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Sample records for poly lactic acid

  1. Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fabrication of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres containing total alkaloids of Caulis sinomenii was investigated. The formation, diameter, morphology and properties of the microspheres were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), laser particle size analyser and scanning ...

  2. Lignin poly(lactic acid) copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Johan Vilhelm; Chung, Yi-Lin; Li, Russell Jingxian; Waymouth, Robert; Sattely, Elizabeth; Billington, Sarah; Frank, Curtis W.

    2017-02-14

    Provided herein are graft co-polymers of lignin and poly(lactic acid) (lignin-g-PLA copolymer), thermoset and thermoplastic polymers including them, methods of preparing these polymers, and articles of manufacture including such polymers.

  3. Poly(Lactic Acid) Based Flexible Films

    OpenAIRE

    Fathilah binti Ali; Jamarosliza Jamaluddin; Arun Kumar Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which has good mechanical properties, however, its brittleness limits its usage especially in packaging materials. Therefore, in this work, PLA based polyurethane films were prepared by synthesizing with different types of isocyanates; methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI). For this purpose, PLA based polyurethane must have good strength and flexibility. Therefore, polycaprolactone which has b...

  4. Antifungal Poly(lactic acid) Films Containing Thymol and Carvone

    OpenAIRE

    Boonruang Kanchana; Chinsirikul Wannee; Hararak Bongkot; Kerddonfag Noppadon; Chonhenchob Vanee

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop antifungal poly(lactic acid) films for food packaging applications. The antifungal compounds, thymol and R-(-)-carvone were incorporated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based polymer at 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Film converting process consists of three steps including melt blending, sheet extrusion and biaxial stretching. The incorporation of antifungal compounds into the polymer matrix resulted in decreased Tg and Tm, increased gas permeabilility, reduced ...

  5. Heat capacity of poly(lactic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyda, M.; Bopp, R.C.; Wunderlich, B.

    2004-01-01

    The heat capacity of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is reported from T=(5 to 600) K as obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.) and adiabatic calorimetry. The heat capacity of solid PLA is linked to its group vibrational spectrum and the skeletal vibrations, the latter being described by a Tarasov equation with Θ 1 =574 K, Θ 2 =Θ 3 =52 K, and nine skeletal vibrations. The calculated and experimental heat capacities agree to ±3% between T=(5 and 300) K. The experimental heat capacity of liquid PLA can be expressed by C p (liquid)=(120.17+0.076T) J · K -1 · mol -1 and has been compared to the ATHAS Data Bank, using contributions of other polymers with the same constituent groups. The glass transition temperature of amorphous PLA occurs at T=332.5 K with a change in heat capacity of 43.8 J · K -1 · mol -1 . Depending on thermal history, semi-crystalline PLA has a melting endotherm between T=(418 and 432) K with variable heats of fusion. For 100% crystalline PLA, the heat of fusion is estimated to be (6.55 ± 0.02) kJ · mol -1 at T=480 K. With these results, the enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs function of crystalline and amorphous PLA were obtained. For semi-crystalline samples, one can check changes of crystallinity with temperature and judge the presence of rigid-amorphous fractions

  6. Longitudinal acoustic properties of poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N G; Povey, M J W; Mather, M L; Morgan, S P

    2010-01-01

    Acoustics offers rich possibilities for characterizing and monitoring the biopolymer structures being employed in the field of biomedical engineering. Here we explore the rudimentary acoustic properties of two common biodegradable polymers: poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid). A pulse-echo technique is developed to reveal the bulk speed of sound, acoustic impedance and acoustic attenuation of small samples of the polymer across a pertinent temperature range of 0-70 0 C. The glass transition appears markedly as both a discontinuity in the first derivative of the speed of sound and a sharp increase in the acoustic attenuation. We further extend our analysis to consider the role of ethanol, whose presence is observed to dramatically modify the acoustic properties and reduce the glass transition temperature of the polymers. Our results highlight the sensitivity of acoustic properties to a range of bulk properties, including visco-elasticity, molecular weight, co-polymer ratio, crystallinity and the presence of plasticizers.

  7. Characterization and ageing study of poly(lactic acid) films plasticized with oligomeric lactic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Nuria; Martino, Verónica P.; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was melt-blended with a bio-based oligomeric lactic acid (OLA) plasticizer at different concentrations between 15 wt% and 25 wt% in order to enhance PLA ductility and to get a fully biodegradable material with potential application in films manufacturing. OLA was an efficient plasticizer for PLA, as it caused a significant decrease on glass transition temperature (Tg) while improving considerably ductile properties. Only one Tg value was observed in all cases and no ap...

  8. Development of Poly (Lactic Acid) Nanocomposite Films by Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadbin, Susan; Naimian, Faranak; Akhavan, Azam; Hasanpoor, Sorour [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Research Institute, North Kargar Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Poly (lactic acid) and poly (lactic acid) -montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposite films have been prepared by solvent casting method. Films were irradiated with 60Co radiation facility at various doses in the range of 5 to30 kGy. The effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties of neat PLA and nanocomposites is evaluated by the data obtained from tensile testing measurements. The degree of crosslinking is measured by gel content method. Thermal behavior of nanocomposites is studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA). The morphology of the nanocomposites is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X ray diffraction. Structural changes in poly (lactic acid) are studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). (author)

  9. Development of Poly (Lactic Acid) Nanocomposite Films by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadbin, Susan; Naimian, Faranak; Akhavan, Azam; Hasanpoor, Sorour

    2009-01-01

    Poly (lactic acid) and poly (lactic acid) -montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposite films have been prepared by solvent casting method. Films were irradiated with 60Co radiation facility at various doses in the range of 5 to30 kGy. The effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties of neat PLA and nanocomposites is evaluated by the data obtained from tensile testing measurements. The degree of crosslinking is measured by gel content method. Thermal behavior of nanocomposites is studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA). The morphology of the nanocomposites is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X ray diffraction. Structural changes in poly (lactic acid) are studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). (author)

  10. Antifungal Poly(lactic acid Films Containing Thymol and Carvone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonruang Kanchana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop antifungal poly(lactic acid films for food packaging applications. The antifungal compounds, thymol and R-(--carvone were incorporated into poly(lactic acid (PLA-based polymer at 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Film converting process consists of three steps including melt blending, sheet extrusion and biaxial stretching. The incorporation of antifungal compounds into the polymer matrix resulted in decreased Tg and Tm, increased gas permeabilility, reduced tensile strength and increased elongation at break of the antifungal PLA films.

  11. Neuropathic Pain Following Poly-L-Lactic Acid (Sculptra) Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrcek, Ivan; El-Sawy, Tarek; Chou, Eva; Allen, Theresa; Nakra, Tanuj

    Injectable fillers have become a prevalent means of facial rejuvenation and volume expansion. While typically well tolerated, serious complications have been reported. The authors present a case in which an otherwise healthy female with a history of multiple filler injections including poly-L-lactic acid, developed 3 weeks of neuropathic pain in the left temporal fossa following injection. To the best of the authors knowledge, neuropathic pain has not been reported as a complication following poly-L-lactic acid injection. The patient was treated with an injection of steroid and long-acting anesthetic with resolution of symptoms.

  12. Thermal properties of poly (lactic acid)/milkweed composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

  13. GAS PERMEATION PROPERTIES OF POLY(LACTIC ACID). (R826733)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe need for the development of polymeric materials based on renewable resources has led to the development of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) which is being produced from a feedstock of corn rather than petroleum. The present study examines the permeation of nitrogen...

  14. Electrospinnability of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Baldursdottir, Stefania G.; Aho, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study, the electrospinnability of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) solutions was investigated, with a focus on understanding the influence of molecular weight of PLGA, solvent type and solvent composition on the physical properties of electrospun nanofibers. METHOD: Various s...

  15. Radiation induced crystallinity damage in poly(L-lactic acid)

    CERN Document Server

    Kantoglu, O

    2002-01-01

    The radiation-induced crystallinity damage in poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) in the presence of air and in vacuum, is studied. From the heat of fusion enthalpy values of gamma irradiated samples, some changes on the thermal properties were determined. To identify these changes, first the glass transition temperature (T sub g) of L-lactic acid polymers irradiated to various doses in air and vacuum have been investigated and it is found that it is independent of irradiation atmosphere and dose. The fraction of damaged units of PLLA per unit of absorbed energy has been measured. For this purpose, SAXS and differential scanning calorimetry methods were used, and the radiation yield of number of damaged units (G(-u)) is found to be 0.74 and 0.58 for PLLA samples irradiated in vacuum and air, respectively.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of novel multilayered structures by stereocomplexion of poly(D-lactic acid)/poly(L-lactic acid) and self-assembly of polyelectrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Dellacasa; Li Zhao; Gesheng Yang; Laura Pastorino; Gleb B. Sukhorukov

    2016-01-01

    The enantiomers poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) were alternately adsorbed directly on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) templates and on poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) multilayer precursors in order to fabricate a novel layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. A single layer of poly(L-lysine) (PLL) was used as a linker between the (PDLA/PLLA)n stereocomplex and the cores with and without the polymeric (PSS/PAH)n/PLL multilayer precursor (PEM). N...

  17. NANOCOMPOSITES OF POLY(LACTIC ACID REINFORCED WITH CELLULOSE NANOFIBRILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A chemo-mechanical method was used to prepare cellulose nanofibrils dispersed uniformly in an organic solvent. Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG 1000 was added to the matrix as a compatibilizer to improve the interfacial interaction between the hydrophobic poly(lactic acid (PLA and the hydrophilic cellulose nanofibrils. The composites obtained by solvent casting methods from N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc were characterized by tensile testing machine, atomic force microscope (AFM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The tensile test results indicated that, by adding PEG to the PLA and the cellulose nanofibrils matrix, the tensile strength and the elongation rate increased by 56.7% and 60%, respectively, compared with the PLA/cellulose nanofibrils composites. The FT-IR analysis successfully showed that PEG improved the intermolecular interaction, which is based on the existence of inter-molecular hydrogen bonding among PLA, PEG, and cellulose nanofibrils.

  18. Treating Simple Tibia Fractures with Poly-DL-Lactic Acid Screw as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) absorbable screw as a ... fractures. Keywords: Simple tibia fracture, Fracture healing time Poly-DL-lactic acid, Poly-DL-Lactic Acid, ..... bilateral cortex of the bone due to the weak anti- ... Hu YL, Yuan WQ, Wang LF, Liu HF, Jin D. A prospective.

  19. Fabrication of high-performance poly(l-lactic acid)/lignin-graft-poly(d-lactic acid) stereocomplex films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Lin; Hu, Li-Qiu; Zhou, Wen-Qin; Si, Chuan-Ling

    2017-11-01

    The need for green renewable alternatives such as lignin to traditional fillers has driven recent interest in polylactic acid blend materials. Herein, lignin-graft-polylactic acid copolymers (LG-g-PDLA, LG-g-PDLLA, and LG-g-PLLA) have been synthesized via ring-opening polymerization of d-, dl-, and l-lactic acid. Then poly(l-lactic acid)/lignin-graft-polylactic acid (PLLA/LG-g-PDLA, /LG-g-PDLLA, and /LG-g-PLLA) complex films have been prepared. The results showed that, compared with LG-g-PDLA and LG-g-PLLA, a small amount of LG-g-PDLA addition could improve the crystallization rate, reduce the glass transition temperature and cold crystallization temperature of PLLA due to the stereocomplex crystallites. The thermal stability, tensile strength and strain of the stereocomplex films were also enhanced. Moreover, the PLLA/LG-g-PDLA films have good ultraviolet resistance and excellent biocompatibility. This study provides a green approach to design advanced polylactic acid-based blends with renewable natural resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Facial volumetric correction with injectable poly-L-lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleggaar, Danny

    2005-11-01

    Polymers of lactic acid'have been widely used for many years in different types of medical devices, such as resorbable sutures, intrabone implants, and soft tissue implants. Injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA; Sculptra), a synthetic, biodegradable polymer, has gained widespread popularity in Europe for the treatment of facial changes associated with aging. To provide background information on injectable PLLA and to describe clinical experience with its use in Europe for facial volume enhancement. Technique varies with site of injection. Generally, the product is implanted subcutaneously or intradermally in a series of treatments. No allergy testing is required. Based on experience in more than 2,500 patients, injectable PLLA has been used successfully for the correction of nasolabial folds, mid- and lower facial volume loss, jawline laxity, and other signs of facial aging. Correction lasts for 18 to 24 months in most patients. Injectable PLLA treatment provides an excellent and prolonged correction of a variety of facial wrinkles, depressions, and laxity with a minimally invasive procedure that does not require allergy testing or a recovery period.

  1. Temperature dependence of poly(lactic acid) mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chengbo; Guo, Huilong; Li, Jingqing

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of polymers are not only determined by their structures, but also related to the temperature field in which they are located. The yield behaviors, Young's modulus and structures of injection-molded poly(lactic acid) (PLA) samples after annealing at different temperatures....... The crystallinity increases with increasing annealing temperature and a' form crystal is formed when the annealing temperature is higher than 100 oC. The stretched samples with low crystallinity show the first yield at draw temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the second yield above Tg....... For the samples annealed between 80 and 120 oC, a peculiar double yield appears when stretched within 50–60 oC and only the first or the second yield can be found at the lower and higher draw temperatures. The yield strain and yield stress together with Young's modulus were obtained and discussed in terms...

  2. Catalytic Cracking of Lactide and Poly(Lactic Acid) to Acrylic Acid at Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrade, Frédéric G; van Krieken, Jan; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Bouwman, Elisabeth

    2017-05-09

    Despite being a simple dehydration reaction, the industrially relevant conversion of lactic acid to acrylic acid is particularly challenging. For the first time, the catalytic cracking of lactide and poly(lactic acid) to acrylic acid under mild conditions is reported with up to 58 % yield. This transformation is catalyzed by strong acids in the presence of bromide or chloride salts and proceeds through simple S N 2 and elimination reactions. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  3. Biodegradation of flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Woven and nonwoven flax fiber reinforced poly lactic acid (PLA biocomposites were prepared with amphiphilic additives as accelerator for biodegradation. The prepared composites were buried in farmland soil for biodegradability studies. Loss in weight of the biodegraded composite samples was determined at different time intervals. The surface morphology of the biodegraded composites was studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results indicated that in presence of mandelic acid, the composites showed accelerated biodegradation with 20–25% loss in weight after 50–60 days. On the other hand, in presence of dicumyl peroxide (as additive, biodegradation of the composites was relatively slow as confirmed by only 5–10% loss in weight even after 80–90 days. This was further confirmed by surface morphology of the biodegraded composites. We have attempted to show that depending on the end uses, we can add different amphiphilic additives for delayed or accelerated biodegradability. This work gives us the idea of biodegradation of materials from natural fiber reinforced PLA composites when discarded carelessly in the environment instead of proper waste disposal site.

  4. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.; Bonsignore, P.; Moon, S.H.; Frank, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}40,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food processing and industrial applications. lactic acid h,as the potential of becoming a very large volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from renewable carbohydrates for use as feedstocks for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, plant growth regulators, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and specially chemical intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from crude fermentation broths and the conversion of tactic acid to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. The development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes, extractive distillations integrated with fermentation, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The use of bipolar ED can virtually eliminate the salt or gypsum waste produced in the current lactic acid processes. In this paper, the recent technical advances in tactic and polylactic acid processes are discussed. The economic potential and manufacturing cost estimates of several products and process options are presented. The technical accomplishments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the future directions of this program at ANL are discussed.

  5. Poly (lactic acid organoclay nano composites for paper coating applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatcha Sonjui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid or PLA is a well-known biodegradable polymer derived from renewable resources such as corn strach, tapioca strach, and sugar cane. PLA is the most extensively utilized biodegradable polyester with potential to replace conventional petrochemical-based polymers. However, PLA has some drawbacks, such as brittleness and poor gas barrier properties. Nano composite polymers have experience and increasing interest due to their characteristics, especially in mechanical and thermal properties. The objectives of this research were to prepare PLA formulations using three different PLAs. The formulas giving high gloss coating film were selected to prepare nano composite film by incorporated with different amount of various types of organoclays. The physical properties of the PLA coating films were studied and it was found that the PLA 7000D with 0.1%w/w of Cloisite 30B provided decent viscosity for coating process. In addition, the nano composite coating films showed good physical properties such as high gloss, good adhesion, and good hardness. There is a possibility of using the obtained formulation as a paper coating film.

  6. Degradation of Poly (lactic acid under Simulated Landfill Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomnutcha Boonmee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the physical and chemical properties change of poly(lactic acid after burying in the mixture of soil and sludge under thermophilic (61 °C oxygen limited conditions were investigated using various analytical techniques. The environmental factors under these setting conditions and microbial activities accelerated the degradation process of PLA. Under tested conditions, PLA loss their weight about 90% at the burying time of 90 days. During the degradation process, PLA samples were continuously broken to small fragile fragments and showed the size less than 1 mm at the end of degradation test. Change of the surface morphology change was revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Many pores, cracks and irregular roughness were presented on the PLA surface. Thermal decomposition was decreased from 387.8 to 289.2 °C. The percentage of carbon content in molecular structure decreased from 49.46% to 45.42%. In addition, the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR revealed the change of ester bonds. This study can be used for developing PLA waste management process.

  7. Electrospun poly(lactic acid) based conducting nanofibrous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, S N; Bhattacharyya, D; Ray, S; Easteal, A J

    2009-01-01

    Multi-functionalised micro/nanostructures of conducting polymers in neat or blended forms have received much attention because of their unique properties and technological applications in electrical, magnetic and biomedical devices. Biopolymer-based conducting fibrous mats are of special interest for tissue engineering because they not only physically support tissue growth but also are electrically conductive, and thus are able to stimulate specific cell functions or trigger cell responses. They are effective for carrying current in biological environments and can thus be considered for delivering local electrical stimuli at the site of damaged tissue to promote wound healing. Electrospinning is an established way to process polymer solutions or melts into continuous fibres with diameter often in the nanometre range. This process primarily depends on a number of parameters, including the type of polymer, solution viscosity, polarity and surface tension of the solvent, electric field strength and the distance between the spinneret and the collector. The present research has included polyaniline (PANi) as the conducting polymer and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) as the biopolymer. Dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid (DBSA) doped PANi and PLLA have been dissolved in a common solvent (mixtures of chloroform and dimethyl formamide (DMF)), and the solutions successfully electrospun. DMF enhanced the dielectric constant of the solvent, and tetra butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) was used as an additive to increase the conductivity of the solution. DBSA-doped PANi/PLLA mat exhibits an almost bead-free network of nanofibres that have extraordinarily smooth surface and diameters in the range 75 to 100 nm.

  8. From honeycomb- to microsphere-patterned surfaces of poly(lactic acid) and a starch-poly(lactic acid) blend via the breath figure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Rita C; Maniglio, Devid; Sousa, Nuno; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2017-01-26

    This study investigated the preparation of ordered patterned surfaces and/or microspheres from a natural-based polymer, using the breath figure and reverse breath figure methods. Poly(D,L-lactic acid) and starch poly(lactic acid) solutions were precipitated in different conditions - namely, polymer concentration, vapor atmosphere temperature and substrate - to evaluate the effect of these conditions on the morphology of the precipitates obtained. The possibility of fine-tuning the properties of the final patterns simply by changing the vapor atmosphere was also demonstrated here using a range of compositions of the vapor phase. Porous films or discrete particles are formed when the differences in surface tension determine the ability of polymer solution to surround water droplets or methanol to surround polymer droplets, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed applying a simple standard protocol to evaluate the possibility to use these materials in biomedical applications. Moreover, fluorescent microscopy images showed a good interaction of cells with the material, which were able to adhere on the patterned surfaces after 24 hours in culture. The development of patterned surfaces using the breath figure method was tested in this work for the preparation of both poly(lactic acid) and a blend containing starch and poly(lactic acid). The potential of these films to be used in the biomedical area was confirmed by a preliminary cytotoxicity test and by morphological observation of cell adhesion.

  9. Poly(Lactic Acid) Hemodialysis Membranes with Poly(Lactic Acid)-block-Poly(2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate) Copolymer As Additive: Preparation, Characterization, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Fu; Yu, Xuemin; Xue, Lixin

    2015-08-19

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) hemodialysis membranes with enhanced antifouling capability and hemocompatibility were developed using poly(lactic acid)-block-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PLA-PHEMA) copolymers as the blending additive. PLA-PHEMA block copolymers were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation (RAFT) polymerization from aminolyzed PLA. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) were applied to characterize the synthesized products. By blending PLA with the amphiphilic block copolymer, PLA/PLA-PHEMA membranes were prepared by nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method. Their chemistry and structure were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that PLA/PLA-PHEMA membranes with high PLA-PHEMA contents exhibited enhanced hydrophilicity, water permeability, antifouling and hemocompatibility. Especially, when the PLA-PHEMA concentration was 15 wt %, the water flux of the modified membrane was about 236 L m(-2) h(-1). Its urea and creatinine clearance was more than 0.70 mL/min, lysozyme clearance was about 0.50 mL/min, BSA clearance was as less as 0.31 mL/min. All the results suggest that PLA-PHEMA copolymers had served as effective agents for optimizing the property of PLA-based membrane for hemodialysis applications.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of novel multilayered structures by stereocomplexion of poly(D-lactic acid/poly(L-lactic acid and self-assembly of polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dellacasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The enantiomers poly(D-lactic acid (PDLA and poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA were alternately adsorbed directly on calcium carbonate (CaCO3 templates and on poly(styrene sulfonate (PSS and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH multilayer precursors in order to fabricate a novel layer-by-layer (LBL assembly. A single layer of poly(L-lysine (PLL was used as a linker between the (PDLA/PLLAn stereocomplex and the cores with and without the polymeric (PSS/PAHn/PLL multilayer precursor (PEM. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC were used to characterize the chemical composition and molecular weight of poly(lactic acid polymers. Both multilayer structures, with and without polymeric precursor, were firstly fabricated and characterized on planar supports. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and ellipsometry were used to evaluate the thickness and mass of the multilayers. Then, hollow, spherical microcapsules were obtained by the removal of the CaCO3 sacrificial template. The chemical composition of the obtained microcapsules was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD analyses. The microcapsule morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM measurements. The experimental results confirm the successful fabrication of this innovative system, and its full biocompatibility makes it worthy of further characterization as a promising drug carrier for sustained release.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of novel multilayered structures by stereocomplexion of poly(D-lactic acid)/poly(L-lactic acid) and self-assembly of polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gesheng; Pastorino, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Summary The enantiomers poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) were alternately adsorbed directly on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) templates and on poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) multilayer precursors in order to fabricate a novel layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly. A single layer of poly(L-lysine) (PLL) was used as a linker between the (PDLA/PLLA)n stereocomplex and the cores with and without the polymeric (PSS/PAH)n/PLL multilayer precursor (PEM). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to characterize the chemical composition and molecular weight of poly(lactic acid) polymers. Both multilayer structures, with and without polymeric precursor, were firstly fabricated and characterized on planar supports. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and ellipsometry were used to evaluate the thickness and mass of the multilayers. Then, hollow, spherical microcapsules were obtained by the removal of the CaCO3 sacrificial template. The chemical composition of the obtained microcapsules was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD) analyses. The microcapsule morphology was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. The experimental results confirm the successful fabrication of this innovative system, and its full biocompatibility makes it worthy of further characterization as a promising drug carrier for sustained release. PMID:26925356

  12. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Based Tear Resistant and Biodegradable Flexible Films by Blown Film Extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Mallegni; Thanh Vu Phuong; Maria-Beatrice Coltelli; Patrizia Cinelli; Andrea Lazzeri

    2018-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was melt mixed in a laboratory extruder with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in the presence of polypropylene glycol di glycidyl ether (EJ400) that acted as both plasticizer and compatibilizer. The process was then scaled up in a semi-industrial extruder preparing pellets having different content of a nucleating agent (LAK). All of the formulations could be processed by blowing extrusion and the obtained films showed me...

  13. Optimization of a biomimetic poly-(lactic acid) ligament scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehlin, Andrew F.

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee, often requiring orthopedic reconstruction using autograft or allograph tissue, both with significant disadvantages. As a result, tissue engineering an ACL replacement graft has been heavily investigated. The present study attempts to replicate the morphology and mechanical properties of the ACL using a nanomatrix composite of highly-aligned poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers with various surface and biochemical modifications. Additionally, this study attempts to recreate the natural mineralization gradient found at the ACL enthesis onto the scaffold, capable of inducing a favorable cellular response in vitro. Unidirectional electrospinning was used to create nanofibers of PLA, followed by an induced degradation of the nanofibers via 0.25M NaOH hydrolysis. The effects of the unidirectional electrospinning as well as the effects of NaOH hydrolysis on fiber alignment, fiber diameter, surface morphology, crystallinity, in vitro swelling, immobilization of fibrin, and mechanical properties were investigated, resulting in a modified morphology correlating to the microstructure of native ligament tissue with similar mechanical properties. Furthering the development of the PLA nanomatrix composite, a bioinkjet printer was used to immobilize nanoparticulate hydroxyapatite (HANP) on the surface of the scaffold. A series of 300pL droplets of HANP bioink were printed over a gradient pattern mimetic of (and spatially corresponding to) the mineralization gradient found over the microanatomy at the ACL enthesis. Proliferation and differentiation response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro was assessed on a variety of conditions and combinations of the PLA nanofiber scaffold surface modifications (inclusive and exclusive of HANP, fibrin, and various time dependent NaOH treatments). It was found that a combinatory effect of the HANP gradient with fibrin on 20 minute NaOH treated PLA

  14. Influence of Heavy Metal Powders on Rheological Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S. M.; Gefle, O. S.; Amitov, E. T.; Berchuk, D. Yu.; Zhuravlev, D. V.

    2017-08-01

    Main properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and composite materials on its basis filled with tungsten and lead powders are investigated. An anomalous decrease of the viscosity of melts of poly(lactic acid)/tungsten and poly(lactic acid)/lead composites is detected. The methods of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and IR spectroscopy are used for investigation. It is shown that the temperature at which the composites filled with tungsten and lead begin to melt decreases by more than 8 and 3°C in comparison with neat PLA. Our investigations show impossibility of preparing radiation resistant polymer composites based on PLA filled with tungsten and lead powders.

  15. Topological characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced Poly (lactic acid) and Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bionanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A. H.; Dasan, Y. K.; Khan, Ihsan Ullah; Ahmad, Faiz; Ayoub, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the morphological and barrier properties of nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced Poly (lactic acid) and Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bionanocomposites. Nanocrystalline cellulose was isolated from waste oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber using Sulphuric acid hydrolysis. Chemical modifications of nanocrystalline cellulose was performed to allow good compatibilization between fiber and the polymer matrices and also to improve dispersion of fillers. Bionanocomposite materials were produced from these nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced Poly (lactic acid) and Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) using solvent casting and evaporation techniques. The properties of extracted nanocrystalline cellulose were examined using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, TEM and AFM. Besides that, the properties of bionanocomposites were examined through FESEM and oxygen permeability properties analysis. Better barrier and morphological properties were obtained for nanocrystalline cellulose reinforced bionanocomposites than for neat polymer blend.

  16. Lactic acid production by irradiated Bacillus NF17 and poly-L-lactate biopolymer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongpim, Saowanit; Poonsawat, Choosak; Khansawai, Paveena; Piadaeng, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    This study was conducted to manipulate the thermo tolerant, lactic acid-producing bacteria, Bacillus coagulans strain NF 1 7, in the production of L-lactic acid and a bio polymer: poly-L-lactate. The bacterial isolate NF 1 7 kept in the culture collection of Khon Kaen University and could tolerate high temperature and produce lactic acid, was employed in this research work. Cell suspension of isolate NF 1 7 was exposed to gamma irradiation at various doses (1-5 KGy). The irradiated survivors were screened on the basis of forming larger colonies and clear zones than the parent strain NF 1 7 when grown on Glucose-Yeast extract-Peptone (GYP) containing CaCO 3 . We obtained 55 effective isolates which the isolate L5I2-14(5), designated as K 1 4, was chosen together with the parent strain NF 1 7 for fermentation experiments. Each bacterial strain was inoculated into GYP broth and incubated statically at 50 o C with daily pH neutralization. After 5 days of incubation, the isolate K 1 4 and NF 1 7 produced 9.71 g/l and 7.42 g/l of L-lactic acid, respectively with a small amount of D-lactic acid. Lactic acid production from sugar cane molasses by batch fermentation of Bacillus Sp. K 1 4 was carried out in a 7 l jar fermentor containing 5 l of fermentation medium. It was found that 20% molasses with the agitation speed of 100 rpm gave the highest yield of lactic acid. Poly-L-lactic acid was chemically polymerized by bulk polymerization process at 140 o C under 40 mmHg conditions. We could obtain the off-white polymer in a small amount of powder form. Improvement the yield of poly-L-lactic acid would be achieved by using polyisoprene-g-polyvinyl monomer to separate lactic acid from the fermenting liquid prior to polymerization processes

  17. Plasticized Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid) Based Composites Containing Cellulose in Micro- and Nanosize

    OpenAIRE

    Halász, Katalin; Csóka, Levente

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of thermal processed poly(lactic acid) composites. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG400), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and ultrasound-treated microcrystalline cellulose (USMCC) were used in 1, 3, and 5 weight percents to modify the attributes of PLA matrix. The composite films were produced by twin screw extrusion followed by film extrusion. The manufactured PLA-based films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorim...

  18. [Poly-L-lactic-acid filling of facial lipoatrophy in HIV+ patients under tritherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, G; Coulet, O; Adam, S; Guyot, L

    2008-04-01

    Facial lipoatrophy is one of the complications of antiretroviral therapy in HIV+ patients. Poly-L-lactic-acid filling can compensate this atrophy. This treatment has been completely covered by social security since 2005. The filling technique is described in this article.

  19. Morphology and thermal degradation study of poly(lactic acid)/synthetic mica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.H.S.; Dias, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/synthetic mica composites has been little studied in the literature. In this work, an organophilic synthetic mica was used to prepare PLA nanocomposites. The composites were obtained at an internal mixer containing 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt% of mica. The materials were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and gel permeation chromatography. (author)

  20. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  1. Lignin-coated cellulose nanocrystals as promising nucleating agent for poly(lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju Gupta; William Simmons; Gregory T. Schueneman; Eric A. Mintz

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of lignin-coated cellulose nanocrystals (L-CNCs) on the crystallization behavior of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). PLA/L-CNC nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing, and the crystallization behavior of PLA was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Isothermal crystallization data were analyzed using Avrami and Lauritzen–Hoffman...

  2. Treating Simple Tibia Fractures with Poly-DL-Lactic Acid Screw as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the curative effect of poly-DL-lactic acid (PDLLA) absorbable screw as a locked intramedullary nail for simple tibia fractures. Methods: In this study, 35 patients treated with the PDLLA screw were observed, and another 35 patients treated with a traditional locking intramedullary nail were treated as ...

  3. Solution blow spun Poly(lactic acid)/Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose nanofibers with antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and tetracycline hydrochloride (THC) were solution blow spun from two different solvents, chloroform/acetone (CA, 80:20 v/v) and 2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE). The diameter distribution, chemical, thermal, thermal stab...

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Poly(lactic acid) Production: From Reaction Conditions to Rheology of Polymer Melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubov, Alexandr; Sin, Gürkan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a fully biodegradable bioplastic with promising market potential. The paper deals with systematic development and analysis of the modeling framework allowing direct mapping between PLLA production process conditions and rheological properties of the polymer ...

  5. Sandwich-Architectured Poly(lactic acid)-Graphene Composite Food Packaging Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Kunli; Heising, Jenneke K.; Yuan, Yang; Karahan, Huseyin E.; Wei, Li; Zhai, Shengli; Koh, Jia Xuan; Htin, Nanda M.; Zhang, Feimo; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G.; Dekker, Matthijs; Dehghani, Fariba; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable food packaging promises a more sustainable future. Among the many different biopolymers used, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) possesses the good mechanical property and cost-effectiveness necessary of a biodegradable food packaging. However, PLA food packaging suffers from poor water vapor

  6. Biodegradable Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-Based Micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... drug encapsulation efficiency and release profile of PLGA mico/nanoparticles. The current knowledge of protein instability during preparation, storage and release from PLGA micro/nanoparticles and protein stabilization approaches has also been discussed in this review. Keywords: Poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), ...

  7. Fracture behavior of highly toughened poly(lactic acid)/ethylene-co-vinyl acetate blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Q.; Feng, Y.; Wang, R.; Ma, P.

    2018-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is brittle which restricts the range of its applications. The toughness of PLA was effectively improved in this work by incorporation of rubber grade ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVM). For example, the elongation at break of PLA increased by about 50 times after the addition of

  8. Characterization of Active Packaging Films Made from Poly(Lactic Acid)/Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate) Incorporated with Oregano Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Liu; Hongli Li; Lin Jiang; Yongming Chuan; Minglong Yuan; Haiyun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Antimicromial and antioxidant bioactive films based on poly(lactic acid)/poly(trimenthylene carbonate) films incorporated with different concentrations of oregano essential oil (OEO) were prepared by solvent casting. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, physical, thermal, microstructural, and mechanical properties of the resulting films were examined. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the cross-section of films became rougher when OEO was incorporated into PLA/PTMC blends. Differ...

  9. Effect of halloysite nanotubes on the thermal degradation behaviour of poly(.epsilon.-caprolactone)/poly(lactic acid) microfibrillar composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luyt, A. S.; Kelnar, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, July (2017), s. 166-172 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-15255S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(lactic acid) * poly(epsilon-caprolactone) * halloysite nanotubes Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  10. Prolonged local anesthetic action through slow release from poly (lactic acid co castor oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Golovanevski, Ludmila; Domb, Abraham J; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate a new formulation of bupivacaine loaded in an injectable fatty acid based biodegradable polymer poly(lactic acid co castor oil) in prolonging motor and sensory block when injected locally. The polyesters were synthesized from DL: -lactic acid and castor oil with feed ratio of 4:6 and 3:7 w/w. Bupivacaine was dispersed in poly(fatty ester) liquid and tested for drug release in vitro. The polymer p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 loaded with 10% bupivacaine was injected through a 22G needle close to the sciatic nerve of ICR mice and the duration of sensory and motor nerve blockade was measured. The DL: -lactic acid co castor oil p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 released 65% of the incorporated bupivacaine during 1 week in vitro. Single injection of 10% bupivacaine loaded into this polymer caused motor block that lasted 24 h and sensory block that lasted 48 h. Previously we developed a ricinoleic acid based polymer with incorporated bupivacaine which prolonged anesthesia to 30 h. The new polymer poly(lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 provides slow release of effective doses of the incorporated local anesthetic agent and prolongs anesthesia to 48 h.

  11. In vitro Degradation of Butanediamine-Grafted Poly(DL-Lactic acids)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of butanediamine-grafted poly(DL-lactic acid) polymers (BDPLAs) in vitro together with PDLLA and maleic anhydride-grafted poly(DL-lactic acid) polymers (MPLAs) was investigated by observation of the changes of the pH value of incubation media, and weight loss ratio during degradation duration of 12 weeks. The results reveal that the acidity of PDLLA degradation products was weakened or neutralized by grafting butanediamine onto PDLLA. A uniform degradation of BDPLAs was observed in comparison with an acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation featured by PDLLA and MPLAs. The biodegradation behaviors of BDPLAs can be adjusted by controlling the content of BDA. BDPLAs might be a new derivative of PDLLA-based biodegradable materials for medical applications without acidity-caused irritations and acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation behavior as that of PDLLA.

  12. Processing Conditions, Thermal and Mechanical Responses of Stretchable Poly (Lactic Acid)/Poly (Butylene Succinate) Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, Elena; Puglia, Debora; Iannoni, Antonio; Terenzi, Andrea; Kenny, José Maria; Torre, Luigi

    2017-07-16

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) based films containing two different plasticizers [Acetyl Tributyl Citrate (ATBC) and isosorbide diester (ISE)] at three different contents (15 wt %, 20 wt % and 30 wt %) were produced by extrusion method. Thermal, morphological, mechanical and wettability behavior of produced materials was investigated as a function of plasticizer content. Filmature parameters were also adjusted and optimized for different formulations, in order to obtain similar thickness for different systems. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results and evaluation of solubility parameter confirmed that similar miscibility was obtained for ATBC and ISE in PLA, while the two selected plasticizers resulted as not efficient for plasticization of PBS, to the limit that the PBS-30ATBC resulted as not processable. On the basis of these results, isosorbide-based plasticizer was considered a suitable agent for modification of a selected blend (PLA/PBS 80:20) and two mixing approaches were used to identify the role of ISE in the plasticization process: results from mechanical analysis confirmed that both produced PLA-PBS blends (PLA85-ISE15)-PBS20 and (PLA80-PBS20)-ISE15 could guarantee advantages in terms of deformability, with respect to the PLA80-PBS20 reference film, suggesting that the promising use of these stretchable PLA-PBS based films plasticized with isosorbide can provide novel solutions for food packaging applications.

  13. Analysis of Gas Permeability Characteristics of Poly(Lactic Acid/Poly(Butylene Succinate Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas permeability and morphological properties of nanocomposites prepared by the mixing of poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(butylene succinate (PBS, and clay was investigated. While the composition of PLA and PBS polymers was fixed as 80% and 20% by weight, respectively, for all the nanocomposites, clay contents varied from 1 to 10 wt%. From the morphological studies using both wide angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, the nanocomposite having 1 wt% of clay was considered to have a mixed morphology of intercalated and delaminated structure, while some clusters or agglomerated particles were detected for nanocomposites having 3 and more than 3 wt% of clay content. However, the average particle size of the dispersed PBS phase was reduced significantly from 7 μm to 30–40 nm with the addition of clay in the blend. The oxygen barrier property was improved significantly as compared to the water vapor. A model based on gas barrier property was used for the validation of the oxygen relative permeabilities of PLA/PBS/clay nanocomposites. PLA/PBS/clay nanocomposites validated the Bharadwaj model up to 3 wt% of clay contents only, while for nanocomposites of higher clay contents the Bharadwaj model was invalid due to the clusters and agglomerates formed.

  14. Blends of low molecular weight of poly lactic acid (PLA) with gondorukem (gum rosin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaavessina, Mujtahid; Distantina, Sperisa; Chafidz, Achmad; Utama, Aditya; Anggraeni, Venisa Mega Puteri

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of plastic was increasing as well as the increasing its demand in wide range application. Consequently, the number of plastic litter will increase and make more serious environmental problems. This research concerns to minimize waste problems by designing biodegradable plastic. In this research, biodegradable plastic was made of poly lactic acid (PLA) and gondorukem (Gum rosin, Resina colophonium) as the plasticizer. The effect of gondorukem towards PLA properties such as rheology and degradability was investigated. The research divided into two steps: (i) the polycondensation of lactic acid (LA) and (ii) modification of obtained poly lactic acid. In the first step, polycondensation was done in N2 atmosphere (138°C) for 30 hours and added 0.1 %w of SnCl2 as catalyst. Bulk modification was conducted by blending of gondurukem in varied weight (0.5, 1, and 2 g in 10 g of PLA). Furthermore, the modified PLA was analyzed its molecular structure, biodegradability and rheological property. The presence of gondorukem enhanced the biodegradability of poly lactic acid. Gondorukem could act as the plasticizer. It is confirmed that the complex viscosity of PLA melt decreased upon the addition of gondorukem

  15. Plasma surface modification of poly (L-lactic acid) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) films for improvement of nerve cells adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorasani, M.T.; Mirzadeh, H.; Irani, S.

    2008-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) plasma treatment in O 2 was applied to modify the surface of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly (D,L-lactic acid-coglycolic acid) (PLGA) as biodegradable polymers. The surface structure, morphology, wettability and surface chemistry of treated films were characterized by water drop contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical invert microscope, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ATIR-FTIR spectroscopy. The cell affinity of the oxygen plasma treated film was evaluated by nervous tissue B65 cell culture in stationary conditions. The results showed that the hydrophilicity increased greatly after O 2 plasma treatment. The results showed that improved cell adhesion was attributed to the combination of surface chemistry and surface wettability during plasma treatment. Cell culture results showed that B65 nervous cell attachment and growth on the plasma treated PLLA was much higher than an unmodified sample and PLGA. Surface hydrophilicity and chemical functional groups with high polar component play an important role in enhancing cell attachment and growth

  16. Effect of the Talc Filler on Structural, Water Vapor Barrier and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid) Composites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buzarovska, A.; Bogoeva-Gaceva, G.; Fajgar, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2016), s. 181-188 ISSN 0334-6447 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : composites * packaging * poly (lactic acid) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2016

  17. Optimization of Preparation Techniques for Poly(Lactic Acid-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birnbaum, Duane T.; Kosmala, Jacqueline D.; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa [Biogel Technology, Inc. (United States)], E-mail: lisabp@biogeltech.com

    2000-06-15

    Microparticles and nanoparticles of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) are excellent candidates for the controlled release of many pharmaceutical compounds because of their biodegradable nature. The preparation of submicron PLAGA particles poses serious challenges that are not necessarily present when preparing microparticles. We have evaluated several combinations of organic solvents and surfactants used in the formulation of PLAGA nanoparticles. Critical factors such as the ability to separate the nanoparticles from the surfactant, the ability to re-suspend the nanoparticles after freeze-drying, formulation yield and nanoparticle size were studied. The smallest particles were obtained using the surfactant/solvent combination of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethyl acetate (65 nm) and the largest particles were obtained using poly(vinyl alcohol) and dichloromethane (466 nm). However, the optimal nanoparticles were produced using either acetone or ethyl acetate as the organic solvent and poly(vinyl alcohol) or human serum albumin as the surfactant. This is because the most critical measure of performance of these nanoparticles proved to be their ability to re-suspend after freeze-drying.

  18. Optimization of Preparation Techniques for Poly(Lactic Acid-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, Duane T.; Kosmala, Jacqueline D.; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Microparticles and nanoparticles of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) are excellent candidates for the controlled release of many pharmaceutical compounds because of their biodegradable nature. The preparation of submicron PLAGA particles poses serious challenges that are not necessarily present when preparing microparticles. We have evaluated several combinations of organic solvents and surfactants used in the formulation of PLAGA nanoparticles. Critical factors such as the ability to separate the nanoparticles from the surfactant, the ability to re-suspend the nanoparticles after freeze-drying, formulation yield and nanoparticle size were studied. The smallest particles were obtained using the surfactant/solvent combination of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethyl acetate (65 nm) and the largest particles were obtained using poly(vinyl alcohol) and dichloromethane (466 nm). However, the optimal nanoparticles were produced using either acetone or ethyl acetate as the organic solvent and poly(vinyl alcohol) or human serum albumin as the surfactant. This is because the most critical measure of performance of these nanoparticles proved to be their ability to re-suspend after freeze-drying

  19. Optimization of Preparation Techniques for Poly(Lactic Acid-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Duane T.; Kosmala, Jacqueline D.; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa

    2000-06-01

    Microparticles and nanoparticles of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) are excellent candidates for the controlled release of many pharmaceutical compounds because of their biodegradable nature. The preparation of submicron PLAGA particles poses serious challenges that are not necessarily present when preparing microparticles. We have evaluated several combinations of organic solvents and surfactants used in the formulation of PLAGA nanoparticles. Critical factors such as the ability to separate the nanoparticles from the surfactant, the ability to re-suspend the nanoparticles after freeze-drying, formulation yield and nanoparticle size were studied. The smallest particles were obtained using the surfactant/solvent combination of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethyl acetate (65 nm) and the largest particles were obtained using poly(vinyl alcohol) and dichloromethane (466 nm). However, the optimal nanoparticles were produced using either acetone or ethyl acetate as the organic solvent and poly(vinyl alcohol) or human serum albumin as the surfactant. This is because the most critical measure of performance of these nanoparticles proved to be their ability to re-suspend after freeze-drying.

  20. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) based nanocomposites-a novel way of drug-releasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chen; Lv Gang; Pan Chao; Song Min; Wu Chunhui; Guo Dadong; Wang Xuemei; Chen Baoan; Gu Zhongze

    2007-01-01

    In this communication, poly(lactic acid) nanofibers have been fabricated by electrospinning and then poly(lactic acid) (PLA) based nanocomposites have been prepared by accumulating anticancer drug daunorubicin on PLA nanofibers combined with TiO 2 nanoparticles. Our atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser-scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) studies demonstrate that the respective drug molecules could be readily self-assembled on the surface of the blends of nano-TiO 2 with PLA polymer nanocomposites, which could further efficiently facilitate the drug permeation and accumulation on the target leukemia K562 cells. Besides, the respective new nanocomposites have good biocompatibility, ease of surface chemistry modification and very high surface area, which may afford the possibility for their promising application in pharmacology and biomedical engineering areas. (communication)

  1. Styrene-Assisted Maleic Anhydride Grafted Poly(lactic acid as an Effective Compatibilizer for Wood Flour/Poly(lactic acid Bio-Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Du

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of styrene-assisted maleic anhydride-grafted poly(lactic acid (PLA-g-St/MAH on the interfacial properties of wood flour/poly(lactic acid (PLA bio-composites. PLA-g-St/MAH was synthesized by free-radical melt grafting using styrene as a comonomer and dicumyl peroxide as an initiator. The structure of PLA-g-St/MAH was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Wood flour/PLA composites were prepared by compression molding using PLA-g-St/MAH as a compatibilizer. The effects of PLA-g-St/MAH on the rheological and mechanical properties, as well as on the fractured surface morphology of the composites were investigated. Results indicated that storage modulus, complex viscosity, equilibrium torque, and shear heat were significantly increased. The mechanical properties of the wood flour/PLA composites were also significantly increased after the addition of PLA-g-St/MAH. The maximum values were achieved at the loading rate of 3 wt % because of the improved interfacial adhesion between the wood flour and the PLA matrix.

  2. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid drug delivery systems through transdermal pathway: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Naves, Lucas; Dhand, Chetna; Almeida, Luis; Rajamani, Lakshminarayanan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Soares, Gra?a

    2017-01-01

    In past few decades, scientists have made tremendous advancement in the field of drug delivery systems (DDS), through transdermal pathway, as the skin represents a ready and large surface area for delivering drugs. Efforts are in progress to design efficient transdermal DDS that support sustained drug release at the targeted area for longer duration in the recommended therapeutic window without producing side-effects. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is one of the most promising Food and ...

  3. Biocompatibility of poly(lactic acid) with incorporated graphene-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Artur Moreira; Moreira, Susana Margarida Gomes; Gonçalves, Inês; Gama, F. M.; Mendes, Adélio; Magalhães, Fernão D.

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of graphene-based materials has been shown to improve mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). In this work, PLA films and composite PLA films incorporating two graphene-based materials – graphene oxide (GO) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) – were prepared and characterized regarding not only biocompatibility, but also surface topography, chemistry and wettability. The presence of both fillers changed the films surface topography, increasing the roughness, and modif...

  4. Combination of Poly(lactic) Acid and Starch for Biodegradable Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Justine; Gonz?lez-Mart?nez, Chelo; Chiralt, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    The massive use of synthetic plastics, in particular in the food packaging area, has a great environmental impact, and alternative more ecologic materials are being required. Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and starch have been extensively studied as potential replacements for non-degradable petrochemical polymers on the basis of their availability, adequate food contact properties and competitive cost. Nevertheless, both polymers exhibit some drawbacks for packaging uses and need to be adapted to th...

  5. Poly(Lactic Acid) Filled with Cassava Starch-g-Soybean Oil Maleate

    OpenAIRE

    Kiangkitiwan, Nopparut; Srikulkit, Kawee

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid), PLA, is a biodegradable polymer, but its applications are limited by its high cost and relatively poorer properties when compared to petroleum-based plastics. The addition of starch powder into PLA is one of the most promising efforts because starch is an abundant and cheap biopolymer. However, the challenge is the major problem associated with poor interfacial adhesion between the hydrophilic starch granules and the hydrophobic PLA, leading to poorer mechanical properties....

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Films Extruded of Polyethylene/Chitosan Modified with Poly(lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Castillo, Jesús Manuel; Rodríguez-Félix, Dora Evelia; Grijalva-Monteverde, Heriberto; Lizárraga-Laborín, Lauren Lucero; Castillo-Ortega, María Mónica; del Castillo-Castro, Teresa; Rodríguez-Félix, Francisco; Herrera-Franco, Pedro Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The use of mixtures of synthetic and natural polymers is a potential option to reduce the pollution by plastic waste. In this work, the method for the chemical modification of chitosan with poly(lactic acid) was developed; then, the preparation of films of blends of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid) produced by an extrusion method using polyethylene-graft maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer. It was possible to obtain films with a maximum content of 20 wt% and 30 wt%, chitosan, with and without compatibilizer, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed a homogeneous surface on all films. The addition of the compatibilizer had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the films, such as an increase in Young’s modulus and a decrease in the elongation at break; additionally, the compatibilizer promotes thermal degradation in a single step and gives the film a slight increase in thermal resistance. These results are attributed to an improved interaction in the interface of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid), promoted by the compatibilizer. PMID:28787928

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Films Extruded of Polyethylene/Chitosan Modified with Poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Quiroz-Castillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixtures of synthetic and natural polymers is a potential option to reduce the pollution by plastic waste. In this work, the method for the chemical modification of chitosan with poly(lactic acid was developed; then, the preparation of films of blends of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid produced by an extrusion method using polyethylene-graft maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer. It was possible to obtain films with a maximum content of 20 wt% and 30 wt%, chitosan, with and without compatibilizer, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis showed a homogeneous surface on all films. The addition of the compatibilizer had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the films, such as an increase in Young’s modulus and a decrease in the elongation at break; additionally, the compatibilizer promotes thermal degradation in a single step and gives the film a slight increase in thermal resistance. These results are attributed to an improved interaction in the interface of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid, promoted by the compatibilizer.

  8. Fundamentals of poly(lactic acid) microstructure, crystallization behavior, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shuhui

    Poly(lactic acid) is an environmentally-benign biodegradable and sustainable thermoplastic material, which has found broad applications as food packaging films and as non-woven fibers. The crystallization and deformation mechanisms of the polymer are largely determined by the distribution of conformation and configuration. Knowledge of these mechanisms is needed to understand the mechanical and thermal properties on which processing conditions mainly depend. In conjunction with laser light scattering, Raman spectroscopy and normal coordinate analysis are used in this thesis to elucidate these properties. Vibrational spectroscopic theory, Flory's rotational isomeric state (RIS) theory, Gaussian chain statistics and statistical mechanics are used to relate experimental data to molecular chain structure. A refined RIS model is proposed, chain rigidity recalculated and chain statistics discussed. A Raman spectroscopic characterization method for crystalline and amorphous phase orientation has been developed. A shrinkage model is also proposed to interpret the dimensional stability for fibers and uni- or biaxially stretched films. A study of stereocomplexation formed by poly(l-lactic acid) and poly(d-lactic acid) is also presented.

  9. Plasticized Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid Based Composites Containing Cellulose in Micro- and Nanosize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Halász

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of thermal processed poly(lactic acid composites. Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG400, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, and ultrasound-treated microcrystalline cellulose (USMCC were used in 1, 3, and 5 weight percents to modify the attributes of PLA matrix. The composite films were produced by twin screw extrusion followed by film extrusion. The manufactured PLA-based films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, and degradation test.

  10. Stereocomplexation of low molecular weight poly(L-lactic acid) and high molecular weight poly(D-lactic acid), radiation crosslinking PLLA/PDLA stereocomplexes and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quynh, Tran Minh; Mai, Hoang Hoa; Lan, Pham Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    Poly(L-lactic acid)s (PLLAx) were synthesized from L-lactic acid by polycondensation. Different stereocomplexes were also obtained with equimolar mixtures of synthesized PLLAx and a commercial PDLA. The stereocomplexes were crosslinked with triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) by gamma irradiation. Crosslinking density increased with radiation doses, the heavier the crosslinking network, the lower its swelling degree. The crosslinking structures were introduced in the stereocomplexes inhibiting the mobility for crystallization of PLLA molecules. Thermal and mechanical properties of PLA stereocomplexes were remarkably enhanced by radiation induced crosslinking. PLA stereocomplex does not seem to be degraded by PLLA degrading microorganisms existing in compost at room temperature, but the synthesized PLLA was significantly degraded. - Highlights: ► Complete PLA stereocomplex was obtained from synthesized PLLA and a commercial PDLA. ► Melting temperature of stereocomplex were much improved by gamma irradiation. ► Crosslinking network inhibited the mobility of polymeric chains for crystallization. ► Biodegradability of PLLA was reduced by stereocomplexation and crosslinking.

  11. Plasticization of poly(lactic acid) using different molecular weight of Poly(ethylene glycol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septevani, Athanasia Amanda; Bhakri, Samsul

    2017-11-01

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) has been known as an excellent candidate for developing the future bioplastic due to its biodegradability and competitive price. However, inherent brittleness and low thermal stability of PLA have limited its applications. Considerable studies have been developed to improve the flexibility of PLA, in which blending PLA with various plasticizers has been identified as a cost-effective way to lower glass-transition temperature (Tg) and thus improve its elongation property. In this study, PLA was modified by incorporating poly(ethylene glycol) as a plasticizer with different molecular weights (M¯w 400, 1000, and 6000, called respectively as PEG 400, PEG 1000, and PEG 6000) via a solvent-casting blend method. FTIR was used for analyzing the chemical interaction while TGA and DSC measured the thermal behavior of PLA/PEG. The results indicated that the addition of lower M¯w (PEG 400 and PEG 1000) could reduce the Tg due to the enhancement of chain mobility of PLA with PEG and so driving into a more amorphous states resulted reduction of melting temperature (Tm) compared to the neat PLA. Further, at a higher M¯w of PEG 6000, the longer chain of ethylene glycol, in contrast, resulted a gradual increase in the Tg as well as Tm where the value went back to the point of neat PLA compared to the other lower molecular weight of PLA. This was due to the decrease in polymer miscibility with the increasing of M¯w. In terms of thermal stability, the addition of PEG exhibited two step degradation behavior while the neat PLA only possessed single step degradation. The presence of PEG could act as a protective barrier layer that could hinder the permeability of the volatile compound and product during decomposition reaction and thus could eventually delay and slower the degradation process. It was observed that the addition of PEG at higher M¯w (PEG1000 and PEG 6000) exhibited a higher second degradation temperature up to 380 °C.

  12. Functional Properties of Plasticized Bio-Based Poly(Lactic Acid)_Poly(Hydroxybutyrate) (PLA_PHB) Films for Active Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Nuria; Armentano, Ilaria; Fortunati, Elena; Dominici, Franco; Luzi, Francesca; Fiori, Stefano; Cristofaro, Francesco; Visai, Livia; Jiménez, Alfonso; Kenny, José María

    2017-01-01

    Fully bio-based and biodegradable active films based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blended with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and incorporating lactic acid oligomers (OLA) as plasticizers and carvacrol as active agent were extruded and fully characterized in their functional properties for antimicrobial active packaging. PLA_PHB films showed good barrier to water vapor, while the resistance to oxygen diffusion decreased with the addition of OLA and carvacrol. Their overall migration in aqueous f...

  13. Piezoelectric antibacterial fabric comprised of poly(l-lactic acid) yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masamichi; Takeshima, Satoshi; Ishiura, Yutaka; Ando, Kanako; Onishi, Osamu

    2017-10-01

    A lactic acid monomer has an asymmetric carbon in the molecule, so there are optical isomer l- and d-type. The most widely used poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for commercial applications is poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA). PLLA is the polymerization product of l-lactide. Certain treatments of PLLA can yield a film that exhibits shear piezoelectricity. Thus, piezoelectric PLLA fiber can be generated by micro slitting piezoelectric PLLA films or by a melt spinning method. We prepared left-handed helical multi fiber yarn (S-yarn) and right-handed helical yarn (Z-yarn) using piezoelectric PLLA fiber. PLLA exhibited shear mode piezoelectricity, causing the electric polarity of the yarn surface to be reversed on the S-yarn and Z-yarn when tension was applied. An SZ-yarn was produced by combining the S-yarn and Z-yarn, and fabric was prepared using the SZ-yarn. This study demonstrated that the fabric has a strong antibacterial effect, which is thought to be due to the strong electric field between the yarns. The field is generated by a piezoelectric effect when the fabric was extended and contracted.

  14. Analysis of Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid/Poly(Isoprene Polymeric Blend for application as biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of renewable raw materials encourages research in the biopolymers area. The Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid/Poly(Isoprene (PLGA/IR blend combines biocompatibility for application in the health field with excellent mechanical properties. The blend was obtained by solubilization of polymers in organic solvents. To investigate the polymer thermochemical properties, FTIR and DSC were applied. To investigate the composition's influence over polymer mechanical properties, tensile and hardness test were applied. To analyze the blends response in the cell environment, a stent was produced by injection molding process, and Cell Viability Test and Previous Implantability were used. The Infrared spectra show that chemical composition is related only with polymers proportion in the blend. The calorimetry shows a partial miscibility in the blend. The tensile test shows that adding Poly(Isoprene to Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid induced a relevant reduction in the Young modulus, tensile stress and tenacity of the material, which was altered from the fragile raw PLGA to a ductile material. The composition did not affect the blend hardness. The cell viability test shows that the blend has potential application as biomaterial, while the first results of implantability indicate that the polymeric stent kept its original position and caused low fibrosis.

  15. Biodegradability and Biocompatibility Study of Poly(Chitosan-g-lactic Acid Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A biodegradable, biocompatible poly(chitosan-g-lactic acid (PCLA scaffold was prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The PCLA scaffold was obtained by grafting lactic acid (LA onto the amino groups on chitosan (CS without a catalyst. The PCLA scaffolds were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The biodegradabilty was determined by mass loss in vitro, and degradation in vivo as a function of feed ratio of LA/CS. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC culture experiments and histological examination were performed to evaluate the PCLA scaffolds’ biocompatibility. The results indicated that PCLA was promising for tissue engineering application.

  16. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lactic acid nanocarrier-based degradable hydrogels for restoring the vaginal microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Sujata Sundara; Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Singh, Yashveer; Chikindas, Michael L.; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) display reduced vaginal acidity, which make them susceptible to associated infections such as HIV. In the current study, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanocarrier-based degradable hydrogels were developed for the controlled release of lactic acid in the vagina of BV-infected women. PEG-lactic acid (PEG-LA) nanocarriers were prepared by covalently attaching lactic acid to 8-arm PEG-SH via cleavable thioester bonds. PEG-LA nanocarriers with 4 copies of lactic acid per molecule provided controlled release of lactic acid with a maximum release of 23% and 47% bound lactic acid in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) and acetate buffer (AB, pH 4.3), respectively. The PEG nanocarrier-based hydrogels were formed by cross-linking the PEG-LA nanocarriers with 4-arm PEG-NHS via degradable thioester bonds. The nanocarrier-based hydrogels formed within 20 min under ambient conditions and exhibited an elastic modulus that was 100-fold higher than the viscous modulus. The nanocarrier-based degradable hydrogels provided controlled release of lactic acid for several hours; however, a maximum release of only 10%–14% bound lactic acid was observed possibly due to steric hindrance of the polymer chains in the cross-linked hydrogel. In contrast, hydrogels with passively entrapped lactic acid showed burst release with complete release within 30 min. Lactic acid showed antimicrobial activity against the primary BV pathogen Gardnerella vaginalis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.6 mg/ml. In addition, the hydrogels with passively entrapped lactic acid showed retained antimicrobial activity with complete inhibition G. vaginalis growth within 48 h. The results of the current study collectively demonstrate the potential of PEG nanocarrier-based hydrogels for vaginal administration of lactic acid for preventing and treating BV. PMID:25223229

  17. Influence of clay-nanofiller geometry on the structure and properties of poly(lactic acid)/thermoplastic polyurethane nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kelnar, Ivan; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Fortelný, Ivan; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Zhigunov, Alexander; Nevoralová, Martina; Kotrisová, M.; Khunová, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 36 (2016), s. 30755-30762 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-15255S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly (epsilon-caprolactone) * poly (lactic acid) * microfibrillar composites Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  18. Poly(lactic acid (PLA Based Tear Resistant and Biodegradable Flexible Films by Blown Film Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Mallegni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA was melt mixed in a laboratory extruder with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT and poly(butylene succinate (PBS in the presence of polypropylene glycol di glycidyl ether (EJ400 that acted as both plasticizer and compatibilizer. The process was then scaled up in a semi-industrial extruder preparing pellets having different content of a nucleating agent (LAK. All of the formulations could be processed by blowing extrusion and the obtained films showed mechanical properties dependent on the LAK content. In particular the tearing strength showed a maximum like trend in the investigated composition range. The films prepared with both kinds of blends showed a tensile strength in the range 12–24 MPa, an elongation at break in the range 150–260% and a significant crystallinity.

  19. Efficacy of Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic acid)-Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid) Thermogel As a Barrier to Prevent Spinal Epidural Fibrosis in a Postlaminectomy Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Lin; Lin, Hong; Cao, Luping; Cheng, Ji'an; Dong, Jian; Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2017-04-01

    Experimental animal study. The authors conducted a study to determine the efficacy and safety of the poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) thermogel to prevent peridural fibrosis in an adult rat laminectomy model. Peridural fibrosis often occurs after spinal laminectomy. It might cause persistent back and/or leg pain postoperatively and make a reoperation more difficult and dangerous. Various materials have been used to prevent epidural fibrosis, but only limited success has been achieved. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was synthesized by us. Total L3 laminectomies were performed on 24 rats. The PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or chitosan (CHS) gel (a positive control group) was applied to the operative sites in a blinded manner. In the control group, the L3 laminectomy was performed and the defect was irrigated with the NS solution 3 times. All the rats were killed 4 weeks after the surgery. The cytotoxicity of this thermogel was evaluated in vitro and the result demonstrated that no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. The extent of epidural fibrosis, the area of epidural fibrosis, and the density of the fibroblasts and blood vessel were evaluated histologically. There were statistical differences among the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel or CHS gel group compared with the control group. Although there was no difference between the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel and CHS gel, the efficiency of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was shown to be slightly improved compared with the CHS gel. The biocompatibility of the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel was proven well. The application of this thermogel effectively reduced epidural scarring and prevented the subsequent adhesion to the dura mater. No side effects were noted in the rats.

  20. Establishment of novel meniscal scaffold structures using polyglycolic and poly-l-lactic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomohiko; Otsuki, Shuhei; Nakagawa, Kosuke; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Inoue, Tae; Sakamoto, Yuki; Sato, Hideki; Neo, Masashi

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate various types of meniscus scaffolds that mimic the meniscus structure, and to establish a novel cell-free meniscus scaffold with polyglycolic acid or poly-l-lactic acid. Four types of scaffolds were implanted into Japanese white rabbits: poly-l-lactic acid sponge poly-l-lactic acid, PGA-coated PLLA sponge, PGA lamination, and film-coated PGA lamination. Samples were harvested at 8 and 12 weeks after implantation, and a compression stress test was performed. The meniscus size and Ishida scores were evaluated for regenerated tissue. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed by anti-type I, II and X collagen antibodies to investigate the structure of the regenerated tissue, and by anti-iNOS antibody to investigate the inflammatory tissue of the meniscus. The cell nuclei of lymphocytes and foreign body multinucleated giant cells were counted in hematoxylin and eosin staining. Modified Mankin scores for cartilage degeneration were used for assessment after Safranin-O/Fast Green staining. The biomechanical test showed that l- and film-coated PGA lamination exhibited greater strength than s- and PGA-coated PLLA sponge. At 12 weeks, the size of meniscus and the Ishida score in implanted film-coated PGA lamination were improved significantly compared with the defect groups. The type II collagen staining intensity in the PGA lamination lamination is significantly higher than the defect at eight weeks. The staining intensity of iNOS and number of lymphocytes significantly increased in sponge poly-l-lactic acid at eight weeks, and increased in p-PLLA at 12 weeks. Foreign body multinucleated giant cells in implantation groups appeared, especially at eight weeks. The Mankin score for film-coated PGA lamination was significantly lower than for the defect at 12 weeks. Novel meniscal scaffolds especially PGA should possess not only biological but also biomechanical functions. In conclusions, film-coated PGA lamination was the beneficial property

  1. Electrospun Poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) Scaffolds for Skin Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbar, Sangamesh G.; Nukavarapu, Syam Prasad; James, Roshan; Nair, Lakshmi S.; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2008-01-01

    Electrospun fiber matrices composed of scaffolds of varying fiber diameters were investigated for potential application of severe skin loss. Few systematic studies have been performed to examine the effect of varying fiber diameter electrospun fiber matrices for skin regeneration. The present study reports the fabrication of poly[lactic acid-co-glycolic acid] (PLAGA) matrices with fiber diameters of 150–225, 200–300, 250–467, 500–900, 600–1200, 2500–3000 and 3250–6000 nm via electrospinning. All fiber matrices found to have a tensile modulus from 39.23 ± 8.15 to 79.21 ± 13.71 MPa which falls in the range for normal human skin. Further, the porous fiber matrices have porosity between 38–60 % and average pore diameters between 10–14µm. We evaluated the efficacy of these biodegradable fiber matrices as skin substitutes by seeding them with human skin fibroblasts (hSF). Human skin fibroblasts acquired a well spread morphology and showed significant progressive growth on fiber matrices in the 350–1100 nm diameter range. Collagen type III gene expression was significantly up-regulated in hSF seeded on matrices with fiber diameters in the range of 350–1100 nm. Based on the need, the proposed fiber skin substitutes can be successfully fabricated and optimized for skin fibroblast attachment and growth. PMID:18639927

  2. Biodegradable poly (lactic acid-co-glycolic acid scaffolds as carriers for genetically-modified fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Perisic

    Full Text Available Recent advances in gene delivery into cells allow improved therapeutic effects in gene therapy trials. To increase the bioavailability of applied cells, it is of great interest that transfected cells remain at the application site and systemic spread is minimized. In this study, we tested clinically used biodegradable poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA scaffolds (Vicryl & Ethisorb as transient carriers for genetically modified cells. To this aim, we used human fibroblasts and examined attachment and proliferation of untransfected cells on the scaffolds in vitro, as well as the mechanical properties of the scaffolds at four time points (1, 3, 6 and 9 days of cultivation. Furthermore, the adherence of cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165 and also VEGF165 protein secretion were investigated. Our results show that human fibroblasts adhere on both types of PLGA scaffolds. However, proliferation and transgene expression capacity were higher on Ethisorb scaffolds most probably due to a different architecture of the scaffold. Additionally, cultivation of the cells on the scaffolds did not alter their biomechanical properties. The results of this investigation could be potentially exploited in therapeutic regiments with areal delivery of transiently transfected cells and may open the way for a variety of applications of cell-based gene therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  3. Influence of the addition of bentonite clay in poli (butylene adipate co-terephthalic) / poly(lactic acid) membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, D.D.S.; Medeiros, K.M.; Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J.A.; Barbosa, R.

    2014-01-01

    The processes of membrane separation have been used in many different sectors of industrial activity, ranging from the chemical industry, food, pharmaceutical, medical and biotech. In this paper, a bentonite clay was added by melt intercalation in a poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalic acid)/poly(lactic acid) blend at levels 1 and 3 wt% of clay. After that, membranes were produced by solvent evaporation technique. From the XRD results, it was verified the possible formation of exfoliated/partially exfoliated structures in the membranes. By DSC, it was observed that the addition of clay did not promote alterations in glass transition temperature and crystalline melting of the PBAT/PLA matrix. The morphology of the membranes were observed by SEM and it was verified the clay formation of porous membranes. (author)

  4. New Poly(lactic acid) Active Packaging Composite Films Incorporated with Fungal Melanin

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Łopusiewicz; Filip Jędra; Małgorzata Mizielińska

    2018-01-01

    In this work, fungal melanin was used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid)-based composites. The films of various melanin concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.2% w/w) were prepared using an extrusion method. The mechanical, antioxidant, antimicrobial, water vapor and UV-Vis barrier properties, as well as available polyphenolics on the surface, were studied. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy studies were carried out to analyze the chemical composition of the resulting films. The hydrophob...

  5. Using microcantilever sensors to measure poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) plasticization by moisture uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Gustavo Marcati A.; Bose-Goswami, Sanjukta; Mansano, Ronaldo D.

    2018-01-01

    Polymeric materials absorb water when exposed to humidity or in contact with aqueous solutions. The polymer and water molecules interact, changing the physicochemical parameters of the material; the most noticeable effect is a decreased glass transition temperature (Tg), known as plasticization. We...... used microcantilever sensors to measure the Tg versus moisture content in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a biodegradable polymer used in implants and as a drug carrier. We demonstrate a concomitant measurement of the mass absorption and Tg using nanograms of material and an inexpensive setup...

  6. Effect of Commercial SiO2 and SiO2 from rice husk ash loading on biodegradation of Poly (lactic acid) and crosslinked Poly (lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapruddivongs, C.; Apichartsitporn, M.; Wongpreedee, T.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, biodegradation behavior of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and crosslinked PLA filled with two types of SiO2, precipitated SiO2 (commercial SiO2) and SiO2 from rice husk ash, were studied. Rice husks were first treated with 2 molar hydrochloric acid (HCl) to produce high purity SiO2, before burnt in a furnace at 800°C for 6 hours. All components were melted bending by an internal mixer then hot pressed using compression molder to form tested specimens. FTIR spectra of SiO2 and PLA samples were investigated. The results showed the lack of silanol group (Si-OH) of rice husk ash after steric acid surface modification, while the addition of particles can affect the crosslinking of the PLA. For biodegradation test by evaluating total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) evolved during 60 days incubation at a controlled temperature of 58±2°C, the results showed that the biodegradation of crosslinked PLA occurred slower than the neat PLA. However, SiO2 incorporation enhanced the degree of biodegradation In particular, introducing commercial SiO2 in PLA and crosslinked PLA tended to clearly increase the degree of biodegradation as a consequence of the more accelerated hydrolysis degradation.

  7. Oriented gold ripple-like structures on poly-L-lactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juřík, Petr, E-mail: petr.jurik@gmail.com [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Slepička, Petr [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Mistrík, Jan; Janíček, Petr [Department of Applied Physics and Mathematics, University of Pardubice (Czech Republic); Rimpelová, Silvie [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Kolská, Zdeňka [Faculty of Science, University of J. E. Purkyně, Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Švorčík, Václav [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • We prepared oriented ripple-like structures on polymer surface with thin gold layer. • These structures show preferential orientation over large areas which is unusual for heat induced wrinkling. • Significant electrical and optical anisotropy was observed. • Zeta-potential, XPS, goniometry and ellipsometry suggest formation of gold lines separated by polymer gaps. • Increase in cell growth in comparison with poly-styrene mock was observed. - Abstract: In this paper chemical, morphological, electrical and biological properties of poly-L-lactic acid thin films with gold nanolayers were studied. These samples were examined as-sputtered and annealed at glass transition temperature. Morphological changes of poly-L-lactic films introduced by annealing were studied by means of atomic force microscopy. This method showed formation of oriented ripple-like structures on the surface of the film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, goniometry, ellipsometry, sheet resistance measurement and electrokinetic analysis were used to determine distribution of gold on the surface. Combined data suggests that these ripple-like structures were formed by gold lines with insulating polymer gaps in between. These lines show preferential orientation over large areas and under proper conditions offer simple way to form electrically anisotropic material on large scale. Also cytocompatibility was studied showing increased cell adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts offering another use for these easily formed structures.

  8. Oriented gold ripple-like structures on poly-L-lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juřík, Petr; Slepička, Petr; Mistrík, Jan; Janíček, Petr; Rimpelová, Silvie; Kolská, Zdeňka; Švorčík, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We prepared oriented ripple-like structures on polymer surface with thin gold layer. • These structures show preferential orientation over large areas which is unusual for heat induced wrinkling. • Significant electrical and optical anisotropy was observed. • Zeta-potential, XPS, goniometry and ellipsometry suggest formation of gold lines separated by polymer gaps. • Increase in cell growth in comparison with poly-styrene mock was observed. - Abstract: In this paper chemical, morphological, electrical and biological properties of poly-L-lactic acid thin films with gold nanolayers were studied. These samples were examined as-sputtered and annealed at glass transition temperature. Morphological changes of poly-L-lactic films introduced by annealing were studied by means of atomic force microscopy. This method showed formation of oriented ripple-like structures on the surface of the film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, goniometry, ellipsometry, sheet resistance measurement and electrokinetic analysis were used to determine distribution of gold on the surface. Combined data suggests that these ripple-like structures were formed by gold lines with insulating polymer gaps in between. These lines show preferential orientation over large areas and under proper conditions offer simple way to form electrically anisotropic material on large scale. Also cytocompatibility was studied showing increased cell adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts offering another use for these easily formed structures

  9. Tailoring the morphology and properties of poly(lactic acid)/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/starch blends via reactive compatibilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, P.; Hristova - Bogaerds, D.G.; Schmit, P.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Lemstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid)/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/starch (PLA/EVA/starch) ternary blends were prepared by multi-step melt processing (reactive extrusion) in the presence of maleic anhydride (MA), benzoyl peroxide and glycerol. The effects of MA and glycerol concentration on the morphology and

  10. 3D FT-IR imaging spectroscopy of phase-separation in a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(L-lactic acid) blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriam Unger; Julia Sedlmair; Heinz W. Siesler; Carol Hirschmugl; Barbara Illman

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, 3D FT-IR spectroscopic imaging measurements were applied to study the phase separation of a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) (50:50 wt.%) polymer blend film. While in 2D projection imaging the z-dependent information is overlapped, thereby complicating the analysis, FT-IR spectro-micro-tomography,...

  11. Characterisation of poly(lactic acid): poly(ethyleneoxide) (PLA:PEG) nanoparticles using the self-consistent theory modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, C.R.; Stolnik, S.; Matteis, De C.; Garnett, M.C.; Illum, L.; Davis, S.S.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Self-consistent field (SCF) modelling studies can be used to predict the properties of poly(lactic acid):poly(ethyleneoxide) (PLA:PEG) nanoparticles using the theory developed by Scheutjens and Fleer. Good agreement in the results between experimental and modelled data has been observed previously

  12. Antioxidant poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles made with α-tocopherol-ascorbic acid surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astete, Carlos E; Dolliver, Debra; Whaley, Meocha; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2011-12-27

    The goal of the study was to synthesize a surfactant made of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) of antioxidant properties dubbed as EC, and to use this surfactant to make poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. Self-assembled EC nanostructures and PLGA-EC nanoparticles were made by nanoprecipitation, and their physical properties (size, size distribution, morphology) were studied at different salt concentrations, surfactant concentrations, and polymer/surfactant ratios. EC surfactant was shown to form self-assembled nanostructures in water with a size of 22 to 138 nm in the presence of sodium chloride, or 12 to 31 nm when synthesis was carried out in sodium bicarbonate. Polymeric PLGA-EC nanoparticles presented a size of 90 to 126 nm for 40% to 120% mass ratio PLGA to surfactant. For the same mass ratios, the PLGA-Span80 formed particles measured 155 to 216 nm. Span80 formed bilayers, whereas EC formed monolayers at the interfaces. PLGA-EC nanoparticles and EC showed antioxidant activity based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay measurements using UV and EPR techniques, antioxidant activity which is not characteristic to commercially available Span80. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for lipid peroxidation showed that PLGA nanoparticles with EC performed better as antioxidants than the EC nanoassembly or the free vitamin C. Nanoparticles were readily internalized by HepG2 cells and were localized in the cytoplasm. The newly synthesized EC surfactant was therefore found successful in forming uniform, small size polymeric nanoparticles of intrinsic antioxidant properties.

  13. Preparation of biodegradable magnetic microspheres with poly(lactic acid)-coated magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hong; Saatchi, Katayoun [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2146 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, 6T 1Z3 (Canada); Haefeli, Urs O. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2146 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)], E-mail: uhafeli@interchange.ubc.ca

    2009-05-15

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles were made using uncapped PLA with free carboxylate groups. The physical properties of these particles were compared to those of oleate-coated or oleate/sulphonate bilayer (W40) coated magnetic particles. Magnetic microspheres (MMS) with the matrix material poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or PLA were then formed by the emulsion solvent extraction method with encapsulation efficiencies of 40%, 83% and 96% for oleate, PLA and oleate/sulfonate-coated magnetic particles, respectively. MMS made from PLA-coated magnetite were hemocompatible and produced no hemolysis, whereas the other MMS were hemolytic above 0.3 mg/mL of blood.

  14. In vitro degradation of poly (L-co-D,L lactic acid containing PCL-T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Adriana Tomaz Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of polymer-based bioresorbable temporary devices in the medical field grows continuously, and professionals from several areas act to solve problems related to body functions lost due to diseases, accidents or natural wear. Here we study the influence from poly(caprolactonetriol (PCL-T on the degeneration process in the copolymer poly(L-co-DL-lactic acid (PLDLA membrane, by producing PLDLA/PCL-T blends with 90/10, 70/30 and 50/50 relative concentrations. The data for in vitro degradation showed that PCL-T decreases the rate of PLDLA. This was obtained with the following techniques: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Therefore, it is possible to vary the membrane degradation rate by changing the blend composition, which is a tool to tailor a biomaterial.

  15. Preparation of biodegradable magnetic microspheres with poly(lactic acid)-coated magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hong; Saatchi, Katayoun; Haefeli, Urs O.

    2009-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles were made using uncapped PLA with free carboxylate groups. The physical properties of these particles were compared to those of oleate-coated or oleate/sulphonate bilayer (W40) coated magnetic particles. Magnetic microspheres (MMS) with the matrix material poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or PLA were then formed by the emulsion solvent extraction method with encapsulation efficiencies of 40%, 83% and 96% for oleate, PLA and oleate/sulfonate-coated magnetic particles, respectively. MMS made from PLA-coated magnetite were hemocompatible and produced no hemolysis, whereas the other MMS were hemolytic above 0.3 mg/mL of blood.

  16. Properties of poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite composite through the use of epoxy functional compatibilizers for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monmaturapoj, Naruporn; Srion, Autcharaporn; Chalermkarnon, Prasert; Buchatip, Suthawan; Petchsuk, Atitsa; Noppakunmongkolchai, Warobon; Mai-Ngam, Katanchalee

    2017-08-01

    A composite of 70/30 poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite was systematically prepared using various amounts of glycidyl methacrylate as reactive compatibilizer or Joncryl ADR®-4368 containing nine glycidyl methacrylate functions as a chain extension/branching agent to improve the mechanical and biological properties for suitable usage as internal bone fixation devices. The effect of glycidyl methacrylate/Joncryl on mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite was investigated through flexural strength. Cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the composite samples were determined by Alamar Blue assay and alkaline phosphatase expression, respectively. Result shows that flexural strength tends to decrease, as glycidyl methacrylate content increases except for 1 wt.% glycidyl methacrylate. With an addition of dicumyl peroxide, the flexural strength shows an improvement than that of without dicumyl peroxide probably due to the chemical bonding of the hydroxyapatite and poly(lactic acid) as revealed by FTIR and NMR, whereas the composite with 5 wt.% Joncryl shows the best result, as the flexural strength increases getting close to pure poly(lactic acid). The significant morphology change could be seen in composite with Joncryl where the uniform agglomeration of hydroxyapatite particles oriented in poly(lactic acid) matrix. Addition of the epoxy functional compatibilizers at suitable percentages could also have benefits to cellular attachment, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. So that, this poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite composite could be a promising material to be used as internal bone fixation devices such as screws, pins and plates.

  17. Ibuprofen-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid films for controlled drug release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang JM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Jianmei Pang1, Yuxia Luan1, Feifei Li1, Xiaoqing Cai1, Jimin Du2, Zhonghao Li31School of Pharmaceutical Science, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, PR China; 2School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Henan Province, PR China; 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, PR ChinaAbstract: Ibuprofen- (IBU loaded biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA films were prepared by spreading polymer/ibuprofen solution on the nonsolvent surface. By controlling the weight ratio of drug and polymer, different drug loading polymer films can be obtained. The synthesized ibuprofen-loaded PLGA films were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. The drug release behavior of the as-prepared IBU-loaded PLGA films was studied to reveal their potential application in drug delivery systems. The results show the feasibility of the as-obtained films for controlling drug release. Furthermore, the drug release rate of the film could be controlled by the drug loading content and the release medium. The development of a biodegradable ibuprofen system, based on films, should be of great interest in drug delivery systems.Keywords: ibuprofen, controlled release, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, films

  18. Morphological Evaluation of Soft Tissue Augmentation Using Porous Poly-DL-Lactic Acid With Straight Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken, Yukawa; Noriko, Tachikawa; Furuichi, Akiko; Shohei, Kasugai

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the biological reaction to porous poly-DL-lactic acid (PDLLA) scaffolds with holes for soft tissue augmentation. The control group was porous PDLLA with a diameter of 5.0 mm and a height of 2.0 mm. For the 2 test groups, 7 holes were drilled from the upper to the lower base of the scaffolds; the holes had diameters of 0.5 and 1.0 mm. A scaffold was placed in the periosteum of the cranium. The height and molecular weight (Mw) of the scaffolds were measured at 4 and 8 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to measure the connective tissue and blood vessel areas. All groups had similar scaffold heights, but the Mw decreased significantly over time. There were significant differences in the connective tissue and blood vessel areas among the control, 0.5-mm, and 1.0-mm groups at the same time point. The soft tissue was increased by drilling holes in the scaffolds. Porous poly-DL-lactic acid (PDLLA) contributed favorable prognosis for soft tissue. A wider hole was associated with increased connective tissue and blood vessel areas. The scaffold height and Mw were not impacted by size of the holes.

  19. Nucleated Poly(L-lactic acid) with N, N‧-oxalyl bis(benzoic acid) dihydrazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liang-Liang; Cai, Yan-Hua

    2018-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the field of Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is the enhancement of crystallization. In the present work, the evaluation of the influence of N, N‧-oxalyl bis(benzoic acid) dihydrazide (TBOD), as a novel organic nucleating agent, on the non-isothermal crystallization, melting behavior, and thermal stability of PLLA was performed using differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis. Non-isothermal crystallization measurement revealed that TBOD had an excellent accelerating effect for the crystallization of PLLA in cooling, and upon the addition of 3 wt% TBOD, PLLA exhibited the highest onset crystallization temperature and the crystallization peak temperature, as well as the largest non-isothermal crystallization enthalpy. In particular, when the TBOD concentration was 1 wt% ∼ 3 wt%, the onset crystallization temperatures were higher than the theoretical ceiling temperature of crystallization, thoroughly demonstrating the powerful crystallization promoting ability of TBOD. Additionally, the non-isothermal crystallization behavior of PLLA/TBOD depended on the TBOD concentration, cooling rate as well as the final melting temperature. The melting behavior of PLLA/TBOD after non-isothermal crystallization further confirmed the effect of TBOD on the crystallization process and crystal structure of PLLA, and the appearance of the double melting peaks during melting stages was attribute to the melting-recrystallization. For melting behavior after isothermal crystallization, the crystallization temperature and crystallization time significantly affected the melting behavior of PLLA/TBOD. The addition of TBOD could not change the thermal decomposition profile of the PLLA, but the thermal stability did not regularly decrease with increasing of TBOD concentration, indicating that there might exist intermolecular interaction between PLLA and TBOD.

  20. Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelets and Reduced Graphene Oxide on Poly(lactic acid and Plasticized Poly(lactic acid: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The superlative mechanical properties of graphene-based materials make them the ideal filler materials for polymer composites reinforcement. Two types of graphene-based materials, graphene nanoplatelets (xGnP and reduced graphene oxide (rGO, were used as nanofiller in poly(lactic acid (PLA polymer matrix, as well as plasticized PLA. The addition of rGO into PLA or plasticized PLA substantially enhanced the tensile strength without deteriorating elasticity, compared to xGnP nanocomposites. In addition, the investigation of the thermal properties has found that the presence of rGO in the system is very beneficial for improving thermal stability of the PLA or plasticized PLA. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images of the rGO nanocomposites display homogenous and good uniformity morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images revealed that the rGO remained intact as graphene sheet layers and were dispersed well into the polymer matrix, and it was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD results, which shows no graphitic peak in the XRD pattern.

  1. Characterisation of solution cast cellulose nanofibre – reinforced poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanofibres, 20 nm in diameter and 300 nm long, were prepared by acid hydrolysis of flax yarns. Composite films containing 2.5 and 5.0 wt% flax cellulose (FC fibres were prepared by solution casting of mixtures of poly(lactic acid (PLA solution and cellulose nanofibre suspension in chloroform. The resulting composite films and solution cast pure PLA film, with thickness of around 160 m, showed good transparency. For composites with 2.5 and 5.0 wt% FC, the tensile strength increased by 25 and 59% and tensile modulus by 42 and 47%, respectively, compared to pure PLA film. The composite film with 2.5 wt% FC combined high strength and ductility with tensile strength of 24.3 MPa and 70% elongation at break. Flax cellulose appeared to facilitate nucleation and subsequent crystallisation of PLA more effectively in the amorphous composites than in the crystalline composites.

  2. Physicochemical properties of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid film modified via blending with poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoquan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA/poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate (P(BA-co-MMA blend films with different P(BA-co-MMA mole contents were prepared by casting the polymer blend solution in chloroform. Surface morphologies of the PLGAP(BA-co-MMA blend films were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of PLGAP(BA-co-MMA blend films were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, tensile tests, and surface contact angle tests. The introduction of P(BA-co-MMA could modify the properties of PLGA films.

  3. Modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) for use in poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-CNC composite packaging products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liqing Wei; Nicole M. Stark; Ronald C. Sabo; Laurent Matuana

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in developing bio-based materials for packaging. Bio-derived materials such as cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) can be used to develop sustainable packaging applications. Incorporating CNCs into PLA can increase the crystallinity and barrier properties of PLA. The challenge lies in both increasing the flexibility of...

  4. Thermal Properties of Extruded Injection-Molded Poly (lactic acid) and Milkweed Composites: Degradation Kinectics and Enthalpic Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid) (PLA) and different biomaterials, PLA was compounded with milkweed fiber, a new crop oil seed. After oil extraction, the remaining cake retained approximately 10% residual oil and 47% protein. The pressed seed cake (10% mo...

  5. Thermal properties of extruded injection-molded poly (lactic acid) and milkweed composites: degradation kinetics and enthalpic relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, most polymer composites utilize petroleum-based materials that are non-degradable and difficult to recycle or incur substantial cost for disposal. Green composites can be used in nondurable limited applications. In order to determine the degree of compatibility between Poly (lactic Acid...

  6. Effect of molecular weight and glass transition on relaxation and release behaviour of poly(DL-lactic acid) tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steendam, R.; Van Steenbergen, M.J.; Hennink, W.E.; Frijlink, H.W.; Lerk, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Different molecular weight grades of poly(DL-lactic acid) were applied as release controlling excipients in tablets for oral drug administration. The role of molecular weight and glass transition in the mechanism of water-induced volume expansion and drug release of PDLA tablets was investigated.

  7. Phase structure evolution during mixing and processing of poly(lactic acid)/polycaprolactone (PLA/PCL) blends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fortelný, Ivan; Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Michálková, Danuše; Jůza, Josef; Mikešová, Jana; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 11 (2015), s. 2931-2947 ISSN 0170-0839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S; GA ČR GAP106/11/1069 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer blends * morphology evolution * poly( lactic acid ) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.371, year: 2015

  8. Antibacterial poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films grafting electrospun PLA/Ally isothioscyanate (AITC) fibers for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers of submicron sizes encapsulating allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) (PfA) were made and electrospun onto the surfaces of PLA films (PfA-g-film). SEM examination confirmed that the fibers were grafted to the PLA film after the (PfA-g-film) underwent air blowing and water washi...

  9. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-01-01

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification–solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide–polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology. PMID:28952560

  10. Crystallization kinetics of poly-(lactic acid) with and without talc: Optical microscopy and calorimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaa, Z.; Boutaous, M.; Rousset, F.; Fulchiron, R.; Zinet, M.; Xin, S.; Bourgin, P.

    2014-05-01

    Poly-(lactic acid) or PLA is a biodegradable polymer synthesized from renewable resources. Recently, the discovery of new polymerization routes has allowed increasing the produced volumes. As a consequence, PLA is becoming of great interest for reducing the dependence on petroleum-based plastics. Because of its interesting mechanical properties, PLA is seen as a potential substitute for some usual polymers. However, its relatively slow crystallization kinetics can be a disadvantage with regard to industrial applications. The crystallization kinetics of PLA can be enhanced by adding nucleating agents, which also influences on crystalline morphology and rheological behavior. In the present work, the isothermal quiescent crystallization kinetics of both neat PLA and PLA/talc composite (5 wt% talc) are investigated. The effects of talc on the overall crystallization kinetics and on the crystalline morphology are analyzed using both optical microscopy measurements and thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry.

  11. Effect of synthetic mica on the thermal properties of poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Holanda Saboya Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid/Somasif fluoromica nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending and their thermal properties investigated by DSC, TGA and DMA. Three different types of synthetic mica (Somasif ME-100, Somasif MAE and Somasif MPE were used at different contents (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt %. The melt blending of PLA and these micas is characterized by a considerable reduction in the matrix molecular weight, which decreases when the nanofiller content is increased. For all nanocomposites, the thermal stability increases when mica is added to the polymer, with the Somasif MPE, producing the highest increase of the degradation temperature and highest reduction of Tg.

  12. Film Sensor Device Fabricated by a Piezoelectric Poly(L-lactic acid) Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masamichi; Kawamura, Hideki; Kageyama, Keisuke; Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2012-09-01

    Synthetic piezoelectric polymer films produced from petroleum feedstock have long been used as thin-film sensors and actuators. However, the fossil fuel requirements for synthetic polymer production and carbon dioxide emission from its combustion have raised concern about the environmental impact of its continued use. Eco-friendly biomass polymers, such as poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), are made from plant-based (vegetable starch) plastics and, thus, have a much smaller carbon footprint. Additionally, PLLA does not exhibit pyroelectricity or unnecessary poling. This suggests the usefulness of PLLA films for the human-machine interface (HMI). As an example of a new HMI, we have produced a TV remote control using a PLLA film. The intuitive operation provided by this PLLA device suggests that it is useful for the elderly or handicapped.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Poly(lactic acid)/ difatty Acyl urea/ modified Clay Nano composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulla, E.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the commercially available biodegradable polymer is Poly(lactic acid) (PLA). It is from the family of aliphatic polyesters, which are produced from many renewable resources such as corn and sugar beets. PLA and other biodegradable polymers are readily biodegradable by enzyme action, which have attracted a lot of attention in the scientific community due to a rapid growth of intensive interest in the global environment for alternatives to petroleum-based polymeric materials. Although PLA has good mechanical properties and process ability, its applications are limited due to its brittleness and non flexibility. However, PLA may be used as a biodegradable and renewable plastic for the textile industries, automotive and clinical uses as well as food packaging materials. Since soft and flexible PLA are required to reach end user demands. (author)

  14. Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid: Applications and Future Prospects for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal tissue regeneration is the ultimate goal of the treatment for periodontitis-affected teeth. The success of regenerative modalities relies heavily on the utilization of appropriate biomaterials with specific properties. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, a synthetic aliphatic polyester, has been actively investigated for periodontal therapy due to its favorable mechanical properties, tunable degradation rates, and high biocompatibility. Despite the attractive characteristics, certain constraints associated with PLGA, in terms of its hydrophobicity and limited bioactivity, have led to the introduction of modification strategies that aimed to improve the biological performance of the polymer. Here, we summarize the features of the polymer and update views on progress of its applications as barrier membranes, bone grafts, and drug delivery carriers, which indicate that PLGA can be a good candidate material in the field of periodontal regenerative medicine.

  15. Green Composites Made of Bamboo Fabric and Poly (Lactic) Acid for Packaging Applications—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Fazita, M.R.; Jayaraman, Krishnan; Bhattacharyya, Debes; Mohamad Haafiz, M.K.; Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K.; Hussin, M. Hazwan; H.P.S., Abdul Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum based thermoplastics are widely used in a range of applications, particularly in packaging. However, their usage has resulted in soaring pollutant emissions. Thus, researchers have been driven to seek environmentally friendly alternative packaging materials which are recyclable as well as biodegradable. Due to the excellent mechanical properties of natural fibres, they have been extensively used to reinforce biopolymers to produce biodegradable composites. A detailed understanding of the properties of such composite materials is vital for assessing their applicability to various products. The present review discusses several functional properties related to packaging applications in order to explore the potential of bamboo fibre fabric-poly (lactic) acid composites for packaging applications. Physical properties, heat deflection temperature, impact resistance, recyclability and biodegradability are important functional properties of packaging materials. In this review, we will also comprehensively discuss the chronological events and applications of natural fibre biopolymer composites. PMID:28773558

  16. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-09-26

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification-solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide-polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology.

  17. Poly(lactic acid Composites Containing Carbon-Based Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA is a green alternative to petrochemical commodity plastics, used in packaging, agricultural products, disposable materials, textiles, and automotive composites. It is also approved by regulatory authorities for several biomedical applications. However, for some uses it is required that some of its properties be improved, namely in terms of thermo-mechanical and electrical performance. The incorporation of nanofillers is a common approach to attain this goal. The outstanding properties of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBN have caused a surge in research works dealing with PLA/CBN composites. The available information is compiled and reviewed, focusing on PLA/CNT (carbon nanotubes and PLA/GBM (graphene-based materials composites. The production methods, and the effects of CBN loading on PLA properties, namely mechanical, thermal, electrical, and biological, are discussed.

  18. Femtosecond laser irradiation of the fluorescent molecules-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Taiga; Shibata, Akimichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2017-09-01

    Molecular release from scaffolds is desired for tailoring cell-compatible tissue engineering. Several methods have been proposed to control molecular release, such as annealing, plasma treatment, and laser processing. In this study, we describe the alteration of Rhodamine B (RhB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) after femtosecond laser irradiation, which was evaluated on the basis of the water absorption and mass remaining. Fluorescence measurement of released RhB molecules revealed the acceleration of the molecular release upon 400-nm laser irradiation, whereas 800-nm laser irradiation did not induce a comparable degree of change compared with non-irradiated samples. The result of the water absorption measurement indicates that the large amount of water absorption of 400-nm laser-irradiated PLGA sample may accelerate the diffusion of the loaded molecules through absorbing water, which resulted in the faster molecular release.

  19. The effect of γ-rays irradiation on poly (L-lactic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chaorong; Chen Hao; Wang Jingxia; Wu Ling; Chen Zhuping; Deng Huachuan

    2008-01-01

    Poly (L-lactic acid) was irradiated by γ-rays. The effects of absorbed dose on viscosity average molecular weight, crystallization and thermal weight loss in irradiated condition under vacuum, nitrogen, air and oxygen were investigated, which were characterized by using ubbelohde viscometer, differential scamming calorimeter (DSC), polarized microscope and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). Viscosity average molecular weight of PLLA decreases with increment of absorbed dose and viscosity average molecular weight of PLLA irradiated in vacuum is highest among the different irradiated condition at same absorbed dose. Both degree and rates of crystallization increase with increment of absorbed dose and TGA curves of PLLA irradiated under vacuum or nitrogen are shifted towards higher temperature compare with un-irradiated sample at the absorbed dose from 6-40kGy. The weight loss of PLLA irradiated under oxygen is lower than that under vacuum at absorbed dose of 6kGy. (authors)

  20. Surface changes of poly-L-lactic acid due to annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juřík, P.; Michaljaničová, I.; Slepička, P.; Kolskáa, Z.; Švorčík, V.

    2017-11-01

    Surface modifications are very important part of both current cutting-edge research and modern manufacturing. Our research is focused on poly-L-lactic acid, which is biocompatible and biodegradable polymer that offers applications in modern medicine. We observed morphological changes of the surface of metalized samples due to annealing and studied effect of modifications on total surface area and pore surface and volume. We observed that annealing of non-metalized samples had most pronounced effect up to the 70°C, after which all observed parameters dropped significantly. Metallization has changed behaviour of the samples significantly and resulted in generally lower surface area and porosity when compared to non-metalized samples.

  1. Fabrication of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microcontainers using solvent evaporation with polydimethylsiloxane stencil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Min; Byul Lee, Han; Kim, Jong Uk; Kim, Gyu Man

    2017-12-01

    We present a fabrication method using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencils and solvent evaporation to prepare microcontainers with a desired shape made from a biodegradable polymer. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was used for preparing microcontainers, but most polymers are applicable in the proposed method in which solvent evaporation is used to construct microstructures in confined spaces in the stencil. Microcontainers with various shapes were fabricated by controlling the stencil geometry. Furthermore, a porous structure could be prepared in a micromembrane using water porogen. The porous structure was observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope and mass transfer across the porous membrane was examined using a fluorescent dye. The flexibility of the PDMS stencil allowed the fabrication of microcontainers on a curved surface. Finally, it was demonstrated that microcontainers can be used to contain a localized cell culture. The viability and morphology of cultured cells were observed using confocal microscopy over a period of 3 weeks.

  2. New Poly(lactic acid Active Packaging Composite Films Incorporated with Fungal Melanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łopusiewicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fungal melanin was used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid-based composites. The films of various melanin concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.2% w/w were prepared using an extrusion method. The mechanical, antioxidant, antimicrobial, water vapor and UV-Vis barrier properties, as well as available polyphenolics on the surface, were studied. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy studies were carried out to analyze the chemical composition of the resulting films. The hydrophobicity, color response, thermal, optical properties, and opacity values were also determined. The results of this study show that the addition of fungal melanin to poly(lactic acid (PLA as a modifier influenced mechanical and water vapor barrier properties depending on melanin concentration. In low concentration, melanin enhanced the mechanical and barrier properties of the modified films, but in larger amounts, the properties were decreased. The UV-Vis barrier properties of PLA/melanin composites were marginally improved. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC analysis indicated that crystallinity of PLA increased by the addition of melanin, but this did not affect the thermal stability of the films. Modified PLA/melanin films showed good antioxidant activity and were active against Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The addition of melanin caused changes in color values, decreasing lightness and increasing the redness and yellowness of films. Based on the results of this study, fungal melanin has good potential to be exploited as a value-added modifier that can improve the overall properties of PLA.

  3. Poly(dopamine) coating of 3D printed poly(lactic acid) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Chia-Tze [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Wen; Yeh, Chia-Hung [3D Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Fang, Hsin-Yuan [3D Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Department of Thoracic Surgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, College of Medicine, College of Public Health, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: eviltacasi@gmail.com [3D Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-01

    3D printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared PLA 3D scaffolds coated with polydopamine (PDA). The chemical composition and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation, and cell cycle of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the collagen I secreted from cells was increased and promoted cell attachment and cell cycle progression were depended on the PDA content. In osteogenesis assay, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on pure PLA scaffolds. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. - Highlights: • A simple method of 3D printed poly(lactic acid) scaffold coated with PDA • Promoted proliferation of hADSCs on PDA/PLA scaffolds • Increased collagen I, cell cycle, and cell adhesion with a high PDA content • Up-regulation of angiogenic and osteogenic of hADSCs • A promising method for bioinspired surface modification on PLA using PDA.

  4. Poly(dopamine) coating of 3D printed poly(lactic acid) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Lin, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared PLA 3D scaffolds coated with polydopamine (PDA). The chemical composition and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation, and cell cycle of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the collagen I secreted from cells was increased and promoted cell attachment and cell cycle progression were depended on the PDA content. In osteogenesis assay, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on pure PLA scaffolds. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. - Highlights: • A simple method of 3D printed poly(lactic acid) scaffold coated with PDA • Promoted proliferation of hADSCs on PDA/PLA scaffolds • Increased collagen I, cell cycle, and cell adhesion with a high PDA content • Up-regulation of angiogenic and osteogenic of hADSCs • A promising method for bioinspired surface modification on PLA using PDA

  5. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on poly(dopamine)-coated electrospun poly(lactic acid) fiber mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@thu.edu.tw; Fu, Shu-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of micro- or nano-fibers from a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized electrospun nano-fibers and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers coated with polydopamine (PDA). The morphology, chemical composition, and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by SEM and XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and collagen I levels and enhanced cell attachment and cell cycle progression were observed upon an increase in PDA content. In addition, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA mat. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenesis differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic degradable PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic biodegradable fibers, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. - Highlights: • A simple method of preparing electrospun poly(lactic acid) nanofibers coated with polydopamine • Enhanced adhesion and proliferation of hADSCs on a PDA/PLA mat • Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK), collagen I levels, cell attachment and cell cycle progression with a high PDA content • Up-regulation of the Ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenesis differentiation of hADSCs is observed. • A promising method for bio-inspired surface modification on organic fiber substrates using PDA.

  6. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on poly(dopamine)-coated electrospun poly(lactic acid) fiber mats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chi-Chang; Fu, Shu-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of micro- or nano-fibers from a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized electrospun nano-fibers and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers coated with polydopamine (PDA). The morphology, chemical composition, and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by SEM and XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and collagen I levels and enhanced cell attachment and cell cycle progression were observed upon an increase in PDA content. In addition, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA mat. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenesis differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic degradable PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic biodegradable fibers, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. - Highlights: • A simple method of preparing electrospun poly(lactic acid) nanofibers coated with polydopamine • Enhanced adhesion and proliferation of hADSCs on a PDA/PLA mat • Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK), collagen I levels, cell attachment and cell cycle progression with a high PDA content • Up-regulation of the Ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenesis differentiation of hADSCs is observed. • A promising method for bio-inspired surface modification on organic fiber substrates using PDA

  7. Monolithic calcium phosphate/poly(lactic acid) composite versus calcium phosphate-coated poly(lactic acid) for support of osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2016-03-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaPs), extensively used synthetic bone graft substitutes, are often combined with other materials with the aim to overcome issues related to poor mechanical properties of most CaP ceramics. Thin ceramic coatings on metallic implants and polymer-ceramic composites are examples of such hybrid materials. Both the properties of the CaP used and the method of incorporation into a hybrid structure are determinant for the bioactivity of the final construct. In the present study, a monolithic composite comprising nano-sized CaP and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and a CaP-coated PLA were comparatively investigated for their ability to support proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Both, the PLA/CaP composite, produced using physical mixing and extrusion and CaP-coated PLA, resulting from a biomimetic coating process at near-physiological conditions, supported proliferation of hMSCs with highest rates at PLA/CaP composite. Enzymatic alkaline phosphatase activity as well as the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteopontin and osteocalcin were higher on the composite and coated polymer as compared to the PLA control, while no significant differences were observed between the two methods of combining CaP and PLA. The results of this study confirmed the importance of CaP in osteogenic differentiation while the exact properties and the method of incorporation into the hybrid material played a less prominent role.

  8. Preparation and characterization of reactive blends of poly(lactic acid), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol), and poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warangkhana, Phromma; Rathanawan, Magaraphan; Jana Sadhan, C.

    2015-01-01

    The ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH), and poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (EGMA) were prepared. The role of EGMA as a compatibilizer was evaluated. The weight ratio of PLA:EVOH was 80:20 and the EGMA loadings were varied from 5-20 phr. The blends were characterized as follows: thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry, morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical properties by pendulum impact tester, and universal testing machine. The glass transition temperature of PLA blends did not change much when compared with that of PLA. The blends of PLA/EGMA and EVOH/EGMA showed EGMA dispersed droplets where the latter led to poor impact properties. However, the tensile elongation at break and tensile toughness substantially increased upon addition of EGMA to blends of PLA and EVOH. It was noted in tensile test samples that both PLA and EVOH domains fibrillated significantly to produce toughness

  9. Preparation and characterization of reactive blends of poly(lactic acid), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol), and poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warangkhana, Phromma; Rathanawan, Magaraphan, E-mail: rathanawan.k@chula.ac.th [Chulalongkorn University, Petroleum and Petrochemical College - Bangkok (Thailand); Jana Sadhan, C., E-mail: janas@uakron.edu [The University of Akron, Department of Polymer Engineering, Ohio (United States)

    2015-05-22

    The ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH), and poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (EGMA) were prepared. The role of EGMA as a compatibilizer was evaluated. The weight ratio of PLA:EVOH was 80:20 and the EGMA loadings were varied from 5-20 phr. The blends were characterized as follows: thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry, morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical properties by pendulum impact tester, and universal testing machine. The glass transition temperature of PLA blends did not change much when compared with that of PLA. The blends of PLA/EGMA and EVOH/EGMA showed EGMA dispersed droplets where the latter led to poor impact properties. However, the tensile elongation at break and tensile toughness substantially increased upon addition of EGMA to blends of PLA and EVOH. It was noted in tensile test samples that both PLA and EVOH domains fibrillated significantly to produce toughness.

  10. Effect of homopolymer poly(vinyl acetate on compatibility and mechanical properties of poly(propylene carbonate/poly(lactic acid blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A small amount of homopolymer poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc is used to compatibilize the biodegradable blends of poly(propylene carbonate (PPC and poly(lactic acid (PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results show that PVAc is selectively localized in the PLA phase and at the interface between PPC and PLA phases. As a result, these interface-localized PVAc layers act as not only a compatibilizer to improve the phase dispersion significantly but also a bridge to increase the interfacial adhesion between PPC and PLA phases dramatically. Both of them are believed to be responsible for the enhancement in mechanical properties. This work provides a simple avenue to fabricate eco-friendly PPC/PLA blends with high performance, and in some cases, reducing the demand for petroleumbased plastics such as polypropylene.

  11. Micelle-templated, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles for hydrophobic drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabar GM

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gauri M Nabar,1 Kalpesh D Mahajan,1 Mark A Calhoun,2 Anthony D Duong,1 Matthew S Souva,1 Jihong Xu,3,4 Catherine Czeisler,5 Vinay K Puduvalli,3,4 José Javier Otero,5 Barbara E Wyslouzil,1,6 Jessica O Winter1,2 1William G Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, 3Division of Neuro-oncology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, 4Dardinger Laboratory for Neuro-oncology and Neurosciences, Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, 5Department of Pathology and the Neurological Research Institute, College of Medicine, 6Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Purpose: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA is widely used for drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, ability to solubilize a wide variety of drugs, and tunable degradation. However, achieving sub-100 nm nanoparticles (NPs, as might be desired for delivery via the enhanced permeability and retention effect, is extremely difficult via typical top-down emulsion approaches.Methods: Here, we present a bottom-up synthesis method yielding PLGA/block copolymer hybrids (ie, “PolyDots”, consisting of hydrophobic PLGA chains entrapped within self-assembling poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO micelles.Results: PolyDots exhibit average diameters <50 nm and lower polydispersity than conventional PLGA NPs. Drug encapsulation efficiencies of PolyDots match conventional PLGA NPs (ie, ~30% and are greater than those obtained from PS-b-PEO micelles (ie, ~7%. Increasing the PLGA:PS-b-PEO weight ratio alters the drug release mechanism from chain relaxation to erosion controlled. PolyDots are taken up by model glioma cells via endocytotic mechanisms within 24 hours, providing a potential means for delivery to cytoplasm. PolyDots can be lyophilized with minimal change in morphology and encapsulant

  12. Poly-lactic-acid coating of endovascular stents: preliminary results in canine experimental av-fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellhammer, F. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Berlis, A. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Bloss, H.G. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Pagenstecher, A. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Schumacher, M. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2001-02-01

    Poly-Lactic-Acid (PLA) was evaluated for coating of vascular endoprotheses in the treatment of experimental arterio-venous-fistulae (AVF). Bilateral carotid-external jugular AVF were created in 5 adult dogs. 7 PLA coated nitinol stents were placed via a transfemoral approach covering 5 AVF. The contralateral AVF remained untreated. Angiography was performed immediately after stent placement, at weeks 1 and 3 and at months 3, 6 and 9. All grafts were removed and underwent histologic examination. In 2 cases the occlusion of the AVF was successful, while misplacement occurred in 3 cases. Occlusion of the parent vessel was disclosed in 3 cases. Histologic examination revealed a mild inflammatory reaction with the presence of macrophages. There was no foreign-body reaction or fragmentation of the arterial vessel wall. PLA, which is a well-known biodegradable material, showed a good mid-term biocompatibility. Elastic mismatch of the non-elastic coating and the self-expandable nitinol stent caused misplacement. Frequent vessel-occlusions were probably due to PLA-filaments fraying into the vessel lumen. Using a different textile structure PLA might be a material suitable for coating endovascular stents. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden mit Poly-Laktid ummantelte Gefaessprothesen in der Behandlung von experimentell angelegten arterio-venoesen Gefaesskurzschluessen getestet. Gefaesskurzschlussverbindungen der Halsarterien mit der parallel dazu verlaufenden, tiefen Halsvene wurden in 5 Hunden operativ angelegt. 7 mit Poly-Laktid ummantelte Gefaessprothesen aus Nitinol wurden in jeweils eine Halsarterie implantiert, so dass die Gefaesskurzschlussverbindungen vollstaendig ueberdeckt war. Die gegenueberliegende Seite verblieb als Kontrolle unbehandelt. Radiologische Gefaessdarstellungen erfolgten unmittelbar nach Implantation der Gefaessprothese, nach 1 und 3 Wochen sowie nach 3, 6 und 9 Monaten. Alle Prothesen wurden operativ entfernt und feingeweblich

  13. Improved cellular response of ion modified poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) substrates for mouse fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Ananta Raj, E-mail: aa8381@gmail.com [Department of Sciences, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston MA 02115 (United States); Geranpayeh, Tanya [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Chu, Wei Kan [Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Otteson, Deborah C. [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Basic and Vision Sciences, College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In this report, the effects of argon (Ar) ion irradiation on poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) substrates on biocompatibility were studied. PLGA scaffold substrates were prepared by spin coating glass surfaces with PLGA dissolved in anhydrous chloroform. Previously, we showed that surface modifications of PLGA films using ion irradiation modulate the inherent hydrophobicity of PLGA surface. Here we show that with increasing ion dose (1 × 10{sup 12} to 1 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}), hydrophobicity and surface roughness decreased. Biocompatibility for NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was increased by argon irradiation of PLGA substrates. On unirradiated PLGA films, fibroblasts had a longer doubling time and cell densities were 52% lower than controls after 48 h in vitro. Argon irradiated PLGA substrates supported growth rates similar to control. Despite differences in cell cycle kinetics, there was no detectible cytotoxicity observed on any substrate. This demonstrates that argon ion irradiation can be used to tune the surface microstructure and generate substrates that are more compatible for the cell growth and proliferation. - Highlights: • Argon irradiation modifies surface chemistry and increases hydrophilicity of poly(lactic-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films. • Both native and irradiated PLGA films were not cytotoxic for mouse fibroblasts. • Fibroblast proliferation increased on PLGA substrates modified with higher doses of Argon irradiation. • Surface modification with Argon irradiation increases biocompatibility of PLGA films.

  14. Improved cellular response of ion modified poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) substrates for mouse fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Ananta Raj; Geranpayeh, Tanya; Chu, Wei Kan; Otteson, Deborah C.

    2016-01-01

    In this report, the effects of argon (Ar) ion irradiation on poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) substrates on biocompatibility were studied. PLGA scaffold substrates were prepared by spin coating glass surfaces with PLGA dissolved in anhydrous chloroform. Previously, we showed that surface modifications of PLGA films using ion irradiation modulate the inherent hydrophobicity of PLGA surface. Here we show that with increasing ion dose (1 × 10 12 to 1 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 ), hydrophobicity and surface roughness decreased. Biocompatibility for NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was increased by argon irradiation of PLGA substrates. On unirradiated PLGA films, fibroblasts had a longer doubling time and cell densities were 52% lower than controls after 48 h in vitro. Argon irradiated PLGA substrates supported growth rates similar to control. Despite differences in cell cycle kinetics, there was no detectible cytotoxicity observed on any substrate. This demonstrates that argon ion irradiation can be used to tune the surface microstructure and generate substrates that are more compatible for the cell growth and proliferation. - Highlights: • Argon irradiation modifies surface chemistry and increases hydrophilicity of poly(lactic-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films. • Both native and irradiated PLGA films were not cytotoxic for mouse fibroblasts. • Fibroblast proliferation increased on PLGA substrates modified with higher doses of Argon irradiation. • Surface modification with Argon irradiation increases biocompatibility of PLGA films.

  15. Bioceramic/Poly (glycolic-poly (lactic acid composite induces mineralized barrier after direct capping of rat tooth pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gala-Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the histopathological pulp response following direct pulp capping of mechanically exposed teeth in rats with a composite of beta-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite bioceramic (BC and poly (glycolic-poly (lactic acid (PLGA material or a calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2] material, compared to BC alone and a negative control of water. Pulp of the maxillary molars was exposed, followed by capping with the experimental material. The pulpal tissue response was assessed post-operatively at 1, 7, 14 and 30 d, followed by histological analysis. The Ca(OH2 group exhibited severe acute inflammatory cell infiltration at day 14. However after 30 d, a new hard tissue with macro porous obliteration of the pulp chamber and a characteristic necrotic area had appeared. BC and Ca(OH2 capping were associated with moderate inflammation and dentinal bridge similar. Meanwhile, in the BC/PLGA composite group, there was moderate inflammatory infiltrate and formation of a dense and complete dentinal bridge. In conclusion, the BC/PLGA composite material showed a large zone of tertiary dentin, and effectively reorganized the dentin-pulp complex.

  16. Uniaxial drawing and mechanical properties of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]/poly(L-lactic acid) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Wuk; Doi, Yoshiharu; Iwata, Tadahisa

    2004-01-01

    Blends of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with two kinds of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) having different molecular weights, commercial-grade bacterial PHB (bacterial-PHB) and ultrahigh molecular weight PHB (UHMW-PHB), were prepared by the solvent-casting method and uniaxially drawn at two drawing temperatures, around PHB's T(g) (2 degrees C) for PHB-rich blends and around PLLA's T(g) (60 degrees C) for PLLA-rich blends. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that this system was immiscible over the entire composition range. Mechanical properties of all of the samples were improved in proportion to the draw ratio. Although PLLA domains in bacterial-PHB-rich blends remained almost unstretched during cold drawing, a good interfacial adhesion between two polymers and the reinforcing role of PLLA components led to enhanced mechanical properties proportionally to the PLLA content at the same draw ratio. On the contrary, in the case of UHMW-PHB-rich blends, the minor component PLLA was found to be also oriented by cold drawing in ice water due to an increase in the interfacial entanglements caused by the very long chain length of the matrix polymer. As a result, their mechanical properties were considerably improved with increasing PLLA content compared with the bacterial-PHB system. Scanning electron microscopy observations on the surface and cross-section revealed that a layered structure with uniformly oriented microporous in the interior was obtained by selectively removal of PLLA component after simple alkaline treatment.

  17. Preparation, melting behavior and thermal stability of poly(lactic acid)/poly(propylene carbonate) blends processed by vane extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Wei, E-mail: zw55624@163.com; Chen, Rongyuan; Zhang, Haichen; Qu, Jinping, E-mail: jpqu@scut.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-03-09

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/Poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) blends were prepared by vane extruder which is a type of novel polymer processing extruder based on elongation force field. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TG) were used respectively to analyze the compatibility, the melting behavior and thermal stability properties of PLA/PPC blends affected by the different content of PPC. The results showed that with the increase of the PPC content, the glass transition temperature of PLA was reduced, and the glass transition temperature of PPC was increased, which indicated that PLA and PPC had partial compatibility. The cold crystallization temperature of PLA increased with the increase of the PPC content, which showed that PPC hindered the cold crystallization process of PLA. The addition of PPC had little impact on the melting process of PLA, and the melting temperature of PLA was almost kept the same value. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the thermal stability of PPC was worse than that of PLA, the addition of PPC reduced the thermal stability of PLA.

  18. Characterization of Active Packaging Films Made from Poly(Lactic Acid/Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate Incorporated with Oregano Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicromial and antioxidant bioactive films based on poly(lactic acid/poly(trimenthylene carbonate films incorporated with different concentrations of oregano essential oil (OEO were prepared by solvent casting. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, physical, thermal, microstructural, and mechanical properties of the resulting films were examined. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the cross-section of films became rougher when OEO was incorporated into PLA/PTMC blends. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that crystallinity of PLA phase decreased by the addition of OEO, but this did not affect the thermal stability of the films. Water vapor permeability of films slightly increased with increasing concentration of OEO. However, active PLA/PTMC/OEO composite films showed adequate barrier properties for food packaging application. The antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities were significantly improved with the incorporation of OEO (p < 0.05. The results demonstrated that an optimal balance between the mechanical, barrier, thermal, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of the films was achieved by the incorporation of 9 wt % OEO into PLA/PTMC blends.

  19. Metabolic Reprogramming of Macrophages Exposed to Silk, Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), and Silica Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborano, Raquel; Wongpinyochit, Thidarat; Totten, John D; Johnston, Blair F; Seib, F Philipp; Duarte, Iola F

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring macrophage metabolism in response to nanoparticle exposure provides new insights into biological outcomes, such as inflammation or toxicity, and supports the design of tailored nanomedicines. This paper describes the metabolic signature of macrophages exposed to nanoparticles ranging in diameter from 100 to 125 nm and made from silk, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or silica. Nanoparticles of this size and type are currently at various stages of preclinical and clinical development for drug delivery applications. 1 H NMR analysis of cell extracts and culture media is used to quantify the changes in the intracellular and extracellular metabolomes of macrophages in response to nanoparticle exposure. Increased glycolytic activity, an altered tricarboxylic acid cycle, and reduced ATP generation are consistent with a proinflammatory phenotype. Furthermore, amino acids possibly arising from autophagy, the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system, and a few osmolytes and antioxidants emerge as important players in the metabolic reprogramming of macrophages exposed to nanoparticles. This metabolic signature is a common response to all nanoparticles tested; however, the direction and magnitude of some variations are clearly nanoparticle specific, indicating material-induced biological specificity. Overall, metabolic reprogramming of macrophages can be achieved with nanoparticle treatments, modulated through the choice of the material, and monitored using 1 H NMR metabolomics. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Development of new force sensor using super-multilayer alternating laminated film comprising piezoelectric poly(l-lactic acid) and poly(d-lactic acid) films in the shape of a rectangle with round corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajitsu, Yoshiro; Adachi, Yu; Nakatsuji, Takahiro; Tamura, Masataka; Sakamoto, Kousei; Tone, Takaaki; Imoto, Kenji; Kato, Atsuko; Yoshida, Testuo

    2017-10-01

    A new super-multilayer alternating laminated film in the shape of a rectangle with round corners has been developed. The super-multilayer film, which comprised piezoelectric poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactic acid) (PDLA) films, was wound with the number of turns on the order of from 100 to 1000 to form piezoelectric rolls. These piezoelectric rolls could generate an induced voltage of more than 95% of the initial voltage for over 10 s when a constant load was applied. The desired duration and magnitude of the piezoelectric response voltage were realized by adjusting the number of turns of the piezoelectric rolls. Similarly to many other conventional piezoelectrics, the piezoelectric rolls enable instantaneous load-dependent voltage generation and attenuation. The piezoelectric rolls are also lighter than conventional piezoelectric ceramics and can be used as a novel pressure sensor.

  1. Mapping intermediate degradation products of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Nemes, Peter; Guo, Ji

    2018-04-01

    There is widespread interest in using absorbable polymers, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), as components in the design and manufacture of new-generation drug eluting stents (DES). PLGA undergoes hydrolysis to progressively degrade through intermediate chemical entities to simple organic acids that are ultimately absorbed by the human body. Understanding the composition and structure of these intermediate degradation products is critical not only to elucidate polymer degradation pathways accurately, but also to assess the safety and performance of absorbable cardiovascular implants. However, analytical approaches to determining the intermediate degradation products have yet to be established and evaluated in a standard or regulatory setting. Hence, we developed a methodology using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to qualitatively and quantitatively describe intermediate degradation products generated in vitro from two PLGA formulations commonly used in DES. Furthermore, we assessed the temporal evolution of these degradation products using time-lapse experiments. Our data demonstrated that PLGA degradation products via heterogeneous cleavage of ester bonds are modulated by multiple intrinsic and environmental factors, including polymer chemical composition, degradants solubility in water, and polymer synthesis process. We anticipate the methodologies and outcomes presented in this work will elevate the mechanistic understanding of comprehensive degradation profiles of absorbable polymeric devices, and facilitate the design and regulation of cardiovascular implants by supporting the assessments of the associated biological response to degradation products. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1129-1137, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Thermal Degradation and Kinetic Parameters of Polyester and Poly(Lactic Acid) Blends Used in Shopping Bags in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Junior, J.; Magalhães, D; Oliveira, N. A.; Wiebeck, Helio; Matos, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, synthetic polyester and poly(lactic acid) blends used as biodegradable shopping plastic bags were studied, together with control samples of polyethylene containing pro-oxidant catalysts (called “oxidegradable bags” in the market). Samples of these materials were weighed and buried in simulated soil for 3 months, and then studied by Thermal Analysis including a non-isothermal kinetic analysis. It was observed that although there was no significant mass loss in the period of the a...

  3. Separation and purification of lactic acid. Thermal catalytic depolymerization of poly-lactic acid into lactide; Hakkoho nyusan no bunri seisei ni kansuru kenkyu. Pori nyusan no rakuchido eno sesshokuteki netsukai jugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, M.; Hirama, Y.; Liew, M. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-10

    A new separation and purification method for lactic acid from fermentation broth is proposed by which poly-lactic acid produced from unpurified lactic acid is catalytically depolymerized into lactide fractions then further purified into lactide. In the present study, thermal depolymerization catalysts were investigated for commercial use. Iron catalysts, especially metallic iron, and ferrous oxide and lactate, were found to provide almost the same catalytic activity and lactide composition in depolymerization products and those in tin octoate and antimony oxide catalysts. Ferrous oxide was also applied to depolymerize poly-lactic acid derived form unpurified lactic acid to compare catalytic activity and lactide composition and was confirmed to show results similar to those of pure polymer. Based on these findings, it is concluded that iron catalysts can be used commercially. Furthermore, catalytic depolymerization of poly-lactic acids with different molecular weights were studied. Polymers with Mw 5,000-10,000 were found to be better for production of lactide, based on the behavior of depolymerization and lactide content in the product. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Composition dependence of the synergistic effect of nucleating agent and plasticizer in poly(lactic acid: A Mixture Design study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Fehri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blends consisting of commercial poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(lactic acid oligomer (OLA8 as plasticizer and a sulfonic salt of a phthalic ester and poly(D-lactic acid as nucleating agents were prepared by melt extrusion, following a Mixture Design approach, in order to systematically study mechanical and thermal properties as a function of composition. The full investigation was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and tensile tests. The crystallization half-time was also studied at 105 °C as a function of the blends composition. A range of compositions in which the plasticizer and the nucleation agent minimized the crystallization half-time in a synergistic way was clearly identified thanks to the application of the Mixture Design approach. The results allowed also the identification of a composition range to maximize the crystallinity developed during the rapid cooling below glass transition temperature in injection moulding, thus allowing an easier processing of PLA based materials. Moreover the mechanical properties were discussed by correlating them to the chemical structural features and thermal behaviour of blends.

  5. Phase behaviour of the ternary mixture system of poly(L-lactic acid), dichloromethane and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwon, Jungmin; Cho, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Shin, Hun Yong; Kim, Hwayong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The high pressure phase behaviour of poly(L-lactic acid), dichloromethane and carbon dioxide ternary mixtures was measured. ► The experimental data shows the characteristics of the LCST behaviour of polymer–solvent–gas systems. ► The experimental data correlation was performed using the hybrid EOS. - Abstract: In this study, the high pressure phase behaviour of poly(L-lactic acid) (M = 312,000), dichloromethane and carbon dioxide ternary mixtures was studied using a variable volume view cell at temperatures ranging from 313.15 K to 363.15 K and pressures of up to 30.0 MPa as functions of temperature and the CO 2 /dichloromethane mass ratio at poly(L-lactic acid) weight fractions of 1.0%, 2.5% and 3.0%. The experimental results were correlated with the hybrid equation of state for the CO 2 -polymer system using the van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule with three adjustable binary interaction parameters.

  6. Quantitative analysis of mechanical and electrostatic properties of poly(lactic) acid fibers and poly(lactic) acid—carbon nanotube composites using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Qais; Bernstein, Peter; Zhu, Yazhe; Rahamim, Joseph; Cebe, Peggy; Staii, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to perform a systematic quantitative characterization of the elastic modulus and dielectric constant of poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofibers (PLLA), as well as composites of PLLA fibers with 1.0 wt% embedded multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs–PLLA). The elastic moduli are measured in the fiber skin region via AFM nanoindentation, and the dielectric constants are determined by measuring the phase shifts obtained via electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). We find that the average value for the elastic modulus for PLLA fibers is (9.8 ± 0.9) GPa, which is a factor of 2 larger than the measured average elastic modulus for MWCNT–PLLA composites (4.1 ± 0.7) GPa. We also use EFM to measure dielectric constants for both types of fibers. These measurements show that the dielectric constants of the MWCNT–PLLA fibers are significantly larger than the corresponding values obtained for PLLA fiber. This result is consistent with the higher polarizability of the MWCNT–PLLA composites. The measurement methods presented are general, and can be applied to determine the mechanical and electrical properties of other polymers and polymer nanocomposites. (paper)

  7. Flexible tension sensor based on poly(l-lactic acid) film with coaxial structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mitsunobu; Onishi, Katsuki; Tanimoto, Kazuhiro; Nishikawa, Shigeo

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a tension sensor with a coaxial structure using a narrow slit ribbon made of a uniaxially stretched poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) film for application to a wearable device. The tension sensor is produced as follows. We used tinsel wire as the center conductor of the sensor. The tinsel wire consists of a yarn of synthetic fibers arranged at the center, with a spirally wound rolled copper foil ribbon on the side surface. Next, slit ribbons obtained from a uniaxially oriented film of PLLA are wound helically on the side surface of the center conductor in the direction of a left-handed screw, at an angle of 45° to the central axis. The rolled copper foil is used as an outer conductor and covers the yarn without a gap. The prototype of the fabricated tension sensor has good flexibility, since the sensor is in the form of a filament and consists of a highly flexible material. For the 1 mm tension sensor, it was found that for a tension of 1 N, a charge of 14 pC was output. It was also found that the sensor maintained its room-temperature sensitivity up to 60 °C. Compared with an existing coaxial line sensor using poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), the sensor using PLLA does not exhibit pyroelectricity, meaning that no undesirable voltage is generated when in contact with body heat, which is a significant advantage as wearable sensors. The result has demonstrated the potential application of the PLLA film to wearable devices for detecting heartbeat and respiration.

  8. Ketamine nano-delivery based on poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Sota; Bovi, Michele; Romeo, Alessandro; Guzzo, Flavia; Chiamulera, Cristiano; Perduca, Massimiliano

    2018-04-01

    This work describes a novel method for the generation of a ketamine nano-delivery, to improve brain blood barrier permeability and increase drug therapeutic window as anaesthetic, analgesic and potential antidepressant. The approach herein described is based on ketamine-loaded poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles coupled to an apolipoprotein E (ApoE) peptide for delivery to the central nervous system. PLGA particles were synthesized with amount of drug, coupled with the ApoE peptide on the surface, and validated by physical characterization. The produced nanodevice showed a good colloidal stability in water, confirmed by zeta potential measurements, with a diameter in the range of 185-205 nm. The ketamine encapsulation was verified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses obtaining an encapsulation efficiency up to 21.2 ± 3.54%. Once the occurrence of ApoE peptide functionalization was confirmed with fluorescence spectroscopy, the thermal stability and morphological information were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry and further dynamic light scattering measurements. The spherical shape and a rough nanoparticles surface were observed by atomic force microscopy. The reliability of this approach may be further developed as a protocol to be used to generate PLGA nanoparticles greater than 100 nm able to better penetrate blood brain barrier and release a neuroactive molecule at lower doses.

  9. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid drug delivery systems through transdermal pathway: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Lucas; Dhand, Chetna; Almeida, Luis; Rajamani, Lakshminarayanan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Soares, Graça

    2017-05-01

    In past few decades, scientists have made tremendous advancement in the field of drug delivery systems (DDS), through transdermal pathway, as the skin represents a ready and large surface area for delivering drugs. Efforts are in progress to design efficient transdermal DDS that support sustained drug release at the targeted area for longer duration in the recommended therapeutic window without producing side-effects. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is one of the most promising Food and Drug Administration approved synthetic polymers in designing versatile drug delivery carriers for different drug administration routes, including transdermal drug delivery. The present review provides a brief introduction over the transdermal drug delivery and PLGA as a material in context to its role in designing drug delivery vehicles. Attempts are made to compile literatures over PLGA-based drug delivery vehicles, including microneedles, nanoparticles, and nanofibers and their role in transdermal drug delivery of different therapeutic agents. Different nanostructure evaluation techniques with their working principles are briefly explained.

  10. Synergistic Effects of Nucleating Agents and Plasticizers on the Crystallization Behavior of Poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuetao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of nucleating agents and plasticizers on the thermal and mechanical performance of PLA nanocomposites was investigated with the objective of increasing the crystallinity and balancing the stiffness and toughness of PLA mechanical properties. Calcium carbonate, halloysite nanotubes, talc and LAK (sulfates were compared with each other as heterogeneous nucleating agents. Both the DSC isothermal and non-isothermal studies indicated that talc and LAK were the more effective nucleating agents among the selected fillers. Poly(D-lactic acid (PDLA acted also as a nucleating agent due to the formation of the PLA stereocomplex. The half crystallization time was reduced by the addition of talc to about 2 min from 37.5 min of pure PLA by the isothermal crystallization study. The dynamic mechanical thermal study (DMTA indicated that nanofillers acted as both reinforcement fillers and nucleating agents in relation to the higher storage modulus. The plasticized PLA studied by DMTA indicated a decreasing glass transition temperature with the increasing of the PEG content. The addition of nanofiller increased the Young’s modulus. PEG had the plasticization effect of increasing the break deformation, while sharply decreasing the stiffness and strength of PLA. The synergistic effect of nanofillers and plasticizer achieved the balance between stiffness and toughness with well-controlled crystallization.

  11. Preparation, Cell Compatibility and Degradability of Collagen-Modified Poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA was modified using collagen through a grafting method to improve its biocompatibility and degradability. The carboxylic group at the open end of PLA was transferred into the reactive acylchlorided group by a reaction with phosphorus pentachloride. Then, collagen-modified PLA (collagen-PLA was prepared by the reaction between the reactive acylchlorided group and amino/hydroxyl groups on collagen. Subsequently, the structure of collagen-PLA was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and DSC analyses. Finally, some properties of collagen-PLA, such as hydrophilicity, cell compatibility and degradability were characterized. Results showed that collagen had been grafted onto the PLA with 5% graft ratio. Water contact angle and water absorption behavior tests indicated that the hydrophilicity of collagen-PLA was significantly higher than that of PLA. The cell compatibility of collagen-PLA with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (3T3 was also significantly better than PLA in terms of cell morphology and cell proliferation, and the degradability of PLA was also improved after introducing collagen. Results suggested that collagen-PLA was a promising candidate for biomedical applications.

  12. Poly lactic acid based injectable delivery systems for controlled release of a model protein, lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tahami, Khaled; Meyer, Amanda; Singh, Jagdish

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the critical formulation parameters (i.e., polymer concentration, polymer molecular weight, and solvent nature) affecting the controlled delivery of a model protein, lysozyme, from injectable polymeric implants. The conformational stability and biological activity of the released lysozyme were also investigated. Three formulations containing 10%, 20%, and 30% (w/v) poly lactic acid (PLA) in triacetin were investigated. It was found that increasing polymer concentration in the formulations led to a lower burst effect and a slower release rate. Formulation with a high molecular weight polymer showed a greater burst effect as compared to those containing low molecular weight. Conformational stability and biological activity of released samples were studied by differential scanning calorimeter and enzyme activity assay, respectively. The released samples had significantly (P solution kept at same conditions). Increasing polymer concentration increased both the conformational stability and the biological activity of released lysozyme. In conclusion, phase sensitive polymer-based delivery systems were able to deliver a model protein, lysozyme, in a conformationally stable and biologically active form at a controlled rate over an extended period.

  13. Mechanical, Thermal and Morphological Properties of Poly(lactic acid/Epoxidized Palm Olein Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazimah Abu Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA is known to be a useful material in substituting the conventional petroleum-based polymer used in packaging, due to its biodegradability and high mechanical strength. Despite the excellent properties of PLA, low flexibility has limited the application of this material. Thus, epoxidized palm olein (EPO was incorporated into PLA at different loadings (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% through the melt blending technique and the product was characterized. The addition of EPO resulted in a decrease in glass transition temperature and an increase of elongation-at-break, which indicates an increase in the PLA chain mobility. PLA/EPO blends also exhibited higher thermal stability than neat PLA. Further, the PLA/1 wt% EPO blend showed enhancement in the tensile, flexural and impact properties. This is due to improved interaction in the blend producing good compatible morphologies, which can be revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis. Therefore, PLA can be efficiently plasticized by EPO and the feasibility of its use as flexible film for food packaging should be considered.

  14. Studies on the mechanical properties of woven jute fabric reinforced poly(l-lactic acid composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Arifuzzaman Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of ecofriendly biocomposites to replace non-biodegradable synthetic fiber composites is the main objective of this study. To highlight the biocomposites as a perfect replacement, the plain woven jute fabric (WJF reinforced poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA composites were prepared by the hot press molding method. The influence of woven structure and direction on the mechanical properties i.e. tensile, flexural and impact properties was investigated. The average tensile strength (TS, tensile modulus (TM, flexural strength (FS, flexural modulus (FM, and impact strength (IS of untreated woven jute composite (in warp direction were improved about 103%, 211%, 95.2%, 42.4% and 85.9%, respectively and strain at maximum tensile stress for composite samples was enhanced by 11.7%. It was also found that the strengths and modulus of composites in warp direction are higher than those in weft direction. WJF composites in warp and weft directions presented superior mechanical properties than non-woven jute fabric (NWJF composites. Chemical treatment of jute fabric through benzoylation showed a positive effect on the properties of composites. Morphological studies by SEM demonstrated that better adhesion between the treated fabric and PLLA was achieved.

  15. Facial volume restoration of the aging face with poly-l-lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Vleggaar, Danny

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss current techniques used with poly-l-lactic acid to safely and effectively address changes observed in the aging face. Several important points deserve mention. First, this unique agent is not a filler but a stimulator of the host's own collagen, which then acts to volumize tissue in a gradual, progressive, and predictable manner. The technical differences between the use of biostimulatory agents and replacement fillers are simple and straightforward, but are critically important to the safe and successful use of these products and will be reviewed in detail. Second, in addition to gains in technical insights that have improved our understanding of how to use the product to best advantage, where to use the product to best advantage in facial filling has also improved with ever-evolving insights into the changes observed in the aging face. Finally, it is important to recognize that a patient's final outcome, and the amount of product and work it will take to get there, is a reflection of the quality of tissues with which they start. This is, of course, an issue of patient selection and not product selection. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Poly(L-lactic acid) nanofibers containing Cissus quadrangularis induced osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvathi, K; Krishnan, Amit G; Anitha, A; Jayakumar, R; Nair, Manitha B

    2018-04-15

    Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) is known as "bone setter" in Ayurvedic Medicine because of its ability to promote fracture healing. Polymers incorporated with CQ at lower concentration have shown to enhance osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. However, for the healing of clinically relevant critical sized bone defects, large amount of CQ would be required. Based on this perception, a herbal fibrous sheet containing high weight percentage of CQ [20,40 and 60wt/wt% in poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA)] was fabricated through electrospinning. The solution concentration, flow rate, voltage and tip-target distance was optimized to obtain nanofibers. The hydrophobicity of PLLA fibers was reduced through CQ incorporation. There was considerable increase in the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs on herbal fibers than normal fibers, mainly on P-Q20 and P-CQ40. MSCs were differentiated into osteoblasts without providing any osteogenic supplements in the medium, indicating its osteoinductive capability. The herbal sheet also could promote mineralization when immersed in simulated body fluid for 14days. These studies specify that PLLA nanofibers loaded with 20 and 40wt% of CQ could serve as a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid Sheet Reinforced with Microfibrillated Cellulose from Corn Cobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deejam Prapatsorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cellulose was extracted from corn cobs by successive hot NaOH solution and followed by H2O2 bleaching. XRD pattern show characteristic peak of Cellulose I. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC was successfully prepared by dissolving the extracted cellulose in NaOH/urea solution, shearing in a homogenizer and finally by freezing and thawing. To improve strength of MFC, MFC was physically crosslinked using PVA by freezing and thawing. The crosslinked MFC/PVA was added to poly(lactic acid (PLA to improve its mechanical properties. The non-crosslinked MFC/PVA was also prepared by only stirring the solution without freezing and thawing. MFC/PVA reinforced PLA films with various ratios of PLA and MFC/PVA at100:0, 99:1, 97:3 and 95:5were prepared through a solution casting method. Tensile strength and elongation at breakof PLA films increased with the addition of physically crosslinked MFC/PVA at 1%wt, whereas, the addition of non-crosslinked MFC/PVA decreased elongation at break. Crosslinking of MFC/PVA can improve tensile strength of PLA.It can render better tensile strength than that of non-crosslinked MFC/PVA. However, when MFC/PVA contents increase, tensile strength of PLA fims reinforced with non-crosslinked and crosslinked MFC/PVA decreased. Morphology of fracture surfaces reveals good dispersion and adhesion between 1% crosslinked MFC/PVA and PLA matrix.

  18. Preparation of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic acid) hybrid microparticles for local drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loca, D; Locs, J; Berzina-Cimdina, L

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramic is well known as bioactive and biocompatible material in bone tissue regeneration applications. Apatitic CaP, especially nano sized hydroxyapatite (NHAp), is more similar to the natural apatite presented in the bone tissue than CaP bioceramics. In the current research NHAp was modified using biodegradable polymer – poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to develop composites providing bone regeneration and local drug delivery. NHAp/PLA microcapsules were prepared using solid-in-water-in-oil-in-water (s/w 1 /o/w 2 ) encapsulation technology. The impact of primary and secondary emulsion stability on the emulsion droplet and microparticle properties was evaluated. The stability of final emulsion can be increased by varying the process parameters. Stable s/w 1 /o/w 2 emulsion using 3ml of NHAp suspension, not less than 100ml of 4% PVA water solution and 10ml of 10% PLA solution in dichloromethane can be obtained. S/w 1 /o/w 2 microencapuslation method can be effectively used for the preparation of multi-domain microcapsules achieving high NHAp encapsulation efficacy (93%)

  19. Toughening of Poly(lactic acid and Thermoplastic Cassava Starch Reactive Blends Using Graphene Nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Bher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA was reactively blended with thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS and functionalized with commercial graphene (GRH nanoplatelets in a twin-screw extruder, and films were produced by cast-film extrusion. Reactive compatibilization between PLA and TPCS phases was reached by introducing maleic anhydride and a peroxide radical during the reactive blending extrusion process. Films with improved elongation at break and toughness for neat PLA and PLA-g-TPCS reactive blends were obtained by an addition of GRH nanoplatelets. Toughness of the PLA-g-TPCS-GRH was improved by ~900% and ~500% when compared to neat PLA and PLA-g-TPCS, respectively. Crack bridging was established as the primary mechanism responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties of PLA and PLA-g-TPCS in the presence of the nanofiller due to the high aspect ratio of GRH. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a non-uniform distribution of GRH nanoplatelets in the matrix. Transmittance of the reactive blend films decreased due to the TPCS phase. Values obtained for the reactive blends showed ~20% transmittance. PLA-GRH and PLA-g-TPCS-GRH showed a reduction of the oxygen permeability coefficient with respect to PLA of around 35% and 50%, respectively. Thermal properties, molecular structure, surface roughness, XRD pattern, electrical resistivity, and color of the films were also evaluated. Biobased and compostable reactive blend films of PLA-g-TPCS compounded with GRH nanoplatelets could be suitable for food packaging and agricultural applications.

  20. Epoxidized Vegetable Oils Plasticized Poly(lactic acid Biocomposites: Mechanical, Thermal and Morphology Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(lactic acid PLA with epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO were prepared using a melt blending method to improve the ductility of PLA. The plasticization of the PLA with EVO lowers the Tg as well as cold-crystallization temperature. The tensile properties demonstrated that the addition of EVO to PLA led to an increase of elongation at break, but a decrease of tensile modulus. Plasticized PLA showed improvement in the elongation at break by 2058% and 4060% with the addition of 5 wt % epoxidized palm oil (EPO and mixture of epoxidized palm oil and soybean oil (EPSO, respectively. An increase in the tensile strength was also observed in the plasticized PLA with 1 wt % EPO and EPSO. The use of EVO increases the mobility of the polymeric chains, thereby improving the flexibility and plastic deformation of PLA. The SEM micrograph of the plasticized PLA showed good compatible morphologies without voids resulting from good interfacial adhesion between PLA and EVO. Based on the results of this study, EVO may be used as an environmentally friendly plasticizer that can improve the overall properties of PLA.

  1. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valletta, Alessio; Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe; Baldan, Barbara; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine

  2. Synthesis and Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Grafted Silica Nanoarchitecture-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Wen Hsu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel nanoarchitecture-reinforced poly(lactic acid (PLA nanocomposite was prepared using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-grafted silica nanohybrids as reinforcements. MWCNT-grafted silica nanohybrids were synthesized by the generation of silica nanoparticles on the MWCNT surface through the sol-gel technique. This synthetic method involves organo-modified MWCNTs that are dispersed in tetrahydrofuran, which incorporates tetraethoxysilane that undergoes an ultrasonic sol-gel process. Gelation yielded highly dispersed silica on the organo-modified MWCNTs. The structure and properties of the nanohybrids were established using 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, Raman spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The resulting MWCNT nanoarchitectures were covalently assembled into silica nanoparticles, which exhibited specific and controllable morphologies and were used to reinforce biodegradable PLA. The tensile strength and the heat deflection temperature (HDT of the PLA/MWCNT-grafted silica nanocomposites increased when the MWCNT-grafted silica was applied to the PLA matrix; by contrast, the surface resistivity of the PLA/MWCNT-grafted silica nanocomposites appeared to decline as the amount of MWCNT-grafted silica in the PLA matrix increased. Overall, the reinforcement of PLA using MWCNT-grafted silica nanoarchitectures was efficient and improved its mechanical properties, heat resistance, and electrical resistivity.

  3. Radiation-induced crosslinking and post-processing of poly(L-lactic acid) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kasai, Noboru; Yagi, Toshiaki; Yoshii, Fumio; Tamada, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Poly(L-lactic acid), PLLA, was irradiated using electron beams (EBs) in the presence of triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) at 5% concentration as crosslinking agent. The crosslinked PLLA obtained has heat resistance, as demonstrated by retention of its original shape at glass transition temperature or even higher than 200 o C. As an application of this fact, crosslinked PLLA is applied in spectacle lens to prevent shape deformation of eyeglass frames in displaying and transporting. However, in this application to lens, it is not enough to improve the thermal deformation of PLLA under stress at 70 o C. Radiation-induced crosslinking of a PLLA/silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) composite with TAIC and post-processing of the crosslinked PLLA composite by heating were further investigated from the viewpoint of thermal deformation. The PLLA materials have several advantages such as high heat resistance and transparency. It is therefore proved that the combination of radiation-induced crosslinking, composition of SiO 2 and post-heating is beneficial for expanding the applications of PLLA.

  4. Radiation-induced crosslinking and post-processing of poly(L-lactic acid) composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu, E-mail: nagasawa.naotsugu@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Quantum Beam Science Directorate, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kasai, Noboru; Yagi, Toshiaki; Yoshii, Fumio; Tamada, Masao [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Quantum Beam Science Directorate, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Poly(L-lactic acid), PLLA, was irradiated using electron beams (EBs) in the presence of triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) at 5% concentration as crosslinking agent. The crosslinked PLLA obtained has heat resistance, as demonstrated by retention of its original shape at glass transition temperature or even higher than 200 {sup o}C. As an application of this fact, crosslinked PLLA is applied in spectacle lens to prevent shape deformation of eyeglass frames in displaying and transporting. However, in this application to lens, it is not enough to improve the thermal deformation of PLLA under stress at 70 {sup o}C. Radiation-induced crosslinking of a PLLA/silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) composite with TAIC and post-processing of the crosslinked PLLA composite by heating were further investigated from the viewpoint of thermal deformation. The PLLA materials have several advantages such as high heat resistance and transparency. It is therefore proved that the combination of radiation-induced crosslinking, composition of SiO{sub 2} and post-heating is beneficial for expanding the applications of PLLA.

  5. Characterization of Extruded Poly(lactic acid/Pecan Nutshell Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Álvarez-Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pecan nutshells are a solid form of waste obtained from the pecan nut production and they have been explored as an inexpensive filler for incorporation by melt blending into the poly(lactic acid (PLA matrix. The pecan nutshells contain polyphenols, proteins, tannins, sugars, and lipids; some of these components must be released in order to improve adhesion with a polymeric matrix. The physicochemical characterization of the extruded biocomposites of pecan nutshell powder (PNSP at 0, 5, and 7.5% wt. with two treatments (untreated and defatted into PLA is presented in this work. The incorporation of PNSP into the PLA matrix caused a variation in color and density and increased the water absorption. However, some mechanical and thermal parameters of the biocomposites showed a significant decrease. The morphological analysis showed good dispersion and adhesion of the PNSP to the PLA matrix. Based on the results of the characterization, biocomposites formulated with defatted PNSP have a potential to be used as sustainable fillers in PLA biocomposites. These biocomposites have a potential application as food containers, packaging trays, or disposable items.

  6. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valletta, Alessio [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Environmental Biology (Italy); Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe, E-mail: cleofe.palocci@uniroma1.it [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Chemistry (Italy); Baldan, Barbara [University of Padua, Department of Biology (Italy); Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella [“Sapienza” University of Rome, Department of Environmental Biology (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine.

  7. All Biomass and UV Protective Composite Composed of Compatibilized Lignin and Poly (Lactic-acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjun; Suhr, Jonghwan; Seo, Hee-Won; Sun, Hanna; Kim, Sanghoon; Park, In-Kyung; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Lee, Youngkwan; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Nam, Jae-Do

    2017-03-01

    Utilization of carbon-neutral biomass became increasingly important due to a desperate need for carbon reduction in the issue of global warming in light of replacing petroleum-based materials. We used lignin, which was an abundant, low cost, and non-food based biomass, for the development of all biomass-based films and composites through reactive compatibilization with poly (lactic-acid) (PLA). Using a facile and practical route, the hydrophilic hydroxyl groups of lignin were acetylated to impose the compatibility with PLA. The solubility parameter of the pristine lignin at 26.3 (J/cm3)0.5 was altered to 20.9 (J/cm3)0.5 by acetylation allowing the good compatibility with PLA at 20.2 (J/cm3)0.5. The improved compatibility of lignin and PLA provided substantially decreased lignin domain size in composites (12.7 μm), which subsequently gave transparent and UV-protection films (visual transmittance at 76% and UV protection factor over 40). The tensile strength and elongation of the developed composite films were increased by 22% and 76%, respectively, and the biobased carbon content was confirmed as 96 ± 3%. The developed PLA/lignin composites provided 100% all-biomass contents and balanced optical and mechanical properties that could broaden its eco-friendly applications in various industries.

  8. Development of Poly(lactic acid)/Chitosan Fibers Loaded with Essential Oil for Antimicrobial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaowen; Wang, Shuyao; Zhang, Rong; Lan, Wenting; Qin, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) was successfully encapsulated into chitosan (CS) nanoparticles at different loading amounts (1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% v/v) using oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion and ionic-gelation methods. In order to form active packaging, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was used to fabricate PLA/CS-CEO composite fibers using a simple electrospinning method. The shape, size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficacy of the CS-CEO nanoparticles were investigated. The composition, morphology, and release behavior of the composite fibers were investigated. PLA/CS-CEO-1.5 showed good stability and favorable sustained release of CEO, resulting in improved antimicrobial activity compared to the other blends. The PLA/CS-CEO fibers showed high long-term inactivation rates against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus due to the sustained release of CEO, indicating that the developed PLA/CS-CEO fibers have great potential for active food packaging applications. PMID:28737719

  9. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid/Solutol HS15-Based Nanoparticles for Docetaxel Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Jong; Park, Ju-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Duk; Yoon, In-Soo

    2016-02-01

    Docetaxel (DCT) is one of anti-mitotic chemotherapeutic agents and has been used for the treatment of gastric cancer as well as head and neck cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer. Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) is one of representative biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, and polyoxyl 15 hydroxystearate (Solutol HS15) is a nonionic solubilizer and emulsifying agent. In this investigation, PLGA/Solutol HS15-based nanoparticles (NPs) for DCT delivery were fabricated by a modified emulsification-solvent evaporation method. PLGA/Solutol HS15/DCT NPs with about 169 nm of mean diameter, narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential, and spherical morphology were prepared. The results of solid-state studies revealed the successful dispersion of DCT in PLGA matrix and its amorphization during the preparation process of NPs. According to the result of in vitro release test, emulsifying property of Solutol HS15 seemed to contribute to the enhanced drug release from NPs at physiological pH. All these findings imply that developed PLGA/Solutol HS15-based NP can be a promising local anticancer drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

  10. Softened and flexible biodegradable poly(lactic acid) and its electromechanical properties for actuator application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummarungsan, Natlita; Pattavarakorn, Datchanee; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2016-12-01

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with high stiffness presenting a limitation for using in actuator applications. Adding a plasticizer is one way to solve this problem to enhance flexibility and improve electromechanical properties of pristine PLA. In this work, the PLA films were prepared via a simple solvent casting method. The influences of plasticizer type and electric field strength on electromechanical behavior of PLA films were investigated by the melt rheometer and bending measurement. For the PLA films filled with dibutyl phthalate (DBP), the storage modulus, G', immediately increased towards its steady state and rapidly recovered to its original value with and without electric field, respectively, which can be referred to a reversible system. On the other hand, the PLA film with Tween 20 processed the highest ∆G׳/G׳0 of 1.34 due to the available amount of polarized groups. In the bending measurement, the dielectrophoresis forces of plasticized PLA films were found to increase with increasing electric field where the deflections occurred towards anode side as the polarized groups generated negative charges. The DBP_PLA1.5D film exhibited the greatest bending and dielectrophoresis force. Thus, the biodegradable PLA along with DBP combine to have a great potential towards actuator application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium gluconate contained poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/chitosan microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Shekh M. [Department of Chemical, Biological and Bioengineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Mahoney, Christopher [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Sankar, Jagannathan [NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Marra, Kacey G. [NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 450 Technology Drive, Pittsburgh, PA 15250 (United States); Bhattarai, Narayan, E-mail: nbhattar@ncat.edu [Department of Chemical, Biological and Bioengineering, North Carolina A& T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); NSF Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnesium gluconate contained PLGA/chitosan microspheres were fabricated. • In vitro release of magnesium ions was performed using Xylidyl Blue assay. • Chitosan coated PLGA can significantly control the release of magnesium ions. • Cellular compatibility was tested using adipose-derived stem cells and PC12 cells. • The cells encounter acceptably low levels of damage in contact with microspheres. - Abstract: The goal of this study was to fabricate and investigate the chitosan coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for the development of controlled release magnesium delivery system. PLGA based microspheres are ideal vehicles for many controlled release drug delivery applications. Chitosan is a naturally occurring biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharide, which can coat the surface of PLGA to alter the release of drugs. Magnesium gluconate (MgG) was encapsulated in the PLGA and PLGA/chitosan microspheres by utilizing the double emulsion solvent evaporation technique for controlled release study. The microspheres were tested with respect to several physicochemical and biological properties, including morphology, chemical structure, chitosan adsorption efficiency, magnesium encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release of magnesium ions, and cellular compatibility using both human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and PC12 cells. Chitosan coated PLGA microspheres can significantly control the release of magnesium ions compared to uncoated PLGA microspheres. Both coated and uncoated microspheres showed good cellular compatibility.

  12. Hydrophobic silica nanoparticles as reinforcing filler for poly (lactic acid polymer matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilić Branka M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of poly (lactic acid (PLA and its nanocomposites, with silica nanoparticles (SiO2, as filler were investigated. Neat PLA films and PLA films with different percentage of hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 wt. % were prepared by solution casting method. Several tools were used to characterize the influence of different silica content on crystalline behavior, and thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of PLA/SiO2 nanocomposites. Results from scanning electron microscope (SEM showed that the nanocomposite preparation and selection of specific hydrophobic spherical nano filler provide a good dispersion of the silica nanoparticles in the PLA matrix. Addition of silica nanoparticles improved mechanical properties, the most significant improvement being observed for lowest silica content (0.2wt.%. Barrier properties were improved for all measured gases at all loadings of silica nanoparticles. The degree of crystallinity for PLA slightly increased by adding 0.2 and 0.5 wt. % of nano filler. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46001

  13. Combination of Poly(lactic) Acid and Starch for Biodegradable Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Justine; González-Martínez, Chelo; Chiralt, Amparo

    2017-08-15

    The massive use of synthetic plastics, in particular in the food packaging area, has a great environmental impact, and alternative more ecologic materials are being required. Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and starch have been extensively studied as potential replacements for non-degradable petrochemical polymers on the basis of their availability, adequate food contact properties and competitive cost. Nevertheless, both polymers exhibit some drawbacks for packaging uses and need to be adapted to the food packaging requirements. Starch, in particular, is very water sensitive and its film properties are heavily dependent on the moisture content, exhibiting relatively low mechanical resistance. PLA films are very brittle and offer low resistance to oxygen permeation. Their combination as blend or multilayer films could provide properties that are more adequate for packaging purposes on the basis of their complementary characteristics. The main characteristics of PLA and starch in terms of not only the barrier and mechanical properties of their films but also of their combinations, by using blending or multilayer strategies, have been analyzed, identifying components or processes that favor the polymer compatibility and the good performance of the combined materials. The properties of some blends/combinations have been discussed in comparison with those of pure polymer films.

  14. Biodegradable multilayer barrier films based on alginate/polyethyleneimine and biaxially oriented poly(lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Hong; Wang, Jia-Jun; Yu, Yang; Sun, Hui; Shuai, Ning; Wei, Bing

    2013-02-15

    A layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was used to assemble alternating layers of sodium alginate (ALG)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) on biaxially oriented poly(lactic acid) (BOPLA) films in order to produce bio-based all-polymer thin films with low gas permeability. Increasing the depositing of ALG and PEI from 0 to 30 layers results in large thickness variations (from 0 to 3.92 μm). After 30 ALG/PEI layers are deposited, the resulting assembly has an OTR of 1.22 cm(3)/(m(2) day atm). When multiplied by thickness, the resulting oxygen permeability (OP) is found to be less than 3.8×10(-17) cm(3) cm/cm(2) s Pa, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of uncoated BOPLA film (1.8×10(-14) cm(3)cm/cm(2) s Pa). At the same time, the resulting multilayer-coated BOPLA films maintain high optical clarity and tensile properties. This unique barrier thin film has become a promising alternative to non-biodegradable synthetic food packaging materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and characterization of sugar palm starch and poly(lactic acid) bilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-08-01

    The development and characterization of environmentally friendly bilayer films from sugar palm starch (SPS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were conducted in this study. The SPS-PLA bilayer films and their individual components were characterized for their physical, mechanical, thermal and water barrier properties. Addition of 50% PLA layer onto 50% SPS layer (SPS50-PLA50) increased the tensile strength of neat SPS film from 7.74 to 13.65MPa but reduced their elongation at break from 46.66 to 15.53%. The incorporation of PLA layer significantly reduced the water vapor permeability as well as the water uptake and solubility of bilayer films which was attributed to the hydrophobic characteristic of the PLA layer. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of SPS50-PLA50 revealed lack of strong interfacial adhesion between the SPS and PLA. Overall, the incorporation of PLA layer onto SPS films enhances the suitability of SPS based films for food packaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of poly(lactic acid)/ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacharawichanant, S.; Hoysang, P.; Ratchawong, S.

    2017-07-01

    This paper reports a melt blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBAC) with organoclay content at 3 phr. The mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of PLA/EBAC blends and nanocomposites were investigated. The morphological analysis revealed EBAC phase dispersed as a spherical domain in PLA matrix and the domain size of EBAC dispersed phase increased with increasing EBAC content. The addition of organoclay could improve the miscibility of PLA/EBAC blends due to the decrease of domain size of EBAC dispersed phase. The mechanical properties indicated that the strain at break and impact strength of PLA increased when added EBAC, but Young’s modulus and tensile strength decreased. Storage modulus increased with the addition of organoclay to the PLA/EBAC blends. The thermal properties found that the incorporation of organoclay in the PLA/EBAC blends did not effect on the glass transition temperature and melting temperature values relative to PLA. The degradation temperature of PLA improved with the addition of EBAC. This indicated that EBAC has more thermal stability and degradation temperature than PLA. From X-ray diffraction patterns displayed the characteristic peak in PLA/EBAC/organoclay nanocomposites appeared at the lower angle, which indicated the dispersed clay is intercalated in the polymer matrix. However, second-order diffraction peak appeared at the higher angle indicated that there was partially the conventional composite.

  17. Porosity characterization of biodegradable porous poly (L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valipouri, Afsaneh; Gharehaghaji, Ali Akbar; Alirezazadeh, Azam; Ravandi, Seyed Abdolkarim Hosseini

    2017-12-01

    Poly-L lactic acid (PLLA) is one of the mostly used fibers in biomedical applications as a biodegradable and biocompatible material. Porosity and fiber diameter distribution are governing factors that determine the performance of nanofibers. Present work aims at investigating the process parameters that are affecting porosity and diameter distribution of PLLA nanofibers. PLLA nanofibers were fabricated through electrospinning method using the solution of PLLA polymer/dichloromethane (DCM). Nanofibers with various fiber diameter distribution and porosity were made by changing of process parameters such as spinning distance (5, 10 and 15 cm), voltage (11 and 15 kV), solution concentration (10, 11 and 12 wt%) and feeding rate (0.3, 0.4 and 0.7 ml h-1). Image processing techniques (with Matlab R2017), surface analysis (with Mountainsmap7) and diameter distribution analysis (with Measurement software) were used to examine surface morphology of samples. The results showed that the fiber diameter distribution becomes wider with increasing the applied voltage and reducing the spinning distance. In the other hand, coarse fibers possessed larger pores while having irregular and fewer pores in comparison to fine fibers. The most uniform nano-web with high porous nanofibers was attained by the choice of the process parameters at the voltage of 11 kV, spinning distance of 15 cm, feeding rate of 0.4 ml h-1 and solution concentration of 10 wt%.

  18. Elastic Evaluation of Poly(Lactic Acid) Electrospun Membranes Using the Pulsed Photoacoustic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, M.; Vera-Graziano, R.; Maciel-Cerda, A.; Sánchez-Arévalo, F. M.; Godínez, F. A.

    2017-08-01

    Fibrous membranes manufactured by electrospinning possess unique features such as a high porosity and large specific surface area, making them suitable for applications in tissue engineering. However, the determination of their mechanical behavior under different loading conditions remains one of the most difficult technical problems for researchers to overcome. While the tensile properties of this kind of membrane are commonly reported in the literature, few explorations of their properties in other directions have been reported. In this paper, the pulsed photoacoustic technique is employed to obtain the elastic constants of electrospun non-woven membranes, specifically in two directions ( L, T). The electrospun samples are hybrid fiber membranes of poly(lactic acid) and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles at different concentrations. It is found that the concentration of HA nanoparticles determines the mechanical response of the membrane, where the nanoparticles act either as a reinforcement or as a mesh defect. The elastic constants (EL, ET, GL, GT, vL, ν T) are obtained through velocity waves related to the stress-strain equations, using samples with two different geometries and considering the electrospinning mats as a transversely isotropic material. These values are compared to those acquired using macro-tensile testing equipment according to the ASTM D1708 standard.

  19. Poly (Lactic Acid)/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite Films: Effect of Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadbin, S.; Naimian, F.; Akhavan, A.; Hasanpoor, S., E-mail: sdadbin@yahoo.com, E-mail: sdadbin@aeoi.org.ir [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 11365-8486, Tehran, North Kargar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Poly (Lactic acid) –layered silicate nanocomposite films were prepared by solution casting method. The films were irradiated with Co{sup 60} radiation facility at dose of 30 kGy. The effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties of the neat PLA and nanocomposites was evaluated by data obtained from tensile testing measurements. The tensile strength of the irradiated PLA films increased with addition of 1 wt% Triallyl Cyanurate (TAC) indicating crosslink formation. Significant ductile behavior was observed in the PLA nanocomposites containing 4 pph of nanoclay. Incorporation of nanoclay particles in the PLA matrix stimulated crystal growth as it was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the nanocomposites characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X- ray diffraction (XRD) revealed an exfoliated morphology in the PLA nanocomposite films containing 4 pph of nanoclay. Only very small changes were observed in the chemical structure of the irradiated samples as it was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Enzymatic degradation rate of PLA and its nanocomposite decreased with increasing crystallinity of the samples. The rate of weight loss was also affected by the morphology of the nanocomposites. (author)

  20. Cytocompatibility of Siloxane-Containing Vaterite/Poly(l-lactic acid) Composite Coatings on Metallic Magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinya; Maeda, Hirotaka; Obata, Akiko; Lohbauer, Ulrich; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2013-12-12

    Poly(l-lactic acid)-based films which include 60 wt % of vaterite (V) or siloxane-containing vaterite (SiV) were coated on a pure magnesium substrate, denoted by PLLA/V or PLLA/SiV, respectively, to suppress early corrosion and improve its cytocompatibility. Both coating films adhered to the Mg substrate with 2.3-2.8 MPa of tensile bonding strength. Soaking test for 7 days in α-modified minimum essential medium revealed that the morphological instability of the PLLA/V film caused a higher amount of Mg 2+ ion to be released from the coating sample. On the other hand, in the case of the coating with the PLLA/SiV film, no morphological change even after the soaking test was observed, owing to the suppression of the degradation rate. In cell culture tests, the proliferation of mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1) was significantly enhanced by both coatings, in comparison with the uncoated magnesium substrate. The cell morphology revealed that a few less-spread cells were observed on the PLLA/V film, while more elongated cells were done on the PLLA/SiV film. The cells on the PLLA/SiV film exhibited an extremely higher alkaline phosphatase activity after 21 days of incubation than that on the PLLA/V one. The PLLA/SiV film suppressed the early corrosion and enhanced cytocompatibility on metallic magnesium.

  1. Cytocompatibility of Siloxane-Containing Vaterite/Poly(l-lactic acid Composite Coatings on Metallic Magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(l-lactic acid-based films which include 60 wt % of vaterite (V or siloxane-containing vaterite (SiV were coated on a pure magnesium substrate, denoted by PLLA/V or PLLA/SiV, respectively, to suppress early corrosion and improve its cytocompatibility. Both coating films adhered to the Mg substrate with 2.3–2.8 MPa of tensile bonding strength. Soaking test for 7 days in α-modified minimum essential medium revealed that the morphological instability of the PLLA/V film caused a higher amount of Mg2+ ion to be released from the coating sample. On the other hand, in the case of the coating with the PLLA/SiV film, no morphological change even after the soaking test was observed, owing to the suppression of the degradation rate. In cell culture tests, the proliferation of mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1 was significantly enhanced by both coatings, in comparison with the uncoated magnesium substrate. The cell morphology revealed that a few less-spread cells were observed on the PLLA/V film, while more elongated cells were done on the PLLA/SiV film. The cells on the PLLA/SiV film exhibited an extremely higher alkaline phosphatase activity after 21 days of incubation than that on the PLLA/V one. The PLLA/SiV film suppressed the early corrosion and enhanced cytocompatibility on metallic magnesium.

  2. Direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in poly-l-lactic acid nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric polymers are capable of interconverting mechanical and electrical energy, and are therefore candidate materials for biomedical applications such as sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. In particular, nanowires of these materials are attractive as they can be unclamped, flexible and sensitive to small vibrations. Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA nanowires have been investigated for their use in biological applications, but their piezoelectric properties have never been fully characterised, even though macroscopic films and fibres have been shown to exhibit shear piezoelectricity. This piezoelectric mode is particularly interesting for in vivo applications where shear forces are especially relevant, and is similar to what has been observed in natural materials such as bone and DNA. Here, using piezo-response force microscopy (PFM, we report the first direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in highly crystalline and oriented PLLA nanowires grown by a novel template-wetting method. Our results are validated using finite-element simulations and numerical analysis, which importantly and more generally allow for accurate interpretation of PFM signals in soft nanostructured materials. Our work opens up the possibility for the development of biocompatible and sustainable piezoelectric nanogenerators and sensors based on polymer nanowires.

  3. Poly(Lactic Acid) Filled with Cassava Starch-g-Soybean Oil Maleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiangkitiwan, Nopparut; Srikulkit, Kawee

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid), PLA, is a biodegradable polymer, but its applications are limited by its high cost and relatively poorer properties when compared to petroleum-based plastics. The addition of starch powder into PLA is one of the most promising efforts because starch is an abundant and cheap biopolymer. However, the challenge is the major problem associated with poor interfacial adhesion between the hydrophilic starch granules and the hydrophobic PLA, leading to poorer mechanical properties. In this paper, soybean oil maleate (SOMA) was synthesized by grafting soybean oil with various weight percents of maleic anhydride (MA) using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as an initiator. Then, SOMA was employed for the surface modifying of cassava starch powder, resulting in SOMA-g-STARCH. The obtained SOMA-g-STARCH was mixed with PLA in various weight ratios using twin-screw extruder, resulting in PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH. Finally, the obtained PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH composites were prepared by a compression molding machines. The compatibility, thermal properties, morphology properties, and mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated. The results showed that the compatibility, surface appearance, and mechanical properties at 90 : 10 and 80 : 20 ratios of PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH were the best. PMID:24307883

  4. Combination of Poly(lactic) Acid and Starch for Biodegradable Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Chelo; Chiralt, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    The massive use of synthetic plastics, in particular in the food packaging area, has a great environmental impact, and alternative more ecologic materials are being required. Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and starch have been extensively studied as potential replacements for non-degradable petrochemical polymers on the basis of their availability, adequate food contact properties and competitive cost. Nevertheless, both polymers exhibit some drawbacks for packaging uses and need to be adapted to the food packaging requirements. Starch, in particular, is very water sensitive and its film properties are heavily dependent on the moisture content, exhibiting relatively low mechanical resistance. PLA films are very brittle and offer low resistance to oxygen permeation. Their combination as blend or multilayer films could provide properties that are more adequate for packaging purposes on the basis of their complementary characteristics. The main characteristics of PLA and starch in terms of not only the barrier and mechanical properties of their films but also of their combinations, by using blending or multilayer strategies, have been analyzed, identifying components or processes that favor the polymer compatibility and the good performance of the combined materials. The properties of some blends/combinations have been discussed in comparison with those of pure polymer films. PMID:28809808

  5. Fabrication and biocompatibility of poly(L-lactic acid) and chitosan composite scaffolds with hierarchical microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Tao, E-mail: taolou72@aliyun.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang, Xuejun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yan, Xu [College of Physics & Collaborative Innovation Center for Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials and Optoelectronic Devices, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Miao, Yu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Long, Yun-Ze, E-mail: yunzelong@163.com [College of Physics & Collaborative Innovation Center for Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials and Optoelectronic Devices, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yin, Hai-Lei [Department of Osteology, No. 401 Hospital of P. L. A., Qingdao 266071 (China); Sun, Bin [College of Physics & Collaborative Innovation Center for Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials and Optoelectronic Devices, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Song, Guojun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2016-07-01

    The scaffold microstructure is crucial to reconstruct tissue normal functions. In this article, poly(L-lactic acid) and chitosan fiber (PLLA/CTSF) composite scaffolds with hierarchical microstructures both in fiber and pore sizes were successfully fabricated by combining thermal induced phase separation and salt leaching techniques. The composite scaffolds consisted of a nanofibrous PLLA matrix with diameter of 50–500 nm, and chitosan fibers with diameter of about 20 μm were homogenously distributed in the PLLA matrix as a microsized reinforcer. The composite scaffolds also had high porosity (> 94%) and hierarchical pore size, which were consisted of both micropores (50 nm–10 μm) and macropores (50–300 μm). By tailoring the microstructure and chemical composition, the mechanical property, pH buffer and protein adsorption capacity of the composite scaffold were improved significantly compared with those of PLLA scaffold. Cell culture results also revealed that the PLLA/CTSF composite scaffolds supported MG-63 osteoblast proliferation and penetration. - Highlights: • Composite scaffolds fabricated by combining thermal induced phase separation and salt leaching techniques • Hierarchical microstructure both in fiber and pore sizes • The scaffold microenvironment facilitates the protein adsorption, cell proliferation and penetration.

  6. Thermal property and assessment of biocompatibility of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/graphene nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Ananta R.; Rusakova, Irene; Chu, Wei-Kan; Haleh, Ardebili; Luisi, Jonathan; Panova, Neli I.; Laezza, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-matrix nanocomposites based on Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and Graphene platelets (GNPs) were studied. GNPs, nanomaterials with a 2D flat surface, were chosen with or without chemical modification in PLGA/GNP nanocomposites and their microstructure, thermal property, and their compatibility as scaffolds for cell growth were investigated. PLGA/GNP nanocomposites (0, 1, and 5 wt. % of GNPs) were prepared using a solution based technique. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Differential scanning calorimeter, and Thermogravimetric analyzer were used to analyze morphology and thermal properties. This work demonstrated the role of GNPs flat surface to provide a favorable platform resulting in an enhanced PLGA crystallization. Functionalized GNPs suppress both the thermal stability and the crystallization of PLGA. Finally, to determine the potential usefulness of these scaffolds for biomedical applications, mammalian cells were cultured on various PLGA/GNP nanocomposites (0, 1, and 5 wt. % GNPs). 1 wt. % PLGA/GNP nanocomposites showed better biocompatibility for cell growth with/without graphenes functionalization compared to pure PLGA and 5 wt. % PLGA/GNP. The function of GNPs in PLGA/GNPs (1 wt. %) composites is to provide a stage for PLGA crystallization where cell growth is favored. These results provide strong evidence for a new class of materials that could be important for biomedical applications

  7. Effect of clay content on morphology and processability of electrospun keratin/poly(lactic acid) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarankura Na Ayutthaya, Siriorn; Tanpichai, Supachok; Sangkhun, Weradesh; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn

    2016-04-01

    This research work has concerned the development of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal filters from biomaterials, based on keratin extracted from chicken feather waste and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) (50/50%w/w) blend. Clay (Na-montmorillonite) was also added to the blend solution prior to carrying out an electro-spinning process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clay content on viscosity, conductivity, and morphology of the electrospun fibers. Scanning electron micrographs showed that smooth and bead-free fibers were obtained when clay content used was below 2 pph. XRD patterns of the electrospun fibers indicated that the clay was intercalated and exfoliated within the polymers matrix. Percentage crystallinity of keratin in the blend increased after adding the clay, as evidenced from FTIR spectra and DSC thermograms. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a kind of core-shell structure with clay being predominately resided within the keratin rich shell and at the interfacial region. Filtration performance of the electrospun keratin/PLA fibers, described in terms of pressure drop and its capability of removing methylene blue, were also explored. Overall, our results demonstrated that it was possible to improve process-ability, morphology and filtration efficiency of the electrospun keratin fibers by adding a suitable amount of clay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of different sterilization processes on the properties of commercial poly(lactic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaris, M.; Santos, V. dos, E-mail: vsantos2@ucs.br; Brandalise, R.N.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims at analyzing the modifications in the morphological, physical, chemical and thermal properties of commercial poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films after exposure to five different sterilization processes. Films were obtained by compression molding, hygienized and sterilized by ethylene oxide (SEtO), hydrogen peroxide plasma (SH{sub 2}O{sub 2}), saturated steam (SSS), electron beam radiation (SEB) and gamma radiation (SGR). The samples of PLA{sub SEtO}, PLA{sub SH2O2}, PLA{sub SEB} and PLA{sub SGR} exhibited thermal and physical changes after being submitted to sterilization processes. PLA{sub SSS} showed morphological, chemical, thermal and physical changes. It is concluded that processes by SEtO, SH{sub 2}O{sub 2}, SEB and EGR can be applied for the sterilization of PLA films and the SSS process is not recommended in view of the data obtained and test conditions reported in this study for PLA films. - Highlights: • PLA was subjected to five different sterilization process. • All sterilization processes do not changed the hydrophilicity of PLA. • Morphological, chemical, physical and thermal changes were observed for the PLA{sub SSS}. • The sterilization by saturated steam is not recommended to sterilize PLA.

  9. Efficacy of Poly-Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Micro- and Nanoparticles of Ciprofloxacin Against Bacterial Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicky; Thorn, Chelsea; Richter, Katharina; Thierry, Benjamin; Prestidge, Clive

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with a number of recurring infectious diseases and are a major cause for antibiotic resistance. Despite the broad use of polymeric microparticles and nanoparticles in biomedical research, it is not clear which particle size is more effective against biofilms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sustained release poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) micro- and nanoparticles containing ciprofloxacin against biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The PLGA particles were prepared by the double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The resulting microparticles (12 μm) and nanoparticles (300 nm) contained drug loads of 7.3% and 4.5% (wt/wt) ciprofloxacin, respectively. Drug release was complete within 1 week following comparable release profiles for both particle sizes. Micro- and nanoparticles demonstrated a similar in vitro antibiofilm performance against mature P aeruginosa and S aureus with marked differences between the 2 strains. The sustained release of ciprofloxacin from micro- and nanoparticles over 6 days was equally effective as the continuous treatment with ciprofloxacin solution over the same period resulting in the eradication of culturable S aureus suggesting that reformulation of ciprofloxacin as sustained release PLGA micro- and nanoparticles might be valuable formulation approaches for the treatment of biofilms. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microfluidics for producing poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based pharmaceutical nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanyu; Jiang, Xingyu

    2017-12-24

    Microfluidic chips allow the rapid production of a library of nanoparticles (NPs) with distinct properties by changing the precursors and the flow rates, significantly decreasing the time for screening optimal formulation as carriers for drug delivery compared to conventional methods. The batch-to-batch reproducibility which is essential for clinical translation is achieved by precisely controlling the precursors and the flow rate, regardless of operators. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is the most widely used Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved biodegradable polymers. Researchers often combine PLGA with lipids or amphiphilic molecules to assemble into a core/shell structure to exploit the potential of PLGA-based NPs as powerful carriers for cancer-related drug delivery. In this review, we discuss the advantages associated with microfluidic chips for producing PLGA-based functional nanocomplexes for drug delivery. These laboratory-based methods can readily scale up to provide sufficient amount of PLGA-based NPs in microfluidic chips for clinical studies and industrial-scale production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in poly-l-lactic acid nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Calahorra, Yonatan; Jing, Qingshen; Kar-Narayan, Sohini

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric polymers are capable of interconverting mechanical and electrical energy, and are therefore candidate materials for biomedical applications such as sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. In particular, nanowires of these materials are attractive as they can be unclamped, flexible and sensitive to small vibrations. Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) nanowires have been investigated for their use in biological applications, but their piezoelectric properties have never been fully characterised, even though macroscopic films and fibres have been shown to exhibit shear piezoelectricity. This piezoelectric mode is particularly interesting for in vivo applications where shear forces are especially relevant, and is similar to what has been observed in natural materials such as bone and DNA. Here, using piezo-response force microscopy (PFM), we report the first direct observation of shear piezoelectricity in highly crystalline and oriented PLLA nanowires grown by a novel template-wetting method. Our results are validated using finite-element simulations and numerical analysis, which importantly and more generally allow for accurate interpretation of PFM signals in soft nanostructured materials. Our work opens up the possibility for the development of biocompatible and sustainable piezoelectric nanogenerators and sensors based on polymer nanowires.

  12. Influence of different sterilization processes on the properties of commercial poly(lactic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savaris, M.; Santos, V. dos; Brandalise, R.N.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing the modifications in the morphological, physical, chemical and thermal properties of commercial poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films after exposure to five different sterilization processes. Films were obtained by compression molding, hygienized and sterilized by ethylene oxide (SEtO), hydrogen peroxide plasma (SH 2 O 2 ), saturated steam (SSS), electron beam radiation (SEB) and gamma radiation (SGR). The samples of PLA SEtO , PLA SH2O2 , PLA SEB and PLA SGR exhibited thermal and physical changes after being submitted to sterilization processes. PLA SSS showed morphological, chemical, thermal and physical changes. It is concluded that processes by SEtO, SH 2 O 2 , SEB and EGR can be applied for the sterilization of PLA films and the SSS process is not recommended in view of the data obtained and test conditions reported in this study for PLA films. - Highlights: • PLA was subjected to five different sterilization process. • All sterilization processes do not changed the hydrophilicity of PLA. • Morphological, chemical, physical and thermal changes were observed for the PLA SSS . • The sterilization by saturated steam is not recommended to sterilize PLA.

  13. Plasma Modification of Poly Lactic Acid Solutions to Generate High Quality Electrospun PLA Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Nikiforov, Anton; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie

    2018-02-02

    Physical properties of pre-electrospinning polymer solutions play a key role in electrospinning as they strongly determine the morphology of the obtained electrospun nanofibers. In this work, an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma directly submerged in the liquid-phase was used to modify the physical properties of poly lactic acid (PLA) spinning solutions in an effort to improve their electrospinnability. The electrical characteristics of the plasma were investigated by two methods; V-I waveforms and Q-V Lissajous plots while the optical emission characteristics of the plasma were also determined using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). To perform a complete physical characterization of the plasma-modified polymer solutions, measurements of viscosity, surface tension, and electrical conductivity were performed for various PLA concentrations, plasma exposure times, gas flow rates, and applied voltages. Moreover, a fast intensified charge-couple device (ICCD) camera was used to image the bubble dynamics during the plasma treatments. In addition, morphological changes of PLA nanofibers generated from plasma-treated PLA solutions were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The performed plasma treatments were found to induce significant changes to the main physical properties of the PLA solutions, leading to an enhancement of electrospinnability and an improvement of PLA nanofiber formation.

  14. Morphology, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties of graphene oxide/poly(lactic acid) nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Woo; Choi, Hyun Muk

    2016-01-01

    To improve the physical and gas barrier properties of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) film, two graphene nanosheets of highly functionalized graphene oxide (0.3 wt% to 0.7 wt%) and low-functionalized graphene oxide (0.5 wt%) were incorporated into PLA resin via solution blending method. Subsequently, we investigated the effects of material parameters such as loading level and degree of functionalization for the graphene nanosheets on the morphology and properties of the resultant nanocomposites. The highly functionalized graphene oxide (GO) caused more exfoliation and homogeneous dispersion in PLA matrix as well as more sustainable suspensions in THF, compared to low-functionalized graphene oxide (LFGO). When loaded with GO from 0.3 wt% to 0.7 wt%, the glass transition temperature, degree of crystallinity, tensile strength and modulus increased steadily. The GO gave rise to more pronounced effect in the thermal and mechanical reinforcement, relative to LFGO. In addition, the preparation of fairly transparent PLA-based nanocomposite film with noticeably improved barrier performance achieved only when incorporated with GO up to 0.7wt%. As a result, GO may be more compatible with hydrophilic PLA resin, compared to LFGO, resulting in more prominent enhancement of nanocomposites properties.

  15. Preparation and characterization of poly(lactic acid)/ zinc-aluminium layered double hydroxide nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eili Mahboobeh; Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus; Zobir Hossein; Mansor Ahmad; Norazowa Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Poly (lactic acid)/ stearate - zinc aluminum layered double hydroxide/ (PLA/ SZnAl LDH) nano composites were prepared via solution intercalation process using a modified ZnAl LDH. The anionic clay Zn 3 Al-NO 3 -LDH was prepared by a co-precipitation method and then modified with stearate ions by ion exchange process. Stearate-ZnAl LDH particles were then homogeneously dispersed in PLA matrix by a solution casting method. The pristine and modified ZnAl LDH was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which suggested that the modification was successful. The XRD analysis showed that during modification of LDH, the basal spacing increased from 8.83 Angstrom to 40.1 Angstrom. The PLA/ ZnAl LDH nano composites were characterized by tensile testing and XRD. The obtained nano composites showed dramatic enhancements in elongation at break as compared to those of the pure PLA. XRD results indicated that the materials formed are nano composites. (author)

  16. Neuron attachment properties of carbon negative-ion implanted bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2002-01-01

    Modification of a bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid (PLA) by negative carbon ion implantation was investigated with resect to radiation effects on surface physical properties and nerve-cell attachment properties. Carbon negative ions were implanted to PLA at energy of 5-30 keV with a dose of 10 14 -10 16 ions/cm 2 . Most C-implanted PLA samples showed contact angles near 80 deg. and almost same as that of unimplanted PLA, although a few samples at 5 keV and less 3x10 14 ions/cm 2 had contact angles larger than 90 deg. The attachment properties of nerve cells of PC-12h (rat adrenal phechromocytoma) in vitro were studied. PC-12h cells attached on the unimplanted region in C-implanted PLA samples at 5 and 10 keV. On the contrary, the nerve cells attached on only implanted region for the C-implanted PLA sample at 30 keV and 1x10 15 ions/cm 2

  17. Poly (Lactic Acid)/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite Films: Effect of Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadbin, S.; Naimian, F.; Akhavan, A.; Hasanpoor, S.

    2010-01-01

    Poly (Lactic acid) –layered silicate nanocomposite films were prepared by solution casting method. The films were irradiated with Co 60 radiation facility at dose of 30 kGy. The effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties of the neat PLA and nanocomposites was evaluated by data obtained from tensile testing measurements. The tensile strength of the irradiated PLA films increased with addition of 1 wt% Triallyl Cyanurate (TAC) indicating crosslink formation. Significant ductile behavior was observed in the PLA nanocomposites containing 4 pph of nanoclay. Incorporation of nanoclay particles in the PLA matrix stimulated crystal growth as it was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the nanocomposites characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X- ray diffraction (XRD) revealed an exfoliated morphology in the PLA nanocomposite films containing 4 pph of nanoclay. Only very small changes were observed in the chemical structure of the irradiated samples as it was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Enzymatic degradation rate of PLA and its nanocomposite decreased with increasing crystallinity of the samples. The rate of weight loss was also affected by the morphology of the nanocomposites. (author)

  18. Poly(dopamine) coating of 3D printed poly(lactic acid) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Lin, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-11-01

    3D printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared PLA 3D scaffolds coated with polydopamine (PDA). The chemical composition and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation, and cell cycle of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the collagen I secreted from cells was increased and promoted cell attachment and cell cycle progression were depended on the PDA content. In osteogenesis assay, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on pure PLA scaffolds. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental and computational studies of poly-L-lactic acid for cardiovascular applications: recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Raasti; Zhao, Liguo; Liu, Yang; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2017-12-01

    Stents are commonly used in medical procedures to alleviate the symptoms of coronary heart disease, a prevalent modern society disease. These structures are employed to maintain vessel patency and restore blood flow. Traditionally stents are made of metals such as stainless steel or cobalt chromium; however, these scaffolds have known disadvantages. An emergence of transient scaffolds is gaining popularity, with the structure engaged for a required period whilst healing of the diseased arterial wall occurs. Polymers dominate a medical device sector, with incorporation in sutures, scaffolds and screws. Thanks to their good mechanical and biological properties and their ability to degrade naturally. Polylactic acid is an extremely versatile polymer, with its properties easily tailored to applications. Its dominance in the stenting field increases continually, with the first polymer scaffold gaining FDA approval in 2016. Still some challenges with PLLA bioresorbable materials remain, especially with regard to understanding their mechanical response, assessment of its changes with degradation and comparison of their performance with that of metallic drug-eluting stent. Currently, there is still a lack of works on evaluating both the pre-degradation properties and degradation performance of these scaffolds. Additionally, there are no established material models incorporating non-linear viscoelastic behaviour of PLLA and its evolution with in-service degradation. Assessing these features through experimental analysis accompanied by analytical and numerical studies will provide powerful tools for design and optimisation of these structures endorsing their broader use in stenting. This overview assesses the recent studies investigating mechanical and computational performance of poly(l-lactic) acid and its use in stenting applications.

  20. Environmentally Friendly Compatibilizers from Soybean Oil for Ternary Blends of Poly(lactic acid-PLA, Poly(ε-caprolactone-PCL and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-PHB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Garcia-Campo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ternary blends of poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL with a constant weight percentage of 60%, 10% and 30% respectively were compatibilized with soybean oil derivatives epoxidized soybean oil (ESO, maleinized soybean oil (MSO and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO. The potential compatibilization effects of the soybean oil-derivatives was characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. The effects on morphology were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. All three soybean oil-based compatibilizers led to a noticeable increase in toughness with a remarkable improvement in elongation at break. On the other hand, both the tensile modulus and strength decreased, but in a lower extent to a typical plasticization effect. Although phase separation occurred, all three soybean oil derivatives led somewhat to compatibilization through reaction between terminal hydroxyl groups in all three biopolyesters (PLA, PHB and PCL and the readily reactive groups in the soybean oil derivatives, that is, epoxy, maleic anhydride and acrylic/epoxy functionalities. In particular, the addition of 5 parts per hundred parts of the blend (phr of ESO gave the maximum elongation at break while the same amount of MSO and AESO gave the maximum toughness, measured through Charpy’s impact tests. In general, the herein-developed materials widen the potential of ternary PLA formulations by a cost effective blending method with PHB and PCL and compatibilization with vegetable oil-based additives.

  1. Environmentally Friendly Compatibilizers from Soybean Oil for Ternary Blends of Poly(lactic acid)-PLA, Poly(ε-caprolactone)-PCL and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-PHB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Campo, María Jesús; Quiles-Carrillo, Luis; Masia, Jaime; Reig-Pérez, Miguel Jorge; Montanes, Nestor; Balart, Rafael

    2017-11-22

    Ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with a constant weight percentage of 60%, 10% and 30% respectively were compatibilized with soybean oil derivatives epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), maleinized soybean oil (MSO) and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). The potential compatibilization effects of the soybean oil-derivatives was characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. The effects on morphology were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). All three soybean oil-based compatibilizers led to a noticeable increase in toughness with a remarkable improvement in elongation at break. On the other hand, both the tensile modulus and strength decreased, but in a lower extent to a typical plasticization effect. Although phase separation occurred, all three soybean oil derivatives led somewhat to compatibilization through reaction between terminal hydroxyl groups in all three biopolyesters (PLA, PHB and PCL) and the readily reactive groups in the soybean oil derivatives, that is, epoxy, maleic anhydride and acrylic/epoxy functionalities. In particular, the addition of 5 parts per hundred parts of the blend (phr) of ESO gave the maximum elongation at break while the same amount of MSO and AESO gave the maximum toughness, measured through Charpy's impact tests. In general, the herein-developed materials widen the potential of ternary PLA formulations by a cost effective blending method with PHB and PCL and compatibilization with vegetable oil-based additives.

  2. RGD-modified poly(D,L-lactic acid nanoparticles enhance tumor targeting of oridonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jie Xu, Ji-Hui Zhao, Ying Liu, Nian-Ping Feng, Yong-Tai ZhangSchool of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaObjective: The purpose of this study was to develop an active targeting strategy to improve the therapeutic antitumor efficacy of oridonin (ORI, the main active ingredient in the medicinal herb Rabdosia rubescens.Methods: A modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method was used to prepare the ORI-loaded atactic poly(D,L-lactic acid nanoparticles (ORI-PLA-NPs. Surface cross-linking with the peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD further modified the ORI-PLA-NPs, generating ORI-PLA-RGD-NPs. The NPs were characterized and release experiments were performed in vitro. The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and antitumor activity of the NPs were studied in mice bearing hepatocarcinoma 22 (H22-derived tumors.Results: The ORI-PLA-NPs and ORI-PLA-RGD-NPs were smooth, sphere-like, and relatively uniform in size. The RGD surface modification slightly increased the mean particle size (95.8 nm for ORI-PLA-NPs versus 105.2 nm for ORI-PLA-RGD-NPs and considerably altered the surface electrical property (-10.19 mV for ORI-PLA-NPs versus -21.95 mV for ORI-PLA-RGD-NPs, but it had no obvious influence on ORI loading (8.23% ± 0.35% for ORI-PLA-NPs versus 8.02% ± 0.38% for ORI-PLA-RGD-NPs, entrapment efficiency (28.86% ± 0.93% for ORI-PLA-NPs versus 28.24% ± 0.81% for ORI-PLA-RGD-NPs, or the release of ORI. The pharmacokinetic properties of free ORI were improved by encapsulation in NPs, as shown by increased area under the concentration-time curve (11.89 ± 0.35 µg·mL-1 · h for ORI solution versus 22.03 ± 0.01 µg · mL-1 · h for ORI-PLA-RGD-NPs and prolonged mean retention time (2.03 ± 0.09 hours for ORI solution versus 8.68 ± 0.66 hours for ORI-PLA-RGD-NPs. In the tissue distribution study, more ORI targeted tumor tissue in the mice treated with ORI-PLA-RGD-NPs than with ORI

  3. Poly(lactic acid)/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites as alternative biocidal and antifungal materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Carmen; Ochoa, Almudena [POLCA, Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Química y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería y Diseño Industrial, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, Madrid (Spain); Ulloa, Maria Teresa; Alvarez, Eduardo [Programa de Microbiología y Micología. ICBM-Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Chile, Dirección, Avenida Independencia 1027, Comuna Independencia, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Daniel [Grupo Polímeros, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Zapata, Paula A., E-mail: paula.zapata@usach.cl [Grupo Polímeros, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-12-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) ~ 10-nm nanoparticles were produced by the melting process and their main properties were evaluated. The nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the matrix with a low degree of agglomeration, as seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} was added, showing that the nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents this trend was confirmed by optical images. The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA at 5 wt.% of nanoparticles. Despite these improvements, PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed lower shear viscosity than neat PLA, possibly reflecting degradation of the polymer due to the particles. Regarding biocidal properties, after 2 h of contact the PLA/TiO{sub 2} composites with 8 wt.% TiO{sub 2} showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of ~ 82% under no UVA irradiation compared to pure PLA. This biocidal characteristic can be increased under UVA irradiation, with nanocomposites containing 8 wt.% TiO{sub 2} killing 94% of the bacteria. The PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against Aspergillus fumigatus under the UVA irradiation. - Highlights: • PLA composites with titanium oxide (10 nm) were produced by the melting process. • The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} was added. • The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA. • The PLA/TiO{sub 2} composites showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of 94%. • The PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against fungi.

  4. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) devices: Production and applications for sustained protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Parker W; Pokorski, Jonathan K

    2018-03-13

    Injectable or implantable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) devices for the sustained delivery of proteins have been widely studied and utilized to overcome the necessity of repeated administrations for therapeutic proteins due to poor pharmacokinetic profiles of macromolecular therapies. These devices can come in the form of microparticles, implants, or patches depending on the disease state and route of administration. Furthermore, the release rate can be tuned from weeks to months by controlling the polymer composition, geometry of the device, or introducing additives during device fabrication. Slow-release devices have become a very powerful tool for modern medicine. Production of these devices has initially focused on emulsion-based methods, relying on phase separation to encapsulate proteins within polymeric microparticles. Process parameters and the effect of additives have been thoroughly researched to ensure protein stability during device manufacturing and to control the release profile. Continuous fluidic production methods have also been utilized to create protein-laden PLGA devices through spray drying and electrospray production. Thermal processing of PLGA with solid proteins is an emerging production method that allows for continuous, high-throughput manufacturing of PLGA/protein devices. Overall, polymeric materials for protein delivery remain an emerging field of research for the creation of single administration treatments for a wide variety of disease. This review describes, in detail, methods to make PLGA devices, comparing traditional emulsion-based methods to emerging methods to fabricate protein-laden devices. This article is categorized under: Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Protein and Virus-Based Structures Implantable Materials and Surgical Technologies > Nanomaterials and Implants Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Peptide-Based Structures. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Impact of Nanoclays on the Biodegradation of Poly(Lactic Acid Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Castro-Aguirre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA, a well-known biodegradable and compostable polymer, was used in this study as a model system to determine if the addition of nanoclays affects its biodegradation in simulated composting conditions and whether the nanoclays impact the microbial population in a compost environment. Three different nanoclays were studied due to their different surface characteristics but similar chemistry: organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT, Halloysite nanotubes (HNT, and Laponite® RD (LRD. Additionally, the organo-modifier of MMT, methyl, tallow, bis-2-hydroxyethyl, quaternary ammonium (QAC, was studied. PLA and PLA bio-nanocomposite (BNC films were produced, characterized, and used for biodegradation evaluation with an in-house built direct measurement respirometer (DMR following the analysis of evolved CO2 approach. A biofilm formation essay and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate microbial attachment on the surface of PLA and BNCs. The results obtained from four different biodegradation tests with PLA and its BNCs showed a significantly higher mineralization of the films containing nanoclay in comparison to the pristine PLA during the first three to four weeks of testing, mainly attributed to the reduction in the PLA lag time. The effect of the nanoclays on the initial molecular weight during processing played a crucial role in the evolution of CO2. PLA-LRD5 had the greatest microbial attachment on the surface as confirmed by the biofilm test and the SEM micrographs, while PLA-QAC0.4 had the lowest biofilm formation that may be attributed to the inhibitory effect also found during the biodegradation test when the QAC was tested by itself.

  6. Wetspun poly-L-(lactic acid)-borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds for guided bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, João S., E-mail: joao.fernandes@dep.uminho.pt [3B' s Research Group - Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark-Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, 4805-017 Barco GMR (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães (Portugal); Reis, Rui L. [3B' s Research Group - Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark-Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, 4805-017 Barco GMR (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães (Portugal); Pires, Ricardo A., E-mail: rpires@dep.uminho.pt [3B' s Research Group - Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark-Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, 4805-017 Barco GMR (Portugal); ICVS/3B' s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães (Portugal)

    2017-02-01

    We developed a porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold compounded with borosilicate bioactive glasses (BBGs) endowing it with bioactive properties. Porous PLLA-BBG fibre mesh scaffolds were successfully prepared by the combination of wet spinning and fibre bonding techniques. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) confirmed that the PLLA-BBG scaffolds containing ≈ 25% of BBGs (w/w) exhibited randomly interconnected porous (58 to 62% of interconnectivity and 53 to 67% of porosity) with mean pore diameters higher that 100 μm. Bioactivity and degradation studies were performed by immersing the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) and ultrapure water, respectively. The PLLA-BBG scaffolds presented a faster degradation rate with a constant release of inorganic species, which are capable to produce calcium phosphate structures at the surface of the material after 7 days of immersion in SBF (Ca/P ratio of ~ 1.7). Cellular in vitro studies with human osteosarcoma cell line (Saos-2) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) showed that PLLA-BBGs are not cytotoxic to cells, while demonstrating their capacity to promote cell adhesion and proliferation. Overall, we showed that the proposed scaffolds present a tailored kinetics on the release of inorganic species and controlled biological response under conditions that mimic the bone physiological environment. - Highlights: • We prepared borosilicate glasses and their PLLA composites in the form of fibres. • These glasses imparted bioactivity and controlled degradability to the fibres. • The prepared fibres did not elicit cytotoxicity. • hASCs attached and proliferated in the surface and inner sections of the scaffolds. • The composites present appropriate properties to be used in bone tissue engineering.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of poly lactic acid and multiwall carbon nano-tubes mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar LG, Santhosh; del A. Cardona, Rocío; Berríos-Soto, Melvin; Santiago-Avilés, Jorge J.

    2011-10-01

    The motivation for this study is to reproduce processing conditions which lead to the formation of photo or photoinduced thermal actuation, combined with inexpensive, environmentally friendly (easily degradable) materials. Commercially available polymer, poly lactic acid (PLA), was used in our studies. PLA is a well know biodegradable polymer naturally obtained from corn. PLA was received as a solid resin in pellet form and dissolved in 1:3 acetone/chloroform solutions, to achieve the proper electrospinning kinematic viscosity. Once in the liquid phase, the material was mixed with commercially available multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at varying concentrations and dispersed by severe sonication. The mixtures was electrospun at room temperature using a home built electrospinning apparatus capable of depositing randomly oriented fiber mats or oriented fibers onto different substrates, ranging from oxidized silicon wafers, alumina squares or glass microscope slides. The fibers diameters and lengths are statistically distributed following a log-normal distribution and the mean and dispersion are controlled by spinning parameters. Once the fibers were electrospun, they were compositionally, morphologically and structurally characterized by thermal and gravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA), rheology, imaging using a focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscope (IBSEM), and IR /Raman methodologies. These studies can be used to explore PLA-MWCNTs mixtures suitability in applications such as super-capacitor technology, which would enable us to pursue further research in this field, while focusing on improving the electro spinning conditions so as to be able to better anticipate fiber morphology to generate a consistent regime of fibers.

  8. Degradability Enhancement of Poly(Lactic Acid) by Stearate-Zn3Al LDH Nanolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eili, Mahboobeh; Shameli, Kamyar; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2012-01-01

    Recent environmental problems and societal concerns associated with the disposal of petroleum based plastics throughout the world have triggered renewed efforts to develop new biodegradable products compatible with our environment. This article describes the preparation, characterization and biodegradation study of poly(lactic acid)/layered double hydroxide (PLA/LDH) nanocomposites from PLA and stearate-Zn3Al LDH. A solution casting method was used to prepare PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites. The anionic clay Zn3Al LDH was firstly prepared by co-precipitation method from a nitrate salt solution at pH 7.0 and then modified by stearate anions through an ion exchange reaction. This modification increased the basal spacing of the synthetic clay from 8.83 Å to 40.10 Å. The morphology and properties of the prepared PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile tests as well as biodegradation studies. From the XRD analysis and TEM observation, the stearate-Zn3Al LDH lost its ordered stacking-structure and was greatly exfoliated in the PLA matrix. Tensile test results of PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites showed that the presence of around 1.0–3.0 wt % of the stearate-Zn3Al LDH in the PLA drastically improved its elongation at break. The biodegradation studies demonstrated a significant biodegradation rate improvement of PLA in the presence of stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanolayers. This effect can be caused by the catalytic role of the stearate groups in the biodegradation mechanism leading to much faster disintegration of nanocomposites than pure PLA. PMID:22942682

  9. Compostability assessment of nano-reinforced poly(lactic acid) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, M P; Aliaga, C; Fito, C; Hortal, M

    2016-02-01

    Nanomaterials can provide plastics with great advantages on mechanical and active properties (i.e. release and capture of specific substances). Therefore, packaging is expected to become one of the leading applications for these substances by 2020. There are some applications already in the market. Nevertheless, there is still some areas under development. A key issue to be analyzed is the end-of-life of these materials once they become waste, and specifically when nanomaterials are used in biodegradable products. The present study evaluated the disintegration, biodegradability, and ecotoxicity of poly(lactic acid) films reinforced with the three following nanomaterials: (1) montmorillonite modified with an ammonium quaternary salt, (2) calcium carbonate and (3) silicon dioxide. Results on disintegration showed that films completely disintegrated into visually indistinguishable residues after 6-7weeks of incubation in composting environment. Moreover, no differences were observed in the evolution of the bioresidue with respect to color, aspect, and odor in comparison with the control. It was also observed that nanomaterials did not significantly reduce the level of biodegradability of PLA (p>0.05). In fact, biodegradation was higher, without finding significant differences (p>0.05), in all the nano-reinforced samples with respect to PLA after 130days in composting (9.4% in PLA+Nano-SiO2; 34.0% in PLA+Clay1; 48.0% in PLA+Nano-CaCO3). Finally, no significant differences (p>0.05) in ecotoxicity in plants were observed as a result of the incorporation of nanoparticles in the PLA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of hydroxyapatite - gelatin polyLactic acid ternary nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nabipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The current study reports the production and biocompatibility evaluation of a ternary nanocomposite consisting of HA, PLA, and gelatin for biomedical application.Materials and Methods: Hydroxyapatite nanopowder (HA: Ca10(PO46(OH2 was produced by burning the bovine cortical bone within the temperature range of 350-450 oC followed by heating in an oven at 800. Synthesis of the ternary nanocomposite was carried out in two steps: synthesis of gelatin-hydroxyapatite binary nanocomposite and addition of poly lactic acid with different percentages to the resulting composition. The crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, while major elements and impurities of hydroxyapatite were identified by elemental analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Functional groups were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Morphology and size of the nanocomposites were evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM.Biocompatibility of nanocomposites was investigated by MTT assay. Results: XRD patterns verified the ideal crystal structure of the hydroxyapatite, which indicated an appropriate synthesis process and absence of disturbing phases. Results of FTIR analysis determined the polymers’ functional groups, specified formation of the polymers on the hydroxyapatite surface, and verified synthesis of nHA/PLA/Gel composite. FESEM images also indicated the homogeneous structure of the composite in the range of 50 nanometers. MTT assay results confirmed the biocompatibility of nanocomposite samples.Conclusion: This study suggested that the ternary nanocomposite of nHA/PLA/Gel can be a good candidate for biomedical application such as drug delivery systems, but for evaluation of its potential in hard tissue replacement, mechanical tests should be performed.

  11. Experimental Study of Poly-l-Lactic Acid Biodegradable Stents in Normal Canine Bile Ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kiyosei; Yoshioka, Tetsuya; Furuichi, Kinya; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Anai, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Morimoto, Kengo; Uchida, Hideo; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to clarify the advantages of biodegradable stents in terms of mucosal reaction and biodegradation after placement. We designed a biodegradable stent and assessed stent degradation and changes in the normal bile ducts of dogs. Methods: The biodegradable stent is a balloon-expandable Z stent consisting of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) with a diameter of 6 mm and a length of 15 mm. We assessed four groups of three beagle dogs each at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months of follow-up. After evaluating stent migration by radiography and stent and bile duct patency by cholangiography, the dogs were sacrificed to remove the bile duct together with the stent. The bile duct lumen was examined macroscopically and histologically, and the stent degradation was examined macroscopically and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: Bile duct obstruction was absent and none of the stents migrated. Macroscopic evaluation showed moderate endothelial proliferation in the bile ducts at the implant sites at 3 and 6 months and a slight change at 9 months. Slight mononuclear cell infiltration was histologically identified at all time points and epithelial hyperplasia that was moderate at 3 months was reduced to slight at 6 and 9 months. Stent degradation was macroscopically evident in all animals at 9 months and was proven by SEM in two dogs at 6 months and in all of them at 9 months. Conclusions: Our results suggest that PLLA bioabsorbable stents seems to be useful for implantation in the biliary system with further investigation.

  12. Wetspun poly-L-(lactic acid)-borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds for guided bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, João S.; Reis, Rui L.; Pires, Ricardo A.

    2017-01-01

    We developed a porous poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold compounded with borosilicate bioactive glasses (BBGs) endowing it with bioactive properties. Porous PLLA-BBG fibre mesh scaffolds were successfully prepared by the combination of wet spinning and fibre bonding techniques. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) confirmed that the PLLA-BBG scaffolds containing ≈ 25% of BBGs (w/w) exhibited randomly interconnected porous (58 to 62% of interconnectivity and 53 to 67% of porosity) with mean pore diameters higher that 100 μm. Bioactivity and degradation studies were performed by immersing the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) and ultrapure water, respectively. The PLLA-BBG scaffolds presented a faster degradation rate with a constant release of inorganic species, which are capable to produce calcium phosphate structures at the surface of the material after 7 days of immersion in SBF (Ca/P ratio of ~ 1.7). Cellular in vitro studies with human osteosarcoma cell line (Saos-2) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) showed that PLLA-BBGs are not cytotoxic to cells, while demonstrating their capacity to promote cell adhesion and proliferation. Overall, we showed that the proposed scaffolds present a tailored kinetics on the release of inorganic species and controlled biological response under conditions that mimic the bone physiological environment. - Highlights: • We prepared borosilicate glasses and their PLLA composites in the form of fibres. • These glasses imparted bioactivity and controlled degradability to the fibres. • The prepared fibres did not elicit cytotoxicity. • hASCs attached and proliferated in the surface and inner sections of the scaffolds. • The composites present appropriate properties to be used in bone tissue engineering.

  13. Drug Delivery and Cosmeceutical Applications of Poly- Lactic Acid Based Novel Constructs - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Federico; Mancera-Andrade, Elena Ivonne; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Keshavarz, Tajalli; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) based novel constructs have been engineered for targeted applications in various biomedical sectors of the modern world. In this context, a special focus has been given to pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. In this review, we extensively reviewed, analyzed and compiled salient information from the authentic bibliographic sources including PubMed, Scopus, Elsevier, Springer, Bentham Science and other scientific databases. A focused review question and inclusion/exclusion criterion were adopted to appraise the quality of retrieved peer-reviewed research literature. Recently, bio-based constructs are being engineered for target applications in different bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world to address the growing human health-related serious concerns. The utilization of properly designed and structured materials thus allows the creation of a well-defined environment that induces a series of directed measures, and so on. Over the last few years, PLA-based novel constructs have received exceptional attention as potential candidates for various biotechnological and biomedical applications at large and drug delivery in particular. Owing to their unique characteristics including biocompatibility, together with the adjustable thermomechanical and tunable control drug release, PLA has raised interesting applications in many sectors of the medical world. So far, many of such PLA-based bio-constructs have been exploited in drug delivery systems, cosmeceutical products, and therapeutic uses. In recent years, many new applications have been reported for PLA-based materials at the micro- and nano- level, resulting in novel requests for specific drug delivery and cosmeceutical sectors. In summary, this review summarizes recent research on different aspects of PLA and PLA-based novel constructs and their potential biomedical applications. Moreover, with the aid of nanotechnology, PLA has made a positive impact in emerging sectors such as

  14. Sandwich-Architectured Poly(lactic acid)-Graphene Composite Food Packaging Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kunli; Heising, Jenneke K; Yuan, Yang; Karahan, Huseyin E; Wei, Li; Zhai, Shengli; Koh, Jia-Xuan; Htin, Nanda M; Zhang, Feimo; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G; Dekker, Matthijs; Dehghani, Fariba; Chen, Yuan

    2016-04-20

    Biodegradable food packaging promises a more sustainable future. Among the many different biopolymers used, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) possesses the good mechanical property and cost-effectiveness necessary of a biodegradable food packaging. However, PLA food packaging suffers from poor water vapor and oxygen barrier properties compared to many petroleum-derived ones. A key challenge is, therefore, to simultaneously enhance both the water vapor and oxygen barrier properties of the PLA food packaging. To address this issue, we design a sandwich-architectured PLA-graphene composite film, which utilizes an impermeable reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the core barrier and commercial PLA films as the outer protective encapsulation. The synergy between the barrier and the protective encapsulation results in a significant 87.6% reduction in the water vapor permeability. At the same time, the oxygen permeability is reduced by two orders of magnitude when evaluated under both dry and humid conditions. The excellent barrier properties can be attributed to the compact lamellar microstructure and the hydrophobicity of the rGO core barrier. Mechanistic analysis shows that the large rGO lateral dimension and the small interlayer spacing between the rGO sheets have created an extensive and tortuous diffusion pathway, which is up to 1450-times the thickness of the rGO barrier. In addition, the sandwiched architecture has imbued the PLA-rGO composite film with good processability, which increases the manageability of the film and its competency to be tailored. Simulations using the PLA-rGO composite food packaging film for edible oil and potato chips also exhibit at least eight-fold extension in the shelf life of these oxygen and moisture sensitive food products. Overall, these qualities have demonstrated the high potential of a sandwich-architectured PLA-graphene composite film for food packaging applications.

  15. Properties of poly(lactic acid nanocomposites based on montmorillonite, sepiolite and zirconium phosphonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fukushima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA based nanocomposites based on 5 wt.% of an organically modified montmorillonite (CLO, unmodified sepiolite (SEP and organically modified zirconium phosphonate (ZrP were obtained by melt blending. Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis showed a different dispersion level depending on the type and functionalisation of nanoparticles. Differenctial scanning calorimetric (DSC analysis showed that PLA was able to crystallize on heating, and that the addition of ZrP could promote extent of PLA crystallization, whereas the presence of CLO and SEP did not significantly affect the crystallization on heating and melting behaviour of PLA matrix. Dynamic Mechanical Thermoanalysis (DMTA results showed that addition of all nanoparticles brought considerable improvements in E' of PLA, resulting in a remarkable increase of elastic properties for PLA nanocomposites. The melt viscosity and dynamic shear moduli (G',G" of PLA nanocomposites were also enhanced significantly by the presence of CLO and SEP, and attributed to the formation of a PLA/nanoparticle interconnected structure within the polymer matrix. The oxygen permeability of PLA did not significantly vary upon addition of SEP and ZrP nanoparticles. Only addition of CLO led to about 30% decrease compared to PLA permeability, due to the good clay dispersion and clay platelet-like morphology. The characteristic high transparency of PLA in the visible region was kept upon addition of the nanoparticles. Based on these achievements, a high potential of these PLA nanocomposites in sustainable packaging applications could be envisaged.

  16. Conformational Footprint in Hydrolysis-Induced Nanofibrillation and Crystallization of Poly(lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Yang, Xi; Xie, Lan; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2016-03-14

    The origin of hydrolysis-induced nanofibrillation and crystallization, at the molecular level, was revealed by mapping the conformational ordering during long-term hydrolytic degradation of initially amorphous poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a representative model for degradable aliphatic polyesters generally displaying strong interplay between crystallization and hydrolytic erosion. The conformational regularization of chain segments was essentially the main driving force for the morphological evolution of PLA during hydrolytic degradation. For hydrolysis at 37 °C, no significant structural variations were observed due to the immobilization of "frozen" PLA chains. In contrast, conformational ordering in PLA was immediately triggered during hydrolysis at 60 °C and was responsible for the transition from random coils to disordered trans and, further, to quasi-crystalline nanospheres. On the surfaces, the head-by-head absorption and joining of neighboring nanospheres led to nanofibrillar assemblies following a "gluttonous snake"-like manner. The length and density of nanofibers formed were in close relation to the hydrolytic evolution, both of which showed a direct rise in the initial 60 days and then a gradual decline. In the interior, presumably the high surface energy of the nanospheres allowed for the preferential anchoring and packing of conformationally ordered chains into lamellae. In accordance with the well-established hypothesis, the amorphous regions were attacked prior to the erosion of crystalline entities, causing a rapid increase of crystallinity during the initial 30 days, followed by a gradual fall until 90 days. In addition to adequate illustration of hydrolysis-induced variations of crystallinity, our proposed model elucidates the formation of spherulitic nuclei featuring an extremely wide distribution of diameters ranging from several nanometers to over 5 μm, as well as the inferior resistance to hydrolysis observed for the primary nuclei. Our work

  17. Poly(lactic acid)/TiO2 nanocomposites as alternative biocidal and antifungal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Carmen; Ochoa, Almudena; Ulloa, Maria Teresa; Alvarez, Eduardo; Canales, Daniel; Zapata, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) ~ 10-nm nanoparticles were produced by the melting process and their main properties were evaluated. The nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the matrix with a low degree of agglomeration, as seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO 2 was added, showing that the nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents this trend was confirmed by optical images. The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA at 5 wt.% of nanoparticles. Despite these improvements, PLA/TiO 2 nanocomposites showed lower shear viscosity than neat PLA, possibly reflecting degradation of the polymer due to the particles. Regarding biocidal properties, after 2 h of contact the PLA/TiO 2 composites with 8 wt.% TiO 2 showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of ~ 82% under no UVA irradiation compared to pure PLA. This biocidal characteristic can be increased under UVA irradiation, with nanocomposites containing 8 wt.% TiO 2 killing 94% of the bacteria. The PLA/TiO 2 nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against Aspergillus fumigatus under the UVA irradiation. - Highlights: • PLA composites with titanium oxide (10 nm) were produced by the melting process. • The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO 2 was added. • The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA. • The PLA/TiO 2 composites showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of 94%. • The PLA/TiO 2 nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against fungi

  18. Adhesion dynamics of porcine esophageal fibroblasts on extracellular matrix protein-functionalized poly(lactic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ning; Gong Yingxue; Chan, Vincent; Liao Kin; Chian, Kerm Sin

    2008-01-01

    Effective attachment of esophageal cells on biomaterials is one important requirement in designing engineered esophagus substitute for esophageal cancer treatment. In this study, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was subjected to surface modification by coupling extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on its surface to promote cell adhesion. Two typical ECM proteins, collagen type I (COL) and fibronectin (FN), were immobilized on the PLA surface with the aid of glutaraldehyde as a cross linker between aminolyzed PLA and ECM proteins. By using confocal reflectance interference contrast microscopy (C-RICM) integrating with phase contrast microscopy, the long-term adhesion dynamics of porcine esophageal fibroblasts (PEFs) on four types of surfaces (unmodified PLA, PLA-COOH, PLA-COL and PLA-FN) was investigated during 24 h of culture. It is demonstrated by C-RICM results that PEFs form strong adhesion contact on all four types of surfaces at different stages of cell seeding. Among the four surfaces, PEFs on the PLA-FN surface reach the maximum adhesion energy (9.5 x 10 -7 J m -2 ) in the shortest time (20 min) during the initial stage of cell seeding. After adhesion energy reaches the maximum value, PEFs maintain their highly deformed geometries till they reached a steady state after 20 h of culture. F-actin immunostaining results show that the evolvement of spatial organization of F-actin is tightly correlated with the formation of adhesion contact and cell spreading. Furthermore, the cell attachment ratio of PEFs on PLA in 2 h is only 26% compared with 88% on PLA-FN, 73% on PLA-COL and 36% on PLA-COOH. All the results demonstrate the effect of surface functionalization on the biophysical responses of PEFs in cell adhesion. Fibronectin-immobilized PLA demonstrates promising potential for application as an engineered esophagus substitute

  19. The characterization of mechanical and surface properties of poly (glycerol-sebacate-lactic acid) during degradation in phosphate buffered saline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zhijie [Center for biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: zhijiesun2005@yahoo.com.cn; Wu Lan; Lu Xili; Meng Zhaoxu; Zheng Yufeng [Center for biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Dong Deli [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Bio-pharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2008-11-15

    The present study synthesized a poly (glycerol-sebacate-lactic acid) (PGSL) with 1:1:0.5 mole ratio of glycerol, sebacate and lactic acid and investigated the degradation characteristics of the polymer in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 deg. C in vitro by means of mass loss tests, geometry, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements, tensile analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The maintained geometry, linear mass loss, and minor crack formation on the surface during degradation characterized both the bulk degradation and surface erosion of the polymer. By day 30 of degradation, the mass lost reached 16%. The elastic modulus, tensile strength and elongation at breakage of PGSL were correlative to the period of degradation.

  20. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  1. Safety and complications of absorbable threads made of poly-L-lactic acid and poly lactide/glycolide: Experience with 148 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigul Guduk, Sukran; Karaca, Nezih

    2018-04-01

    Thread lifting is a minimally invasive procedure for lifting and repositioning tissues. Few articles with absorbable sutures exist in the literature. Furthermore there is no study focusing on complications of absorbable sutures. To describe complications of thread lifting using a totally absorbable suture composed of poly-L-lactic acid affixed with poly lactide/glycolide cones. Data regarding complications were analyzed retrospectively for 148 patients underwent thread lifting between June 2014 and February 2017. A total of 321 pairs of sutures used in the 148 patients studied. Overall 40 (27%) patients had complications regarded as minimal or moderate without permanent sequela. The most common complication was skin dimpling and irregularity (n = 17, 11.4%) followed by ecchymosis (n = 12, 8.1%), suture extrusion (n = 4, 2.7%), and pain (n = 4, 2.7%) Except one patient, dimpling, and irregularity resolved in all patients after 3-7 days spontaneously. Suture migration was observed in 2 (1.35%) patients. Hematoma and infection were seen in 2 patients one for each. The procedure using sutures made of absorbable poly-L-lactic acid and poly lactide/glycolide is a relatively safe procedure without major complications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Selective Depolymerization and Effects of Homolysis of Poly(L-lactic acid) in a Blend with Polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, H.; Tsukegi, T.; Shirai, Y.; Arazoe, Y.; Yan, W.; Shirai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Blends of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and polypropylene (PP), which are candidates for the practical use of PLLA, were investigated for selective degradation of PLLA, resulting in quantitative conversion of PLLA components into cyclic monomers, lactide, using magnesium oxide (Mg O) as a depolymerization catalyst. Obviously, the catalyst Mg O selectively accelerated only the PLLA depolymerization in the blends, dominantly generating L,L-lactide as a volatile product and separating the PP component. Expected effects of homolysis in the blend system were also determined as slight changes in activation energy of degradation for both the components and through the suppression of degradation by an antioxidant.

  3. Preparation and Drug-Release Kinetics of Porous Poly(L-lactic acid)/Rifampicin Blend Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Sasaki; Hiroaki Matsuura; Kazuki Tanaka

    2014-01-01

    Porous polymer spheres are promising materials as carriers for controlled drug release. As a new drug-carrier material, blend particles composed of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and rifampicin were developed using the freeze-drying technique. The blend particles exhibit high porosity with a specific surface area of 10–40 m2 g−1. Both the size and porosity of the particles depend on the concentration of the original solution and on the method of freezing. With respect to the latter, we used the d...

  4. Hybrid poly(lactic acid)/nanocellulose/nanoclay composites with synergistically enhanced barrier properties and improved thermomechanical resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifol Guzman, Jon; Plackett, David; Sillard, Cecile

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)‐based hybrid nanocomposites (PLA, nanoclay and nanocellulose) were prepared by reinforcing neat PLA with commercially available nanoclay (Cloisite C30B) and nanocellulose, in the form of either partially acetylated cellulose nanofibres (CNFs) or nanocrystalline cellulose......) through a reduction of up to 90% in OTR and a further reduction in the water vapour transmission rate of up to 76%. In addition, the nanocomposite films showed improved thermomechanical resistance and improved crystallisation kinetics while maintaining high film transparency. This makes the hybrid PLA...

  5. Miscibility and in vitro osteocompatibility of biodegradable blends of poly[(ethyl alanato) (p-phenyl phenoxy) phosphazene] and poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng; Nair, Lakshmi S; Nukavarapu, Syam P; Kumbar, Sangamesh G; Jiang, Tao; Krogman, Nicholas R; Singh, Anurima; Allcock, Harry R; Laurencin, Cato T

    2008-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated the ability of ethyl glycinato substituted polyphosphazenes to neutralize the acidic degradation products and control the degradation rate of poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) by blending. In this study, blends of high strength poly[(50% ethyl alanato) (50% p-phenyl phenoxy) phosphazene] (PNEA(50)PhPh(50)) and 85:15 PLAGA were prepared using a mutual solvent approach. Three different solvents, methylene chloride (MC), chloroform (CF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were studied to investigate solvent effects on blend miscibility. Three different blends were then fabricated at various weight ratios namely 25:75 (BLEND25), 50:50 (BLEND50), and 75:25 (BLEND75) using THF as the mutual solvent. The miscibility of the blends was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Among these, BLEND25 was miscible while BLEND50 and BLEND75 were partially miscible. Furthermore, BLEND25 formed apatite layers on its surface as evidenced in a biomimetic study performed. These novel blends showed cell adhesion and proliferation comparable to PLAGA. However, the PNEA(50)PhPh(50) component in the blends was able to increase the phenotypic expression and mineralized matrix synthesis of the primary rat osteoblasts (PRO) in vitro. Blends of high strength PNEA(50)PhPh(50) and 85:15 PLAGA are promising biomaterials for a variety of musculoskeletal applications.

  6. Cytotoxicity detection of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid/tricalcium phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng SUN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To detecte the cytotoxicity of the PLGA/TCP(poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid/Tricalcium phosphate composite that based on the precedent experiments conducted in Tsinghua University.Methods Compared with the PLGA scaffold material,observated the surface and interior structure of the PLGA/TCP scaffold material by SEM(scanning electron microscope,the surface and interior of PLGA/TCP scaffold material appeared to be homogeneous porous under SEM,with fairly even porosity distribution.The pore diameter was approximately 400μm.The interpenetrative micro-pores were scattered over bigger pores’ periphery with approximately circular contour and 3~5 μm in diameter.These pores were interpenetrative,the average factor of porosity was 89.6%.And which selected rat L929 cell strain,and detected the cytotoxicity of the PLGA/TCP composite in vitro by MTT method.Results The surface and interior of PLGA/TCP scaffold material appeared to be homogeneous porous under SEM,with fairly even porosity distribution.The pore diameter was approximately 400μm.The interpenetrative micro-pores were scattered over bigger pores’ periphery with approximately circular contour and 3~5 μm in diameter.These pores were interpenetrative,the average factor of porosity was 89.6%.On rat L929 cell strain,used MTT Method to detect the cytotoxicity of the composite PLGA/ TCP in vitro,the result showed that the cytotoxicity of the PLGA/TCP composite was level I,according to the criterion,it can be considered as non cytotoxic.Conclusion This research has proved that the PLGA/TCP compound scaffold material has a more homogeneous structure,with the vesicular interior and the structure of PLGA/TCP composite is similar to natural bone trabecula,PLGA/TCP is non cytotoxicity,which satisfy the basic requirement of biological material application and provides a good experimental foundation for repairing autologous bone defect in the near future.

  7. Metabolic fate of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based curcumin nanoparticles following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigae, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Taiki; Inoue, Nao; Kimura, Fumiko; Ikeda, Ikuo; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR), the main polyphenol in turmeric, is poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolized following oral administration, which severely curtails its bioavailability. Poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based CUR nanoparticles (CUR-NP) have recently been suggested to improve CUR bioavailability, but this has not been fully verified. Specifically, no data are available about curcumin glucuronide (CURG), the major metabolite of CUR found in the plasma following oral administration of CUR-NP. Herein, we investigated the absorption and metabolism of CUR-NP and evaluated whether CUR-NP improves CUR bioavailability. Following oral administration of CUR-NP in rats, we analyzed the plasma and organ distribution of CUR and its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To elucidate the mechanism of increased intestinal absorption of CUR-NP, we prepared mixed micelles comprised of phosphatidylcholine and bile salts and examined the micellar solubility of CUR-NP. Additionally, we investigated the cellular incorporation of the resultant micelles into differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal cells. Following in vivo administration of CUR-NP, CUR was effectively absorbed and present mainly as CURG in the plasma which contained significant amounts of the metabolite compared with other organs. Thus, CUR-NP increased intestinal absorption of CUR rather than decreasing metabolic degradation and conversion to other metabolites. In vitro, CUR encapsulated in CUR-NP was solubilized in mixed micelles; however, whether the micelles contained CUR or CUR-NP had little influence on cellular uptake efficiency. Therefore, we suggest that the high solubilization capacity of CUR-NP in mixed micelles, rather than cellular uptake efficiency, explains the high intestinal absorption of CUR-NP in vivo. These findings provide a better understanding of the bioavailability of CUR and CUR-NP following oral administration. To improve the bioavailability of CUR, future

  8. Metabolic fate of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid-based curcumin nanoparticles following oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harigae T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Harigae,1 Kiyotaka Nakagawa,1 Taiki Miyazawa,2 Nao Inoue,3 Fumiko Kimura,1 Ikuo Ikeda,3 Teruo Miyazawa4,5 1Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan; 2Vascular Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Laboratory of Food and Biomolecular Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, 4Food and Biotechnology Innovation Project, New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, 5Food and Health Science Research Unit, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Purpose: Curcumin (CUR, the main polyphenol in turmeric, is poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolized following oral administration, which severely curtails its bioavailability. Poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid-based CUR nanoparticles (CUR-NP have recently been suggested to improve CUR bioavailability, but this has not been fully verified. Specifically, no data are available about curcumin glucuronide (CURG, the major metabolite of CUR found in the plasma following oral administration of CUR-NP. Herein, we investigated the absorption and metabolism of CUR-NP and evaluated whether CUR-NP improves CUR bioavailability.Methods: Following oral administration of CUR-NP in rats, we analyzed the plasma and organ distribution of CUR and its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To elucidate the mechanism of increased intestinal absorption of CUR-NP, we prepared mixed micelles comprised of phosphatidylcholine and bile salts and examined the micellar solubility of CUR-NP. Additionally, we investigated the cellular incorporation of the resultant micelles into differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal cells.Results: Following in vivo administration of CUR-NP, CUR was effectively absorbed and present mainly as CURG in the plasma which contained significant amounts of the metabolite compared with

  9. Degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanocomposite in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liuyun, Jiang; Chengdong, Xiong; Lixin, Jiang; Lijuan, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this manuscript, we initiated a systematic study to investigate the effect of HA on thermal properties, inner structure, reduction of mechanical strength, surface morphology and the surface deposit of n-HA/PLGA composite with respect to the soaking time. The results showed that n-HA played an important role in improving the degradation behavior of n-HA/PLGA composite, which can accelerate the degradation of n-HA/PLGA composite and endow it with bioactivity, after n-HA was detached from PLGA during the degradation, so that n-HA/PLGA composite may have a more promising prospect of the clinical application than pure PLGA as bone fracture internal fixation materials, and the results would be of reference significance to predict the in vivo degradation and biological properties. - Highlights: • Effect of n-HA on degradation behavior of n-HA/PLGA composite was investigated. • Degradation behaviors of n-HA/PLGA and PLGA were carried out in SBF for 6 months. • Viscosity, thermal properties, inner structure and bending strength were tested. • n-HA can accelerate the degradation and endows it with bioactivity. - Abstract: To investigate the effect of hydroxyapatite(HA) on the degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (HA/PLGA) nanocomposite, the degradation experiment of n-HA/PLGA composite and pure PLGA were carried out by soaking in simulated body fluid(SBF) at 37 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 6 months. The change of intrinsic viscosity, thermal properties, inner structure, bending strength reduction, surface morphology and the surface deposit of n-HA/PLGA composite and pure PLGA with respect to the soaking time were investigated by means of UbbeloHde Viscometer, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope(SEM), electromechanical universal tester, a conventional camera and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that n-HA played an important role in improving the degradation behavior of n

  10. In vitro evaluation of chitosan/poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) sintered microsphere scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Laurencin, Cato T

    2006-10-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) scaffold is one of the major components in many tissue engineering approaches. We developed novel 3-D chitosan/poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) composite porous scaffolds by sintering together composite chitosan/PLAGA microspheres for bone tissue engineering applications. Pore sizes, pore volume, and mechanical properties of the scaffolds can be manipulated by controlling fabrication parameters, including sintering temperature and sintering time. The sintered microsphere scaffolds had a total pore volume between 28% and 37% with median pore size in the range 170-200microm. The compressive modulus and compressive strength of the scaffolds are in the range of trabecular bone making them suitable as scaffolds for load-bearing bone tissue engineering. In addition, MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells proliferated well on the composite scaffolds as compared to PLAGA scaffolds. It was also shown that the presence of chitosan on microsphere surfaces increased the alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells cultured on the composite scaffolds and up-regulated gene expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein.

  11. Antioxidant activity and controlled drug delivery potential of tragacanth gum-cl- poly (lactic acid-co-itaconic acid) hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Sood, Swadeep; Agarwal, Shilpi; Saini, Adesh K; Pathania, Deepak

    2018-02-01

    Tragacanth gum-cl-poly (lactic acid-co-itaconic acid) (TG-cl-p(LA-co-IA)) hydrogel is synthesized through graft copolymerization reaction using microwave assisted technique. The synthesized hydrogel was characterised using various analytical and characterization techniques such as FTIR, FESEM, XRD, TGA, TEM and SEM. It was observed that, the maximum percentage swelling (P s ) of the hydrogel was 311.61% after 6h at room temperature and 298.06% after 3h at 60°C and TG-cl-p(LA-co-IA) exhibited highest Amoxicillin loading (73%) in double distilled waterafter 24h. From the controlled release studies, it was evident that maximum drug release of about 96% took place at pH 2.2=after 6h. The synthesized hydrogel also showed mild antioxidant properties and 43.85% of free radical scavenging was occurred at a concentration of 640μg/mL and hence it can be effectively used to reduce the oxidative stresses. In addition to this, the antibacterial studies also showed that it is more effective against S. aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of poly-L-lactic acid and polyglycolic acid resorbable stents for repair of tracheomalacia in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalwa, S S; Hartig, G K; Warner, T; Connor, N P; Thielman, M J

    2001-11-01

    Poly-L-lactic acid and polyglycolic acid (PLPG) resorbable stents may offer a potential solution to the problem of tracheomalacia. Advantages of this material include its strength, its versatile shaping characteristics, and its resorbability, which would preclude surgical removal and allow for airway growth. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the usefulness of PLPG stents for temporary external airway stenting of tracheomalacia in a porcine model. A severe tracheomalacia was created in 6 pigs by submucosal resection of segments of tracheal cartilage from 6 consecutive rings. The PLPG stent was then shaped to recreate the tracheal contour and sutured to the underlying airway. Endoscopic photodocumentation during spontaneous ventilation was obtained before and after reconstruction. After creation of the malacic tracheal segment, all animals developed stridor, retractions, and cyanosis during spontaneous ventilation. After repair, all animals were extubated without complication. All animals survived the follow-up period of 9 to 12 weeks without evidence of respiratory distress and with rapid weight gain. Repeat bronchoscopy showed no evidence of airway collapse during spontaneous ventilation. Tracheal measurements revealed growth of the stented segment with a mild narrowing within the repaired region. Histologic examination showed preservation of respiratory epithelium. These preliminary findings suggest that PLPG stents may serve a useful role in the surgical management of tracheomalacia.

  13. Delivery of vanillin by poly(lactic-acid) nanoparticles: Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara, E-mail: rubianamainardes@hotmail.com

    2016-05-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing vanillin were prepared using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and were characterized and assessed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Solid state and thermal properties were assessed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, while in vitro drug release profile was also evaluated. Results showed PLA nanoparticles having a characteristic amorphous structure, sizes in the range of 240 nm with high homogeneity in size distribution, zeta potential of − 22 mV and vanillin encapsulation efficiency of 41%. In vitro release study showed a slow and sustained release of vanillin governed by diffusion. Nanoparticles were stable over a period of three months. Antioxidant ability of the vanillin-loaded PLA nanoparticles in scavenging the radical 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was inferior to free vanillin and due to its prolonged release showed a profile that was both time and concentration dependent, while free vanillin showed concentration-dependent activity. The study concluded that PLA nanoparticles are potential carriers for vanillin delivery. - Highlights: • Vanillin was nanoencapsulated in poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. • Mean particle size was 240 nm and vanillin encapsulation efficiency was 41%. • A prolonged and biphasic vanillin release occurred with 20% released after 120 h. • Vanillin nanoparticles exhibited time/concentration dependent antioxidant activity.

  14. Long-acting poly(DL:lactic acid-castor oil) 3:7-bupivacaine formulation: effect of hydrophobic additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolsky-Papkov, Marina; Golovanevski, Ludmila; Domb, Abraham J; Weiniger, Carolyn F

    2011-12-01

    To reduce formulation viscosity of bupivacaine/poly(DL lactic acid co castor oil) 3:7 without increasing bupivacaine release rates. Poly(DL lactic acid) 3:7 was synthesized and bupivacaine formulation prepared by mixing with additives ricinoleic acid or castor oil. In vitro release measurements identified optimum formulation. Anesthetized ICR mice were injected around left sciatic nerve using nerve stimulator with 0.1 mL of formulation. Animals received 10% bupivacaine-polymer formulation with 10% castor oil (p(DLLA:CO)3:7-10% bupi-10% CO) or 15% bupivacaine-polymer with 10% castor oil (p(DLLA:CO)3:7-15% bupi-10% CO). Sensory and motor block were measured. Viscosity of 10% and 15% bupivacaine-p(DLLA:CO)3:7 formulations was reduced using hydrophobic additives; however, castor oil reduced bupivacaine release rates and eliminated burst effect. Less than 10% of the incorporated bupivacaine was released during 6 h, and less than 25% released in 24 h in vitro. In vivo formulation injection resulted in a 24 h motor block and a sensory block lasting at least 72 h. Incorporation of hydrophobic low-viscosity additive reduced viscosity in addition to burst release effects. Bupivacaine-polymer formulation with castor oil additive demonstrated prolonged sensory analgesia in vivo, with reduced duration of motor block.

  15. Delivery of vanillin by poly(lactic-acid) nanoparticles: Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing vanillin were prepared using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and were characterized and assessed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Solid state and thermal properties were assessed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, while in vitro drug release profile was also evaluated. Results showed PLA nanoparticles having a characteristic amorphous structure, sizes in the range of 240 nm with high homogeneity in size distribution, zeta potential of − 22 mV and vanillin encapsulation efficiency of 41%. In vitro release study showed a slow and sustained release of vanillin governed by diffusion. Nanoparticles were stable over a period of three months. Antioxidant ability of the vanillin-loaded PLA nanoparticles in scavenging the radical 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was inferior to free vanillin and due to its prolonged release showed a profile that was both time and concentration dependent, while free vanillin showed concentration-dependent activity. The study concluded that PLA nanoparticles are potential carriers for vanillin delivery. - Highlights: • Vanillin was nanoencapsulated in poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. • Mean particle size was 240 nm and vanillin encapsulation efficiency was 41%. • A prolonged and biphasic vanillin release occurred with 20% released after 120 h. • Vanillin nanoparticles exhibited time/concentration dependent antioxidant activity.

  16. Thermo-mechanical properties of poly ε-caprolactone/poly L-lactic acid blends: addition of nalidixic acid and polyethylene glycol additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P; Albadarin, Ahmad B; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H; Mangwandi, Chirangano; Walker, G M

    2015-05-01

    The search for ideal biomaterials is still on-going for tissue regeneration. In this study, blends of poly ε-caprolactone (PCL) with poly l-lactic acid (PLLA), nalidixic acid (NA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were prepared. Mechanical and thermal properties of the blends were investigated by tensile and flexural analysis, DSC, TGA, WXRD, MFI, BET, SEM and hot stage optical microscopy. Results showed that the loading of PLLA caused a significant decrease in tensile strength and almost total eradication of the elongation at break of PCL matrix, especially after PEG and NA addition. Increased stiffness was also noted with additional NA, PEG and PLLA, resulting in an increase in the flexural modulus of the blends. Isothermal degradation indicated that bulk PCL, PLLA and the blends were thermally stable at 200°C for the duration of 2h making extrusion of the blends at this temperature viable. Morphological study showed that increasing the PLLA content and addition of the very low viscosity PEG and powder NA decreased the Melt Flow Indexer and increased the viscosity. At the higher temperature, the PLLA begins to soften and eventually melts allowing for increased flow and, coupling this with, the natural increase in MFI caused by temperature is enhanced further. The PEG and NA addition increased dramatically the pore volume which is important for cell growth and flow transport of nutrients and metabolic waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Unusual large-pitch banding in poly(L-lactic acid): Effects of composition and geometry confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Eamor M.; Lugito, Graecia; Hsieh, Ya-Ting; Nurkhamidah, Siti

    2014-01-01

    Lamellar patterns and orientations in blends of two crystalline polymers: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and low-molecular-weight poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) were investigated using polarizing light optical microscopy (POM), and atomic and scanning electron microscopy (AFM, SEM). Specific etching off of PEO was used to reveal the complex earlier-grown PLLA lamellae patterns with various PEO content in blends. Banding of extremely long pitch (50 μm) in crystallized PLLA spherulites was induced by two kinetic factors: geometry confinement by top cover and introduction of diluent such as PEO. The mechanisms and correlation among the lamellar assembly, ring bands, and cracks are exemplified. Lamellar patterns and ring-band types in blends were found to vary with respect to not only blend compositions, but also confinement of top-cover

  18. Effects of time of heatsetting on the tensile properties of ingeo (tm) poly (lactic acid) (PLA) fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idumah, C.I. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Nwachukwu, A.N. [Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science, University of Manchester, M13 9P (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Poly (lactic acid) is biodegradable and environmentally benign aliphatic polyester produced from the fermentation of naturally occurring and renewable resources like corn, sugar and vegetables and subsequently converted to a textile fiber through melt spinning and spun bonding. A study of the effect of time of heatsetting on tensile properties of knitted Ingeo (tm) Poly (lactic acid) fabric was investigated and reported in this paper. PLA samples were subjected to increasing heatsetting times of 15s, 30s, 40s, 60s, 90s and 240s at 1300 C using the Werner Mathis Infra red heatsetting equipment. Tensile properties were evaluated using the KES-FB (KAWABATA) fabric evaluation system. The tensile properties determined in weft and warp directions included fabric extension [%], linearity of load extension [-], tensile energy [WT] g.cm/cm2 and tensile resilience [%]. Results revealed the optimum time of heatsetting PLA yarns to attain dimensional stability was within the time range of 30-45s at heatsetting temperature of 130 0C.

  19. Preparation of Cotton-Wool-Like Poly(lactic acid-Based Composites Consisting of Core-Shell-Type Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous works, we reported the fabrication of cotton-wool-like composites consisting of siloxane-doped vaterite and poly(l-lactic acid (SiVPCs. Various irregularly shaped bone voids can be filled with the composite, which effectively supplies calcium and silicate ions, enhancing the bone formation by stimulating the cells. The composites, however, were brittle and showed an initial burst release of ions. In the present work, to improve the mechanical flexibility and ion release, the composite fiber was coated with a soft, thin layer consisting of poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. A coaxial electrospinning technique was used to prepare a cotton-wool-like material comprising “core-shell”-type fibers with a diameter of ~12 µm. The fibers, which consisted of SiVPC coated with a ~2-µm-thick PLGA layer, were mechanically flexible; even under a uniaxial compressive load of 1.5 kPa, the cotton-wool-like material did not exhibit fracture of the fibers and, after removing the load, showed a ~60% recovery. In Tris buffer solution, the initial burst release of calcium and silicate ions from the “core-shell”-type fibers was effectively controlled, and the ions were slowly released after one day. Thus, the mechanical flexibility and ion-release behavior of the composites were drastically improved by the thin PLGA coating.

  20. Formulation and characterization of poly(propylacrylic acid)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) blend microparticles for pH-dependent membrane disruption and cytosolic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Lawrence P; Lewis, Jamal S; Evans, Brian C; Duvall, Craig L; Keselowsky, Benjamin G

    2018-04-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is widely used as a vehicle for delivery of pharmaceutically relevant payloads. PLGA is readily fabricated as a nano- or microparticle (MP) matrix to load both hydrophobic and hydrophilic small molecular drugs as well as biomacromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins. However, targeting such payloads to the cell cytosol is often limited by MP entrapment and degradation within acidic endolysosomes. Poly(propylacrylic acid) (PPAA) is a polyelectrolyte polymer with the membrane disruptive capability triggered at low pH. PPAA has been previously formulated in various carrier configurations to enable cytosolic payload delivery, but requires sophisticated carrier design. Taking advantage of PPAA functionality, we have incorporated PPAA into PLGA MPs as a simple polymer mixture to enhance cytosolic delivery of PLGA-encapsulated payloads. Rhodamine loaded PLGA and PPAA/PLGA blend MPs were prepared by a modified nanoprecipitation method. Incorporation of PPAA into PLGA MPs had little to no effect on the size, shape, or loading efficiency, and evidenced no toxicity in Chinese hamster ovary epithelial cells. Notably, incorporation of PPAA into PLGA MPs enabled pH-dependent membrane disruption in a hemolysis assay, and a three-fold increased endosomal escape and cytosolic delivery in dendritic cells after 2 h of MP uptake. These results demonstrate that a simple PLGA/PPAA polymer blend is readily fabricated into composite MPs, enabling cytosolic delivery of an encapsulated payload. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1022-1033, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Biologically Safe Poly(l-lactic acid) Blends with Tunable Degradation Rate: Microstructure, Degradation Mechanism, and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hideko T; Tanishima, Daisuke; Ogawa, Ryohei

    2017-04-10

    Although poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) is reputed to be biodegradable in the human body, its hydrophobic nature lets it persist for ca. 5.5 years. This study demonstrates that biologically safe lactide copolymers, poly(aspartic acid-co-l-lactide) (PAL) and poly(malic acid-co-l-lactide) (PML), dispersed in the PLLA function as detonators (triggers) for its hydrolytic degradation under physiological conditions. The copolymers significantly enhance hydrolysis, and consequently, the degradation rate of PLLA becomes easily tunable by controlling the amounts of PAL and PML. The present study elucidates the effects of uniaxial drawing on the structural development, mechanical properties, and hydrolytic degradation under physiological conditions of PLLA blend films. At initial degradation stages, the mass loss was not affected by uniaxial drawing; however, at late degradation stages, less developed crystals as well as amorphous chains were degradable at low draw ratio (DR), whereas not only highly developed crystals but also the oriented amorphous chains became insensitive to hydrolysis at high DR. Our work provides important molecular level results that demonstrate that biodegradable materials can have superb mechanical properties and also disappear in a required time under physiological conditions.

  2. Development of Poly Lactic/Glycolic Acid (PLGA Microspheres for Controlled Release of Rho-Associated Kinase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Koda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of poly lactic/glycolic acid (PLGA as a drug delivery carrier of Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor for the treatment of corneal endothelial disease. Method. ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 and PLGA were dissolved in water with or without gelatin (W1, and a double emulsion [(W1/O/W2] was formed with dichloromethane (O and polyvinyl alcohol (W2. Drug release curve was obtained by evaluating the released Y-27632 by using high performance liquid chromatography. PLGA was injected into the anterior chamber or subconjunctiva in rabbit eyes, and ocular complication was evaluated by slitlamp microscope and histological analysis. Results. Y-27632 incorporated PLGA microspheres with different molecular weights, and different composition ratios of lactic acid and glycolic acid were fabricated. A high molecular weight and low content of glycolic acid produced a slower and longer release. The Y-27632 released from PLGA microspheres significantly promoted the cell proliferation of cultured corneal endothelial cells. The injection of PLGA did not induce any evident eye complication. Conclusions. ROCK inhibitor-incorporated PLGA microspheres were fabricated, and the microspheres achieved the sustained release of ROCK inhibitor over 7–10 days in vitro. Our data should encourage researchers to use PLGA microspheres for treating corneal endothelial diseases.

  3. Functionalization of chitosan/poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) sintered microsphere scaffolds via surface heparinization for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Khan, Yusuf; Nair, Lakshmi S; Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Laurencin, Cato T

    2010-06-01

    Scaffolds exhibiting biological recognition and specificity play an important role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The bioactivity of scaffolds in turn influences, directs, or manipulates cellular responses. In this study, chitosan/poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (chitosan/PLAGA) sintered microsphere scaffolds were functionalized via heparin immobilization. Heparin was successfully immobilized on chitosan/PLAGA scaffolds with controllable loading efficiency. Mechanical testing showed that heparinization of chitosan/PLAGA scaffolds did not significantly alter the mechanical properties and porous structures. In addition, the heparinized chitosan/PLAGA scaffolds possessed a compressive modulus of 403.98 +/- 19.53 MPa and a compressive strength of 9.83 +/- 0.94 MPa, which are in the range of human trabecular bone. Furthermore, the heparinized chitosan/PLAGA scaffolds had an interconnected porous structure with a total pore volume of 30.93 +/- 0.90% and a median pore size of 172.33 +/- 5.89 mum. The effect of immobilized heparin on osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cell growth was investigated. MC3T3-E1 cells proliferated three dimensionally throughout the porous structure of the scaffolds. Heparinized chitosan/PLAGA scaffolds with low heparin loading (1.7 microg/scaffold) were shown to be capable of stimulating MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation by MTS assay and cell differentiation as evidenced by elevated osteocalcin expression when compared with nonheparinized chitosan/PLAGA scaffold and chitosan/PLAGA scaffold with high heparin loading (14.1 microg/scaffold). This study demonstrated the potential of functionalizing chitosan/PLAGA scaffolds via heparinization with improved cell functions for bone tissue engineering applications.

  4. The PM2.5 capture of poly (lactic acid)/nano MOFs eletrospinning membrane with hydrophilic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yating; Dai, Xiu; Li, Xu; Wang, Xinlong

    2018-03-01

    In this article, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) material is introduced in the poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by electrospinning to fabricate the nanocomposite membrane. The acrylic acid (AA) is grafted onto the membrane under UV light. The prepared membrane is studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), contact angle test and tensile strength test. The SEM image and XRD indicate that nano MOFs particles adhere to the membrane. Contact angle test shows that grafting AA on the composite fiber membrane improves its hydrophilicity effectively. TG analyses show that the particulate matter (PM) capture capacity of PLA membrane with 2 wt% ZIF-8 content is 22%, which rises to 37% after grafting.

  5. Biodegradable and thermosensitive monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) hydrogel as a barrier for prevention of post-operative abdominal adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shao Zhi; Li, Zhi; Fan, Jun Ming; Meng, Xiao Hang; Shi, Kun; Qu, Ying; Yang, Ling Lin; Wu, Jing Bo; Fan, Juan; Luot, Feng; Qian, Zhi Yong

    2014-03-01

    Post-operative peritoneal adhesions are serious consequences of abdominal or pelvic surgery and cause severe bowel obstruction, chronic pelvic pain and infertility. In this study, a novel nano-hydrogel system based on a monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (MPEG-PLA) di-block copolymer was studied for its ability to prevent abdominal adhesion in rats. The MPEG-PLA hydrogel at a concentration of 40% (w/v) was injected and was able to adhere to defect sites at body temperature. The ability of the hydrogel to inhibit adhesion of post-operative tissues was evaluated by utilizing a rat model of abdominal sidewall-cecum abrasion. It was possible to heal wounded tissue through regeneration of neo-peritoneal tissues ten days after surgery. Our data showed that this hydrogel system is equally as effective as current commercialized anti-adhesive products.

  6. Composite poly-L-lactic acid/poly-(α,β)-DL-aspartic acid/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds for dermal tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds for skin tissue regeneration is an ever expounding area of research, as the products that meet the necessary requirements are far and elite. The nanofibrous poly-L-lactic acid/poly-(α,β)-DL-aspartic acid/Collagen (PLLA/PAA/Col I and III) scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized by SEM, contact angle and FTIR analysis for skin tissue regeneration. The cell-scaffold interactions were analyzed by cell proliferation and their morphology observed in SEM. The results showed that the cell proliferation was significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) in PLLA/PAA/Col I and III scaffolds compared to PLLA and PLLA/PAA nanofibrous scaffolds. The abundance and accessibility of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) may prove to be novel cell therapeutics for dermal tissue regeneration. The differentiation of ADSCs was confirmed using collagen expression and their morphology by CMFDA dye extrusion technique. The current study focuses on the application of PLLA/PAA/Col I and III nanofibrous scaffolds for skin tissue engineering and their potential use as substrate for the culture and differentiation of ADSCs. The objective for inclusion of a novel cell binding moiety like PAA was to replace damaged extracellular matrix and to guide new cells directly into the wound bed with enhanced proliferation and overall organization. This combinatorial epitome of PLLA/PAA/Col I and III nanofibrous scaffold with stem cell therapy to induce the necessary paracrine signalling effect would favour faster regeneration of the damaged skin tissues. - Highlights: ► Differentiation of adipose derived stem cells in the presence of bFGF for wound healing ► Introduction of PAA as ECM mimetic cell binding moiety ► Combination of PLLA/PAA/Col I and III nanofibers and stem cell therapy for skin regeneration.

  7. Composite poly-L-lactic acid/poly-({alpha},{beta})-DL-aspartic acid/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds for dermal tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy, E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.sg [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Sundarrajan, Subramanian [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Mukherjee, Shayanti [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Sridhar, Radhakrishnan [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram, E-mail: seeram@nus.edu.sg [Healthcare and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore)

    2012-08-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds for skin tissue regeneration is an ever expounding area of research, as the products that meet the necessary requirements are far and elite. The nanofibrous poly-L-lactic acid/poly-({alpha},{beta})-DL-aspartic acid/Collagen (PLLA/PAA/Col I and III) scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized by SEM, contact angle and FTIR analysis for skin tissue regeneration. The cell-scaffold interactions were analyzed by cell proliferation and their morphology observed in SEM. The results showed that the cell proliferation was significantly increased (p {<=} 0.05) in PLLA/PAA/Col I and III scaffolds compared to PLLA and PLLA/PAA nanofibrous scaffolds. The abundance and accessibility of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) may prove to be novel cell therapeutics for dermal tissue regeneration. The differentiation of ADSCs was confirmed using collagen expression and their morphology by CMFDA dye extrusion technique. The current study focuses on the application of PLLA/PAA/Col I and III nanofibrous scaffolds for skin tissue engineering and their potential use as substrate for the culture and differentiation of ADSCs. The objective for inclusion of a novel cell binding moiety like PAA was to replace damaged extracellular matrix and to guide new cells directly into the wound bed with enhanced proliferation and overall organization. This combinatorial epitome of PLLA/PAA/Col I and III nanofibrous scaffold with stem cell therapy to induce the necessary paracrine signalling effect would favour faster regeneration of the damaged skin tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation of adipose derived stem cells in the presence of bFGF for wound healing Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduction of PAA as ECM mimetic cell binding moiety Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of PLLA/PAA/Col I and III nanofibers and stem cell therapy for skin regeneration.

  8. Cell penetrating peptide-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles with enhanced cell internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Jill M; Seo, Young-Eun; Saltzman, W Mark

    2016-01-01

    The surface modification of nanoparticles (NPs) can enhance the intracellular delivery of drugs, proteins, and genetic agents. Here we studied the effect of different surface ligands, including cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), on the cell binding and internalization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) NPs. Relative to unmodified NPs, we observed that surface-modified NPs greatly enhanced cell internalization. Using one CPP, MPG (unabbreviated notation), that achieved the highest degree of internalization at both low and high surface modification densities, we evaluated the effect of two different NP surface chemistries on cell internalization. After 2h, avidin-MPG NPs enhanced cellular internalization by 5 to 26-fold relative to DSPE-MPG NP formulations. Yet, despite a 5-fold increase in MPG density on DSPE compared to Avidin NPs, both formulations resulted in similar internalization levels (48 and 64-fold, respectively) after 24h. Regardless of surface modification, all NPs were internalized through an energy-dependent, clathrin-mediated process, and became dispersed throughout the cell. Overall both Avidin- and DSPE-CPP modified NPs significantly increased internalization and offer promising delivery options for applications in which internalization presents challenges to efficacious delivery. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Controlled release of linalool using nanofibrous membranes of poly(lactic acid) obtained by electrospinning and solution blow spinning: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The controlled-release of natural plant oils such as linalool is of interest in therapeutics, cosmetics, and antimicrobial and larvicidal products. The present study reports the release characteristics of linalool encapsulated at three concentrations (10, 15 and 20 wt.%) in poly(lactic acid) nanofib...

  10. Effect of Zinc Oxide Addition on Antibacterial Behavior of Hydroxyapatite-Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Abotalebi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infection after the surgery is one of the problems of bone scaffolds implants which is normally treated by systemic administration of antibiotics. But due to the poor blood circulation in bone tissue, large antibiotic doses are needed which lead to further drawbacks to renal and hepatic systems. Material and method: In this study, the effect of zinc oxide addition on antibacterial behavior of hydroxyapatite- Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold was evaluated. The synthesized composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectra. In order to determine the antibacterial activity of the fabricated scaffold, Staphylococcus aureus (ATTC 25922 and Escherichia coli (ATTC 25923 were used as test microorganisms. Results: The results showed that Hydroxyapatite- Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold did not make inhibition zone in culture medium but the modification of Hydroxyapatite- Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold’s surface by zinc oxide particles caused Hydroxyapatite- Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid- zinc oxide scaffold to have antibacterial inhibition zone of 12 and 20 mm for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: This study revealed that the addition of antibacterial agent to applicable bone tissue engineering scaffolds could be considered as an appropriate way to prevent the growth of infection at the scaffold site.

  11. Intermolecular interactions between B. mori silk fibroin and poly(L-lactic acid) in electrospun composite nanofibrous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Paola, E-mail: paola.taddei@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Neuromotorie, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8/2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Tozzi, Silvia [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Neuromotorie, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8/2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Zuccheri, Giampaolo [Dipartimento di Farmacia e Biotecnologie e Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca Industriale Scienze della Vita e Tecnologie per la Salute, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Centro S3, Istituto Nanoscienze, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (Italy); Martinotti, Simona; Ranzato, Elia [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, DiSIT, Università del Piemonte Orientale, viale Teresa Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Chiono, Valeria; Carmagnola, Irene [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Aerospaziale, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Tsukada, Masuhiro [Division of Applied Biology, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1, Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan)

    2017-01-01

    In this study, composite nanofibrous scaffolds were obtained by electrospinning a trifluoroacetic acid solution containing B. mori silk fibroin (SF) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) in a 1:1 weight ratio. SF, PLLA and SF/PLLA nanofibres were prepared with average diameter sizes of 360 ± 90 nm, 470 ± 240 nm and 580 ± 220 nm, respectively, as assessed by SEM analysis. Vibrational and thermal analyses showed that upon blending in the SF/PLLA nanofibres, the crystallisation of PLLA was hindered by the presence of SF, which crystallized preferentially and underwent conformational changes that did not significantly change its prevailing β-sheet structure. The two components were thermodynamically compatible and the intermolecular interactions between them were revealed for the first time. Human keratinocytes were cultured on nanofibres and their viability and proliferation were determined. Preliminary in vitro tests showed that the incorporation of SF into the PLLA component enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation with respect to the unfunctionalised material. SF has been successfully used to modify the biomaterial properties and confirmed to be an efficient bioactive protein to mediate cell-biomaterial interaction. - Highlights: • Composite silk fibroin-poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds were obtained by electrospinning. • Intermolecular interactions between SF and PLLA were revealed for the first time. • Upon blending, the crystallisation of PLLA was hindered by the presence of SF. • SF crystallized preferentially and maintained its prevailing β-sheet structure. • The incorporation of SF into PLLA enhanced human keratinocytes adhesion and proliferation.

  12. Negative Outcomes of Poly(l-Lactic Acid) Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds in an Ovine Total Meniscus Replacement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay M; Merriam, Aaron R; Kohn, Joachim; Gatt, Charles J; Dunn, Michael G

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to test the efficacy of collagen-hyaluronan scaffolds reinforced with poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibers in an ovine total meniscus replacement model. Scaffolds were implanted into 9 sheep (n = 1 at 8 weeks, n = 2 at 16 weeks, n = 3 at both 24, 32 weeks) following total medial meniscectomy. From 16 weeks on, explants were characterized by confined compression creep, histological, and biochemical analyses. Articular surfaces were observed macroscopically and damage was ranked histologically using the Mankin score. At sacrifice, three of the nine PLLA scaffolds had completely ruptured, and the intact scaffolds experienced progressive shape changes and severe narrowing in the body region at 16, 24, and 32 weeks. Aggregate compressive modulus and permeability did not improve with time. Histological and biochemical analyses showed significantly less extracellular matrix and less matrix organization compared to native tissue. Osteophytes, bone erosion, and cartilage damage were observed, increasing with time postimplantation. A buildup of lactic acid and/or the rapid loss of scaffold mechanical integrity due to PLLA degradation are probable causes for the joint abnormalities observed in this study. These results are in sharp contrast to those of our previous successful total meniscus replacement studies using polyarylate [p(DTD DD)] fiber-reinforced scaffolds. This suggests that PLLA fiber as produced in this study cannot be used as reinforcement for a meniscus replacement scaffold.

  13. Sprayed microspheres of poly(lactic acid) obtained with calcium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Raquel P.; Picciani, Paulo H. de Souza; Dias, Marcos L.

    2011-01-01

    In this work PLLA and PDLA were synthesized using calcium methoxide (Ca(OMe) 2 ) as initiator. This compound shows good activity in the bulk polymerization of L-lactide (LLA) and D-lactide (DLA) producing polymers with average molecular weight up to 22,300 g/mol, but with microstructure containing a significant amount of estereoerros, as revealed by 13 C NMR. Block copolymers containing blocks of L-and D-lactic acid were also prepared, using the method of sequential addition of LLA and DLA in an attempt to obtain stereo complexes. Analyses of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the polymers obtained with catalysts of calcium produced PLA microspheres with diameters of around 5 μm via electro spray technique. (author)

  14. Fundamental study on improvement of piezoelectricity of poly(ι-lactic acid) and its application to film actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajitsu, Yoshiro

    2013-08-01

    We designed a new film actuator, whose driving force is generated by a surface wave, which induces rotational motion. Its performance is similar to that of a rotation motor even though the new film actuator has no complex mechanical parts. To realize the film actuator, we used a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) film with improved piezoelectricity. First, we theoretically investigated the necessary conditions for a surface wave to be generated on the end face of a PLLA film by the fusion of its shear piezoelectricity and resonance, and then experimentally realized this. Using the actuator made using the PLLA film, we demonstrated that the clockwise and counterclockwise rotation of an object placed on the end face of the PLLA film actuator could be freely controlled by changing the frequency of the ac voltage applied to the actuator.

  15. Aluminum Silicate Nanotube Modification of Cotton-Like Siloxane-poly(L-lactic acid-vaterite Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiheon Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our earlier work, a cotton-like biodegradable composite, consisting of poly(L-lactic acid with siloxane-containing vaterite, has been prepared by electrospinning. In the present work, the fibers skeleton of the cotton-like composites was modified successfully with imogolite, which is hydrophilic and biocompatible, via a dip process using ethanol diluted solution to improve the cellular initial attachment. Almost no change in the fiber morphology after the surface modification was observed. The surface-modified composite showed the similar calcium and silicate ions releasabilities, for activating the osteoblasts, as an unmodified one. Cell culture tests showed that the initial adhesion of murine osteoblast-like cells on the surface of the fibers was enhanced by surface modification.

  16. Investigation on thermomechanical properties of poly (l-lactic acid) for the stretch blow moulding process of bioresorbable vascular scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huidong; Menary, Gary

    2017-10-01

    Stretch blow moulding process has been used for the manufacture of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) made by poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) to improve its mechanical performance. In order to better understand the process, thermomechanical properties of PLLA were investigated by experimental method. Extruded PLLA sheets were biaxial stretched under strain rate of 1s-1, 4s-1 and 16s-1 to simulate the deformation process applicable in the blow moulding process. Both the equal-biaxial stretch and constant-width stretch were conducted by an in-house developed equipment. By differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal analysis for materials before and after stretch were compared to evaluate the microstructural change of PLLA materials in the deformation process. A constitutive model based on glass rubber model was presented to simulate the mechanical behaviour of PLLA above glass transition under biaxial deformation.

  17. Effect of alkali treatment on the mechanical properties of Poly (lactic acid / Guineacorn husk particulate bio-composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar SHEHU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the influence of alkali treatment on the mechanical properties of biocomposites made from poly(lactic acid (PLA and guineacorn husks particulates (GHP with respect to that of the untreated (untrd biocomposites. The composites were prepared using a single screw extruder and an injection moulding machine with particulate compositions varying from 0-40% at 10% interval. It was observed that the tensile strength of the bio-composites decreased with increase in filler content with a maximum value of 31.24MPa at 10% filler content. The tensile modulus recorded an increase with increase in filler content with a maximum value of 2505MPa at 40% filler content while the maximum hardness stood at 72.9HRR at 30% filler content. The alkali treated bio-composites exhibited better properties as compared to those of the untreated ones.

  18. Two-step modification of poly(D, L-lactic acid) by ethylenediamine-maleic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chengbo; Zhu Fanglian; Yu Xueli; Wang Qin; Wang Chuandong; Li Baolu; Lv Ronghui; Li Musen

    2008-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was modified by maleic anhydride (MAH), then the resultant MAH modified PLA (MPLA) was acylated with ethylenediamine (EDA), so EDA-MAH modified PLA (EMPLA) was prepared. The results of DSC, FT-IR and NMR testified that MAH and EAD were successfully introduced into the original polymer. The hydrophilicity of EMPLA was considerably increased compared with that of PLA. The degradation experiment showed that the introduction of EDA into the original polymer could neutralize the carboxyl end groups of the degradation products. The results of SEM and MTT of rat osteoblasts cultured in vitro showed that the cytocompatibility and cell adhesion of the modified materials were significantly increased compared with the original polymer, especially EMPLA; the number of cells were obviously increased and cells attached firmly to the material; these were ascribed to the EDA neutralizing the carboxyl end groups of the degradation products

  19. The influence of nanotexturing of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) films upon human ovarian cancer cell attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşayan, Gökçen; Xue, Xuan; Collier, Pamela; Clarke, Philip; Alexander, Morgan R.; Marlow, Maria

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we have produced nanotextured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films by using polystyrene (PS) particles as a template to make a polydimethylsiloxane mould against which PLGA is solvent cast. Biocompatible, biodegradable and nanotextured PLGA films were prepared with PS particles of diameter of 57, 99, 210, and 280 nm that produced domes of the same dimension in the PLGA surface. The effect of the particulate monolayer templating method was investigated to enable preparation of the films with uniformly ordered surface nanodomes. Cell attachment of a human ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR3) alone and co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated on flat and topographically nano-patterned surfaces. Cell numbers were observed to increase on the nanotextured surfaces compared to non-textured surfaces both with OVCAR3 cultures and OVCAR3-MSC co-cultures at 24 and 48 h time points.

  20. Effect of modified starch and nanoclay particles on biodegradability and mechanical properties of cross-linked poly lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, M; Azizi, H; Ghasemi, I; Karrabi, M

    2015-06-25

    Mechanical properties and biodegradation of cross-linked poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/maleated thermoplastic starch (MTPS)/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposite were studied. Crosslinking was carried out by adding di-cumyl peroxide (DCP) in the presence of triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) as coagent. At first, MTPS was prepared by grafting maleic anhydride (MA) to thermoplastic starch in internal mixer. Experimental design was performed by using Box-Behnken method at three variables: MTPS, nanoclay and TAIC at three levels. Results showed that increasing TAIC amount substantially increased the gel fraction, enhanced tensile strength, and caused a decrease in elongation at break. Biodegradation was prevented by increasing TAIC amount in nanocomposite. Increasing MTPS amount caused a slight increase in gel fraction and decreased the tensile strength of nanocomposite. Also, MTPS could increase the elongation at break of nanocomposite and improve the biodegradation. Nanoclay had no effect on the gel fraction, but it improved tensile strength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water Absorption and Thermomechanical Characterization of Extruded Starch/Poly(lactic acid/Agave Bagasse Fiber Bioplastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Aranda-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water absorption and thermomechanical behavior of composites based on thermoplastic starch (TPS are presented in this work, wherein the concentration of agave bagasse fibers (ABF, 0–15 wt% and poly(lactic acid (PLA, 0–30 wt% is varied. Glycerol (G is used as starch (S plasticizer to form TPS. Starch stands as the polymer matrix (70/30 wt/wt, S/G. The results show that TPS hygroscopicity decreases as PLA and fiber content increase. Storage, stress-strain, and flexural moduli increase with PLA and/or agave bagasse fibers (ABF content while impact resistance decreases. The TPS glass transition temperature increases with ABF content and decreases with PLA content. Micrographs of the studied biocomposites show a stratified brittle surface with a rigid fiber fracture.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of poly(L-lactic acid) gels induced by fibrous complex crystallization with solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Yasuhiro [ORNL; Fukatsu, Akinobu [Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan; Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Miyamoto, Kazuaki [Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tasaka, Shigeru [Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan

    2014-01-01

    Complex crystal induced gelation of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) solutions was studied for a series of solvents, including N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). By cooling the solutions prepared at elevated temperatures, PLLA gels were produced in solvents that induced complex crystals ( -crystals) with PLLA. Fibrous structure of PLLA in the gel with DMF was observed by polarizing optical microscopy, field emission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Upon heating, the crystal form of PLLA in the DMF gel changed from -crystal to a-crystal, the major crystal form in common untreated PLLA films, but the morphology and high elastic modulus of the gel remained until the a-crystal dissolved at higher temperature. In addition, a solvent exchanging method was developed, which allowed PLLA gels to be prepared in other useful solvents that do not induce -crystals without losing the morphology and mechanical properties.

  3. Improved insulin loading in poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles upon self-assembly with lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Diaz, Maria; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles are widely investigated as drug delivery systems for oral administration. However, the hydrophobic nature of many polymers hampers effective loading of the particles with hydrophilic macromolecules such as insulin. Thus, the aim of this work was to improve the loading...... of insulin into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles by pre-assembly with amphiphilic lipids. Insulin was complexed with soybean phosphatidylcholine or sodium caprate by self-assembly and subsequently loaded into PLGA nanoparticles by using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique...... efficiencies (90% as compared to 24% in the absence of lipids). Importantly, the insulin loading capacity was increased up to 20% by using the lipid–insulin complexes. The results further showed that a main fraction of the lipid was incorporated into the nanoparticles and remained associated to the polymer...

  4. Mechanical performance evaluation of bionanocomposites with polymeric matrix of poly(lactic acid)-PLA and organo clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, Shirley N.; Melo, Tomas J.A. de; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Oliveira, Akidauana D.A.; Lima, Jessica C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of ethylene/methyl acrylate (EMA) and ethylene/glycidyl methacrylate (E-GMA) copolymers and organoclay on the mechanical properties of polymer PLA-poly (lactic acid), from the system PLA / organoclay. The clay was organophilized with the ionic surfactant praepagem and the mixtures were prepared in a modular twin screw extruder. The behavior of bionanocomposites was evaluated by tensile and impact tests. The results of FTIR and DR-X indicated that the process was efficient organophilization. The mechanical properties showed that the elastic modulus and tensile strength of bionanocomposites obtained decreased compared to PLA. On the other hand there was a gain for resistance to impact, for all systems except for system PLA/OMMT. (author)

  5. Development of lovastatin-loaded poly(lactic acid microspheres for sustained oral delivery: in vitro and ex vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan QG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Qigang Guan,1 Wei Chen,2 Xianming Hu2 1Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical, Shenyang Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Background: A novel lovastatin (LVT-loaded poly(lactic acid microsphere suitable for oral administration was developed in this study, and in vitro and in vivo characteristics were evaluated. Methods: The designed microspheres were obtained by an improved emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The morphological examination, particle size, encapsulation ratio, drug loading, and in vitro release were characterized. Pharmacokinetics studies were used to show that microspheres possess more advantages than the conventional formulations. Results: By using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method, it was simple to prepare microspheres and easy to scale up production. The morphology of formed microspheres showed a spherical shape with a smooth surface, without any particle aggregation. Mean size of the microspheres was 2.65±0.69 µm; the encapsulation efficiency was 92.5%±3.6%, and drug loading was 16.7%±2.1%. In vitro release indicated that the LVT microspheres had a well-sustained release efficacy, and ex vivo studies showed that after LVT was loaded to microspheres, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the last measurable plasma concentration point and the extrapolation to time infinity increased significantly, which represented 2.63-fold and 2.49-fold increases, respectively, compared to suspensions. The rate of ex vivo clearance was significantly reduced. Conclusion: This research proved that poly(lactic acid microspheres can significantly prolong the drug circulation time in vivo and can also significantly increase the relative bioavailability of the drug. Keywords: lovastatin, microspheres, PLA, in vitro release, pharmacokinetics 

  6. Biological Evaluation of Flexible Polyurethane/Poly l-Lactic Acid Composite Scaffold as a Potential Filler for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Fai Lui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Degradable bone graft substitute for large-volume bone defects is a continuously developing field in orthopedics. With the advance in biomaterial in past decades, a wide range of new materials has been investigated for their potential in this application. When compared to common biopolymers within the field such as PLA or PCL, elastomers such as polyurethane offer some unique advantages in terms of flexibility. In cases of bone defect treatments, a flexible soft filler can help to establish an intimate contact with surrounding bones to provide a stable bone-material interface for cell proliferation and ingrowth of tissue. In this study, a porous filler based on segmented polyurethane incorporated with poly l-lactic acid was synthesized by a phase inverse salt leaching method. The filler was put through in vitro and in vivo tests to evaluate its potential in acting as a bone graft substitute for critical-sized bone defects. In vitro results indicated there was a major improvement in biological response, including cell attachment, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression for osteoblast-like cells when seeded on the composite material compared to unmodified polyurethane. In vivo evaluation on a critical-sized defect model of New Zealand White (NZW rabbit indicated there was bone ingrowth along the defect area with the introduction of the new filler. A tight interface formed between bone and filler, with osteogenic cells proliferating on the surface. The result suggested polyurethane/poly l-lactic acid composite is a material with the potential to act as a bone graft substitute for orthopedics application.

  7. Biodegradability Study of the Blend Film of High Density Polyethylene and Poly(lactic acid Disposable Packages Flake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Baghi Neirizi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major concerns of using a non-biodegradable polymer product is its disposal at the end of its life cycle. Development of biodegradable plastics promises an alternative solution to combat this problem. Blending of poly(lactic acid with non-biodegradable polymers is a practical and economical method for modifying the biodegradability properties of non-biodegradable polymers. In this study, soil biodegradability of the blends of high density polyethylene (HDPE and variable amounts of recycled poly(lactic acid (r-PLA plastic flakes at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% was studied. The behavior of the force-elongation profile of the blends having r-PLA content of lower than 30 wt% was approximately the same as that of pure HDPE while, it was completely different for the other blends. Tearing force and elongation-at-yield-point of the blends films with the 20 to 50 wt% r-PLA were decreased significantly after 60 days of soil biodegradability test. Morphological study showed that biodegradability of the blend films at surface of the samples (deep pores and grooves was increased with extended biodegradability time and higher r-PLA content, while, this variation was significant for the blend films of more than 20 wt% r-PLA content. Thermal properties evaluation by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC curves indicated that the glass transition temperature and enthalpy peaks during the heating stage were eliminated with increasing the biodegradability testing time. Also, reduction in the crystallinity degree of the r-PLA component with increasing the biodegradability testing time coincided with the earlier results.

  8. Fabrication and Protein Conjugation of Aligned Polypyrrole-Poly(L-lactic acid) Fibers Film with the Conductivity and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiabang; Huang, Zhongbing; Yin, Guangfu; Yang, Anneng; Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The conducting composite scaffold, including fiber-cores of aligned poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and shell-layer of polypyrrole (PPy), was fabricated, and then bovine serum albumin (BSA) was conjugated on the PPy shell-layer. Aligned PLLA fibers (about 300 nm diameter) were obtained by electrospinning and rotating drum collection, and then coated by PPy nanoparticles (NPs, about 50 nm diameter) via chemical oxidation. The surface resistivity of PPy-PLLA fibers film were 0.971, 0.874 kΩ. cm at the fiber's vertical and parallel directions, respectively. The results of PPy-PLLA fibers film immersed in phosphate buffer saline for 8 d indicated that the fibers morphology and the film conductivity were not significantly changed, and the fluorescent images showed that FITC-labeled BSA (FITC-BSA) were successfully conjugated in the fibers film with carbodiimide chemistry, and the largest amount of FITC-BSA conjugated in the fibers film from 100 μg/mL proteins solution was 31.31 μg/cm2 due to lots of poly(glutamic acid) in surface-nanogrooves of the fibers surface. Under electrical stimulation of 100 mV, the fibers film was accompanied the release of all conjugated FITC-BSA with the detachment of some PPy NPs. These results suggested that PPy-PLLA fibers film would be potentially applied in the construction of degradable tissue engineering scaffold with protein factors, especially neurotrophic factors for nerve tissue repair.

  9. Effects of poly(L-lactide-ε-caprolactone) and magnesium hydroxide additives on physico-mechanical properties and degradation of poly(L-lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Young; Lih, Eugene; Kim, Ik Hwan; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is one of the most widely used polymer in biomedical devices, but it still has limitations such as inherent brittleness and acidic degradation products. In this work, PLLA blends with poly(L-lactide-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) and Mg(OH)2 were prepared by the thermal processing to improve their physico-mechanical and thermal properties. In addition, the neutralizing effect of Mg(OH)2 was evaluated by degradation study. The elongation of PLLA remarkably increased from 3 to 164.4 % and the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLLA was slightly reduced from 61 to 52 °C by adding PLCL additive. Mg(OH)2 in polymeric matrix not only improved the molecular weight reduction and mechanical strength of PLLA, but also neutralized the acidic byproducts generated during polyester degradation. Therefore, the results demonstrated that the presence of PLCL and Mg(OH)2 additives in PLLA matrix could prevent the thermal decomposition and control degradation behavior of polyester.

  10. Influence of polymer swelling and dissolution into food simulants on the release of graphene nanoplates and carbon nanotubes from poly(lactic) acid and polypropylene composite films

    OpenAIRE

    Velichkova, Hristiana; Petrova, Ivanka; Kotsilkov, Stanislav; Ivanov, Evgeni; Vitanov, Nikolay K.; Kotsilkova, Rumiana

    2017-01-01

    The study compared the effects of swelling and dissolution of a matrix polymer by food simulants on the release of graphene nanoplates (GNPs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and polypropylene (PP) composite films. The total migration was determined gravimetrically in the ethanol and acetic acid food simulants at different time and temperature conditions, while migrants were detected by laser diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Swelli...

  11. Biodegradation of poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate, poly(butylene succinate and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate under anaerobic and oxygen limited thermophilic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutakan Boonmee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the biodegradation behavior of biodegradable plastics in landfill conditions, four types of biodegradable plastics including poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV, poly(butylene succinate (PBS, and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT were tested by burying in sludge mixed soil medium under anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions. The experiments were operated at 52 ± 2ºC in dark conditions according to ISO15985. The degree of biodegradation after 75 days was investigated by weight loss determination, visual examination, and surface appearance by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. Under both anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions, the complete degradation (100% weight loss was found only in PHBV after 75 days. The plastic degradations were ranked in the order of PHBV> PLA> PBS> PBAT. The percentage of weight losses were significantly different at p ≤ 0.05. However, for all studied plastics, the degradation under anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions did not significantly different at 95% confidence.

  12. Effects of substitute coated with hyaluronic acid or poly-lactic acid on implant fixation. Experimental study in ovariectomized and glucocorticoid treated sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christina M; Ding, Ming; Andersen, Thomas L

    2018-01-01

    Investigated in healthy animal models, hyaluronic acid (HyA) and poly-D,L -lactic acid (PDLLA) demonstrate osteoconductive properties when coated onto hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) scaffolds. In this study, we examined the efficacy of HA/βTCP granules coated with HyA or PD...... formation, HyA and PDDLA are indeed considered valuable as new coating materials for composite ceramics when tested in a sheep model - even in bones of a compromised quality.......Investigated in healthy animal models, hyaluronic acid (HyA) and poly-D,L -lactic acid (PDLLA) demonstrate osteoconductive properties when coated onto hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) scaffolds. In this study, we examined the efficacy of HA/βTCP granules coated with Hy...... allograft obtained from a healthy donor sheep (control), pure HA/βTCP, HA/βTCP-HyA or HA/βTCP-PDLLA. After 12 weeks, the bone formation adjacent to the implant surface was evaluated by histology and histomorphometry, while the implant fixation was measured by a push-out test. The investigation showed a bone...

  13. Spontaneous Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Poly-Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Nano-Fiber Scaffold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshiro Sonomoto

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have immunosuppressive activity and can differentiate into bone and cartilage; and thus seem ideal for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Here, we investigated the osteogenesis and chondrogenesis potentials of MSCs seeded onto nano-fiber scaffolds (NFs in vitro and possible use for the repair of RA-affected joints.MSCs derived from healthy donors and patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA were seeded on poly-lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA electrospun NFs and cultured in vitro.Healthy donor-derived MSCs seeded onto NFs stained positive with von Kossa at Day 14 post-stimulation for osteoblast differentiation. Similarly, MSCs stained positive with Safranin O at Day 14 post-stimulation for chondrocyte differentiation. Surprisingly, even cultured without any stimulation, MSCs expressed RUNX2 and SOX9 (master regulators of bone and cartilage differentiation at Day 7. Moreover, MSCs stained positive for osteocalcin, a bone marker, and simultaneously also with Safranin O at Day 14. On Day 28, the cell morphology changed from a spindle-like to an osteocyte-like appearance with processes, along with the expression of dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1 and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE, suggesting possible differentiation of MSCs into osteocytes. Calcification was observed on Day 56. Expression of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation markers was also noted in MSCs derived from RA or OA patients seeded on NFs. Lactic acid present in NFs potentially induced MSC differentiation into osteoblasts.Our PLGA scaffold NFs induced MSC differentiation into bone and cartilage. NFs induction process resembled the procedure of endochondral ossification. This finding indicates that the combination of MSCs and NFs is a promising therapeutic technique for the repair of RA or OA joints affected by bone and cartilage destruction.

  14. Effect of gamma ray on poly(lactic acid)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) blends as biodegradable food packaging films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dadbin, Susan; Frounchi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) [P(VAc-co-VA)] blends as new transparent film packaging materials were prepared at various blend compositions and different vinyl alcohol contents. The blends and pure PLA were irradiated by gamma rays to investigate the extent of changes in the packaging material during gamma ray sterilization process. The miscibility of the blends was dependent on the blend composition and vinyl alcohol content; gamma irradiation had little effect on the extent of miscibility. The glass transition temperature of pure PLA and PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) miscible blends reduced after irradiation. On the other hand in PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) immiscible blends, while the glass transition temperature of the PLA phase decreased; that of the copolymer phase slightly increased. The reduction in the glass transition was about 10 percent for samples irradiated with 50 kGy indicating dominance of chain scission of PLA molecules at high irradiation dose. The latter was verified by drop in mechanical properties of pure PLA after exposing to gamma irradiation at 50 kGy. Blending of PLA with the copolymer P(VAc-co-VA) compensated greatly the adverse effects of irradiation on PLA. The oxygen-barrier property of the blend was superior to the neat PLA and remained almost intact with irradiation. The un-irradiated and irradiated blends had excellent transparency. Gamma ray doses used for sterilization purposes are usually less than 20 kGy. It was shown that gamma irradiation at 20 kGy had no or little adverse effects on PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) blends mechanical and gas barrier properties. - Highlights: • Poly(lactic acid)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) blends were prepared as new packaging film. • The blends are superior to PLA in oxygen gas barrier property. • The blends are suitable for gamma ray sterilization and maintain useful mechanical properties. • The blends are perfectly transparent

  15. Efficacy and safety of injection with poly-L-lactic acid compared with hyaluronic acid for correction of nasolabial fold: a randomized, evaluator-blinded, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, M Y; Lee, Y; No, Y A; Yoo, K H; Kim, M N; Hong, C K; Chang, S E; Won, C H; Kim, B J

    2015-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers and poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) fillers are frequently used to correct facial wrinkles. To compare the efficacy and safety of a novel injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) filler and a well-studied biphasic HA filler for the treatment of moderate to severe nasolabial folds. In this multicentre, randomized, evaluator-blinded, comparative study, subjects were randomized for injections with PLA or HA into both nasolabial folds. Efficacy was determined by calculating the change in Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS) relative to baseline. Local safety was assessed by reported adverse events. At week 24, mean improvement in WSRS from baseline was 2.09 ± 0.68 for the PLA side and 1.54 ± 0.65 for the HA side. Both injections were well tolerated, and the adverse reactions were mild and transient in most cases. PLA provides noninferior efficacy compared with HA 6 months after being used to treat moderate to severe nasolabial folds. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Delivery of vanillin by poly(lactic-acid) nanoparticles: Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-05-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles containing vanillin were prepared using an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and were characterized and assessed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized by size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Solid state and thermal properties were assessed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, while in vitro drug release profile was also evaluated. Results showed PLA nanoparticles having a characteristic amorphous structure, sizes in the range of 240 nm with high homogeneity in size distribution, zeta potential of -22 mV and vanillin encapsulation efficiency of 41%. In vitro release study showed a slow and sustained release of vanillin governed by diffusion. Nanoparticles were stable over a period of three months. Antioxidant ability of the vanillin-loaded PLA nanoparticles in scavenging the radical 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) was inferior to free vanillin and due to its prolonged release showed a profile that was both time and concentration dependent, while free vanillin showed concentration-dependent activity. The study concluded that PLA nanoparticles are potential carriers for vanillin delivery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Preparation and characterization of composites based on poly(lactic acid) and CaCO{sub 3} nanofiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Janaína Fernandes; Silva, Ana Lúcia N. da, E-mail: janamoreno.quim@gmail.com, E-mail: ananazareth@ima.ufrj.br [Instituto de Macromoléculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA/UFRJ – Brasil, Rio de Janeiro – RJ (Brazil); Silva, Antonio Henrique Monteiro da Fonseca T. da, E-mail: antoniohmfts@id.uff.br [Departamento Agrícola e Meio Ambiente – UFF – Brasil, Niterói – RJ (Brazil); Sousa, Ana Maria F. de, E-mail: ana.furtado.souza@gmail.com [Instituto de Química da Universidade - IQ/UERJ – Brasil, Rio de Janeiro – RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    In recent years, extensive studies have been conducted on the study of the poly(lactic acid) (PLA) properties, because of its being a typical biobased and biodegradable polymer, with good mechanical properties. However, its toughness and gas barrier properties are not satisfactory and can be improved by the addition of nanofillers, such as calcium carbonate (n-CaCO{sub 3}). The present work PLA composites with nano-sized precipitated calcium carbonate (n-NPCC) were prepared by melt extrusion. Thermal, mechanical and flow properties of the composites were evaluated by using a factorial design.The results showed that the addition of the nanofiller in the PLA matrix didn’t improve thethermal and mechanical properties of the matrix significantly. This behavior is probably due to the presence of the stearic acid that is coating on the n-NPCC particles, resulting in a weak polymer-particle interaction. Beyond this, it was also observed a decrease in MFI of the composites when nanofiller was added and at a higher screw speed.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Jute Cellulose Crystals-Reinforced Poly(L-lactic acid Biocomposite for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mizanur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline cellulose was extracted from jute by hydrolysis with 40% H2SO4 to get mixture of micro/nanocrystals. Scanning electron microscope (SEM showed the microcrystalline structure of cellulose and XRD indicated the Iβ polymorph of cellulose. Biodegradable composites were prepared using crystalline cellulose (CC of jute as the reinforcement (3–15% and poly(lactic acid (PLA as a matrix by extrusion and hot press method. CC was cellulose derived from mercerized and bleached jute fiber by acid hydrolysis to remove the amorphous regions. FT-IR studies showed hydrogen bonding between the CC and the PLA matrix. The X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC studies showed that the percentage crystallinity of PLA in composites was found to be higher than that of neat PLA as a result of the nucleating ability of the crystalline cellulose. Furthermore, Vicker hardness and yield strength were found to increase with increasing cellulose content in the composite. The SEM images of the fracture surfaces of the composites were indicative of poor adhesion between the CC and the PLA matrix. The composite with 15% CC showed antibacterial effect though pure films but had no antimicrobial effect; on the other hand its cytotoxicity in biological medium was found to be medium which might be suitable for its potential biomedical applications.

  19. Differentiation of neuronal stem cells into motor neurons using electrospun poly-L-lactic acid/gelatin scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binan, Loïc; Tendey, Charlène; De Crescenzo, Gregory; El Ayoubi, Rouwayda; Ajji, Abdellah; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) provide promising therapeutic potential for cell replacement therapy in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, high increases of cell viability and poor control of cell differentiation remain major obstacles. In this study, we have developed a non-woven material made of co-electrospun fibers of poly L-lactic acid and gelatin with a degradation rate and mechanical properties similar to peripheral nerve tissue and investigated their effect on cell survival and differentiation into motor neuronal lineages through the controlled release of retinoic acid (RA) and purmorphamine. Engineered Neural Stem-Like Cells (NSLCs) seeded on these fibers, with and without the instructive cues, differentiated into β-III-tubulin, HB-9, Islet-1, and choactase-positive motor neurons by immunostaining, in response to the release of the biomolecules. In addition, the bioactive material not only enhanced the differentiation into motor neuronal lineages but also promoted neurite outgrowth. This study elucidated that a combination of electrospun fiber scaffolds, neural stem cells, and controlled delivery of instructive cues could lead to the development of a better strategy for peripheral nerve injury repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Quantum Dot-Loaded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid Nanocomposite Fibers by an Electrospinning Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankireddy, Seshadri Reddy; Kim, Jongsung

    2017-04-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) is one of the most successfully developed biodegradable polymers. PLGA is a copolymer of polylactic and glycolic acid. In this work, quantum dot (QD)-loaded PLGA nanofibers were fabricated via a simple one-step electrospinning process. The surface morphology of the fibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that the PLGA nanofibers had both smooth and rough surfaces with an average fiber diameter of 150 ± 25 nm and 350 ± 60 nm for the PLGA and QD-loaded PLGA nanofibers, respectively. The needle size, applied voltage, and solvent flow rate in the syringe were maintained at 23 G, 20 kV, and 1.5 mL/h, respectively. The SEM analysis showed that nanofibers with a very thin and uniform size were formed and the InP/ZnS QDs were homogeneously loaded into the PLGA nanofiber matrix. The thermal properties of the PLGA-QD nanofibers were explored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The surface chemical structure and functionalities were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD).

  1. A new approach in compatibilization of the poly(lactic acid)/thermoplastic starch (PLA/TPS) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Marzieh; Ghasemi, Ismaeil; Azizi, Hamed; Karrabi, Mohammad; Seyedabadi, Mohammad

    2016-06-25

    In this study, a new compatibilizer was synthesized to improve the compatibility of the poly(lactic acid)/thermoplastic starch blends. The compatibilizer was based on maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene glycol grafted starch (mPEG-g-St), and was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and back titration techniques. The results indicated successful accomplishment of the designed reactions and formation of a starch cored structure with many connections to m-PEG chains. To assess the performance of synthesized compatibilizer, several PLA/TPS blends were prepared using an internal mixer. Consequently, their morphology, dynamic-mechanical behavior, crystallization and mechanical properties were studied. The compatibilizer enhanced interfacial adhesion, possibly due to interaction between free end carboxylic acid groups of compatibilizer and active groups of TPS and PLA phases. In addition, biodegradability of the samples was evaluated by various methods consisting of weight loss, FTIR-ATR analysis and morphology. The results revealed no considerable effect of compatibilizer on biodegradability of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Melt electrospinning of poly(lactic acid) and polycaprolactone microfibers by using a hand-operated Wimshurst generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chong-Chong; Duan, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Le; Zhang, Li-Hua; Yu, Miao; Dong, Rui-Hua; Yan, Xu; He, Hong-Wei; Long, Yun-Ze

    2015-10-01

    A conventional melt electrospinning setup usually needs a large, heavy high-voltage power supply and cannot work without a plug (electricity supply). In this article, we report a new melt electrospinning setup based on a small hand-operated Wimshurst generator, which can avoid electrical interference between the high-voltage spinning system and the heating system, and make the setup very portable and safe. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers with diameters of 15-45 μm were fabricated successfully by using this apparatus. Experimental parameters such as the rotational speed of the generator handle (a half turn to two turns per second) and the spinning distance (2-14 cm) were investigated. In addition, PLA and PCL fibers were directly melt-electrospun onto a pork liver, and the temperature and adhesiveness of the deposited fibers were studied. The results indicate that the apparatus and melt-electrospun polymer microfibers may be used in dressing for wound healing.A conventional melt electrospinning setup usually needs a large, heavy high-voltage power supply and cannot work without a plug (electricity supply). In this article, we report a new melt electrospinning setup based on a small hand-operated Wimshurst generator, which can avoid electrical interference between the high-voltage spinning system and the heating system, and make the setup very portable and safe. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers with diameters of 15-45 μm were fabricated successfully by using this apparatus. Experimental parameters such as the rotational speed of the generator handle (a half turn to two turns per second) and the spinning distance (2-14 cm) were investigated. In addition, PLA and PCL fibers were directly melt-electrospun onto a pork liver, and the temperature and adhesiveness of the deposited fibers were studied. The results indicate that the apparatus and melt-electrospun polymer microfibers may be used in dressing for wound healing

  3. Photophysical characterization of cumarin-doped poly (lactic acid) microparticles and visualization of the biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shigeaki; Kiba, Takayuki; Hosokawa, Kiyotada; Nitobe, Satoru; Hirota, Takashi; Kobayashi, Hirohisa; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Uo, Motohiro; Kuboki, Yoshinori; Sato, Shin-Ichiro; Watari, Fumio; Rosca, Iosif D.

    2010-01-01

    We prepared fluorescent coumarin dye-doped poly (acrylic acid) microparticles, which are well known as a biodegradable polyester, and the photophysical properties were characterized by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and spectroscopic investigation. Spherical particles with diameters ranging from 0.5 to a few μm were obtained. Based on spectroscopic investigation, the internal environment was close to that of a polar solvent such as methanol, and the dyes were dispersed without aggregation inside the particles. The obtained particles were administered to a mouse through the tail vein, and the biodistribution was then observed after some organs were excited at 1-day and 1-week post-injection. The particles were accumulated in the organs, especially in the lung and spleen. After injection, the particles were trapped temporally in the lung, and then seemed to be transported to other organs by blood circulation. This tendency is similar to the biodistribution of TiO 2 microparticles that we have reported previously.

  4. Improving the quality of biopolymer (poly lactic acid) with the addition of bentonite as filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani; Agusnar, Harry; Wirjosentono, Basuki; Rihayat, Teuku; Nurhanifa

    2017-07-01

    PLA (Poly Lactid Acid) - Bentonite polymer nanocomposite which is a combination of natural and nanometer-scale inorganic substances created through three processes, mixing using a melt blending, molding with a hot press using specimens Standard ASTM D 638 Type IV and drying. In this study, PLA combined with two types of natural bentonite obtained from different areas to find differences in the quality of the results of characterization. To optimize the performance of filler, before mixing, bentonite have to furificate first with (NaPO3)6 and also open the interlayer space with CTAB. D-spacing of bentonite imterlayer were analyze by X-Ray difraction (XRD). Characterization bionanocomposite resulting morphologic structure was tested using a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Mechanical analysis of PLA-bentonite nanocomposite in the form of tensile strength was tested using a tensile test specimens of standard American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM) D 638 Type 4, and thermal resistance using Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA).

  5. Increase the elongation at break of poly (lactic acid) composites for use in food packaging films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadi, Ahmed M.

    2017-05-01

    Poly (3-hydroxy butyrate) (PHB), cellulose nano crystal (CNC) and a plasticizer (TBC) are mixed together with PLLA with the aim to increase the elongation at break for use in the food packing sector. Spherical (CNC) and fibril nano crystal (CNF) were prepared by hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in distilled water, and then stirred using a magnetic stirrer for 15 days and ultrasonic treatment without using any acids as green method. The morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties were studied using POM, DSC, WAXD, SEM and tensile testing, respectively. DSC demonstrated that the addition of PHB, CNC and TBC to PLLA matrix lead to reduce Tg, TCC and Tm than pure PLLA. FT-IR verified that the carbonyl group C=O appeared broad and some peaks in the PLLA composites 5, 6 and 7 shifted from 3.98 × 108 to 4.07 × 108 Hz, at 3.54 × 108 to 3.44 × 108 Hz, at 3.19 × 108 to 3.13 × 108 Hz. Mechanical testing shows that pure PLLA is brittle, and the elongation at break of PLLA composites reaches up to 205%, making it suitable to use in food packaging.

  6. Influence of Poly(L-Lactic Acid Nanofibers and BMP-2–Containing Poly(L-Lactic Acid Nanofibers on Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus D. Schofer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize synthetic poly-(L-lactic acid (PLLA nanofibers concerning their ability to promote growth and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro, as well as to test their suitability as a carrier system for growth factors. Fiber matrices composed of PLLA or BMP-2–incorporated PLLA were seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells and cultivated over a period of 22 days under growth and osteoinductive conditions, and analyzed during the course of culture, with respect to gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, osteocalcin (OC, and collagen I (COL-I. Furthermore, COL-I and OC deposition, as well as cell densities and proliferation, were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy. Although the presence of nanofibers diminished the dexamethasone-induced proliferation, there were no differences in cell densities or deposition of either COL-I or OC after 22 days of culture. The gene expression of ALP, OC, and COL-I decreased in the initial phase of cell cultivation on PLLA nanofibers as compared to cover slip control, but normalized during the course of cultivation. The initial down-regulation was not observed when BMP-2 was directly incorporated into PLLA nanofibers by electrospinning, indicating that growth factors like BMP-2 might survive the spinning process in a bioactive form.

  7. Influence of Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Nanofibers and BMP-2–Containing Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Nanofibers on Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofer, Markus D.; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Gräbedünkel, Christian; Wack, Christina; Dersch, Roland; Rudisile, Markus; Wendorff, Joachim H.; Greiner, Andreas; Paletta, Jürgen R. J.; Boudriot, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize synthetic poly-(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers concerning their ability to promote growth and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro, as well as to test their suitability as a carrier system for growth factors. Fiber matrices composed of PLLA or BMP-2–incorporated PLLA were seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells and cultivated over a period of 22 days under growth and osteoinductive conditions, and analyzed during the course of culture, with respect to gene expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and collagen I (COL-I). Furthermore, COL-I and OC deposition, as well as cell densities and proliferation, were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy. Although the presence of nanofibers diminished the dexamethasone-induced proliferation, there were no differences in cell densities or deposition of either COL-I or OC after 22 days of culture. The gene expression of ALP, OC, and COL-I decreased in the initial phase of cell cultivation on PLLA nanofibers as compared to cover slip control, but normalized during the course of cultivation. The initial down-regulation was not observed when BMP-2 was directly incorporated into PLLA nanofibers by electrospinning, indicating that growth factors like BMP-2 might survive the spinning process in a bioactive form. PMID:19112539

  8. Enhanced bone formation in electrospun poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofiber scaffolds incorporated with graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weili; He, Jianxin; Sang, Feng; Wang, Qian; Chen, Li; Cui, Shizhong; Ding, Bin

    2016-05-01

    To engineer bone tissue, it is necessary to provide a biocompatible, mechanically robust scaffold. In this study, we fabricated an ultrafine nanofiber scaffold by electrospinning a blend of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), tussah silk fibroin, and graphene oxide (GO) and characterized its morphology, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biological activity. The data indicate that incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk and 1 wt.% graphene oxide into poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers significantly decreased the fiber diameter from 280 to 130 nm. Furthermore, tussah silk and graphene oxide boosted the Young's modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4-fold and 3-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and functionally promoted biomineralization-relevant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineral deposition. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biocompatibility Assessment of Polyethylene Glycol-Poly L-Lysine-Poly Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid Nanoparticles In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liting; Chen, Baoan; Liu, Ran; Xia, Guohua; Wang, Yonglu; Li, Xueming; Wei, Chen; Wang, Xuemei; Jiang, Hulin

    2015-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the biocompatibility of nanoparticles polyethylene glycol (PEG)-poly L-lysine (PLL)-poly lactic-co-glycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) (PEG-PLL-PLGA) before clinical application. We applied some tests to assess the safety of PEG-PLL-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs). There was low cytotoxicity of PEG-PLL-PLGA NPs in vitro as detected by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis and intracellular accumulation of PEG-PLL-PLGA were determined by FCM assay. The apoptotic rate induced by nanoparticles and the fluorescence intensity of intracellular daunorubicin (DNR) demonstrated that DNR-PEG-PLL-PLGA could be taken up by the mouse fibroblast cells (L929 cells). Hemolysis test and micronucleus (MN) assay demonstrated that the nanoparticles have no obviously blood toxicity and genotoxicity. DNR-PEG-PLL-PLGA NPs were injected into mice through tail vein to calculate the median lethal dose (LD50), the results showed that they had a wide safe scale. Blood was taken by removing the eyeball of mice to study the influence of DNR-PEG-PLL-PLGA in hepatic and renal functions. The results revealed that there was no significant difference as compared with the control group. Interestingly, the pathologic changes of heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney were observed in nanoparticles treated mice. Thus, this study demonstrates that PEG-PLL-PLGA NPs appear to be highly biocompatible and safe nanoparticles that can be suitable for further application in the treatment of tumor.

  10. Unprecedented access to strong and ductile poly(lactic acid) by introducing In Situ Nanofibrillar Poly(butylene succinate) for green packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lan; Xu, Huan; Niu, Ben; Ji, Xu; Chen, Jun; Li, Zhong-Ming; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji

    2014-11-10

    The notion of toughening poly(lactic acid) (PLA) by adding flexible biopolymers has generated enormous interest but has yielded few desirable advances, mainly blocked by the sacrifice of strength and stiffness due to uncontrollable phase morphology and poor interfacial interactions. Here the phase control methodology, that is, intense extrusion compounding followed by "slit die extrusion-hot stretching-quenching" technique, was proposed to construct well-aligned, stiff poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) nanofibrils in the PLA matrix for the first time. We show that generating nanosized discrete droplets of PBS phase during extrusion compounding is key to enable the development of in situ nanofibrillar PBS assisted by the shearing/stretching field. The size of PBS nanofibrils strongly dependent on the PBS content, showing an increased average diameter from 83 to 116 and 236 nm for the composites containing 10, 20, and 40 wt % nanofibrils, respectively. More importantly, hybrid shish-kebab superstructure anchoring ordered PLA kebabs were induced by the PBS nanofibrils serving as the central shish, conferring the creation of tenacious interfacial crystalline ligaments. The exceptional combination of strength, modulus, and ductility for the composites loaded 40 wt % PBS nanofibrils were demonstrated, outperforming pure PLA with the increments of 31, 51, and 72% in strength, modulus, and elongation at break (56.4 MPa, 1702 MPa, and 92.4%), respectively. The high strength, modulus, and ductility are unprecedented for PLA and are in great potential need for packaging applications.

  11. Nanofiber mats composed of a chitosan-poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene oxide) blend as a postoperative anti-adhesion agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae Eok; Ko, Young-Gwang; Kim, Won Il; Kwon, Oh Kyoung; Kwon, Oh Hyeong

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative tissue adhesion causes serious complications and suffering in 90% of patients after peritoneum surgery, while commercial anti-adhesion agents cannot completely prevent postoperative peritoneal adhesions. This study demonstrates electrospining of a blended solution of chitosan, poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to fabricate a chitosan-based nanofibrous mat as a postoperative anti-adhesion agent. Rheological studies combined with scanning electron microscopy reveal that the spinnability of the chitosan-PLGA solution could be controlled by adjusting the blend ratio and concentration with average fiber diameter from 634 to 913 nm. Biodegradation of the nanofiber specimens showed accelerated hydrolysis by chitosan. Proliferation of fibroblasts and antimicrobial activity of nanofibers containing chitosan was analyzed. Abdominal defects with cecum adhesion in rats demonstrated that the blend nanofiber mats were effective in preventing tissue adhesion as a barrier (4 weeks after abdominal surgery) by coverage of exfoliated peritoneum and insufficient wound sites at the beginning of the wound healing process. Chitosan-PLGA-PEO blend nanofiber mats will provide a promising key as a postoperative anti-adhesion agent. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1906-1915, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Plasticized poly(lactic acid)-poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PLA-PHB) blends incorporated with catechin intended for active food-packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Marina Patricia; Castro-López, María del Mar; Rayón, Emilio; Barral-Losada, Luis Fernando; López-Vilariño, José Manuel; López, Juan; González-Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2014-10-15

    Active biobased packaging materials based on poly(lactic acid)-poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PLA-PHB) blends were prepared by melt blending and fully characterized. Catechin incorporation, as antioxidant compound, enhanced the thermal stability, whereas its release was improved by the addition of acetyl(tributyl citrate) (ATBC) as plasticizer. Whereas the incorporation of ATBC resulted in a reduction of elastic modulus and hardness, catechin addition produced more rigid materials due to hydrogen-bonding interactions between catechin hydroxyl groups and carbonyl groups of PLA and PHB. The quantification of catechin released into a fatty food simulant and the antioxidant effectiveness after the release process were demonstrated. The effect of the materials' exposure to a food simulant was also investigated. PHB-added materials maintained their structural and mechanical properties after 10 days in a test medium that represents the worst foreseeable conditions of the intended use. Thus, plasticized PLA-PHB blends with catechin show their potential as biobased active packaging for fatty food.

  13. Miscibility, crystallization and mechanical properties of biodegradable blends of poly(L-lactic acid) and poly(butylene succinate-b-ethylene succinate) multiblock copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Ling; Huang, Cai-Li; Zeng, Jian-Bing; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The blend of PLLA and PBES showed limited miscibility. ► The crystallization rate of PLLA was accelerated by blending with PBES. ► The crystal structures of PLLA and PBES did not change. - Abstract: Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is regarded as one of the most promising biobased and biodegradable polymers. However, its application was restricted due to the brittle nature. In the present study, PLLA was blended with a novel biodegradable flexible multiblock copolymer, poly(butylene succinate-b-ethylene succinate) (PBES) to produce new biodegradable materials. PLLA/PBES blends with different composition were prepared by solution blending and casting method with chloroform as a mutual solvent. Miscibility, crystallization behavior, and mechanical properties of the blends were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), and tensile tests. The results indicated that PLLA and PBES showed limited miscibility in the amorphous phase. The crystallization rate of PLLA was accelerated with the increase of PBES in the blends while the crystallization mechanism did not change. The results of tensile tests suggest that the blends showed longer elongation at break than neat PLLA. The elongation at break of PLLA was obtained to be 10%, and those of PLLA/PBES 80/20, 60/40, 40/60 and 20/80 were 29, 110, 442, and 455%, respectively.

  14. Reduction of Inflammatory Responses and Enhancement of Extracellular Matrix Formation by Vanillin-Incorporated Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yujung; Kwon, Jeongil; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Dongwon

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major components of vanilla, a commonly used flavoring agent and preservative and is known to exert potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this work, vanillin-incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films and scaffolds were fabricated to evaluate the effects of vanillin on the inflammatory responses and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation in vitro and in vivo. The incorporation of vanillin to PLGA films induced hydrophilic nature, resulting i...

  15. Poly(L-lactic acid) and polyurethane nanofibers fabricated by solution blow spinning as potential substrates for cardiac cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomecka, Ewelina, E-mail: etomecka@ch.pw.edu.pl [Department of Microbioanalytics, Institute of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Wojasinski, Michal [Department of Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw (Poland); Jastrzebska, Elzbieta; Chudy, Michal [Department of Microbioanalytics, Institute of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Ciach, Tomasz [Department of Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warsaw (Poland); Brzozka, Zbigniew [Department of Microbioanalytics, Institute of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a comparison and evaluation of cardiac cell proliferation on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and polyurethane (PU) nanofibrous mats fabricated by solution blow spinning (SBS). Three different cardiac cell lines: rat cardiomyoblasts (H9C2 line), human (HCM) and rat cardiomyocytes (RCM) were used for experiments. Cell morphology, orientation and proliferation were investigated on non-modified and protein-modified (fibronectin, collagen, gelatin, laminin, poly-L-lysine) surfaces of both types of nanofibers. Obtained results of cell culture on nanofibers surfaces were compared to the results of cell culture on polystyrene (PS) surfaces modified in the same way. The results indicated that in most cases polymeric nanofibers (PLLA and PU) are better substrates for cardiac cell culture than PS surfaces. All types of investigated cells, cultured on nanofibers (PLLA and PU), had more elongated shape than cells cultured on PS surfaces. Moreover, cells were arranged in parallel to each other, according to fibers orientation. Additionally, it was shown that the protein modifications of investigated surfaces influenced on cell proliferation. Therefore, we suggest that the cardiac cell culture on nanofibrous mats fabricated by SBS could be more advanced experimental in vitro model for studies on the effect of various cardiac drugs than traditional culture on PS surface. - Highlights: • Solution blow spinning was used for PLLA and PU nanofibers fabrication. • Three cardiac cell lines differing in age and origin were used for experiments. • The protein modifications of investigated surfaces influenced on cell proliferation. • Nanofibers are better substrates for cardiac cell culture than PS surface. • Nanofibers enable cultivating cardiac cells under conditions similar to in vivo.

  16. Novel multi-biotin grafted poly(lactic acid) and its self-assembling nanoparticles capable of binding to streptavidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Jiang, Weimin; Zhang, Yinxing; Liu, Ying; Wang, Bin; Yang, Li; Deng, Lihong; Singh, Gurinder K; Pan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery requires novel biodegradable, specific binding systems with longer circulation time. The aim of this study was to prepare biotinylated poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles (NPs) which can meet regular requirements as well conjugate more biotins in the polymer to provide better binding with streptavidin. A biotin-graft-PLA was synthesized based on previously published biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-graft-PLA, with one polymer molecule containing three PEG molecules. Newly synthesized biotin-graft-PLA had three biotins per polymer molecule, higher than the previous biotinylated PLA (≤1 biotin per polymer molecule). A PEG with a much lower molecular weight (MW ~1900) than the previous biotinylated PLA (PEG MW ≥ 3800), and thus more biocompatible, was used which supplied good nonspecific protein-resistant property compatible to PEG-graft-PLA, suggesting its possible longer stay in the bloodstream. Biotin-graft-PLA specifically bound to streptavidin and self-assembled into NPs, during which naproxen, a model small molecule (MW 230 Da) and hydrophobic drug, was encapsulated (encapsulation efficiency 51.88%). The naproxen-loaded NPs with particle size and zeta potential of 175 nm and −27.35 mV realized controlled release within 170 hours, comparable to previous studies. The biotin-graft-PLA NPs adhered approximately two-fold more on streptavidin film and on biotin film via a streptavidin arm both in static and dynamic conditions compared with PEG-graft-PLA NPs, the proven nonspecific protein-resistant NPs. The specific binding of biotin-graft-PLA NPs with streptavidin and with biotin using streptavidin arm, as well as its entrapment and controlled release for naproxen, suggest potential applications in targeted drug delivery. PMID:22334778

  17. Poly(L-lactic acid) and polyurethane nanofibers fabricated by solution blow spinning as potential substrates for cardiac cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomecka, Ewelina; Wojasinski, Michal; Jastrzebska, Elzbieta; Chudy, Michal; Ciach, Tomasz; Brzozka, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison and evaluation of cardiac cell proliferation on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and polyurethane (PU) nanofibrous mats fabricated by solution blow spinning (SBS). Three different cardiac cell lines: rat cardiomyoblasts (H9C2 line), human (HCM) and rat cardiomyocytes (RCM) were used for experiments. Cell morphology, orientation and proliferation were investigated on non-modified and protein-modified (fibronectin, collagen, gelatin, laminin, poly-L-lysine) surfaces of both types of nanofibers. Obtained results of cell culture on nanofibers surfaces were compared to the results of cell culture on polystyrene (PS) surfaces modified in the same way. The results indicated that in most cases polymeric nanofibers (PLLA and PU) are better substrates for cardiac cell culture than PS surfaces. All types of investigated cells, cultured on nanofibers (PLLA and PU), had more elongated shape than cells cultured on PS surfaces. Moreover, cells were arranged in parallel to each other, according to fibers orientation. Additionally, it was shown that the protein modifications of investigated surfaces influenced on cell proliferation. Therefore, we suggest that the cardiac cell culture on nanofibrous mats fabricated by SBS could be more advanced experimental in vitro model for studies on the effect of various cardiac drugs than traditional culture on PS surface. - Highlights: • Solution blow spinning was used for PLLA and PU nanofibers fabrication. • Three cardiac cell lines differing in age and origin were used for experiments. • The protein modifications of investigated surfaces influenced on cell proliferation. • Nanofibers are better substrates for cardiac cell culture than PS surface. • Nanofibers enable cultivating cardiac cells under conditions similar to in vivo.

  18. An Overview of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid (PLGA-Based Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piergiorgio Gentile

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA has attracted considerable interest as a base material for biomedical applications due to its: (i biocompatibility; (ii tailored biodegradation rate (depending on the molecular weight and copolymer ratio; (iii approval for clinical use in humans by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA; (iv potential to modify surface properties to provide better interaction with biological materials; and (v suitability for export to countries and cultures where implantation of animal-derived products is unpopular. This paper critically reviews the scientific challenge of manufacturing PLGA-based materials with suitable properties and shapes for specific biomedical applications, with special emphasis on bone tissue engineering. The analysis of the state of the art in the field reveals the presence of current innovative techniques for scaffolds and material manufacturing that are currently opening the way to prepare biomimetic PLGA substrates able to modulate cell interaction for improved substitution, restoration, or enhancement of bone tissue function.

  19. Non-isothermal Crystallization, Thermal Stability, and Mechanical Performance of Poly(L-lactic acid/Barium Phenylphosphonate Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Yan-Hua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of a nucleating agent in semi-crystalline polymers is a frequently utilized way to improve the crystallization performance, and the use of a nucleating agent has a very great effect on the performance of the polymer in other areas including thermal stability and mechanical properties. In this investigation, barium phenylphosphonate (BaP was prepared as a crystallization accelerator for Poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA, and the non-isothermal crystallization behavior, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of PLLA modified by BaP were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and electronic tensile testing. Non-isothermal crystallization analysis showed that the BaP could significantly accelerate the crystallization of PLLA, and the non-isothermal crystallization peak shifted to a higher temperature with increasing concentration of BaP, however, the corresponding crystallization peak became wider. XRD results after non-isothermal crystallization confirmed the non-isothermal crystallization DSC results. Additionally, the addition of BaP did not change the crystal form of PLLA. A comparative study on thermal stability indicated that BaP decreased the onset decomposition temperature of PLLA, resulting from the formation of more tiny and imperfect crystals. Whereas the influence of BaP on the thermal decomposition profile of PLLA was negligible. In terms of mechanical properties, the tensile strength and elastic modulus of PLLA/BaP increased compared to the virgin PLLA, unfortunately, the elongation at break decreased.

  20. Biodegradable Poly(Lactic Acid/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Fabrication Using Casting And Hot Press Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park S.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable advanced polymer composites have recently received a large amount of attention. The present study aimed to design poly(lactic acid multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites (PLA/MWCNTs using a simple fabrication technique. A PLA sheet was first dissolved in dichloromethane, and MWCNTs were subsequently added at various concentrations (0.5, 1.5 and 5% while applying shear strain stirring to achieve dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs. These solutions were then molded and a hot press was used to generate sheets free of voids with entrapped solvent. The prepared samples were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Our data showed composite samples free of defects and voids, indicating that the hot press is capable of generating sufficiently compact polymer matrices. Additionally, TGA and FTIR showed significant bonding interactions between the PLA matrix and the nano-fillers. Collectively, our results suggest that incorporation of CNTs as nano-fillers into biodegradable polymers may have multiple applications in many different sectors.

  1. Examination of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of a diclofenac poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle formulation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harirforoosh, S; West, K O; Murrell, D E; Denham, J W; Panus, P C; Hanley, G A

    2016-12-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are assembled into two categories; cyclooxygenase (COX-1) sparing inhibitors of COX-2 and non-selective NSAIDs. Diclofenac (DICLO) is a non-selective NSAID that has been linked to serious side effects including gastric ulcers and renal injury. In this study, we examine the effect of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoformulation on DICLO-associated adverse events and pharmacokinetics using a nanoparticle (NP) formulation previously developed in our laboratory. Rats were administered a single dose of methylcellulose (VEH), blank NP, DICLO (10 mg/kg), or a DICLO-NP suspension equivalent to the DICLO dose. Urinary and blood parameters were measured at baseline and following treatment. Duodenal and gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and duodenal myeloperoxidase (MPO) were collected to assess inflammation at 24 hrs post-treatment. The mean percent change from baseline in sodium excretion rate (µmol/min/100 g body weight) differed significantly from VEH in the NP (p < 0.0001), DICLO (p < 0.0001), and DICLO-NP (p = 0.0001) groups. The differences among groups did not reach significance for plasma sodium or potassium concentrations, potassium excretion rate, gastric PGE2, or intestinal biomarker concentrations. Regarding renal histopathology, DICLO produced considerably more necrosis compared to VEH; while DICLO-NP did not elicit notable differences from VEH. Our results suggest that over the duration and dosage examined, DICLO-NP may reduce renal necrosis without influencing other side effects or drug characteristics.

  2. Corrosion resistance of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide/poly(lactic acid) composite coating on magnesium alloy AZ31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong-Chang; Li, Xiao-Ting; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Fen; Li, Shuo-Qi; Cui, Hong-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    A Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH) coating consisted of uniform hexagonal nano-plates was firstly synthesized by co-precipitation and hydrothermal treatment on the AZ31 alloy, and then a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) coating was sealed on the top layer of the ZnAl-LDH coating using vacuum freeze-drying. The characteristics of the ZnAl-LDH/PLA composite coatings were investigated by means of XRD, SEM, FTIR and EDS. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that the ZnAl-LDH coating contained a compact inner layer and a porous outer layer, and the PLA coating with a strong adhesion to the porous outer layer can prolong the service life of the ZnAl-LDH coating. The excellent corrosion resistance of this composite coating can be attributable to its barrier function, ion-exchange and self-healing ability.

  3. Effect of lecithin content blend with poly (L-lactic acid) on viability and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhonghua; Wu Qingyu

    2009-01-01

    Lecithin constitutes a natural mixture of phospholipids and neutral lipids and plays critical roles in cellular membrane structure and cellular signaling. In this study, lecithin was blended with poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) for modifying the surface of PLLA because it might obtain appropriate hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. The modified PLLA films were manufactured using conventional solvent-casting technique. The hydrophilicity clearly increased with an increase of lecithin content in the polymer blends, as determined by measuring the water contact angle (WCA). The cytocompatibility and any potential cytotoxic effects were studied over 7 days by seeding mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the films of PLLA containing 0-15% lecithin (wt.%), in comparison with tissue culture plates (TCPs). Cell viability and proliferation were assessed using WST-8, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell morphology was studied by toluidine blue and propidium iodide staining. This results obtained above suggested that 5%lecithin-containing PLLA films could possess the optimal hydrophilicity, higher adhesion and proliferation of MSCs for a prolonged period and did not demonstrate any significant toxic effects to cells. The study showed that the hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of the modified PLLA were markedly improved by directly introducing lecithin into the polymer without the use of multiple synthetic steps. The information obtained should be useful for future research in vascular tissue engineering (VTE).

  4. Synthesis of antimicrobial Nisin-phosphorylated soybean protein isolate/poly(L-lactic acid)/ZrO2 membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Suwei; Wang, Hualin; Chu, Chenjiang; Ma, Xingkong; Sun, Min; Jiang, Shaotong

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate the model drug Nisin loaded phosphorylated soybean protein isolate/poly(l-lactic acid)/zirconium dioxide (Nisin-PSPI/PLLA/ZrO2) nanofibrous membranes. The average diameter of drug carrier PSPI/PLLA/ZrO2 nanofibers increased with the increase of content PSPI and some spindle-shape beads appeared when PSPI content reached 25 wt%. The loading dosage of Nisin caused no significant changes in the size and morphology of nanofibers when Nisin content was below 9 wt%. There existed hydrogen and Zr-O-C bonds among PSPI, PLLA and ZrO2 units, and the crystalline of PLLA matrix decreased owning to the introducing of PSPI and ZrO2 units. Moreover, the water absorption capability and degradation rate of PSPI/PLLA/ZrO2 nanofibrous membranes increased with increasing PSPI content. The antimicrobial activity and release experimental results showed that Nisin-PSPI/PLLA/ZrO2 nanofibrous membranes displayed well controlled release and better antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and the Nisin release from the medicated nanofibers could be described by Fickian diffusion model. The Nisin-PSPI/PLLA/ZrO2 nanofibrous membranes may have potential as a new nanofibrous membrane in drug delivery, food active packaging and wound dressing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of poly (lactic acid)/chitosan nanocomposites based on renewable resources as biobased-material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani; Agusnar, H.; Wirjosentono, B.; Rihayat, T.; Salisah, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Biobased becomes one of the new breakthrough in the smart engineering, especially in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering that serves as a supporting physical structure to trigger the growth of skin tissue. From various studies which had been done, it was known that the optimal Biobased healed wounds or injuries in a relatively short time. In this study, a Biobased natural polymer based e.g Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA)/Chitosan Nanocomposites was made. PLA was synthesized from saba banana (Musa acuminata) as raw material using Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP) method. PLA was mixed with Chitosan with Chitosan concentration variations of 1%, 3%, and 5% to form a nanocomposites. The analysis result showed that Chitosan concentration in PLA/Chitosan Nanocomposites sample affected the value of tensile strength. The highest value of tensile strength was obtained on a sample of 100 ml volume with a concentration of 3%, which was 120.396 MPa. The highest percentage of elongation was obtained in 100 ml volume sample with 5% concentration, which was 26.3686%. In the hydrophilicity test, the highest percentage of water absorption was obtained in a 200 ml volume sample with 5% concentration, which was 44.615%. The addition of Chitosan to the sample affected the functional group bonding, where there was a functional group of NH2 at the wave number of 2923.92 cm-1. The sample characteristics based on water absorption indicated that the sample was potentially to be used as Biobased construction material.

  6. Mussel-Inspired Fabrication of Konjac Glucomannan/Poly (Lactic Acid) Cryogels with Enhanced Thermal and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Yuan, Yi; Mu, Ruo-Jun; Gong, Jingni; Ni, Yongsheng; Hong, Xin; Pang, Jie; Wu, Chunhua

    2017-12-16

    Three-dimensional nanofibers cryogels (NFCs) with both thermally-tolerant and mechanically-robust properties have potential for wide application in biomedical or food areas; however, creating such NFCs has proven to be extremely challenging. In this study, konjac glucomannan (KGM)/poly (lactic acid) (PLA)-based novel NFCs were prepared by the incorporation of the mussel-inspired protein polydopamine (PDA) via a facile and environmentally-friendly electrospinning and freeze-shaping technique. The obtained KGM/PLA/PDA (KPP) NFCs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compressive and tensile test. The results showed that the hierarchical cellular structure and physicochemical properties of KPP NFCs were dependent on the incorporation of PDA content. Moreover, the strong intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions among KGM, PLA and PDA also gave KPP NFCs high thermostability and mechanically-robust properties. Thus, this study developed a simple approach to fabricate multifunctional NFCs with significant potential for biomedical or food application.

  7. Mechanical and degradation properties of biodegradable Mg strengthened poly-lactic acid composite through plastic injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad Shoaib; Bai, Jing; Wan, Xiaofeng; Chu, Chenglin; Xue, Feng; Ding, Hongyan; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Full biodegradable magnesium alloy (AZ31) strengthened poly-lactic acid (PLA) composite rods for potential application for bone fracture fixation were prepared by plastic injection process in this work. Their surface/interfacial morphologies, mechanical properties and vitro degradation were studied. In comparison with untreated Mg rod, porous MgO ceramic coating on Mg surface formed by Anodizing (AO) and micro-arc-oxidation (MAO)treatment can significantly improve the interfacial binding between outer PLA cladding and inner Mg rod due to the micro-anchoring action, leading to better mechanical properties and degradation performance of the composite rods.With prolonging immersion time in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution until 8weeks, the MgO porous coating were corroded gradually, along with the disappearance of original pores and the formation of a relatively smooth surface. This resulted in a rapidly reduction in mechanical properties for corresponding composite rods owing to the weakening of interfacial binding capacity. The present results indicated that this new PLA-clad Mg composite rods show good potential biomedical applications for implants and instruments of orthopedic inner fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Poly (L-lactic acid) porous scaffold-supported alginate hydrogel with improved mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jiaqi; Zeng, Shaodong; Gao, Liyang; Groth, Thomas; Li, Zhiwen; Kong, Junchao; Zhao, Mingyan; Li, Lihua

    2016-10-10

    Polymer porous scaffolds and hydrogels have been separately employed and explored for a wide range of applications including cell encapsulation, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. In this study, a three-dimensional poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffold with interconnected and homogeneously distributed pores was fabricated to support the alginate hydrogel (Alg). The gels were filled into the porous scaffold, which acted as an analogue of native extracellular matrix (ECM) for entrapment of cells within a support of predefined shape. The mechanical strength of the composite scaffold was characterized by compression testing. The chondrocyte behavior in the scaffold was determined by inverted microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and MTT viability assay. The repair efficiency of such a composite scaffold was further investigated in dog spinal defects by histological evaluation after implantation for 4 weeks. Results showed that the composite scaffold possessed superior mechanical properties and hierarchical porous structure in comparison to pure Alg. Cell culture revealed that the cells presented a specific cartilage status in the composite scaffold in line with higher adherence and proliferation ratio. The histological analyses suggested that the composite scaffold substantially promotes its integration in the host tissue accompanied with a low inflammatory reaction and new tissue formation. The method thus provides a useful pathway for scaffold preparation that can simultaneously achieve suitable mechanical properties and good biocompatibility.

  9. Improved mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite whisker-reinforced poly(L-lactic acid) scaffold by surface modification of hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhou; Feng, Qingling

    2014-02-01

    To improve the mechanical properties of porous hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactic acid) (HA/PLLA) composites, HA whiskers with high crystallinity and high aspect ratio were synthesized. HA whiskers were modified with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to improve the interface between HA whiskers and PLLA. The composite scaffold consists of a porous PLLA matrix with HA whiskers distributed homogeneously. The morphology and the distributions of pore sizes of PLLA scaffold was not influenced by introducing HA whiskers, while the mechanical properties were improved. Both the compressive strength and compressive modulus were increased with the weight ratio of APTES-modified HA whiskers up to 30 wt.%, but only up to 15 wt.% for non-modified HA whiskers. With more than 15 wt.% HA whiskers, the mechanical properties of HA/PLLA scaffold were better improved with APTES-modified HA whiskers than non-modified. The HA whisker/PLLA scaffold with high porosity and improved mechanical properties is attractive in the application of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Facile and Eco-friendly Route to Fabricate Poly(Lactic Acid) Scaffolds with Graded Pore Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffaro, Roberto; Lopresti, Francesco; Botta, Luigi; Maio, Andrea; Sutera, Fiorenza; Mistretta, Maria Chiara; La Mantia, Francesco Paolo

    2016-10-17

    Over the recent years, functionally graded scaffolds (FGS) gaineda crucial role for manufacturing of devices for tissue engineering. The importance of this new field of biomaterials research is due to the necessity to develop implants capable of mimicking the complex functionality of the various tissues, including a continuous change from one structure or composition to another. In this latter context, one topic of main interest concerns the design of appropriate scaffolds for bone-cartilage interface tissue. In this study, three-layered scaffolds with graded pore size were achieved by melt mixing poly(lactic acid) (PLA), sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Pore size distributions were controlled by NaCl granulometry and PEG solvation. Scaffolds were characterized from a morphological and mechanical point of view. A correlation between the preparation method, the pore architecture and compressive mechanical behavior was found. The interface adhesion strength was quantitatively evaluated by using a custom-designed interfacial strength test. Furthermore, in order to imitate the human physiology, mechanical tests were also performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution at 37 °C. The method herein presented provides a high control of porosity, pore size distribution and mechanical performance, thus offering the possibility to fabricate three-layered scaffolds with tailored properties by following a simple and eco-friendly route.

  11. Residual Tensile Property of Plain Woven Jute Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid Green Composites during Thermal Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Katogi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the residual tensile properties of plain woven jute fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid (PLA during thermal cycling. Temperature ranges of thermal cycling tests were 35–45 °C and 35–55 °C. The maximum number of cycles was 103 cycles. The quasi-static tensile tests of jute fiber, PLA, and composite were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Thermal mechanical analyses of jute fiber and PLA were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Results led to the following conclusions. For temperatures of 35–45 °C, tensile strength of composite at 103 cycles decreased 10% compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. For temperatures of 35–55 °C, tensile strength and Young’s modulus of composite at 103 cycles decreased 15% and 10%, respectively, compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. Tensile properties and the coefficient of linear expansion of PLA and jute fiber remained almost unchanged after thermal cycling tests. From observation of a fracture surface, the length of fiber pull out in the fracture surface of composite at 103 cycles was longer than that of composite at 0 cycles. Therefore, tensile properties of the composite during thermal cycling were decreased, probably because of the decrease of interfacial adhesion between the fiber and resin.

  12. Residual Tensile Property of Plain Woven Jute Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid) Green Composites during Thermal Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katogi, Hideaki; Takemura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Motoki

    2016-07-14

    This study investigated the residual tensile properties of plain woven jute fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) during thermal cycling. Temperature ranges of thermal cycling tests were 35-45 °C and 35-55 °C. The maximum number of cycles was 10³ cycles. The quasi-static tensile tests of jute fiber, PLA, and composite were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Thermal mechanical analyses of jute fiber and PLA were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Results led to the following conclusions. For temperatures of 35-45 °C, tensile strength of composite at 10³ cycles decreased 10% compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. For temperatures of 35-55 °C, tensile strength and Young's modulus of composite at 10³ cycles decreased 15% and 10%, respectively, compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. Tensile properties and the coefficient of linear expansion of PLA and jute fiber remained almost unchanged after thermal cycling tests. From observation of a fracture surface, the length of fiber pull out in the fracture surface of composite at 10³ cycles was longer than that of composite at 0 cycles. Therefore, tensile properties of the composite during thermal cycling were decreased, probably because of the decrease of interfacial adhesion between the fiber and resin.

  13. Optimization of Processing Parameters in 3D-Printing of Poly(lactic acid by Fused Deposition Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ezoji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, making use of additive manufacturing (AM processes such as fused deposition modeling (FDM, in different areas, such as car manufacturing, biomedical and aerospace industries is gaining popularity worldwide because of their capacities in producing functional parts with complex geometries. Therefore, it is very important to identify the significance of FDM processing parameters which would have an impact on the quality of articles produced by the processing system. In this work, poly(lactic acid was used to study the effects of processing parameters such as layer thickness, raster angle and printing plane on the tensile properties and surface roughness of the printed specimens. The results showed that the tensile strength of a specimen increased by reducing its layer thickness. However, the elastic modulus values increased with decreasing the layer thickness to some extent. Moreover, when the layer thickness was kept constant at 0.05 mm and 3D-printing was carried out in XYZ plane, the maximum modulus and tensile strength were obtained for the raster angle of 0˚. Microscopic studies showed that in low layer thickness, the polymeric layers diffused properly into each other and no voids were formed between the layers. However, with a thickness above its critical value, a few voids were formed between the layers which played as a stress concentrator and decreased the tensile strength of the specimens. The results also showed that the surface roughness increased with increasing the layer thickness.

  14. Residual wood polymers facilitate compounding of microfibrillated cellulose with poly(lactic acid) for 3D printer filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Armin; Mundigler, Norbert; Holzweber, Julian; Veigel, Stefan; Müller, Ulrich; Kovalcik, Adriana; Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is a fascinating material with an obvious potential for composite reinforcement due to its excellent mechanics together with high specific surface area. However, in order to use this potential, commercially viable solutions to important technological challenges have to be found. Notably, the distinct hydrophilicity of MFC prevents efficient drying without loss in specific surface area, necessitating storage and processing in wet condition. This greatly hinders compounding with important technical polymers immiscible with water. Differently from cellulose, the chemistry of the major wood polymers lignin and hemicellulose is much more diverse in terms of functional groups. Specifically, the aromatic moieties present in lignin and acetyl groups in hemicellulose provide distinctly less polar surface-chemical functionality compared to hydroxyl groups which dominate the surface-chemical character of cellulose. It is shown that considerable advantages in the production of MFC-filled poly(lactic acid) filaments for three-dimensional printing can be obtained through the use of MFC containing residual lignin and hemicellulose due to their advantageous surface-chemical characteristics. Specifically, considerably reduced agglomerations of MFC in the filaments in combination with improved printability and improved toughness of printed objects are achieved. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

  15. Formulation of porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles by electrospray deposition method for controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Bochu, E-mail: wangbc2000@126.com; Deng, Jia; Zhu, Liancai; Cao, Yang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the electrospray deposition was successfully applied to prepare the porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles by one-step processing. Metronidazole was selected as the model drug. The porous PLGA microparticles had high drug loading and low density, and the porous structure can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The production time has been shortened considerably compared with that of the traditional multi-emulsion method. In addition, no chemical reaction occurred between the drug and polymer in the preparation of porous microparticles, and the crystal structure of drug did not change after entrapment into the porous microparticles. The porous microparticles showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric fluid, and the release followed non-Fickian or case II transport. Furthermore, porous microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro. The results indicated that electrospray deposition is a good technique for preparation of porous microparticles, and the low-density porous PLGA microparticles has a potential for the development of gastroretentive systems or for pulmonary drug delivery. - Highlights: • The porous PLGA microparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospray deposition method at one step. • The porous microparticles had high loading capacity and low density. • The microparticle showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric liquid. • The microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro.

  16. Mussel-Inspired Fabrication of Konjac Glucomannan/Poly (Lactic Acid Cryogels with Enhanced Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional nanofibers cryogels (NFCs with both thermally-tolerant and mechanically-robust properties have potential for wide application in biomedical or food areas; however, creating such NFCs has proven to be extremely challenging. In this study, konjac glucomannan (KGM/poly (lactic acid (PLA-based novel NFCs were prepared by the incorporation of the mussel-inspired protein polydopamine (PDA via a facile and environmentally-friendly electrospinning and freeze-shaping technique. The obtained KGM/PLA/PDA (KPP NFCs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and compressive and tensile test. The results showed that the hierarchical cellular structure and physicochemical properties of KPP NFCs were dependent on the incorporation of PDA content. Moreover, the strong intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions among KGM, PLA and PDA also gave KPP NFCs high thermostability and mechanically-robust properties. Thus, this study developed a simple approach to fabricate multifunctional NFCs with significant potential for biomedical or food application.

  17. Fabrication and formation mechanism of poly (L-lactic acid ultrafine multi-porous hollow fiber by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Z. Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA ultrafine multi-porous hollow fibers are fabricated by electrospinning with methylene dichloride as solvent. The Kirkendall effect has been widely applied for the fabrication of hollow structure in metals and inorganic materials. In this study, a conceptual extension is proposed for the formation mechanism: the development of porous hollow fiber undergoes three stages. The initial stage is the generation of small voids or pits on the surface of the fiber via surface diffusion and phase separation; the second stage is the formation of multi-pores penetrating the core of the fiber through the interaction of Kirkendall effect, surface diffusion and phase separation; the third stage is dominated by surface diffusion of the core material along the pore surface. To explore the formation conditions, the factors including ambient temperature, relativity humidity (R. H., molecular weight and fiber diameter are studied. The longitudinal and cross sectional morphologies of these fibers are examined by scanning electron micrograph (SEM. The results show that the prerequisite for the formation of uniform porous hollow PLLA fibers include moderate ambient temperature (10~20°C and appropriate molecular weight for the PLLA, as well as the diameter of the fiber in the range of several micrometers to about 100 nanometers.

  18. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on hydroxyapatite-mineralized poly(lactic acid) nanofiber sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Fu-Chen [Department of Health Developing and Health Marketing, Kainan University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@thu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taiwan (China); Lai, Wen-Fu T., E-mail: Laitw@tmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    Electrospun fiber sheets with various orientations (random, partially aligned, and aligned) and smooth and roughened casted membranes were prepared. Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals were in situ formed on these material surfaces via immersion in 10 × simulated body fluid solution. The size and morphology of the resulting fibers were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The average diameter of the fibers ranged from 225 ± 25 to 1050 ± 150 nm depending on the electrospinning parameters. Biological experiment results show that human adipose-derived stem cells exhibit different adhesion and osteogenic differentiation on the three types of fiber. The cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were best on the aligned fibers. Similar results were found for phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase expression. Electrospun poly(lactic acid) aligned fibers mineralized with HA crystals provide a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation and thus have great potential in the tissue engineering field. - Highlights: • hADSCs show higher adhesion and proliferation on HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets than those of the control membranes. • HA-mineralized fiber groups greatly improve cell growth and increase FAK and p-FAK expressions. • HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets present higher ALP and OC activity through the study periods. • Electrospun PLA fiber mineralized with HA provides a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. • A simple immersion of electrospun fibers in 10 × SBF are a potential matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  19. Development of novel nano-biocomposite antioxidant films based on poly (lactic acid) and thymol for active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marina; Jiménez, Alfonso; Peltzer, Mercedes; Garrigós, María C

    2014-11-01

    Novel nano-biocomposite films based on poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were prepared by incorporating thymol, as the active additive, and modified montmorillonite (D43B) at two different concentrations. A complete thermal, structural, mechanical and functional characterization of all nano-biocomposites was carried out. Thermal stability was not significantly affected by the addition of thymol, but the incorporation of D43B improved mechanical properties and reduced the oxygen transmission rate by the formation of intercalated structures, as suggested by wide angle X-ray scattering patterns and transmission electron microscopy images. The addition of thymol decreased the PLA glass transition temperature, as the result of the polymer plasticization, and led to modification of the elastic modulus and elongation at break. Finally, the amount of thymol remaining in these formulations was determined by liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH spectroscopic method, suggesting that the formulated nano-biocomposites could be considered a promising antioxidant active packaging material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of commercial poly(lactic acid) clamshell for food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madera-Santana, Tomás J.; Meléndrez, R.; González-García, Gerardo; Quintana-Owen, Patricia; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a well-known biodegradable polymer with strong potential application in food packaging industry. In this paper, samples of PLA clamshell for tomatoes packaging were exposed with 60 CO γ-ray's source (1.33 MeV) at different dose levels (0, 10, 60, 150, 300, and 600 kGy), at room temperature and in presence of air. The physicochemical properties of neat PLA and sample exposed to gamma irradiation were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile measurements. Results show as the dose increases, the molecular weight (M w ), melting temperature (T m ), tensile strength and elongation at break decreased. However, the tensile modulus increased with increasing doses. The surface of PLA clamshells was degraded (scratches and minor cracks) when samples were exposed to doses greater than 60 kGy. - Highlights: • The gamma irradiation effects on PLA clamshells were studied. • DSC, XRD, NMR and FTIR analysis were used for PLA clamshell characterization. • The M w , T m , strength and elongation of the irradiated PLA clamshells decreased. • The tensile modulus increased with increasing gamma doses. • The Surface of PLA clamshell showed scratches and minor cracks.

  1. Disposal Options of Bamboo Fabric-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid Composites for Sustainable Packaging: Biodegradability and Recyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nurul Fazita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the recyclability and biodegradability of bamboo fabric-reinforced poly(lactic acid (BF-PLA composites for sustainable packaging. BF-PLA composite was recycled through the granulation, extrusion, pelletization and injection processes. Subsequently, mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength, thermal stability and the morphological appearance of recycled BF-PLA composites were determined and compared to BF-PLA composite (initial materials and virgin PLA. It was observed that the BF-PLA composites had the adequate mechanical rigidity and thermal stability to be recycled and reused. Moreover, the biodegradability of BF-PLA composite was evaluated in controlled and real composting conditions, and the rate of biodegradability of BF-PLA composites was compared to the virgin PLA. Morphological and thermal characteristics of the biodegradable BF-PLA and virgin PLA were obtained by using environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, respectively. The first order decay rate was found to be 0.0278 and 0.0151 day−1 in a controlled composting condition and 0.0008 and 0.0009 day−1 in real composting conditions for virgin PLA and BF-PLA composite, respectively. Results indicate that the reinforcement of bamboo fabric in PLA matrix minimizes the degradation rate of BF-PLA composite. Thus, BF-PLA composite has the potential to be used in product packaging for providing sustainable packaging.

  2. The Effect of Emulation Formulation to Encapsulation of Fe3O4 Magnetic nanoparticle with Poly (Lactic Acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evi Yuliyanti; Sudaryanto; Mujamilah; Yoki Yulizar

    2008-01-01

    The research to study the effect of emulsion formulation to encapsulation Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticle with Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA) has been done. Microemulsion by ultrasonic probe is used in encapsulation process and continued by solvent evaporation. Emulsion formulation has been varied by changing oil phase volume in the oil in water (o/w) emulsion system from 6 mL, 8 mL, 10 mL, 12 mL and 14 mL, whereas water phase volume is constant (55 mL). Sample characterization is carried on by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to know the morphology and sample size. X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) is used to identify the phase, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) is used to measure magnetic saturation while Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is used to measure encapsulation percentage of Fe 3 O 4 with PLA. The smallest nanosphere is resulted by emulsion formulation (o/w) of 14/55 with the main sample size 382 nm. The maximum magnetic saturation of Fe 3 O 4 + PLA nanosphere is 2.556 emu/g and encapsulation percentage is 24.94 %. (author)

  3. Effects of organoclay to miscibility, mechanical and thermal properties of poly(lactic acid) and propylene-ethylene copolymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacharawichanant, S.; Ounyai, C.; Rassamee, P.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of propylene-ethylene copolymer (PEC or PEC3300) and clay surface modified with 25-30 wt% of trimethylstearyl ammonium (Clay-TSA) on morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were investigated. The morphology analysis showed PLA/PEC3300 blends clearly demonstrated a two-phase separation of dispersed phase and the matrix phase and the addition of Clay-TSA could improve the miscibility of PLA and PEC3300 blends due to the decreased of the domain sizes of dispersed PEC3300 phase in the polymer matrix. From X-ray diffraction analysis showed the intercalation of PLA chains inside the Clay-TSA and this result implied that Clay-TSA platelets acted as an effective compatibilizer. The tensile properties showed the strain at break of PLA was improved after adding PEC3300 while Young’s modulus, tensile strength and storage modulus decreased. The addition of Clay-TSA could improve Young’s modulus of PLA/PEC3300 blends. The addition of Clay-TSA 7 phr showed the maximum of Young’s modulus of PLA/PEC3300/Clay-TSA composites. The thermal properties found that the addition of PEC3300 and Clay-TSA did not change significantly on the glass transition temperature and melting point temperature of PLA. The percent of crystallinity of PLA decreased with increasing PEC content. The thermal stability of PLA improved after adding PEC3300.

  4. Spiral crack patterns observed for melt-grown spherulites of poly(L-lactic acid) upon quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Futoshi; Sobajima, Takamasa; Irie, Satoshi; Sasaki, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the characteristic spiral cracking that appears on the surface of melt-grown poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) spherulites with relatively large sizes (greater than 0.4mm in diameter). The crack occurs via thermal shrinkage upon quenching after crystallization. Although concentric cracks on polymer spherulites have been found to occur in quite a few studies, spiral crack patterns have never been reported so far. The present spiral crack was observed for thick spherulites (> 10 μm), whereas the concentric crack pattern was frequently observed for thin spherulites (typically 5 μm). The present PLLA spherulites exhibited a non-banded structure with no apparent structural periodicity at least on the scale of the spiral pitch, and thus no direct correlation between the crack pattern and the spherulitic structure was suggested. The spiral was revealed to be largely Archimedean of which the spiral pitch increases with an increase in the thickness of the spherulite. This may be interpreted in terms of a classical mechanical model for a thin layer with no delamination from the substrate.

  5. Patterning Multi-Nanostructured Poly(l-lactic acid) Fibrous Matrices to Manipulate Biomolecule Distribution and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenwu; Li, Qingtao; He, Huimin; Li, Wenxiu; Cao, Xiaodong; Dong, Hua

    2018-03-14

    Precise manipulation of biomolecule distribution and functions via biomolecule-matrix interaction is very important and challenging for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. As a well-known biomimetic matrix, electrospun fibers often lack the unique spatial complexity compared to their natural counterparts in vivo and thus cannot deliver fully the regulatory cues to biomolecules. In this paper, we report a facile and reliable method to fabricate micro- and nanostructured poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibrous matrices with spatial complexity by a combination of advanced electrospinning and agarose hydrogel stamp-based micropatterning. Specifically, advanced electrospinning is used to construct multi-nanostructures of fibrous matrices while solvent-loaded agarose hydrogel stamps are used to create microstructures. Compared with other methods, our method shows extreme simplicity and flexibility originated from the mono-/multi-spinneret conversion and limitless micropatterns of agarose hydrogel stamps. Three types of PLLA fibrous matrices including patterned nano-Ag/PLLA hybrid fibers, patterned bicompartment polyethylene terephthalate/PLLA fibers, and patterned hollow PLLA fibers are fabricated and their capability to manipulate biomolecule distribution and functions, that is, bacterial distribution and antibacterial performance, cell patterning and adhesion/spreading behaviors, and protein adsorption and delivery, is demonstrated in detail. The method described in our paper provides a powerful tool to restore spatial complexity in biomimetic matrices and would have promising applications in the field of biomedical engineering.

  6. Mechanical properties' improvement of a tricalcium phosphate scaffold with poly-l-lactic acid in selective laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Defu; Zhuang, Jingyu; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2013-01-01

    To improve the mechanical properties of a scaffold fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS), a small amount (0.5–3 wt%) of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) is added to the β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder. The fracture toughness of the scaffold prepared with the mixture powder containing 1 wt% PLLA increases by 18.18% and the compressive strength increases by 4.45% compared to the scaffold prepared from the β-TCP powder. The strengthening and toughening is related to the enhancement of β-TCP sintering characteristics via introducing a transient liquid phase in SLS. Moreover, the microcracks caused by the volume expansion due to the β–α phase transformation of TCP are reduced because of the PLLA inhibition function on the phase transformation. However, PLLA additive above 1 wt% would lead to a PLLA residue which will decrease the mechanical properties. The experimental results show that PLLA is an effective sintering aid to improve the mechanical properties of a TCP scaffold. (paper)

  7. Modification of physical properties of poly(L-lactic acid by addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Suzuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA is a biodegradable plastic and one of the most famous plastics made from biobased materials. However, its physical strength is insufficient compared to general-purpose plastics. In this study, the effect of methylcyclodextrin (MeCD addition on the structure and physical properties, especially the drawing behavior, of PLLA was investigated. Through thermal analysis, it was found that MeCD addition lowers the crystallinity and enhances the mobility of PLLA. The sample containing approximately 17% MeCD was drawn to more than 1000% at 60 °C, although PLLA fractured at a strain of less than 100%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC-Raman in situ measurements also revealed decreases in the glass transition temperature (Tg, cold crystallization temperature (Tc, and melting point (Tm, and improvement in structural distribution with temperature. DSC-Raman measurements simultaneously supplied information about crystallinity and thermal properties. Thus, it was concluded that MeCD had high affinity for PLLA, and the addition of MeCD increased the amorphous component of PLLA and enhanced the drawability.

  8. Morphology and In Vitro Behavior of Electrospun Fibrous Poly(D,L-lactic acid for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Inami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the fabrication, optimization, and characterization of electrospun fibrous poly(D,L-lactic acid (PDLLA for biomedical applications. The influences of the polymer concentration of the electrospinning solution (5, 10, or 15 wt% and the solution flow rate (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mL/h on the morphology of the obtained fibrous PDLLA were evaluated. The in vitro biocompatibility of two types of PDLLA, ester terminated PDLLA (PDLLA-R and carboxyl terminated PDLLA (PDLLA-COOH, was evaluated by monitoring apatite formation on samples immersed in Hanks’ balanced salt (HBS solution. 15 wt% polymer solution was the most beneficial for preparing a fibrous PDLLA structure. Meanwhile, no differences in morphology were observed for PDLLA prepared at various flow rates. Apatite precipitate is formed on both types of PDLLA only 1 day after immersion in HBS solution. After 7 days of immersion, PDLLA-COOH showed greater apatite formation ability compared with that of PDLLA-R, as measured by thin-film X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that the carboxyl group is effective for apatite precipitation in the body environment.

  9. Residual wood polymers facilitate compounding of microfibrillated cellulose with poly(lactic acid) for 3D printer filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Armin; Mundigler, Norbert; Holzweber, Julian; Veigel, Stefan; Müller, Ulrich; Kovalcik, Adriana; Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang

    2018-02-13

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is a fascinating material with an obvious potential for composite reinforcement due to its excellent mechanics together with high specific surface area. However, in order to use this potential, commercially viable solutions to important technological challenges have to be found. Notably, the distinct hydrophilicity of MFC prevents efficient drying without loss in specific surface area, necessitating storage and processing in wet condition. This greatly hinders compounding with important technical polymers immiscible with water. Differently from cellulose, the chemistry of the major wood polymers lignin and hemicellulose is much more diverse in terms of functional groups. Specifically, the aromatic moieties present in lignin and acetyl groups in hemicellulose provide distinctly less polar surface-chemical functionality compared to hydroxyl groups which dominate the surface-chemical character of cellulose. It is shown that considerable advantages in the production of MFC-filled poly(lactic acid) filaments for three-dimensional printing can be obtained through the use of MFC containing residual lignin and hemicellulose due to their advantageous surface-chemical characteristics. Specifically, considerably reduced agglomerations of MFC in the filaments in combination with improved printability and improved toughness of printed objects are achieved.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Biodegradable blends of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) / polyhydroxybutrate (PHB) copolymer and its effects on rheological, thermal and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Nitin K.

    Poly (Lactic acid) is the most important plastic derived from the renewable resources. PLA based products have extensively been used in the medical industry. However, PLA has a few disadvantages such as inherent brittleness and low toughness despite a high modulus. A focus of this experiment was to study the improvement in toughness of PLA and to study the changes in thermal and rheological properties by blending PLA with a PHB copolymer. Where, PLA and PHB copolymer were melt blended using a twin screw Brabender extruder in the ratios of 100/0, 70/30, 50/50, 30/70, 0/100. Further, the blends were injection molded into tensile bar and impact bars for mechanical testing. Rheological properties were studied using a Galaxy capillary rheometer for melt viscosities and temperature dependence indicated a shear-thinning behavior along with power law model and consistency index. Blends were characterized to study the phase model using a differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), showed two separate phases. Mechanical properties were analyzed using a Tensile and Izod impact test indicating decrease in elastic modulus with increase in toughness and elongation as the PHB copolymer content was increased in the blend.

  11. Shape memory nanocomposite of poly(L-lactic acid/graphene nanoplatelets triggered by infrared light and thermal heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lashgari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs on the shape memory properties of poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA was studied. In addition to thermal activation, the possibility of infrared actuating of thermo-responsive shape memory PLLA/GNPs nanocomposite was investigated. The incorporated GNPs were expected to absorb infrared wave’s energy and activate shape memory PLLA/GNPs. Different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA were used to characterize samples. DSC and WAXD results indicated that GNPs augmented crystallinity due to nucleating effect of graphene particles. GNPs improved both thermal and infrared activating shape memory properties along with faster response. Pure shape memory PLLA was slightly responsive to infrared light and its infrared actuated shape recovery ratio was 86% which increased to more than 95% with loading of GNPs. Drastic improvement in the crystallinity was obtained in nanocomposites with lower GNPs contents (0.5 and 1 wt% due to finer dispersion of graphene which resulted in more prominent mechanical and shape memory properties enhancement. Infrared activated shape memory PLLA/GNPs nanocomposites can be developed for wireless remote shape control of smart medical and bio-systems.

  12. Development and characterization of antimicrobial poly(l-lactic acid) containing trans-2-hexenal trapped in cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Min Jung; Merkel, Crispin; Auras, Rafael; Almenar, Eva

    2012-02-15

    Trans-2-hexenal, a naturally occurring plant volatile with antimicrobial capacity, was encapsulated into β-cyclodextrins (β-CDs), enzymatically modified starch, and shown effective to control main microorganisms causing food spoilage (Alternaria solani, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Penicillium sp). Loaded β-CDs were incorporated into a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) matrix by extrusion and casting, and yielded antimicrobial polymers made from natural resources. A masterbatch was used prior to sheet casting to improve the dispersion of the antimicrobial agent in the PLA matrix. However, this increased the number of extrusion processes for the material. The concentration of the antimicrobial compound in the polymers and its antimicrobial capacity against one food spoilage microorganism (A. solani) were measured during the different processing operations. Although the concentration of trans-2-hexenal was reduced by processing by about 70 and 99% compared to the loaded β-CDs, for the masterbatch and sheet, respectively, the polymers were still effective in reducing microbial growth. The changes of the polymer properties due to the addition of the antimicrobial agent were investigated, too. It was found that the mechanical and barrier properties of the PLA were changed (decreased by about half the tensile strength and elongation at break and nine-fold increased permeability) while the physical properties remained the same. Based on these results, the developed polymer may be a viable antimicrobial material for applications in food packaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Biocompatibility of poly-L-lactic acid/Bioglass-guided bone regeneration membranes processed with oxygen plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Zeng, Shu-Guang; Gao, Wen-Feng

    2015-04-01

    To prepare and characterize a nano-scale fibrous hydrophilic poly-L-lactic acid/ Bioglass (PLLA/BG) composite membrane and evaluate its biocompatibility as a composite membrane for guiding bone regeneration (GBR). PLLA/BG-guided bone regeneration membrane was treated by oxygen plasma to improved its hydrophilicity. The growth of MG-63 osteoblasts on the membrane was observed using Hoechst fluorescence staining, and the biocompatibility of the membrane was evaluated by calculating the cells adhesion rate and proliferation rate. Osteogenesis of MG-63 cells was assessed by detecting alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and the formation of calcified nodules and cell morphology changes were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell adhesion rates of PLLA/BG-guided bone regeneration membrane treated with oxygen plasma were (30.570±0.96)%, (47.27±0.78)%, and (66.78±0.69)% at 1, 3, and 6 h, respectively, significantly higher than those on PLLA membrane and untreated PLLA/BG membrane (Pmembranes increased with time, but highest on oxygen plasma-treated PLLA/BG membrane (Pplasma treatment of the PLLA/BG membrane promoted cell adhesion. The membranes with Bioglass promoted the matrix secretion of the osteoblasts. Under SEM, the formation of calcified nodules and spindle-shaped cell morphology were observed on oxygen plasma-treated PLLA/BG membrane. Oxygen plasma-treated PLLA/BG composite membrane has good biocompatibility and can promote adhesion, proliferation and osteogenesis of the osteoblasts.

  14. Synthesis of graphene oxide grafted poly(lactic acid) with palladium nanoparticles and its application to serotonin sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyoung Soon; You, Jung-Min; Jeong, Haesang; Jeon, Seungwon

    2013-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has treated with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and subsequent 1,4-butanediol (BD) to create an anchoring OH site on the surface of GO (GO-MDI-OH). The OH groups of GO-MDI-OH were the initiators of the polymerization of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). The subsequent GO-g-PLA was synthesized by the polymerization reaction in the presence of GO-MDI-OH and PLA. The synthesized materials were characterized via 1H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The surface morphologies and degree of dispersions at G-g-PLA-metals were observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical conductivity of G-g-PLA-Pd was largely enhanced compared with those of GO and GO-g-PLA. G-g-PLA-Pd was used for the electrochemical detection of serotonin. Electrocatalytic activities were verified from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric response in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). A significantly higher concentration range (0.1-100.0 μM) and a lower detection limit (8.0 × 10-8 M, where s/n = 3) were found at the G-g-PLA-Pd modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE).

  15. Synthesis of graphene oxide grafted poly(lactic acid) with palladium nanoparticles and its application to serotonin sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyoung Soon; You, Jung-Min; Jeong, Haesang; Jeon, Seungwon, E-mail: swjeon3380@naver.com

    2013-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has treated with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and subsequent 1,4-butanediol (BD) to create an anchoring OH site on the surface of GO (GO-MDI-OH). The OH groups of GO-MDI-OH were the initiators of the polymerization of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). The subsequent GO-g-PLA was synthesized by the polymerization reaction in the presence of GO-MDI-OH and PLA. The synthesized materials were characterized via {sup 1}H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The surface morphologies and degree of dispersions at G-g-PLA-metals were observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical conductivity of G-g-PLA-Pd was largely enhanced compared with those of GO and GO-g-PLA. G-g-PLA-Pd was used for the electrochemical detection of serotonin. Electrocatalytic activities were verified from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric response in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). A significantly higher concentration range (0.1–100.0 μM) and a lower detection limit (8.0 × 10{sup −8} M, where s/n = 3) were found at the G-g-PLA-Pd modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE).

  16. Aluminum Silicate Nanotube Coating of Siloxane-Poly(lactic acid-Vaterite Composite Fibermats for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Yamazaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our earlier work, a flexible fibermat consisting of a biodegradable composite with soluble silicate species, which has been reported to enhance bone formation, was prepared successfully using poly(L-lactic acid and siloxane-containing calcium carbonate particles by electrospinning. The fibermat showed enhanced bone formation in an in vivo test. In the present work, to improve the hydrophilicity of skeletal fibers in a fibermat, they were coated with nanotubular aluminum silicate crystals, which have a hydrophilic surface that has excellent affinity to body fluids and a high surface area advantageous for pronounced protein adsorption. The nanotubes were coated easily on the fiber surface using an electrophoretic method. In a conventional contact angle test, a drop of water rapidly penetrated into the nanotube-coated fibermat. The culture test using murine osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1 showed that the cell attachment to the nanotube-coated fibermat at an early stage after seeding was enhanced in comparison with that to the noncoated one. This approach may provide a new method of improving the surface of polymer-based biomaterials.

  17. Formulation of porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles by electrospray deposition method for controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Bochu; Deng, Jia; Zhu, Liancai; Cao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the electrospray deposition was successfully applied to prepare the porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles by one-step processing. Metronidazole was selected as the model drug. The porous PLGA microparticles had high drug loading and low density, and the porous structure can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The production time has been shortened considerably compared with that of the traditional multi-emulsion method. In addition, no chemical reaction occurred between the drug and polymer in the preparation of porous microparticles, and the crystal structure of drug did not change after entrapment into the porous microparticles. The porous microparticles showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric fluid, and the release followed non-Fickian or case II transport. Furthermore, porous microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro. The results indicated that electrospray deposition is a good technique for preparation of porous microparticles, and the low-density porous PLGA microparticles has a potential for the development of gastroretentive systems or for pulmonary drug delivery. - Highlights: • The porous PLGA microparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospray deposition method at one step. • The porous microparticles had high loading capacity and low density. • The microparticle showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric liquid. • The microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro

  18. Eco-sustainable systems based on poly(lactic acid), diatomite and coffee grounds extract for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Mori, Stefano; Cherubini, Valeria; Nanni, Francesca

    2018-06-01

    In the food packaging sector many efforts have been (and are) devoted to the development of new materials in order to reply to an urgent market demand for green and eco-sustainable products. Particularly a lot of attention is currently devoted both to the use of compostable and biobased polymers as innovative and promising alternative to the currently used petrochemical derived polymers, and to the re-use of waste materials coming from agriculture and food industry. In this work, multifunctional eco-sustainable systems, based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) as biopolymeric matrix, diatomaceous earth as reinforcing filler and spent coffee grounds extract as oxygen scavenger, were produced for the first time, in order to provide a simultaneous improvement of mechanical and gas barrier properties. The influence of the diatomite and the spent coffee grounds extract on the microstructural, mechanical and oxygen barrier properties of the produced films was deeply investigated by means of X-Ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uniaxial tensile tests, O 2 permeabilimetry measurements. An improvement of both mechanical and oxygen barrier properties was recorded for systems characterised by the co-presence of diatomite and coffee grounds extract, suggesting a possible synergic effect of the two additives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improved insulin loading in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles upon self-assembly with lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, María; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-03-30

    Polymeric nanoparticles are widely investigated as drug delivery systems for oral administration. However, the hydrophobic nature of many polymers hampers effective loading of the particles with hydrophilic macromolecules such as insulin. Thus, the aim of this work was to improve the loading of insulin into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles by pre-assembly with amphiphilic lipids. Insulin was complexed with soybean phosphatidylcholine or sodium caprate by self-assembly and subsequently loaded into PLGA nanoparticles by using the double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, insulin encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity. Upon pre-assembly with lipids, there was an increased distribution of insulin into the organic phase of the emulsion, eventually resulting in significantly enhanced encapsulation efficiencies (90% as compared to 24% in the absence of lipids). Importantly, the insulin loading capacity was increased up to 20% by using the lipid-insulin complexes. The results further showed that a main fraction of the lipid was incorporated into the nanoparticles and remained associated to the polymer during release studies in buffers, whereas insulin was released in a non-complexed form as a burst of approximately 80% of the loaded insulin. In conclusion, the protein load in PLGA nanoparticles can be significantly increased by employing self-assembled protein-lipid complexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of electrospun poly(lactic acid and nanohydroxyapatite nanofibers’ diameter on proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Doustgani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Electrospun nanofibrous mats of poly(lactic acid (PLA and nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA were prepared and proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on the prepared nanofibers were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: PLA/nano-HA nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning. The effects of process parameters, such as nano-HA concentration, distance, applied voltage, and flow rate on the mean diameter of electrospun nanofibers were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to determine the mean fiber diameter of produced nanofibers. Mechanical propertes of nanofibrous mats were evaluated using a universal testing machine. Response surface methodology was used to model the fiber diameter of electrospun PLA/nano-HA nanofibers. Results: The average fiber diameter for optimized nanofibers was 125 ± 11 nm. MTT and ALP results showed that optimization of fiber diameter increased the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. Conclusion: It could be concluded that optimization of fiber diameter has beneficial effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. Optimized nanofibers of PLA/nano-HA could be good candidates for bone tissue engineering.

  1. Release of carbon nanoparticles of different size and shape from nanocomposite poly(lactic) acid film into food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkova, Hristiana; Kotsilkov, Stanislav; Ivanov, Evgeni; Kotsilkova, Rumiana; Gyoshev, Stanislav; Stoimenov, Nikolay; Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2017-06-01

    Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) film with 2 wt% mixed carbon nanofillers of graphene nanoplates (GNPs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a weight ratio of 1:1 with impurities of fullerene and carbon black (CB) was produced by layer-to-layer deposition and hot pressing. The release of carbon nanoparticles from the film was studied at varying time-temperature conditions and simulants. Migrants in simulant solvents were examined with laser diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Film integrity and the presence of migrants on the film surfaces were visualised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The partial dissolution of PLA polymer in the solvents was confirmed by swelling tests and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nanoparticle migrants were not detected in the simulants (at the LOD 0.020 μm of the laser diffraction analysis) after migration testing at 40°C for 10 days. However, high-temperature migration testing at 90°C for 4 h provoked a release of GNPs from the film into ethanol, acetic acid and oil-based food simulants. Short carbon nanotubes were observed rarely to release in the most aggressive acetic acid solvent. Obviously, the enhanced molecular mobility at temperatures above the glass transition and partial dissolution of PLA polymer by the food simulant facilitate the diffusion processes. Moreover, shape, size and concentration of nanoparticles play a significant role. Flexible naked GNPs (lateral size 100-1000 nm) easily migrate when the polymer molecules exhibit enhanced mobility, while fibrous MWCNTs (> 1 μm length) formed entangled networks on the film surfaces as the PLA polymer is partly dissolved, preventing their release into food simulants. The impurities of fullerenes and CB (5-30 nm) were of minor concentration in the polymer, therefore their migration is low or undetectable. The total amount of released migrants is below overall migration limits.

  2. Effect of l-lysine-assisted surface grafting for nano-hydroxyapatite on mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuyun, Jiang; Lixin, Jiang; Chengdong, Xiong; Lijuan, Xu; Ye, Li

    2016-01-01

    It is promising and challenging to study surface modification for nano-hydroxyapatite to improve the dispersion and enhance the mechanical properties and bioactivity of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid). In this paper, we designed an effective new surface grafting with the assist of l-lysine for nano-hydroxyapatite, and the nano-hydroxyapatite surface grafted with the assist of l-lysine (g-nano-hydroxyapatite) was incorporated into poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) to develop a series of g-nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nano-composites. The surface modification reaction for nano-hydroxyapatite, the mechanical properties, and in vitro human osteoblast-like cell (MG-63) response were characterized and investigated by Fourier transformation infrared, thermal gravimetric analysis, dispersion test, electromechanical universal tester, differential scanning calorimeter measurements, and in vitro cells culture experiment. The results showed that the grafting amount on the surface of nano-hydroxyapatite was enhanced with the increase of l-lysine, and the dispersion of nano-hydroxyapatite was improved more, so that it brought about better promotion crystallization and more excellent mechanical enhancement effect for poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid), comparing with the unmodified nano-hydroxyapatite. Moreover, the cells' attachment and proliferation results confirmed that the incorporation of the g-nano-hydroxyapatite into poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) exhibited better biocompatibility than poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid). The above results indicated that the new surface grafting with the assist of l-lysine for nano-hydroxyapatite was an ideal novel surface modification method, which brought about better mechanical enhancement effect and in vitro bioactivity for poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) with adding higher g-nano-hydroxyapatite content, suggesting it had a great potential to be used as bone fracture internal fixation materials

  3. The effect of poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid composition on the mechanical properties of electrospun fibrous mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Aho, Johanna; Baldursdottir, Stefania G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer molecular structure on the electrospinnability and mechanical properties of electrospun fibrous mats (EFMs). Polymers with similar molecular weight but different composition ratios (lactic acid (LA) and glycolic acid (GA)) were dis...

  4. Antibacterial efficacy of triple-layered poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/nanoapatite/lauric acid guided bone regeneration membrane on periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarani, Nur Najiha; Jamuna-Thevi, Kalitheerta; Shahab, Neelam; Hermawan, Hendra; Saidin, Syafiqah

    2017-05-31

    A guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane has been extensively used in the repair and regeneration of damaged periodontal tissues. One of the main challenges of GBR restoration is bacterial colonization on the membrane, constitutes to premature membrane degradation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of triple-layered GBR membrane composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), nanoapatite (NAp) and lauric acid (LA) with two types of Gram-negative periodontal bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis through a disc diffusion and bacterial count tests. The membranes exhibited a pattern of growth inhibition and killing effect against both bacteria. The increase in LA concentration tended to increase the bactericidal activities which indicated by higher diameter of inhibition zone and higher antibacterial percentage. It is shown that the incorporation of LA into the GBR membrane has retarded the growth and proliferation of Gram-negative periodontal bacteria for the treatment of periodontal disease.

  5. Performance properties, lactic acid specific migration and swelling by simulant of biodegradable poly(lactic acid)/nanoclay multilayer films for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfato, Paola; Di Maio, Luciano; Milana, Maria Rosaria; Giamberardini, Silvia; Denaro, Massimo; Incarnato, Loredana

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was the development of a multifunctional, high-performance, fully biodegradable multilayer polylactic acid (PLA) film for food packaging applications. In particular, sealable multilayer PLA-clay nanocomposite systems with different layouts in terms of composition and relative thickness of the layers, all consisting of a PLA-clay nanocomposite layer between two pure PLA layers for direct food contact, were designed and produced by blown film co-extrusion. The films obtained were analysed for their morphology, functional properties and lactic acid (LA)-specific migration in 50% ethanol. The results showed that, with respect to the unfilled multilayer system, taken as a reference, the nanocomposite films had significant improvements, up to about 40%, in their barriers to oxygen and tensile strengths, and resulted in being more easily sealable over a wide heat-sealing temperature range (80-100°C) with higher seal strength. Moreover, all films had LA migrations always well below the former generic overall migration limit of 60 mg kg -1 food (10 mg dm - 2 ) of European Union Regulation No. 10/2011 (deleted by the amending Regulation No. 2016/1416), even if their morphology was strongly modified during the migration tests due to the strong swelling action of the used simulant (simulant D1 = 50% ethanol (aq.) (v/v)) towards PLA.

  6. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a

  7. Effect of gamma ray on poly(lactic acid)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) blends as biodegradable food packaging films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dadbin, Susan; Frounchi, Masoud

    2014-03-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) [P(VAc-co-VA)] blends as new transparent film packaging materials were prepared at various blend compositions and different vinyl alcohol contents. The blends and pure PLA were irradiated by gamma rays to investigate the extent of changes in the packaging material during gamma ray sterilization process. The miscibility of the blends was dependent on the blend composition and vinyl alcohol content; gamma irradiation had little effect on the extent of miscibility. The glass transition temperature of pure PLA and PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) miscible blends reduced after irradiation. On the other hand in PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) immiscible blends, while the glass transition temperature of the PLA phase decreased; that of the copolymer phase slightly increased. The reduction in the glass transition was about 10 percent for samples irradiated with 50 kGy indicating dominance of chain scission of PLA molecules at high irradiation dose. The latter was verified by drop in mechanical properties of pure PLA after exposing to gamma irradiation at 50 kGy. Blending of PLA with the copolymer P(VAc-co-VA) compensated greatly the adverse effects of irradiation on PLA. The oxygen-barrier property of the blend was superior to the neat PLA and remained almost intact with irradiation. The un-irradiated and irradiated blends had excellent transparency. Gamma ray doses used for sterilization purposes are usually less than 20 kGy. It was shown that gamma irradiation at 20 kGy had no or little adverse effects on PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) blends mechanical and gas barrier properties.

  8. Fabrication of honeycomb-structured poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) porous films and biomedical applications for cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Bingjian [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250199 (China); College of chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Functionalized Probes for Chemical Imaging, Key Laboratory of Molecular and Nano Probes, Ministry of Education, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Zhu, Qingzeng, E-mail: qzzhu@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250199 (China); Yao, Linli [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Experimental Teratology, Department of Histology and Embryology, Shandong University School of Medicine, 250012 Jinan (China); Hao, Jingcheng [Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250199 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Honeycomb-structured PEG-PLA porous films were fabricated. • The organization of pores depends on molecular weight ratio of PEG-to-PLA block. • The pores in the film were internally decorated with a layer of PEG. • The honeycomb-structured PEG-PLA film was suitable as a substrate for cell growth. - Abstract: A series of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) copolymers with a hydrophobic PLA block of different molecular weights and a fixed length hydrophilic PEG were synthesized successfully and characterized. These amphiphilic block copolymers were used to fabricate honeycomb-structured porous films using the breath figure (BF) templating technique. The surface topology and composition of the highly ordered pattern film were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence microscopy. The results indicated that the PEG-to-PLA block molecular weight ratio influenced the BF film surface topology. The film with the best ordered pores was obtained with a PEG-to-PLA ratio of 2.0 × 10{sup 3}:3.0 × 10{sup 4}. The self-organization of the hydrophilic PEG chains within the pores was confirmed by XPS and fluorescence labeled PEG. A model is proposed to elucidate the stabilization process of the amphiphilic PEG-PLA aggregated architecture on the water droplet-based templates. In addition, GFP-U87 cell viability has been investigated by MTS test and the cell morphology on the honeycomb-structured PEG-PLA porous film has been evaluated using phase-contrast microscope. This porous film is shown to be suitable as a matrix for cell growth.

  9. Mechanical properties and dual drug delivery application of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds fabricated with a poly(β-amino ester) porogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amanda; Milbrandt, Todd A; Hilt, J Zach; Puleo, David A

    2014-05-01

    Polymeric scaffolds that are biocompatible and biodegradable are widely used for tissue engineering applications. Scaffolds can be further enhanced by enabling the release of one or more drugs to stimulate regeneration or for the treatment of a specific disease or condition. In this study, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were mixed with poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) particles to create novel hybrid scaffolds capable of dual release of drug and growth factor. Fast-degrading PBAE particles loaded with the drug ketoprofen acted as porogens that provided a rapid 12h release. The PLGA microspheres were loaded with a growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and fused together around the porogens to create a slow-degrading matrix that provided sustained release lasting 70days. Drug release was further tailored by varying the amount of porogen added to the scaffold. Bioactivity measurements demonstrated that the scaffold fabrication technique did not damage the drug or protein. The compressive modulus was affected by the amount of porogen added, extending from 50 to 111MPa for loadings from 60 to 40% PBAE, and after 5days of degradation, it decreased to 0.6 to 1.1kPa when the porogen was gone. PLGA containing a quick-degrading porogen can be used to release two drugs while developing a porous microarchitecture for cell ingrowth with in a matrix capable of maintaining a compressive modulus applicable for soft tissue implants. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and poly(DL-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) electrospun fibers for the treatment of HSV-2 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniagyei, Stella E.; Sims, Lee B. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Malik, Danial A. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Tyo, Kevin M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Center for Predictive Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Curry, Keegan C. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Kim, Woihwan [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Hodge, Daniel A. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Duan, Jinghua [Department of Bioengineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Center for Predictive Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Steinbach-Rankins, Jill M., E-mail: jill.steinbach@louisville.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Center for Predictive Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    More diverse multipurpose prevention technologies are urgently needed to provide localized, topical pre-exposure prophylaxis against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this work, we established the foundation for a multipurpose platform, in the form of polymeric electrospun fibers (EFs), to physicochemically treat herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection. To initiate this study, we fabricated different formulations of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) EFs that encapsulate Acyclovir (ACV), to treat HSV-2 infection in vitro. Our goals were to assess the release and efficacy differences provided by these two different biodegradable polymers, and to determine how differing concentrations of ACV affected fiber efficacy against HSV-2 infection and the safety of each platform in vitro. Each formulation of PLGA and PLCL EFs exhibited high encapsulation efficiency of ACV, sustained-delivery of ACV through one month, and in vitro biocompatibility at the highest doses of EFs tested. Additionally, all EF formulations provided complete and efficacious protection against HSV-2 infection in vitro, regardless of the timeframe of collected fiber eluates tested. This work demonstrates the potential for PLGA and PLCL EFs as delivery platforms against HSV-2, and indicates that these delivery vehicles may be expanded upon to provide protection against other sexually transmitted infections. - Highlights: • PLGA and PLCL EFs exhibit sustained-delivery of ACV through one month. • EFs exhibit high ACV encapsulation efficiency and in vitro biocompatibility. • EFs serve as both physical and chemical barriers to HSV-2 infection. • Potent in vitro efficacy is provided against HSV-2 infection for all formulations. • HSV-2 protection is independent of administration times within one month.

  11. Comparative Study of Poly (ε-Caprolactone) and Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) -Based Nanofiber Scaffolds for pH-Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Wenjun; Czarny, Ryan S; Fletcher, Nathan A; Krebs, Melissa D; Clark, Heather A

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to develop biodegradable and biocompatible polymer-based nanofibers that continuously monitor pH within microenvironments of cultured cells in real-time. In the future, these fibers will provide a scaffold for tissue growth while simultaneously monitoring the extracellular environment. Sensors to monitor pH were created by directly electrospinning the sensor components within a polymeric matrix. Specifically, the entire fiber structure is composed of the optical equivalent of an electrode, a pH-sensitive fluorophore, an ionic additive, a plasticizer, and a polymer to impart mechanical stability. The resulting poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based sensors were characterized by morphology, dynamic range, reversibility and stability. Since PCL-based nanofibers delivered the most desirable analytical response, this matrix was used for cellular studies. Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds (NFSs) were created directly out of optode material. The resulting NFS sensors respond to pH changes with a dynamic range centered at 7.8 ± 0.1 and 9.6 ± 0.2, for PCL and PLGA respectively. NFSs exhibited multiple cycles of reversibility with a lifetime of at least 15 days with preservation of response characteristics. By comparing the two NFSs, we found PCL-NFSs are more suitable for pH sensing due to their dynamic range and superior reversibility. The proposed sensing platform successfully exhibits a response to pH and compatibility with cultured cells. NSFs will be a useful tool for creating 3D cellular scaffolds that can monitor the cellular environment with applications in fields such as drug discovery and tissue engineering.

  12. Novel electrospun nanofibrous matrices prepared from poly(lactic acid)/poly(butylene adipate) blends for controlled release formulations of an anti-rheumatoid agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siafaka, Panoraia I; Barmbalexis, Panagiotis; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2016-06-10

    In the present work, a series of novel formulations consisting of poly(lactic acid)/poly(butylene adipate) (PLA/PBAd) electrospun blends was examined as controlled release matrices for Leflunomide's active metabolite, Teriflunomide (TFL). The mixtures were prepared using different ratios of PLA and PBAd in order to produce nanofibrous matrices with different characteristics. Miscibility studies of the blended polymeric fibers were performed through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Hydrolytic degradation in the prepared fibers was evaluated at 37°C using a phosphate buffered saline solution. Different concentrations of (TFL) (5, 10, 15wt.%) were incorporated into nanofibers for examining the drug release behavior in simulated body fluids (SBF), at 37°C. The drug-loaded nanofibrous formulations were further characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy, DSC and XRD. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis was used to evaluate the mechanism of TFL release. Artificial neural networks (ANN) and multi-linear-regression (MLR) models were used to evaluate the effect of % content of PBAd (X1) and TFL (X2) on an initial burst effect and a dissolution behavior. It was found that PLA/PBAd nanofibers have different diameters depending on the ratio of used polyesters and added drug. TFL was incorporated in an amorphous form inside the polymeric nanofibers. In vitro release studies reveal that a drug release behavior is correlated with the size of the nanofibers, drug loading and matrix degradation after a specific time. ANN dissolution modeling showed increased correlation efficacy compared to MLR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. From Nanofibrillar to Nanolaminar Poly(butylene succinate): Paving the Way to Robust Barrier and Mechanical Properties for Full-Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid) Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lan; Xu, Huan; Chen, Jing-Bin; Zhang, Zi-Jing; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Chen, Jun; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2015-04-22

    The traditional approach toward barrier property enhancement of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is the incorporation of sheet-like fillers such as nanoclay and graphene, unfortunately leading to the sacrificed biocompatibility and degradability. Here we unveil the first application of a confined flaking technique to establish the degradable nanolaminar poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in PLA films based on PLA/PBS in situ nanofibrillar composites. The combination of high pressure (10 MPa) and appropriate temperature (160 °C) during the flaking process desirably enabled sufficient deformation of PBS nanofibrils and retention of ordered PLA channels. Particularly, interlinked and individual nanosheets were created in composite films containing 10 and 20 wt % PBS, respectively, both of which presented desirable alignment and large width/thickness ratio (nanoscale thickness with a width of 428±13.1 and 76.9±8.2 μm, respectively). With the creation of compact polymer "nano-barrier walls", a dramatic decrease of 86% and 67% in the oxygen permeability coefficient was observed for the film incorporated with well-organized 20 wt % PBS nanosheets compared to pure PLA and pure PBS (1.4 and 0.6×10(-14) cm3·cm·cm(-2)·s(-1)·Pa(-1)), respectively. Unexpectedly, prominent increases of 21% and 28% were achieved in the tensile strength and modulus of composite films loaded 20 wt % PBS nanosheets compared to pure PLA films, although PBS intrinsically presents poor strength and stiffness. The unusual combination of barrier and mechanical performances established in the fully degradable system represent specific properties required in packaging beverages, food and medicine.

  14. Fabrication of novel high performance ductile poly(lactic acid) nanofiber scaffold coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdal-Hay, Abdalla; Hussein, Kamal Hany; Casettari, Luca; Khalil, Khalil Abdelrazek; Hamdy, Abdel Salam

    2016-03-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofiber scaffold has received increasing interest as a promising material for potential application in the field of regenerative medicine. However, the low hydrophilicity and poor ductility restrict its practical application. Integration of hydrophilic elastic polymer onto the surface of the nanofiber scaffold may help to overcome the drawbacks of PLA material. Herein, we successfully optimized the parameters for in situ deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol), (PVA) onto post-electrospun PLA nanofibers using a simple hydrothermal approach. Our results showed that the average fiber diameter of coated nanofiber mat is about 1265±222 nm, which is remarkably higher than its pristine counterpart (650±180 nm). The hydrophilicity of PLA nanofiber scaffold coated with a PVA thin layer improved dramatically (36.11±1.5°) compared to that of pristine PLA (119.7±1.5°) scaffold. The mechanical testing showed that the PLA nanofiber scaffold could be converted from rigid to ductile with enhanced tensile strength, due to maximizing the hydrogen bond interaction during the heat treatment and in the presence of PVA. Cytocompatibility performance of the pristine and coated PLA fibers with PVA was observed through an in vitro experiment based on cell attachment and the MTT assay by EA.hy926 human endothelial cells. The cytocompatibility results showed that human cells induced more favorable attachment and proliferation behavior on hydrophilic PLA composite scaffold than that of pristine PLA. Hence, PVA coating resulted in an increase in initial human cell attachment and proliferation. We believe that the novel PVA-coated PLA nanofiber scaffold developed in this study, could be a promising high performance biomaterial in regeneration medicine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Evaluation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and poly(DL-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) electrospun fibers for the treatment of HSV-2 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniagyei, Stella E.; Sims, Lee B.; Malik, Danial A.; Tyo, Kevin M.; Curry, Keegan C.; Kim, Woihwan; Hodge, Daniel A.; Duan, Jinghua; Steinbach-Rankins, Jill M.

    2017-01-01

    More diverse multipurpose prevention technologies are urgently needed to provide localized, topical pre-exposure prophylaxis against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this work, we established the foundation for a multipurpose platform, in the form of polymeric electrospun fibers (EFs), to physicochemically treat herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection. To initiate this study, we fabricated different formulations of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) EFs that encapsulate Acyclovir (ACV), to treat HSV-2 infection in vitro. Our goals were to assess the release and efficacy differences provided by these two different biodegradable polymers, and to determine how differing concentrations of ACV affected fiber efficacy against HSV-2 infection and the safety of each platform in vitro. Each formulation of PLGA and PLCL EFs exhibited high encapsulation efficiency of ACV, sustained-delivery of ACV through one month, and in vitro biocompatibility at the highest doses of EFs tested. Additionally, all EF formulations provided complete and efficacious protection against HSV-2 infection in vitro, regardless of the timeframe of collected fiber eluates tested. This work demonstrates the potential for PLGA and PLCL EFs as delivery platforms against HSV-2, and indicates that these delivery vehicles may be expanded upon to provide protection against other sexually transmitted infections. - Highlights: • PLGA and PLCL EFs exhibit sustained-delivery of ACV through one month. • EFs exhibit high ACV encapsulation efficiency and in vitro biocompatibility. • EFs serve as both physical and chemical barriers to HSV-2 infection. • Potent in vitro efficacy is provided against HSV-2 infection for all formulations. • HSV-2 protection is independent of administration times within one month.

  16. Fabrication of honeycomb-structured poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) porous films and biomedical applications for cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Bingjian; Zhu, Qingzeng; Yao, Linli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Honeycomb-structured PEG-PLA porous films were fabricated. • The organization of pores depends on molecular weight ratio of PEG-to-PLA block. • The pores in the film were internally decorated with a layer of PEG. • The honeycomb-structured PEG-PLA film was suitable as a substrate for cell growth. - Abstract: A series of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) copolymers with a hydrophobic PLA block of different molecular weights and a fixed length hydrophilic PEG were synthesized successfully and characterized. These amphiphilic block copolymers were used to fabricate honeycomb-structured porous films using the breath figure (BF) templating technique. The surface topology and composition of the highly ordered pattern film were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence microscopy. The results indicated that the PEG-to-PLA block molecular weight ratio influenced the BF film surface topology. The film with the best ordered pores was obtained with a PEG-to-PLA ratio of 2.0 × 10 3 :3.0 × 10 4 . The self-organization of the hydrophilic PEG chains within the pores was confirmed by XPS and fluorescence labeled PEG. A model is proposed to elucidate the stabilization process of the amphiphilic PEG-PLA aggregated architecture on the water droplet-based templates. In addition, GFP-U87 cell viability has been investigated by MTS test and the cell morphology on the honeycomb-structured PEG-PLA porous film has been evaluated using phase-contrast microscope. This porous film is shown to be suitable as a matrix for cell growth

  17. Development of methodology for the synthesis of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) for use in the production of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peleias Junior, Fernando dos Santos; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Rostelato, Maria Elisa Chuery Martins; Souza, Carla Daruich de; Mattos, Fabio Rodrigues de; Moura, Eduardo Santana de; Moura, Joao Augusto; Benega, Marcos Antonio Gimenes; Feher, Anselmo; Costa, Osvaldo Luiz da; Rodrigues, Bruna Teiga; Fechine, Guilhermino Jose

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. A radiotherapy method extensively used in prostate cancer is brachytherapy, where the area requiring treatment receives radioactive seeds. Iodine-125 seeds can be inserted loose or stranded in bioabsorbable polymers produced from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). We developed the synthesis methodology for PLGA and the results obtained show that it was possible to determine the optimal reaction parameters (time and temperature) for PLGA in 80/20 (lactide/glycolide) ratio. The yield was higher than 90% using a temperature of 110 °C and reaction time of 72 hours; however, the molecular weight values obtained are very low compared to those obtained by other authors. New tests using previously synthesized dimers and nitrogen atmosphere are being performed. These conditions could potentially increase the molar mass of PLGA. All techniques used confirmed the expected structure of the polymer. (author)

  18. Surface modification of poly(D,L-lactic acid) scaffolds for orthopedic applications: a biocompatible, nondestructive route via diazonium chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubi, Hesameddin; Kinsella, Joseph M; Murshed, Monzur; Cerruti, Marta

    2014-07-09

    Scaffolds made with synthetic polymers such as polyesters are commonly used in bone tissue engineering. However, their hydrophobicity and the lack of specific functionalities make their surface not ideal for cell adhesion and growth. Surface modification of these materials is thus crucial to enhance the scaffold's integration in the body. Different surface modification techniques have been developed to improve scaffold biocompatibility. Here we show that diazonium chemistry can be used to modify the outer and inner surfaces of three-dimensional poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) scaffolds with phosphonate groups, using a simple two-step method. By changing reaction time and impregnation procedure, we were able to tune the concentration of phosphonate groups present on the scaffolds, without degrading the PDLLA matrix. To test the effectiveness of this modification, we immersed the scaffolds in simulated body fluid, and characterized them with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman, and infrared spectroscopy. Our results showed that a layer of hydroxyapatite particles was formed on all scaffolds after 2 and 4 weeks of immersion; however, the precipitation was faster and in larger amounts on the phosphonate-modified than on the bare PDLLA scaffolds. Both osteogenic MC3T3-E1 and chondrogenic ATDC5 cell lines showed increased cell viability/metabolic activity when grown on a phosphonated PDLLA surface in comparison to a control PDLLA surface. Also, more calcium-containing minerals were deposited by cultures grown on phosphonated PDLLA, thus showing the pro-mineralization properties of the proposed modification. This work introduces diazonium chemistry as a simple and biocompatible technique to modify scaffold surfaces, allowing to covalently and homogeneously bind a number of functional groups without degrading the scaffold's polymeric matrix.

  19. Evolution of availability of curcumin inside poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles: impact on antioxidant and antinitrosant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betbeder, Didier; Lipka, Emmanuelle; Howsam, Mike; Carpentier, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Curcumin exhibits antioxidant properties potentially beneficial for human health; however, its use in clinical applications is limited by its poor solubility and relative instability. Nanoparticles exhibit interesting features for the efficient distribution and delivery of curcumin into cells, and could also increase curcumin stability in biological systems. There is a paucity of information regarding the evolution of the antioxidant properties of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin. Method We described a simple method of curcumin encapsulation in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles without the use of detergent. We assessed, in epithelial cells and in an acellular model, the evolution of direct antioxidant and antinitrosant properties of free versus PLGA-encapsulated curcumin after storage under different conditions (light vs darkness, 4°C vs 25°C vs 37°C). Results In epithelial cells, endocytosis and efflux pump inhibitors showed that the increased antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin relied on bypassing the efflux pump system. Acellular assays showed that the antioxidant effect of curcumin was greater when loaded in PLGA nanoparticles. Furthermore, we observed that light decreased, though heat restored, antioxidant activity of PLGA-encapsulated curcumin, probably by modulating the accessibility of curcumin to reactive oxygen species, an observation supported by results from quenching experiments. Moreover, we demonstrated a direct antinitrosant activity of curcumin, enhanced by PLGA encapsulation, which was increased by light exposure. Conclusion These results suggest that the antioxidant and antinitrosant activities of encapsulated curcumin are light sensitive and that nanoparticle modifications over time and with temperature may facilitate curcumin contact with reactive oxygen species. These results highlight the importance of understanding effects of nanoparticle maturation on an encapsulated drug’s activity. PMID

  20. Modifying the strength and strain concentration profile within collagen scaffolds using customizable arrays of poly-lactic acid fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzen, Laura C; Vucetic, Alan; Harley, Brendan A C

    2017-02-01

    The tendon-to-bone junction is a highly specialized tissue which dissipates stress concentrations between mechanically dissimilar tendon and bone. Upon injury, the local heterogeneities across this insertion are not regenerated, leading to poor functional outcomes such as formation of scar tissue at the insertion and re-failure rates exceeding 90%. Although current tissue engineering methods are moving towards the development of spatially-graded biomaterials to begin to address these injuries, significant opportunities remain to engineer the often complex local mechanical behavior of such biomaterials to enhance their bioactivity. Here, we describe the use of three-dimensional printing techniques to create customizable arrays of poly-lactic acid (PLA) fibers that can be incorporated into a collagen scaffold under development for tendon bone junction repair. Notably, we use additive manufacturing concepts to generate arrays of spatially-graded fibers from biodegradable PLA that are incorporated into collagen scaffolds to create a collagen-PLA composite. We demonstrate the ability to tune the mechanical performance of the fiber-scaffold composite at the bulk scale. We also demonstrate the incorporation of spatially-heterogeneous fiber designs to establish non-uniform local mechanical performance of the composite biomaterial under tensile load, a critical element in the design of multi-compartment biomaterials for tendon-to-bone regeneration applications. Together, this work highlights the capacity to use multi-scale composite biomaterials to control local and bulk mechanical properties, and provides key insights into design elements under consideration for mechanically competent, multi-tissue regeneration platforms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of poly(lactic acid) nanostructured membranes for the controlled delivery of progesterone to livestock animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Juliano Elvis [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Eliton Souto [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais (DEMAT), Cidade Universitaria, 58.051-900, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Cardozo, Lucio; Voll, Fernando [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), 87.020, 900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Madureira, Ed Hoffmann [Departamento de Reproducao Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia (FMVZ), Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga-SP (Brazil); Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli, E-mail: mattoso@cnpdia.embrapa.br [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Assis, Odilio Benedito Garrido [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    Solution blow spinning (SBS) is a novel technology feasible to produce nanostructured polymeric membranes loaded with active agents. In the present study, nanofibrous mats of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) loaded with progesterone (P4) were produced by SBS at different P4 concentrations. The spun membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The in vitro releasing of P4 was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Interactions between progesterone and PLA were confirmed by rheological measurements of the PLA/P4 solutions and in the spun mats by microscopy (SEM), thermal (DSC) and spectral (FTIR) analyses. SEM micrographs provided evidences of a smooth and homogeneous structure for nanostructured membranes without progesterone crystals on fiber surface. FTIR spectroscopy indicated miscibility and interaction between the ester of PLA and the ketone groups of the P4 in the nanofibers. X-ray analysis indicated that the size of PLA crystallites increased with progesterone content. Finally, by in vitro release experiments it was possible to observe that the progesterone releasing follows nearly first-order kinetics, probably due to the diffusion of hormone into PLA nanofibers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofibers of PLA loading with progesterone were prepared via solution blow spinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their morphology, FTIR, and XRD and DSC characterization were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibers of PLA/progesterone with diameters from 280 to 440 nm were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of progesterone content in fiber properties was studied.

  2. New Perspective in the Formulation and Characterization of Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide (DMAB Stabilized Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gossmann

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades the establishment of nanoparticles as suitable drug carriers with the transport of drugs across biological barriers such as the gastrointestinal barrier moved into the focus of many research groups. Besides drug transport such carrier systems are well suited for the protection of drugs against enzymatic and chemical degradation. The preparation of biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA is intensively described in literature, while especially nanoparticles with cationic properties show a promising increased cellular uptake. This is due to the electrostatic interaction between the cationic surface and the negatively charged lipid membrane of the cells. Even though several studies achieved the successful preparation of nanoparticles stabilized with the cationic surfactants such as didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB, in most cases insufficient attention was paid to a precise analytical characterization of the nanoparticle system. The aim of the present work was to overcome this deficit by presenting a new perspective in the formulation and characterization of DMAB-stabilized PLGA nanoparticles. Therefore these nanoparticles were carefully examined with regard to particle diameter, zeta potential, the effect of variation in stabilizer concentration, residual DMAB content, and electrolyte stability. Without any steric stabilization, the DMAB-modified nanoparticles were sensitive to typical electrolyte concentrations of biological environments due to compression of the electrical double layer in conjunction with a decrease in zeta potential. To handle this problem, the present study proposed two modifications to enable electrolyte stability. Both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and polyethylene glycol (PEG modified DMAB-PLGA-nanoparticles were stable during electrolyte addition. Furthermore, in contrast to unmodified DMAB-PLGA-nanoparticles and free DMAB, such modifications led to

  3. Reinforcement of poly-l-lactic acid electrospun membranes with strontium borosilicate bioactive glasses for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, João S; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Martins, Margarida; Neves, Nuno M; Miller, Cheryl; Crawford, Aileen; Pires, Ricardo A; Hatton, Paul; Reis, Rui L

    2016-10-15

    Herein, for the first time, we combined poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) with a strontium borosilicate bioactive glass (BBG-Sr) using electrospinning to fabricate a composite bioactive PLLA membrane loaded with 10% (w/w) of BBG-Sr glass particles (PLLA-BBG-Sr). The composites were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputer tomography (μ-CT), and the results showed that we successfully fabricated smooth and uniform fibres (1-3μm in width) with a homogeneous distribution of BBG-Sr microparticles (bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) demonstrated that PLLA-BBG-Sr membranes promoted the osteogenic differentiation of the cells as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and up-regulated osteogenic gene expression (Alpl, Sp7 and Bglap) in relation to PLLA alone. These results strongly suggest that the composite PLLA membranes reinforced with the BBG-Sr glass particles have potential as an effective biomaterial capable of promoting bone regeneration. PLLA membranes were reinforced with 10% (w/w) of strontium-bioactive borosilicate glass microparticles, and their capacity to induce the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) was evaluated. These membranes presented an increased: degradability, water uptake, Young modulus and tensile strength. We also demonstrated that these membranes are non-cytotoxic and promote the attachment of BM-MSCs. The addition of the glass microparticles into the PLLA membranes promoted the increase of ALP activity (under osteogenic conditions), as well as the BM-MSCs osteogenic differentiation as shown by the upregulation of Alpl, Sp7 and Bglap gene expression. Overall, we demonstrated that the reinforcement of PLLA with glass microparticles results in a biomaterial with the appropriate properties for the regeneration of bone tissue. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of celecoxib poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoformulation on drug pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harirforoosh, S; West, K O; Murrell, D E; Denham, J W; Panus, P C; Hanley, G A

    2016-11-01

    Celecoxib (CEL) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) showing selective cycloxygenase-2 inhibition. While effective as a pain reducer, CEL exerts some negative influence on renal and gastrointestinal parameters. This study examined CEL pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics following drug reformulation as a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticle (NP). Rats were administered either vehicle (VEH) (methylcellulose solution), blank NP, 40 mg/kg CEL in methylcellulose, or an equivalent NP dose (CEL-NP). Plasma and urine (over 12 hrs) samples were collected prior to and post-treatment. The mean percent change from baseline of urine flow rate along with electrolyte concentrations in plasma and urine were assessed based on 100 g body weight. Using tissues collected 24 hrs post-treatment, gastrointestinal inflammation was estimated through duodenal and gastric prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and duodenal myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels; while kidney tissue was examined for dilatation and necrosis. CEL concentration was assayed in renal tissue and plasma utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography. Although there were significant changes when comparing CEL and CEL-NP to VEH in plasma sodium concentration and potassium excretion rate, there was no significant variation between CEL and CEL-NP. There was a significant reduction of protective duodenal PGE2 in CEL compared to VEH (p = 0.0088) and CEL-NP (p = 0.02). In the CEL-NP formulation, t1/2, Cmax, AUC0-∞, and Vd/F increased significantly when compared to CEL. At the observed dosage and duration, CEL-NP may not affect CEL-associated electrolyte parameters in either plasma or urine; however, it does provide increased systemic exposure while potentially alleviating some gastrointestinal outcomes related to inflammation.

  5. MRI study of bioabsorbable poly-L-lactic acid devices used for fixation of fracture and osteotomies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Keishi; Sato, Yasutomo; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Kurosaka, Daisaburo

    2006-01-01

    The overall clinical results of bioabsorbable fixation devices made of poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) used for fixation of fractures, bone grafting, and osteotomies have been favorable. However, clinical studies demonstrated no sign of normal bony architecture restored after surgery, although implant channels had been filled with fibrous tissue. The purpose of the present retrospective study was to examine the extent of structural changes in PLLA devices (PLLA-Ds) for fixation of rotational acetabular osteotomies and displaced malleolar ankle fractures using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Altogether, 14 patients with osteoarthritis of hip joints and 15 with displaced malleolar ankle fractures were operated on using PLLA-D (NEOFIX). Of these patients, 22 were finally enrolled in the study, and the period from operation to the time of the study ranged from 17 to 78 months. The postoperative radiographic findings were evaluated for union, and changes around the implant holes were classified as sclerosis, resorption, or no change. MRI was carried out to estimate changes in the PLLA-Ds. Bone union was obtained in all cases; clinical complications such as infection, joint effusion, soft tissue irritation due to PLLA-D deviation, and motion pain in the joints were not observed. The MRI study suggested that water content in PLLA-D increased mainly due to biodegradation and that implants were not replaced by bony tissue. The PLLA-Ds were degraded but were not replaced by bony tissue during the observation period. Considering these findings and the assumption that in bony tissues mechanical strength of PLLA-D decreases with time, attention should be paid to mechanical insufficiency, which may occur when the cross-sectional area of a PLLA-D extends beyond the cross-sectional area of the osteosynthesis site. (author)

  6. Mechanical and biodegradable properties of porous titanium filled with poly-L-lactic acid by modified in situ polymerization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Masaaki; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Ishii, Daisuke

    2011-10-01

    Porous titanium (pTi) can possess a low Young's modulus equal to that of human bone, depending on its porosity. However, the mechanical strength of pTi deteriorates greatly with increasing porosity. On the other hand, certain medical polymers exhibit biofunctionalities, which are not possessed intrinsically by metallic materials. Therefore, a biodegradable medical polymer, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), was used to fill in the pTi pores using a modified in-situ polymerization technique. The mechanical and biodegradable properties of pTi filled with PLLA (pTi/PLLA) as fabricated by this technique and the effects of the PLLA filling were evaluated in this study. The pTi pores are almost completely filled with PLLA by the developed process (i.e., technique). The tensile strength and tensile Young's modulus of pTi barely changes with the PLLA filling. However, the PLLA filling improves the compressive 0.2% proof stress of pTi having any porosity and increases the compressive Young's modulus of pTi having relatively high porosity. This difference between the tensile and compressive properties of pTi/PLLA is considered to be caused by the differing resistances of PLLA in the pores to tensile and compressive deformations. The PLLA filled into the pTi pores degrades during immersion in Hanks' solution at 310 K. The weight loss due to PLLA degradation increases with increasing immersion time. However, the rate of weight loss of pTi/PLLA during immersion decreases with increasing immersion time. Hydroxyapatite formation is observed on the surface of pTi/PLLA after immersion for ≥8 weeks. The decrease in the weight-loss rate may be caused by weight gain due to hydroxyapatite formation and/or the decrease in contact area with Hanks' solution caused by its formation on the surface of pTi/PLLA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Park, Jong-Chul; Jin Lee, Seung; Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok

    2013-01-01

    Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH 2 (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and –N=CH (400.80 eV) and –NH 3 + (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic

  8. Clinical effects of transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization with holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres in healthy pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vente, M.A.D.; Nijsen, J.F.W.; Wit, T.C. de; Schip, A.D. van het [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Seppenwoolde, J.H.; Seevinck, P.R. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Krijger, G.C. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Huisman, A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Haematology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zonnenberg, B.A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ingh, T.S.G.A.M. van den [TCCI Consultancy B.V., P.O. Box 85032, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres administered into the hepatic artery in pigs. Healthy pigs (20-30 kg) were injected into the hepatic artery with holmium-165-loaded microspheres ({sup 165}HoMS; n = 5) or with holmium-166-loaded microspheres ({sup 166}HoMS; n = 13). The microspheres' biodistribution was assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography and/or MRI. The animals were monitored clinically, biochemically, and ({sup 166}HoMS group only) hematologically over a period of 1 month ({sup 165}HoMS group) or over 1 or 2 months ({sup 166}HoMS group). Finally, a pathological examination was undertaken. After microsphere administration, some animals exhibited a slightly diminished level of consciousness and a dip in appetite, both of which were transient. Four lethal adverse events occurred in the {sup 166}HoMS group due either to incorrect administration or comorbidity: inadvertent delivery of microspheres into the gastric wall (n = 2), preexisting gastric ulceration (n = 1), and endocarditis (n = 1). AST levels were transitorily elevated post-{sup 166}HoMS administration. In the other blood parameters, no abnormalities were observed. Nuclear scans were acquired from all animals from the {sup 166}HoMS group, and MRI scans were performed if available. In pigs from the {sup 166}HoMS group, atrophy of one or more liver lobes was frequently observed. The actual radioactivity distribution was assessed through ex vivo {sup 166m}Ho measurements. It can be concluded that the toxicity profile of HoMS is low. In pigs, hepatic arterial embolization with {sup 166}HoMS in amounts corresponding with liver-absorbed doses of over 100 Gy, if correctly administered, is not associated with clinically relevant side effects. This result offers a good perspective for upcoming patient trials. (orig.)

  9. Degradability Enhancement of Poly(Lactic Acid by Stearate-Zn3Al LDH Nanolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Eili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent environmental problems and societal concerns associated with the disposal of petroleum based plastics throughout the world have triggered renewed efforts to develop new biodegradable products compatible with our environment. This article describes the preparation, characterization and biodegradation study of poly(lactic acid/layered double hydroxide (PLA/LDH nanocomposites from PLA and stearate-Zn3Al LDH. A solution casting method was used to prepare PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites. The anionic clay Zn3Al LDH was firstly prepared by co-precipitation method from a nitrate salt solution at pH 7.0 and then modified by stearate anions through an ion exchange reaction. This modification increased the basal spacing of the synthetic clay from 8.83 Å to 40.10 Å. The morphology and properties of the prepared PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, tensile tests as well as biodegradation studies. From the XRD analysis and TEM observation, the stearate-Zn3Al LDH lost its ordered stacking-structure and was greatly exfoliated in the PLA matrix. Tensile test results of PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites showed that the presence of around 1.0–3.0 wt % of the stearate-Zn3Al LDH in the PLA drastically improved its elongation at break. The biodegradation studies demonstrated a significant biodegradation rate improvement of PLA in the presence of stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanolayers. This effect can be caused by the catalytic role of the stearate groups in the biodegradation mechanism leading to much faster disintegration of nanocomposites than pure PLA.

  10. Gum tragacanth/poly(l-lactic acid) nanofibrous scaffolds for application in regeneration of peripheral nerve damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Bahrami, S Hajir; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2016-04-20

    Nanofibrous nerve guides have gained huge interest in supporting the peripheral nerve regeneration due to their abilities to simulate the topography, mechanical, biological and extracellular matrix morphology of native tissue. Gum tragacanth (GT) is a biocompatible mixture of polysaccharides that has been used in biomedical applications. During this study, we fabricated aligned and random nanofibers from poly(l-lactic acid) and gum tragacanth (PLLA/GT) in various ratios (100:0, 75:25, and 50:50) by electrospinning. Scanning electron microscope demonstrated smooth and uniform nanofibers with diameters in the range of 733±65nm and 226±73nm for align PLLA and random PLLA/GT 50:50 nanofibers, respectively. FTIR analysis, contact angle, in vitro biodegradation and tensile measurements were carried out to evaluate the chemical and mechanical properties of the different scaffolds. PLLA/GT 75:25 exhibited the most balanced properties compared to other scaffolds and was used for in vitro culture of nerve cells (PC12) to assess the potential of using these scaffolds as a substrate for nerve regeneration. The cells were found to attach and proliferate on aligned PLLA/GT 75:25 scaffolds, expressing bi-polar neurite extensions and the orientation of nerve cells was along the direction of the fiber alignment. Results of 8 days of in vitro culture of PC12 cells on aligned PLLA/GT 75:25 nanofibers, showed 20% increase in cell proliferation compared to PLLA/GT 75:25 random nanofibers. PLLA/GT 75:25 aligned nanofibers acted as a favorable cue to support neurite outgrowth and nerve cell elongation compared with PLLA nanofibers. Our results showed that aligned PLLA/GT 75:25 nanofibers are promising substrates for application as bioengineered grafts for nerve tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of micropatterned poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid films for enhancing dorsal root ganglion cell orientation and extension

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    Ching-Wen Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve conduits have been a viable alternative to the ‘gold standard’ autograft for treating small peripheral nerve gap injuries. However, they often produce inadequate functional recovery outcomes and are ineffective in large gap injuries. Ridge/groove surface micropatterning has been shown to promote neural cell orientation and guide growth. However, optimization of the ratio of ridge/groove parameters to promote orientation and extension for dorsal root ganglion (DRG cells on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA films has not been previously conducted. Photolithography and micro-molding were used to define various combinations of ridge/groove dimensions on PLGA films. The DRG cells obtained from chicken embryos were cultured on micropatterned PLGA films for cell orientation and migration evaluation. Biodegradation of the films occurred during the test period, however, this did not cause deformation or distortion of the micropatterns. Results from the DRG cell orientation test suggest that when the ridge/groove ratio equals 1 (ridge/groove width parameters are equal, i.e., 10 μm/10 μm (even, the degree of alignment depends on the size of the ridges and grooves, when the ratio is smaller than 1 (groove controlled the alignment increases as the ridge size decreases, and when the ratio is larger than 1 (ridge controlled, the alignment is reduced as the width of the grooves decreases. The migration rate and neurite extension of DRG neurons were greatest on 10 μm/10 μm and 30 μm/30 μm micropatterned PLGA films. Based on the data, the 10 μm/10 μm and 30 μm/30 μm micropatterned PLGA films are the optimized ridge/groove surface patterns for the construction of nerve repair devices.

  12. GX1-conjugated poly(lactic acid nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar for improved in vivo anticolorectal cancer treatment

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    Du Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yang Du,1,* Qian Zhang,1,* Lijia Jing,2 Xiaolong Liang,2 Chongwei Chi,1 Yaqian Li,1 Xin Yang,1 Zhifei Dai,2 Jie Tian1 1Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, The State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tumor angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and metastasis; thus, targeting tumor-associated angiogenesis is an important goal in cancer therapy. However, the efficient delivery of drugs to tumors remains a key issue in antiangiogenesis therapy. GX1, a peptide identified by phage-display technology, is a novel tumor vasculature endothelium-specific ligand and possesses great potential as a targeted vector and antiangiogenic agent in the diagnosis and treatment of human cancers. Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, has been shown to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a theranostic agent composed of GX1-conjugated poly(lactic acid nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar (GPENs and labeled with the near-infrared dye IRDye 800CW to improve colorectal tumor targeting and treatment efficacy in vivo. The in vivo fluorescence molecular imaging data showed that GPENs (IRDye 800CW more specifically targeted tumors than free IRDye 800CW in colorectal tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, the antitumor efficacy was evaluated by bioluminescence imaging and immunohistology, revealing that GPENs possessed improved antitumor efficacy on subcutaneous colorectal xenografts compared to other treatment groups. Thus, our study showed that GPENs, a novel GX1 peptide guided form of nanoscale Endostar, can be used as a theranostic agent to facilitate more efficient targeted therapy and enable real-time monitoring of therapeutic efficacy in vivo

  13. Development of poly(lactic acid) nanostructured membranes for the controlled delivery of progesterone to livestock animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Cardozo, Lucio; Voll, Fernando; Madureira, Ed Hoffmann; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli; Assis, Odilio Benedito Garrido

    2013-01-01

    Solution blow spinning (SBS) is a novel technology feasible to produce nanostructured polymeric membranes loaded with active agents. In the present study, nanofibrous mats of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) loaded with progesterone (P4) were produced by SBS at different P4 concentrations. The spun membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The in vitro releasing of P4 was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Interactions between progesterone and PLA were confirmed by rheological measurements of the PLA/P4 solutions and in the spun mats by microscopy (SEM), thermal (DSC) and spectral (FTIR) analyses. SEM micrographs provided evidences of a smooth and homogeneous structure for nanostructured membranes without progesterone crystals on fiber surface. FTIR spectroscopy indicated miscibility and interaction between the ester of PLA and the ketone groups of the P4 in the nanofibers. X-ray analysis indicated that the size of PLA crystallites increased with progesterone content. Finally, by in vitro release experiments it was possible to observe that the progesterone releasing follows nearly first-order kinetics, probably due to the diffusion of hormone into PLA nanofibers. - Highlights: ► Nanofibers of PLA loading with progesterone were prepared via solution blow spinning. ► Their morphology, FTIR, and XRD and DSC characterization were analyzed. ► Fibers of PLA/progesterone with diameters from 280 to 440 nm were obtained. ► The effect of progesterone content in fiber properties was studied.

  14. Biotechnological Production of Lactic Acid and Its Recent Applications

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    Young-Jung Wee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is widely used in the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries and has received increased attention for use as a monomer for the production of biodegradable poly(lactic acid. It can be produced by either biotechnological fermentation or chemical synthesis, but the former route has received considerable interest recently, due to environmental concerns and the limited nature of petrochemical feedstocks. There have been various attempts to produce lactic acid efficiently from inexpensive raw materials. We present a review of lactic acid-producing microorganisms, raw materials for lactic acid production, fermentation approaches for lactic acid production, and various applications of lactic acid, with a particular focus on recent investigations. In addition, the future potentials and economic impacts of lactic acid are discussed.

  15. Nitrate removal properties of solid-phase denitrification processes using acid-blended poly(L-lactic acid) as the sole substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T; Matsuoka, H; Sun, J; Tsuji, H; Hiraishi, A; Yoshikawa, S

    2013-01-01

    The large amount of waste that is discharged along with the diffusion of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) articles in use is persistent concern. Previously, we studied solid-phase denitrification (SPD) processes using PLLA to establish an effective re-use of PLLA waste. We found that PLLA with a weight-average molecular weight (M w ) of approximately 10,000 was suitable for SPD processes; however, the recycling of PLLA waste consumes a high energy. A new PLLA plastic including 5% poly(ethylene oxalate) (PEOxPLLA) as a blend material has attracted attention because recycling of PEOxPLLA consumes less electricity than that of PLLA. In this study, our main objectives were to evaluate whether PEOxPLLA can be used for SPD processes by changing its M w and to investigate the bioavailability for denitrification of hydrolysates released from PEOxPLLA. The predicted hydrolysates, including oxalic acid, ethylene glycol, and lactate, are abiotically released, leading to different biological nitrate removal rates. Consequently, the nitrate removal rate of PEOxPLLA ranged from 0.9–4.1 mg-NO 3 − -N·g-MLSS·h −1 by changing the M w in the range of 8,500–238,000. In culture-dependent approaches, denitrifying bacteria using each substrate as an electron donor are found in activated sludge, suggesting that all hydrolysates functioned in the SPD processes using PEOxPLLA.

  16. Mechanical and thermal properties of conventional and microcellular injection molded poly (lactic acid)/poly (ε-caprolactone) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haibin; Zhao, Guoqun

    2016-01-01

    In view of their complementary properties, blending polylactide (PLA) with poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) becomes a good choice to improve PLA's properties without compromising its biodegradability. A series of blends of biodegradable PLA and PCL with different mass fraction were prepared by melt mixing. Standard tensile bars were produced by both conventional and microcellular injection molding to study their mechanical and thermal properties. With the increase in PCL content, the blend showed decreased tensile strength and modulus; however, elongation was dramatically increased. With the addition of PCL, the failure mode changed from brittle fracture of the neat PLA to ductile fracture of the blend as demonstrated by tensile test. Various theoretical models based on dispersion and interface adhesion were used to predict the Young's modulus and the results shows the experimental data are consistent with the predictions of the foam model and Kerner-Uemura-Takayangi model. The thermal behavior of the blends was investigated by DSC and TGA. The melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of PCL in the PLA/PCL did not significantly change with the PCL content increasing in the whole range of blends composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Solution blow spun nanocomposites of poly(lactic acid)/cellulose nanocrystals from Eucalyptus kraft pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were extracted from Eucalyptus kraft pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and esterified with maleic anhydride (CNCMA). The incorporation of sulfate ester groups on the cellulose surface resulted in higher stability of the nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions and lower the...

  18. Preparation and characterization of the nanocomposites from chemically modified nanocellulose and poly(lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liqing Wei; Shupin Luo; Armando G. McDonald; Umesh P. Agarwal; Kolby C. Hirth; Laurent M. Matuana; Ronald C. Sabo; Nicole M. Stark

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are renewable and sustainable filler for polymeric nanocomposites. However, their high hydrophilicity limits their use with hydrophobic polymer for composite materials. In this study, freeze-dried CNCs were modified by transesterification with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester to reduce the hydrophilicity. The transesterified CNCs (CNCFE...

  19. Biomimetic scaffolds based on hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid with their corresponding apatite-forming capability and biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Nguyen Kim; Hoai, Tran Thanh; Viet, Pham Hung

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a facile synthesis of biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid (HAp/PDLLA) scaffolds with the use of solvent casting combined with a salt-leaching technique for bone-tissue engineering. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to observe the morphologies, pore structures of synthesized scaffolds, interactions between hydroxyapatite nanorods and poly(D,L) lactic acid, as well as the compositions of the scaffolds, respectively. Porosity of the scaffolds was determined using the liquid substitution method. Moreover, the apatite-forming capability of the scaffolds was evaluated through simulated body fluid (SBF) incubation tests, whereas the viability, attachment, and distribution of human osteoblast cells (MG 63 cell line) on the scaffolds were determined through alamarBlue assay and confocal laser microscopy after nuclear staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and actin filaments of a cytoskeleton with Oregon Green 488 phalloidin. Results showed that hydroxyapatite nanorod/poly(D,L) lactic acid scaffolds that mimic the structure of natural bone were successfully produced. These scaffolds possessed macropore networks with high porosity (80-84%) and mean pore sizes ranging 117-183 μm. These scaffolds demonstrated excellent apatite-forming capabilities. The rapid formation of bone-like apatites with flower-like morphology was observed after 7 days of incubation in SBFs. The scaffolds that had a high percentage (30 wt.%) of hydroxyapatite demonstrated better cell adhesion, proliferation, and distribution than those with low percentages of hydroxyapatite as the days of culture increased. This work presented an efficient route for developing biomimetic composite scaffolds, which have potential applications in bone-tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bio-responsive chitin-poly(L-lactic acid) composite nanogels for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunraj, T R; Sanoj Rejinold, N; Ashwin Kumar, N; Jayakumar, R

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancer and its treatment has been considered a therapeutic challenge. Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of the most important chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment for liver cancer. However, the efficacy of Dox therapy is restricted by the dose-dependent toxic side effects. To overcome the cardiotoxicity of Dox as well as the current problems of conventional modality treatment of HCC, we developed a locally injectable, biodegradable, and pH sensitive composite nanogels for site specific delivery. Both control and Dox loaded composite nanogel systems were analyzed by DLS, SEM, FTIR and TG/DTA. The size ranges of the control composite nanogels and their drug loaded counterparts were found to be 90±20 and 270±20 nm, respectively. The control chitin-PLA CNGs and Dox-chitin-PLA CNGs showed higher swelling and degradation in acidic pH. Drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release studies were carried out and showed a higher drug release at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. Cellular internalization of the nanogel systems was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. The cytotoxicity of the composite nanogels was analyzed toward HepG2 (human liver cancer) cell lines. Furthermore, the results of in vitro hemolytic assay and coagulation assay substantiate the blood compatibility of the system. Overall Dox-chitin-PLA CNGs system could be a promising anticancer drug delivery system for liver cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing Water Vapor Permeability of Poly(lactic acid Film and Bottle through Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Green-Processed Cellulose Nanocrystals and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Halász

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly technique was applied to improve the barrier properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA films and bottles. The LbL process was carried out by the alternate adsorption of chitosan (CH (polycation and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC produced via ultrasonic treatment. Four bilayers (on each side of chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals caused 29 and 26% improvement in barrier properties in case of films and bottles, respectively. According to the results the LbL process with CH and CNC offered a transparent “green” barrier coating on PLA substrates.

  2. The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Rayung

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid (PLA and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant.

  3. The effect of fiber bleaching treatment on the properties of poly(lactic acid)/oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayung, Marwah; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Razak, Nur Inani Abdul; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-08-22

    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant.

  4. The Influence of Chemical Surface Modification of Kenaf Fiber using Hydrogen Peroxide on the Mechanical Properties of Biodegradable Kenaf Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid Composites

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    Nur Inani Abdul Razak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching treatment of kenaf fiber was performed in alkaline medium containing hydrogen peroxide solution maintained at pH 11 and 80 °C for 60 min. The bleached kenaf fiber was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and X-ray Diffraction (XRD analysis. The bleached kenaf fiber was then compounded with poly-(lactic acid (PLA via a melt blending method. The mechanical (tensile, flexural and impact performance of the product was tested. The fiber treatment improved the mechanical properties of PLA/bleached kenaf fiber composites. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM morphological analysis showed improvement of the interfacial adhesion between the fiber surface and polymer matrix.

  5. Effects of Inorganic Fillers on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingxun; Wang, Tongxin; Chow, Laurence C; Yang, Mingshu; Mitchell, James W

    Addition of filler to polylactic acid (PLA) may affect its crystallization behavior and mechanical properties. The effects of talc and hydroxyapatite (HA) on the thermal and mechanical properties of two types of PLA (one amorphous and one semicrystalline) have been investigated. The composites were prepared by melt blending followed by injection molding. The molecular weight, morphology, mechanical properties, and thermal properties have been characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), instron tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). It was found that the melting blending led to homogeneous distribution of the inorganic filler within the PLA matrix but decreased the molecular weight of PLA. Regarding the filler, addition of talc increased the crystallinity of PLA, but HA decreased the crystallinity of PLA. The tensile strength of the composites depended on the crystallinity of PLA and the interfacial properties between PLA and the filler, but both talc and HA filler increased the toughness of PLA.

  6. Effects of Inorganic Fillers on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of filler to polylactic acid (PLA may affect its crystallization behavior and mechanical properties. The effects of talc and hydroxyapatite (HA on the thermal and mechanical properties of two types of PLA (one amorphous and one semicrystalline have been investigated. The composites were prepared by melt blending followed by injection molding. The molecular weight, morphology, mechanical properties, and thermal properties have been characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscope (SEM, instron tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. It was found that the melting blending led to homogeneous distribution of the inorganic filler within the PLA matrix but decreased the molecular weight of PLA. Regarding the filler, addition of talc increased the crystallinity of PLA, but HA decreased the crystallinity of PLA. The tensile strength of the composites depended on the crystallinity of PLA and the interfacial properties between PLA and the filler, but both talc and HA filler increased the toughness of PLA.

  7. Evaluation of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite and MWCNT’s in scaffolds of poly lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Doval, R.; Morales-Corona, J.; Olayo, R.; Escamilla-Rivera, V.; Uribe-Ramírez, M.; Ortega-López, M.

    2016-12-01

    In the tissue engineering, the cytotoxicity test is an important part of the biomaterials performance. This research reports the production and characterization of polylactic acid (PLA)-supported hydroxyapatite (HA) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) scaffolds as a bone graft material. Samples containing different HA/MWCNT wt% ratios were prepared by electrospinning. The obtained samples displayed valuable characteristics for the cell adhesion because of their porous-spongy bone-like morphology. The Fourier transforms infrared and Raman analyses indicated no chemical interaction of HA and MWCNT with PLA molecules, but they appear to be only embedded into the PLA fibers. As indicated by x-ray diffraction, crystalline HA and MWCNT’s are supported in the amorphous PLA fibers. Under tensile stress, scaffolds display a Young’s Modulus about 86 MPa, whilst the scaffolds resistance increases with the HA-MWCNT’s ratio. However, the MTS in-vitro assays using the hFOB 1.19 (ATCC CRL-11372) cells, for cell exposure time of 24 and 48 h, revealed that viability reduces for HA-MWCNT’s ratio values over 25 wt%. Our results suggest that a maximum HA/MWCNT’s ratio of 19:1 could be acceptable for cell proliferation while maintaining HA at 200 mg.

  8. Poly(ester amide)s based on (L)-lactic acid oligomers and α-amino acids: influence of the α-amino acid side chain in the poly(ester amide)s properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana C; Coelho, Jorge F J; Valente, Joana F A; Correia, Tiago R; Correia, Ilídio J; Gil, Maria H; Simões, Pedro N

    2013-01-01

    Novel biodegradable and low cytotoxic poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) based on α-amino acids and (L)-lactic acid (L-LA) oligomers were successfully synthesized by interfacial polymerization. The chemical structure of the new polymers was confirmed by spectroscopic analyses. Further characterization suggests that the α-amino acid plays a critical role on the final properties of the PEA. L-phenylalanine provides PEAs with higher glass transition temperature, whereas glycine enhances the crystallinity. The hydrolytic degradation in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37 °C also depends on the α-amino acid, being faster for glycine-based PEAs. The cytotoxic profiles using fibroblast human cells indicate that the PEAs did not elicit an acute cytotoxic effect. The strategy presented in this work opens the possibility of synthesizing biodegradable PEAs with low citotoxicity by an easy and fast method. It is worth to mention also that the properties of these materials can be fine-tuned only by changing the α-amino acid.

  9. Specific Mechanical Energy and Thermal Degradation of Poly(lactic acid and Poly(caprolactone/Date Pits Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of date pits (DP with polylactic acid (PLA or polycaprolactone (PCL is investigated. Composites were prepared by compounding PLA or PCL with date pits at 10, 20, 30, and 40% wt/wt and extruded. Wheat vital gluten (VG was also used as a filler and in combination with DP. The specific mechanical energy (SME was calculated and the composites thermal properties were tested using DSC (peak temperature, enthalpic relaxation, and glass transition and TGA (degradation temperature and mechanism and degradation kinetics. Because DP is hard filler, the SME of PCL-DP composites increased as the amount of filler increased. At 40% fill, the SME decreased due to the lubricating effect of oil found naturally in DP. As illustrated by lower SME, PLA composites exhibited softer texture because PLA is harder than DP. The DSC melting peak temperature of both polymers has increased at higher DP; however, PLA exhibited enthalpic relation between 66 and 68°C. The TGA profile of the composites displayed two distinct peaks versus one peak for the pure polymer. The degradation kinetics showed multistep process for the composites and one-step process for the pure polymer. The utilization of date pits as a hard filler in developing biodegradable plastics is good for the environment and a value added for the date industry.

  10. Mesoporous bioactive glass surface modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid electrospun fibrous scaffold for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen SJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shijie Chen,1,* Zhiyuan Jian,2,* Linsheng Huang,2,* Wei Xu,3,* Shaohua Liu,4 Dajiang Song,3 Zongmiao Wan,3 Amanda Vaughn,5 Ruisen Zhan,1 Chaoyue Zhang,1 Song Wu,1 Minghua Hu,6 Jinsong Li1 1Department of Orthopaedics, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2The First General Surgery Department of Shiyan Taihe Hospital Affiliated to Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Orthopedic Oncology, Changzheng Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Molecular Biosciences, Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 6Department of Anthropotomy, Changsha Medical College, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG surface modified with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA electrospun fibrous scaffold for bone regeneration was prepared by dip-coating a PLGA electrospun fibrous scaffold into MBG precursor solution. Different surface structures and properties were acquired by different coating times. Surface morphology, chemical composition, microstructure, pore size distribution, and hydrophilicity of the PLGA-MBG scaffold were characterized. Results of scanning electron microscopy indicated that MBG surface coating made the scaffold rougher with the increase of MBG content. Scaffolds after MBG modification possessed mesoporous architecture on the surface. The measurements of the water contact angles suggested that the incorporation of MBG into the PLGA scaffold improved the surface hydrophilicity. An energy dispersive spectrometer evidenced that calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatite formed on the PLGA-MBG scaffolds

  11. Fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) hybrid scaffold promotes early chondrogenesis of articular chondrocytes: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha'ban, Munirah; Kim, Soon Hee; Idrus, Ruszymah Bh; Khang, Gilson

    2008-04-25

    Synthetic- and naturally derived- biodegradable polymers have been widely used to construct scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are bioresorbable and biocompatible, rendering them as a promising tool for clinical application. To minimize cells lost during the seeding procedure, we used the natural polymer fibrin to immobilize cells and to provide homogenous cells distribution in PLGA scaffolds. We evaluated in vitro chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in PLGA scaffolds using fibrin as cell transplantation matrix. PLGA scaffolds were soaked in chondrocytes-fibrin suspension (1 x 10(6) cells/scaffold) and polymerized by dropping thrombin-calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution. PLGA-seeded chondrocytes was used as control. All constructs were cultured for a maximum of 21 days. Cell proliferation activity was measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days in vitro using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2-, 5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), gene expression and sulphated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) analyses were performed at each time point of 1, 2 and 3 weeks to elucidate in vitro cartilage development and deposition of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM). Cell proliferation activity was gradually increased from day-1 until day-14 and declined by day-21. A significant cartilaginous tissue formation was detected as early as 2-week in fibrin/PLGA hybrid construct as confirmed by the presence of cartilage-isolated cells and lacunae embedded within basophilic ECM. Cartilage formation was remarkably evidenced after 3 weeks. Presence of cartilage-specific proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in fibrin/PLGA hybrid constructs were confirmed by positive Safranin O and Alcian Blue staining. Collagen type II exhibited intense immunopositivity at the pericellular matrix. Chondrogenic properties were further demonstrated by the expression of genes encoded for

  12. Fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid hybrid scaffold promotes early chondrogenesis of articular chondrocytes: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrus Ruszymah BH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic- and naturally derived- biodegradable polymers have been widely used to construct scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA are bioresorbable and biocompatible, rendering them as a promising tool for clinical application. To minimize cells lost during the seeding procedure, we used the natural polymer fibrin to immobilize cells and to provide homogenous cells distribution in PLGA scaffolds. We evaluated in vitro chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in PLGA scaffolds using fibrin as cell transplantation matrix. Methods PLGA scaffolds were soaked in chondrocytes-fibrin suspension (1 × 106cells/scaffold and polymerized by dropping thrombin-calcium chloride (CaCl2 solution. PLGA-seeded chondrocytes was used as control. All constructs were cultured for a maximum of 21 days. Cell proliferation activity was measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days in vitro using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl-2-, 5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT assay. Morphological observation, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC, gene expression and sulphated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG analyses were performed at each time point of 1, 2 and 3 weeks to elucidate in vitro cartilage development and deposition of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM. Results Cell proliferation activity was gradually increased from day-1 until day-14 and declined by day-21. A significant cartilaginous tissue formation was detected as early as 2-week in fibrin/PLGA hybrid construct as confirmed by the presence of cartilage-isolated cells and lacunae embedded within basophilic ECM. Cartilage formation was remarkably evidenced after 3 weeks. Presence of cartilage-specific proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG in fibrin/PLGA hybrid constructs were confirmed by positive Safranin O and Alcian Blue staining. Collagen type II exhibited intense immunopositivity at the pericellular matrix. Chondrogenic properties were further

  13. Fabrication of high conductivity dual multi-porous poly (L-lactic acid)/polypyrrole composite micro/nanofiber film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qiaozhen; Dai Zhengwei; Lan Ping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PLLA/H 2 SO 4 -doped PPy composite micro/nano fibers dual multi-pore membranes with high conductivity were fabricated by combining electrospinning with in situ polymerization.These composite fibers have a core-shell structure, the PPy is the core and the PLLA/PPy is the shell. → The size and shape of the pores in this PPy composite fiber membrane can be tuned by polymerization parameters. The largest size of the pores is about 250 μm. → The conductivity of this composite fiber membrane can be adjusted by polymerization parameters. The highest conductivity is 179.0 S cm -1 . The PLLA fibers act as the template in the pyrrole polymerization process and contributed to the increase of the conductivity. - Abstract: Dual multi-porous PLLA (poly(L-lactic acid))/H 2 SO 4 -doped PPy (polypyrrole) composite micro/nano fiber films were fabricated by combining electrospinning with in situ polymerization. The morphologies and structures of the resulting samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the composite micro/nano fibers exhibited a core-shell structure and the composite fiber film had a dual multi-pore structure composed of pores both in the fibers and among the fibers. Semiconductor parameter analyzer was used to characterize the electrical properties of the samples. It was interesting to find that all the PLLA/H 2 SO 4 -doped PPy composite micro/nano fiber films had higher conductivity than H 2 SO 4 -doped PPy particles when the polymerization time up to 180 min. Effects of the pyrrole synthesis conditions on the pore size and the conductivity of PLLA/PPy composite fiber film were assessed. By optimizing the polymerization conditions, the max conductivity of this composite fiber film was about 179.0 S cm -1 with a pore size of about 250 μm. The possible mechanism of PLLA/H 2 SO 4 -doped PPy composite micro/nano fiber films had much higher conductivity than H 2 SO 4 -doped PPy particles was discussed.

  14. Ligament regeneration using an absorbable stent-shaped poly-L-lactic acid scaffold in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Hanako; Kokubu, Takeshi; Inui, Atsuyuki; Mifune, Yutaka; Nishida, Kotaro; Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Kumiko; Hiwa, Chiaki; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2012-11-01

    Ligaments are frequently damaged in sports activities and trauma, and severe ligament injury can lead to joint instability and osteoarthritis. In this study, we aimed to regenerate the medial collateral ligament (MCL) using an absorbable stent-shaped poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffold in a rabbit model to examine the biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Twenty-three Japanese white rabbits were used in this study. MCL defects were surgically created in the knee joints and then reconstructed using stent-shaped PLLA scaffolds. As controls, flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendons were implanted into the contralateral knees. Seven rabbits were sacrificed at three time points, conducted four, eight and 16 weeks after the operation. The regenerated tissues were histologically evaluated using fibre alignment scoring, morphology of fibroblast scoring and immunohistochemical analysis of types I and III collagen. The regenerated tissues were also biomechanically evaluated by measuring the ultimate failure load and stiffness. At four weeks post-operation, spindle-shaped cells were observed on the inside of the scaffolds. At eight weeks, maturation of the regenerated tissues and collagen fibre alignment parallel to the ligaments was observed. At 16 weeks, the fibre alignment had become denser. The fibre alignment and morphology of fibroblast scores significantly increased in a time-dependent manner. Expression of type I collagen was more strongly observed in the scaffold group at eight and 16 weeks post-operation than at four weeks. Type III collagen was also observed at four, eight and 16 weeks post-operation. A thin layer of fibrocartilage was observed at the ligament-bone junction at eight and 16 weeks. The ultimate failure load of the scaffold group was 46.7 ± 20.7 N, 66.5 ± 11.0 N and 74.3 ± 11.5 N at four, eight and 16 weeks post-operation, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the normal MCL and the scaffold group at 16 weeks post

  15. Effect of phosphate-based glass fibre surface properties on thermally produced poly(lactic acid) matrix composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Maziar Shah; Ahmed, Ifty; Muja, Naser; Rudd, Christopher D; Bureau, Martin N; Nazhat, Showan N

    2011-12-01

    Incorporation of soluble bioactive glass fibres into biodegradable polymers is an interesting approach for bone repair and regeneration. However, the glass composition and its surface properties significantly affect the nature of the fibre-matrix interface and composite properties. Herein, the effect of Si and Fe on the surface properties of calcium containing phosphate based glasses (PGs) in the system (50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-(10-x)SiO(2)-xFe(2)O(3), where x = 0, 5 and 10 mol.%) were investigated. Contact angle measurements revealed a higher surface energy, and surface polarity as well as increased hydrophilicity for Si doped PG which may account for the presence of surface hydroxyl groups. Two PG formulations, 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-10Fe(2)O(3) (Fe10) and 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-5Fe(2)O(3)-5SiO(2) (Fe5Si5), were melt drawn into fibres and randomly incorporated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) produced by melt processing. The ageing in deionised water (DW), mechanical property changes in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and cytocompatibility properties of these composites were investigated. In contrast to Fe10 and as a consequence of the higher surface energy and polarity of Fe5Si5, its incorporation into PLA led to increased inorganic/organic interaction indicated by a reduction in the carbonyl group of the matrix. PLA chain scission was confirmed by a greater reduction in its molecular weight in PLA-Fe5Si5 composites. In DW, the dissolution rate of PLA-Fe5Si5 was significantly higher than that of PLA-Fe10. Dissolution of the glass fibres resulted in the formation of channels within the matrix. Initial flexural strength was significantly increased through PGF incorporation. After PBS ageing, the reduction in mechanical properties was greater for PLA-Fe5Si5 compared to PLA-Fe10. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts seeded onto PG discs, PLA and PLA-PGF composites were evaluated for up to 7 days indicating that the materials were generally cytocompatible. In addition, cell alignment along the PGF

  16. Gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles for the prevention of maxillofacial and orthopedic implant infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Claudia; Degoutin, Stephanie; Chai, Feng; Raoul, Gwenael; Hornez, Jean-Chritophe; Martel, Bernard; Siepmann, Juergen; Ferri, Joel; Blanchemain, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Trauma and orthopedic surgery can cause infections as any open surgical procedures. Such complications occur in only1 to 5% of the cases, but the treatment is rather complicated due to bacterial biofilm formation and limited drug access to the site of infection upon systemic administration. An interesting strategy to overcome this type of complications is to prevent bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation via the local and controlled release of antibiotic drugs from the implant itself. Obviously, the incorporation of the drug into the implant should not affect the latter's biological and mechanical properties. In this context, we optimized the preparation process for gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles, which can be incorporated in the macropores of calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes. Microparticles were prepared using a double emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The processing parameters were optimized in order to provide an average microparticle size of about 60 μm, allowing for incorporation inside the macropores (100 μm) of the hydroxyapatite scaffold. Gentamicin-loaded PLGA microparticles showed a sustained release for 25–30 days and a rapid antibacterial activity due to a burst effect, the extent of which was controlled by the initial loading of the microparticles. SEM pictures revealed a highly porous microparticle structure, which can help to reduce the micro environmental pH drop and autocatalytic effects. The biological evaluation showed the cytocompatibility and non-hemolytic property of the microparticles, and the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus under the given conditions. - Highlights: • The optimization of microparticle preparation parameters allows to obtain a size compatible with the bone substitute porosity • PDL% has a direct impact on the burst effect, a control release of gentamicin was obtained • The incorporation of microparticles into the macroporosity

  17. Investigation of silk fibroin nanoparticle-decorated poly(L-lactic acid composite scaffolds for osteoblast growth and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen BQ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biao-Qi Chen,1 Ranjith Kumar Kankala,1,2 Ai-Zheng Chen,1,2 Ding-Zhu Yang,1 Xiao-Xia Cheng,1 Ni-Na Jiang,1,2 Kai Zhu,3,4 Shi-Bin Wang1,2 1Institute of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, 2Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Biochemical Technology, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, Fujian, 3Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 4Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Attempts to reflect the physiology of organs is quite an intricacy during the tissue engineering process. An ideal scaffold and its surface topography can address and manipulate the cell behavior during the regeneration of targeted tissue, affecting the cell growth and differentiation significantly. Herein, silk fibroin (SF nanoparticles were incorporated into poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA to prepare composite scaffolds via phase-inversion technique using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. The SF nanoparticle core increased the surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the PLLA scaffolds, leading to a high affinity for albumin attachment. The in vitro cytotoxicity test of SF/PLLA scaffolds in L929 mouse fibroblast cells indicated good biocompatibility. Then, the in vitro interplay between mouse preosteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1 and various topological structures and biochemical cues were evaluated. The cell adhesion, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and their relationship with the structures as well as SF content were explored. The SF/PLLA weight ratio (2:8 significantly affected the MC3T3-E1 cells by improving the expression of key players in the regulation of bone formation, ie, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, osteocalcin (OC and collagen 1 (COL-1. These results suggest not only the importance of surface topography and biochemical cues but also the potential of applying SF/PLLA composite scaffolds as biomaterials in bone tissue engineering. Keywords: super critical fluids, surface topography, bone

  18. Gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles for the prevention of maxillofacial and orthopedic implant infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Claudia [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Degoutin, Stephanie [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); UMET, Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Chai, Feng [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Raoul, Gwenael [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Service Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale, CHRU de Lille, 59000 Lille (France); Hornez, Jean-Chritophe [Laboratoire des Matériaux Céramiques et Procédés Associés (LMCPA), Université de Valenciennes, 59300 Valenciennes (France); Martel, Bernard [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); UMET, Ingénierie des Systèmes Polymères, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Siepmann, Juergen [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Ferri, Joel [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France); Service Chirurgie Maxillo-Faciale, CHRU de Lille, 59000 Lille (France); Blanchemain, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.blanchemain@univ-lille2.fr [Univ. Lille, 59000 Lille (France); INSERM U1008, Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, 59000 Lille (France)

    2016-07-01

    Trauma and orthopedic surgery can cause infections as any open surgical procedures. Such complications occur in only1 to 5% of the cases, but the treatment is rather complicated due to bacterial biofilm formation and limited drug access to the site of infection upon systemic administration. An interesting strategy to overcome this type of complications is to prevent bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation via the local and controlled release of antibiotic drugs from the implant itself. Obviously, the incorporation of the drug into the implant should not affect the latter's biological and mechanical properties. In this context, we optimized the preparation process for gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles, which can be incorporated in the macropores of calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes. Microparticles were prepared using a double emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The processing parameters were optimized in order to provide an average microparticle size of about 60 μm, allowing for incorporation inside the macropores (100 μm) of the hydroxyapatite scaffold. Gentamicin-loaded PLGA microparticles showed a sustained release for 25–30 days and a rapid antibacterial activity due to a burst effect, the extent of which was controlled by the initial loading of the microparticles. SEM pictures revealed a highly porous microparticle structure, which can help to reduce the micro environmental pH drop and autocatalytic effects. The biological evaluation showed the cytocompatibility and non-hemolytic property of the microparticles, and the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus under the given conditions. - Highlights: • The optimization of microparticle preparation parameters allows to obtain a size compatible with the bone substitute porosity • PDL% has a direct impact on the burst effect, a control release of gentamicin was obtained • The incorporation of microparticles into the

  19. Fabrication of novel high performance ductile poly(lactic acid) nanofiber scaffold coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla, E-mail: abda_55@jbnu.ac.kr [Dept of Engineering Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineering, South Valley of University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Hussein, Kamal Hany [Stem Cell Institute and College of Veterinary Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Casettari, Luca [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino, Piazza Rinascimento, 6, Urbino, PU 61029 (Italy); Khalil, Khalil Abdelrazek [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University, 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Energy Engineering, Aswan University, Aswan (Egypt); Hamdy, Abdel Salam [Dept. of Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, 1201 West University Dr., Edinburg, TX 78541-2999 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofiber scaffold has received increasing interest as a promising material for potential application in the field of regenerative medicine. However, the low (hydrophilicity) and poor ductility restrict its practical application. Integration of hydrophilic elastic polymer onto the surface of the nanofiber scaffold may help to overcome the drawbacks of PLA material. Herein, we successfully optimized the parameters for in situ deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol), (PVA) onto post-electrospun PLA nanofibers using a simple hydrothermal approach. Our results showed that the average fiber diameter of coated nanofiber mat is about 1265 ± 222 nm, which is remarkably higher than its pristine counterpart (650 ± 180 nm). The hydrophilicity of PLA nanofiber scaffold coated with a PVA thin layer improved dramatically (36.11 ± 1.5°) compared to that of pristine PLA (119.7 ± 1.5°) scaffold. The mechanical testing showed that the PLA nanofiber scaffold could be converted from rigid to ductile with enhanced tensile strength, due to maximizing the hydrogen bond interaction during the heat treatment and in the presence of PVA. Cytocompatibility performance of the pristine and coated PLA fibers with PVA was observed through an in vitro experiment based on cell attachment and the MTT assay by EA.hy926 human endothelial cells. The cytocompatibility results showed that human cells induced more favorable attachment and proliferation behavior on hydrophilic PLA composite scaffold than that of pristine PLA. Hence, PVA coating resulted in an increase in initial human cell attachment and proliferation. We believe that the novel PVA-coated PLA nanofiber scaffold developed in this study, could be a promising high performance biomaterial in regeneration medicine. - Highlights: • Novel PVA-coated PLA nanofibers were prepared by a simple hydrothermal route. • This in situ treatment strategy for PLA fibers induced polymer chain conformation. • Bonding interaction

  20. Fabrication of novel high performance ductile poly(lactic acid) nanofiber scaffold coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Hussein, Kamal Hany; Casettari, Luca; Khalil, Khalil Abdelrazek; Hamdy, Abdel Salam

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofiber scaffold has received increasing interest as a promising material for potential application in the field of regenerative medicine. However, the low (hydrophilicity) and poor ductility restrict its practical application. Integration of hydrophilic elastic polymer onto the surface of the nanofiber scaffold may help to overcome the drawbacks of PLA material. Herein, we successfully optimized the parameters for in situ deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol), (PVA) onto post-electrospun PLA nanofibers using a simple hydrothermal approach. Our results showed that the average fiber diameter of coated nanofiber mat is about 1265 ± 222 nm, which is remarkably higher than its pristine counterpart (650 ± 180 nm). The hydrophilicity of PLA nanofiber scaffold coated with a PVA thin layer improved dramatically (36.11 ± 1.5°) compared to that of pristine PLA (119.7 ± 1.5°) scaffold. The mechanical testing showed that the PLA nanofiber scaffold could be converted from rigid to ductile with enhanced tensile strength, due to maximizing the hydrogen bond interaction during the heat treatment and in the presence of PVA. Cytocompatibility performance of the pristine and coated PLA fibers with PVA was observed through an in vitro experiment based on cell attachment and the MTT assay by EA.hy926 human endothelial cells. The cytocompatibility results showed that human cells induced more favorable attachment and proliferation behavior on hydrophilic PLA composite scaffold than that of pristine PLA. Hence, PVA coating resulted in an increase in initial human cell attachment and proliferation. We believe that the novel PVA-coated PLA nanofiber scaffold developed in this study, could be a promising high performance biomaterial in regeneration medicine. - Highlights: • Novel PVA-coated PLA nanofibers were prepared by a simple hydrothermal route. • This in situ treatment strategy for PLA fibers induced polymer chain conformation. • Bonding interaction

  1. Estudo da biocompatibilidade da blenda de poli(L-ácido láctico/policaprolactona-triol Biocompatibility study of poly(L-acid-lactic/polycaprolactone triol blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio K. Minata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polímeros biorreabsorvíveis têm sido estudados para aplicações médicas especialmente nas áreas de ortopedia e traumatologia. Dentre os mais promissores destaca-se o poli(L- ácido láctico, devido a sua elevada resistência e boa biocompatibilidade. Apesar dessas características os dispositivos obtidos a partir do PLLA têm baixa elongação e um caráter hidrofóbico, fatores que dificultam seu emprego em aplicações onde a interação tecido/implante seja um fator importante. O objetivo do trabalho foi obter membranas de PLLA e melhorar suas propriedades pela adição de 10% de poli(e-caprolactone (PCL-triol, um polímero semicristalino. Para isso membranas foram implantadas no tecido subcutâneo de ratos Wistar, e análises histológicas dos segmentos das áreas implantadas foram realizadas nos tempos de 2, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 180 dias a fim de se avaliarem as interações polímero/tecido. Não foram observadas respostas inflamatórias exacerbadas em nenhum tempo estudado. Verificou-se a formação de cápsula fibrosa envolvendo a área implantada com presença de fibroblastos, fibrócitos e células gigantes multinucleadas. Concluímos que as membranas de PLLA contendo PCL-triol apresentaram resistência ao processo de degradação, podendo ainda ser observadas após 180 dias de estudo.Bioabsorbable polymers have been studied for medical applications, especially for orthopedics and traumatology area. Among these promising polymers there is great emphasis on Poly (l-lactic acid, PLLA, due to its high strength and good biocompatibility. In spite of these characteristics, the devices obtained from the PLLA have low elongation and a hydrophobic character, which hamper its use in applications in which the tissue/implant interaction is an important factor. The aim of this work is to obtain PLLA membranes and to improve its properties adding 10% of poly (e-caprolactone (PCL-triol, a semicrystalline polymer. For this proposal membranes were

  2. Ultrafine PEG-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles formulated by hydrophobic surfactant-assisted one-pot synthesis for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chih-Hang; Wang, Yu-Chao; Huang, Hsin-Ying; Wu, Li-Chen; Yang, Chung-Shi

    2011-05-06

    A novel method was developed for the one-pot synthesis of ultrafine poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs), using an emulsion solvent evaporation formulation method. Using either cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or poly(ethylene glycol)-distearyl phosphoethanolamine (PEGPE) as an oily emulsifier during the emulsion process, produced PLGA particle sizes of less than 50 nm, constituting a breakthrough in emulsion formulation methods. The yield of ultrafine PLGA NPs increased with PEGPE/PLGA ratio, reaching a plateau at around 85%, when the PEGPE/PLGA ratio reached 3:1. The PEGPE-PLGA NPs exhibited high drug loading content, reduced burst release, good serum stability, and enhanced cell uptake rate compared with traditional PLGA NPs. Sub-50 nm diameter PEG-coated ultrafine PLGA NPs show great potential for in vivo drug delivery systems.

  3. Enhanced bone formation in electrospun poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)–tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofiber scaffolds incorporated with graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Weili; He, Jianxin; Sang, Feng; Wang, Qian; Chen, Li; Cui, Shizhong; Ding, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To engineer bone tissue, it is necessary to provide a biocompatible, mechanically robust scaffold. In this study, we fabricated an ultrafine nanofiber scaffold by electrospinning a blend of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), tussah silk fibroin, and graphene oxide (GO) and characterized its morphology, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biological activity. The data indicate that incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk and 1 wt.% graphene oxide into poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers significantly decreased the fiber diameter from 280 to 130 nm. Furthermore, tussah silk and graphene oxide boosted the Young's modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4-fold and 3-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and functionally promoted biomineralization-relevant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineral deposition. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • GO-doped PLGA–tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofibers with diameter of about 130 nm were fabricated by electrospinning. • Incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk to the PLGA nanofibers accelerates osteoblast differentiation and formation of new bone. • Mechanical properties of composite nanofiber mats had been significantly improved after embedding with GO nanosheets. • Nanostructured composite scaffolds effectively accelerate mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and formation of new bone.

  4. Effect of surface modification of poly(lactic acid) by low-pressure ammonia plasma on adsorption of human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Boonyawan, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Chaiwong, C., E-mail: cchwng@gmail.com [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films were treated by low-pressure ammonia plasma. • Human serum albumin (HSA) attachment on the treated PLA was reduced. • The treated PLA films were characterized. • Hydrophilicity enhancement due to polar groups introduced was the reason. • Reduced HSA adhesion could promote cell attachment on PLA for biomedicine. - Abstract: The final goal of the study was to promote understanding of mechanisms involved in cell attachment on biomedical polymer poly(lactic acid) (PLA). As the cell attachment on the material surface was preceded by blood protein adsorption which would critically affect subsequent cell adhesion, for the clinic application purpose, human serum albumin (HSA) was used in the investigation on its adsorption on PLA, which was however treated by low-pressure ammonia (NH{sub 3}) plasma. The NH{sub 3}-plasma-treated PLA was found to adsorb less HSA than the untreated PLA. The PLA was characterized using various techniques such as atomic force microscopy, contact angle and surface energy analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All of the characterization results indicated that due to NH{sub 3}-plasma-induced polar groups the PLA enhanced its hydrophilicity which in turn inhibited the HSA adsorption. The decreased HSA adsorption would consequently increase the cell attachment because of the cell adhesion barrier reduced.

  5. Enhanced bone formation in electrospun poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)–tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofiber scaffolds incorporated with graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Weili [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites (Ministry of Education), Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); He, Jianxin, E-mail: hejianxin771117@163.com [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Sang, Feng [Department of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Treatment and Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Wang, Qian [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Chen, Li [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites (Ministry of Education), Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Cui, Shizhong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites (Ministry of Education), Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Ding, Bin [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201600 (China)

    2016-05-01

    To engineer bone tissue, it is necessary to provide a biocompatible, mechanically robust scaffold. In this study, we fabricated an ultrafine nanofiber scaffold by electrospinning a blend of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), tussah silk fibroin, and graphene oxide (GO) and characterized its morphology, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biological activity. The data indicate that incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk and 1 wt.% graphene oxide into poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers significantly decreased the fiber diameter from 280 to 130 nm. Furthermore, tussah silk and graphene oxide boosted the Young's modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4-fold and 3-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and functionally promoted biomineralization-relevant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineral deposition. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • GO-doped PLGA–tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofibers with diameter of about 130 nm were fabricated by electrospinning. • Incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk to the PLGA nanofibers accelerates osteoblast differentiation and formation of new bone. • Mechanical properties of composite nanofiber mats had been significantly improved after embedding with GO nanosheets. • Nanostructured composite scaffolds effectively accelerate mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and formation of new bone.

  6. Chopped basalt fibres: A new perspective in reinforcing poly(lactic acid to produce injection moulded engineering composites from renewable and natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tamas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reinforcing of Poly(lactic acid with chopped basalt fibres by using silane treated and untreated basalt fibres. Composite materials with 5–10–15–20–30–40 wt% basalt fibre contents were prepared from silane sized basalt fibres using extrusion, and injection moulding, while composites with 5–10–15 wt% basalt fibre contents were also prepared by using untreated basalt fibres as control. The properties of the injection moulded composites were extensively examined by using quasi-static (tensile, three-point bending and dynamic mechanical tests (notched and unnotched Charpy impact tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, heat deflection temperature (HDT analysis, dimensional stability test, as well as melt flow index (MFI analysis and scanning electron microscopic (SEM observations. It was found that silane treated chopped basalt fibres are much more effective in reinforcing Poly(lactic acid than natural fibres; although basalt fibres are not biodegradable but they are still considered as natural (can be found in nature in the form of volcanic rocks and biologically inert. It is demonstrated in this paper that by using basalt fibre reinforcement, a renewable and natural resource based composite can be produced by injection moulding with excellent mechanical properties suitable even for engineering applications. Finally it was shown that by using adequate drying of the materials, composites with higher mechanical properties can be achieved compared to literature data.

  7. Preparation and evaluation of 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)-loaded poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Roshan; Poudel, Bijay Kumar; Choi, Ju Yeon; Choi, Im Soon; Shin, Beom Soo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we developed the novel 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)-loaded poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) using the combination of sodium lauryl sulfate and poloxamer 407 as the anionic and non-ionic surfactant for stabilization. The PLGA NPs were prepared by emulsification/solvent evaporation method. Both the drug/polymer ratio and phase ratio were 1:10 (w/w). The optimized formulation of 17-AAG-loaded PLGA NPs had a particle size and polydispersity index of 151.6 ± 2.0 and 0.152 ± 0.010 nm, respectively, which was further supported by TEM image. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading capacity were 69.9 and 7.0%, respectively. In vitro release study showed sustained release. When in vitro release data were fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas model, the n value was 0.468, which suggested that the drug was released by anomalous or non-Fickian diffusion. In addition, 17-AAG-loaded PLGA NPs in 72 h, displayed approximately 60% cell viability reduction at 10 µg/ml 17-AAG concentration, in MCF-7 cell lines, indicating sustained release from NPs. Therefore, our results demonstrated that incorporation of 17-AAG into PLGA NPs could provide a novel effective nanocarrier for the treatment of cancer.

  8. Regulating performance of poly(L-lactic acid) by Addition of N, N‧-Bis(Salicyloyl) p-phthalic acid dihydrazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan-Hua; Tian, Liang-Liang; Zhao, Li-Sha; Zhang, Mei-Xia

    2017-10-01

    Within this work, the influence of a crystallization accelerator N, N‧-bis(salicyloyl) p-phthalic acid dihydrazide (PAS) on the non-isothermal crystallization behavior, melting behavior, thermal stability, and light transmittance of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and light transmittance meter. Comparative analysis of the non-isothermal crystallization behavior of the primary PLLA and PLLA/PAS samples revealed an important role of PAS in promoting the crystallization of PLLA in cooling. Additionally, the concentration of PAS and cooling rate also exhibited significant effect on the non-isothermal crystallization process, and the 3 wt% PAS causes the PLLA to have the highest the onset crystallization temperature and the crystallization peak temperature, and the largest non-isothermal crystallization enthalpy. However, the increase of cooling rate resulted in the decrease of crystal growth ability, weakening the crystallization of PLLA. The investigating on the melting behavior under different conditions further confirmed the crystallization promoting effect of PAS for PLLA, and the crystallization temperature, resulting from the different crystal growth rate, affected remarkably the melting behavior of PLLA/3%PAS sample. The addition of PAS could not change the thermal decomposition behavior of the primary PLLA, but decreased the onset decomposition temperature with an increase of PAS concentration in PLLA matrix. Similarly, the incorporation of PAS is unfavourable to the light transmittance of the primary PLLA.

  9. Comparison of resorbable poly-L-lactic acid-polyglycolic acid and internal Palmaz stents for the surgical correction of severe tracheomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Gregory K; Warner, Thomas; Connor, Nadine P; Hartig, Gregory K

    2003-06-01

    Tracheomalacia (TM) is associated with expiratory airway collapse and potentially fatal respiratory distress. Internal and external tracheal stents and, recently, resorbable biopolymers have been used to treat this condition. In this study, the efficacy and biocompatibility of internal Palmaz stents and external poly-L-lactic acid-polyglycolic acid (PLPG) stents were compared in a model of severe TM induced in piglets. The tracheas were repaired with one of two stenting methods, and the animals survived for up to 16 weeks. Weight gain, adverse respiratory signs and symptoms, tracheal or lung histopathologic changes, and internal and external tracheal diameters were measured. The animals in the PLPG group uniformly were free of respiratory distress and tracheal stenosis or inflammation, whereas all animals in the Palmaz group developed respiratory distress as a result of pneumonia or tracheal stenosis caused by intraluminal granulation tissue. In conclusion, superior efficacy of external, resorbable PLPG stents was found relative to internal Palmaz stents for the surgical repair of severe TM.

  10. Hyaluronic acid/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) core/shell fiber meshes loaded with epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate as skin tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ji; Lee, Jong Ho; Jin, Linhua; Jin, Oh Seong; Shin, Yong Cheol; Sang, Jin Oh; Lee, Jaebeom; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Han, Dong-Wook

    2014-11-01

    In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) core/shell fiber meshes loaded with epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) (HA/PLGA-E) for application to tissue engineering scaffolds for skin regeneration were prepared via coaxial electrospinning. Physicochemical properties of HA/PLGA-E core/shell fiber meshes were characterized by SEM, Raman spectroscopy, contact angle, EGCG release profiling and in vitro degradation. Biomechanical properties of HA/PLGA-E meshes were also investigated by a tensile strength test. SEM images showed that HA/PLGA-E fiber meshes had a three-dimensional interconnected pore structure with an average fiber diameter of about 1270 nm. Raman spectra revealed that EGCG was uniformly dispersed in the PLGA shell of meshes. HA/PLGA-E meshes showed sustained EGCG release patterns by controlled diffusion and PLGA degradation over 4 weeks. EGCG loading did not adversely affect the tensile strength and elastic modulus of HA/PLGA meshes, while increased their hydrophilicity and surface energy. Attachment of human dermal fibroblasts on HA/PLGA-E meshes was appreciably increased and their proliferation was steadily retained during the culture period. These results suggest that HA/PLGA-E core/shell fiber meshes can be potentially used as scaffolds supporting skin regeneration.

  11. The Melting Behavior and Thermal Stability of Green Poly(L-lactic acid) with N, N, N, N'-Tetra(benzoyl) Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid Dihydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Qiang Xu, Q.; Ren, L.; Zhao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal properties of green poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with N, N, N, N'-tetra(benzoyl) ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid dihydrazide (NA) at different conditions were investigated. The melting behavior of PLLA/NA sample after isothermal crystallization at 100 degree C showed that the low-temperature melting peak shifted to high temperature with increasing of crystallization time. However, the high-temperature melting peak did not show any change. Meantime, the melting enthalpy of cold crystallization was higher than that of hot crystallization, and the difference between cold crystallization and hot crystallization increased from 0.31 J/g to 0.89 J/g with increasing of crystallization time. Heating or cooling rate affected the melting behavior of PLLA, the low-temperature and high-temperature melting peak shifted to low temperature with increasing of rate, and the ratio of melting peak area between low-temperature melting peak and high-temperature melting peak decreased. Thermal stability of PLLA/NA indicated that PLLA/NA only exhibited one decomposition stage as decomposition of PLLA. (author)

  12. Capillary microreactors for lactic acid extraction: experimental and modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Susanti; Winkelman, Jozef; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero; Yue, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important biobased chemical and, among others, is used for the production of poly-lactic acid. Down-stream processing using state of the art technology is energy intensive and leads to the formation of large amounts of salts. In this presentation, experimental and modeling studies

  13. Synthesis of Bio-Based Poly(lactic acid-co-10-hydroxy decanoate Copolymers with High Thermal Stability and Ductility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjian Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based aliphatic copolyesters, poly(lactic acid-co-10-hydroxy decanoate (P(LA-co-HDA, PLH, were successfully synthesized from lactic acid (LA and 10-hydroxycapric acid (HDA by a thermal polycondensation process, in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA and SnCl2·2H2O as co-catalyst. The copolymer structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. The weight average molecular weights (Mw of PLH, from gel permeation chromatography (GPC measurements, were controlled from 18,500 to 37,900 by changing the molar ratios of LA and HDA. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA results showed that PLH had excellent thermal stability, and the decomposition temperature at the maximum rate was above 280 °C. The glass transition temperature (Tg and melting temperature (Tm of PLH decreased continuously with increasing the HDA composition by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements. PLH showed high ductility, and the breaking elongation increased significantly by the increment of the HDA composition. Moreover, the PLH copolymer could degrade in buffer solution. The cell adhesion results showed that PLH had good biocompatibility with NIH/3T3 cells. The bio-based PLH copolymers have potential applications as thermoplastics, elastomers or impact modifiers in the biomedical, industrial and agricultural fields.

  14. Elimination of mouse tumor cells from neonate spermatogonial cells utilizing cisplatin-entrapped folic acid-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Ronak; Ashjari, Mohsen; Ashtari, Khadijeh; Izadyar, Fariborz; Behnam, Babak; Khoei, Samideh; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohamad; Koruji, Morteza

    2018-01-01

    Some male survivors of childhood cancer are suffering from azoospermia. In addition, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are necessary for the improvement of spermatogenesis subsequent to exposure to cytotoxic agents such as cisplatin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of cisplatin-loaded folic acid-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) on mouse malignant cell line (EL4) and SSCs in vitro. SSCs were co-cultured with mouse malignant cell line (EL4) cells and divided into four culture groups: 1) control (cells were co-cultured in the culture medium), 2) co-cultured cells were treated with cisplatin (10 μg/mL), 3) co-cultured cells were treated with cisplatin-loaded folic acid-conjugated PLGA NPs, and 4) co-cultures were treated with folic acid-conjugated PLGA for 48 hours. The NPs were prepared, characterized, and targeted with folate. In vitro release characteristics, loading efficiency, and scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images were studied. Cancer cells were assayed after treatment using flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. The co-cultures of SSCs and EL4 cells were injected into seminiferous tubules of the testes after treating with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum/PLGA NPs. The mean diameter of PLGA NPs ranged between 150 and 250 nm. The number of TUNEL-positive cells increased, and the expression of Bax and caspase-3 were upregulated in EL4 cells in Group 4 compared with Group 2. There was no pathological tumor in testes after transplantation with treated co-cultured cells. The PLGA NPs appeared to act as a promising carrier for cisplatin administration, which was consistent with a higher activation of apoptosis than free drug.

  15. Production and characterization of thermoplastic cassava starch, functionalized poly(lactic acid), and their reactive compatibilized blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detyothin, Sukeewan

    Cassava starch was blended with glycerol using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder (TSE). Thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) at a ratio of 70/30 by weight of cassava/glycerol was selected and further blended with other polymers. TPCS sheets made from compression molding had low tensile strength (0.45 +/- 0.05 MPa) and Young's modulus (1.24 +/- 0.58 MPa), but moderate elongation at break (83.0 +/- 0.18.6%), medium level of oxygen permeability, and high water vapor permeability with a very high rate of water absorption. TPCS was blended with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) at various ratios by using a TSE. The blend resins exhibited good properties such as increased thermal stability (Tmax) and crystallinity of PLA, and improved water sensitivity and processability of TPCS. PLA and TPCS exhibited a high interfacial tension between the two phases of 7.9 mJ·m -2, indicating the formation of an incompatible, immiscible blend. SEM micrographs showed a non-homogeneous distribution of TPCS droplets in the PLA continuous phase. TEM micrographs of the blend films made by cast-film extrusion showed coalescence of the TPCS droplets in the PLA continuous phase of the blend, indicating that the compatibility between the polymer pair needs to be improved. A response surface methodology (RSM) design was used to analyze the effects of maleic anhydride (MA) and 2,5-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane (Luperox or L101) contents, and TSE screw speed on the degree of grafted MA and number average molecular weight (Mn) of functionalized PLA (PLA-g-MA), a reactive compatibilizer. PLA-g- MA made by reactive extrusion had an array of colors depending on the content of L101 and MA used. New FTIR peaks suggested that MA was grafted onto the PLA backbone and oligomeric MA may occur. Increasing L101 increased the degree of grafting and decreased Mn, but the Mn of the PLA-g-MA's produced with a high amount of L101 was stable during storage. MA exhibited an optimum concentration for maximizing the

  16. [Fabrication of porous poly lactic acid-bone matrix gelatin composite bioactive material and its osteoinductive activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Li, Baoxing; Li, Ji

    2007-02-01

    To fabricate a novel porous bioactive composite biomaterial consisting of poly lactic acid (PLA)-bone matrix gelatin (BMG) by using the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid technique (SC-CO2) and to evaluate its osteoinductive activity. The cortical bones selected from healthy adult donors were processed into BMG by the defatting, demineralizing, and deproteinizing processes. PLA and BMG were mixed at a volume radio of 3 : 1; then, the PLA-BMG mixed material and the pure PLA material were respectively placed in the supercritical carbon dioxide reaction kettles, and were respectively added by the NaCl particles 100-200 microm in diameter for the porosity of the materials so that the porous PLA-BMG composite material and the porous PLA composite material could be formed. The mouse osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in the dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Then, 20 microl of the MC3T3-E1 cell suspensions containing 2 X 10(6) cells /ml were delivered into the culturing plate (24 wells/plate) made of the different materials, which were co-cultured for 2 weeks. In the PLA-BMG group, 100 microg of the crushed PLA-BMG material was contained in each well; in the PLA group, 100 microg of the crushed PLA material was contained in each well; and in the DMEM group, only DMEM was contained, which served as the control group. There were 6 wells in each group. The quantitative analysis on the calcification area was performed by the staining of the alizarin red S. The co-cultured cells were harvested and lysated in 1 ml of 0. 2% Nonidet P-40 by the ultrasonic lysating technique. Then, the ALP activity and the Ca content were measured according to the illuminations of the reagent kits. The porous PLA-BMG composite material showed a good homological porosity with a pore diameter of 50-150 microm and a good connectivity between the pores. The ALP activity, the Ca content, and the calcification area were significantly greater in

  17. Fabrication, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of poly(lactic acid glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite composite microsphere-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in rotating bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qing; Nair, Lakshmi; Laurencin, Cato T

    2009-12-01

    Dynamic flow culture bioreactor systems have been shown to enhance in vitro bone tissue formation by facilitating mass transfer and providing mechanical stimulation. Our laboratory has developed a biodegradable poly (lactic acid glycolic acid) (PLAGA) mixed scaffold consisting of lighter-than-water (LTW) and heavier-than-water (HTW) microspheres as potential matrices for engineering tissue using a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) rotating bioreactor system. We have demonstrated enhanced osteoblast differentiation and mineralization on PLAGA scaffolds in the HARV rotating bioreactor system when compared with static culture. The objective of the present study is to improve the mechanical properties and bioactivity of polymeric scaffolds by designing LTW polymer/ceramic composite scaffolds suitable for dynamic culture using a HARV bioreactor. We employed a microsphere sintering method to fabricate three-dimensional PLAGA/nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) mixed scaffolds composed of LTW and HTW composite microspheres. The mechanical properties, pore size and porosity of the composite scaffolds were controlled by varying parameters, such as sintering temperature, sintering time, and PLAGA/n-HA ratio. The PLAGA/n-HA (4:1) scaffold sintered at 90 degrees C for 3 h demonstrated the highest mechanical properties and an appropriate pore structure for bone tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, evaluation human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) response to PLAGA/n-HA scaffolds was performed. HMSCs on PLAGA/n-HA scaffolds demonstrated enhanced proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization when compared with those on PLAGA scaffolds. Therefore, PLAGA/n-HA mixed scaffolds are promising candidates for HARV bioreactor-based bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Degradation of thin poly(lactic acid) films: Characterization by capacitance–voltage, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and contact-angle measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schusser, S.; Menzel, S.; Bäcker, M.; Leinhos, M.; Poghossian, A.; Wagner, P.; Schöning, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    For the development of new biopolymers and implantable biomedical devices with predicted biodegradability, simple, non-destructive, fast and inexpensive techniques capable for real-time in situ testing of the degradation kinetics of polymers are highly appreciated. In this work, a capacitive field-effect electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor (EIS) sensor has been applied for real-time in situ monitoring of degradation of thin poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) films over a long-time period of one month. Generally, the polymer-modified EIS (PMEIS) sensor is capable of detecting any changes in the bulk, surface and interface properties of the polymer (e.g., thickness, coverage, dielectric constant, surface potential) induced by degradation processes. The time-dependent capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics of PMEIS structures were used as an indicator of the polymer degradation. To accelerate the PDLLA degradation, experiments were performed in alkaline buffer solution of pH 10.6. The results of these degradation measurements with the EIS sensor were verified by the detection of lactic acid (product of the PDLLA degradation) in the degradation medium. In addition, the micro-structural and morphological changes of the polymer surface induced by the polymer degradation have been systematically studied by means of scanning-electron microscopy, atomic-force microscopy, optical microscopy, and contact-angle measurements

  19. A comprehensive study on the fabrication and properties of biocomposites of poly(lactic acid)/ceramics for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Saeid; Hajiali, Faezeh

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of a suitable scaffold material is one of the major challenges for bone tissue engineering. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is one of the most favorable matrix materials in bone tissue engineering owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, PLA suffers from some shortcomings including low degradation rate, low cell adhesion caused by its hydrophobic property, and inflammatory reactions in vivo due to its degradation product, lactic acid. Therefore, the incorporation of bioactive reinforcements is considered as a powerful method to improve the properties of PLA. This review presents a comprehensive study on recent advances in the synthesis of PLA-based biocomposites containing ceramic reinforcements, including various methods of production and the evaluation of the scaffolds in terms of porosity, mechanical properties, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility and bioactivity for bone tissue engineering applications. The production routes range from traditional approaches such as the use of porogens to provide porosity in the scaffolds to novel methods such as solid free-form techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation induced crosslinking of poly(L-lactic acid) for making the polymeric materials having high thermal stability and improved mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Minh Quynh; Tran Bang Diep; Nguyen Van Binh; Nguyen Quang Long; Pham Duy Duong; Hoang Phuong Thao; Hoang Dang Sang; Pham Ngoc Lan

    2013-01-01

    Different poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) have been synthesized from L-lactic acid as well as L-lactide by direct polycondensation and ring opening polymerization. Depending on reaction time, the resulting products having viscosity average molecular weight ranging from 5 to 25,000 g.mol -1 . Plasticization effects of some popular plasticizer, especially is polyethylene glycols (PEG) for the synthesized PLLA were determined. The results suggested that PEG 1000 is a good plasticizer with relative high plasticization effect. The crosslinking plasticized materials were prepared form the plasticized PLLA by irradiation with various radiation doses. The crosslinking structures were introduced in different formulation of PLLA/PEG/TAIC, the crosslinking density increased with radiation dose and seemed to be saturated at 50 kGy. The stable crosslinking structure inhibited the mobility for crystallization of PLLA chains, thermal stability of plasticized PLLA crosslinked with TAIC at 50 kGy become higher than that of initial PLLA with very small endothermic peak at its melting temperature. The stress-strain curves of the crosslinking plasticized PLLA showed that the toughness of the materials reduced but still higher than that of initial PLLA, whereas its tensile strength was much improved by radiation crosslinking. The results also revealed that the crosslinking plasticized PLLA can be completely degraded by proteinase K as well as microorganisms existing in compost. (author)

  1. Blending of Low-Density Polyethylene and Poly-Lactic Acid with Maleic Anhydride as A Compatibilizer for Better Environmentally Food-Packaging Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A. H.; Aulia, F.

    2017-05-01

    The common conventional food packaging materialsare using a thin layer plastic or film, which is made of a synthetic polymer, such as Low-Density Poly Ethylene (LDPE). However, the use of these polymers hasan adverse impact on the environment, because the synthetic polymersare difficult to degrade naturally. Poly-Lactic Acid (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer that can be substituted to synthetic polymers. Since LDPE and PLA have a difference in polarity, therefore the first step of research is to graft them with maleic anhydride (MAH) for increasing the properties of its miscibility. The interaction between them is confirmed by FTIR; whereas the environment issueis characterized by the water adsorption and biodegradability. The FTIR spectra indicated that there had been an interaction between LDPE and MAH and LDPE/LDPE-g-MAH/PLA blend. Increasing PLA content in the blend affected to the increasing in their water absorption and biodegradable. Poly-blend with 20% PLA content was the optimum composition for environmentally food packaging.

  2. Amniotic epithelial stem cell biocompatibility for electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide), poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(lactic acid) scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Valentina [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Campus Universitario Coste S. Agostino Via R. Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo (Italy); StemTeCh Group (Italy); Tammaro, Loredana [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Di Marcantonio, Lisa, E-mail: ldimarcantonio@unite.it [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Campus Universitario Coste S. Agostino Via R. Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Sorrentino, Andrea [Institute for Polymers, Composite and Biomaterials (IPCB), CNR, P.le Enrico Fermi 1, I-80055 Portici, Napoli (Italy); Ancora, Massimo [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’, Teramo (Italy); Valbonetti, Luca [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Campus Universitario Coste S. Agostino Via R. Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo (Italy); StemTeCh Group (Italy); Turriani, Maura; Martelli, Alessandra [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Campus Universitario Coste S. Agostino Via R. Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo (Italy); Cammà, Cesare [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’, Teramo (Italy); Barboni, Barbara [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Campus Universitario Coste S. Agostino Via R. Balzarini 1, 64100 Teramo (Italy); StemTeCh Group (Italy)

    2016-12-01

    Three biodegradable thermoplastic polymers, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (PLA) and poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), have been used to produce nonwovens scaffolds with uniform micrometer fibres. Scaffolds' physical and morphological characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Contact-Angle test. Morphological investigations revealed that all produced fibres were randomly orientated with interconnected pores ranging between 5 and 12 μm in diameter. An average fibre diameter of 1.5, 0.75 and 1.2 μm was found for PCL, PLA and PLGA, respectively. Moreover, experiments were designed to verify whether the fabricated electrospun substrates were biocompatible for ovine amniotic epithelial stem cells (oAECs) under in vitro conditions. Cell adhesion, survival, spatial organization on fibres, proliferation index, and DNA quantification after 48 h culture, showed an enhanced adhesion and proliferation, especially for PLGA scaffolds. The favourable interaction between oAECs and the fibrous scaffolds was attributed to the greatly improved porosity and pore size distribution of the electrospun scaffolds. In addition, AECs can be considered ideal for tissue engineering especially when using biocompatible and opportunely produced scaffolds. - Highlights: • Scaffolds have random oriented, beadless fibres and similar wettability. • Porosity and pore size distribution are determinant on boosting cell activity. • oAECs activities are influenced by scaffold chemical and physical structure. • In PLGA oAECs showed higher spatial distribution efficiency. • PLGA seeded cells present a rise in cell proliferation activity and in DNA amount.

  3. Graphene Oxide and Gadolinium-Chelate Functionalized Poly(lactic acid) Nanocapsules Encapsulating Perfluorooctylbromide for Ultrasound/Magnetic Resonance Bimodal Imaging Guided Photothermal Ablation of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenglin; Ke, Hengte; Wang, Jinrui; Miao, Zhaohua; Yue, Xiuli

    2016-03-01

    This paper successfully fabricated a novel multifunctional theranostic agent (PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs) by loading perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanocapsules (NCs) followed by surface functionalization with graphene oxide (GO) and gadolinium-chelate (Gd-DTPA). It was found that the resulting nanoagent could serve as a contrast agent simultaneously to enhance ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Benefiting from the strong absorption in the near infrared (NIR) region, the nanocapsules could efficiently kill cancer cells under NIR laser irradiation. Thus, such a single theranostic agent with the combination of realtime US imaging and high-resolution MR imaging could achieve great therapeutic effectiveness without systemic damage to the body. In addition, the cytotoxicity assay on HUVEC cells revealed a good biocompatibility of PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs, showing that the versatile nanocapsule system may hold great potential as an effective nanoplatform for contrast enhanced imaging guided photothermal therapy.

  4. Direct investigations on strain-induced cold crystallization behavior and structure evolutions in amorphous poly(lactic acid) with SAXS and WAXS measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chengbo; Li, Hongfei; Zhang, Wenyang

    2016-01-01

    scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The data obtained from the stretched samples within 70-90 degrees C showed that all of the formed crystals are disordered alpha' form with more compact chain packing than that of the cold crystallization. Upon stretching at 70 degrees C, the mesocrystal appears......Strain-induced cold crystallization behavior and structure evolution of amorphous poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stretched within 70-90 degrees C were investigated via in situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements as well as differential...... in strain-induced crystallization behavior of amorphous PLA within 70-90 degrees C can be attributed to the competition between chain orientation caused by stretching and chain relaxation. It was proposed that the strain-induced mesocrystal/crystal and the lamellae are formed from the mesophase originally...

  5. Effect of Extrusion on the Mechanical and Rheological Properties of a Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid): Reprocessing and Recycling of Biobased Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Víctor; Castell, Pere; García, Lidia; Fernández, Ángel

    2015-10-19

    The aim of this research paper is to study the behaviour of a common used biopolymer (Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA)) after several reprocesses and how two different types of additives (a melt strength enhancer and a nanoadditive) affect its mechanical and rheological properties. Systematic extraction of extrudate samples from a twin-screw compounder was done in order to study the effect in the properties of the reprocessed material. Detailed rheological tests on a capillary rheometer as well as mechanical studies on a universal tensile machine after preparation of injected specimens were carried out. Results evidenced that PLA and reinforced PLA materials can be reprocessed and recycled without a remarkable loss in their mechanical properties. Several processing restrictions and specific phenomena were identified and are explained in the present manuscript.

  6. Multi-material poly(lactic acid) scaffold fabricated via fused deposition modeling and direct hydroxyapatite injection as spacers in laminoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ghifari; Ramahdita, Ghiska; Rahyussalim, A. J.; Whulanza, Yudan

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, additive manufacturing method has been used extensively to realize any product with specific attributes rather than the conventional subtractive manufacturing method. For instance, the additive manufacturing has enable us to construct a product layer-by-layer by successively depositing several materials in one session and one platform. This paper studied the properties of a 3D printed scaffold fabricated through Poly(Lactic-acid) (PLA) deposition modelling in combination with injectable hydroxyapatite (HA)/alginate as cell carrier. The scaffold was designed to serve as a spacer in cervical laminoplasty. Therefore, a series of test were conducted to elaborate the mechanical property, porosity and in-vitro toxicity testing. The results showed that the method is reliable to fabricate the scaffold as desired although the toxicity test needs more confirmation.

  7. Surgical suture braided with a diclofenac-loaded strand of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) for local, sustained pain mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Beom Kang; Kim, Byung Hwi; Kim, Se-Na; Park, Chun Gwon; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Ka Ryeong; Heo, Chan Yeong; Choy, Young Bin

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we propose a surgical suture that can sustainably release diclofenac (DF) for the local pain relief of surgical wounds. We separately fabricated a DF-loaded strand composed of a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), which was then braided with a surgical suture already in clinical use, i.e., VICRYL™. In this way, the drug-delivery suture presented herein could release DF in a sustained manner for 10days while maintaining the mechanical strength needed for wound closure. According to the in vivo results of an induced-pain animal model, the drug-delivery suture mitigated pain throughout the period of persistent pain. The histological analysis of tissue around the sutures showed that the drug-delivery suture exhibited biocompatibility comparable to that of the VICRYL™ suture in clinical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancement of human mesenchymal stem cell infiltration into the electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold by fluid shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Koo, Min-Ah; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Park, Jong-Chul

    The infiltration of the cells into the scaffolds is important phenomenon to give them good biocompatibility and even biodegradability. Fluid shear stress is one of the candidates for the infiltration of cells into scaffolds. Here we investigated the directional migration of human mesenchymal stem cells and infiltration into PLGA scaffold by fluid shear stress. The human mesenchymal stem cells showed directional migrations following the direction of the flow (8, 16 dyne/cm(2)). In the scaffold models, the fluid shear stress (8 dyne/cm(2)) enhanced the infiltration of cells but did not influence on the infiltration of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Co-Deposition of a Hydrogel/Calcium Phosphate Hybrid Layer on 3D Printed Poly(Lactic Acid Scaffolds via Dip Coating: Towards Automated Biomaterials Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schneider

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the surface modification of 3D printed poly(lactic acid (PLA scaffolds with calcium phosphate (CP/gelatin and CP/chitosan hybrid coating layers. The presence of gelatin or chitosan significantly enhances CP co-deposition and adhesion of the mineral layer on the PLA scaffolds. The hydrogel/CP coating layers are fairly thick and the mineral is a mixture of brushite, octacalcium phosphate, and hydroxyapatite. Mineral formation is uniform throughout the printed architectures and all steps (printing, hydrogel deposition, and mineralization are in principle amenable to automatization. Overall, the process reported here therefore has a high application potential for the controlled synthesis of biomimetic coatings on polymeric biomaterials.

  10. Effects of radiation-induced crosslinking on thermal and mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) composites reinforced by basalt fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Meihua; Zhang Wanxi; Yin Yuan; Wei Wei; Zheng Chunbai; Deng Pengyang; Shen Shirley

    2013-01-01

    Poly (lactic acid)/ basalt fiber (PLA/BF) composites were prepared by melt blending with a cross-linking agent, triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC). The thermal and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated through gel fraction, heat defection temperature (HDT), tensile tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under certain conditions, the HDT of composites was dramatically increased to 140℃ after irradiation. Tensile properties were enhanced as well. Both these improvements were consistent with changes of the fracture morphology. Compatibilization and concomitant enhancement of the interfacial adhesive between the polymer matrix and the inorganic fiber were achieved as seen from SEM photos, as a result of the formation of co-crosslinking and grafting structures at the interface according to the determination of gelation extraction. (authors)

  11. Application of rotatable central composite design in the preparation and optimization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles for controlled delivery of paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Sivacharan; Bende, Girish; Movva, Snehalatha; Saha, Ranendra

    2010-11-01

    Polymeric carrier systems of paclitaxel (PCT) offer advantages over only available formulation Taxol® in terms of enhancing therapeutic efficacy and eliminating adverse effects. The objective of the present study was to prepare poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles containing PCT using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Critical factors involved in the processing method were identified and optimized by scientific, efficient rotatable central composite design aiming at low mean particle size and high entrapment efficiency. Twenty different experiments were designed and each formulation was evaluated for mean particle size and entrapment efficiency. The optimized formulation was evaluated for in vitro drug release, and absorption characteristics were studied using in situ rat intestinal permeability study. Amount of polymer and duration of ultrasonication were found to have significant effect on mean particle size and entrapment efficiency. First-order interactions of amount of miglyol with amount of polymer were significant in case of mean particle size, whereas second-order interactions of polymer were significant in mean particle size and entrapment efficiency. The developed quadratic model showed high correlation (R(2) > 0.85) between predicted response and studied factors. The optimized formulation had low mean particle size (231.68 nm) and high entrapment efficiency (95.18%) with 4.88% drug content. The optimized formulation showed controlled release of PCT for more than 72 hours. In situ absorption study showed faster and enhanced extent of absorption of PCT from nanoparticles compared to pure drug. The poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles containing PCT may be of clinical importance in enhancing its oral bioavailability.

  12. Surface characterization and assessment of cell attachment capabilities of thin films fabricated by ion-beam irradiation of poly(L-lactic acid) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki, E-mail: tttanaka@riken.jp [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshiaki [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Koji; Yajima, Hirofumi [Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films can be obtained by ion-beam irradiation of poly(L-lactic acid). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both surfaces of the thin film were carbonized by the irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant changes were noticed in the topographies of the two surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibroblasts attached firmly to the bottom as well as the top surface of the film. - Abstract: The ion-beam irradiation of substrates of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), a biodegradable polymer, gave rise to exfoliatable thin films when the substrate was immersed in an aqueous solution. The thin films exhibited excellent cell affinity, and hence, can be useful in bioengineering applications. In this study, we characterized both surfaces of the thin films and evaluated their cell attachment capabilities. Each surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic force microscopy (DFM). These analyses showed that carbonization took place at both surfaces. In addition, no significant changes were noticed in the topographies of the two surfaces. Finally, the cell attachment capabilities of the surfaces were determined by culturing mouse fibroblasts on them. The cells attached firmly to the bottom as well as the top surface of the film and were well spread out. These results could be attributed to the carbonization of the surfaces of the thin-film. Such thin films, fabricated by the irradiation of a biodegradable polymer, are expected to find wide application in areas such as tissue regeneration and cell transplantation.

  13. Gold nanorod–based poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid with manganese dioxide core–shell structured multifunctional nanoplatform for cancer theranostic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lei Wang,1–3 Dong Li,1,2 Yongwei Hao,1,2 Mengya Niu,1,2 Yujie Hu,1,2 Hongjuan Zhao,1,2 Junbiao Chang,2,3 Zhenzhong Zhang,1,2 Yun Zhang1,2 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, 2Key Laboratory of Targeting Therapy and Diagnosis for Critical Disease, Henan Province, 3School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Recently, photothermal therapy has become a promising strategy in tumor treatment. However, the therapeutic effect was seriously hampered by the low tissue penetration of laser. Therefore, in this study, radiofrequency (RF with better tissue penetration was used for tumor hyperthermia. First, one type of gold nanorods (AuNRs suitable for RF hyperthermia was selected. Then, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs loaded with AuNRs and docetaxel (DTX (PLGA/AuNR/DTX NPs were constructed. Finally, manganese dioxide (MnO2 ultrathin nanofilms were coated on the surfaces of PLGA/AuNR/DTX NPs by the reduction of KMnO4 to construct the PLGA/AuNR/DTX@MnO2 drug delivery system. This drug delivery system can not only be used for the combined therapy of chemotherapy and RF hyperthermia but can also produce Mn2+ to enable magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, the RF hyperthermia and the degradation of MnO2 can significantly promote the controlled drug release in a tumor region. The in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the PLGA/AuNR/DTX@MnO2 multifunctional drug delivery system is a promising nanoplatform for effective cancer theranostic applications. Keywords: poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, gold nanorod, manganese dioxide, radiofrequency, hyperthermia, dual-mode imaging, controlled release

  14. Poly (amido amine) and nano-calcium phosphate bonding agent to remineralize tooth dentin in cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Kunneng [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Weir, Michael D.; Reynolds, Mark A. [Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Zhou, Xuedong [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li, Jiyao, E-mail: jiyaoliscu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xu, Hockin H.K., E-mail: hxu@umaryland.edu [Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Center for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore County, MD 21250 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a novel method to remineralize dentin lesions, and investigate the remineralization effects of poly (amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer plus a bonding agent with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) in a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid environment for the first time. Dentin lesions were produced via phosphoric acid. Four groups were tested: (1) dentin control, (2) dentin with PAMAM, (3) dentin with NACP bonding agent, and (4) dentin with PAMAM plus NACP bonding agent. Specimens were treated with cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid. The remineralized dentin was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), hardness and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). NACP bonding agent yielded a dentin shear bond strength similar to commercial controls (Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply; Scotchbond Multi-purpose, 3M) (p > 0.1). Increasing NACP in bonding agent from 0 to 40% did not affect bond strength. NACP bonding agent neutralized the acid and released Ca ions with concentrations of 4 to 20 mmol/L, and P ions of 2 to 9 mmol/L. PAMAM or NACP bonding agent alone achieved slight remineralization. The PAMAM + NACP group achieved the greatest dentin remineralization p < 0.05). At 20 days, PAMAM + NACP increased the hardness of pre-demineralized dentin to reach the normal dentin hardness (p > 0.1). In conclusion, superior remineralization of PAMAM + NACP bonding agent was demonstrated for the first time. PAMAM + NACP bonding agent induced dentin remineralization under acid challenge, when conventional remineralization methods such as PAMAM alone did not work well. The novel PAMAM + NACP bonding agent method is promising to improve the longevity of resin-dentin bonds, inhibit caries, and protect teeth. - Highlights: • PAMAM induced moderate remineralization for dentin in artificial saliva/lactic acid. • Acid challenge reduced the

  15. Poly (amido amine) and nano-calcium phosphate bonding agent to remineralize tooth dentin in cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Kunneng; Weir, Michael D.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Zhou, Xuedong; Li, Jiyao; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a novel method to remineralize dentin lesions, and investigate the remineralization effects of poly (amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer plus a bonding agent with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) in a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid environment for the first time. Dentin lesions were produced via phosphoric acid. Four groups were tested: (1) dentin control, (2) dentin with PAMAM, (3) dentin with NACP bonding agent, and (4) dentin with PAMAM plus NACP bonding agent. Specimens were treated with cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid. The remineralized dentin was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), hardness and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). NACP bonding agent yielded a dentin shear bond strength similar to commercial controls (Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply; Scotchbond Multi-purpose, 3M) (p > 0.1). Increasing NACP in bonding agent from 0 to 40% did not affect bond strength. NACP bonding agent neutralized the acid and released Ca ions with concentrations of 4 to 20 mmol/L, and P ions of 2 to 9 mmol/L. PAMAM or NACP bonding agent alone achieved slight remineralization. The PAMAM + NACP group achieved the greatest dentin remineralization p < 0.05). At 20 days, PAMAM + NACP increased the hardness of pre-demineralized dentin to reach the normal dentin hardness (p > 0.1). In conclusion, superior remineralization of PAMAM + NACP bonding agent was demonstrated for the first time. PAMAM + NACP bonding agent induced dentin remineralization under acid challenge, when conventional remineralization methods such as PAMAM alone did not work well. The novel PAMAM + NACP bonding agent method is promising to improve the longevity of resin-dentin bonds, inhibit caries, and protect teeth. - Highlights: • PAMAM induced moderate remineralization for dentin in artificial saliva/lactic acid. • Acid challenge reduced the

  16. Comparative histological evaluation of new tyrosine-derived polymers and poly (L-lactic acid) as a function of polymer degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, K A; Macon, N D; Kohn, J

    1998-09-05

    Previous studies demonstrated that poly(DTE carbonate) and poly (DTE adipate), two tyrosine-derived polymers, have suitable properties for use in biomedical applications. This study reports the evaluation of the in vivo tissue response to these polymers in comparison to poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). Typically, the biocompatibility of a material is determined through histological evaluations as a function of implantation time in a suitable animal model. However, due to changes that can occur in the tissue response at different stages of the degradation process, a fixed set of time points is not ideal for comparative evaluations of materials having different rates of degradation. Therefore the tissue response elicited by poly(DTE carbonate), poly(DTE adipate), and PLLA was evaluated as a function of molecular weight. This allowed the tissue response to be compared at corresponding stages of degradation. Poly(DTE adipate) consistently elicited the mildest tissue response, as judged by the width and lack of cellularity of the fibrous capsule formed around the implant. The tissue response to poly(DTE carbonate) was mild throughout the 570 day study. However, the response to PLLA fluctuated as a function of the degree of degradation, exhibiting an increase in the intensity of inflammation as the implant began to lose mass. At the completion of the study, tissue ingrowth into the degrading and disintegrating poly(DTE adipate) implant was evident while no comparative ingrowth of tissue was seen for PLLA. The similarity of the in vivo and in vitro degradation rates of each polymer confirmed the absence of enzymatic involvement in the degradation process. A comparison of molecular weight retention, water uptake, and mass loss in vivo with two commonly used in vitro systems [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and simulated body fluid (SBF)] demonstrated that for the two tyrosine-derived polymers the in vivo results were equally well simulated in vitro with PBS and SBF. However

  17. Development of methodology for the synthesis of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) for use in the production of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peleias Junior, Fernando dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    According to World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men. A method of radiotherapy which has been extensively used is brachytherapy, where radioactive seeds are placed inside the area requiring treatment. Iodine-125 seeds can be placed loose or stranded in bioabsorbable polymers. Stranded seeds show some advantages, since they reduce the rate of seed migration, an event that could affect the dosimetry of the prostate and cause unnecessary damage to healthy tissues or organs. For Iodine-125 stranded seeds, polyglactin 910 (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) (PLGA), with a coverage of polyglactin 370 (Vicryl ®) is used. It was purposed in this dissertation, the study and development of the synthesis methodology for PLGA via ring-opening polymerization, as well as its characterization, with the objective of using the synthesized material to manufacture a material similar to RAPID Strand ® . The results obtained show that it was possible to determine the optimal reaction parameters (time and temperature) for PLGA in 80/20 (lactide/glycolide) ratio. Using a temperature of 110 ° C and reaction time of 24h, a yield of 86% was obtained, and increasing the reaction time to 72 hours, the yield was higher than 90%. The molecular mass values obtained from the samples are still very low compared to those obtained by other authors in the literature (about 20%). Failures in the sealing of vials, leaving them vulnerable to moisture and oxygen, or lack of an efficient stirring system might be possible explanations for these results. A suitable chemical reactor could solve the problem. Regarding polymer characterization, all techniques used not only confirmed the expected structure of the polymer, but also showed the highest proportion of lactide units compared to to glycolide units. (author)

  18. The effect of poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid composition on the mechanical properties of electrospun fibrous mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Aho, J; Baldursdottir, S; Bohr, A; Qu, H; Christensen, L P; Rantanen, J; Yang, M

    2017-08-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymer molecular structure on the electrospinnability and mechanical properties of electrospun fibrous mats (EFMs). Polymers with similar molecular weight but different composition ratios (lactic acid (LA) and glycolic acid (GA)) were dissolved in binary mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF). The intrinsic viscosity and rheological properties of polymer solutions were investigated prior to electrospinning. The morphology and mechanical properties of the resulting EFMs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Sufficiently high inter-molecular interactions were found to be a prerequisite to ensure the formation of fibers in the electrospinning process, regardless the polymer composition. The higher the amount of GA in the polymer composition, the more ordered and entangled molecules were formed after electrospinning from the solution in THF-DMF, which resulted in higher Young's modulus and tensile strength of the EFMs. In conclusion, this study shows that the mechanical properties of EFMs, which depend on the polymer molecule-solvent affinity, can be predicted by the inter-molecular interactions in the starting polymer solutions and over the drying process of electrospinning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. INFLUENCE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE TIME ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SET YOGURT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MODIFIED BIODEGRADABLE POLY(LACTIC ACID AND POLYPROPYLENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAWADON PETCHWATTANA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigates the influence of storage time and type of polymeric packaging material on the chemical, physical and microbiological properties of set yogurt. Firstly, poly(lactic acid (PLA was modified by using a core-shell rubber (CSR and an acrylic processing aid (PA to produce PLA with high toughness and good processability. Secondly, an appropriate PLA/PA/CSR composition was selected and fabricated to yogurt cup. The yogurt was stored in both modified PLA and polypropylene (PP packages to observe some physical, chemical and biological changes. Finally, the biodegradation test was made on both packages and compared with that cellulose. Experimental results revealed that adding 5wt% CSR gave PLA/PA as tough as PP. Types of packaging material and storage time did not change the color of yogurt. The number of lactic acid bacteria grew significantly after they had been incubated for 6 days. The bacterial viability decreased dramatically due to the increased acidity and the decreased pH. A positive impact on the viability of bacterial growth was found when yogurt was stored in modified PLA package. This made yogurt had more health benefits than stored in PP package. The biodegradation test results indicated that the modified PLA degraded at a rapid rate. It achieved approximately 50% biodegradation within 40 days which was comparable to the time required to degrade the cellulose, whereas PP was non-biodegradable over the period studied. In summary, substitution conventional PP by a novel modified PLA seems to be a better way for both the health and the environment benefits.

  20. Three-layer microfibrous peripheral nerve guide conduit composed of elastin-laminin mimetic artificial protein and poly(L-lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiro eKakinoki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed a microfibrous poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA nerve conduit with a three-layered structure to simultaneously enhance nerve regeneration and prevent adhesion of surrounding tissue. The inner layer was composed of PLLA microfiber containing 25% elastin-laminin mimetic protein (AG73-(VPGIG30 that promotes neurite outgrowth. The thickest middle layer was constructed of pure PLLA microfibers that impart the large mechanical stremgth to the conduit. A 10% poly(ethylene glycol was added to the outer layer to prevent the adhesion with the surrounding tissue. The AG73-(VPGIG30 composisting of an elastin-like repetitive sequence (VPGIG30 and a laminin-derived sequence (RKRLQVQLSIRT: AG73 was biosynthesized using Escherichia coli. The PLLA microfibrous conduits were fabricated using an electrospinning procedure. AG73-(VPGIG30 was successfully mixed in the PLLA microfibers, and the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG30 microfibers were stable under physiological conditions. The PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG30 microfibers enhanced adhesion and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. The electrospun microfibrous conduit with a three-layered structure was implanted for bridging a 2.0-cm gap in the tibial nerve of a rabbit. Two months after implantation, no adhesion of surrounding tissue was observed, and the action potential was slightly improved in the nerve conduit with the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG30 inner layer.

  1. Three-layer microfibrous peripheral nerve guide conduit composed of elastin-laminin mimetic artificial protein and poly(L-lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Nakayama, Midori; Moritan, Toshiyuki; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2014-07-01

    We developed a microfibrous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nerve conduit with a three-layered structure to simultaneously enhance nerve regeneration and prevent adhesion of surrounding tissue. The inner layer was composed of PLLA microfiber containing 25% elastin-laminin mimetic protein (AG73-(VPGIG)30) that promotes neurite outgrowth. The thickest middle layer was constructed of pure PLLA microfibers that impart the large mechanical stremgth to the conduit. A 10% poly(ethylene glycol) was added to the outer layer to prevent the adhesion with the surrounding tissue. The AG73-(VPGIG)30 composisting of an elastin-like repetitive sequence (VPGIG)30 and a laminin-derived sequence (RKRLQVQLSIRT: AG73) was biosynthesized using Escherichia coli. The PLLA microfibrous conduits were fabricated using an electrospinning procedure. AG73-(VPGIG)30 was successfully mixed in the PLLA microfibers, and the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG)30 microfibers were stable under physiological conditions. The PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG)30 microfibers enhanced adhesion and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. The electrospun microfibrous conduit with a three-layered structure was implanted for bridging a 2.0-cm gap in the tibial nerve of a rabbit. Two months after implantation, no adhesion of surrounding tissue was observed, and the action potential was slightly improved in the nerve conduit with the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG)30 inner layer.

  2. Fabrication of Microfibrous and Nano-/Microfibrous Scaffolds: Melt and Hybrid Electrospinning and Surface Modification of Poly(L-lactic acid with Plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Il Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable poly(L-lactic acid (PLA fibrous scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning from a PLA melt containing poly(ethylene glycol (PEG as a plasticizer to obtain thinner fibers. The effects of PEG on the melt electrospinning of PLA were examined in terms of the melt viscosity and fiber diameter. Among the parameters, the content of PEG had a more significant effect on the average fiber diameter and its distribution than those of the spinning temperature. Furthermore, nano-/microfibrous silk fibroin (SF/PLA and PLA/PLA composite scaffolds were fabricated by hybrid electrospinning, which involved a combination of solution electrospinning and melt electrospinning. The SF/PLA (20/80 scaffolds consisted of a randomly oriented structure of PLA microfibers (average fiber diameter = 8.9 µm and SF nanofibers (average fiber diameter = 820 nm. The PLA nano-/microfiber (20/80 scaffolds were found to have similar pore parameters to the PLA microfiber scaffolds. The PLA scaffolds were treated with plasma in the presence of either oxygen or ammonia gas to modify the surface of the fibers. This approach of controlling the surface properties and diameter of fibers could be useful in the design and tailoring of novel scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  3. Humidity-dependent compression-induced glass transition of the air-water interfacial Langmuir films of poly(D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid) (PLGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chang; Lee, Hoyoung; Jung, Hyunjung; Choi, Yun Hwa; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Bang, Joona; Won, You-Yeon

    2015-07-28

    Constant rate compression isotherms of the air-water interfacial Langmuir films of poly(D,L-lactic acid-ran-glycolic acid) (PLGA) show a distinct feature of an exponential increase in surface pressure in the high surface polymer concentration regime. We have previously demonstrated that this abrupt increase in surface pressure is linked to the glass transition of the polymer film, but the detailed mechanism of this process is not fully understood. In order to obtain a molecular-level understanding of this behavior, we performed extensive characterizations of the surface mechanical, structural and rheological properties of Langmuir PLGA films at the air-water interface, using combined experimental techniques including the Langmuir film balance, X-ray reflectivity and double-wall-ring interfacial rheometry methods. We observed that the mechanical and structural responses of the Langmuir PLGA films are significantly dependent on the rate of film compression; the glass transition was induced in the PLGA film only at fast compression rates. Surprisingly, we found that this deformation rate dependence is also dependent on the humidity of the environment. With water acting as a plasticizer for the PLGA material, the diffusion of water molecules through the PLGA film seems to be the key factor in the determination of the glass transformation properties and thus the mechanical response of the PLGA film against lateral compression. Based on our combined results, we hypothesize the following mechanism for the compression-induced glass transformation of the Langmuir PLGA film; (1) initially, a humidified/non-glassy PLGA film is formed in the full surface-coverage region (where the surface pressure shows a plateau) during compression; (2) further compression leads to the collapse of the PLGA chains and the formation of new surfaces on the air side of the film, and this newly formed top layer of the PLGA film is transiently glassy in character because the water evaporation rate

  4. Investigation on hemolytic effect of poly(lactic co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles synthesized using continuous flow and batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libi, Sumit; Calenic, Bogdan; Astete, Carlos E.; Kumar, Challa; Sabliov, Cristina M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract

    With the increasing interest in polymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications, there is a need for continuous flow methodologies that allow for the precise control of nanoparticle synthesis. Poly(lactide-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles with diameters of 220–250 nm were synthesized using a lab-on-a-chip, exploiting the precise flow control offered by a millifluidic platform. The association and the effect of PLGA nanoparticles on red blood cells (RBCs) were compared for fluorescent PLGA nanoparticles made by this novel continuous flow process using a millifluidic chip and smaller PLGA nanoparticles made by a batch method. Results indicated that all PLGA nanoparticles studied, independent of the synthesis method and size, adhered to the surface of RBCs but had no significant hemolytic effect at concentrations lower than 10 mg/ml.

  5. Investigation of Localized Delivery of Diclofenac Sodium from Poly(D,L-Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid)/Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Scaffolds Using an In Vitro Osteoblast Inflammation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Laura E.; Heathman, Thomas R.J.; Britchford, Emily R.; Abed, Arif; Rahman, Cheryl V.

    2015-01-01

    Nonunion fractures and large bone defects are significant targets for osteochondral tissue engineering strategies. A major hurdle in the use of these therapies is the foreign body response of the host. Herein, we report the development of a bone tissue engineering scaffold with the ability to release anti-inflammatory drugs, in the hope of evading this response. Porous, sintered scaffolds composed of poly(D,L-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were prepared with and without the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium. Analysis of drug release over time demonstrated a profile suitable for the treatment of acute inflammation with ∼80% of drug released over the first 4 days and a subsequent release of around 0.2% per day. Effect of drug release was monitored using an in vitro osteoblast inflammation model, comprised of mouse primary calvarial osteoblasts stimulated with proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Levels of inflammation were monitored by cell viability and cellular production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The osteoblast inflammation model revealed that proinflammatory cytokine addition to the medium reduced cell viability to 33%, but the release of diclofenac sodium from scaffolds inhibited this effect with a final cell viability of ∼70%. However, releasing diclofenac sodium at high concentrations had a toxic effect on the cells. Proinflammatory cytokine addition led to increased NO and PGE2 production; diclofenac-sodium-releasing scaffolds inhibited NO release by ∼64% and PGE2 production by ∼52%, when the scaffold was loaded with the optimal concentration of drug. These observations demonstrate the potential use of PLGA/PEG scaffolds for localized delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs in bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:25104438

  6. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of poly(lactic acid)/ montmorillonite nanocomposites by in situ polycondensation catalyzed by non-metal-based compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewprapan, Kulwadee; Phattanarudee, Siriwan

    2012-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid)/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by using non-toxic catalysts, i.e., phthalic acid and succinimide, via in situ polycondensation in presence of silicate. Concentrations of catalysts and clay were varied in a range of 0-3% wt and 0-0.5% wt, respectively. The reaction condition was controlled at 180 degrees C for 24 hr under a reduced pressure. Viscosity average molecular weight of the synthesized polymers and nanocomposites were characterized and compared using an Ubbelohde viscometer. Pattern of silicate distribution in the composites was investigated by X-ray diffraction to correlate with thermal properties evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the addition of catalysts at 2% wt gave the highest product yield (55-60%). The presence of silicate affected on molecular weight reduction, and the diffracted patterns suggested an intercalated structure. With a small amount of added filler, a significant improvement in thermal property and crystallinity of the resultant composites was obtained compared to those of the catalyzed polymers, in which the composites with succinimide exhibited overall better thermal stability and higher crystallinity than the ones prepared with phthalic acid.

  8. Poly(lactic acid)-Based in Situ Microfibrillar Composites with Enhanced Crystallization Kinetics, Mechanical Properties, Rheological Behavior, and Foaming Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakroodi, Adel Ramezani; Kazemi, Yasamin; Ding, WeiDan; Ameli, Aboutaleb; Park, Chul B

    2015-12-14

    Melt blending is one of the most promising techniques for eliminating poly(lactic acid)'s (PLA) numerous drawbacks. However, success in a typical melt blending process is usually achieved through the inclusion of high concentrations of a second polymeric phase which can compromise PLA's green nature. In a pioneering study, we introduce the production of in situ microfibrillar PLA/polyamide-6 (PA6) blends as a cost-effective and efficient technique for improving PLA's properties while minimizing the required PA6 content. Predominantly biobased products, with only 3 wt % of in situ generated PA6 microfibrils (diameter ≈200 nm), were shown to have dramatically improved crystallization kinetics, mechanical properties, melt elasticity and strength, and foaming-ability compared with PLA. Crucially, the microfibrillar blends were produced using an environmentally friendly and cost-effective process. Both of these qualities are essential in guarantying the viability of the proposed technique for overcoming the obstacles associated with the vast commercialization of PLA.

  9. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Shi Guan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD at 250 nm (excitation and 435 nm (emission using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (PSS-NP in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP. Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability.

  10. A pro-angiogenic degradable Mg-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) implant combined with rhbFGF in a rat limb ischemia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hanmei; Lv, Feng; Liu, Tianjun

    2017-12-01

    Site-specific controlled release of exogenous angiogenic growth factors, such as recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (rhbFGF), has become a promising approach to improve peripheral vascular disease. Here, we have developed an implant composed of spiral magnesium (Mg) and a coating made using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with encapsulated rhbFGF (Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF). The encapsulated protein could release continually for 4weeks with well preserved bioactivity. We compared the angiogenic effect produced by Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF with that of a PLGA implant loaded with rhbFGF (PLGA-rhbFGF). The incorporation of Mg in the implant raised the microclimate pH in the polymer, which preserved the stability of rhbFGF. Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF exhibited advantages over PLGA-rhbFGF implant in terms of a cytocompatibility evaluation. An in vivo angiogenesis test further confirmed the efficacy of released rhbFGF. HE, CD31 and α-SMA staining revealed that the controlled release of rhbFGF from the Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF implant was superior in promoting angiogenesis compared with that of the PLGA-rhbFGF implant. Four weeks post-implantation, the capillary density of the Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF group was significantly higher than that of the PLGA-rhbFGF, control and the normal group (pspiral magnesium and a coating made using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with encapsulated rhbFGF (Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF). The preparation method does not involve any complex processes and results in a high encapsulation efficiency (approximately 100%). The degradation of metal Mg raise the microclimate pH in the PLGA polymer, which could well preserve the bioactivity of rhbFGF incorporated in the implant. Mg-PLGA-based, sustained local delivery of rhbFGF promotes post-ischemic angiogenesis and blood flow recovery in rat limb ischemic model. This work marks the first report for controlled release of rhbFGF in combination with metal Mg, and suggests potential therapeutic usefulness of Mg-PLGA-rhbFGF for tissue ischemia

  11. Self-aggregated nanoparticles based on amphiphilic poly(lactic acid-grafted-chitosan copolymer for ocular delivery of amphotericin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou WJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wenjun Zhou,1 Yuanyuan Wang,2 Jiuying Jian,2 Shengfang Song1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Yongchuan Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Life Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to develop a self-aggregated nanoparticulate vehicle using an amphiphilic poly(lactic acid-grafted-chitosan (PLA-g-CS copolymer and to evaluate its potential for ocular delivery of amphotericin B. Methods: A PLA-g-CS copolymer was synthesized via a “protection-graft-deprotection” procedure and its structure was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray diffraction spectra. Amphotericin B-loaded nanoparticles based on PLA-g-CS (AmB/PLA-g-CS were prepared by the dialysis method and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. Studies of these AmB/PLA-g-CS nanoparticles, including their mucoadhesive strength, drug release properties, antifungal activity, ocular irritation, ocular pharmacokinetics, and corneal penetration were performed in vitro and in vivo. Results: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray diffraction spectra showed that the PLA chains were successfully grafted onto chitosan molecules and that crystallization of chitosan was suppressed. The self-aggregated PLA-g-CS nanoparticles had a core-shell structure with an average particle size of approximately 200 nm and zeta potentials higher than 30 mV. Amphotericin B was incorporated into the hydrophobic core of the nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency. Sustained drug release from the nanoparticles was observed in vitro. The ocular irritation study showed no sign of irritation after instillation of the PLA-g-CS nanoparticles into rabbit eyes. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the AmB/PLA-g-CS nanoparticles showed antifungal

  12. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic

  13. [Biological evaluation of three-dimensional printed co-poly lactic acid/glycolic acid/tri-calcium phosphate scaffold for bone reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S Y; Zhou, M; Lai, Y X; Geng, Y M; Cao, S S; Chen, X M

    2016-11-09

    Objective: To biologically evaluate the three-dimensional(3D) printed co-poly lactic acid/glycolic acid/tri-calcium phosphate(PLGA/TCP) scaffold which could be used for repairing oral and maxillofacial bone defects, and to provide experimental evidence for its further research and clinical application. Methods: PLGA/TCP scaffolds were fabricated using low temperature rapid prototyping technique. Micro-CT and scanning electron microscope(SEM) were used to characterize the surface morphology. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded onto the scaffold and stained with the rhodamine phalloidin and calcein acetomethoxy. After that, confocal laser scanning microscope was exploited to observe the features and viability of the cells. Moreover, the cells were co-cultured with the extract of PLGA/TCP and complete medium, respectively. The proliferation capability of the cells was assessed by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd day. The PLGA/TCP scaffolds incorporated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2(rhBMP-2) of 0, 30, 60 μg(i.e. blank control group, low-dose group and high-dose group) were implanted into the latissimus dorsi muscle of the rats, and 6 weeks later, the samples were harvested to estimate the volume and pattern of new bone. Results: The 3D printed PLGA/TCP scaffold possessed a regular and well-defined porous stereo-structure with porosity of (73±3)%. Micro-CT and SEM showed that pore size were (379±32) and (453±29) μm respectively, and distance between layers were (452± 24) and (415±25) μm, and cylinder diameter were (342±24) and (350±28) μm. It also exhibited excellent cell adhesion and growth ability on the exterior and inner surface through rhodamine phalloidin and calcein acetomethoxy staining. The CCK-8 test demonstrated that the absorbance value of extract group on the 1st and 2nd day(0.51±0.08 and 0.63±0.09) were significantly higher than those in the blank control group(0.39± 0.05 and 0.53±0.05)( P 0.05) on the 3

  14. 21 CFR 184.1061 - Lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactic acid. 184.1061 Section 184.1061 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1061 Lactic acid. (a) Lactic acid (C3H6O3, CAS Reg. Nos.: dl mixture, 598... hydrogen cyanide and subsequent hydrolysis to lactic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of...

  15. 聚乳酸有机成核剂研究进展%Research Process in Organic Nucleating Agent of Poly (lactic acid)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽

    2014-01-01

    聚乳酸作为生物可降解材料应用广泛,但是结晶速率非常慢,添加成核剂可以改善其结晶速率,其中有机成核剂因其与聚乳酸良好的相容性备受关注。本文重点综述了有机成核剂的种类及其对聚乳酸结晶性能的改善情况,并展望了有机成核剂今后的发展方向。%Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) was widely used as main biodegradable plastics. Adding nucleating agent was an effective way of improving crystallization rate. Due to its good compatibility with PLA, the organic nucleating agent had drawn much attention. The types of organic nucleating agent were reviewed. Finally, the research work of organic nucleating agent in the future was predicted.

  16. Tantalum oxide and barium sulfate as radiopacifiers in injectable calcium phosphate-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) cements for monitoring in vivo degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Jan Willem M; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Meijer, Gert J; Jansen, John A

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the degradation of calcium phosphate-based bone substitute materials in vivo by means of noninvasive techniques (e.g., radiography) is often a problem due to the chemical resemblance of those substitutes with the mineral phase of bone. In the view of that, the present study aimed at enhancing the radiopacity of calcium phosphate cement enriched with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (CPC-PLGA) microspheres, by adding tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) or the more traditional radiopacifier barium sulfate (BaSO4). The radiopacifying capacity of these radiopacifiers was first evaluated in vitro by microcomputed tomography (μCT). Thereafter, both radiopacifiers were tested in vivo using a distal femoral condyle model in rabbits, with subsequent ex vivo μCT analysis in parallel with histomorphometry. Addition of either one of the radiopacifiers proved to enhance radiopacity of CPC-PLGA in vitro. The in vivo experiment showed that both radiopacifiers did not induce alterations in biological performance compared to plain CPC-PLGA, hence both radiopacifiers can be considered safe and biocompatible. The histomorphometrical assessment of cement degradation and bone formation showed similar values for the three experimental groups. Interestingly, μCT analysis showed that monitoring cement degradation becomes feasible upon incorporation of either type of radiopacifier, albeit that BaSO4 showed more accuracy compared to Ta2O5. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  17. In vivo evaluation of an antibacterial coating containing halogenated furanone compound-loaded poly(l-lactic acid) nanoparticles on microarc-oxidized titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yicheng; Gao, Bo; Liu, Xianghui; Zhao, Xianghui; Sun, Weige; Ren, Huifang; Wu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    To prevent peri-implant infection, a new antibacterial coating containing a halogenated furanone compound, (Z-)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-2(5H)-furanone-loaded poly(l-lactic acid) nanoparticles, has been fabricated. The current study was designed to evaluate the preventive effect of the antibacterial coating under a simulated environment of peri-implant infection in vivo. Microarc-oxidized titanium implants treated with minocycline hydrochloride ointment were used as positive control group, and microarc-oxidized titanium implants without any treatment were used as blank control group. Three kinds of implants were implanted in dogs' mandibles, and the peri-implant infection was simulated by silk ligation and feeding high sugar diet. After 2-month implantation, the results showed that no significant differences were detected between the experimental and positive control groups (P>0.05), but the data of clinical measurements of the blank control group were significantly higher than those of the other two groups (Pmicroscope observation and histological examination showed that more new bone was formed on the surface of the experimental and positive control groups. It can be concluded that the antibacterial coating fabricated on implants has remarkable preventive effect on peri-implant infection at the early stage.

  18. Supertoughened Biobased Poly(lactic acid)-Epoxidized Natural Rubber Thermoplastic Vulcanizates: Fabrication, Co-continuous Phase Structure, Interfacial in Situ Compatibilization, and Toughening Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youhong; Chen, Kunling; Xu, Chuanhui; Chen, Yukun

    2015-09-10

    In the presence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP), biobased thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) composed of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) were prepared through dynamic vulcanization. Interfacial in situ compatibilization between PLA and ENR phases was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A novel "sea-sea" co-continuous phase in the PLA/ENR TPVs was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differed from the typical "sea-island" morphology that cross-linked rubber particles dispersed in plastic matrix. A sharp, brittle-ductile transition occurred with 40 wt % of ENR, showing a significantly improved impact strength of 47 kJ/m(2), nearly 15 times that of the neat PLA and 2.6 times that of the simple blend with the same PLA/ENR ratio. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results suggested that a certain amount of DCP was consumed in the PLA phase, causing a slight cross-linking or branching of PLA molecules. the effects of various DCP contents on the impact property were investigated. The toughening mechanism under impact testing was researched, and the influence factors for toughening were discussed.

  19. Histological evaluation of osteogenesis of 3D-printed poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds in a rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Zigang; Tian Xianfeng; Heng, Boon Chin; Fan, Victor; Yeo Jinfei; Cao Tong

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a suitable combination of lactide and glycolide in a copolymer would optimize the degradation rate of a scaffold upon implantation in situ. Moreover, 3D printing technology enables customizing the shape of the scaffold to biometric data from CT and MRI scans. A previous in vitro study has shown that novel 3D-printed poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds had good biocompatibility and mechanical properties comparable with human cancellous bone, while they could support proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. Based on the previous study, this study evaluated PLGA scaffolds for bone regeneration within a rabbit model. The scaffolds were implanted at two sites on the same animal, within the periosteum and within bi-cortical bone defects on the iliac crest. Subsequently, the efficacy of bone regeneration within the implanted scaffolds was evaluated at 4, 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery through histological analysis. In both the intra-periosteum and iliac bone defect models, the implanted scaffolds facilitated new bone tissue formation and maturation over the time course of 24 weeks, even though there was initially observed to be little tissue ingrowth within the scaffolds at 4 weeks post-surgery. Hence, the 3D-printed porous PLGA scaffolds investigated in this study displayed good biocompatibility and are osteoconductive in both the intra-periosteum and iliac bone defect models. (communication)

  20. The Influence of Solid-State Drawing on Mechanical Properties and Hydrolytic Degradation of Melt-Spun Poly(Lactic Acid (PLA Tapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Mai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of solid-state drawing on the morphology of melt-spun poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA tapes, and the accompanying changes in mechanical and degradation behaviour have been studied. Mechanical properties are found to be strongly dependent on both applied draw ratio and drawing temperature. Moduli of these highly oriented tapes are significantly increased compared to as-extruded tapes at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Interestingly, drawing leads to a significant increase in elongation to break (~3 times and toughness (~13 times compared to as-extruded tapes. Structural and morphological characterization indicates strain-induced crystallization as well as an increase in orientation of the crystalline phase at small strains. Upon further stretching, an “overdrawing” regime is observed, with decreased crystalline orientation due to the breakage of existing crystals. For fixed draw ratios, a significant increase in Young’s modulus and tensile strength is observed with increasing drawing temperature, due to a higher crystallinity and orientation obtained for tapes drawn at higher temperatures. FT-IR results indicate no crystal transformation after drawing, with the α-form being observed in all tapes. Hydrolytic degradability of PLLA was significantly reduced by solid-state drawing.

  1. Lysine-doped polypyrrole/spider silk protein/poly(l-lactic) acid containing nerve growth factor composite fibers for neural application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Kefeng; Xing, Yiming; Yu, Qiaozhen

    2015-11-01

    Lysine-doped polypyrrole (PPy)/regenerated spider silk protein (RSSP)/poly(l-lactic) acid (PLLA)/nerve growth factor (NGF) (L-PRPN) composite scaffold was fabricated by co-axial electrospraying and electrospinning. This L-PRPN composite scaffold had a structure of microfibers with a core-shell structure as the stems and nanofibers as branches. Assessment in vitro demonstrated that the L-PRPN composite micro/nano-fibrous scaffold could maintain integrated structure for at least 4months and the pH value of PBS at about 7.28. It had good biocompatibility and cell adhesion and relatively stable conductivity. PC 12 cells cultured on this scaffold, anisotropic cell-neurite-cell-neurite or neurite-neurite sheets were formed after being cultured for 6days. Evaluations in vivo also showed that L-PRPN composite fibrous conduit was effective at bridging 2.0cm sciatic nerve gap in adult rat within 10months. This conduit and electrical stimulation (ES) through it promoted Schwann cell migration and axonal regrowth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid hybrid scaffold for articular cartilage tissue engineering: an in vivo analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Munirah

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Our preliminary results indicated that fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA hybrid scaffold promoted early chondrogenesis of articular cartilage constructs in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo cartilaginous tissue formation by chondrocyte-seeded fibrin/PLGA hybrid scaffolds. PLGA scaffolds were soaked carefully, in chondrocyte-fibrin suspension, and polymerized by dropping thrombin-calcium chloride (CaCl2 solution. PLGA-seeded chondrocytes were used as a control. Resulting constructs were implanted subcutaneously, at the dorsum of nude mice, for 4 weeks. Macroscopic observation, histological evaluation, gene expression and sulphated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG analyses were performed at each time point of 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-implantation. Cartilaginous tissue formation in fibrin/PLGA hybrid construct was confirmed by the presence of lacunae and cartilage-isolated cells embedded within basophilic ground substance. Presence of proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG in fibrin/PLGA hybrid constructs was confirmed by positive Safranin O and Alcian Blue staining. Collagen type II exhibited intense immunopositivity at the pericellular matrices. Chondrogenic properties were further demonstrated by the expression of gene encoded cartilage-specific markers, collagen type II and aggrecan core protein. The sGAG production in fibrin/PLGA hybrid constructs was higher than in the PLGA group. In conclusion, fibrin/PLGA hybrid scaffold promotes cartilaginous tissue formation in vivo and may serve as a potential cell delivery vehicle and a structural basis for articular cartilage tissue-engineering.

  3. Reduction of inflammatory responses and enhancement of extracellular matrix formation by vanillin-incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujung; Kwon, Jeongil; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Dongwon

    2012-10-01

    Vanillin is one of the major components of vanilla, a commonly used flavoring agent and preservative and is known to exert potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this work, vanillin-incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films and scaffolds were fabricated to evaluate the effects of vanillin on the inflammatory responses and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation in vitro and in vivo. The incorporation of vanillin to PLGA films induced hydrophilic nature, resulting in the higher cell attachment and proliferation than the pure PLGA film. Vanillin also reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells cultured on the pure PLGA film and significantly inhibited the PLGA-induced inflammatory responses in vivo, evidenced by the reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells and thinner fibrous capsules. The effects of vanillin on the ECM formation were evaluated using annulus fibrous (AF) cell-seeded porous PLGA/vanillin scaffolds. PLGA/vanillin scaffolds elicited the more production of glycosaminoglycan and collagen than the pure PLGA scaffold, in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on the low level of inflammatory responses and enhanced ECM formation, vanillin-incorporated PLGA constructs make them promising candidates in the future biomedical applications.

  4. Reduction of Inflammatory Responses and Enhancement of Extracellular Matrix Formation by Vanillin-Incorporated Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujung; Kwon, Jeongil; Khang, Gilson

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major components of vanilla, a commonly used flavoring agent and preservative and is known to exert potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this work, vanillin-incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) films and scaffolds were fabricated to evaluate the effects of vanillin on the inflammatory responses and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation in vitro and in vivo. The incorporation of vanillin to PLGA films induced hydrophilic nature, resulting in the higher cell attachment and proliferation than the pure PLGA film. Vanillin also reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells cultured on the pure PLGA film and significantly inhibited the PLGA-induced inflammatory responses in vivo, evidenced by the reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells and thinner fibrous capsules. The effects of vanillin on the ECM formation were evaluated using annulus fibrous (AF) cell-seeded porous PLGA/vanillin scaffolds. PLGA/vanillin scaffolds elicited the more production of glycosaminoglycan and collagen than the pure PLGA scaffold, in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on the low level of inflammatory responses and enhanced ECM formation, vanillin-incorporated PLGA constructs make them promising candidates in the future biomedical applications. PMID:22551555

  5. Development of a Sustainable Release System for a Ranibizumab Biosimilar Using Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Biodegradable Polymer-Based Microparticles as a Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanetsugu, Yusuke; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Terukina, Takayuki; Ogawa, Takaya; Ohta, Masato; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Ranibizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and is widely used to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD) caused by angiogenesis. Ranibizumab has a short half-life in the eye due to its low molecular weight and susceptibility to proteolysis. Monthly intravitreal injection of a large amount of ranibizumab formulation is a burden for both patients and medical staff. We therefore sought to develop a sustainable release system for treating the eye with ranibizumab using a drug carrier. A ranibizumab biosimilar (RB) was incorporated into microparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) biodegradable polymer. Ranibizumab was sustainably released from PLGA microparticles (80+% after 3 weeks). Assay of tube formation by endothelial cells indicated that RB released from PLGA microparticles inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation and this tendency was confirmed by a cell proliferation assay. These results indicate that RB-loaded PLGA microparticles are useful for sustainable RB release and suggest the utility of intraocular sustainable release systems for delivering RB site-specifically to AMD patients.

  6. Poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres containing neutron-activatable holmium-165: a study of the physical characteristics of microspheres before and after irradiation in a nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumper, R J; Jay, M

    1992-01-01

    The solvent evaporation technique was employed to prepare poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres with 165Ho acetylacetonate (Ho-AcAc). Particle size, percentage Ho-165, percent residual solvent, and retentive ability of the spheres were found to be strongly affected by preparatory conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms suggested that the Ho-AcAc existed in the PLA matrix as a molecular dispersion. High neutron flux irradiations of the PLA spheres in a nuclear reactor produced Ho-166, a therapeutic radionuclide that emits high-energy negatrons (Emax = 1.84 MeV; half-life = 26.9 hr). The gamma radiation dose (53-75 Mrad) from the core of the reactor provided an overkill of all bioburdens in the PLA spheres. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis showed that these irradiations caused a reduction in PLA molecular weight. Infrared spectra, 13C NMR spectra, 1H NMR spectra, and DSC thermograms further confirmed the presence of lower molecular weight PLA but proved the overall maintenance of PLA structure.

  7. Antimicrobial evaluation of novel poly-lactic acid based nanocomposites incorporated with bioactive compounds in-vitro and in refrigerated vacuum-packed cooked sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeigolestani, Mohammadreza; Misaghi, Ali; Khanjari, Ali; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Abdulkhani, Ali; Fayazfar, Samira

    2017-11-02

    Biodegradability and antimicrobial activity of food packaging materials are among the most attractive parameters in modern food industries. In order to develop biodegradable poly-lactic acid (PLA) film to antibacterial nanocomposites, different concentration of Zataria multiflora Bioss. essential oil (ZME), propolis ethanolic extract (PEE) and cellulose nanofiber (CNF) were incorporated to the polymer by solvent casting method. The resulting films were characterized by mechanical and physical tests and their antimicrobial application was evaluated in-vitro against four common foodborne pathogens and in vacuum-packed cooked sausages during refrigerated storage. Mechanical examination revealed that addition of ZME and PEE made films more flexible and incorporation of CNF improved almost all mechanical parameters tested. Moreover, according to physical analysis, incorporation of 0.5% v/v ZME to the composite primary solutions improved water vapor permeability of the resulting films. Almost all of the active films were effective against the tested bacteria except for PLA/PEE films, and maximum antibacterial effects recorded for the films containing both ZME and PEE. Based on the microbiological and sensory evaluation of the sausages, all of the PLA/1%ZME/PEE composites increased the shelf life to >40days. The results indicate that incorporation of natural antimicrobial substances such as ZME and PEE to packaging material could be an interesting approach in development of active packaging material without significant negative effect on polymer technical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Films Based on Poly(lactic acid Biopolymer: Effect of Clay and Cellulosic Nanoparticles on their Physical, Mechanical and Structural Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Dadashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical, mechanical and structural properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA-basedfilms containing different amounts of nanoclay and cellulose prepared bysolvent casting method were examined. Physical properties including thickne