deposition, development and use of methods for the determination of dry deposition; c: Statements regarding large-area PAH transfer into soil in Germany; d: Modelling of the rates of dry deposition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe der Arbeitsgruppe 1 `Belastungsanalyse von Boeden`: Flaechendeckende sowie standortbezogene Erfassung der Eintraege von Umweltchemikalien am Beispiel der s-Triazine und PAHs. a: Bestimmung der Immissionskonzentrationen von PAHs an den Schwerpunktstandorten (Juelich, Scheyern, Bad Lauchstaedt) b: Messung der Nassen Deposition, Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung der Trockenen Deposition c: Aussagen ueber flaechendeckende Eintraege von PAHs in der Bundesrepublik d: Modellierung der Trockendepositionsraten. (orig.)

  14. Chemical characterization and spatial distribution of PAHs and heavy hydrocarbons in rural sites of Campania Region, South Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, D; Riccio, A; Chianese, E; Adamo, P; Di Rosa, S; Fagnano, M

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the behaviour and distribution patterns of heavy hydrocarbons and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) priority pollutants, as listed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, were evaluated in 891 soil samples. The samples were collected in three expected polluted rural sites in Campania (southern Italy) as part of the LIFE11 ECOREMED project, funded by the European Commission, to test innovative agriculture-based soil restoration techniques. These sites have been selected because they have been used for the temporary storage of urban and building waste (Teverola), subject to illicit dumping of unknown material (Trentola-Ducenta), or suspected to be polluted by metals due to agricultural practices (Giugliano). Chemical analysis of soil samples allowed the baseline pollution levels to be determined prior to any intervention. It was found that these areas can be considered contaminated for residential use, in accordance with Italian environmental law (Law Decree 152/2006). Statistical analysis applied to the data proved that average mean concentrations of heavy hydrocarbons could be as high as 140 mg/kg of dry soil with peaks of 700 mg/kg of dry soil, for the Trentola-Ducenta site; the median concentration of analytical results for hydrocarbon (HC) concentration for the Trentola-Ducenta and Giugliano sites was 63 and 73.4 mg/kg dry soil, respectively; for Teverola, the median level was 35 mg/kg dry soil. Some PAHs (usually benzo(a)pyrene) also exceeded the maximum allowed level in all sites. From the principal component analysis applied to PAH concentrations, it emerged that pollutants can be supposed to derive from a single source for the three sites. Diagnostic ratios calculated to determine possible PAH sources suggest petroleum combustion or disposal practice. Our sampling protocol also showed large dishomogeneity in soil pollutant spatial distribution, even at a scale as small as 3.3 m, indicating that variability could emerge at very

  15. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an aged coal tar contaminated soil under in-vessel composting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Lopez-Real, Joe; Beck, Angus James

    2006-01-01

    In-vessel composting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant site was investigated over 98 days using laboratory-scale in-vessel composting reactors. The composting reactors were operated at 18 different operational conditions using a 3-factor factorial design with three temperatures (T, 38 deg. C, 55 deg. C and 70 deg. C), four soil to green waste ratios (S:GW, 0.6:1, 0.7:1, 0.8:1 and 0.9:1 on a dry weight basis) and three moisture contents (MC, 40%, 60% and 80%). PAH losses followed first order kinetics reaching 0.015 day -1 at optimal operational conditions. A factor analysis of the 18 different operational conditions under investigation indicated that the optimal operational conditions for degradation of PAHs occurred at MC 60%, S:GW 0.8:1 and T 38 deg. C. Thus, it is recommended to maintain operational conditions during in-vessel composting of PAH-solid waste close to these values. - Maximum degradation of PAHs in an aged coal tar contaminated soil can be achieved using optimal operational conditions during composting

  16. Quantitation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) in cocoa and chocolate samples by an HPLC-FD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raters, Marion; Matissek, Reinhard

    2014-11-05

    As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil): Sources and depositional history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Cesar C.; Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In early 1980s, Santos Estuary became known as one of the worst polluted in the world. → PAHs levels were similar to the values reported for marine sediments worldwide. → PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin). → The decline of oil consumption due to the world oil crisis (late 1970s) was shown. → The input of organic pollutants is a historical problem for the Santos Estuary. - Abstract: Located in southeastern Brazil, the Santos Estuary has the most important industrial and urban population area of South America. Since the 1950's, increased urbanization and industrialization near the estuary margins has caused the degradation of mangroves and has increased the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents. The main objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores in order to investigate the input of these substances in the last 50 years. The PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin), basically anthropogenic contributions from biomass, coal and fossil fuels combustion. The distribution of PAHs in the cores was associated with the formation and development of Cubatao industrial complex and the Santos harbour, waste disposal, world oil crisis and the pollution control program, which results in the decrease of organic pollutants input in this area.

  18. An Integrated Approach to Assess Exposure and Health-Risk from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in a Fastener Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-I Hsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach was developed to assess exposure and health-risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs contained in oil mists in a fastener manufacturing industry. One previously developed model and one new model were adopted for predicting oil mist exposure concentrations emitted from metal work fluid (MWF and PAHs contained in MWF by using the fastener production rate (Pr and cumulative fastener production rate (CPr as predictors, respectively. By applying the annual Pr and CPr records to the above two models, long-term workplace PAH exposure concentrations were predicted. In addition, true exposure data was also collected from the field. The predicted and measured concentrations respectively served as the prior and likelihood distributions in the Bayesian decision analysis (BDA, and the resultant posterior distributions were used to determine the long-term exposure and health-risks posed on workers. Results show that long term exposures to PAHs would result in a 3.1%, 96.7%, and 73.4% chance of exceeding the PEL-TWA (0.2 mg/m3, action level (0.1 mg/m3, and acceptable health risk (10−3, respectively. In conclusion, preventive measures should be taken immediately to reduce workers’ PAH exposures.

  19. Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils using ultrasonic agitation, heater/mini condenser tube and gaseous chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Pereira Pinto

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of gas stations in Brazil made it also possible the increase in the risk of underground waters contamination due to fuel spill. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are petroleum-derived components and constitute a group of organic pollutants which are persistent in the environment and have highly carcinogenic capacity. In this work it was developed a PAHs analysis methodology in soils for quantifying these components, using the gaseous chromatography technique, through the optimization and validation of the chromatographic as well as the extraction, concentration and purification conditions of the PAHs. A good resolution for the sixteen PAHs was obtained, with retention times ranging from 6.1 to 43.7 minutes. The tube-heater/mini condenser system used for the solvent evaporation also showed satisfactory recovery for the naphthalene (83% as well as the extraction method by ultrasonic agitation with dichloromethane, obtaining recoveries that ranged from 74 to 104%. The analysis method proved to be appropriate for the quantification of the 16 PAHs in the evaluation of the environmental contamination in gas stations.

  20. Chemometric techniques in distribution, characterisation and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in aquaculture sediments in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnam, Ananthy; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Juahir, Hafizan; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Kasim, Mohd Fadhil

    2013-04-15

    This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in surface sediments within aquaculture areas in Peninsular Malaysia using chemometric techniques, forensics and univariate methods. The samples were analysed using soxhlet extraction, silica gel column clean-up and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The total PAH concentrations ranged from 20 to 1841 ng/g with a mean of 363 ng/g dw. The application of chemometric techniques enabled clustering and discrimination of the aquaculture sediments into four groups according to the contamination levels. A combination of chemometric and molecular indices was used to identify the sources of PAHs, which could be attributed to vehicle emissions, oil combustion and biomass combustion. Source apportionment using absolute principle component scores-multiple linear regression showed that the main sources of PAHs are vehicle emissions 54%, oil 37% and biomass combustion 9%. Land-based pollution from vehicle emissions is the predominant contributor of PAHs in the aquaculture sediments of Peninsular Malaysia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diurnal variation, vertical distribution and source apportionment of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Chiang-Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt

    2013-01-01

    Diurnal variation of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated by collecting PM10 at three different sampling altitudes using high buildings in the city center of Chiang-Mai, Thailand, during the relatively cold period in late February 2008. At site-1 (12 m above ground level), B[a]P concentrations ranged from 30.3 -1,673 pg m-3 with an average of 506±477 pg m-3, contributing on average, 8.09±8.69% to ?PAHs. Ind and B[b]F concentrations varied from 54.6 to 4,579 pg m-3 and from 80.7 to 2,292 pg m-3 with the highest average of 1,187±1,058 pg m-3 and 963±656 pg m-3, contributing on average, 19.0±19.3% and 15.4±12.0% to ?PAHs, respectively. Morning maxima were predominantly detected in all observatory sites, which can be described by typical diurnal variations of traffic flow in Chiang-Mai City, showing a morning peak between 6 AM. and 9 AM. Despite the fact that most monitoring sites might be subjected to specific-site impacts, it could be seen that PAH profiles in Site-1 and Site-2 were astonishingly homogeneous. The lack of differences suggests that the source signatures of several PAHs become less distinct possibly due to the impacts of traffic and cooking emissions from ground level.

  2. Modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction Using Green Solvent for Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Vegetable Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kin, C.M.; Shing, W.L.

    2016-01-01

    According to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), most of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) known as genotoxic human carcinogen and mutagenic. PAHs represent as poorly degradable pollutants that exist in soils, sediments, surface water and atmosphere. A simple, rapid and sensitive extraction method termed modified Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro extraction (DLLME) using green solvent was developed to determine PAHs in vegetable samples namely radish, cabbage and cucumber prior to Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID). The extraction method is based on replacing chlorinated organic extraction solvent in the conventional DLLME with low toxic solvent, 1-bromo-3-methylbutane without using dispersive solvent. Several experimental factors such as type and volume of extraction solvents, extraction time, confirmation of 12 PAHs by GC-MS, recovery percentages on vegetable samples and the comparative analysis with conventional DLLME were carried out. Both DLLME were successfully extracted 12 types of PAHs. In modified DLLME, the recoveries of the analytes obtained were in a range of 72.72 - 88.07 % with RSD value below 7.5 % which is comparable to the conventional DLLME. The use of microliter of low toxic extraction solvent without addition of dispersive solvent caused the method is economic and environmental friendly which is fulfill the current requirement, green chemistry based analytical method. (author)

  3. Large-scale modeling on the fate and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in multimedia over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, M.; Wada, Y.; He, X.; Sun, X.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, with rapid economic growth, industrial development and urbanization, expanding pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has become a diversified and complicated phenomenon in China. However, the availability of sufficient monitoring activities for PAHs in multi-compartment and the corresponding multi-interface migration processes are still limited, especially at a large geographic area. In this study, we couple the Multimedia Fate Model (MFM) to the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in order to consider the fugacity and the transient contamination processes. This coupled dynamic contaminant model can evaluate the detailed local variations and mass fluxes of PAHs in different environmental media (e.g., air, surface film, soil, sediment, water and vegetation) across different spatial (a county to country) and temporal (days to years) scales. This model has been applied to a large geographical domain of China at a 36 km by 36 km grid resolution. The model considers response characteristics of typical environmental medium to complex underlying surface. Results suggest that direct emission is the main input pathway of PAHs entering the atmosphere, while advection is the main outward flow of pollutants from the environment. In addition, both soil and sediment act as the main sink of PAHs and have the longest retention time. Importantly, the highest PAHs loadings are found in urbanized and densely populated regions of China, such as Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. This model can provide a good scientific basis towards a better understanding of the large-scale dynamics of environmental pollutants for land conservation and sustainable development. In a next step, the dynamic contaminant model will be integrated with the continental-scale hydrological and water resources model (i.e., Community Water Model, CWatM) to quantify a more accurate representation and feedbacks between the hydrological cycle and water quality at

  4. Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Fe3+-montmorillonite surface under visible light: Degradation kinetics, mechanism, and toxicity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Jia, Hanzhong; Nulaji, Gulimire; Gao, Hongwei; Wang, Fu; Wang, Chuanyi

    2017-10-01

    Photochemical behavior of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Fe 3+ -modified montmorillonite was explored to determine their potential kinetics, pathways, and mechanism under visible light. Depending on the type of PAH molecules, the transformation rate follows the order of benzo[a]pyrene ≈ anthracene > benzo[a]anthracene > phenanthrene. Quantum simulation results confirm the crucial role of "cation-π" interaction between Fe 3+ and PAHs on their transformation kinetics. Primary intermediates, including quinones, ring-opening products and benzene derivatives, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), and the possible photodegradation pathway of benzo[a]pyrene was proposed. Meanwhile, radical intermediates, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free organic radicals, were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The photolysis of selected PAHs, such as anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, on clay surface firstly occurs by electron transfer from PAHs to Fe 3+ -montmorillonite, followed by degradation involving photo-induced ROS such as ·OH and ·O 2 - . To investigate the acute toxicity of photolysis products, the Microtox ® toxicity test was performed during the photodegradation processes of various PAHs. As a result, the photo-irradiation initially induces increased toxicity by generating reactive intermediates, such as free organic radicals, and then the toxicity gradually decreases with increasing of reaction time. Overall, the present study provides useful information to understand the fate and photo-transformation of PAHs in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and chiral-PAH analogues-methyl-β-cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexes by fluorescence spectrophotometry and multivariate regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, LaVana; Elzey, Brianda; Franklin, Mariah; Fakayode, Sayo O

    2017-03-05

    The negative health impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and differences in pharmacological activity of enantiomers of chiral molecules in humans highlights the need for analysis of PAHs and their chiral analogue molecules in humans. Herein, the first use of cyclodextrin guest-host inclusion complexation, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and chemometric approach to PAH (anthracene) and chiral-PAH analogue derivatives (1-(9-anthryl)-2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE)) analyses are reported. The binding constants (K b ), stoichiometry (n), and thermodynamic properties (Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS)) of anthracene and enantiomers of TFE-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (Me-β-CD) guest-host complexes were also determined. Chemometric partial-least-square (PLS) regression analysis of emission spectra data of Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complexes was used for the determination of anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations in Me-β-CD-guest-host inclusion complex samples. The values of calculated K b and negative ΔG suggest the thermodynamic favorability of anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomeric of TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexation reactions. However, anthracene-Me-β-CD and enantiomer TFE-Me-β-CD inclusion complexations showed notable differences in the binding affinity behaviors and thermodynamic properties. The PLS regression analysis resulted in square-correlation-coefficients of 0.997530 or better and a low LOD of 3.81×10 -7 M for anthracene and 3.48×10 -8 M for TFE enantiomers at physiological conditions. Most importantly, PLS regression accurately determined the anthracene and TFE enantiomer concentrations with an average low error of 2.31% for anthracene, 4.44% for R-TFE and 3.60% for S-TFE. The results of the study are highly significant because of its high sensitivity and accuracy for analysis of PAH and chiral PAH analogue derivatives without the need of an expensive chiral column, enantiomeric resolution, or use of a polarized

  6. Interspecies and spatial trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscales, Jose L.; Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob; Calabuig, Pascual; Jimenez, Begona

    2011-01-01

    PAHs were analyzed in the liver of 5 species of pelagic seabirds (Procellariiformes) from the northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The main objective was to assess the trophic and geographic trends of PAHs in seabirds to evaluate their suitability as bioindicators of chronic marine pollution by these compounds. Although higher levels of PAHs have been described in the Mediterranean compared to other oceanic regions, we did not find significant spatial patterns and observed only minor effects of the geographic origin on seabird PAHs. However, we found significant higher PAH levels in petrel compared to shearwater species, which could be related to differences in their exploitation of mesopelagic and epipelagic resources, respectively, and the vertical dynamic of PAHs in the water column. Overall, although this study enhances the need of multi-species approaches to show a more comprehensive evaluation of marine pollution, seabirds emerged as poor indicators of pelagic chronic PAH levels. - Highlights: → PAHs in pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology. → Geographic origin shows a minor effect over PAH levels in pelagic seabirds. → Pelagic seabirds seem to be poor indicators of chronic PAH levels. - PAH levels in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology but a minor influence of their geographic origin.

  7. Watershed-scale modeling on the fate and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligaray, Mayzonee; Baek, Sang Soo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    PAHs are potentially carcinogenic substances that are persistent in the environment. Increasing concentrations of PAHs were observed due to rapid urbanization, thus; monitoring PAHs concentrations is necessary. However, it is expensive to conduct intensive monitoring activities of a large number of PAHs. This study addressed this issue by developing a multimedia model coupled with a hydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)) for Taehwa River (TR) watershed in Ulsan, the industrial capital of South Korea. The hydrologic module of the SWAT was calibrated, and further used to simulate the fate and transport of PAHs in soil and waterbody. The model demonstrated that the temporal or seasonal variation of PAHs in soil and waterbody can be well reproduced. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of PAHs showed that urban areas in TR watershed have the highest PAH loadings compared to rural areas. Sensitivity analyses of the PAH soil and PAH water parameters were also able to determine the critical processes in TR watershed: degradation, deposition, volatilization, and wash off mechanism. We hope that this model will be able to aid the stakeholders in: regulating PAH concentrations emitted by various sources; and also apply the model to other Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

  8. Watershed-scale modeling on the fate and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligaray, Mayzonee; Baek, Sang Soo [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hye-Ok [Disaster Scientific Investigation Division, National Disaster Management Research Institute, 365 Jongga-ro Jung-gu, Ulsan 44538 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Deuk, E-mail: sdchoi@unist.ac.kr [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khcho@unist.ac.kr [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, UNIST-gil 50, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    PAHs are potentially carcinogenic substances that are persistent in the environment. Increasing concentrations of PAHs were observed due to rapid urbanization, thus; monitoring PAHs concentrations is necessary. However, it is expensive to conduct intensive monitoring activities of a large number of PAHs. This study addressed this issue by developing a multimedia model coupled with a hydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)) for Taehwa River (TR) watershed in Ulsan, the industrial capital of South Korea. The hydrologic module of the SWAT was calibrated, and further used to simulate the fate and transport of PAHs in soil and waterbody. The model demonstrated that the temporal or seasonal variation of PAHs in soil and waterbody can be well reproduced. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of PAHs showed that urban areas in TR watershed have the highest PAH loadings compared to rural areas. Sensitivity analyses of the PAH soil and PAH water parameters were also able to determine the critical processes in TR watershed: degradation, deposition, volatilization, and wash off mechanism. We hope that this model will be able to aid the stakeholders in: regulating PAH concentrations emitted by various sources; and also apply the model to other Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

  9. PROPERTIES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE NORTHWEST PHOTON DOMINATED REGION OF NGC 7023. III. QUANTIFYING THE TRADITIONAL PROXY FOR PAH CHARGE AND ASSESSING ITS ROLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer/IRS spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is analyzed. Here, results from fitting the 5.2–14.5 μm spectrum at each pixel using exclusively PAH spectra from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochem.org/pahdb/) and observed PAH band strength ratios, determined after isolating the PAH bands, are combined. This enables the first quantitative and spectrally consistent calibration of PAH charge proxies. Calibration is straightforward because the 6.2/11.2 μm PAH band strength ratio varies linearly with the ionized fraction (PAH ionization parameter) as determined from the intrinsic properties of the individual PAHs comprising the database. This, in turn, can be related to the local radiation field, electron density, and temperature. From these relations diagnostic templates are developed to deduce the PAH ionization fraction and astronomical environment in other objects. The commonly used 7.7/11.2 μm PAH band strength ratio fails as a charge proxy over a significant fraction of the nebula. The 11.2/12.7 μm PAH band strength ratio, commonly used as a PAH erosion indicator, is revealed to be a better tracer for PAH charge across NGC 7023. Attempting to calibrate the 12.7/11.2 μm PAH band strength ratio against the PAH hydrogen adjacency ratio (duo+trio)/solo is, unexpectedly, anti-correlated. This work both validates and extends the results from Paper I and Paper II.

  10. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S; Tatani, T; Yoshida, H; Takizawa, H; Miyoshi, K; Ikebe, H [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. DETECTIONS OF WATER ICE, HYDROCARBONS, AND 3.3 μm PAH IN z ∼ 2 ULIRGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajina, Anna; Spoon, Henrik; Yan Lin; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Fadda, Dario; Elitzur, Moshe

    2009-01-01

    We present the first detections of the 3 μm water ice and 3.4 μm amorphous hydrocarbon (HAC) absorption features in z ∼ 2 ULIRGs. These are based on deep rest-frame 2-8 μm Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 11 sources selected for their appreciable silicate absorption. The HAC-to-silicate ratio for our z ∼ 2 sources is typically higher by a factor of 2-5 than that observed in the Milky Way. This HAC 'excess' suggests compact nuclei with steep temperature gradients as opposed to predominantly host obscuration. Beside the above molecular absorption features, we detect the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature in one of our sources with three more individual spectra showing evidence for it. Stacking analysis suggests that water ice, hydrocarbons, and PAH are likely present in the bulk of this sample even when not individually detected. The most unexpected result of our study is the lack of clear detections of the 4.67 μm CO gas absorption feature. Only three of the sources show tentative signs of this feature at significantly lower levels than has been observed in local ULIRGs. Overall we find that the closest local analogs to our sources, in terms of 3-4 μm color, HAC-to-silicate and ice-to-silicate ratios, as well as low PAH equivalent widths, are sources dominated by deeply obscured nuclei. Such sources form only a small fraction of ULIRGs locally and are commonly believed to be dominated by buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample suggests that, in an absolute number, such buried AGNs are at least an order of magnitude more common at z ∼ 2 than today. The presence of PAH suggests that significant levels of star formation are present even if the obscured AGNs typically dominate the power budget.

  12. Biomonitoring, status and source risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using honeybees, pine tree leaves, and propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Navid; Matin, Golnar; Matin, Amir Abbas; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha

    2017-11-01

    In this study, to identify and quantify the sources of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we gathered honeybee, pine tree leaf, and propolis samples to serve as bioindicators from five stations in the village of "Bozkoy" in the Aliaga industrial district of Izmir (Turkey) during April-May 2014. The PAH concentrations which measured by gas chromatography (GC) varied from 261.18 to 553.33 μg kg -1 dry weight (dw) in honeybee samples, 138.57-853.67 μg kg -1 dw in pine leaf samples, and 798.61-2905.53 μg kg -1 dw in propolis samples. The total PAH concentrations can be ranked as follows: propolis > pine leaves > honeybees. The ring sequence pattern was 5 > 3 > 6 > 4 > 2 for honeybees, 5 > 3 > 4 > 6 > 2 for pine leaves, and 5 > 4 > 6 > 3 > 2 for propolis. The diagnostic ratios [fluoranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene], [indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene/indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene + benzo(g,h,i)perylene], and [benzo(a)anthracene/benzo(a)anthracene + chrysene] indicate coal and biomass combustion to be the dominant PAH source in the study area. In biomonitoring studies of airborne PAHs based on honeybees, fluoranthene is considered to be a characteristic PAH compound. Distribution maps with different numbers of PAH rings among the sampling sites show the advantages of honeybee samples as indicators due to the honeybee's provision of a broader range of information with respect to heavier pollutants that are typically not in the gas or suspended phase for long periods of time. Our correlation, factor analysis, and principal components analysis (PCA) results indicate potential sources of PAH pollution in pine leaves and honeybees from airborne emissions, but we found propolis to be contaminated by PAHs due to the replacement of herbal sources of resins with synthetic gummy substances from paving materials (e.g., asphalt and tar leaks). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Source identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the urban environment of İstanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günay Kural

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, İstanbul-Tuzla Region atmosphere is selected as the working area because of this region contains shipyards and shipyard-related side product industries. To examine the PAHs as atmospheric inputs, 46 ambient air samples were collected in Tuzla region of Istanbul, Turkey at 2010. The sample collection was carried out as monthly. Additionally, the volume of the air was drawn and meteorological data recorded. The PAH concentrations were classified as hot and cold season samples. Due to the particle-bond character of PAHs and condensation in cold, the high concentrations were encountered in winter months. Monthly average total PAH concentrations fluctuated between 7.4 ng m-3 (in March-0.05 ng m-3 (in August. The concentrations of total PAHs in cold season were almost hundred times higher than those in hot season. The fossil fuel (gasoline and diesel fuel combustion was found to be the main source of PAHs.

  14. Distribution and Source of Sedimentary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs in River Sediment of Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinawati Rinawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the distribution and source identification of sedimentary PAHs from 13 rivers running through Jakarta City were investigated. Freeze-dried sediment samples were extracted by pressurized fluid extraction and purified by two-step of column chromatography. PAHs were identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. High concentrations of PAHs, ranging from 1992 to 17635 ng/g-dw, were observed at all sampling locations. Ratios of alkylated PAHs to parent PAHs exhibited both petrogenic and pyrogenic signatures with predominantly petrogenic inputs. High hopanne concentrations (4238-40375 ng/g dry sediment supported the petrogenic input to Jakarta’s rivers. The high concentration of PAHs is indicator for organic micropollutant in the aquatic urban environment in Jakarta that may have the potential to cause adverse effect to the environment.

  15. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  16. Uptake of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Oryza sativa L. Grown in Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Devi, Arundhuti; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased. Further, from GC-MS analysis, it was observed that PAHs including naphthalene and phenanthrene bioaccumulated in rice plant parts. Vital physico-chemical properties of soil were also altered due to crude oil contamination. Our study revealed that rice plants grown in crude oil polluted sites can uptake TPH including PAHs, thus emphasising the importance of prior investigation of soil condition before cultivation of crops.

  17. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of Prince Islands, Marmara Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcıoğlu, Esra Billur

    2016-08-15

    In this study, PAH analyses have been conducted on indigenous mussels. Mussel samples (Mytilus galloprovincialis) have been collected from seven stations of Prince Islands during September 2015. Concentrations of total determined PAHs (sum of 16 compounds) ranged between 664 and 9083ngg(-1). The origin of PAHs has been found to be pyrolytic according to the PHE/ANT and FA/PYR ratios in Büyükada. For other islands, PAH origins have been observed as pyrolytic and petrogenic together according to the PHE/ANT, FA/PYR and BaA/CHR ratios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An experimental investigation into the formation of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from pyrolysis of biomass materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, T.; Sharma, R.; Hajaligol, M. [Philip Morris USA, Richmond, VA (United States). Research Center

    2001-10-09

    The formation of polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of cellulose, pectin and chlorogenic acid was studied. The primary product, mostly primary volatile tar, was exposed to a higher thermal severity i.e. high temperatures and long residence times. The reactor setup consisted of a quartz tube with two zones, zone I and II, each heated and controlled separately. Zone I was used to first pyrolyse the substrate at 300{degree}C to produce a low temperature tar (LTT) as well as to pyrolyse the product char at 600{degree}C to produce a high temperature tar (HTT). The LTT and HTT were then subjected to a high thermal severity in the second zone (zone II) where the temperature was varied between 700 and 850{degree}C. The residence time of the volatiles in zone II was varied between ca. 90 and 1400 ms (calculated at 800{degree}C). The results show that the yield of most PAHs increased with temperature, except in a few cases where the yield of two- and three-ring PAHs exhibited a maximum. PAHs yields also generally increased as the residence time was increased from 90 to 1400 ms at 800{degree}C. 19 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A complete re-assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of the Saguenay Fjord (Quebec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, E.; Cote, N.; Curtosi, A.; St-Louis, R. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski

    2003-07-01

    The sediments in the Saguenay Fjord and the Baie des HaHa were contaminated during the 1960s and 1970s. A study was conducted in the Spring of 2002 to obtain new data on the spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments. Five sediment cores were sampled from different areas of the Fjord and analyzed for their PAH content by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total PAHs were reported for the first 28 cm of each core. The mean concentration in the surface layer was 310 ng/g with a maximum value of 460 ng/g found in the North Arm of the Fjord. The lowest value of 227 ng/g was found in the Baie des HaHa. Surface values were between 10 and 30 times lower than those reported in samples from a 1982 study. The maximum PAH values were found in layers between 15 and 28 cm in depth, suggesting a slow burying process of the highly contaminated sediments.

  20. The evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soil amended with organic fertilizers and bulking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włóka, Dariusz; Placek, Agnieszka; Rorat, Agnieszka; Smol, Marzena; Kacprzak, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation kinetics in soils fertilized with organic amendments (sewage sludge, compost), bulking agents (mineral sorbent, silicon dioxide in form of nano powder), and novel compositions of those materials. The scope of conducted works includes a cyclic CO 2 production measurements and the determinations of PAHs content in soil samples, before and after 3-months of incubation. Obtained results show that the use of both type of organic fertilizers have a positive effect on the PAHs removal from soil. However, the CO 2 emission remains higher only in the first stage of the process. The best acquired means in terms of PAHs removal as well as most sustained CO 2 production were noted in samples treated with the mixtures of organic fertilizers and bulking agents. In conclusion the addition of structural forming materials to the organic fertilizers was critical for the soil bioremediation efficiency. Therefore, the practical implementation of collected data could find a wide range of applications during the design of new, more effective solutions for the soil bioremediation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of two lakes of the Dongting Lake district in Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Yang, Yajing; Zhang, Lugang; Luo, Yushuang; Liu, Fei; Yang, Pinhong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, 18 and 12 surface sediment samples were collected from Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake, respectively, and the 16 USEPA priority Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in these samples were detected. The result indicated that the Σ16PAHs ranged from 206.56 to 1058.98 ng.g-1 with an average concentration of 667.22 ng.g-1 in sediments from Datong Lake, whereas it ranged from 90.62 to 900.70 ng.g-1 with an average concentration of 364.97 ng.g-1 in sediments from Shanpo Lake. The concentrations of individual PAHs in sediments ranged from 5.50 to 85.23 and from 4.39 to 52.74 ng.g-1 in Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake, respectively. According to the indexes such as HMW/LMW, Ant/(Ant+Phe), Flua/(Flua+Pyr), IcdP/(IcdP+BghiP), and BaA/(BaA+Chr), the PAHs in sediments from both lakes are mainly of pyrogenic origin. The total BaP equivalent in the surface sediment samples from Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake is 42.77 and 33.35 ng.g-1, respectively.

  2. Modeling personal particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pb-pah exposure in human subjects in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH has been linked to various adverse health outcomes. Personal PAH exposures are usually measured by personal monitoring or biomarkers, which are costly and impractical for a large population. Modeling is a cost-effective alternative to characterize personal PAH exposure although challenges exist because the PAH exposure can be highly variable between locations and individuals in non-occupational settings. In this study we developed models to estimate personal inhalation exposures to particle-bound PAH (PB-PAH using data from global positioning system (GPS time-activity tracking data, traffic activity, and questionnaire information. Methods We conducted real-time (1-min interval personal PB-PAH exposure sampling coupled with GPS tracking in 28 non-smoking women for one to three sessions and one to nine days each session from August 2009 to November 2010 in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California. Each subject filled out a baseline questionnaire and environmental and behavior questionnaires on their typical activities in the previous three months. A validated model was used to classify major time-activity patterns (indoor, in-vehicle, and other based on the raw GPS data. Multiple-linear regression and mixed effect models were developed to estimate averaged daily and subject-level PB-PAH exposures. The covariates we examined included day of week and time of day, GPS-based time-activity and GPS speed, traffic- and roadway-related parameters, meteorological variables (i.e. temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, and socio-demographic variables and occupational exposures from the questionnaire. Results We measured personal PB-PAH exposures for 180 days with more than 6 h of valid data on each day. The adjusted R2 of the model was 0.58 for personal daily exposures, 0.61 for subject-level personal exposures, and 0.75 for subject-level micro-environmental exposures. The amount

  3. Source seasonality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Zhang, G; Li, X D; Qi, S H; Liu, G Q; Peng, X Z

    2006-02-15

    Mega-cities are large sources of air pollution on a regional base. Differences in energy structures, geographical settings and regional climate features lead to a large variety of air pollution sources from place to place. To understand the seasonality of air pollution sources is critical to precise emission inventories and a sound protection of human health. Based on a year-round dataset, the sources of PAHs in the air of Guangzhou were drawn by principal factor analysis (PCA) in combination with diagnostic ratios, and the seasonality of these sources were analyzed by PCA/MLR (multiple linear regressions) and discussed. The average total gaseous and particulate PAHs concentrations were 313 and 23.7 ng m(-3), respectively, with a higher concentration of vapor PAHs in summer and particulate PAHs in winter. In addition to vehicle exhaust, which contributed 69% of the particulate PAHs, coal combustion was still an important source and contributed 31% of the particulate PAHs. Relatively constant contribution from coal combustion was found through the year, implying that coal combustion in power plants was not a seasonally dependent source. Evaporation from contaminated ground may be an important source of light PAHs in summer, providing an average contribution of 68% to the total PAHs in this study. By comparing the PAH concentrations and meteorological parameters, we found that higher concentrations of particulate PAHs in winter resulted from enhanced vehicle exhaust under low temperature and accumulation of pollutants under decreased boundary layer, slower wind speed, and long-term dryness conditions. It is suggested that the typical subtropical monsoon climate in South China, cool and dry in winter, hot and humid in summer, may play a key role in controlling the source seasonality (by enhancing vehicle exhaust in winter, ground evaporation in summer), and hence the ambient concentrations of PAHs in the air.

  4. Atmospheric versus biological sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a tropical rain forest environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Martin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Martius, Christopher; Bandeira, Adelmar G.; Garcia, Marcos V.B.; Amelung, Wulf

    2005-01-01

    To distinguish between pyrogenic and biological sources of PAHs in a tropical rain forest near Manaus, Brazil, we determined the concentrations of 21 PAHs in leaves, bark, twigs, and stem wood of forest trees, dead wood, mineral topsoil, litter layer, air, and Nasutitermes termite nest compartments. Naphthalene (NAPH) was the most abundant PAH with concentrations of 35 ng m -3 in air (>85% of the Σ21PAHs concentration), up to 1000 μg kg -1 in plants (>90%), 477 μg kg -1 in litter (>90%), 32 μg kg -1 in topsoil (>90%), and 160 μg kg -1 (>55%) in termite nests. In plants, the concentrations of PAHs in general decreased in the order leaves > bark > twigs > stem wood. The concentrations of most low-molecular weight PAHs in leaves and bark were near equilibrium with air, but those of NAPH were up to 50 times higher. Thus, the atmosphere seemed to be the major source of all PAHs in plants except for NAPH. Additionally, phenanthrene (PHEN) had elevated concentrations in bark and twigs of Vismia cayennensis trees (12-60 μg kg -1 ), which might have produced PHEN. In the mineral soil, perylene (PERY) was more abundant than in the litter layer, probably because of in situ biological production. Nasutitermes nests had the highest concentrations of most PAHs in exterior compartments (on average 8 and 15 μg kg -1 compared to -1 in interior parts) and high PERY concentrations in all compartments (12-86 μg kg -1 ), indicating an in situ production of PERY in the nests. Our results demonstrate that the deposition of pyrolytic PAHs from the atmosphere controls the concentrations of most PAHs. However, the occurrence of NAPH, PHEN, and PERY in plants, termite nests, and soils at elevated concentrations supports the assumption of their biological origin. - Evidence of non-pyrolytic, biogenic production of PAHs is provided

  5. PAH fluxes in the Laja Lake of south central Chile Andes over the last 50 years: Evidence from a dated sediment core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Roberto; Popp, Peter; Urrutia, Roberto; Bauer, Coretta; Araneda, Alberto; Treutler, Hanns-Christian; Barra, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deposition inferred from a sediment core of an Andean lake in south central Chile. Sediments were carefully collected from one of the deepest section of the lake and sliced every 1 cm. The samples were analyzed for PAHs, 137 Cs, 210 Pb, organic carbon and grain-size. The stratigraphic chronology and the sedimentation rates were estimated using the sedimentary signature left by the 137 Cs and 210 Pb fallout as temporal markers. PAHs were quantified by HPLC-fluorescence detection (HPLC-Fluorescence). 15 priority EPA PAHs were analyzed in this study. Based on these results, PAH deposition over the last 50 years was estimated (a period characterized by an important intervention in the area). PAH concentration ranged from 226 to 620 ng g -1 d.w. The highest concentrations of PAHs were found in the core's bottom. The PAH profile is dominated by the presence of perylene indicating a natural source of PAH. In addition, two clear PAH deposition periods could be determined: the most recent with two-four rings PAHs, the older one with five-seven rings predomination. Determined fluxes where 71 to 972 μg m -2 year -1 , dominated by perylene deposition. PAH levels and fluxes are lower compared to the levels found in sediments from remote lakes in Europe and North America. It is concluded that the main source of PAHs into the Laja Lake sediments are of natural origin

  6. Dietary risk evaluation for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea preparations made of teas available on the Polish retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this work was to assess dietary risk resulting from consumption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with tea infusions. To this end, levels of 28 PAHs in black, green, red and white teas available on the Polish retail market have been assessed. Profiles and correlation between concentrations of individual PAHs have been identified. A model study on transfer of PAHs from tea leaves into tea preparations has been conducted. Relatively high concentrations of 28 evaluated PAHs have been found in 58 tested samples of black, green, red and white teas sampled on the Polish retail market. Total concentration ∑28PAH ranged from 57 to 696 µg kg -1 with mean 258 µg kg -1 (dry tea leaves). The most mature tea leaves fermented to a small degree contained relatively the highest PAH levels among all four tested tea types. Relatively low PAH transfer rates into tea infusions and limited volumes of the consumed tea keep the risks associated with PAH dietary intake at a safely low level. The worst-case scenario dietary intake values were 7.62/0.82/0.097 ng kg -1 b.w. day -1 (estimated on the basis of the maximum found concentrations 696/113/23 µg kg -1 and maximum observed transfer rates 24/16/9%) for ∑28PAH/∑PAH4/B[a]P, respectively. MOE values calculated using the above worst case estimates exceeded 700,000 and 400,000 (BMDL 10 0.07 and 0.34 mg kg -1 b.w. day -1 ) for B[a]P and PAH4, respectively. Both B[a]P and PAH4 concentrations may be used as indicators of total PAH concentration in tea leaves; PAH4 slightly better fits low molecular weight PAHs. Several correlations between various PAHs/groups of PAHs have been identified, the strongest one (R 2 = 0.92) between PAH4 and EU PAH 15+1.

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish Smoked Fish and Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; White, S.; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Twenty seven PAH were detected in 45 selected smoked food samples produced in Denmark, including mackerel, herring, trout, small sausages, salami, and bacon. The sum of PAH in smoked meat products ranged from 24 mu g/kg for salami to 64 mu g/kg in bacon, while those in fish products ranged from 2...

  8. Review of the quantification techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Vasudha; Kumar, Pawan; Kwon, Eilhann E; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2017-10-13

    There is a growing need for accurate detection of trace-level PAHs in food products due to the numerous detrimental effects caused by their contamination (e.g., toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity). This review aims to discuss the up-to-date knowledge on the measurement techniques available for PAHs contained in food or its related products. This article aims to provide a comprehensive outline on the measurement techniques of PAHs in food to help reduce their deleterious impacts on human health based on the accurate quantification. The main part of this review is dedicated to the opportunities and practical options for the treatment of various food samples and for accurate quantification of PAHs contained in those samples. Basic information regarding all available analytical measurement techniques for PAHs in food samples is also evaluated with respect to their performance in terms of quality assurance.

  9. Rapid collection, detection, and assessment of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.; Huckins, J.; Petty, J.; Butorin, A.

    1995-01-01

    PAHs, an important class of environmental chemical contaminants found primarily in petroleum and coal products, frequently are the most numerous and ubiquitous organic pollutants recovered in sediment residues. PAHs are considered hazardous in water and soil because many are acutely toxic and have the potential for genotoxic activity. Selected EPA priority pollutants (2, 3, 4, and 5-ring PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures (crude oil, gasoline, and recycled motor oil) were collected and concentrated from water and sediment with semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDs) that contain a thin film of triolein. Analytes were extracted from the SPMDs by dialysis in hexane or directly by rinsing with acetone DMSO, concentrated in the carrier solvent DMSO, and detected with the luminescent bacterial assays Microtox reg-sign and Mutatox reg-sign. High SPMD-water concentration factors of PAHs appeared to correspond closely to the occurrence of PAHs in sediments previously reported in the literature; for example, pyrene had the highest SPMD concentration factor and was the most commonly found PAH in sediment residues. Mutatox reg-sign with rat hepatic S9 activation detected all PAHs tested. The PAH's molecular weight and number of rings appeared to directly influence acute toxicity (EC50, microg/mL); for example, two-ring naphthalene had an EC50 value of 0.78 whereas five-ring benzo(a)pyrene had an EC50 value of 15.0, about a twenty-fold difference, Microtox reg-sign and Mutatox reg-sign, in combination with SPMDs were able to rapidly (< 24h) assess the bioavailability, toxicity, and genotoxicity of these environmental PAHs

  10. The ir emission features: Emission from PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) molecules and amorphous carbon particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    PAHs can have several forms in the interstellar medium. To assess the importance of each requires the availability of a collection of high quality, complete mid-ir interstellar emission spectra, a collection of laboratory spectra of PAH samples prepared under realistic conditions and a firm understanding of the microscopic emission mechanism. Given what we currently know about PAHs, the spectroscopic data suggests that there are at least two components which contribute to the interstellar emission spectrum: free molecule sized PAHs producing the narrow features and amorphous carbon particles (which are primarily made up of an irregular ''lattice'' of PAHs) contributing to the broad underlying components. An exact treatment of the ir fluorescence from highly vibrationally excited large molecules shows that species containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the narrow features, although the spectra match more closely with the spectra of amorphous carbon particles. Since little is known about the spectroscopic properties of free PAHs and PAH clusters, much laboratory work is called for in conjunction with an observational program which focuses on the spatial characteristics of the spectra. In this way the distribution and evolution of carbon from molecule to particle can be traced. 38 refs., 9 figs.

  11. The ir emission features: Emission from PAH [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons] molecules and amorphous carbon particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    PAHs can have several forms in the interstellar medium. To assess the importance of each requires the availability of a collection of high quality, complete mid-ir interstellar emission spectra, a collection of laboratory spectra of PAH samples prepared under realistic conditions and a firm understanding of the microscopic emission mechanism. Given what we currently know about PAHs, the spectroscopic data suggests that there are at least two components which contribute to the interstellar emission spectrum: free molecule sized PAHs producing the narrow features and amorphous carbon particles (which are primarily made up of an irregular ''lattice'' of PAHs) contributing to the broad underlying components. An exact treatment of the ir fluorescence from highly vibrationally excited large molecules shows that species containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the narrow features, although the spectra match more closely with the spectra of amorphous carbon particles. Since little is known about the spectroscopic properties of free PAHs and PAH clusters, much laboratory work is called for in conjunction with an observational program which focuses on the spatial characteristics of the spectra. In this way the distribution and evolution of carbon from molecule to particle can be traced. 38 refs., 9 figs

  12. Copaiba oleoresin: evaluation of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gomes da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The copaiba oleoresin extracted by perforating the tree-trunk found in the Amazonian forest has been used by the native indigenous communities to treat several diseases and also as fuel for lighting and for the motorboats plying the region's rivers. Currently, the oleoresin is mostly employed as a traditional remedy, mainly for the treatment of tonsillitis and as an anti-inflammatory and healing agent in oil and capsule forms, and is also used in several industry sectors. Due to its use in oral form, especially as a traditional remedy, an analysis of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs as contaminants in the oleoresin was performed. PAHs are substances formed by two or more benzoic rings and found in the atmosphere as a residue from incomplete combustion of petroleum derivatives and industrial activities. These substances are found everywhere on land and water, and as a consequence can also be found in vegetables and foodstuffs in general. The use of products contaminated with these substances can compromise human and animal life. This study was performed on oleoresin from different areas or regions in the Amazon, using the HPLC methodology with fluorescence detection. The samples analyzed revealed different concentrations of these compounds.O óleo-resina de copaíba que é extraído mediante a perfuração do tronco da árvore que se encontra em forma nativa na floresta amazônica já era empregado pelas comunidades indígenas para a cura de várias doenças e, também, como combustível em iluminação e para o funcionamento de motores de barcos que trafegavam pelos rios da região. Hoje, é largamente empregado na medicina popular, principalmente para o tratamento de amigdalite e como antiinflamatório e cicatrizante na forma de óleo e em cápsulas, sendo utilizado, também, em vários setores da indústria. Devido ao seu uso na forma oral, principalmente na medicina popular, realizou-se um trabalho para avaliar a presen

  13. Atmospheric versus biological sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a tropical rain forest environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Martin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Martius, Christopher; Bandeira, Adelmar G; Garcia, Marcos V B; Amelung, Wulf

    2005-05-01

    To distinguish between pyrogenic and biological sources of PAHs in a tropical rain forest near Manaus, Brazil, we determined the concentrations of 21 PAHs in leaves, bark, twigs, and stem wood of forest trees, dead wood, mineral topsoil, litter layer, air, and Nasutitermes termite nest compartments. Naphthalene (NAPH) was the most abundant PAH with concentrations of 35 ng m(-3) in air (>85% of the sum of 21PAHs concentration), up to 1000 microg kg(-1) in plants (>90%), 477 microg kg(-1) in litter (>90%), 32 microg kg(-1) in topsoil (>90%), and 160 microg kg(-1) (>55%) in termite nests. In plants, the concentrations of PAHs in general decreased in the order leaves > bark > twigs > stem wood. The concentrations of most low-molecular weight PAHs in leaves and bark were near equilibrium with air, but those of NAPH were up to 50 times higher. Thus, the atmosphere seemed to be the major source of all PAHs in plants except for NAPH. Additionally, phenanthrene (PHEN) had elevated concentrations in bark and twigs of Vismia cayennensis trees (12-60 microg kg(-1)), which might have produced PHEN. In the mineral soil, perylene (PERY) was more abundant than in the litter layer, probably because of in situ biological production. Nasutitermes nests had the highest concentrations of most PAHs in exterior compartments (on average 8 and 15 microg kg(-1) compared to atmosphere controls the concentrations of most PAHs. However, the occurrence of NAPH, PHEN, and PERY in plants, termite nests, and soils at elevated concentrations supports the assumption of their biological origin.

  14. Oxidative stress and respiratory symptoms due to human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Akoto, Osei; Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Asante, Kwadwo A.; Baidoo, Elvis; Obirikorang, Christian; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Isoda, Norikazu; Nimako, Collins

    2017-01-01

    Studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its metabolites in PM10, soils, rat livers and cattle urine in Kumasi, Ghana, revealed high concentrations and cancer potency. In addition, WHO and IARC have reported an increase in cancer incidence and respiratory diseases in Ghana. Human urine were therefore collected from urban and control sites to: assess the health effects associated with PAHs exposure using malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); identify any association between OH-PAHs, MDA, 8-OHdG with age and sex; and determine the relationship between PAHs exposure and occurrence of respiratory diseases. From the results, urinary concentrations of the sum of OH-PAHs (∑OHPAHs) were significantly higher from urban sites compared to the control site. Geometric mean concentrations adjusted by specific gravity, GM SG , indicated 2-OHNaphthalene (2-OHNap) (6.01 ± 4.21 ng/mL) as the most abundant OH-PAH, and exposure could be through the use of naphthalene-containing-mothballs in drinking water purification, insect repellent, freshener in clothes and/or “treatment of various ailments”. The study revealed that exposure to naphthalene significantly increases the occurrence of persistent cough (OR = 2.68, CI: 1.43–5.05), persistent headache (OR = 1.82, CI: 1.02–3.26), tachycardia (OR = 3.36, CI: 1.39–8.10) and dyspnea (OR = 3.07, CI: 1.27–7.43) in Kumasi residents. Highest level of urinary 2-OHNap (224 ng/mL) was detected in a female, who reported symptoms of persistent cough, headache, tachycardia, nasal congestion and inflammation, all of which are symptoms of naphthalene exposure according to USEPA. The ∑OHPAHs, 2-OHNap, 2-3-OHFluorenes, and -OHPhenanthrenes showed a significantly positive correlation with MDA and 4-OHPhenanthrene with 8-OHdG, indicating possible lipid peroxidation/cell damage or degenerative disease in some participants. MDA and 8-OHdG were highest in age group 21–60. The present study

  15. Health risk assessment and dietary exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Igweze, Zelinjo Nkeiruka; Asomugha, Rose Ngozi; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    A risk assessment and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lead and cadmium from bread, a common food consumed in Nigeria. Sixty samples of bread were collected from different types of bakeries where the heat is generated by wood (42 samples) or by electricity (18 samples) from twenty bakeries located in Gusau Zamfara (B1- B14) and Port Harcourt Rivers States (B15-B20) in Nigeria. PAHs in bread were determined by gas chromatography. Lead and cadmium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Non-carcinogenic PAHs pyrene (13.72 μg/kg) and genotoxic PAHs (PAH8), benzo[a]anthracene (9.13 μg/ kg) were at the highest concentrations. Total benzo[a]pyrene concentration of 6.7 μg/kg was detected in 100% of tested samples. Dietary intake of total PAHs ranged between 0.004-0.063 μg/kg bw. day-1 (children), 0.002-0.028 μg/kg day-1 (adolescents), 0.01-0.017 μg/kg day-1 (male), 0.002-0.027 μg/kg day-1 (female), and 0.002-0.025 μg/kg day-1 (seniors). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) for Pb and Cd were below 1. Lead ranged from 0.01-0.071 mg/kg with 10.85 and 100% of bread samples violating the permissible limit set by USEPA, WHO and EU respectively. Cadmium ranged from 0.01-0.03 mg/kg, with all bread samples below the permissible limits as set by US EPA, JECFA and EU. The daily intake of Pb and Cd ranged from 0.03-0.23 μg/kg bw day-1 and 0.033-0.36 μg/kg bw day-1 respectively. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was 3.8 x 10-7. The levels of these contaminants in bread if not controlled might present a possible route of exposure to heavy metals and PAHs additional to the body burden from other sources.

  16. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in beached plastic pellets from Mumbai coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HB Jayasiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PAHs are a class of ubiquitous pollutants which consist of two or more fused benzene rings in various arrangements. A number of PAH compounds are known carcinogens and bioaccumulate and biomagnify. These compounds originate naturally as well as anthropogenically through oil spills, incineration of waste and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. The environmental consequence of Plastic pellets is the sorption organic pollutants on their surface from the sea surface microlayer (SML where the hydrophobic contaminants are known to be enriched. The plastic pellets were collected along the recent high tide line from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly during May 2011 - March 2012. A total of 72 pools of plastic pellets were extracted, fractionated and analysed by Gas Chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer to evaluate the extent and sources of 16 PAHs. The mean ΣPAH concentration in pellets was 9202.30±114.89 ng g-1 with a wide range (35.4-46191.58 ng g-1. The concentration of fluorene was found to be the highest (1606.30±251.54 ng g-1 followed by anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. The ΣPAH concentration was significantly varied among months and there was no significant difference among sites at  p=0.05. The 2-3 aromatic ring compounds accounted for 60% of the total PAHs in pellets of Mumbai coast while 4 rings and 5-6 rings compounds accounted for 26 and 14%, respectively. The ratio of low and high molecular weight PAHs indicated that the contamination by petrogenic sources was predominant over the pyrogenic ones in plastic pellets suggesting oil pollution in coastal area of Mumbai.Keywords: plastic pellets, PAHs, Mumbai, sources

  17. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in beached plastic pellets from Mumbai coast, India

    OpenAIRE

    HB Jayasiri; CS Purushothaman; V Vennila

    2014-01-01

    PAHs are a class of ubiquitous pollutants which consist of two or more fused benzene rings in various arrangements. A number of PAH compounds are known carcinogens and bioaccumulate and biomagnify. These compounds originate naturally as well as anthropogenically through oil spills, incineration of waste and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. The environmental consequence of Plastic pellets is the sorption organic pollutants on their surface from the sea surface microlayer (SML) where the hy...

  18. Properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the northwest photon dominated region of NGC 7023. II. Traditional PAH analysis using k-means as a visualization tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer-IRS spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is analyzed using the 'traditional' approach in which the PAH bands and plateaus between 5.2-19.5 μm are isolated by subtracting the underlying continuum and removing H 2 emission lines. The spectra are organized into seven spectroscopic bins by using k-means clustering. Each cluster corresponds to, and reveals, a morphological zone within NGC 7023. The zones self-organize parallel to the well-defined PDR front that coincides with an increase in intensity of the H 2 emission lines. PAH band profiles and integrated strengths are measured, classified, and mapped. The morphological zones revealed by the k-means clustering provides deeper insight into the conditions that drive variations in band strength ratios and evolution of the PAH population that otherwise would be lost. For example, certain band-band relations are bifurcated, revealing two limiting cases; one associated with the PDR, the other with the diffuse medium. Traditionally, PAH band strength ratios are used to gain insight into the properties of the emitting PAH population, i.e., charge, size, structure, and composition. Insights inferred from this work are compared and contrasted to those from Boersma et al. (first paper in this series), where the PAH emission in NGC 7023 is decomposed exclusively using the PAH spectra and tools made available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database.

  19. A highly sensitive monoclonal antibody based biosensor for quantifying 3–5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in aqueous environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunoassays based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are highly sensitive for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and can be employed to determine concentrations in near real-time. A sensitive generic mAb against PAHs, named as 2G8, was developed by a three-step screening procedure. It exhibited nearly uniformly high sensitivity against 3-ring to 5-ring unsubstituted PAHs and their common environmental methylated PAHs, with IC50 values between 1.68 and 31 μg/L (ppb. 2G8 has been successfully applied on the KinExA Inline Biosensor system for quantifying 3–5 ring PAHs in aqueous environmental samples. PAHs were detected at a concentration as low as 0.2 μg/L. Furthermore, the analyses only required 10 min for each sample. To evaluate the accuracy of the 2G8-based biosensor, the total PAH concentrations in a series of environmental samples analyzed by biosensor and GC–MS were compared. In most cases, the results yielded a good correlation between methods. This indicates that generic antibody 2G8 based biosensor possesses significant promise for a low cost, rapid method for PAH determination in aqueous samples. Keywords: Monoclonal antibody, PAH, Pore water, Biosensor, Pyrene

  20. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-01-01

    The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  1. Impacts of urbanization on surface sediment quality: evidence from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminations in the Grand Canal of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Yu, Shen; Yu, Guangbin; Liu, Yi; Li, Guilin; Wang, Min

    2012-06-01

    Organic pollutants, especially synthetic organic compounds, can indicate paces of anthropogenic activities. Effects of urbanization on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) distributions in surface sediment were conducted in urban sections of the Grand Canal, China, consisting of a four-level urbanization gradient. The four-level urbanization gradients include three countryside towns, two small-size cities, three medium-size cities, and a large-size city. Diagnostic ratio analysis and factor analysis-multiple linear regression model were used for source apportionment of PAHs. Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) of USA and Canada were employed to assess ecological risks of PAHs and PCBs in surface sediments of the Canal. Ranges of PAH and PCB concentrations in surface sediments were 0.66-22 mg/kg and 0.5-93 μg/kg, respectively. Coal-related sources were primary PAH sources and followed by vehicular emission. Total concentration, composition, and source apportionment of PAHs exhibited urbanization gradient effects. Total PCB concentrations increased with the urbanization gradient, while total PAHs concentration in surface sediments presented an inverted U Kuznets curve with the urbanization gradient. Elevated concentrations of both PAHs and PCBs ranged at effect range low levels or interim SQG, assessed by USA and Canadian SQGs. PAHs and PCBs in surface sediments of the Grand Canal showed urbanization gradient effects and low ecological risks.

  2. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Concentrations, input prediction and probabilistic biological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) along Gujarat coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosai, Haren B; Sachaniya, Bhumi K; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive investigation was conducted in order to assess the levels of PAHs, their input prediction and potential risks to bacterial abundance and human health along Gujarat coastline. A total of 40 sediment samples were collected at quarterly intervals within a year from two contaminated sites-Alang-Sosiya Shipbreaking Yard (ASSBRY) and Navlakhi Port (NAV), situated at Gulf of Khambhat and Gulf of Kutch, respectively. The concentration of ΣPAHs ranged from 408.00 to 54240.45 ng g -1  dw, indicating heavy pollution of PAHs at both the contaminated sites. Furthermore, isomeric ratios and principal component analysis have revealed that inputs of PAHs at both contaminated sites were mixed-pyrogenic and petrogenic. Pearson co-relation test and regression analysis have disclosed Nap, Acel and Phe as major predictors for bacterial abundance at both contaminated sites. Significantly, cancer risk assessment of the PAHs has been exercised based on incremental lifetime cancer risks. Overall, index of cancer risk of PAHs for ASSBRY and NAV ranged from 4.11 × 10 -6 -2.11 × 10 -5 and 9.08 × 10 -6 -4.50 × 10 -3 indicating higher cancer risk at NAV compared to ASSBRY. The present findings provide baseline information that may help in developing advanced bioremediation and bioleaching strategies to minimize biological risk.

  4. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental pollution on exogenous and oxidative DNA damage (EXPAH project): description of the population under study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taioli, Emanuela; Sram, Radim J; Garte, Seymour; Kalina, Ivan; Popov, Todor A; Farmer, Peter B

    2007-07-01

    The EXPAH project was a molecular epidemiology study whose aims were to evaluate the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major source of genotoxic activities of organic mixtures associated with air pollution. Biomarkers of exposure, effects and susceptibility, and oxidative DNA damage were measured in three PAH-exposed populations from Prague (Czech Republic), Kosice (Slovakia) and Sofia (Bulgaria). Control populations were included from each city. In total 356 individuals were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to determine life style/dietary factors. Ambient air exposure was measured by stationary monitoring, and personal exposure monitoring was also carried out. The characteristics of the population are described in this paper together with their personal exposure to carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs). The dose of c-PAH exposure was found to vary between the occupationally exposed (e.g. policemen and bus drivers) and the control populations in each country, and also varied from country to country.

  5. Tolerance to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs by filamentous fungi isolated from contaminated sediment in the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Marcelo de Lima Souza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to Polycyclic Hydrocarbons Aromatic (PAHs is considered an important characteristic when assessing the bioremediation potential of microorganisms. Given this, the objective of this research was to assay filamentous fungi from the Amazon region, isolated from sediments with differents levels of contamination by PAHs, for tolerance to phenanthrene and pyrene. To achieve this, fungal cultures plugs (5 mm, obtained after 7 days growth, were transferred to petri dishes containing 20% Sabouraud dextrose agar medium, after surface innoculation with phenanthrene and pyrene crystals, separately. Radial mycelial growth was evaluated after 10 days at five different concentration levels for each contaminant and control group, all in triplicate for each treatment. Fungal growth and growth inhibition rates were calculated. The average growth of the colonies in each treatment was compared with one-way ANOVA, followed by a Tukey Test (p < 0,05. All fungi showed tolerant to phenanthrene and pyrene. However, Hypoxylon sp. showed the lowest growth inhibition rate and average growth rates significantly different of the other six tested species. Hypoxylon sp. has been shown to be a promising genetic resource for use in new studies of PAHs degradation.

  6. A metabolomics strategy to assess the combined toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feidi; Zhang, Haijun; Geng, Ningbo; Ren, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Baoqin; Gong, Yufeng; Chen, Jiping

    2018-03-01

    The combined toxicity of mixed chemicals is usually evaluated according to several specific endpoints, and other potentially toxic effects are disregarded. In this study, we provided a metabolomics strategy to achieve a comprehensive understanding of toxicological interactions between mixed chemicals on metabolism. The metabolic changes were quantified by a pseudotargeted analysis, and the types of combined effects were quantitatively discriminated according to the calculation of metabolic effect level index (MELI). The metabolomics strategy was used to assess the combined effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) on the metabolism of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Our data suggested that exposure to a combination of PAHs and SCCPs at human internal exposure levels could result in an additive effect on the overall metabolism, whereas diverse joint effects were observed on various metabolic pathways. The combined exposure could induce a synergistic up-regulation of phospholipid metabolism, an additive up-regulation of fatty acid metabolism, an additive down-regulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis, and an antagonistic effect on purine metabolism. SCCPs in the mixture acted as the primary driver for the acceleration of phospholipid and fatty acid metabolism. Lipid metabolism disorder caused by exposure to a combination of PAHs and SCCPs should be an important concern for human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollution and pollution tolerance in the case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); Belastung durch Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renger, M.; Mekiffer, B. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologie-Bodenkunde

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the present follow-up project was to examine the contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of different anthropogenic urban soils including clay soils containing demolition waste, household waste, ash, and residues from a coking plant. A further task was to analyse, or infer from other part-projects, standard soil parameters such as organic carbon content, pH, and anion levels in order to clarify any relationships between PAH contamination and the more easily determinable soil characteristics. Furthermore, the sorption behaviour for PAH of selected anthropogenic urban soils was to be characterised by means of batch experiments. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Anschlussvorhabens sollte die Kontamination von anthropogenen Stadtboeden- darunter Truemmerschutt-, Hausmuell-, Asche- sowie Kokereilehmboden- durch polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) untersucht werden. Zusaetzlich sollten die bodenkundlichen Standardparameter Corg, pH-Wert, Anionengehalte und KAKpot analysiert bzw. von den anderen Teilvorhaben uebernommen werden, um Zusammenhaenge zwischen der PAK-Kontamination und relativ leicht zu bestimmenden bodenkundlichen Kennwerten klaeren zu koennen. Das Sorptionsverhalten ausgewaehlter anthropogener Stadtboeden fuer PAK sollte durch Batchversuche charakterisiert werden. (orig./SR)

  8. The relevance of monitoring of antibodies against the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and PAH-DNA adducts in serum in relation to lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauk, N.; Klimešová, Š.; Kára, J.; Topinka, Jan; Lábaj, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2013), s. 182-187 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06150 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * anti-PAH antibodies * DNA adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2013

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Mediate Transcriptional Activation of the ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB6 Gene via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    Liver is endowed with a mechanism to induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) in response to therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants, leading to increased detoxification and elimination of the xenobiotics. Each CYP450 is composed of an apoprotein moiety and a heme prosthetic group, which is required for CYP450 activity. Thus, under conditions of CYP450 induction, there is a coordinate increase in heme biosynthesis to compensate for the increased expression of CYP450s. ABCB6, a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter, which regulates coproporphyrinogen transport from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria to complete heme biosynthesis, represents a previously unrecognized rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis. However, it is not known if exposure to drugs and environmental contaminants induces ABCB6 expression, to assure an adequate and apparently coordinated supply of heme for the generation of functional cytochrome holoprotein. In the present study, we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the widely distributed environmental toxicants shown to induce porphyrin accumulation causing hepatic porphyria, up-regulate ABCB6 expression in both mice and humans. Using siRNA technology and Abcb6 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that PAH-mediated increase in hepatic porphyrins is compromised in the absence of ABCB6. Moreover, in vivo studies in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knock-out mice demonstrate that PAH induction of ABCB6 is mediated by AhR. Promoter activation studies combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate direct interactions between the AhR binding sites in the ABCB6 promoter and the AhR receptor, implicating drug activation mechanisms for ABCB6 similar to those found in inducible cytochrome P450s. These studies are the first to describe direct transcriptional activation of both mouse and human ABCB6 by xenobiotics. PMID:22761424

  10. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from sediment matrices in mudflat ecosystem of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-06-01

    The bioaccumulation and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were characterized in sediment and Paphia undulata (short-neck clam) from six mudflat areas in the west coasts of Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations of total PAHs varied from 357.1 to 6257.1 and 179.9 ± 7.6 to 1657.5 ± 53.9 ng g -1 dry weight in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. PAHs can be classified as moderate to very high level of pollution in sediments and moderate to high level of pollution in short-neck clams. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs and principal component analysis indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources with significant dominance of pyrogenic source. The first PAHs biota-sediment accumulation factors and relative biota-sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. Evaluation of PAH levels in sediments and short-neck clams indicates that short-neck clam could be introduced as a good biomonitor in mudflats. The results also demonstrated that under environmental conditions, the sedimentary load of hydrocarbons appears to be one of the factors controlling their bioavailability to biota.

  11. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) INTO CENTRAL PARK LAKE, NEW YORK CITY, OVER A CENTURY OF DEPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion–derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur–content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

  12. Towards field detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environment water using a self-assembled SERS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xia; Shi, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Xu; Jia, Wenjie; Ma, Jun

    2017-10-01

    A self-assembled surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor is reported in this paper. To achieve high sensitivity, a high sensitive SERS substrate and a high efficient self-constructed light path were made. The SERS substrate was composed by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, pH=13), glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate (GMA-EDMA) porous material and syringe filter. The substrate had a good repeatability, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the same substrate was less than 5%. The efficiency of the self-constructed light path is about two times better than RPB Y type reflection fiber when the energy density was roughly equal on samples. The size of the SERS sensor is 350×300×180 mm and the weight is 15 kg. Its miniaturization and portable can comply with the requirements of field detection. Besides, it has good sensitivity, stability and selectivity. For lab experiments, strong enhancements of Raman scattering from organic pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) molecules were exhibited. The dependences of SERS intensities on concentrations of PAHs were investigated, and the results indicated that they revealed a satisfactory linear relationship in low concentrations. The limits of detection (LODs) of PAHs phenanthrene and fluorene are 8.3×10-10 mol/L and 7.1×10-10 mol/L respectively [signal to noise ratio (S/N) =3]. Based on this SERS sensor, signals of benzo (a) pyrene and pyrene were found in environmental water and the sensor would be an ideal candidate for field detection of PAHs.

  13. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples of Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) installation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Juliana C.; Martins, Elâine A.J.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria A.F.

    2017-01-01

    RMB will be a nuclear reactor for research and production of radioisotopes. Its applications extend to agriculture, industry and the environment. With the changes that will occur in the study area by its construction, the flow of vehicles will increase. It is known that one of the largest anthropogenic sources of PAHs is from the burning of fossil fuels and biomass. The aim of this research was to identify and quantify 14 of the 16 majorities PAHs in the sediment samples at RMB installations area in a period before the enterprise construction, June 2017, using the methodology developed and validated by Brito, 2009. It was observed individual concentrations from 0.05 to 1.11 μg g -1 in this first evaluation indicating that, although were found some PAHs concentrations above the established values by CONAMA and CETESB, this area still remains preserved. Pyrene was the compound that had the highest concentrations at different collecting points (1.11±0.03 and 1.09±0.02 μg g -1 ). Although were observed some PAHs concentrations above the established values by CONAMA and CETESB, the area is preserved. The study will provide previous information on PAHs concentrations in the area of the enterprise, providing information for the environmental impact study after the construction of the enterprise. (author)

  14. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples of Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) installation area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Juliana C.; Martins, Elâine A.J.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria A.F., E-mail: elaine@ipen.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mapires@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    RMB will be a nuclear reactor for research and production of radioisotopes. Its applications extend to agriculture, industry and the environment. With the changes that will occur in the study area by its construction, the flow of vehicles will increase. It is known that one of the largest anthropogenic sources of PAHs is from the burning of fossil fuels and biomass. The aim of this research was to identify and quantify 14 of the 16 majorities PAHs in the sediment samples at RMB installations area in a period before the enterprise construction, June 2017, using the methodology developed and validated by Brito, 2009. It was observed individual concentrations from 0.05 to 1.11 μg g{sup -1} in this first evaluation indicating that, although were found some PAHs concentrations above the established values by CONAMA and CETESB, this area still remains preserved. Pyrene was the compound that had the highest concentrations at different collecting points (1.11±0.03 and 1.09±0.02 μg g{sup -1}). Although were observed some PAHs concentrations above the established values by CONAMA and CETESB, the area is preserved. The study will provide previous information on PAHs concentrations in the area of the enterprise, providing information for the environmental impact study after the construction of the enterprise. (author)

  15. Infrared emission from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) excited by ultraviolet laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherchneff, I.; Barker, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared fluorescence spectrum from the C-H stretch modes of vibrationally excited azulene (C10H8), a PAH was measured in the laboratory. PAHs are candidates as carriers of the unidentified infrared emission bands that are observed in many astronomical objects associated with dust and ultraviolet light. In the present experiment, gas phase azulene was excited with light from a 308 nm pulsed laser, and the infrared emission spectrum was time-resolved and wavelength-resolved. Moreover, the infrared absorption spectrum of gas phase azulene was obtained using an FTIR spectrometer. The laboratory emission spectrum resembles observed infrared emission spectra from the interstellar medium, providing support for the hypothesis that PAHs are the responsible carriers. The azulene C-H stretch emission spectrum is more asymmetric than the absorption spectrum, probably due to anharmonicity of levels higher than nu = 1. 36 refs

  16. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from textile dyeing sludge by ultrasound combined zero-valent iron/EDTA/Air system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Xiaoyuan; Ning, Xun-An; Zou, Haiyuan; Liang, Jieying; Sun, Jian; Lu, Xingwen; Sun, Jiekui

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a combined ultrasound (US) and zero-valent iron/EDTA/Air (ZEA) system to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from textile dyeing sludge. The removal efficiencies of 16 PAHs using ZEA, US/Air (air injected into the US process), and US/ZEA treatments were investigated, together with the effects of various operating parameters. The enhanced mechanisms of US and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in removing PAHs in the US/ZEA system were explored. Results showed that only 42.5% and 32.9% of ∑16 PAHs were removed by ZEA and US/Air treatments respectively, whereas 70.1% were removed by US/ZEA treatment, (with favorable operating conditions of 2.0 mM EDTA, 15 g/L ZVI, and 1.08 w/cm 3 ultrasonic density). The US/ZEA system could be used with a wide pH range. US led to synergistic improvement of PAHs removal in the ZEA system by enhancing sludge disintegration to release PAHs and promoting ZVI corrosion and oxygen activation. In the US/ZEA system, PAHs could be degraded by ROS (namely OH, O 2 - /HO 2 , and Fe(IV)) and adsorbed by ZVI, during which the ROS made the predominant contribution. This study provides important insights into the application of a US/ZEA system to remove PAHs from sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ecotoxicological and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Short-Neck Clam (Paphia undulata) and Contaminated Sediments in Malacca Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Sharifi, Reza

    2017-10-01

    The distribution, sources, and human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and the edible tissue of short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from mudflat ecosystem in the west coast of Malaysia were investigated. The concentrations of ∑ 16 PAHs varied from 347.05 to 6207.5 and 179.32 to 1657.5 ng g -1 in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. The calculations of mean PEL quotients (mean-PELQs) showed that the ecological risk of PAHs in the sediment samples was low to moderate-high level, whereas the total health risk through ingestion and dermal contact was considerably high. The PAHs biota sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. The source apportionment of PAHs in sediment using positive matrix factorization model indicated that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from diesel emissions (30.38%) followed by oil and oil derivate and incomplete coal combustion (23.06%), vehicular emissions (16.43%), wood combustion (15.93%), and natural gas combustion (14.2%). A preliminary evaluation of human health risk using chronic daily intake, hazard index, benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaP eq ) concentration, and the incremental lifetime cancer risk indicated that PAHs in short-neck clam would induce potential carcinogenic effects in the consumers.

  18. Drivers and applications of integrated clean-up technologies for surfactant-enhanced remediation of environments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xujun; Guo, Chuling; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Shasha; Wick, Lukas Y; Peng, Dan; Yi, Xiaoyun; Lu, Guining; Yin, Hua; Lin, Zhang; Dang, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) is considered as a promising and efficient remediation approach. This review summarizes and discusses main drivers on the application of SER in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil and water. The effect of PAH-PAH interactions on SER efficiency is, for the first time, illustrated in an SER review. Interactions between mixed PAHs could enhance, decrease, or have no impact on surfactants' solubilization power towards PAHs, thus affecting the optimal usage of surfactants for SER. Although SER can transfer PAHs from soil/non-aqueous phase liquids to the aqueous phase, the harmful impact of PAHs still exists. To decrease the level of PAHs in SER solutions, a series of SER-based integrated cleanup technologies have been developed including surfactant-enhanced bioremediation (SEBR), surfactant-enhanced phytoremediation (SEPR) and SER-advanced oxidation processes (SER-AOPs). In this review, the general considerations and corresponding applications of the integrated cleanup technologies are summarized and discussed. Compared with SER-AOPs, SEBR and SEPR need less operation cost, yet require more treatment time. To successfully achieve the field application of surfactant-based technologies, massive production of the cost-effective green surfactants (i.e. biosurfactants) and comprehensive evaluation of the drivers and the global cost of SER-based cleanup technologies need to be performed in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Seasonal variation of the particle size distribution of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban aerosol of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X L; Bi, X H; Sheng, G Y; Tan, J H; Fu, J M

    2006-06-01

    Seasonal aerosol samples have been collected by Andersen Hi-Vol pumping system equipped with a five stage cascade impactor and a backup filter (size range: 10-7.2 microm, 7.2-3.0 microm, 3.0-1.5 microm, 1.5-0.95 microm, 0.95-0.49 microm, gas chromatography and PAHs were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The bimodal log-normal distributions of n-alkanes and semi-volatile PAHs were found, while for non-volatile PAHs that was unimodal, so much as the mode of semi-volatile PAHs was similar with that of the particles. The n-alkanes and PAHs were preferably associated with fine particles. C (max) (carbon number maximum) (C(22)-C(26)), CPI (carbon preference index) (1.12-1.21), U/R (unresolved to resolved components ratio) (7.42-10.7), wax% (0.9-3.12%) and the diagnostic ratios for PAHs revealed that vehicular emission was the major source of these organic compounds during the study periods, while the contribution of epicuticular waxes emitted by terrestrial plants was minor. CPI(2) (values for petrogenic hydrocarbons), CPI(3) (values for biogenic n-alkanes) and wax% revealed that the natural preferentially accumulated in the larger aerosol while the anthropogenic in the smaller. In addition, the different MMDs (mass median diameters) for n-alkanes and PAHs were observed in different seasons. The MMDs for n-alkanes and PAHs were higher in autumn/winter than those in spring/summer. The seasonal effect was related to the hydrocarbon content in the individual particulate fractions, showing a preferential association of n-alkanes and PAHs with larger particles in the autumn/winter season.

  20. Optimization of Large Volume Injection for Improved Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Ghorbani, Faranak

    2008-01-01

    Detection of PAH of six benzene rings is somewhat troublesome and lowering the limits of detection (LODs) for these compounds in food is necessary. For this purpose, we optimized a Programmable-Temperature-Vaporisation (PTV) injection with Large Volume Injection (LVI) with regard to the GC-MS det...

  1. Modelling Chemical Patterns of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratola, Nuno; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) such as PBDEs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) or PAHs, are widespread and generated in a multitude of anthropogenic (and natural for PAHs) processes and although they are found in the environment at low concentrations, possess an extraordinary carcinogenic capacity (Baussant et al., 2001) and high ecotoxicity due to their persistence in different matrices (air, soil, water, living organisms). In particular, PAHs are originated by combustion processes or release from fossil fuels and can be transported in the atmosphere over long distances in gaseous or particulate matter (Baek et al., 1991). The establishment of strategies for sampling and chemical transport modelling of SVOCs in the atmosphere aiming the definition and validation of the spatial, temporal and chemical transport patterns of contaminants can be achieved by an integrated system of third-generation models that represent the current state of knowledge in air quality modelling and experimental data collected in field campaigns. This has implications in the fields of meteorology, atmospheric chemistry and even climate change. In this case, an extensive database already obtained on levels of atmospheric PAHs from biomonitoring schemes in the Iberian Peninsula fuelled the establishment of the first models of behaviour for PAHs. The modelling system WRF+CHIMERE was implemented with high spatial and temporal resolution to the Iberian Peninsula in this first task (9 km for the Iberian Peninsula, 3 km to Portugal, 1 hour), using PAHs atmospheric levels collected over a year-long sampling scheme comprising 4 campaigns (one per season) in over 30 sites. Daily information on meteorological parameters such as air temperature, humidity, rainfall or wind speed and direction was collected from the weather stations closest to the sampling sites. Diagnosis and forecasts of these meteorological variables using MM5 or WRF were used to feed a chemistry transport model

  2. The Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Excess Peripheral H Atoms (H(sub n)-PAHs) and their Relation to the 3.4 and 6.9 Micrometer PAH Emission Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Materese, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    A population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related materials are thought to be responsible for the family of infrared emission features that are seen towards a wide variety of astrophysical environments. A potentially important subclass of these materials are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons whose edges contain excess H atoms (H(sub n)-PAHs). While it has been suggested that this type of compound may be present in the interstellar population, it has been difficult to properly assess this possibility because of a lack of suitable infrared laboratory spectra to assist with analysis of the astronomical data. We present the 4000-500 cm(exp -1) (2.5-20 micrometers) infrared spectra of 23 H(sub n)-PAHs and related molecules isolated in argon matrices, under conditions suitable for use in the interpretation of astronomical data. The spectra of molecules with mixed aromatic and aliphatic domains show unique characteristics that distinguish them from their fully aromatic PAH equivalents. We discuss the changes to the spectra of these types of molecules as they transition from fully aromatic to fully aliphatic forms. The implications for the interpretation of astronomical spectra are discussed with specific emphasis on the 3.4 and 6.9 micrometer features. Laboratory data is compared with emission spectra from IRAS 21282+5050, an object with normal PAH emission features, in addition to IRAS 22272+5435 and IRAS 0496+3429, two protoplanetary nebulae with abnormally large 3.4 micrometer features. We show that 'normal' PAH emission objects contain relatively few H(sub n)-PAHs in their emitter populations, but less evolved protoplanetary nebulae may contain significant abundances of these molecules.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel engine emission (elemental carbon) inside a car and a subway train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Oddoy, A; Piloty, M; Krause, M; Lahrz, T

    1998-06-30

    Significant concentrations of potentially harmful substances can be present in the interior of vehicles. The main sources of PAHs and elemental carbon (EC) inside a car are likely to be combustion emissions, especially from coal and traffic. The same sources can also be important for the interior of a subway train for which there are specific sources in the tunnel system, for example diesel engines. Twice, in summer 1995 and winter 1996 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and diesel motor emission (estimated as elemental carbon) were determined in the interior of a car (a 2-year-old VW Golf with a three-way catalytic converter) and in the passenger compartment of a subway train (below ground). On each sampling day (in total 16 daily measurements in the car and 16 in the subway) the substances were determined in the breathing zone of the passengers from 07:00 h to 16:00 h under different meteorologic conditions (winter- and summertime). The car followed the route of the subway from the western Berlin borough of Spandau to the south-eastern borough of Neukölln, and back. The sampling represented a realistic exposure model for driving in a high traffic and polluted urban area. The electric subway train (also 2 years in use) connected the same parts of Berlin (31 km underground). The mean values obtained during the two measurement periods (summer/winter) inside the car were 1.0 and 3.2 ng/m3 for benzo[a]pyrene, 10.2 and 28.7 ng/m3 for total-measured-PAHs, 14.1 and 8.2 micrograms/m3 for EC and in the subway 0.7 and 4.0 ng/m3 for benzol[a]pyrene, 30.2 and 67.5 ng/m3 for total PAHs, 109 and 6.9 micrograms/m3 for EC. A comparison between subway and car exposures shows significantly higher concentrations of PAHs in the subway train, which can be explained by relatively high concentrations of fluoranthene and pyrene in the subway. So far a satisfactory explanation has not been found, but one source might be the wooden railway ties which were formerly preserved with tar

  4. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in soil of suburban areas in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong

    2010-07-01

    Soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an increasing problem and has aroused more and more concern in many countries, including China. In this study, representative soil samples (n = 87) of suburban areas in Tianjin (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) were evaluated for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Microwave assisted extraction was used for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen ranged in 58.5-2,748.3, 36.1-6,734.7, 58.5-4,502.5, 29.7-852.5 ng/g and the averages of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 600.5, 933.6, 640.8, 257.3 ng/g, respectively. Spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil was illustrated; Pollution status and comparison to other cities were also investigated. Serious polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons soil pollution was found in Dongli district, on the contrary, Bap in most sites in Beichen did not exceed relative standards and most sites in Beichen should be classified as non-contaminated soil. Principal component analysis was used to identify the possible sources of different districts. It turned out that coal combustion still was the most important sources in three districts except Beichen. Coking, traffic, cooking, biomass combustion also accounted for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution to certain extent in different districts. These data can be further used to assess the health risk associated with soils polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and help local government find proper way to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in soils.

  5. Time trends in the levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pine bark, litter, and soil after a forest fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2014-02-01

    Forest fires are known as an important natural source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but time trends of PAH levels and patterns in various environmental compartments after forest fires have not been thoroughly studied yet. In this study, 16 US-EPA priority PAHs were analyzed for pine bark, litter, and soil samples collected one, three, five, and seven months after a forest fire in Pohang, South Korea. At the first sampling event, the highest levels of ∑16 PAHs were measured for the three types of samples (pine bark: 5,920 ng/g, litter: 1,540 ng/g, and soil: 133 ng/g). Thereafter, there were apparent decreasing trends in PAH levels; the control samples showed the lowest levels (pine bark: 124 ng/g, litter: 75 ng/g, and soil: 26 ng/g). The levels of PAHs in the litter and soil samples normalized by organic carbon (OC) fractions also showed decreasing trends, indicating a direct influence of the forest fire. Among the 16 target PAHs, naphthalene was a dominant compound for all types of samples. Light PAHs with 2-4 rings significantly contributed to the total concentration, and their contribution decreased in the course of time. Runoff by heavy precipitation, evaporation, and degradation of PAHs in the summer were probably the main reasons for the observed time trends. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio also supported that the forest fire was indeed an important source of PAHs in the study area. © 2013.

  6. Properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the northwest photon dominated region OF NGC 7023. I. PAH size, charge, composition, and structure distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 was analyzed exclusively using PAH spectra from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochem.org/pahdb). The 5-15 μm spectrum at each pixel is fitted using a non-negative-least-squares fitting approach. The fits are of good quality, allowing decomposition of the PAH emission into four subclasses: size, charge, composition, and hydrogen adjacency (structure). Maps tracing PAH subclass distributions across the region paint a coherent astrophysical picture. Once past some 20 seconds of arc from HD 200775, the emission is dominated by the more stable, large, symmetric, compact PAH cations with smaller, neutral PAHs taking over along the lines-of-sight toward the more distant molecular cloud. The boundary between the PDR and the denser cloud material shows up as a distinct discontinuity in the breakdown maps. Noteworthy is the requirement for PANH cations to fit the bulk of the 6.2 and 11.0 μm features and the indication of PAH photo-dehydrogenation and fragmentation close to HD 200775. Decomposition of the spectral maps into 'principal' subclass template spectra provides additional insight into the behavior of each subclass. However, the general applicability of this computationally more efficient approach is presently undetermined. This is the first time the spectra of individual PAHs are exclusively used to fit the 5-15 μm region and analyze the spatial behavior of the aromatic infrared bands, providing fundamental, new information about astronomical PAH subpopulations including their dependence on, and response to, changes in local conditions.

  7. Properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the northwest photon dominated region OF NGC 7023. I. PAH size, charge, composition, and structure distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 was analyzed exclusively using PAH spectra from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochem.org/pahdb). The 5-15 μm spectrum at each pixel is fitted using a non-negative-least-squares fitting approach. The fits are of good quality, allowing decomposition of the PAH emission into four subclasses: size, charge, composition, and hydrogen adjacency (structure). Maps tracing PAH subclass distributions across the region paint a coherent astrophysical picture. Once past some 20 seconds of arc from HD 200775, the emission is dominated by the more stable, large, symmetric, compact PAH cations with smaller, neutral PAHs taking over along the lines-of-sight toward the more distant molecular cloud. The boundary between the PDR and the denser cloud material shows up as a distinct discontinuity in the breakdown maps. Noteworthy is the requirement for PANH cations to fit the bulk of the 6.2 and 11.0 μm features and the indication of PAH photo-dehydrogenation and fragmentation close to HD 200775. Decomposition of the spectral maps into 'principal' subclass template spectra provides additional insight into the behavior of each subclass. However, the general applicability of this computationally more efficient approach is presently undetermined. This is the first time the spectra of individual PAHs are exclusively used to fit the 5-15 μm region and analyze the spatial behavior of the aromatic infrared bands, providing fundamental, new information about astronomical PAH subpopulations including their dependence on, and response to, changes in local conditions.

  8. Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Northwest Photon Dominated Region of NGC 7023. I. PAH Size, Charge, Composition, and Structure Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, Jesse; Allamandola, L. J

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 was analyzed exclusively using PAH spectra from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochem.org/pahdb). The 5-15 micron spectrum at each pixel is fitted using a non-negative-least-squares fitting approach. The fits are of good quality, allowing decomposition of the PAH emission into four subclasses: size, charge, composition, and hydrogen adjacency (structure). Maps tracing PAH subclass distributions across the region paint a coherent astrophysical picture. Once past some 20 seconds of arc from HD 200775, the emission is dominated by the more stable, large, symmetric, compact PAH cations with smaller, neutral PAHs taking over along the lines-of-sight toward the more distant molecular cloud. The boundary between the PDR and the denser cloud material shows up as a distinct discontinuity in the breakdown maps. Noteworthy is the requirement for PANH cations to fit the bulk of the 6.2 and 11.0 micron features and the indication of PAH photo-dehydrogenation and fragmentation close to HD 200775. Decomposition of the spectral maps into "principal" subclass template spectra provides additional insight into the behavior of each subclass. However, the general applicability of this computationally more efficient approach is presently undetermined. This is the first time the spectra of individual PAHs are exclusively used to fit the 5-15 micron region and analyze the spatial behavior of the aromatic infrared bands, providing fundamental, new information about astronomical PAH subpopulations including their dependence on, and response to, changes in local conditions.

  9. Heavy Metal and PAH Concentrations in Highway Runoff Deposits Fractionated on Settling Velocities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    The correlation between settling velocity and associated pollutant concentrations is of major importance for best management practice in designing, redesigning, or evaluation of the efficiency of existing pond facilities for retaining unwanted pollutants. The prospect of this note is to state...... the relationship between the settling velocity of the runoff particles and the corresponding metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration directly instead of dealing with two unknowns-the density and the shape of a single particle fraction in a settling velocity calculations. The measurements show...... and copper and there is no significant correlation between PAH concentration and settling velocity. The largest mass of metals and PAH within each pond can be found on the particle fraction with a settling velocity of 5.5-2.5 mm/s....

  10. Investigation of microbial community structure in constructed mangrove microcosms receiving wastewater-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ya-fen; Wu, Yan; Pi, Na; Tam, Nora Fung-yee

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to examine relationships between microbial community structure and mixed pollutants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in constructed wetland microcosms, planted with Excoecaria agallocha or Kandelia obovata, two common mangrove plant species, and under two tidal regimes, everyday tidal (Te) and no tidal flooding (Tn). Results showed both microbial community structure and the retained amounts of pollutants were significantly determined by tidal regime, while the effect of plant species was small. Higher amounts of PAHs but lower amounts of PBDEs were always retained in sediments under Te than Tn regimes. Accordingly, temporal and vertical distributions of microbial community structure differed greatly between the two tidal regimes. Redundancy analysis further revealed significant correlation between a subgroup of the mixed PAHs and PBDEs with variation in microbial community structure. The findings will help to propose specific strategies to improve the bioremediation efficiency of constructed wetland. - Highlights: • We found synchronous degradation of PAHs and PBDEs in constructed mangrove microcosms. • Retained amounts of PAHs and PBDEs were determined mainly by tidal regime. • Tidal regime in turn significantly determined microbial community structure. • Variations of microbial EL-FAME profiles were more affected by PBDEs than PAHs. • Bap and BDE-154 were two most influential pollutants on microbial community structure. - Sedimentary microbial community structure was significantly determined by tidal regime, which in turn determined retained amounts of PAHs and PBDEs in constructed mangrove microcosms

  11. Distribution and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in recent sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk (SE Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Lubecki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in recent (0-10 cm sediments from the Gulf of Gdańsk during 2003-07 andcorrelated with environmental parameters. Located in the south-eastern part of the Baltic and receiving the waters of the River Wisła(Vistula, this area of negligible tides and strong anthropogenic stress, highly eutrophic as a consequence, is an exceptionalmodel basin for studying the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants introduced to the sea. Environmental conditions determine thedistribution and composition patterns of parent PAHs in Gulf of Gdańsk sediments. PAHs were associated mainly with fine particlesediments, rich in organic carbon, with hypoxia/anoxia near the bottom. The highest PAH contents were found in the Gdańsk Deep(ca 110 m, where the mean concentration of Σ12PAHs was ~3600 ng g-1, and no distinct temporal trend was observed.Lighter PAHs were found to be depleted in deeper regions. It was estimated that the Wisła discharges ~50% of the total PAH load deposited in recent Gulf sediments.

  12. Development of a lab-on-chip electrochemical immunosensor for detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in environmental water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felemban, Shifa; Vazquez, Patricia; Dehnert, Jan; Goridko, Vadim; Tijero, Maria; Moore, Eric

    2017-06-01

    The work described in this manuscript focuses on how the integration of immunoassay techniques in combination with electrochemical detection can provide a portable and very accurate solution for detection of water pollutants that are detrimental for human health. In particular, we focus our work on the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted water. Our integrative approach facilitates a real-time detection of this family of organic compounds, by reducing the time of analysis to less than one hour. Additionally, the use of a lab-on-a-chip platform delivers a portable solution that could be used in situ. Optimization of a displacement assay that investigates the presence and concentration of Benzo[a]pyrene in water, allows with the miniaturization of the standard ELISA format into a highly accurate system that provides fast results. The limits of detection obtained are comparable to those of available state-of-the art tools, and achieve the values set by European Drinking Water Directive, 0.10ng/l, as the limit for PAHs in drinking water.

  13. Source apportionment of the carcinogenic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated to airborne PM10 by a PMF model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, M S; Iturmendi, A; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2014-02-01

    In order to perform a study of the carcinogenic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaP-eq) concentration was calculated and modelled by a receptor model based on positive matrix factorization (PMF). Nineteen PAH associated to airborne PM10 of Zaragoza, Spain, were quantified during the sampling period 2001-2009 and used as potential variables by the PMF model. Afterwards, multiple linear regression analysis was used to quantify the potential sources of BaP-eq. Five sources were obtained as the optimal solution and vehicular emission was identified as the main carcinogenic source (35 %) followed by heavy-duty vehicles (28 %), light-oil combustion (18 %), natural gas (10 %) and coal combustion (9 %). Two of the most prevailing directions contributing to this carcinogenic character were the NE and N directions associated with a highway, industrial parks and a paper factory. The lifetime lung cancer risk exceeded the unit risk of 8.7 x 10(-5) per ng/m(3) BaP in both winter and autumn seasons and the most contributing source was the vehicular emission factor becoming an important issue in control strategies.

  14. Evaluation and application of a passive air sampler for polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Fatma; Evci, Yildiz M; Tasdemir, Yucel

    2017-08-24

    Sampling of 15 PAHs by the use of both passive air sampler developed (D-PAS) in our research group and PAS (C-PAS) having widespread use in the literature was conducted to compare the performances of the samplers. Sampling was carried out for 1-year period (February 2013-February 2014), in different sampling periods by employing D-PAS and C-PAS. D-PAS and C-PAS were run in parallel for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 days. Sampling rates were calculated for both PASs by the use of concentration values obtained from a high-volume air sampler (HVAS). It was determined that calculated sampling values are different from each other by definition of design of C-PAS and D-PAS and difference in environment as velocity of wind and temperature are having different effects upon sampling rates. Collected σ 15 PAHs amounts of 10-day periods in spring, summer, autumn and winter were obtained as 576 ± 333, 209 ± 29, 2402 ± 910 and 664 ± 246 ng for D-PAS and 1070 ± 522, 318 ± 292, 6062 ± 1501 and 6089 ± 4018 ng for C-PAS, respectively. In addition, according to seasons, when collected PAHs in two different samplers were considered, similar results were obtained for the summer time in which no combustion takes place with the aim of domestic heating, while there were differences determined for the seasons with combustion in need of domestic heating. Gas-phase σ 15 PAHs' concentrations were reported depending on seasons in the spring, summer, autumn and winter sequences as 46 ± 32, 9 ± 3, 367 ± 207 and 127 ± 93 ng m -3 for HVAS, respectively.

  15. Laboratory investigations on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) under watersaturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, M.

    1993-01-01

    With static batch-sorption experiments the sorption behaviour of Fluoranthene and Acenaphthelene was analysed. It showed that the sorption of PAH depends on the concentration and does not show a linear relationship throughout the concentration ranges. The sorption of PAH is for the most part dependent on the amount of organic material. The type of organic matter has an influence on the sorption behaviour, so that young organic material adsorbs less than older organic material. The desorption behaviour of Fluoranthene was analysed with batch-desorption experiments. In order to determine the influence of the time needed to adjust the previous sorption equilibrium, long-term experiments in batch-vessels were made in addition. The desorption is mainly determined by the time needed for adjusting sorption equilibrium and less determined by the type of the isothermes. A part of the PAH is delivered very slowly and in very low concentrations according to the speed of the reverse diffusion in the coarser sample material. If the desorption is purely controlled by diffusive processes, this can lead to a very fast reduction of the contaminant's concentration in water to a very small amount, without a decisive reduction of the contaminant's concentration in the solid phase. (orig.) [de

  16. DWH damage assessment on marine species - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  17. CBOS damage assessment on Pacific herring - Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons (PAHs) to fish early life stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecotox Program is at the forefront, nationally and internationally, of targeted research to characterize the impacts of petroleum hydrocarbons on NOAA trust...

  18. Phenylacetylene and PAH

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the last decades, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other related aromatic compounds, such as ionized PAHs, have received considerable attention from astronomers, astrobiologists, environmentalists, and the combustion community. In the interstellar medium, PAH like species account for up to 10% of ...

  19. Properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the northwest photon dominated region of NGC 7023. II. Traditional PAH analysis using k-means as a visualization tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer-IRS spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is analyzed using the 'traditional' approach in which the PAH bands and plateaus between 5.2-19.5 μm are isolated by subtracting the underlying continuum and removing H{sub 2} emission lines. The spectra are organized into seven spectroscopic bins by using k-means clustering. Each cluster corresponds to, and reveals, a morphological zone within NGC 7023. The zones self-organize parallel to the well-defined PDR front that coincides with an increase in intensity of the H{sub 2} emission lines. PAH band profiles and integrated strengths are measured, classified, and mapped. The morphological zones revealed by the k-means clustering provides deeper insight into the conditions that drive variations in band strength ratios and evolution of the PAH population that otherwise would be lost. For example, certain band-band relations are bifurcated, revealing two limiting cases; one associated with the PDR, the other with the diffuse medium. Traditionally, PAH band strength ratios are used to gain insight into the properties of the emitting PAH population, i.e., charge, size, structure, and composition. Insights inferred from this work are compared and contrasted to those from Boersma et al. (first paper in this series), where the PAH emission in NGC 7023 is decomposed exclusively using the PAH spectra and tools made available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database.

  20. Effect of biomass open burning on particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jui C; Shen, Yun H; Li, Hsing W; Chang, Shun S; Wang, Lin C; Chang-Chien, Guo P

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in ambient air during rice straw open burning and non-open burning periods. In the ambient air of a rice field, the mean PM concentration during and after an open burning event were 1828 and 102 μg m⁻³, respectively, which demonstrates that during a rice field open burning event, the PM concentration in the ambient air of rice field is over 17 times higher than that of the non-open burning period. During an open burning event, the mean total PAH and total toxic equivalence (BaP(eq)) concentrations in the ambient air of a rice field were 7206 ng m⁻³ and 10.3 ng m⁻³, respectively, whereas after the open burning event, they were 376 ng m⁻³ and 1.50 ng m⁻³, respectively. Open burning thus increases total PAH and total BaP(eq) concentrations by 19-fold and 6.8-fold, respectively. During a rice straw open burning event, in the ambient air of a rice field, the mean dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs and total BaP(eq) were 1222 μg m⁻² day⁻¹ and 4.80 μg m⁻² day⁻¹, respectively, which are approximately 60- and 3-fold higher than those during the non-open burning period, respectively. During the non-open burning period, particle-bound PAHs contributed 79.2-84.2% of total dry deposition fluxes (gas + particle) of total PAHs. However, an open burning event increases the contribution to total PAH dry deposition by particle-bound PAHs by up to 85.9-95.5%. The results show that due to the increased amount of PM in the ambient air resulting from rice straw open burning, particle-bound PAHs contributed more to dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs than they do during non-open burning periods. The results show that biomass (rice straw) open burning is an important PAH emission source that significantly increases both PM and PAH concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

  1. Research on the influence of anaerobic stabilization of various dairy sewage sludge on biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs with the use of effective microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boruszko, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Sewage sludge was taken from a dairy WWTP belonging to Mlekovita Cooperative in Wysokie Mazowieckie. There were excess sludge, flotation sludge and a mixture of excess and flotation sludge from pre-treatment of dairy sewage. The initial content of 16 PAHs in excess sludge before fermentation was approximately 689 µg·kg −1 in dry mass, whereas in post-flotation sludge (which constituted around 30% of raw sludge) it was approximately 95 µg·kg −1 in dry mass. A mixture of excess and flotation sludge had the content of 497,7 µg·kg −1 in dry mass. Through comparison of particular hydrocarbons content in raw sewage sludge to the total PAHs content, it was shown that tricyclic compounds, which constituted 46,3% of the PAHs sum (excess sludge), and tetracyclic compounds, which constituted 60,0% of the PAHs sum (flotation sludge), were the dominating fractions. In the sludge subjected to fermentation in reactors with mixed sludge and surplus activated sludge, the general trend of the course of changes in concentrations of PAHs was similar. Both in the sludge inoculated with EM and in that not inoculated with EM, a significant increase in the total PAHs contents was observed in the first fermentation phase (acidic fermentation) after 7 days of the process. Addition of EM into the sludge did not prevent the PAHs release, and therefore higher concentrations of PAHs sum were recorded during the hydrolysis stage than in sludge before fermentation. A decrease in the sum of PAHs was observed after 2 weeks of fermentation in relation to the quantity observed after 1 week of fermentation (except from post-flotation sludge). In the following weeks, there was further decrease in the concentration of the 16 PAHs sum in all sludge types. However, in sludge without EM inoculation, it was lower than in sludge with EM inoculation. The loss of the majority of tested hydrocarbons was reported in the final phase of fermentation. - Highlights: • The influence of applying

  2. Research on the influence of anaerobic stabilization of various dairy sewage sludge on biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs with the use of effective microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boruszko, Dariusz, E-mail: d.boruszko@pb.edu.pl

    2017-05-15

    Sewage sludge was taken from a dairy WWTP belonging to Mlekovita Cooperative in Wysokie Mazowieckie. There were excess sludge, flotation sludge and a mixture of excess and flotation sludge from pre-treatment of dairy sewage. The initial content of 16 PAHs in excess sludge before fermentation was approximately 689 µg·kg{sup −1} in dry mass, whereas in post-flotation sludge (which constituted around 30% of raw sludge) it was approximately 95 µg·kg{sup −1} in dry mass. A mixture of excess and flotation sludge had the content of 497,7 µg·kg{sup −1} in dry mass. Through comparison of particular hydrocarbons content in raw sewage sludge to the total PAHs content, it was shown that tricyclic compounds, which constituted 46,3% of the PAHs sum (excess sludge), and tetracyclic compounds, which constituted 60,0% of the PAHs sum (flotation sludge), were the dominating fractions. In the sludge subjected to fermentation in reactors with mixed sludge and surplus activated sludge, the general trend of the course of changes in concentrations of PAHs was similar. Both in the sludge inoculated with EM and in that not inoculated with EM, a significant increase in the total PAHs contents was observed in the first fermentation phase (acidic fermentation) after 7 days of the process. Addition of EM into the sludge did not prevent the PAHs release, and therefore higher concentrations of PAHs sum were recorded during the hydrolysis stage than in sludge before fermentation. A decrease in the sum of PAHs was observed after 2 weeks of fermentation in relation to the quantity observed after 1 week of fermentation (except from post-flotation sludge). In the following weeks, there was further decrease in the concentration of the 16 PAHs sum in all sludge types. However, in sludge without EM inoculation, it was lower than in sludge with EM inoculation. The loss of the majority of tested hydrocarbons was reported in the final phase of fermentation. - Highlights: • The influence of

  3. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dissipation in rhizosphere based on molecular structure and effect size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Bin; Chen Huaihai; Xu Minmin; Hayat, Tahir; He Yan; Xu Jianming

    2010-01-01

    Rhizoremediation is a significant form of bioremediation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study examined the role of molecular structure in determining the rhizosphere effect on PAHs dissipation. Effect size in meta-analysis was employed as activity dataset for building quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models and accumulative effect sizes of 16 PAHs were used for validation of these models. Based on the genetic algorithm combined with partial least square regression, models for comprehensive dataset, Poaceae dataset, and Fabaceae dataset were built. The results showed that information indices, calculated as information content of molecules based on the calculation of equivalence classes from the molecular graph, were the most important molecular structural indices for QSAR models of rhizosphere effect on PAHs dissipation. The QSAR model, based on the molecular structure indices and effect size, has potential to be used in studying and predicting the rhizosphere effect of PAHs dissipation. - Effect size based on meta-analysis was used for building PAHs dissipation quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models.

  4. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dissipation in rhizosphere based on molecular structure and effect size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Bin; Chen Huaihai; Xu Minmin; Hayat, Tahir [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); He Yan, E-mail: yhe2006@zju.edu.c [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Xu Jianming, E-mail: jmxu@zju.edu.c [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Rhizoremediation is a significant form of bioremediation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study examined the role of molecular structure in determining the rhizosphere effect on PAHs dissipation. Effect size in meta-analysis was employed as activity dataset for building quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models and accumulative effect sizes of 16 PAHs were used for validation of these models. Based on the genetic algorithm combined with partial least square regression, models for comprehensive dataset, Poaceae dataset, and Fabaceae dataset were built. The results showed that information indices, calculated as information content of molecules based on the calculation of equivalence classes from the molecular graph, were the most important molecular structural indices for QSAR models of rhizosphere effect on PAHs dissipation. The QSAR model, based on the molecular structure indices and effect size, has potential to be used in studying and predicting the rhizosphere effect of PAHs dissipation. - Effect size based on meta-analysis was used for building PAHs dissipation quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models.

  5. Antihistamine medication may alleviate negative effects of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on lung function in children. Birth cohort prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Majewska, Renata; Spengler, Jack; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Camman, David

    2015-05-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the depressed lung growth attributable to prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) may be modified by the intake of antihistamine medications. Individual prenatal PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring in 176 children who were followed over nine years, in the course of which outdoor residential air monitoring, allergic skin tests for indoor allergens, lung function tests (FVC, FEV(1), FEV(05), and FEF(25-75)) were performed. The analysis with the General Estimated Equation (GEE) showed no association between prenatal PAH exposure and lung function in the group of children who were reported to be antihistamine users. However, in the group of antihistamine non-users all lung function tests except for FEF(25-75) were significantly and inversely associated with prenatal airborne PAH exposure. The results of the study suggest that the intake of antihistamine medications in early childhood may inhibit the negative effect of fetal PAH exposure on lung growth and provides additional indirect evidence for the hypothesis that lung alterations in young children resulting from PAH exposure may be caused by the allergic inflammation within lung. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Seasonal variation, spatial distribution and source apportionment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at nineteen communities in Xi'an, China: The effects of suburban scattered emissions in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Cao, Junji; Dong, Zhibao; Guinot, Benjamin; Gao, Meiling; Huang, Rujin; Han, Yongming; Huang, Yu; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Shen, Zhenxing

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of PM 2.5 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at urban residential, commercial area, university, suburban region, and industry in Xi'an, during summer and winter time at 2013. Much higher levels of total PAHs were obtained in winter. Spatial distributions by kriging interpolations principle showed that relative high PAHs were detected in western Xi'an in both summer and winter, with decreasing trends in winter from the old city wall to the 2 nd -3rd ring road except for the suburban region and industry. Coefficients of diversity and statistics by SPSS method demonstrated that PAHs in suburban have significant differences (t winter and summer in urban, which different with the suburban. The coal combustion was the main source for PAHs in suburban region, which accounted for 46.6% in winter and sharp decreased to 19.2% in summer. Scattered emissions from uncontrolled coal combustion represent an important source of PAHs in suburban in winter and there were about 135 persons in Xi'an will suffer from lung cancer for lifetime exposure at winter levels. Further studies are needed to specify the effluence of the scattered emission in suburban to the city and to develop a strategy for controlling those emissions and lighten possible health effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of Gas Phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Selected Indoor and Outdoor Air Samples of Malaysia: a Case Study in Serdang, Selangor and Bachang, Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Hafizal Abd Hamid

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the gas phase of air from selected indoor and outdoor areas of Selangor and Malacca, Malaysia has been investigated. A locally designed Semi Permeable Membrane Device (SPMD was applied for passive air sampling for 37 days at selected locations. Cleanup was carried out with Gas Purge - Micro Syringe Extraction (GP-MSE and the final analysis was using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. In this study, 6 indoor and 12 outdoor locations were selected for air sampling. A total of 10 compounds of PAHs (Ʃ10PAHs were determined in the range of 0.218 ng/m3 - 1.692 ng/m3 and 0.378 ng/m3 - 1.492 ng/m3 in outdoor and indoor samples respectively. In the outdoor samples, locations such as near a petrol station and heavy traffic showed the maximum levels of Ʃ10PAHs, while rooftop samples showed the lowest Ʃ10PAHs. The distribution of gas phase Ʃ10PAHs was influenced by vehicular emission. Low molecular weight (LMW compounds (2-3 rings were dominant in all samples (>70% indicating that SPMD has successfully sampled the gas phase of the air.

  8. Concentrations, sources and health effects of parent, oxygenated- and nitrated- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in middle-school air in Xi'an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Xu, Hongmei; Guinot, Benjamin; Li, Lijuan; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Liu, Suixin; Li, Xiaoping; Cao, Junji

    2017-08-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were monitored in a middle-school classroom from 8 to 22 March 2012 in Xi'an, China. The total PAHs ranged from 49.6 to 140.0 ng/m3 in outdoors and 50.3 to 111.6 ng/m3 in indoors, while OPAHs and NPAHs showed averages of 19.1 and 16.4 ng/m3, 0.1039 and 0.0785 ng/m3 for outdoor and indoor air, respectively. Strong correlations were found between indoor (I) and outdoor (O), and the I/O ratios were school in Xi'an. Indoor pollutants were mostly influenced by outdoor air. Biomass burning, coal combustion, and vehicle emission were main sources for PAHs. Secondary formation was the main source for OPAHs and NPAHs. Inhalation cancer risks assessment of PAHs showed there were potential health risks for students during sampling time.

  9. Effect of Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 inoculation on bacterial community dynamics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in aged and freshly PAH-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunliffe, Michael; Kertesz, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 is able to degrade a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and as a sphingomonad belongs to one of the dominant genera found in PAH-contaminated soils. We examined the ecological effect that soil inoculation with S. yanoikuyae B1 has on the native bacterial community in three different soils: aged PAH-contaminated soil from an industrial site, compost freshly contaminated with PAHs and un-contaminated compost. Survival of S. yanoikuyae B1 was dependent on the presence of PAHs, and the strain was unable to colonize un-contaminated compost. Inoculation with S. yanoikuyae B1 did not cause extensive changes in the native bacterial community of either soil, as assessed by denaturing gel electrophoresis, but its presence led to an increase in the population level of two other species in the aged contaminated soil community and appeared to have an antagonistic affect on several members of the contaminated compost community, indicating niche competition. - Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1 does not cause major changes in the native bacterial community while colonizing PAH-contaminated soils, but some niche competition is evident

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced in the combustion of fatty acid alkyl esters from different feedstocks: Quantification, statistical analysis and mechanisms of formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Alberto; Al-Lal, Ana-María; García-Martínez, María-Jesús; Ortega, Marcelo F; Llamas, Juan F; Lapuerta, Magín; Canoira, Laureano

    2017-05-15

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants of concern due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. Their emissions are mainly related with the combustion or pyrolysis of the organic matter, such as in fossil fuels combustion. It is important to characterize PAHs in the combustions of biofuels due to their increasing importance in the actual energetic setting. There is a lot of research focused in PAHs emission due to the combustion in diesel engines; but only few of them have analyzed the effect of raw material and type of alcohol used in the transesterification process. Different raw materials (i.e. animal fat, palm, rapeseed, linseed, peanut, coconut, and soybean oils) have been used for obtaining FAME and FAEE. A method for measuring PAHs generated during combustion in a bomb calorimeter has been developed. Combustion was made at different oxygen pressures and the samples were taken from the bomb after each combustion. Samples were extracted and the PAHs amounts formed during combustion were analyzed by GC-MS. This research shows the statistical relationships among the 16 PAHs of concern, biodiesel composition and oxygen pressure during combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. MICROFLORA INVOLVED IN PHYTOREMEDIATION OF POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was accomplished by conducting a series of integrated studies starting with field work at contaminated sites, followed by laboratory studies based on the field work, and concluded with development of preliminary molecular monitoring methods tested on field sam...

  12. PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon) bioaccumulation and PAHs/shell weight index in Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams & Reeve, 1850) from the Vallona lagoon (northern Adriatic Sea, NE Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Federica; Bernarello, Valentina; Boscolo Brusà, Rossella; Sesta, Giulio; Franceschini, Gianluca; Maggi, Chiara; Gabellini, Massimo; Lamberti, Clauda Virno

    2018-02-01

    The Vallona lagoon is a transitional area located in the Po River delta (NE, ITALY) traditionally exploited for Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) farming. During 2007-2008, a pipeline was buried in the middle of the lagoon to connect an off-shore structure to facilities on land. PAH levels were monitored in Manila clams and sediments before, during and after the pipeline construction to assess the impact of the activities through the pattern of distribution of the PAH compounds. PAH bioaccumulation in clams displayed seasonal fluctuations with higher levels in autumnal and wintry surveys than in spring-summer. Principal component analysis applied to PAHs in clams highlighted a petrogenic input during ante operam period and a pyrolytic origin during the burying activities. On the contrary, sediment PAH concentrations resulted quite similar both among sites and periods. Biota-Sediment-Accumulation-Factor values also confirmed that sediments were not the major source of PAH pollution for clams in this study. The welfare of clams was examined through two physiological indices (condition index and survival in air) to check the effects of the activities on a commercial resource. Both physiological indices exhibited seasonal variations connected to natural endogenous and exogenous factors; however survival in air was the most sensitive index in highlighting the effects of the pipeline burying activities. Finally, to ensure that PAH bioavailability assessment was not affected by seasonal variation of soft tissues of molluscs, PAHs/shell weight index was applied. Higher levels of this index were observed before and during the burying activities, whilst, after that, values significantly lowered. Moreover, the normalization enabled us to highlight the PAH uptake from clams in some particular periods and to compare different populations in a long-term biomonitoring program with data obtained from different periods of the year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from a UH-1H helicopter engine and its impact on the ambient environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Uang, Shi-Nian; Lee, Su-Hsing; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    The objective of this study is to characterize the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a UH-1H helicopter turboshaft engine and its impact on the ambient environment. Five power settings of the ground idle (GI), fly idle (FI), beed band check (BBC), inlet guide vane (IGV), and take off (TO) were selected and samples were collected from the exhaust by using an isokinetic sampling system. Twenty-two PAH compounds were analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC)/MS. We found the mean total PAH concentration in the exhaust of the UH-1H engine (843 μg m -3) is 1.05-51.7 times in magnitude higher than those of the heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine, motor vehicle engine, and F101 aircraft engine. Two- and three-ringed PAHs account for 97.5% of total PAH emissions from the UH-1H engine. The mean total PAH and total BaP eq emission factors for the UH-1H engine (63.4 and 0.309 mg L -1·fuel) is 1.65-23.4 and 1.30-7.54 times in magnitude higher than those for the motor vehicle engine, HDD engine, and F101 aircraft engine. The total emission level of the single PAH compound, BaP, for the UH-1H engine (EL BaP) during one landing and take off (LTO) cycle (2.19 mg LTO -1) was higher than the European Commission standard (1.24 mg LTO -1) suggesting that appropriate measures should be taken to reduce PAH emissions from UH-1H engines in the future.

  14. Depressed height gain of children associated with intrauterine exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals: the cohort prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wiesław A; Perera, Frederica P; Majewska, Renata; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elżbieta; Roen, Emily L; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Fetal exposure to environmental toxicants may program the development of children and have long-lasting health impacts. The study tested the hypothesis that depressed height gain in childhood is associated with prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals (lead and mercury). The study sample comprised 379 children born to non-smoking mothers among whom a total of 2011 height measurements were carried out over the 9-year follow-up period. Prenatal airborne PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring of the mother in the second trimester of pregnancy and heavy metals were measured in cord blood. At the age of 3 residential air monitoring was done to evaluate the level of airborne PAH, and at the age 5 the levels of heavy metals were measured in capillary blood. The effect estimates of prenatal PAH exposure on height growth over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) models for a wide set of relevant covariates. Prenatal exposure to airborne PAH showed a significant negative association with height growth, which was significantly decreased by 1.1cm at PAH level above 34.7 ng/m(3) (coeff.=-1.07, p=0.040). While prenatal lead exposure was not significantly associated with height restriction, the effect of mercury was inversely related to cord blood mercury concentration above 1.2 μg/L (coeff.=-1.21, p=0.020), The observed negative impact of prenatal PAH exposure on height gain in childhood was mainly mediated by shorter birth length related to maternal PAH exposure during pregnancy. The height gain deficit associated with prenatal mercury exposure was not seen at birth, but the height growth was significantly slower at later age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gas-particle distributions, sources and health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Venice aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Argiriadis, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Zambon, Stefano; De Pieri, Silvia; Donateo, Antonio; Contini, Daniele; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Air samples were collected in Venice during summer 2009 and 2012 to measure gas and particulate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). PCB-11, considered a marker for non-Aroclor contamination of the environment, was found for the first time in the Venetian lagoon and in Europe. An investigation on sources has been conducted, evidencing traffic as the major source of PAHs, whereas PCBs have a similar composition to Aroclor 1248 and 1254; in 2009 a release of PCN-42 has been hypothesized. Toxicological evaluation by TCA and TEQ methods, conducted for the first time in Venice air samples, identified BaP, PCB-126 and PCB-169 as the most important contributors to the total carcinogenic activity of PAHs and the total dioxin-like activity of PCBs and PCNs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of the impacts of ethyl lactate based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Suyin; Yap, Chiew Lin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Venny

    2013-11-15

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of ethyl lactate (EL) based Fenton treatment on soil quality for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils. Accumulation of oxygenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) was observed, but quantitative measurement on the most abundant compound 9,10-anthraquinone (ATQ) showed lower accumulation of the compound than that reported for ethanol (ET) based Fenton treatment. In general, as compared to conventional water (CW) based Fenton treatment, the EL based Fenton treatment exerted either a lower or higher negative impact on soil physicochemical properties depending on the property type and shared the main disadvantage of reduced soil pH. For revegetation, EL based Fenton treatment was most appropriately adopted for soil with native pH >/~ 6.2 in order to obtain a final soil pH >/~ 4.9 subject to the soil buffering capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. On the role of resonantly stabilized radicals in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation: pyrene and fluoranthene formation from benzyl-indenyl addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sourab; Rahman, Ramees K; Raj, Abhijeet

    2017-07-26

    Resonantly stabilized radicals, such as propargyl, cyclopentadienyl, benzyl, and indenyl, play a vital role in the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are soot precursors in engines and flames. Pyrene is considered to be an important PAH, as it is thought to nucleate soot particles, but its formation pathways are not well known. This paper presents a reaction mechanism for the formation of four-ring aromatics, pyrene and fluoranthene, through the combination of benzyl and indenyl radicals. The intermediate species and transition structures involved in the elementary reactions of the mechanism were studied using density functional theory, and the reaction kinetics were evaluated using transition state theory. The barrierless addition of benzyl and indenyl to form the adduct, 1-benzyl-1H-indene, was found to be exothermic with a reaction energy of 204.2 kJ mol -1 . The decomposition of this adduct through H-abstraction and H 2 -loss was studied to determine the possible products. The rate-of-production analysis was conducted to determine the most favourable reactions for pyrene and fluoranthene formation. The premixed laminar flames of toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene were simulated using a well-validated hydrocarbon fuel mechanism with detailed PAH chemistry after adding the proposed reactions to it. The computed and experimentally observed species profiles were compared to determine the effect of the new reactions for pyrene and fluoranthene formation on their concentration profiles. The role of benzyl and indenyl combination in PAH formation and growth is highlighted.

  18. Use of compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratio measurements of asphaltene-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a novel aid to source apportionment of environmental PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Sun; C. Snape; M. Cooper; W. Ivwurie [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Energy & Fuel Centre

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the PAHs from hydropyrolysis of asphaltenes from different primary sources (e.g. crude oil, low and high temperature coal tars) were characterized by their molecular distributions and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotope ratios. It was found that for all oil samples, the molecular and isotopic profiles for their asphaltene-derived PAHs are both similar to those observed for their contained free aromatics, with {sup 13}C-isotopic values varying from -25 to -27{per_thousand} for the Nigerian and -27 to -30{per_thousand} for North Sea oil samples. For low and high temperature coal tar samples, however, similar molecular but different isotopic profiles were observed for their asphaltene-bound PAHs. The free aromatics are significantly isotopically lighter (by nearly -3{per_thousand}) than their asphaltene-derived counterparts having isotopic values typically between -22 and -23{per_thousand} for all coal tar samples examined, and this leads to a larger isotopic difference of up to 7{per_thousand} between the two sources of PAHs than that already observed between their free aromatics (3{per_thousand}). Applying these results to samples previously examined in an area where unambiguous source apportionment could not be conducted for the PAHs due to likely biodegradation, it was found that the bound PAHs released from the asphaltenes recovered from the soil samples in this area are extremely similar to low temperature tar as the source, in terms of their both molecular (highly alkylated) and isotopic profiles. The free PAHs are much less alkyl substituted confirming that the aromatics detected in this area have been subjected to intensiveenvironmental degradation with alkylated aromatic constituents being preferentially removed from their initial matrix.

  19. Determination of aromatic and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) content of oily wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyj, I.; Russell, E.C.

    1978-08-01

    An analytical scheme was developed for determining the total organic content and hydrocarbon concentration from a one-liter portion of a wastewater sample, and determining the volatile, suspended, and water-soluble fractions from a second, two-liter portion. Analyses of untreated and treated bilge wastewater from the U.S. Army Fort Eustis, Va., facility showed 10-300 ppm suspended organics and 10-300 ppm dissolved organics in the untreated bilge, and no suspended matter, but 700-2000 ppm dissolved organics, in the treated bilge wastewaters. Of the dissolved organics in untreated and treated wastewater, 70 and 10%, respectively, were extracted with chloroform; the organics in the treated water were probably biologically derived from petroleum degradation. Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic and high-pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the chloroform extracts showed about equal parts of phenolic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons, small amounts of heterocyclics, and traces of polycyclic aromatics in the untreated wastewater, and mainly phenolics in the treated water.

  20. Meiofauna communities in exposed sandy beaches on the Galician coast (NW Spain, six months after the Prestige oil spill: the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri Veiga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs on Galician sandy beach ecosystems, six months after the Prestige oil spill, was evaluated using the meiobenthos at a higher taxon level as an indicator. Meiobenthos community structure, environmental variables and sediment PAH content from six affected exposed beaches were studied and compared with three reference sites. They were also compared with data from polluted beaches obtained during the first days of the spill. Significant amounts of PAHs were found in affected beach sediments and both univariate and multivariate analyses showed differences between affected and reference beaches. Correlation analyses between PAH content and the meiobenthos community structure showed that 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene (C2-NAPH and 1-methylphenanthrene (C-PHEN affected both the community structure and the abundance of the main taxa. These two PAHs seem to be responsible for the low meiofauna density values, which suggests that there is a relationship between the oil spill and the differences between affected and reference localities.

  1. Assessing risks to adults and preschool children posed by PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during a biomass burning episode in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Tipmanee, Danai; Khumsup, Chukkapong; Kittikoon, Itthipon; Hirunyatrakul, Phoosak

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential cancer risk resulting from biomass burning, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to fine particles (PM2.5) were assessed in nine administrative northern provinces (NNP) of Thailand, before (N-I) and after (N-II) a haze episode. The average values of Σ 3,4-ring PAHs and B[a] P Equivalent concentrations in world urban cities were significantly (p<0.05) much higher than those in samples collected from northern provinces during both sampling periods. Application of diagnostic binary ratios of PAHs underlined the predominant contribution of vehicular exhaust to PM2.5-bound PAH levels in NNP areas, even in the middle of the agricultural waste burning period. The proximity of N-I and N-II values in three-dimensional (3D) principal component analysis (PCA) plots also supports this conclusion. Although the excess cancer risk in NNP areas is much lower than those of other urban area and industrialized cities, there are nevertheless some concerns relating to adverse health impacts on preschool children due to non-dietary exposure to PAHs in home environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides in water columns from the Pearl River and the Macao harbor in the Pearl River Delta in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.J.; Mai, B.X.; Yang, Q.S.; Fu, J.M.; Sheng, G.Y.; Wang, Z.S. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2004-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in suspended particles and dissolved phase from the Baiertang water column and the Macao water column samples as collected from the Guangzhou channel of the Pearl River and the Macao harbor, where the sediments were heavily contaminated with organic pollutants. Total OCPs concentration varies from 23.4 to 61.7 ng/l in Baiertang water column and from 25.2 to 67.8 ng/l in Macao column, while total PAHs concentration varies from 987.1 to 2878.5 ng/l in the Baiertang water column and from 944.0 to 6654.6 ng/l in the Macao column. The vertical distribution profiles of pollutants and the partition of pollutants between particles and dissolved phases indicate that the sediments in Baiertang act as an important source of selected pollutants, and the pollutants in water of this region were mainly originated from the release and re-suspension of contaminants residing in the sediments. The sediments in Macao harbor act as a reservoir for organochlorine pesticides, such as DDTs mainly introduced by river inflow from Xijiang and PAHs input by brackish water from the Lingdingyang estuary. Combustion of fossil fuels and petroleum input are the main sources of PAHs in the Macao water column, while combustion of fossil fuels and coal is responsible for the PAHs in the Baiertang water column.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  4. Inhalation exposure and risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among the rural population adopting wood gasifier stoves compared to different fuel-stove users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Chen, Yuanchen; Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Zhu, Xi; Huang, Tianbo; Wang, Xilong; Cheng, Hefa; Liu, Junfeng; Xue, Chunyu; Liu, Guangqing; Zeng, Eddy Y.; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatica hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds with carcinogenic potentials and residential solid fuel combustion is one major source of PAHs in most developing countries. Replacement of traditional stoves with improved ones is believed to be a practical approach to reduce pollutant emissions, however, field assessments on the performance and consequent impacts on air quality and human health after adopting improved stoves are rare. The study is the first time to quantify inhalation exposure to PAHs among the residents who adopted wood gasifier stoves. The results were compared to those still burning coals in the region and compared to exposure levels for different fuel/stove users in literature. The results showed that the PAHs exposure levels for the wood gasifier stove users were significantly lower than the values for those using traditional wood stoves reported in literature, and the daily exposure concentrations of BaPeq (Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration) can be reduced by 48%-91% if traditional wood stoves were replaced by wood gasifier stoves. The corresponding Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) decreased approximately four times from 1.94 × 10-4 to 5.17 × 10-5. The average concentration of the total 26 PAHs for the wood users was 1091 ± 722 ng/m3, which was comparable to 1060 ± 927 ng/m3 for those using anthracite coals, but the composition profiles were considerably different. The average BaPeq were 116 and 25.8 ng/m3 for the wood and coal users, respectively, and the corresponding ILCR of the anthracite coal users was 1.69 × 10-5, which was nearly one third of those using the wood gasifier stoves. The wood users exposed to not only high levels of high molecular weight PAHs, but relatively high fractions of particulate phase PAHs in small particles compared to the coal users, resulting in high exposure risks.

  5. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cyclic terpenoid biomarkers in the sediments of fishing harbors in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Nien-Hsin; Su, Ming-Chien; Fan, Jheng-Rong; Yen, Chih-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomarkers in three fishing harbors were investigated and identified. • 17 terpanes, 10 steranes and 10 bicyclic sesquiterpanes were quantified. • Marine diesel and the three kinds of lubricants were studied. • The study can be applied to other harbors to identify oil products in sediments. - Abstract: Three fishing harbors were investigated to study the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments and trace possible anthropogenic sources by identification of cyclic terpenoid biomarkers. Seventeen terpanes, 10 steranes and 10 bicyclic sesquiterpanes in the marine diesel and the three kinds of lubricants that are mainly used by fishing boats were identified and quantified. Eighteen biomarker diagnostic ratios are suggested and the correlation coefficients among the lubricants and sediment samples have the R 2 value greater than 0.73. Analyzed 16 PAHs in the sediment shows non-normal distributions and the Kruskal Wallis Test shows the significant differences (p value smaller than 0.05) with the greatest variability in benzo[g,h,i]perylene which more than 84% of the effective size (E.S.) is accounted. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was applied and the Kruskal Wallis Test shows a significant difference (p value smaller than 0.05) among certain atoms with the effective size greater than 60%

  6. Simulating the dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in contaminated soil through composting by COP-Compost model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Guan, Yidong; Shi, Qi

    2015-02-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts, and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance to minimize the risk of soil contamination and improve soil fertility. In this work, integration of the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) and OPs in an overall experimental framework is first proposed and adopted to validate the applicability of the COP-Compost model and to calibrate the model parameters on the basis of what has been achieved with the COP-Compost model. The COP-Compost model was evaluated via composting experiments containing 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the sorption coefficient (Kd) values of two types of OP: fluorenthene (FLT) and pyrene (PHE). In our study, these compounds are used to characterize the sequential extraction and are quantified as soluble, sorbed, and non-extractable fractions. The model was calibrated, and coupling the OC and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. The results show good agreement between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of different organic pollutants using the OP module, as well as the coupling module. However, no clear relationship is found between the Kd and the property of organic fractions. Further estimation of parameters is still necessary to modify the insufficiency of this present research.

  7. Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in epiphytic lichens and from PM 2.5 filters for receptor modeling in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studabaker, W. B.; Jayanty, J.; Raymer, J. H.; Krupa, S.

    2013-12-01

    As mining and refinery operations in the Alberta Oil Sands Region (AOSR) have expanded, there has been increasing concern for the impacts of air pollution generated by those operations on both human and ecosystem health. The inaccessibility of much of the AOSR makes it difficult to establish conventional air quality monitoring stations to the extent needed to model long-range impacts of emissions from the AOSR operations. Epiphytic lichens are important markers of ecosystem health, are well-established bioaccumulators of trace metals, and are potentially useful biomonitors of air pollution. However, their ability to take up organic pollutants has not been extensively explored, and only recently have they been used for biomonitoring of pollution by PAHs. Here we describe the determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lichens, collected from sites throughout the AOSR, for modeling emissions associated with mining and oil extraction operations. We also describe preliminary results of the determination of PAHs in PM 2.5 filters from dichotomous samplers stationed in the AOSR, in the context of the biological sample data. Lichens (Hypogymnia physodes) were collected on two separate occasions. During the summer of 2009, single samples were taken from 200 sites in the AOSR; a subset of 20 of these was selected for determination of PAHs. During the summer of 2011, triplicate samples (from separate trees within a site) were collected from 20 sites representing similar locations to the 2008 sites. Lichens were milled in a cryogenic impactor, then were extracted with cyclohexane. Extracts were purified on silica gel using automated solid phase extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection. Method detection limits for individual PAHs were 2-4 ng/g. Total PAHs in the samples from both collection events ranged from 50 ng/g to 350 ng/g, and declined with increasing distance from the mining and refinery operations. The relative

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in superficial water from a tropical estuarine system: Distribution, seasonal variations, sources and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ewerton; Souza, Michel R R; Vilela Junior, Antônio R; Soares, Laiane S; Frena, Morgana; Alexandre, Marcelo R

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the PAH distribution, sources, seasonal variations and ecological risk assessment in superficial water from the Japaratuba River, Brazil. PAH concentrations ranged from 4 to 119ngL -1 . It was observed that the PAH total concentrations and profiles showed significant differences when comparing the dry season (summer) with the rainy season (winter). Furthermore, most of the PAH originated from pyrogenic sources in the winter, whereas a mixture of sources was observed in the summer. PAH concentration levels found in this study were considered lower than those obtained in other estuarine systems. Ecological risk assessment was determined for individual PAH, based on the risk quotient (RQ) to evaluate the risk of aquatic biota's exposure to PAH. Results suggested that the Japaratuba River has achieved a moderate degree of ecological risk for high molecular weight, showing the importance of identifying these carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Native Michigan plants stimulate soil microbial species changes and PAH remediation at a legacy steel mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John C; Cable, Edward; Dabkowski, Robert T; Gargala, Stephanie; McCall, Daniel; Pangrazzi, Garett; Pierson, Adam; Ripper, Mark; Russell, Donald K; Rugh, Clayton L

    2013-01-01

    A 1.3-acre phytoremediation site was constructed to mitigate polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination from a former steel mill in Michigan. Soil was amended with 10% (v/v) compost and 5% (v/v) poultry litter. The site was divided into twelve 11.89 m X 27.13 m plots, planted with approximately 35,000 native Michigan perennials, and soils sampled for three seasons. Soil microbial density generally increased in subplots of Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset), Aster novae-angliae (New England aster), Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem), and Scirpus atrovirens (green bulrush) versus unplanted subplots. Using enumeration assays with root exudates, PAH degrading bacteria were greatest in soils beneath plants. Initially predominant, Arthrobacter were found capable of degrading a PAH cocktail in vitro, especially upon the addition of root exudate. Growth of some Arthrobacter isolates was stimulated by root exudate. The frequency of Arthrobacter declined in planted subplots with a concurrent increase in other species, including secondary PAH degraders Bacillus and Nocardioides. In subplots supporting only weeds, an increase in Pseudomonas density and little PAH removal were observed. This study supports the notion that a dynamic interplay between the soil, bacteria, and native plant root secretions likely contributes to in situ PAH phytoremediation.

  10. Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Seiffen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, L.; Iinuma, Y.; Müller, K.; Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Hausmann, A.; Löschau, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Herrmann, H.

    2011-12-01

    Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution, a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany). During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA). Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA), Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA) were identified and represented 20%, 17% and 62% of total OA, respectively. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured by the AMS with an average concentration of 10 ng m-3 and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration (up to 500 ng m-3) compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its low correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. An influence of the time of the week (week vs. weekend) on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening. During the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached only one maximum in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of the BBOA factor and around 62% of the total PAH concentration measured at

  11. Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning emissions and their contribution to the concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Seiffen, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Poulain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential wood burning is becoming an increasingly important cause of air quality problems since it has become a popular source of alternative energy to fossil fuel. In order to characterize the contribution of residential wood burning to local particle pollution, a field campaign was organized at the village of Seiffen (Saxony, Germany. During this campaign, an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS was deployed in parallel to a PM1 high volume filter sampler. The AMS mass spectra were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF to obtain detailed information about the organic aerosol (OA. Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA, Hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA were identified and represented 20%, 17% and 62% of total OA, respectively. Additionally, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH were measured by the AMS with an average concentration of 10 ng m−3 and short term events of extremely high PAH concentration (up to 500 ng m−3 compared to the mean PAH value were observed during the whole measurement period. A comparison with the results from PM1 filter samples showed that the BBOA factor and the AMS PAH are good indicators of the total concentration of the different monosaccharide anhydrides and PAH measured on the filter samples. Based on its low correlation with CO and the low car traffic, the HOA factor was considered to be related to residential heating using liquid fuel. An influence of the time of the week (week vs. weekend on the diurnal profiles of the different OA components was observed. The weekdays were characterized by two maxima; a first one early in the morning and a stronger one in the evening. During the weekend days, the different OA components principally reached only one maximum in the afternoon. Finally, the PAH emitted directly from residential wood combustion was estimated to represent 1.5% of the total mass of the BBOA factor and

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5 within boundary layer: Cloud/fog and regional transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minmin; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Li, Tao; Nie, Xiaoling; Cao, Fangfang; Yang, Fengchun; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Tao; Qie, Guanghao; Jin, Tong; Du, Lili; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-06-15

    A study of PM 2.5 -associated PAHs analysis at Mount Lushan (1165m) was conducted to investigate the distributions of PAHs in PM 2.5 and influences of cloud/fog. The main purpose was to quantify the main emission sources of PAHs and estimate regional transport effects within the boundary layer. Mount Lushan is located between the boundary layer and troposphere, which is an ideal site for atmosphere transport investigation. The concentrations of PAHs in PM 2.5 were analyzed with GC-MS. The results showed that the volume concentration was 6.98ng/m 3 with a range from 1.47 to 25.17ng/m 3 and PAHs mass were 160.24μg/g (from 63.86 to 427.97μg/g) during the sampling time at Mount Lushan. The dominant compounds are BbF, Pyr and BP. In terms of aromatic-ring PAHs distributions, 4-6-ring PAHs are predominant, indicating that the high-ring PAHs tend to contribute more than low-ring PAHs in particulates. Due to frequent cloud/fog days at Mount Lushan, PAHs concentrations in the PM 2.5 were determined before and after cloud/fog weather. The results demonstrated that the cloud/fog and rain conditions cause lower PAHs levels. Regression analysis was used for studying the relationship of PAHs distributions with meteorological conditions like temperature, humidity and wind. The results showed that the temperature and wind speed were inversely related with PAHs concentration but humidity had no significant relationship. Furthermore, backward trajectories and PCA combined with DR (diagnostic ratio analysis) were employed to identify the influences of regional transport and main emission sources. The results revealed that PAHs in PM 2.5 were mainly affected by regional transport with the main emissions by mobile vehicle and steel industry, which contributed about 56.0% to the total PAHs in the area of Mount Lushan. In addition, backward trajectories revealed that the dominant air masses were from the northwest accounting for about one third of total PAHs. Copyright © 2018

  13. Investigation of changes in {delta}{sup 13}C of PAHs during phytoremediation of coal tar-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mick Cooper; Cheng-Gong Sun; Margaret Smith; Harry Duncan; Colin Snape [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2007-07-01

    It has been shown that phytoremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated land is a useful, low cost, low maintenance method of cleaning up land at former gas and coking works. However, PAH degradation in the soil and sediment is slow, but PAHs may be degraded through properly stimulated soil micro-organisms. Here we describe a laboratory trial, employing the clover Trifolium pretense (L.)(TP), which was grown in samples of soil contaminated by fresh coal tar, and in soil heavily contaminated by PAHs, obtained from a former coking works. As the latter substrate was 'naturally' contaminated, it contained both pure PAHs and their derivatives, and was thus considered fully 'weathered', and contained recalcitrant PAH species. Conventional analytical techniques (for example, GC-MS) generally provide little information on the source of pollutants such as PAHs. Previous work has established, however, that significant differences existed in the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotopic ratios between PAHs from various sources. Source apportionment of PAH contamination by stable isotope analysis is a powerful technique, but one which assumes that isotopic fractionation is not a significant factor in aged or bioaltered matrices. Phytoremediation trials described here have been utilised in order to determine whether or not any such fractionation of {sup 13}C occurs during the process. Although PAH distributions can be markedly altered by biodegradation, it has been demonstrated that, for low temperature coal tar, the carbon stable isotopic values of the parent PAHs remain fairly constant. 22 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mitigation in the pyrolysis process of waste tires using CO₂ as a reaction medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Our work reported the CO2-assisted mitigation of PAHs and VOCs in the thermo-chemical process (i.e., pyrolysis). To investigate the pyrolysis of used tires to recover energy and chemical products, the experiments were conducted using a laboratory-scale batch-type reactor. In particular, to examine the influence of the CO2 in pyrolysis of a tire, the pyrolytic products including C1-5-hydrocarbons (HCs), volatile organic carbons (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated qualitatively by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectroscopy (MS) as well as with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The mass balance of the pyrolytic products under various pyrolytic conditions was established on the basis of their weight fractions of the pyrolytic products. Our experimental work experimentally validated that the amount of gaseous pyrolytic products increased when using CO2 as a pyrolysis medium, while substantially altering the production of pyrolytic oil in absolute content (7.3-17.2%) and in relative composition (including PAHs and VOCs). Thus, the co-feeding of CO2 in the pyrolysis process can be considered an environmentally benign and energy efficient process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of Heavy Metals and PAH in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2005-01-01

    , which has been designed according to standard design criteria for several decades. The study will focus on heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The long-term simulation of input of flow and pollution to the ponds will be a hind cast based on time series of historical......The paper presents some of the first results from a study of the removal of pollutants in highway detention ponds in Denmark. The objective of the study is to set up a procedure for long-term modelling of discharges of pollutants to the environment from the many Danish highway detention ponds...... rainfalls. The modelling will take place in a special version of the MIKE URBAN. The modelling is calibrated and validated on measurements from selected highway catchments. The removal of pollutants in the ponds is studied by local measurements in combination with CFD modelling using the MIKE 21 and MIKE 3...

  16. Pollution level, inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Taiyuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zhonghuan; Duan Xiaoli; Tao Shu; Qiu Weixun; Liu Di; Wang Yilong; Wei Siye; Wang Bin; Jiang Qiujing; Lu Bin; Song Yunxue; Hu Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    Passive air samplers were deployed to collect both gas and particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiyuan between 2009 and 2010. Annual average concentrations of BaP equivalent concentration (B[a]P eq ) in background, rural and urban areas were 2.90 ± 0.29, 23.2 ± 30.8 and 27.4 ± 28.1 ng/m 3 , respectively, with higher concentration in the winter than in other seasons. The median B[a]P eq concentrations of annual inhalation exposure were estimated to be in the range of 103–347 ng/d for all population groups in rural as well as in urban areas. The median values of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure for all groups were basically larger than 10 −6 , with higher values in winter than in other seasons and in urban than in rural area. In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups and that of females was a little higher than males. - Highlights: ► The median values of ILCR were higher in winter than in other seasons. ► The median values of ILCR were higher in urban than in rural area. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of females was a little higher than males. ► Exposure level and the cancer slope factor influenced the ILCR greatly. - The inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric PAHs changed for different seasons, areas and population groups in Taiyuan, China.

  17. Temporal variability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a receptor site of the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Z. V.; Torres, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    This contribution documents the presence and possible origin of PAHs, their temporal concentration patterns and correlations with other air pollutants in the so-called Puebla-Tlaxcala valley. This valley is located to the east of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and is a very populated region which suffers of air pollution problems. Emission sources of PAHs include open burning, industrial boilers, automobiles and trucks, but vehicle emissions vary significantly depending on the use of: fuel, engine type and catalytic converter. An important emission source in the Puebla-Tlaxcala region is wood burning for cooking. Therefore, it is expected to have contributions of PAHS from this type of sources. PAHs measurements were performed in an air pollution semi-rural receptor site (Chipilo) southwest the City of Puebla, using an aerosol photoelectric sensor (PAS 2000 CE) to measure the concentration of PAHs and a diffuser charger (DC 2000 CE) to evaluate the active surface (DC) of the particles. The measuring period included March and April of 2012 during the ozne season in central Mexico. The use of these two sensors in parallel has been identified as a fingerprint technique to identify different types of particles from several combustion processes and is a useful tool to identify quantitatively the major source of emissions, as well as to describe thephysical and chemical characteristics of the particles. Correlations between PAHs and DC, with NOx and CO, together with an analysis of atmospheric transport may approximate the possible origin of these particles. The coefficient PAHs / DC associated with backward trajectory analysis represents a tool to identify potential areas of emission. The correlation between PAHs and NOx emissions reflects association with diesel combustion, while the correlation between PAHs and CO, the combustion of gasoline. The results show that vehicle emissions are the major source of PAHs with an associated increase in the concentration of

  18. The implications of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) on the sorption of typical parent, alkyl and N/O/S-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruilong; Tan, Huadong; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Shaopeng; Wang, Yinghui; Yu, Kefu

    2018-07-30

    Microplastics sorption of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was the core processes that cause negative effects to biota, and their influencing factors and related mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the impacts of water extractable organic matter (WEOM), an important source of endogenous dissolved organic matter in mangrove sediment, on the sorption coefficients of typical parent, alkyl and N/O/S-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microplastics. The presence of L-WEOM (D) impeded the PAHs sorption as the coefficients (K f ) decreased to 10.17 (μg/kg)/(μg/L) n and to 8.39 (μg/kg)/(μg/L) n for fluorene (Flu) and 1-methyl-fluorene (1-M-Flu), respectively. The K f exhibited good linear relationships with the aliphaticity of L-WEOM (p  0.05). Under the presences of L-WEOM (D), (S) and (K), the lone pair electrons of N/O/S-containing PAHs was the dominant factor contributing to the obvious difference of the K f values from the other groups. Moreover, the largest impact of L-WEOM (D) on the Flu sorption was in the case of PVC microplastics, while almost no effect was in the case of PS microplastics. The findings of our work may be helpful in improving our understanding of the role of WEOM on the sorption of PAHs to microplastics in the field mangrove sediment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F.; Mdachi, S.J.M.; Streck, Georg; Brack, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F. [Department of Aquatic Environment and Conservation, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 60091, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Mdachi, S.J.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35062, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Streck, Georg [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Brack, Werner [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de

    2009-01-15

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low. - PAH contamination may pose hazards to benthos but limited risks to humans.

  1. Contamination levels, toxicity profiles, and emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of an emerging industrial town and its environs in the Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofomatah, Anthony C; Okoye, Chukwuma O B

    2017-11-09

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in Nnewi and its environs were determined. Soil samples were extracted by sonication using hexane:dichloromethane (3:1) mixture and determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The total PAHs concentrations (μg/kg) were 16.681 to 46.815, being three orders of magnitude lower than the maximum permissible level recommended by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). These concentrations followed this order: industrial ˃ farmlands ˃ commercial ˃ residential. Industrialized areas showed higher concentrations (p ˂ 0.05) than the other areas. Diagnostic ratios show that the major source of PAHs was the open burning of industrial and agricultural wastes, as shown by the occurrence of highest concentrations in the industrial areas, followed by agricultural areas. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent values showed non-pollution and very low toxicity. Nevertheless, it was clear that industrialization has had some impact on the PAHs levels in soils and the total environment in this area and could be problematic with time, except with proper environmental management.

  2. Revisiting shape selectivity in liquid chromatography for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - six-ring and seven-ring Cata-condensed PAH isomers of molecular mass 328 Da and 378 Da.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Sander, Lane C; Wilson, Walter B; Wise, Stephen A

    2018-01-01

    The relationship of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) retention on a polymeric C 18 stationary phase and the shape of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated for three-ring to seven-ring cata-condensed isomers. We report the first RPLC separation for six-ring and seven-ring cata-condensed PAH isomers. Correlations of LC retention and shape parameters (length-to-breath ratio, L/B and thickness, T) were investigated for 2 three-ring isomers (molecular mass 178 Da), 5 four-ring isomers (molecular mass 228 Da), 11 five-ring isomers (molecular mass 278 Da), 17 six-ring isomers (molecular mass 328 Da), and 20 seven-ring isomers (molecular mass 378 Da). Significant linear correlations were found for all isomer groups (r = 0.71 to 0.94). Nonplanarity of the PAH isomers was found to influence retention (i.e., nonplanar isomers eluting earlier than expected based on L/B) and linear correlations of retention vs. T for isomer groups containing nonplanar isomers were significant (r = 0.71 to 0.86). Graphical abstract.

  3. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement. - Highlights: • We compare PAH and azaarene concentrations in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealed pavement. • Concentrations in coal-tar-sealcoat runoff greatly exceeded those in asphalt-sealcoat runoff. • Decreases in azaarenes and LMW PAHs were offset by increases in HMW PAHs. • PAH concentrations in coal-tar-sealcoat runoff remained high for months after application. - Concentrations of PAHs in runoff from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat continue to be elevated for at least 3 months following sealcoat application

  4. Organic sources in the Egyptian seawater around Alexandria coastal area as integrated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omayma E. Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the first comprehensive survey and provides important data on PAHs concentration and composition in Alexandria coastal seawater. The compositions of PAHs determined in all samples are to be used as chemical markers for identifying different sources of PAH pollution in the surface seawater of Alexandria coastal area. The quantitative analysis of PAHs showed a concentration ranging from 8970.939 to 1254756.00 ng/L, which exceeds the maximum admissible concentrations of PAHs (200 ng/L for the water standard of European Union. The calculated diagnostic ratios suggested that the sources of PAHs at the majority of the studied area are derived primarily from pyrogenic sources from incomplete fuel combustion of the boats and vehicle engines with lesser amounts of PAHs contributed from petrogenic sources. Some stations displayed mixed sources in comparison to many other studied marine systems, the PAH concentrations detected at Alexandria area were considered to be higher and pose health risks to aquatic bodies.

  5. Biotransformation of the high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 and identification of new products of non-alternant PAH biodegradation by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Allyn H; Nishi, Shinro; Hatada, Yuji; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    A pathway for the biotransformation of the environmental pollutant and high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by a soil bacterium was constructed through analyses of results from liquid chromatography negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI(–)-MS/MS). Exposure of Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 to benzo[k]fluoranthene resulted in transformation to four-, three-and two-aromatic ring products. The structurally similar four-and three-ring non-alternant PAHs fluoranthene and acenaphthylene were also biotransformed by strain KK22, and LC/ESI(–)-MS/MS analyses of these products confirmed the lower biotransformation pathway proposed for benzo[k]fluoranthene. In all, seven products from benzo[k]fluoranthene and seven products from fluoranthene were revealed and included previously unreported products from both PAHs. Benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation proceeded through ortho-cleavage of 8,9-dihydroxy-benzo[k]fluoranthene to 8-carboxyfluoranthenyl-9-propenic acid and 9-hydroxy-fluoranthene-8-carboxylic acid, and was followed by meta-cleavage to produce 3-(2-formylacenaphthylen-1-yl)-2-hydroxy-prop-2-enoic acid. The fluoranthene pathway converged with the benzo[k]fluoranthene pathway through detection of the three-ring product, 2-formylacenaphthylene-1-carboxylic acid. Production of key downstream metabolites, 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and 1-naphthoic acid from benzo[k]fluoranthene, fluoranthene and acenaphthylene biotransformations provided evidence for a common pathway by strain KK22 for all three PAHs through acenaphthoquinone. Quantitative analysis of benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation by strain KK22 confirmed biodegradation. This is the first pathway proposed for the biotransformation of benzo[k]fluoranthene by a bacterium. PMID:24325265

  6. Biotransformation of the high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 and identification of new products of non-alternant PAH biodegradation by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Allyn H; Nishi, Shinro; Hatada, Yuji; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kanaly, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    A pathway for the biotransformation of the environmental pollutant and high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[k]fluoranthene by a soil bacterium was constructed through analyses of results from liquid chromatography negative electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI(-)-MS/MS). Exposure of Sphingobium sp. strain KK22 to benzo[k]fluoranthene resulted in transformation to four-, three- and two-aromatic ring products. The structurally similar four- and three-ring non-alternant PAHs fluoranthene and acenaphthylene were also biotransformed by strain KK22, and LC/ESI(-)-MS/MS analyses of these products confirmed the lower biotransformation pathway proposed for benzo[k]fluoranthene. In all, seven products from benzo[k]fluoranthene and seven products from fluoranthene were revealed and included previously unreported products from both PAHs. Benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation proceeded through ortho-cleavage of 8,9-dihydroxy-benzo[k]fluoranthene to 8-carboxyfluoranthenyl-9-propenic acid and 9-hydroxy-fluoranthene-8-carboxylic acid, and was followed by meta-cleavage to produce 3-(2-formylacenaphthylen-1-yl)-2-hydroxy-prop-2-enoic acid. The fluoranthene pathway converged with the benzo[k]fluoranthene pathway through detection of the three-ring product, 2-formylacenaphthylene-1-carboxylic acid. Production of key downstream metabolites, 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and 1-naphthoic acid from benzo[k]fluoranthene, fluoranthene and acenaphthylene biotransformations provided evidence for a common pathway by strain KK22 for all three PAHs through acenaphthoquinone. Quantitative analysis of benzo[k]fluoranthene biotransformation by strain KK22 confirmed biodegradation. This is the first pathway proposed for the biotransformation of benzo[k]fluoranthene by a bacterium. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Determination of uptake kinetics (sampling rates) by lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Lebo, J.A.; Clark, R.C.; Gibson, V.L.; Gala, W.R.; Echols, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    The use of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) is becoming commonplace, but very little sampling rate data are available for the estimation of ambient contaminant concentrations from analyte levels in exposed SPMDs. We determined the aqueous sampling rates (R(s)s; expressed as effective volumes of water extracted daily) of the standard (commercially available design) 1-g triolein SPMD for 15 of the priority pollutant (PP) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at multiple temperatures and concentrations. Under the experimental conditions of this study, recovery- corrected R(s) values for PP PAHs ranged from ???1.0 to 8.0 L/d. These values would be expected to be influenced by significant changes (relative to this study) in water temperature, degree of biofouling, and current velocity- turbulence. Included in this paper is a discussion of the effects of temperature and octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)); the impacts of biofouling and hydrodynamics are reported separately. Overall, SPMDs responded proportionally to aqueous PAH concentrations; i.e., SPMD R(s) values and SPMD-water concentration factors were independent of aqueous concentrations. Temperature effects (10, 18, and 26 ??C) on Rs values appeared to be complex but were relatively small.The use of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) is becoming commonplace, but very little sampling rate data are available for the estimation of ambient contaminant concentrations from analyte levels in exposed SPMDs. We determined the aqueous sampling rates (Rss; expressed as effective volumes of water extracted daily) of the standard (commercially available design) 1-g triolein SPMD for 15 of the priority pollutant (PP) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at multiple temperatures and concentrations. Under the experimental conditions of this study, recovery-corrected Rs values for PP PAHs ranged from ???1.0 to 8.0 L/d. These values would be expected to be influenced by

  8. Identification and determination of the contribution of iron-steel manufacturing industry to sediment-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large shallow lake of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liu; Bai, Ya-Shu; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Tian-Hu; Yin, Da-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    Seventeen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were determined in surface sediments collected from the Chaohu Lake (a large shallow lake in eastern China) and its tributaries. Both diagnostic ratios and a receptor model (positive matrix factorization, PMF) were applied to identify and determine the contribution of a local iron-steel manufacturing plant located in the Nanfei River (NFR) to the Chaohu Lake basin. The results show that sites located in the downstream of the steel plant contained concentrations of 17 PAH (Σ 17 PAH) approximately two orders of magnitudes higher than those from other sites. Five factors were identified by the PMF model, including industrial waste, wood/biomass burning, diagenetic origin, domestic coal combustion, and industrial combustion. Our findings suggest that sediments in the downstream of the plant and in the western part of the Chaohu Lake were predominantly affected by industrial coal combustion. A mixture of pyrolytic origins impacted urban sediments in the upstream of the plant, whereas diagenetic origins along with coal and biomass burning were suggested to influence the eastern part and rural tributaries of the lake. To assess the potential ecological risk and toxicity caused by the iron-steel plant, sediment toxicity was evaluated by the PMF model, sediment quality guideline, and toxic equivalent factors. All of the three approaches suggested PAH accumulation in the NFR sediments could produce significant adverse ecological effects and half of the sediment toxicity in the NFR may be attributed to the emissions from the iron-steel plant. Some rural locations also exhibited PAH concentrations above probable effects, most likely contributed by wood/biomass burning.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides in water columns from the Pearl River and the Macao harbor in the Pearl River Delta in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Yang, Qingshu; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying; Wang, Zhishi

    2004-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in suspended particles and dissolved phase from the Baiertang water column and the Macao water column samples as collected from the Guangzhou channel of the Pearl River and the Macao harbor, where the sediments were heavily contaminated with organic pollutants. Total OCPs concentration varies from 23.4 to 61.7 ng/l in Baiertang water column and from 25.2 to 67.8 ng/l in Macao column, while total PAHs concentration varies from 987.1 to 2878.5 ng/l in the Baiertang water column and from 944.0 to 6654.6 ng/l in the Macao column. The vertical distribution profiles of pollutants and the partition of pollutants between particles and dissolved phases indicate that the sediments in Baiertang act as an important source of selected pollutants, and the pollutants in water of this region were mainly originated from the release and re-suspension of contaminants residing in the sediments. The sediments in Macao harbor act as a reservoir for organochlorine pesticides, such as DDTs mainly introduced by river inflow from Xijiang and PAHs input by brackish water from the Lingdingyang estuary. Combustion of fossil fuels and petroleum input are the main sources of PAHs in the Macao water column, while combustion of fossil fuels and coal is responsible for the PAHs in the Baiertang water column. The ratios of DDT/(DDD+DDE) for the Macao water column samples demonstrate that such chemicals were input into this region in recent times.

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Hopanes in Plastic Resin Pellets as Markers of Oil Pollution via International Pellet Watch Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Bee Geok; Takada, Hideshige; Hosoda, Junki; Kondo, Atsuko; Yamashita, Rei; Saha, Mahua; Maes, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Oil pollution in the marine environment is an unavoidable problem due to chronic input from local sources, particularly in urban areas and oil spills. Oil pollution not only causes immediate physical damages to surrounding wildlife but also some components, including higher molecular weight PAHs, can persist in the environment for many years and pose insidious threats to the ecosystem. Long-term and nontargeted monitoring of oil pollution is important. This paper examines the ability of International Pellet Watch (IPW) for initial identification and monitoring of oil pollution by analysing PAHs and hopanes in plastic pellet samples collected globally by volunteers. PAH concentrations with the sum of 28 parent and methyl PAHs vary geographically, ranging from 0.035 to 24.4 µg/g-pellet, in line with the presence or absence of local oil pollution sources, such as oil refineries or oil spill sites. This suggests that PAHs can be used to monitor petroleum pollution in IPW. A colour-coded categorization for PAH concentrations within IPW monitoring also is established to facilitate data presentation and understanding. PAH concentrations are generally higher in Western Europe, especially around the North Sea shorelines, moderate in East Asia and North America, and lower in South East Asia, Oceania, South America, and Africa. Hopane concentrations, with a smaller spatial variation (1.7-101 µg/g-pellet), showed no spatial pattern. This result and the poor correlation between hopanes and PAHs suggest that hopane concentrations alone are unsuited to identify petroleum pollution. However, hopane compositions can be used for fingerprinting sources of oil pollution. Thus, both PAHs and hopanes in IPW allow for low cost, remote monitoring of global oil pollution.

  11. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: Linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E. C.

    2013-01-01

    treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑Clipid eq.), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments...... could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LClipid eq...

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland soils under different land uses in a coastal estuary: toxic levels, sources and relationships with soil organic matter and water-stable aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Wang, Junjing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the soils from industrial, wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites to characterize their distributions, toxic levels and possible sources in the Pearl River Estuary and identify their relationships with soil organic matter (SOM) and water-stable aggregates (WSAs). Our results indicate that the average concentration of total PAHs in this region reached a moderate pollution level, which was higher than that in other larger estuaries in Asia. The average level of total PAHs in industrial soils was 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.3 times higher than those in soils from wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites, respectively. Greater accumulation of PAHs occurred in the middle and/or bottom soil layers where 3-ring PAHs were dominant. Industrial soils also exhibited the highest toxic levels with the highest toxic equivalent concentrations of PAHs, followed by wharf and milldam soils, and the cropland and wetland soils had the lowest toxicity. The diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs primarily originated from biomass and coal combustion at industrial and milldam sites, and petroleum combustion was determined to be the primary source of PAHs at the wharf, cropland and wetland sites. Both 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs in the milldam and wharf soils were significantly positively correlated with the SOM, whereas the 4,5,6-ring PAHs and total PAHs in industrial soils and the 2-ring PAHs in cropland soils were significantly negatively correlated with the SOM. In addition, large WSAs also exhibited a significant positive correlation with PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of fluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for TCE and PAH degrading bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Franck, M.; Brey, J.; Scott, D.; Lanclos, K.; Fliermans, C.

    1996-07-01

    Historically, methods used to identify methanotrophic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon-degrading (PAH) bacteria in environmental samples have been inadequate because isolation and identification procedures are time-consuming and often fail to separate specific bacteria from other environmental microorganisms. Methanotrophic bacteria have been isolated and characterized from TCE-contaminated soils (Bowman et al. 1993; Fliermans et al., 1988). Fliermans et al., (1988) and others demonstrated that cultures enriched with methane and propane could cometabolically degrade a wide variety of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons including ethylene; 1,2-cisdichloroethylene (c-DCE); 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE); vinyl chloride (VC); toluene; phenol and cresol. Characterization of select microorganisms in the natural setting is important for the evaluation of bioremediation potential and its effectiveness. This realization has necessitated techniques that are selective, sensitive and easily applicable to soils, sediments, and groundwater (Fliermans, et al., 1994). Additionally these techniques can identify and quantify microbial types in situ in real time

  14. The abundance of health-associated bacteria is altered in PAH polluted soils-Implications for health in urban areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudra Parajuli

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs has been connected to chronic human health disorders. It is also well-known that i PAH contamination alters soil bacterial communities, ii human microbiome is associated with environmental microbiome, and iii alteration in the abundance of members in several bacterial phyla is associated with adverse or beneficial human health effects. We hypothesized that soil pollution by PAHs altered soil bacterial communities that had known associations with human health. The rationale behind our study was to increase understanding and potentially facilitate reconsidering factors that lead to health disorders in areas characterized by PAH contamination. Large containers filled with either spruce forest soil, pine forest soil, peat, or glacial sand were left to incubate or contaminated with creosote. Biological degradation of PAHs was monitored using GC-MS, and the bacterial community composition was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing. Proteobacteria had higher and Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes had lower relative abundance in creosote contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. Earlier studies have demonstrated that an increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased abundance of the phyla Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes are particularly associated with adverse health outcomes and immunological disorders. Therefore, we propose that pollution-induced shifts in natural soil bacterial community, like in PAH-polluted areas, can contribute to the prevalence of chronic diseases. We encourage studies that simultaneously address the classic "adverse toxin effect" paradigm and our novel "altered environmental microbiome" hypothesis.

  15. Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content; Metodutveckling foer indirekt bestaemning av PAH-halt utgaaende fraan maett momentan CO-halt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingman, Rolf; Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult Stockholm AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the project 'Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content' is to investigate the possibility to develop a method for continuous optimisation of NO{sub x}-emissions by decreased air ratio, without significant increase of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as PAH. The general idea has been to find a indirect online method to predict the emissions of heavier hydrocarbons by: - creating a correlation between the content of CO and PAH, - controlling the air ratio by the CO-content, and - integrating the calculated PAH-content from CO-content. Today many boilers are operated with a low air ratio to minimise the NO{sub x} content and the NO{sub x}-fee. A low ratio increases the risk of high CO contents in the flue gas as well as increased contents of VOC and PAH. Other boilers are operated with high air ratios in order to minimise the CO content, which in some cases will result in unnecessary high NO{sub x} emissions. One of the main difficulties in optimising the air ratio to the most environmental friendly level is the lack of a suitable and well proven PAH instrument. There are today no available instruments for instantaneous and continuous measurement of PAH. PAH is normally measured as an average value during a period of at least one hour. It is not possible to detect short peaks. The development of the CO-method has been based on data from a CFB-boiler in Korsta in Sundsvall (Vaermeforskrapport 541). The data shows a clear correlation between THC and CO. The correlation seems to be mostly dependent of moisture content and load. The development presented in the report shows that it is possible to find a method to predict the PAH content from the CO-content in the flue gas. The next phase aims to improve and implement the method, by measurements and adaptation in a plant. The practical use of the method is as a tool to optimise the emission of CO, NO{sub x}, THC and PAH and/or to predict the PAH-emission during

  16. Spatial correlation analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediments between Taihu Lake and its tributary rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhonghua; Jiang, Yu; Li, Qianyu; Cai, Yongjiu; Yin, Hongbin; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Jin

    2017-08-01

    The residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from Taihu Lake basin (THB) and Taihu Lake body (THL) were investigated. Higher concentrations of both PAHs and OCPs were observed for THB than THL. The concentrations of PAHs ranged from 12.1 to 2281.1ngg -1 dw for THB and from 11.4 to 209.9ngg -1 dw for THL, while OCPs ranged from 16.3 to 96.9ngg -1 dw and from 16.8 to 61.9ngg -1 dw for THB and THL, respectively. Spatial distribution of PAHs and OCPs showed a high correspondence with the land use of THB and surrounding anthropogenic activity. Additionally, the Kriging interpolation plots demonstrated that the major upper reaches were more polluted than the lower reaches, indicating the transport of pollutants with the water flow direction. The organic matter contents were responsible for OCP distribution other than PAHs due to the biodegradation capacity difference of chemicals. Similar compositions of pollutants were observed with 3- and 4-ringed PAHs accounting for a total of 78.3% for THB and 85.8% for THL, respectively. HCHs and DDTs were predominant OCPs, which contributed to 31.8% and 21.7% for THB, and 33.6% and 21.9% for THL, respectively. The isomeric and parent substance/metabolite ratios implied fresh inputs of DDTs and chlordanes, while HCHs and endosulfans were mainly from old usage. PAH source identification performed by diagnostic ratios demonstrated the mixed sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic ones dominated by grass, wood and coal combustion. Furthermore, the hazard quotient (HQ) based on the consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) was used to evaluate the ecological risks of sediments. Although no frequently adverse effects were observed, potential ecological risks induced by Ant, BaA, γ-HCH, dieldrin, p,p'-DDT and chlordanes should also be paid attention to considering the continuous inputs of such pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lead and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface soil from day care centres in the city of Bergen, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugland, Toril; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Volden, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Surface soil (0-2 cm) quality in 87 day care centres in the city of Bergen, Norway has been studied. Approximately 45% of the day care centres contained Pb and PAH values above recommended action levels. There are clear variations between different areas of the city. The old central part of the city hosts most of the contaminated day care centres. In suburban areas most of the day care centres have Pb and PAH concentrations below action levels. City fires, gas work emission, lead-based paint, and traffic are probably important anthropogenic contamination sources, together with uncontrolled transportation of soil from contaminated to clean areas. Geological or other natural sources are probably not an important contributor to the high levels of lead and PAH. - Surface soil in 45% of the studied day care centres was contaminated by lead and PAH

  18. Elucidating the urban levels, sources and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Pakistan: Implications for changing energy demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Naima; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Junaid, Muhammad; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2018-04-01

    Due to the severe fuel crisis in terms of natural gas, a paradigm shift in fuel combustion (diesel, gasoline, and biomass) may increase the atmospheric emissions and associated health risks in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to investigate the concentration of fugitive PAHs in the environment (outdoor and indoor settings), associated probabilistic health risk assessment in the exposed population, and possible linkage between fuel consumption patterns and PAHs emissions in twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan. Results showed that the mean PAHs concentrations (air: 2390pgm -3 ; dust: 167ngg -1 ) in the indoor environment were higher than that of the outdoor environment (air: 2132pgm -3 ; dust: 90.0ngg -1 ). Further, the source apportionment PCA-MLR receptor model identified diesel and gasoline combustion as the primary PAHs sources in the urban and sub-urban settings. Estimated life cancer risk (LCR) potential via inhalation to indoor PAHs was higher with a probability of 2.0 cases per 10,000 inhabitants as compared to outdoor exposure. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) model from exposure to dust bound PAHs showed risk in the order of ingestion>dermal>inhalation for various exposure pathways. Likewise, estimated daily intake (EDI) model reflects that PAHs in surface dust enter into the human body mainly through the respiratory system because EDI for breathing was reported higher than that of oral intake. Therefore, adoption of sustainable fuels is recommended to meet the energy requirements and to reduce PAHs emissions and related health risks in the twin cities of Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). gas chromatographic method; Determinazione degli idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA). Metodo gascaromatografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichini, E; Viviano, G [Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1997-12-01

    The method enables the determination of 4- to 6- ring PAHs and particularly of carcinogenic PAHs regulated in Italy. This revision is based on the results of a national collaborative study. Sample extract, obtained by a method described in a previous report (Rapporto ISTISAN: 90/33) is cleaned up by thin layer chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography; identification is confirmed by mass spectrometry. An intralaboratory quality control program is described.

  20. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Foreman, William T

    2014-05-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  2. A geochemical record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the late Paleozoic Ice Age: The relationship between atmospheric pCO2, climate and fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, M. T.; Harris, G.; Montanez, I. P.; DiMichele, W.; Eley, Y.; White, J. D.; Wilson, J. P.; McElwain, J.; Poulsen, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    The late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) represents a dynamic period of widespread glacial/interglacial cycling as the earth underwent a major transition from an icehouse to greenhouse climate. During this transition period, pCO2 is shown to have varied by several hundred ppm and within the predicted range for anthropogenic change. Glacial/interglacial changes in atmospheric pCO2 during this time are associated with restructuring of tropical forests and carbon cycle dynamics. At present however, there is considerable debate over the potential hydrologic and fire-frequency feedbacks associated with this climatic variability. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are produced from the incomplete combustion of organic matter and are shown to be preserved over hundreds of millions of years. Thus, these organic compounds provide a potential record of the feedbacks between global biogeochemical systems and fire. We analyzed sedimentary organic matter from the Illinois Basin spanning the late Carboniferous glacial-interglacial cycles to assess the evolution of fire during this period. Our data show a decrease in the overall abundance of high molecular weight PAHs (HMW) from 312 to 304 Myr with significant variability that is coincident with the general timing of pCO2 cycling. Decreasing PAH abundance is also coincident with a proposed long-term change in pO2 and may reflect the influence of atmospheric oxygen in regulating fire occurrence and hydrologic cycling in tropical ecosystems in the late Carboniferous.

  3. Study of poly hydrocarbons compounds (PAH) in air particulates and their variations in several periods of the year in Damascus city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Kharfan, K.; Mahzia, Y.; Ibrahim, S.

    2012-01-01

    A study of poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with suspended particulate and their variations in several periods of the year in several sites locations in Damascus City during the period of 2008-2009 was carried out. The studied sites were Zablatani (Ahdaasharea), Mohafaza square, Roken Eddin (Shamdine square) and Mezh (near AlAkram mosque), in addition to Soja as a reference site. The average concentrations of PAH associated with total particulates ranged between 0.97-70.11 ng/m3, which are higher than the average concentrations in the reference site (0.0013-0.75 ng/m3). Also, results have showed that the concentrations were maximal in the dry period comparing with the wet period, while they increased in the day period by 42% in comparison with the night period and decreased in the holidays, which indicates the impact of the traffic. In addition, the highest concentrations were recorded in Zablatani location in all study stages. On the other hand, the results of distribution study of the PAHs according to particle size showed that 81.65-93.51% of the total concentration of these compounds were associated with respiratory particulates (PM10). (author)

  4. Feasibility of treating aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils using ethyl lactate-based Fenton treatment via parametric and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Chiew Lin; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the feasibility of treating aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils using ethyl lactate (EL)-based Fenton treatment via a combination of parametric and kinetic studies. An optimised operating condition was observed at 66.7 M H2O2 with H2O2/Fe(2+) of 40:1 for low soil organic carbon (SOC) content and mildly acidic soil (pH 6.2), and 10:1 for high SOC and very acidic soil (pH 4.4) with no soil pH adjustment. The desorption kinetic was only mildly shifted from single equilibrium to dual equilibrium of the first-order kinetic model upon ageing. Pretreatment with EL fc = 0.60 greatly reduced the mass transfer coefficient especially for the slow desorbed fraction (kslow) of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs, largely contributed by the concentration gradient created by EL-enhanced solubility. As the major desorption obstacle was almost fully overcome by the pretreatment, the pseudo-first-order kinetic reaction rate constant of PAHs degradation of aged soils was statistically discernible from that of freshly contaminated soils but slightly reduced in high SOC and high acidity soil. Stabilisation of H2O2 by EL addition in combination with reduced Fe(2+) catalyst were able to slow the decomposition rate of H2O2 even at higher soil pH.

  5. Heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of different land uses in Erbil metropolis, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadian, Keyvan; Sacchi, Elisa; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam

    2016-11-01

    Urban soil contamination is a growing concern for the potential health impact on the increasing number of people living in these areas. In this study, the concentration, the distribution, the contamination levels, and the role of land use were investigated in Erbil metropolis, the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan. A total of 74 soil samples were collected, treated, and analyzed for their physicochemical properties, and for 7 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn) and 16 PAH contents. High concentrations, especially of Cd, Cu Pb, and Zn, were found. The Geoaccumulation index (I geo ), along with correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn have similar behaviors and spatial distribution patterns. Heavy traffic density mainly contributed to the high concentrations of these metals. The total concentration of ∑PAHs ranged from 24.26 to 6129.14 ng/g with a mean of 2296.1 ng/g. The PAH pattern was dominated by 4- and 5-ring PAHs, while diagnostic ratios and PCA indicated that the main sources of PAHs were pyrogenic. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) values ranged from 3.26 to 362.84 ng/g, with higher values in central parts of the city. A statistically significant difference in As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and ∑PAH concentrations between different land uses was observed. The highest As concentrations were found in agricultural areas while roadside, commercial, and industrial areas had the highest Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and ∑PAH contents.

  6. Assessment of the advanced oxidation process , photo-fenton, on the degradation of polyaromatics hydrocarbons contained on the aqueous part of oil in superficial sea water; Avaliacao do processo oxidativo avancado, foto-fenton, na degradacao dos hidrocarbonetos poliaromaticos contidos na fracao soluvel do petroleo em agua superficial salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita C.R. da; Silva, Valdinete L. da; Paim, Ana Paula Silveira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Rocha, Otidene R.S. da; Duarte, Marcia M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The pollution for oil has been one of the main ambient problems of the last decades. It exists an increasing interest in the study of the destination and forms of disappearance of the constituent hydrocarbons of the oil aiming at the development of more efficient methods of removal of the same ones of the environment. With objective to evaluate the process photo-fenton, in the treatment of the contaminated saline superficial water with polyaromatics hydrocarbons (HPAs) contained in the crude oil, mounted an experiment using reactor of black light, the hydrogen peroxide as oxidant agent. After the degradation the samples had been submitted to the analysis in the GC-MS, and for the 31 specters it was observed that the best ones resulted had been gotten when mmol of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in 8 was used h of exposition to the irradiation and with pH of the equal system the 4. In the specter of this assay the characteristic peaks of the HPAs disappear completely or appear in a lowly intensities, proving that it had rupture of aromatical rings consequently and the degradation of the same ones or that its concentrations meet below of the limit of detention of the equipment. Soon, with the gotten results it can be concluded that the POAs, in special the process photo-fenton, is presented as a viable alternative in the contaminated saline superficial water treatment with the HPAs contained in the rude oil. (author)

  7. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 of urban, industrial and semi-urban areas in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamhari, Anas Ahmad; Sahani, Mazrura; Latif, Mohd Talib; Chan, Kok Meng; Tan, Hock Seng; Khan, Md Firoz; Mohd Tahir, Norhayati

    2014-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM10) associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined at two sites within the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur (urban, KL) and Petaling Jaya (industrial, PJ), and one site outside the Klang Valley, Bangi (semi-urban, BG). This study aimed to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 and the source of origin through principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio analysis. This study also assessed the health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq. PM10 samples were collected on glass fiber filter paper using a High Volume Sampler (HVS) for 24 h between September 2010 and April 2011. The filter papers with PM10 were extracted using dichloromethane-methanol (3:1), and analysis of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined using gas chromatography with mass spectra (GC-MS). Health risk assessment was estimated using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) which quantitatively estimate the exposure risk for age specific group. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations throughout seasonal monsoons for KL, PJ and BG ranged from 1.33 ng m-3 to 2.97 ng m-3, 2.24 ng m-3 to 4.84 ng m-3 and 1.64 ng m-3 to 3.45 ng m-3 respectively. More than 80% of total PAHs consisted of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP). The presence of benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP) with high concentration at all locations suggested a source indicator for traffic emission. PCA and diagnostic ratio analysis also suggested substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. The use of total BaPeq concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities, where they contributed to more than 50% of the potential health risk. Health risk assessment showed that the estimated incremental

  8. Molecular epidemiology studies of carcinogenic environmental pollutants. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental pollution on exogenous and oxidative DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Peter B; Singh, Rajinder; Kaur, Balvinder; Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Kalina, Ivan; Popov, Todor A; Garte, Seymour; Taioli, Emanuela; Gabelova, Alena; Cebulska-Wasilewska, Antonina

    2003-11-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental air pollution is known to be associated with an increased carcinogenic risk. The individual contribution to this risk derived from specific carcinogenic chemicals within the complex mixture of air pollution is less certain, but may be explored by the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. Measurements of biomarkers of exposure, of effect and of susceptibility provide information of potential benefit for epidemiological and cancer risk assessment. The application of such techniques has been mostly concerned in the past with the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) that are associated with particulate matter in air pollution, and has showed clear evidence of genotoxic effects, such as DNA adducts, chromosome aberrations (CA) and ras oncogene overexpression, in environmentally exposed Czech and Polish populations. We are currently extending these studies by an investigation of populations exposed to environmental pollution in three European countries, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic and Bulgaria. This pays particular attention to PAHs, but also investigates the extent of radically induced (oxidative) DNA damage in the exposed populations. Policemen, bus drivers and controls, who carried personal monitors to determine their exposures to PAHs have been studied, and blood and urine were collected. Antioxidant and dietary status were assessed in these populations. Stationary monitors were also used for ambient air monitoring. Amongst the parameters studied in the biological samples were: (a) exposure biomarkers, such as PAH adducts with DNA, p53 and p21(WAF1) protein levels, (b) oxidative DNA damage, (c) the biological effect of the exposure by measurement of chromosome damage by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) or conventional methods, and (d) polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolising and DNA repair enzymes. Repair ability was also measured by the Comet assay. In vitro systems are being evaluated to

  9. Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingman, Rolf; Schuster, Robert

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the project 'Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content' is to investigate the possibility to develop a method for continuous optimisation of NO x -emissions by decreased air ratio, without significant increase of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as PAH. The general idea has been to find a indirect online method to predict the emissions of heavier hydrocarbons by: - creating a correlation between the content of CO and PAH, - controlling the air ratio by the CO-content, and - integrating the calculated PAH-content from CO-content. Today many boilers are operated with a low air ratio to minimise the NO x content and the NO x -fee. A low ratio increases the risk of high CO contents in the flue gas as well as increased contents of VOC and PAH. Other boilers are operated with high air ratios in order to minimise the CO content, which in some cases will result in unnecessary high NO x emissions. One of the main difficulties in optimising the air ratio to the most environmental friendly level is the lack of a suitable and well proven PAH instrument. There are today no available instruments for instantaneous and continuous measurement of PAH. PAH is normally measured as an average value during a period of at least one hour. It is not possible to detect short peaks. The development of the CO-method has been based on data from a CFB-boiler in Korsta in Sundsvall (Vaermeforskrapport 541). The data shows a clear correlation between THC and CO. The correlation seems to be mostly dependent of moisture content and load. The development presented in the report shows that it is possible to find a method to predict the PAH content from the CO-content in the flue gas. The next phase aims to improve and implement the method, by measurements and adaptation in a plant. The practical use of the method is as a tool to optimise the emission of CO, NO x , THC and PAH and/or to predict the PAH-emission during continuous operation

  10. Nature and sources of particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmospheric environment of an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callén, M.S.; López, J.M.; Iturmendi, A.; Mastral, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The total PAH associated to the airborne particulate matter (PM10) was apportioned by one receptor model based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) in an urban environment (Zaragoza city, Spain) during February 2010–January 2011. Four sources associated with coal combustion, gasoline, vehicular and stationary emissions were identified, allowing a good modelling of the total PAH (R 2 = 0.99). A seasonal behaviour of the four factors was obtained with higher concentrations in the cold season. The NE direction was one of the predominant directions showing the negative impact of industrial parks, a paper factory and a highway located in that direction. Samples were classified according to hierarchical cluster analysis obtaining that, episodes with the most negative impact on human health (the highest lifetime cancer risk concentrations), were produced by a higher contribution of stationary and vehicular emissions in winter season favoured by high relative humidity, low temperature and low wind speed. -- Highlights: ► PMF receptor model apportioned four sources associated to the total PAH in Zaragoza. ► The sources were: vehicular, coal combustion, gasoline and stationary emissions. ► Samples were additionally classified according to hierarchical cluster analysis. ► The stationary and vehicular emissions factors showed higher risk for human health. ► Low temperature, wind speed and high relative humidity favoured this negative impact. -- Episodes with the most negative impact on human health regarding PAH were produced by a higher contribution of stationary and vehicular emissions in winter season

  11. DELTA-13C VALUES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) COLLECTED FROM TWO CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundwater samples were collected from the American Creosote Works (ACW) Superfund site in Pensacola, Florida in June and September 1994. Sampling wells were located along a transect leading away from the most contaminated area. PAHs were extracted from the groundwater samples w...

  12. Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) in the sediments of gulf of Pozzuoli (Campania, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Donadio, Carlo; Mangoni, Olga; Bolinesi, Francesco; Stanislao, Corrado; Trifuoggi, Marco; Toscanesi, Maria; Di Natale, Gabriella; Ferrara, Luciano

    2017-11-15

    Most of the literature reports on the impact of the former Bagnoli brownfield on the pollution of Bagnoli Bay, embedded in the Gulf of Pozzuoli (GoP). Thus, we studied concentrations, types and sources of sixteen PAHs (EPA) in sediments at 22 sites along 5 transects covering the entire area of GoP. Outstanding levels of PAHs were found, varying from 7.1μgg -1 to 2.5 E+3μgg -1 . Sediments collected at sites far away from Bagnoli were found to be polluted to a similar extent than those facing the brownfield site, with values>100μgg -1 . Total PAHs levels in the sediments of GoP were higher by thirty-eleven thousand fold than those reported by other studies from various marine sites in the world. Transit axes of fine and very fine sands and diagnostic indexes revealed a common pyrolytic PAHs pollution spreading from the Bagnoli plant to all GoP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pulkrabová, J.; Stupák, M.; Švarcová, A.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Ambrož, Antonín; Šrám, Radim; Hajslová, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 562, aug (2016), s. 640-647 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : PAHs * human milk * GC-MS/MS * infants Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  14. Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Oysters After the Wu Yi San Oil Spill in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Moonkoo

    2017-07-01

    After the collision of the Singapore-registered oil tanker M/V Wu Yi San into the oil terminal of Yeosu, Korea on January 31, 2014, approximately 900 m 3 of oil and oil mixture were released from the ruptured pipelines. The oil affected more than 10 km of coastline along Gwangyang Bay. Emergency oil spill responses recovered bulk oil at sea and cleaned up the stranded oil on shore. As part of an emergency environmental impact assessment, region-wide monitoring of oil contamination in oyster had been conducted for 2 months. Highly elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected at most of the spill affected sites. Four days after the spill, the levels of PAHs in oysters increased dramatically to 627-81,000 ng/g, the average of which was 20 times higher than those found before the spill (321-4040 ng/g). The level of PAHs in these oysters increased until 10 days after the spill and then decreased. Due to the strong tidal current and easterly winter winds, the eastern part of the Bay-the Namhae region-was heavily contaminated compared with other regions. The accumulation and depuration of spilled oil in oyster corresponded with the duration and intensity of the cleanup activities, which is the first field observation in oil spill cases. Human health risk assessments showed that benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations exceeded levels of concern in the highly contaminated sites, even 60 days after the spill.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from lake Lille Lungegårdsvannet in Bergen, western Norway; appraising pollution sources from the urban history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Malin; Klug, Martin; Eggen, Ola Anfin; Ottesen, Rolf Tore

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to determine the temporal character and concentration variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) during the last 5,400 years in urban lake sediments through a combination of dating and chemo-stratigraphical correlation. We investigate the chemical history of the city of Bergen and determine the effect of specific point sources, as well as diffuse sources, and also help assess the risk of remediation plans. By using several organic compounds, metals and cyanide, we demonstrate the more accurate timing of sedimentation. The PAH results display very low concentrations in pre-industrial times, followed by a general increase that is punctuated by a few significant concentration increases. These most probably correspond to urban fires, domestic heating, gaswork activity and most recently due to traffic pollution. At the same depth as a significant rise in concentration from background levels occurred, the high relative occurrence of low-molecular-weight PAH-compounds, such as naphthalene, were replaced by heavier compounds, thus indicating a permanent change in source. The general observation, using ratios, is that the sources have shifted from pre-industrial pure wood and coal combustion towards mixed and petrogenic sources in more recent times. The (14)C dating provides evidence that the sedimentation rate stayed more-or-less constant for 4,500 years (from 7200 to 2700 calibrated years before present (calyr BP)), before isostatic uplift isolated the water body and the sedimentation rate decreased or sediments were eroded. The sediment input increased again when habitation and industrial activities encroached on the lake. The (14)C dating does not provide consistent data in that period, possibly due to the fact that the lake has been used as a waste site throughout the history of Bergen city. Therefore, results from (14)C dating from anthropogenically influenced sediments should be used with caution. © 2013.

  16. Chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 2013 Rayong oil spill-affected coastal areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, S; Hattayanone, M; Tipmanee, D; Suttinun, O; Khumsup, C; Kittikoon, I; Hirunyatrakul, P

    2018-02-01

    Among Southeast Asian countries, Thailand has gradually accustomed to extremely prompt urbanization, motorization, and industrialization. Chonburi and Rayong provinces are two provinces involved in "eastern seaboard" industrial zones, which is an emerging economic region that plays a key role in Thailand's economy. The 2013 Rayong oil spill did not only cause damages to the coastal and maritime environment, but also undermine trust in the overall safety system and negatively affect the investor confidence. In this study, 69 coastal soils collected around Koh Samed Island were chemically extracted and analyzed for 15 PAHs by using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra system comprising a high-speed performance system with ASSP function. In this study, numerous diagnostic binary ratios were applied to identify potential sources of PAHs. Advanced statistical techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with principal component analysis were also conducted for further investigations of source identifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pressurized liquid extraction using water/isopropanol coupled with solid-phase extraction cleanup for semivolatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and alkylated PAH homolog groups in sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Burbank, T.L.; Olson, M.C.; Iverson, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are recognized as environmentally relevant for their potential adverse effects on human and ecosystem health. This paper describes a method to determine the distribution of PAH and alkylated homolog groups in sediment samples. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), coupled with solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, was developed to decrease sample preparation time, to reduce solvent consumption, and to minimize background interferences for full-scan GC-MS analysis. Recoveries from spiked Ottawa sand, environmental stream sediment, and commercially available topsoil, fortified at 1.5-15 ??g per compound, averaged 94.6 ?? 7.8%, 90.7 ?? 5.8% and 92.8 ?? 12.8%, respectively. Initial method detection limits for single-component compounds ranged from 20 to 302 ??g/kg, based on 25 g samples. Results from 28 environmental sediment samples, excluding homologs, show 35 of 41 compounds (85.4%) were detected in at least one sample with concentrations ranging from 20 to 100,000 ??g/kg. The most frequently detected compound, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, was detected in 23 of the 28 (82%) environmental samples with a concentration ranging from 15 to 907 ??g/kg. The results from the 28 environmental sediment samples for the homolog series showed that 27 of 28 (96%) samples had at least one homolog series present at concentrations ranging from 20 to 89,000 ??g/kg. The most frequently detected homolog series, C2-alkylated naphthalene, was detected in 26 of the 28 (93%) environmental samples with a concentration ranging from 25 to 3900 ??g/kg. Results for a standard reference material using dichloromethane Soxhlet-based extraction also are compared. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Abstracts of the first ORNL workshop on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: characterization and measurement with a view toward personnel protection. [PAH from coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R.B. (comp.)

    1976-11-01

    This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at a workshop on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as those produced by coal conversion technologies. Their often carcinogenic nature imposes the obligation of providing adequate protection and measurement devices for workers and for the general public. The primary questions are as follows: What should be measured. Where and how should it be measured. What are the maximum permissible concentrations. This workshop and future workshops are intended to bring these problems into better focus and to help establish a consensus on what needs to be done in order to provide a dosimetry effort that will ensure the adequate protection of personnel. There were 32 attendees of this one-day meeting. The papers and discussions included current industrial hygiene practices, the development of government agency guidelines for worker protection, and a wide range of analytical techniques for PAH detection, some of which are still in the research stage and are unproven. The workshop was held at ORNL on February 26, 1976.

  19. Development and validation of analytical methodology for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in sediments. Assesment of Pedroso Park dam, Santo Andre, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Carlos Fernando de

    2009-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by being considered persistent contaminants, by their ubiquity in the environment and by the recognition of their genotoxicity, have stimulated research activities in order to determine and evaluate their sources, transport, processing, biological effects and accumulation in compartments of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this work, the matrix studied was sediment collected at Pedroso Park's dam at Santo Andre, SP. The analytical technique employed was liquid chromatography in reverse phase with a UV/Vis detector. Statistics treatment of the data was established during the process of developing the methodology for which there was reliable results. The steps involved were evaluated using the concept of Validation of Chemical Testing. The parameters selected for the analytical validation were selectivity, linearity, Working Range, Sensitivity, Accuracy, Precision, Limit of Detection, Limit of quantification and robustness. These parameters showed satisfactory results, allowing the application of the methodology, and is a simple method that allows the minimization of contamination and loss of compounds by over-handling. For the PAHs tested were no found positive results, above the limit of detection, in any of the samples collected in the first phase. But, at the second collection, were found small changes mainly acenaphthylene, fluorene and benzo[a]anthracene. Although the area is preserved, it is possible to realize little signs of contamination. (author)

  20. Levels, fingerprint and daily intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bread baked using wood as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchio, Santino; Papuzza, Vera

    2009-05-30

    Concentrations, fingerprint and daily intake of 16 PAHs in 15 bread samples baked using wood as fuel are examined in this work. Analysis was performed by GC/MS after saponification of the samples and clean up of the extract. The total concentration of the 16 analytes varies from 6 to 230 microg/kg on dry weight (d.w.). The better extraction procedure was estimated by analyzing test-samples and using different extraction methods. Additionally, for every analyzed sample, the extraction yield has been determined by the use of surrogate standards. Extraction yields were never less than 77% and in most cases almost 100%. The profiles of PAHs (percentage) are similar for all the analyzed samples but are different from those reported when other types of fuels are taken in consideration. The daily intake of PAHs was found to range between 1.6 and 68 microg day(-1), while the intake of B[a]P ranges from 0.33 to 8.0 microg day(-1). These results are considerably lower than the slope factor for 14 of the 15 analyzed samples.

  1. Seasonal variation, spatial distribution and source apportionment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at nineteen communities in Xi'an, China: The effects of suburban scattered emissions in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Cao, Junji; Dong, Zhibao; Guinot, Benjamin; Gao, Meiling; Huang, Rujin; Han, Yongming; Huang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of PM 2.5 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at urban residential, commercial area, university, suburban region, and industry in Xi'an, during summer and winter time at 2013. Much higher levels of total PAHs were obtained in winter. Spatial distributions by kriging interpolations principle showed that relative high PAHs were detected in western Xi'an in both summer and winter, with decreasing trends in winter from the old city wall to the 2 nd -3rd ring road except for the suburban region and industry. Coefficients of diversity and statistics by SPSS method demonstrated that PAHs in suburban have significant differences (t < 0.05) with those in urban residential in both seasons. The positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) modeling indicated that biomass burning (31.1%) and vehicle emissions (35.9%) were main sources for PAHs in winter and summer in urban, which different with the suburban. The coal combustion was the main source for PAHs in suburban region, which accounted for 46.6% in winter and sharp decreased to 19.2% in summer. Scattered emissions from uncontrolled coal combustion represent an important source of PAHs in suburban in winter and there were about 135 persons in Xi'an will suffer from lung cancer for lifetime exposure at winter levels. Further studies are needed to specify the effluence of the scattered emission in suburban to the city and to develop a strategy for controlling those emissions and lighten possible health effects. - Highlights: • PM 2.5 bound PAHs were investigated in nineteen communities of Xi'an at 2013. • High amount of uncontrolled coal combustion were happened in suburban at winter. • About 135 persons in Xi'an will suffer from lung cancer for exposure at winter. - The high contribution of coal combustion for PAHs in suburban region demonstrated the high amount of scattered emissions in winter.

  2. HYDROCARBON POLLUTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ostrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper is aimed to estimate the current level of hydrocarbon pollution of the marine environment in the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The paper discusses the results of three-year studies conducted in 2012-2014 within the framework of Roshydromet’s Programme of monitoring of transboundary waters of the Caspian Sea. Spatial distribution of concentrations of hydrocarbons (total and polyaromatic in water and bottom sediments of the area was analysed. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons were determined by means of infrared spectrometry and PAHs – of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.Results. The range of the total hydrocarbons in the area’s water is from slight traces to 240 µg/l, in sediments – from traces to 114 µg/g (dry weight. Total concentrations of PAHs in water varied from traces to 321 ng/l, in sediments – from traces to 699 ng/g (dry weight. For the source identification, data of satellite monitoring of the area were used. The data showed increasing input of hydrocarbons coming into the marine environment with discharges from vessels.Conclusion. The results of these studies are compared to those of previous research and show that the level of hydrocarbons in the area is typical for slightly polluted areas.

  3. Integrated Use of n-Alkanes and PAH to Evaluate the Anthropogenic Hydrocarbon Sources and the Toxicity Assessment of Surface Sediments from the Southwestern Coasts of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golshan Shirneshan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH compounds and normal alkanes form a large group of undegradable environmental contaminats. This study aims to determine the sources and distribution of oil pollution (PAH compounds and normal alkanes in the sediments of the southwestern coastal areas of the Caspian Sea and to compare their levels with the relevant standards. For this purpose, 18 surface sediment samples were collected from depths of 10, 20, and 50 meters along two transects in the vertical direction located in the coastal areas of Sangachin and Hashtpar (Gilan Province. The samples were then examined using mass-spectrometric gas chromatography. The origins of n-alkanes were identified using CPI index (0.76-0.95, U/R (3.30‒6.57, and Pristane/Phytane (0.21‒0.42. The sources of PAHs were determined using the index ratios of LMW/HMW (1.93‒13.37, Phenanthrene/Anthracene (11.44‒ 16.7, Chrysene/Benzo (a anthracene (4.69‒10/33, Fluoranthene/Pyrene (0.53‒0.69, and MP/P (0.05‒0.08. Results confirmed the dominant petrogenic source of the hydrocarbons found in the region. The total concentrations of 30 aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs in the sediments ranged from 823.8 to 3899.5 µg/g and from 626.95 to 3842.5362 ng/g, respectively. Comparison of the measured PAH concentrations with US sediment quality guidelines revealed that the levels of naphthalene, fluorine, Acenaphthylene, and Acenaphthene exceeded the ERLs at stations with depths of 50m in Sangachin and Hashtpar while comparisons with Canadian standards indicated that they were higher than PELs at all the stations sampled. A major point of great concern is the high concentration of naphthalene as the most toxic PAH compound, which naturally warrants due attention to adopt appropriate management programs.

  4. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m3 and 114 ng/m3, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m3. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban–rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%–77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air–soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m2/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air–soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs. PMID:21669328

  5. Sampling of high molecular weight hydrocarbons with adsorbent tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemberg, B.

    1996-12-01

    Adsorption tubes have been used to determine the content of hydrocarbons in gas samples from small scale combustion and gasification of biomass. Compounds from benzene (mw 78) to indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene (mw 276) have been examined. The results show that it is possible to analyze polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with 4 aromatic rings (mw 202). Detection limits for these compounds are 3 . PAH with higher molecule weight can be identified and quantified in samples with high amounts of PAH e.g. at gasification of biomass. Sampling on adsorption tubes is extremely quick and easy. The tube is inserted in the gas of interest and the sample is sucked through the tube with a pump. Sampling times of 2-10 minutes are often sufficient. High moisture content in the gas may result in losses of the most volatile compounds, when drying. Even very low concentrations of water in the tube may cause ice formation in the cold-trap and the sample will be destroyed. The analysis is unfortunately time-consuming because the desorption oven must be cooled between every analysis. This will reduce the number of samples which can be analyzed per day. The tubes can be stored for several weeks before analysis without deterioration. 4 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Zero-valent iron/iron oxide-oxyhydroxide/graphene as a magnetic sorbent for the enrichment of polychlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and phthalates prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamani, Anna A; Douvalis, Alexios P; Stalikas, Constantine D

    2013-01-04

    A composite magnetic material consisting of zero-valent iron, iron oxide-oxyhydroxide and graphene was synthesized and used successfully as a sorbent for the micro solid-phase extraction of PAHs, PCBs and phthalic acid esters. The components endow the composite with multiple characteristics such as adsorption capability and facile removal due to its magnetic properties. Due to the π-π electrostatic stacking property of graphene, the high specific surface area and the adsorption capability of both components, the resulting black flaky Fe(0)/iron oxide-oxyhydroxide/graphene composite showed high extraction efficiency for the target analytes from water samples. Compared with the neat graphene, the composite material has improved properties in terms of microextraction capabilities as both the hydrophobic graphene and zero-valent iron participate in the adsorption of the hydrophobic molecules. The precision from the extraction of all three groups of compounds was lower than 7% and the recoveries were from 90 to 93% from a spiked lake water sample. The high recoveries in relation to the low final volume of the desorption solvent ensure high preconcentration efficiency and a promising sorbent for analytical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of alkanes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tar-balls collected from the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandru, Kuhan; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Anita, Sofia; Shahbazi, Azadeh; Sakari, Mahyar; Bahry, Pourya Shahpoury; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2008-05-01

    The East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia faces the South China Sea and is vulnerable to oil pollution because of intense petroleum production activities in the area. The South China Sea is also a favored route for supertankers carrying crude oil to the Far East. Consequently, oil spills can occur, causing pollution and contamination in the surrounding areas. Residual oil spills stranded on coastal beaches usually end up as tar-balls. Elucidating the sources of tar-balls using a molecular marker approach is essential in assessing environmental impacts and perhaps settling legal liabilities for affected parties. This study utilizes a multimodal molecular marker approach through the use of diagnostic ratios of alkanes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine the source, distribution and weathering of tar-balls. Hopane ratios (e.g., C29/C30, and summation C31-C35/C30 ratios) were used to identify the sources of tar-balls. The weathering effects were distinguished by using alkanes, namely the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and low molecular weight/high molecular weight (L/H) ratios. Similarly, PAHs were also used for the determination of weathering processes undergone by the tar-balls. This multimodal molecular marker gave a very strong indication of the sources of tar-balls in this study. For example, 16 out of 17 samples originated from South East Asian Crude Oil (SEACO) with one sample from Merang, Terengganu originating from North Sea Oil (Troll). The TRME-2 sample may have come from a supertanker's ballast water discharge. The second possibility is that the tar-ball may have been transported via oceanographic currents. All 'weathered' sample characterizations were based on the presence of UCM and other ratios. The multimodal molecular marker approach applied in this study has enabled us to partially understand the transport behavior of tar-balls in the marine environment and has revealed insights into the weathering process of tar-balls.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Okuba, Tomoaki; Takada, Hideshige

    2001-01-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and offshore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analysed for hopanes and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east cost seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photo-oxidation. (Author)

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M P; Okuda, T; Takada, H

    2001-12-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and off-shore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analyzed for hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east coast seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have been originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photooxidation.

  10. Which hydrogen atom of toluene protonates PAH molecules in (+)-mode APPI MS analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Arif; Ghosh, Manik Kumer; Choi, Myung Chul; Choi, Cheol Ho; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-03-01

    A previous study (Ahmed, A. et al., Anal. Chem. 84, 1146-1151( 2012) reported that toluene used as a solvent was the proton source for polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) that were subjected to (+)-mode atmospheric-pressure photoionization. In the current study, the exact position of the hydrogen atom in the toluene molecule (either a methyl hydrogen or an aromatic ring hydrogen) involved in the formation of protonated PAH ions was investigated. Experimental analyses of benzene and anisole demonstrated that although the aromatic hydrogen atom of toluene did not contribute to the formation of protonated anthracene, it did contribute to the formation of protonated acridine. Thermochemical data and quantum mechanical calculations showed that the protonation of anthracene by an aromatic ring hydrogen atom of toluene is endothermic, while protonation by a methyl hydrogen atom is exothermic. However, protonation of acridine by either an aromatic ring hydrogen or a methyl hydrogen atom of toluene is exothermic. The different behavior of acridine and anthracene was attributed to differences in gas-phase basicity. It was concluded that both types of hydrogen in toluene can be used for protonation of PAH compounds, but a methyl hydrogen atom is preferred, especially for non-basic compounds.

  11. PAH processing in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micelotta, Elisabetta Rita

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most common chemical compounds on Earth. These big molecules are naturally present in crude oil and coal deposits, and are also formed by incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels, hence they are found in car exhaust, cigarette smoke and

  12. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage effluent, continental and coastal waters from the Northwestern Mediterrean Sea: Comparison between two contrasted catchment areas (Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigue, Catherine; Ferretto, Nicolas; Méjanelle, Laurence; Tedetti, Marc; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Goutx, Madeleine

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed from sewage treatment plant waters and surface waters collected in continental (rivers), harbour and off-shore marine sites from Marseilles Bay and Vermeille coastal areas between 2009 and 2013 (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France). After collection, water samples were first filtered on glass fiber filters, then PAHs from the dissolved phase were extracted using liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, while those from particles were treated according to Bligh and Dyer method. After a possible purification step, extracts were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Regardless of the study area, dissolved and particulate PAH (18 parents + alkylated homologues) concentration averages were 150.2 ± 140.5 ng l-1and 39.4 ± 71.2 ng l-1, respectively. Interestingly, the concentration in dissolved PAHs was on average 3.8 higher than the concentration in particulate PAHs. In addition, a gradient of PAH concentrations was observed from coastal waters with the highest values in harbours and outlet sewage effluents and the lowest values in off-shore marine waters. Intermediate concentrations were recorded in continental waters. In the Marseilles Bay, dissolved PAH concentrations were significantly higher and associated to increased signatures of unburned and combusted fossil fuels, mainly from heating, during the cold period (November-April). In contrast, unburned petroleum signature dominated in the warm period (May-October), emphasizing the intense shipping traffic and urban/industrial activities occurring in one of the largest Mediterranean harbour and city. Conversely, in the Vermeille coastal waters, dissolved PAH concentrations were higher during the warm period when particulate PAHs displayed the lowest concentrations, suggesting a seasonal related partition between dissolved and particulate PAHs. In addition, in the Vermeille coastal waters, PAHs were dominated by

  13. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bladder cancer: evaluation from a gene-environment perspective in a hospital-based case-control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Navarro, Patricio; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Camacho, María; Álvarez-León, Eva E; Valencia-Santana, Jorge A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been linked to bladder cancer. Objective: To evaluate the role of PAHs in bladder cancer, PAHs serum levels were measured in patients and controls from a case-control study. Methods: A total of 140 bladder cancer patients and 206 healthy controls were included in the study. Sixteen PAHs were analyzed from the serum of subjects by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Serum PAHs did not appear to be related to bladder cancer risk, although the profile of contamination by PAHs was different between patients and controls: pyrene (Pyr) was solely detected in controls and chrysene (Chry) was exclusively detected in the cases. Phenanthrene (Phe) serum levels were inversely associated with bladder cancer (OR = 0·79, 95%CI = 0·64–0·99, P = 0·030), although this effect disappeared when the allelic distribution of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms of the population was introduced into the model (multinomial logistic regression test, P = 0·933). Smoking (OR = 3·62, 95%CI = 1·93–6·79, P<0·0001) and coffee consumption (OR = 1·73, 95%CI = 1·04–2·86, P = 0·033) were relevant risk factors for bladder cancer. Conclusions: Specific PAH mixtures may play a relevant role in bladder cancer, although such effect seems to be highly modulated by polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25291984

  14. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stine N; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-07-02

    A 7-day mixture toxicity experiment with the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida was conducted, and the effects were linked to three different mixture exposure parameters. Passive dosing from silicone was applied to tightly control exposure levels and compositions of 12 mixture treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑C(lipid eq.)), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LC(lipid eq 50)) of 133 mmol kg(-1) lipid in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg(-1) lipid). Finally, the effective lethal toxic unit (LTU50) of 1.20 was rather close to the expected value of 1. Altogether, passive dosing provided tightly controlled mixture exposure in terms of both level and composition, while ∑a, ∑C(lipid eq.), and ∑TU allowed baseline toxicity to be linked to mixture exposure.

  15. Comparison of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs concentrations in urban and natural forest soils in the Atlantic Forest (São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bourotte

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies about pollution by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in tropical soils and Brazil are scarce. A study was performed to examine the PAHs composition, concentrations and sources in red-yellow Oxisols of remnant Atlantic Forest of the São Paulo State. Sampling areas were located in an urban site (PEFI and in a natural one (CUNHA.The granulometric composition, pH, organic matter content and mineralogical composition were determined in samples of superficial soils. The sum of PAHs (ΣHPAs was 4.5 times higher in the urban area than in the natural one. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene have been detected in the soils of both areas and presented similar concentrations. Acenaphthene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds. Pyrene was twice more abundant in the soils of natural area (15 µg.kg-1 than of the urban area and fluoranthene was the dominant compound (203 µg.kg-1 in urban area (6.8 times higher than in the natural area. Some compounds of higher molecular weight, which are tracers of vehicular emissions showed significant concentrations in urban soils. Pyrene represented 79% of ΣPAHs whereas it has not been detected in natural soils. The results showed that forest soils in urban area are characterized by the accumulation of high molecular weight compounds of industrial and vehicular origin.Estudos sobre a poluição por Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (HPAs são escassos em solos tropicais e no Brasil. Um estudo foi realizado para examinar a composição, as concentrações e fontes de HPAs encontrados em Latossolos vermelho-amarelo (Oxissolos, remanescentes de Mata Atlântica no Estado de São Paulo. As áreas de estudos localizaram-se em um sítio urbano (PEFI e um natural (CUNHA. A composição granulométrica, pH, teor de matéria orgânica e composição mineralógica foram determinados em amostras de solo superficial. A soma dos HPAs analisados (ΣHPAs foi 4,5 vezes mais

  16. Patterns of benthic bacterial diversity in coastal areas contaminated by heavy metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marina eQuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes in coastal sediments are fundamental players in the ecosystem functioning and regulate processes relevant in the global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, knowledge on benthic microbial diversity patterns across spatial scales, or as function to anthropogenic influence, is still limited. We investigated the microbial diversity in two of the most chemically polluted sites along the coast of Italy. One site is the Po River Prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea, which receives contaminant discharge from one of the largest rivers in Europe. The other site, the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, is a chronically-polluted area due to steel production plants, oil refineries, and intense maritime traffic. We collected sediments from 30 stations along gradients of contamination, and studied prokaryotic diversity using Illumina sequencing of amplicons of a 16S rDNA gene fragment. The main sediment variables and the concentration of eleven metals, PCBs and PAHs were measured. Chemical analyses confirmed the high contamination in both sites, with concentrations of PCBs particularly high and often exceeding the sediment guidelines. The analysis of more than 3 millions 16S rDNA sequences showed that richness decreased with higher contamination levels. Multivariate analyses showed that contaminants significantly shaped community composition. Assemblages differed significantly between the two sites, but showed wide within-site variations related with spatial gradients in the chemical contamination, and the presence of a core set of OTUs shared by the two geographically distant sites. A larger importance of PCB-degrading taxa was observed in the Mar Piccolo, suggesting their potential selection in this historically-polluted site. Our results indicate that sediment contamination by multiple contaminants significantly alter benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas, and suggests considering the potential contribution of the resident microbes to

  17. Estimating the in situ sediment-porewater distribution of PAHs and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic impacted sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Peter H. Arp; Gijs D. Breedveld; Gerard Cornelissen [Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Oslo (Norway). Department of Environmental Engineering

    2009-08-15

    It has become increasingly apparent that the in situ sediment-porewater distribution behavior of organic compounds within anthropogenic impacted sediments is quite diverse, and challenging to generalize. Traditional models based on octanol-water partitioning generally overestimate native porewater concentrations, and modern approaches accounting for multiple carbon fractions, including black carbon, appear sediment specific. To assess the diversity of this sorption behavior, we collected all peer-reviewed total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized in situ sediment-porewater distribution coefficients, K{sub TOC}, for impacted sediments. This entailed several hundreds of data for PAHs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and chlorinated benzenes, covering a large variety of sediments, locations, and experimental methods. Compound-specific KTOC could range up to over 3 orders of magnitude. Output from various predictive models for individual carbonaceous phases found in impacted sediments, based on peer-reviewed polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs), Raoult's Law, and the SPARC online-calculator, were tested to see if any of the models could consistently predict literature K{sub TOC} values within a factor of 30 (i.e. about 1.5 orders of magnitude, or half the range of K{sub TOC} values). The Raoult's Law model and coal tar PP-LFER achieved the sought-after accuracy for all tested compound classes, and are recommended for general, regional-scale modeling purposes. As impacted sediment-porewater distribution models are unlikely to get more accurate than this, this review underpins that the only way to accurately obtain accurate porewater concentrations is to measure them directly, and not infer them from sediment concentrations. 86 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Biological impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on european eel Definition and validation of bio-marker useful in situ; Impact biologique des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP) sur l'anguille europeenne. Definition et validation de biomarqueurs in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buet, A.

    2002-02-15

    In the natural environment, especially in aquatic ecosystems, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can have deleterious effects. The aim of this project was to assess the biological impact of PAH on the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and to define a series of bio-markers useful in situ. The originality of this field study comes from the variety of the considered factors and the choice of a protected site. Bio-markers validation requires the knowledge of normal variations of the selected parameters. Therefore, the first objective of our study was to assess the effects of natural factors on the eco-physiological characteristics of an eel population collected from the National Reserve of Camargue. Bio-metric and metabolic parameters were measured as well as enzymatic markers of contamination: biotransformation activities (EROD, GST, UDPHT), oxidative stress activities (CAT, SOD, GPx, SeGPx) and membrane activities (ATPases, AChE). The temporal evolutions and the nutritional state influenced significantly the answer of these indicators of contamination in the studied population. On the other hand, the effect of sexual maturity and parasitism by the nematode Anguillicola crassus was reduced. After confirming a local atmospheric contribution in PAH, we tried to understand the accumulation patterns of these compounds within organisms and organs. Therefore, the analysis of PAH were performed on the bile, the liver and the muscle samples of European eels. Whatever the season, the sampling site, the sexual maturity and the sanitary state of eels, the PAH tissue contamination was general but fluctuating. The localization of the contamination gives information about its persistence. Chronologically, bile accumulation reflects a recent intoxication, whereas the liver gives a medium-term contamination image and the muscle impregnation represents a longer-term storage. The PAH concentrated in fat tissues but these concentrations were not systematically

  19. MECHANISTIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PCDDS/FS, PCNS, PAHS, CLPHS, AND CLBZS IN MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extensive investigation was done to understand polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) formation mechanisms and their relationship with other organic compounds. PCDD/F, chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated naphthalenes were ...

  20. Atmospheric concentrations and air-soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2011-07-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m³ and 114 ng/m³, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m³. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban-rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%-77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air-soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m²/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air-soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of two different dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction methods followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysis in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Chi; Chen, Pai-Shan; Huang, Shang-Da

    2014-03-01

    Novel sample preparation methods termed "up-and-down shaker-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UDSA-DLLME)" and "water with low concentration of surfactant in dispersed solvent-assisted emulsion dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (WLSEME)" coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been developed for the analysis of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. For UDSA-DLLME, an up-and-down shaker-assisted emulsification was employed. Extraction was complete in 3min. Only 14 μL of 1-heptanol was required, without a dispersive solvent. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range was 0.08-100 µg L(-1), and the LODs were in the range 0.022-0.060 µg L(-1). The enrichment factors (EFs) ranged from 392 to 766. Relative recoveries were between 84% and 113% for river, lake, and field water. In WLSEME, 9 μL of 1-nonanol as extraction solvent and 240 μL of 1 mg L(-1) Triton X-100 as surfactant were mixed in a microsyringe to form a cloudy emulsified solution, which was then injected into the samples. Compared with other surfactant-assisted emulsion methods, WLSEME uses much less surfactant. The linear range was 0.08-100 µg L(-1), and the LODs were 0.022-0.13 µg L(-1). The EFs ranged from 388 to 649. The relative recoveries were 86-114% for all three water specimens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to PM 2.5 in Urban Coimbatore, India with Emphasis on Source Apportionment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mohanraj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coimbatore is one of the fast growing industrial cities of Southern India with an urban population of 1.9 million. This study attempts to evaluate the trends of airborne fine particulates (PM 2.5 and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH on them. The PM 2.5 mass was collected in polytetra fluoroethylene filters using fine particulate sampler at monthly intervals during March 2009 to February 2010. PAHs were extracted from PM 2.5 and estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography. It is alarming to note that PM 2.5 values ranged between 27.85 and 165.75 μg/m3 and exceeded the air quality standards in many sampling events. The sum of 9 PAHs bound to PM 2.5 in a single sampling event ranged from 4.1 to 1632.3 ng/m3. PAH diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis results revealed vehicular emissions and diesel-powered generators as predominant sources of PAH in Coimbatore.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of PAH oxidation by magnesium peroxides and iron oxides mixtures as reactive material for groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valderrama, C.; Gamisans, X.; Cortina, J.L.; Farran, A.; Marti, V.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings. They represent the largest group of compounds that are mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic and are included in the priority pollutants lists. In recent years, increasing attention has been drawn to PAH contamination in aquatic sediments. Biological aerobic degradation was earlier the promoted option to degrade PAH in soils and sediments; however this could be extended for decades. In this direction, addition of oxygen has been proposed as an effective way to speed up their degradation in contaminated soil or groundwater. This objective could be achieved either by adding oxygen releasing compounds or by using an oxygen pump. The latter option is not economically defensible due to the enormous power needed. The use of ex-situ technologies to treat contaminated soils is in general not effective due to the high costs and work efforts demanded to remove big quantities of soil. For that reason, the use of in-situ technologies based on degradation processes has been identified as a suitable approach. These technologies would reduce costs and environmental impacts due to reduction of soil transportations and digging activities. In-situ degradation of recalcitrant contaminants could be achieved by using strong oxidant agents by soil injection or by using permeable treatment wall or zones. Oxidants typically used have been hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate and ozone. In situ chemical oxidation using Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and iron(II) mixtures) has been evaluated for BTEX and poly-aromatic compounds. The successful application of in situ Fenton's reagent chemical oxidation is based on an understanding of oxidant chemistry and the geology, hydrogeology and chemistry of the contaminant site. Choosing the proper conditions requires the determination of 1) the better way to promote the formation of the OH radicals that react with the

  4. 生物质炭中多环芳烃的潜在环境风险研究进展%Progress of the Research on Potential Environmental Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs)in Biochar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增波; 王聪颖; 蒋新; 王芳

    2016-01-01

    作为土壤改良剂和环境污染修复材料,生物质炭在近年来得以广泛应用。生物质炭制备过程中会产生一定量的多环芳烃(PAHs),对其潜在环境负面效应和风险尚缺乏应有的认识。本文总结了生物质炭中PAHs的形成机理、影响因素(包括原材料、裂解温度、裂解升温速率和保留时间等)、总量和生物有效含量及其分析方法,旨在为生物质炭在环境中的安全应用提供理论依据和技术参考。%Biochar is a kind of highly aromatic carbonized material produced through thermal decomposition of biomass under reductive conditions(i.e. in the absence of or with a limited supply of oxygen). Biochar is found to be able to play an important role in mitigating global climate change,removing pollutants from water and soil,as well as maintaining functions of ecosystems. During the pyrolytic processes of biological materials,a certain amount of organic pollutants,such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),would form and remain on the surface of the biochar. Consequently,increasing application of biochar may bring about a certain risk to the environment. Current researches pay much attention to the positive effects biochar may have,while ignoring its potential hazards to the ecosystem. To assess environmental risk of the PAHs in biochar,it is necessary to determine the contents of total and bioavailable PAHs in biochar. At present,the following four methods,i.e. Soxhlet extraction, accelerated solvent extraction(ASE),ultrasonication extraction and thermal extraction,are available for determining total PAHs in biochar. However,the four methods were often used to determine semivolatile organic compounds in solid matrix(soil or sediment). Among the four methods,the Soxhlet extraction and ASE methods are the most commonly used ones,because of their higher recoveries of target compounds. However,when they are used to extract PAHs in biochar,PAHs recoveries depend

  5. Structure-reactivity correlation of diesel soot and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyls in biofuel emissions; Struktur-Reaktivitaets-Korrelation von Dieselruss und Charakterisierung von PAHs und Carbonylen im Abgas von Biokraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauer, Markus

    2010-12-29

    This work reports on the determination of the structure-reactivity correlation of soot using Raman microscopy (RM) and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), as well as on changes in the emission level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbonyls at the combustion of biofuels. To characterize the reactivity of soot the combustion behaviour of model- and diesel soot has been determined by means of TPO in the presence of oxygen. In this context, spark-discharge soot and graphite powder were applied as model substances, and EURO VI and IV diesel soot as real-diesel soots. The structure of soot samples was investigated by RM and structural changes during the TPO were observed. In order to make a statement about the changes in PAH and carbonyl compound emissions during combustion of biofuels, samples were taken at different engine testbenches. Fossil fuel, biodiesel and vegetable oil were used during this study, as well as fuel mixtures with different biofuel fractions.

  6. Structure-reactivity correlation of diesel soot and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyls in biofuel emissions; Struktur-Reaktivitaets-Korrelation von Dieselruss und Charakterisierung von PAHs und Carbonylen im Abgas von Biokraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauer, Markus

    2009-12-29

    This work reports on the determination of the structure-reactivity correlation of soot using Raman microscopy (RM) and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), as well as on changes in the emission level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbonyls at the combustion of biofuels. To characterize the reactivity of soot the combustion behaviour of model- and diesel soot has been determined by means of TPO in the presence of oxygen. In this context, spark-discharge soot and graphite powder were applied as model substances, and EURO VI and IV diesel soot as real-diesel soots. The structure of soot samples was investigated by RM and structural changes during the TPO were observed. In order to make a statement about the changes in PAH and carbonyl compound emissions during combustion of biofuels, samples were taken at different engine testbenches. Fossil fuel, biodiesel and vegetable oil were used during this study, as well as fuel mixtures with different biofuel fractions.

  7. Impact of substrate amendment on the polyaromatic hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    Ikhajiagbe et al. 771. Table 1. Physical and chemical properties of soil and sawdust used before soil contamination. Parameter. Units. Soil. Sawdust. pH. -. 5.58. 5.59. EC. µs/cm. 300. 330. TOC. %. 0.41. 1.99. Total Nitrogen. %. 0.10. 0.15. EA meq/100 g soil. 0.20. 0.30. Na meq/100 g soil. 10.90. 11.10. K meq/100 g soil. 1.65.

  8. Mu (H) radical addition to flat and curved polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addison-Jones, B.; Brodovitch, J.C.; Ghandi, K.; Percival, P.W.; Schuth, J. [Simon Fraser Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    A study was conducted in which muonium-substituted free radicals formed from fullerenes, pyrene and pyrenophane were examined to determine how curvature of an unsaturated carbon skeleton affects radical adduct formation. The question is of relevance to C{sub 70}. It was demonstrated that in order to mimic a fullerene it is necessary to introduce curvature to the pyrene system. 2 figs.

  9. Total and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons in Water, Sediment, Fin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    waste discharge should be upheld by all industries near these waters in ... significant environmental risk to public health (Chen ... Study Area: Badagry Creek and Ologe Lagoon are part ... from Agbara industrial and residential area. ..... stations was 0.000 ± 0.000µg/g. ... an oil polluted mangrove wetland in the Niger Delta.

  10. Synthesis of extended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by oxidative tandem spirocyclization and 1,2-aryl migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Zhanqiang; Si, Weili; Oniwa, Kazuaki; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Jin, Tienan

    2017-04-01

    The extended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have received significant interdisciplinary attention due to their semiconducting applications in diverse organic electronics as well as intriguing structural interests of well-defined graphene segments. Herein, a highly efficient oxidative spirocyclization and 1,2-aryl migration tandem synthetic method for the construction of extended polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been developed. The CuCl-catalyst/PhCO3 tBu or DDQ oxidation system in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid enables the selective single-electron oxidation to take place preferentially at the more electron-rich alkene moiety of o-biphenylyl-substituted methylenefluorenes, giving rise to the subsequent tandem process. A variety of structurally diverse extended PAHs including functionalized dibenzo[g,p]chrysenes, benzo[f]naphtho[1,2-s]picene, hexabenzo[a,c,fg,j,l,op]tetracene, tetrabenzo[a,c,f,m]phenanthro[9,10-k]tetraphene, tetrabenzo[a,c,f,k]phenanthro[9,10-m]tetraphene, tetrabenzo[a,c,f,o]phenanthro[9,10-m]picene and S-type helicene have been readily synthesized.

  11. Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-02-22

    Coal tar, mineral oils, bitumens, coal extraction products, hydrogenation products of coal, oil schists can be atomized and heated with steam to decompose pyrogenetically and form gases rich in olefins which may be heated with or without pressure and with or without catalysts to produce liquid hydrocarbons of low boiling point, some of which may be aromatic. The apparatus should be lined with copper, silica, or ferrosilicon to prevent contact of the bases with iron which causes deposition of soot. Catalysts used may be metal oxides, silica, graphite, active charcoal, mica, pumice, porcelain, barium carbonate, copper, silver, gold, chromium, boron, or their compounds. At temperatures from 300 to 400/sup 0/C, olefins are produced. At higher temperatures, naphthenes and benzene hydrocarbons are produced.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) deposition to and exchange at the air-water interface of Luhu, an urban lake in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Cheng Hairong; Zhang Gan; Qi Shihua; Li Xiangdong

    2009-01-01

    Urban lakes are vulnerable to the accumulation of semivolatile organic compounds, such as PAHs from wet and dry atmospheric deposition. Little was reported on the seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition of PAHs under Asian monsoon climate. Bulk (dry + wet) particle deposition, air-water diffusion exchange, and vapour wet deposition of PAHs in a small urban lake in Guangzhou were estimated based on a year-round monitoring. The total PAH particle deposition fluxes observed were 0.44-3.46 μg m -2 day -1 . The mean air-water diffusive exchange flux was 20.7 μg m -2 day -1 . The vapour deposition fluxes of PAHs ranged 0.15-8.26 μg m -2 day -1 . Remarkable seasonal variations of particulate PAH deposition, air-water exchange fluxes and vapour wet deposition were influenced by seasonal changes in meteorological parameters. The deposition fluxes were predominantly controlled by the precipitation intensity in wet season whereas by atmospheric concentration in dry season. - The PAH deposition fluxes were predominantly controlled by the precipitation intensity in wet season whereas by atmospheric concentration in dry season

  13. The levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human milk and exposure risk to breastfed infants in petrochemical industrialized Lanzhou Valley, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Aiping; Zhao, Yuan; Mu, Xi; Huang, Tao; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2018-04-03

    We investigated in this paper the presence of PAHs in human milk from lactating women residing in Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized valley city in Northwest China. The PAH concentration levels in human milk samples from 98 healthy women were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The associations between the lifestyle factors and the PAHs levels of human milk were analyzed. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) method to gain a better insight into the similarities or dissimilarities of the human milk PAH loads and different pathways of source exposure. In addition, the exposure risks of breastfed infants due to PAH ingestion via breast milk were assessed and the relative breast-feeding risk to the total intake dose of infants was addressed. The results showed that the average fat-normalized human milk ∑ 15 PAHs concentrations for the lactating women residing in four districts of Lanzhou, namely, Xigu, Anning, Qilihe, and Chengguan were 320.40, 270.36, 374.04, and 259.84 ng/g of fat, respectively. The ∑ 15 PAHs of human milk from the lactating women of Qilihe District exhibited the highest concentration level, while the concentration level for women from Xigu District is the second highest for the observed human milk ∑ 15 PAHs. And the corresponding BaPeq concentrations for women in Xigu, Anning, Qilihe, and Chengguan districts were 58.29, 47.95, 65.13, and 45.60 ng/g of fat, respectively. A significant correlation was only found between human milk and living district environment (p milk PAHs, we confirmed that consuming barbecue food could elevate PAHs levels in human milk: the barbecue intake frequency caused 10% fluctuation of ∑ 15 PAHs concentration between high frequency and low frequency group in our study. Furthermore, the exposure to second-hand smoke can also increase the ∑ 15 PAHs levels in human milk by 4 to 11% here. Ingestion doses of PAHs by infants (19.37-77.75 ng kg -1  day -1 ) were much

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Saccoglossus kowalewskyi (Agassiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, D. A.; Farrington, J. W.

    1989-08-01

    Hydrocarbon extracts were analyzed from Saccoglossus kowalewskyi, a deposit-feeding enteropneust worm, and from surface sediments from Cape Cod, MA. Worms were held in experimental aquaria in sieved sediments and flowing seawater for four months and then fed sediments mixed with creosote, lampblack or clean sediment for two weeks as analogues of sediments containing degraded oil and pyrogenic compounds. Worms from all treatments contained polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in amounts and composition that indicate that the worms were contaminated with weathered No. 2 fuel oil before our experimental treatment and that the contamination persisted for four months in clean conditions. The contamination was not detected in the clean sediments used in the experiment. The worms accumulated steroid transformation products in greater abundance than the odd chain n-alkanes that dominated the sediment extractions. This may indicate selective assimilation of algal detritus and microbial products over salt marsh detritus. Worms, actively feeding during the experiment, contained 1-3 × 10 -6 g g -1 dry weight of unknown brominated compounds which were not detected in the sediments. These compounds are similar to bromopyrroles found elsewhere in enteropneusts, polychaetes and bacteria and may cause substantial interference in analyses for some industrial pollutants.

  15. Internal and external exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) at the workplace - the German PAH study; Eine deutschlandweite Studie zur inneren und aeusseren Exposition gegenueber polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) am Arbeitsplatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuss, R.; Rossbach, B.; Mueller, J.; Angerer, J. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    During a period of nearly three years we investigated altogether 270 employees from seven different industrial branches concerning their external and internal exposure to PAH (ambient and biological monitoring). In 20% (range: 6 to 30%) of the air samples benzo[a]pyrene concentrations above the relevant technical exposure limit (German TRK value) were observed. The internal exposure was determined by means of the urinary metabolites of monohydroxylated phenanthrenes and 1-hydroxypyrene. We hereby found 1-hydroxypyrene median levels ({mu}g/g creatinine) of 1.51 (coal tar distillation - TD), 4.30 (coking plants - KK), 5.17 (installation of fire proof materials - FFV), 8.65 (graphite electrode plants - GE) and 11.27 (production of fire proof materials - FFH). The corresponding concentrations of the sum of five isomeric hydroxyphenanthrenes were 6.87 (GE), 7.05 (TD), 9.81 (FFH), 10.29 (KK) and 15.75 (FFV) {mu}g/g creatinine. This study showed that ambient monitoring apart does not assure an adequate protection from health hazards as a result of occupational PAH exposure. This is due to the fact, that PAHs are absorbed through the skin to a considerable extent. In order to objectify this non-inhalative PAH absorption we introduced the 'relative internal burden' (RIB). (orig.)

  16. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

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    Xuezhu Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp. and P3 (Pseudomonas sp., which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP, PHE, fluorene (FLR, pyrene (PYR, and benzo(apyrene (B(aP as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(aP, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(aP. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days. Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  17. Assessing the distribution, origins, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the habitat of Medaka fish at Keramat Kebo River and Estuary, Tangerang, Banten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahudin, D.; Yogaswara, D.; Khozanah; Edward

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has a variety of coastal systems such as coral reef, mangrove, seagrass, mudflat, and dune, each of which has high biodiversity of species. The primary concern in Indonesia is that rapid economic growth would endanger some essential natural ecosystems and resources, and cause deterioration of environmental condition. As a part of bioindicator development to recognize pollutants with small fish of the genus Oryzias, this study was conducted to assess baseline status of PAHs distribution and sources in seawater, sediments and Oryzias fish. The ecological risk of PAHs in sediments was also evaluated. Concentrations of fifteen USEPA PAH based on GCMS analysis in seawater, sediments, and Oryzias fish vary from 0.00 to 30,600 ng/l, 6.7 to 138.6 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 25.2 to 30.5 ng/g dw, respectively. Based on the diagnostic ratio of PAH compounds, the potential sources of PAHs originated mainly from pyrogenic sources. The status of sediment from this Oryzias fish habitat was considered to be low polluted with PAHs.

  18. A novel approach for characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Jan H.; Tomasi, Giorgio; Scofield, Arthur de Lemos; Meniconi, Maria de Fatima Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    A novel multivariate method based on principal component analysis of pre-processed sections of chromatograms is used to characterize the complex PAH pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Five distinct sources of 3- to 6-ring PAHs could be revealed. The harbour is the most contaminated site in the bay, its plume stretches in a South West to North East direction and the chemical profile indicates mainly pyrogenic sources mixed with a fraction of high-molecular-weight petrogenic PAHs. Rio Sao Joao de Meriti is the second largest source of PAHs, and introduces mainly a fraction of low-molecular-weight petrogenic PAHs from the western region of Rio de Janeiro. The sites close to the ruptured pipeline at the Duque de Caxias Refinery show a distinctive pollution pattern indicating a heavy petroleum fraction. The method also led to the identification of new potential indicator ratios also involving coeluting peaks (e.g., triphenylene and chrysene). - A novel multivariate method is used to characterize the complex PAH pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Brazil.

  19. Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAS em cachaça, rum, uísque e álcool combustível Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS in cachaça, rum, whiskey and alcohol fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Galinaro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in 57 samples of distillates (cachaça, rum, whiskey, and alcohol fuel has been determined by HPLC-Fluorescence detection. The quantitative analytical profile of PAHs treated by Partial Least Square - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA provided a good classification of the studied spirits based on their PAHs content. Additionally, the classification of the sugar cane derivatives according to the harvest practice was obtained treating the analytical data by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, using naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benz[b]fluoranthene, and benz[g,h,i]perylene, as a chemical descriptors.

  20. Influence of Air Pollution and Soil Contamination on the Contents of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Vegetables Grown in Urban Gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Amato-Lourenco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban community gardens (UCGs have become prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in strengthening the sustainability of urban food systems. Although UCGs provide multiple benefits to society, the extent to which vegetables grown in them are contaminated by chemical compounds derived from airborne fallout or soil contamination is unclear. We evaluated the influence of both air pollution and the contamination of garden soil beds on the contents of 16 PAHs in the edible tissues of spinach and collard green. The PAH contents were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-EI. The concentrations of PAHs in both the vegetables grown in the vessels and in the soil of the UCGs were <0.1 μg kg−1. The total concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs in the soil beds ranged from 132.94 to 410.50 μg kg−1. These levels were lower than those that have been reported from other urban areas. Principal Component Analysis resulted in two components indicating that traffic-derived emissions are the main sources of PAHs in the soil. The first component represented the compounds with higher molecular weights and had a moderate loading for the fine fraction of the soil (clay (0.63. The second component showed a high loading for silt (0.97, including those PAHs with lower molecular weights. Our data show that spinach and collard greens do not accumulate significant PAH concentrations on their leaves over 45-day periods, whether they are raised in controlled soil or in local beds.