WorldWideScience

Sample records for pollution reduces temperature

  1. Temperature-dependent stress response in oysters, Crassostrea virginica: Pollution reduces temperature tolerance in oysters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannig, Gisela; Flores, Jason F.; Sokolova, Inna M.

    2006-01-01

    Combined effects of temperature and a toxic metal, cadmium (Cd), on energy metabolism were studied in a model marine bivalve, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, acclimated at 20, 24 and 28 deg. C and exposed to 50 μg l -1 of Cd. Both increasing temperature and Cd exposure led to a rise in standard metabolic rates, and combined stressors appeared to override the capability for aerobic energy production resulting in impaired stress tolerance. Oysters exposed to elevated temperature but not Cd showed no significant change in condition, survival rate and lipid peroxidation, whereas those exposed to both Cd and temperature stress suffered high mortality accompanied by low condition index and elevated lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, RNA/DNA ratios indicative of protein synthesis rate, and levels of glutathione, which is involved in metal detoxification, increased in Cd-exposed oysters at 20 deg. C but not at 28 deg. C. Implications of the synergism between elevated temperatures and cadmium stress on energy metabolism of oysters are discussed in the light of the potential effects of climate change on oyster populations in polluted areas

  2. Optimizing withdrawal from drinking water reservoirs to reduce downstream temperature pollution and reservoir hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M; Rinke, K; Hipsey, M R; Boehrer, B

    2017-07-15

    Sustainable management of drinking water reservoirs requires balancing the demands of water supply whilst minimizing environmental impact. This study numerically simulates the effect of an improved withdrawal scheme designed to alleviate the temperature pollution downstream of a reservoir. The aim was to identify an optimal withdrawal strategy such that water of a desirable discharge temperature can be supplied downstream without leading to unacceptably low oxygen concentrations within the reservoir. First, we calibrated a one-dimensional numerical model for hydrodynamics and oxygen dynamics (GLM-AED2), verifying that the model reproduced water temperatures and hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations accurately over a 5 year period. Second, the model was extended to include an adaptive withdrawal functionality, allowing for a prescribed withdrawal temperature to be found, with the potential constraint of hypolimnetic oxygen concentration. Scenario simulations on epi-/metalimnetic withdrawal demonstrate that the model is able to autonomously determine the best withdrawal height depending on the thermal structure and the hypolimnetic oxygen concentration thereby optimizing the ability to supply a desirable discharge temperature to the downstream river during summer. This new withdrawal strategy also increased the hypolimnetic raw water volume to be used for drinking water supply, but reduced the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the deep and cold water layers (hypolimnion). Implications of the results for reservoir management are discussed and the numerical model is provided for operators as a simple and efficient tool for optimizing the withdrawal strategy within different reservoir contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential for reducing air-pollutants while achieving 2 °C global temperature change limit target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Akashi, Osamu; Fujiwara, Kazuya; Motoki, Yuko; Hibino, Go

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzes the potential to reduce air pollutants while achieving the 2 °C global temperature change limit target above pre-industrial levels, by using the bottom-up optimization model, AIM/Enduse[Global]. This study focuses on; 1) estimating mitigation potentials and costs for achieving 2 °C, 2.5 °C, and 3 °C target scenarios, 2) assessing co-benefits of reducing air pollutants such as NOx, SO2, BC, PM, and 3) analyzing features of sectoral attributions in Annex I and Non-Annex I groups of countries. The carbon tax scenario at 50 US$/tCO2-eq in 2050 can reduce GHG emissions more than the 3 °C target scenario, but a higher carbon price around 400 US$/tCO2-eq in 2050 is required to achieve the 2 °C target scenario. However, there is also a co-benefit of large reduction potential of air pollutants, in the range of 60-80% reductions in 2050 from the reference scenario while achieving the 2 °C target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantifying and Reducing Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Vayujeet; Caples, David; Goins, Jordan; Herdman, Ashley; Pankey, Steven; Wren, Emily

    2018-06-01

    We describe the current level of light pollution in and around Kirksville, Missouri and around Anderson Mesa near Flagstaff, Arizona. We quantify the amount of light that is projected up towards the sky, instead of the ground, using Unihedron sky quality meters installed at various locations. We also present results from DSLR photometry of several standard stars, and compare the photometric quality of the data collected at locations with varying levels of light pollution. Presently, light fixture shields and ‘warm-colored’ lights are being installed on Truman State University’s campus in order to reduce light pollution. We discuss the experimental procedure we use to test the effectiveness of the different light fixtures shields in a controlled setting inside the Del and Norma Robison Planetarium.Apart from negatively affecting the quality of the night sky for astronomers, light pollution adversely affects migratory patterns of some animals and sleep-patterns in humans, increases our carbon footprint, and wastes resources and money. This problem threatens to get particularly acute with the increasing use of outdoor LED lamps. We conclude with a call to action to all professional and amateur astronomers to act against the growing nuisance of light pollution.

  5. Mining Upgrades to Reduce Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settlement with Southern Coal Corporation and 26 affiliates requires the companies to comprehensively upgrade their coal mining and processing operations to prevent polluted wastewater from threatening rivers and streams and communities across Appalachia.

  6. Reducing Marine and Coastal Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The West African coastline is home to major industries, mining activities, peri-urban and agro-industry, and tourism, as well as urban and seaside residences, all of which generate waste and cause pollution. Many areas along the coast also lack adequate wastewater and solid waste management systems. As a result, large volumes of untreated wastewater and solid waste are dumped into the open...

  7. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  8. Air pollution removal and temperature reduction by Gainesville's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Poor air quality is a common problem in many urban areas. It can lead to human health problems and reduced visibility, and it can impair the health of plants and wildlife. The urban forest can help improve air quality by removing pollutants and by reducing air temperature through shading and transpiration. Trees also emit volatile...

  9. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The proposed EPA regulations covering emissions of gas turbine engines will require extensive combustor development. The NASA is working to develop technology to meet these goals through a wide variety of combustor research programs conducted in-house, by contract, and by university grant. In-house efforts using the swirl-can modular combustor have demonstrated sizable reduction in NO emission levels. Testing to reduce idle pollutants has included the modification of duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and an exploration of the potential improvements possible with combustors using fuel staging and variable geometry. The Experimental Clean Combustor Program, a large contracted effort, is devoted to the testing and development of combustor concepts designed to achieve a large reduction in the levels of all emissions. This effort is planned to be conducted in three phases with the final phase to be an engine demonstration of the best reduced emission concepts.

  10. Evaluating strategies to reduce urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, L.; Relvas, H.; Silveira, C.; Ferreira, J.; Monteiro, A.; Gama, C.; Rafael, S.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.; Miranda, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, specific air quality problems have been detected in the urban area of Porto (Portugal). Both PM10 and NO2 limit values have been surpassed in several air quality monitoring stations and, following the European legislation requirements, Air Quality Plans were designed and implemented to reduce those levels. In this sense, measures to decrease PM10 and NO2 emissions have been selected, these mainly related to the traffic sector, but also regarding the industrial and residential combustion sectors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of these reduction measures with regard to the improvement of PM10 and NO2 concentration levels over the Porto urban region using a numerical modelling tool - The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). TAPM was applied over the study region, for a simulation domain of 80 × 80 km2 with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km2. The entire year of 2012 was simulated and set as the base year for the analysis of the impacts of the selected measures. Taking into account the main activity sectors, four main scenarios have been defined and simulated, with focus on: (1) hybrid cars; (2) a Low Emission Zone (LEZ); (3) fireplaces and (4) industry. The modelling results indicate that measures to reduce PM10 should be focused on residential combustion (fireplaces) and industrial activity and for NO2 the strategy should be based on the traffic sector. The implementation of all the defined scenarios will allow a total maximum reduction of 4.5% on the levels of both pollutants.

  11. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  12. Reducing Air Pollution from Passenger Cars and Trucks (Text Only)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the text explanation of an infographic about reducing air pollution viaTier 3 Vehicles & fuel standards. Tier 3 vehicle and fuel standards will provide substantial pollution reduction at lower cost.

  13. Reducing pollution: Who pays the bill?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    Since the nation's lawmakers passed a final version of the Clean Air Act, many utilities will now face large capital expenditures for pollution abatement in the next ten years. That prospect is likely to create problems for the nation's public utility commissioners, who are concerned about the costs to utility customers. A survey of PUC staff and commissioners found that while many are concerned about such issues, few have dealt with pollution abatement problems in the past few years. This survey was conducted during 1989 with all but three states that have commissions. The survey dealt with the ways that commissions have been handling pollution abatement expenditures including: how PUCs handled expenditures in their rate bases; PUC experience with pollution abatement expenditures in rate cases; PUC flexibility in dealing with previous pollution abatement cases; PUC management involvement with utilities; communication between the PUCs and the state air quality offices over problems involving pollution abatement

  14. How Do Stream Buffers Reduce the Offsite Impact of Pollution?

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Zachary M.

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes the importance of buffers to reduce pollution and specifically examines where they can be used, how they work, their limitations, required maintenance, performance levels, and expected cost.

  15. Reducing Marine Pollution: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Saffache

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionConsidered in times gone by as a hostile environment and visited by only sailors and fishermen (Saffache, 2003. Later on as a place of healing, today, the marine environment serves as a receptacle for the most toxic effluents.  In an effort to evaluate such a phenomenon, and above all, the impact it has on the environment, two forms of pollution will be highlighted, oil discharge and nitrogen and phosphorus-based products.I. Oil Pollution: scope, consequences and anti-pollution e...

  16. Reducing Air Pollution from International Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of their reliance on petroleum-based fuels and their dramatic growth rates in recent decades, air and sea transport are responsible for significant emissions of both traditional air pollutants and greenhouse gases.

  17. Strategy to Reduce Pollution from Serbian Pushboats

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Radonjić

    2011-01-01

    Moving a cargo by ships from one point to another point is a fuel efficient method and certainly presents the lowest pollutant emission mode of transport of all transport systems if we consider long distance movement per tonne basis. Diesel engines are already efficient and while highly efficient, ships are not an insignificant source of carbon emissions at a global level. A strategy for overall decrease in pollution from ships through fuel consumption was presented in this paper. Combining s...

  18. Numerical simulation of pulverized coal combustion to reduce pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Bagher Ayani; Behnam Rahmanian

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In this research, the numerical simulation of pollutant reduction and in a pulverized coal combustion at 2D combustion chamber have been studied. Finite volume method using structured grid arrangement was utilized for modeling the pulverized coal combustion. The pressure base algorithm and implicit solver has been employed to simulate non-premix combustion model. The air was diluted by some participative gaseous such as whose percentages varied from 0 % to 20 %. Participative gases and air were preheated by a high-temperature gas generator, and the preheated oxidizer temperature could achieve. The combustion simulation with the generalized finite rate chemistry model, referred to as the Magnussen model and the reacting flow with the mixture fraction PDF/ equilibrium chemistry model, referred to as the PDF model are studied. Quick scheme was adopted for the discretization of all convective terms of the advective transport equations. So, as a result of addition participative gases into oxidizer the rate of formation of pollutants as well as NO x suppressed. The addition only a few percent of halogen components can make some systems nonflammable. The effects of addition halogen components and non-reaction gaseous such as Helium and Argon are fuel dilution and its acts as catalysts in reducing the H atom concentration necessary for the chain branching reaction sequence. Moreover, they act like surface and they make the increment of surface ratio versus volume. Because of this, the number of radical conflicts and hence destruction them will be increase. Furthermore, the rate of formation of pollutants will be decreased if the halogen components and non-reaction gaseous injection will be increased. However, as a result of this research, in the case of injection in pulverized coal combustion the flame temperature is lower than Steam, Argon and Helium. So, the emission levels of carbon dioxide is significantly lower than other participative gases, but in this

  19. Prenatal temperature shocks reduce cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchoslav, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Climate change has not only led to a sustained rise in mean global temperature over the past decades, but also increased the frequency of extreme weather events. This paper explores the effect of temperature shocks in utero on later-life taste for cooperation. Using historical climate data combined

  20. Interactions between particulate air pollution and temperature in air pollution mortality time series studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Steven

    2004-01-01

    In many community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution is modeled additively. In this study, we investigated the interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature in Cook County, Illinois and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using data for the period 1987-1994. This was done through the use of joint particulate air pollution-temperature response surfaces and by stratifying the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality by temperature. Evidence that the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality may depend on temperature is found. However, the results were sensitive to the number of degrees of freedom used in the confounder adjustments, the particulate air pollution exposure measure, and how the effects of temperature on mortality are modeled. The results were less sensitive to the estimation method used--generalized linear models and natural cubic splines or generalized additive models and smoothing splines. The results of this study suggest that in community particulate air pollution mortality time series studies the possibility of an interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature should be considered

  1. Mediation pathways and effects of green structures on respiratory mortality via reducing air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yu-Sheng; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown both health and environmental benefits of green spaces, especially in moderating temperature and reducing air pollution. However, the characteristics of green structures have been overlooked in previous investigations. In addition, the mediation effects of green structures on respiratory mortality have not been assessed. This study explores the potential mediation pathways and effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality through temperature, ...

  2. Methods for reducing pollutant emissions from jet aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butze, H. F.

    1971-01-01

    Pollutant emissions from jet aircraft and combustion research aimed at reducing these emissions are defined. The problem of smoke formation and results achieved in smoke reduction from commercial combustors are discussed. Expermental results of parametric tests performed on both conventional and experimental combustors over a range of combustor-inlet conditions are presented. Combustor design techniques for reducing pollutant emissions are discussed. Improved fuel atomization resulting from the use of air-assist fuel nozzles has brought about significant reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at idle. Diffuser tests have shown that the combustor-inlet airflow profile can be controlled through the use of diffuser-wall bleed and that it may thus be possible to reduce emissions by controlling combustor airflow distribution. Emissions of nitric oxide from a shortlength annular swirl-can combustor were significantly lower than those from a conventional combustor operating at similar conditions.

  3. Operation Clean Feather: Reducing oil pollution in Newfoundland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chardine, J.W.; Pelly, G.

    1994-01-01

    Oil pollution of marine waters around Newfoundland, and particularly in the vicinity of Placentia Bay, is a frequent occurrence. Many oiled seabirds are found on beaches in the bay, particularly in winter. The most likely pollution sources are ship operators who dump waste oils from bilges and slop tanks. In an effort to reduce the chronic discharge of waste oil into Placentia Bay, and thus the incidence of bird oiling, Operation Clean Feather was launched in 1991-92 and consisted of weekly surveys of Placentia Bay beaches, sampling of oil from vessels using the bay and from oiled birds and beaches, and experimentation to determine possible recovery rates of birds oiled at sea. The operation was considered a success at a number of levels. Significant reductions in numbers of oiled birds were noted in both 1991 and 1992 compared to 1989 or 1990. Estimated oil-related mortality was reduced to ca 25% of levels seen in the two years prior to the operation. The operation also provided the opportunity to test and refine an organizational framework designed to deal with the problem of chronic oil pollution reports. Communication efforts heightened the awareness of the oil pollution problem in Newfoundland waters. These efforts included distribution of pamphlets in various languages to ship operators, describing the seriousness of oil-related marine bird mortality and warning of the substantial fines that can be imposed under the Canada Shipping Act. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Mediation pathways and effects of green structures on respiratory mortality via reducing air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Sheng; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2017-02-23

    Previous studies have shown both health and environmental benefits of green spaces, especially in moderating temperature and reducing air pollution. However, the characteristics of green structures have been overlooked in previous investigations. In addition, the mediation effects of green structures on respiratory mortality have not been assessed. This study explores the potential mediation pathways and effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality through temperature, primary and secondary air pollutants separately using partial least squares model with data from Taiwan. The measurable characteristics of green structure include the largest patch percentage, landscape proportion, aggregation, patch distance, and fragmentation. The results showed that mortality of pneumonia and chronic lower respiratory diseases could be reduced by minimizing fragmentation and increasing the largest patch percentage of green structure, and the mediation effects are mostly through reducing air pollutants rather than temperature. Moreover, a high proportion of but fragmented green spaces would increase secondary air pollutants and enhance health risks; demonstrating the deficiency of traditional greening policy with primary focus on coverage ratio. This is the first research focusing on mediation effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality, revealing that appropriate green structure planning can be a useful complementary strategy in environmental health management.

  5. Advanced airflow distribution methods for reducing exposure of indoor pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Melikov, Arsen

    2017-01-01

    The adverse effect of various indoor pollutants on occupants’ health have been recognized. In public spaces flu viruses may spread from person to person by airflow generated by various traditional ventilation methods, like natural ventilation and mixing ventilation (MV Personalized ventilation (PV......) supplies clean air close to the occupant and directly into the breathing zone. Studies show that it improves the inhaled air quality and reduces the risk of airborne cross-infection in comparison with total volume (TV) ventilation. However, it is still challenging for PV and other advanced air distribution...... methods to reduce the exposure to gaseous and particulate pollutants under disturbed conditions and to ensure thermal comfort at the same time. The objective of this study is to analyse the performance of different advanced airflow distribution methods for protection of occupants from exposure to indoor...

  6. Advanced airflow distribution methods for reducing exposure of indoor pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    methods to reduce the exposure to gaseous and particulate pollutants under disturbed conditions and to ensure thermal comfort at the same time. The objective of this study is to analyse the performance of different advanced airflow distribution methods for protection of occupants from exposure to indoor......The adverse effect of various indoor pollutants on occupants’ health have been recognized. In public spaces flu viruses may spread from person to person by airflow generated by various traditional ventilation methods, like natural ventilation and mixing ventilation (MV Personalized ventilation (PV......) supplies clean air close to the occupant and directly into the breathing zone. Studies show that it improves the inhaled air quality and reduces the risk of airborne cross-infection in comparison with total volume (TV) ventilation. However, it is still challenging for PV and other advanced air distribution...

  7. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. How is ozone pollution reducing our food supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Sally; Mills, Gina; Illidge, Rosemary; Davies, William J

    2012-01-01

    Ground-level ozone pollution is already decreasing global crop yields (from ∼2.2-5.5% for maize to 3.9-15% and 8.5-14% for wheat and soybean, respectively), to differing extents depending on genotype and environmental conditions, and this problem is predicted to escalate given climate change and increasing ozone precursor emissions in many areas. Here a summary is provided of how ozone pollution affects yield in a variety of crops, thus impacting global food security. Ozone causes visible injury symptoms to foliage; it induces early senescence and abscission of leaves; it can reduce stomatal aperture and thereby carbon uptake, and/or directly reduce photosynthetic carbon fixation; it can moderate biomass growth via carbon availability or more directly; it can decrease translocation of fixed carbon to edible plant parts (grains, fruits, pods, roots) due either to reduced availability at source, redirection to synthesis of chemical protectants, or reduced transport capabilities via phloem; decreased carbon transport to roots reduces nutrient and water uptake and affects anchorage; ozone can moderate or bring forward flowering and induce pollen sterility; it induces ovule and/or grain abortion; and finally it reduces the ability of some genotypes to withstand other stresses such as drought, high vapour pressure deficit, and high photon flux density via effects on stomatal control. This latter point is emphasized here, given predictions that atmospheric conditions conducive to drought formation that also give rise to intense precursor emission events will become more severe over the coming decades.

  9. The Effects of Air Pollution and Temperature on COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Nadia N; McCormack, Meredith C; Kim, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affects 12-16 million people in the United States and is the third-leading cause of death. In developed countries, smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of COPD, but other exposures also contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Several studies suggest, though are not definitive, that outdoor air pollution exposure is linked to the prevalence and incidence of COPD. Among individuals with COPD, outdoor air pollutants are associated with loss of lung function and increased respiratory symptoms. In addition, outdoor air pollutants are also associated with COPD exacerbations and mortality. There is much less evidence for the impact of indoor air on COPD, especially in developed countries in residences without biomass exposure. The limited existing data suggests that indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations are linked to increased respiratory symptoms among patients with COPD. In addition, with the projected increases in temperature and extreme weather events in the context of climate change there has been increased attention to the effects of heat exposure. Extremes of temperature-both heat and cold-have been associated with increased respiratory morbidity in COPD. Some studies also suggest that temperature may modify the effect of pollution exposure and though results are not conclusive, understanding factors that may modify susceptibility to air pollution in patients with COPD is of utmost importance.

  10. Solution to Reduce Air Environmental Pollution from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phẁm Tân HỚu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas emissions from ships are increasingly polluting the air environment seriously. Therefore, the MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI is applied for all ships from 2017, Annex VI provided that the concentrations of NOx,SOx CO contained in ship’s exhaust gases must be less than 6.4 g/kWh, 0.6 g/kWh, and 5.5g/kWh respectively. Today, there are many solutions to reduce pollution emissions from exhaust gas of ships, such as improving combustion, using oil emulsion, using biofuel,…However, these solutions also have a handful of disadventages such as being unable to thoroughly resoulve problems, high cost, and very difficult to improve the quality of ship exhaust gas emissions for old ships. Exhaust gas treatment method uses a centralized treatment system where exhaust gas from the thermal engines is taken in a centralized treatment system before discharging into the air. After centralized treatment system, in comparision with raw exhaust gas, soot can be reduced by 98%, NOx can be reduced by 75%, SOx can be reduced by 80%. This method of treatment is not only low cost, good quality but also make marine heat-engines still use traditional fuels as well as need not improve its structure.

  11. Overfishing and nutrient pollution interact with temperature to disrupt coral reefs down to microbial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneveld, Jesse R; Burkepile, Deron E; Shantz, Andrew A; Pritchard, Catharine E; McMinds, Ryan; Payet, Jérôme P; Welsh, Rory; Correa, Adrienne M S; Lemoine, Nathan P; Rosales, Stephanie; Fuchs, Corinne; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2016-06-07

    Losses of corals worldwide emphasize the need to understand what drives reef decline. Stressors such as overfishing and nutrient pollution may reduce resilience of coral reefs by increasing coral-algal competition and reducing coral recruitment, growth and survivorship. Such effects may themselves develop via several mechanisms, including disruption of coral microbiomes. Here we report the results of a 3-year field experiment simulating overfishing and nutrient pollution. These stressors increase turf and macroalgal cover, destabilizing microbiomes, elevating putative pathogen loads, increasing disease more than twofold and increasing mortality up to eightfold. Above-average temperatures exacerbate these effects, further disrupting microbiomes of unhealthy corals and concentrating 80% of mortality in the warmest seasons. Surprisingly, nutrients also increase bacterial opportunism and mortality in corals bitten by parrotfish, turning normal trophic interactions deadly for corals. Thus, overfishing and nutrient pollution impact reefs down to microbial scales, killing corals by sensitizing them to predation, above-average temperatures and bacterial opportunism.

  12. National Port Strategy Assessment: Reducing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases at U.S. Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment finds that air pollution at the Nation's ports can be significantly reduced by implementing currently available strategies and technologies to reduce emissions of harmful pollutants from diesel vehicles and engines.

  13. Methods to reduce mercury pollution is small gold mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja-Timaran, F.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Rodriguez-Avello, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air, and now have been changed to the utilization of artisan iron retorts which considerable reduce the emissions of mercury vapors to the atmosphere, but there are still high losses of mercury into the waste solids or tailings coming from the amalgamation process (nearly most of the total weight of the ore treated). In order to reduce the mercury losses into the tailings from the process, this research work has been based in the use of cheap systems, available to the isolated miners, to proof that it is feasible to get an important reduction of the losses and the pollution. the procedure has been accomplished by means of washing the ores with alkaline or detergent agents, together with the use of activated mercury purified by electrowinning in a simple device, easily manufactured in site by the own workers. It is also proven herewith that controlling the time of amalgamation and the total amount of mercury used could reduce the total pollution, and in addition, the gold recovery would be improved. This investigation reports the possibility of a reduction of mercury losses down to 2.4 g per 100 of gold produced (case of rich ores like LaBruja), with gold recovery up to 94%; and 8,6 g per 100 g of gold produced (from ores with average grades like La Gruesa), and gold recoveries in the range of 92%. All that is about 20 to 100 times lower than data reported in current bibliography. The introduction of a previous step of the ore concentration in shaking tables, decreases the total amount of solids for

  14. Chronic air pollution and social deprivation as modifiers of the association between high temperature and daily mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Oulhote, Youssef; Petit, Claire; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Chauvin, Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Séverine

    2014-06-18

    Heat and air pollution are both associated with increases in mortality. However, the interactive effect of temperature and air pollution on mortality remains unsettled. Similarly, the relationship between air pollution, air temperature, and social deprivation has never been explored. We used daily mortality data from 2004 to 2009, daily mean temperature variables and relative humidity, for Paris, France. Estimates of chronic exposure to air pollution and social deprivation at a small spatial scale were calculated and split into three strata. We developed a stratified Poisson regression models to assess daily temperature and mortality associations, and tested the heterogeneity of the regression coefficients of the different strata. Deaths due to ambient temperature were calculated from attributable fractions and mortality rates were estimated. We found that chronic air pollution exposure and social deprivation are effect modifiers of the association between daily temperature and mortality. We found a potential interactive effect between social deprivation and chronic exposure with regards to air pollution in the mortality-temperature relationship. Our results may have implications in considering chronically polluted areas as vulnerable in heat action plans and in the long-term measures to reduce the burden of heat stress especially in the context of climate change.

  15. The N-Word: Reducing Verbal Pollution in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ericka J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the crisis of verbal pollution in our society. "Verbal pollution" refers to the use of words and comments that the majority agrees are offensive, are damaging, and may lead to the deterioration of social institutions. Verbal pollution encompasses hate speech, such as the derogatory words used by…

  16. Performance evaluation on air pollution reducing facilities and mechanism research on the third-party governance on environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang; Geng, Wang; Jianhua, Chen; Shuo, Yang; Huiting, Guo

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on developing the operational efficiency of air pollution reducing facilities and the treatment effect of the third-party governance on environmental pollution. Comprehensive analysis method and influence factor analysis are employed to build an evaluation index system by means of discussing major pollution control factors derived from the performance of pollution control equipment operation, environmental protection, technological economy, recourse consumption and manufacturing management. Based on the pattern of environmental pollution control offered by the third-party company, the static games model is further established between the government and the pollution emission firm by considering the whole process of the pollution abatement including investment, construction and operation of the treatment project, which focuses on establishing the policy condition and consequence by discussing the cost and benefit in a short and a long time, respectively. The research results can improve the market access requests of the pollution control equipment and normalize the environmental protection service offered by the third-party company. Moreover, the establishment of the evaluation index system for pollution control equipment and the evaluation mechanism for the third-party governance on environmental pollution has guiding significance on leading environmental protection industry and promoting market-oriented development

  17. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Mills, Nicholas L; Chan, Julian Kk; Leseman, Daan Lac; Aitken, Robert J; Fokkens, Paul Hb; Cassee, Flemming R; Li, Jing; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E; Jiang, Lixin

    2009-03-13

    Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years) walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 +/- 61 vs 140 +/- 113 mug/m3; particle number 2.4 +/- 0.4 vs 2.3 +/- 0.4 x 104 particles/cm3), temperature (29 +/- 1 vs 28 +/- 3 degrees C) and relative humidity (63 +/- 10 vs 64 +/- 19%) were similar (P > 0.05 for all) on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 +/- 10 vs 121 +/- 11 mmHg, P 0.05). Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 +/- 11.5 vs 61.2 +/- 11.4 ms, P pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution.

  18. Impacts of government and market on firm's efforts to reduce pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bowon; Sim, Jeong Eun

    2015-01-01

    We examine how the government and the market affect firm’s pollution abatement efforts, i.e. firm’s efforts to reduce its pollution emission. The way for the government to control firm’s pollution is to impose penalty, whereas the consumers (the market) make their purchasing decision by taking into account the pollution, i.e. the demand is affected by the stock of pollution. In effect, we consider two forces, government penalty and consumer’s sensitivity to pollution, as primary factors to co...

  19. Rising Temperatures Reduce Global Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Martre, P.; Rötter, R. P.; Lobell, D. B.; Cammarano, D.; Kimball, B. A.; Ottman, M. J.; Wall, G. W.; White, J. W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Crop models are essential tools for assessing the threat of climate change to local and global food production. Present models used to predict wheat grain yield are highly uncertain when simulating how crops respond to temperature. Here we systematically tested 30 different wheat crop models of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project against field experiments in which growing season mean temperatures ranged from 15 degrees C to 32? degrees C, including experiments with artificial heating. Many models simulated yields well, but were less accurate at higher temperatures. The model ensemble median was consistently more accurate in simulating the crop temperature response than any single model, regardless of the input information used. Extrapolating the model ensemble temperature response indicates that warming is already slowing yield gains at a majority of wheat-growing locations. Global wheat production is estimated to fall by 6% for each degree C of further temperature increase and become more variable over space and time.

  20. The Role that Natural Environment Plays in Reducing Noise Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Saber Maash

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is one of the major problems for the present time and it can affect the life of human being. Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. Researchers have mentioned a lot of devastating effects of noise that can disrupt the physical and psychological health of human beings. Noise pollution has also been considered as an important issue which needs to be solved in industrial countries and also as a main factor that is required to be minimized in factory construction and also in producing machinery. In the current article we are aimed at discussing some solutions that natural environment can bring to mankind regarding the reduction of noise pollution.

  1. Temperature trends with reduced impact of ocean air temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansner, Frank; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    Temperature data 1900-2010 from meteorological stations across the world have been analysed and it has been found that all areas generally have two different valid temperature trends. Coastal stations and hill stations facing dominant ocean winds are normally more warm-trended than the valley sta...

  2. Temperature trends with reduced impact of ocean air temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansner, Frank; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2018-01-01

    Temperature data 1900–2010 from meteorological stations across the world have been analyzed and it has been found that all land areas generally have two different valid temperature trends. Coastal stations and hill stations facing ocean winds are normally more warm-trended than the valley station...

  3. Methods to reduce mercury pollution in small gold mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantoja-Timarán, F.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. Some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air and now have been changed to the utilization of artisan iron retorts which considerably reduce the emissions of mercury vapors to the atmosphere, but there are still high losses of mercury into the waste solids or tailings coming from the amalgamation process (nearly most of the total weight of the ore treated. In order to reduce the mercury losses into the tailings from the process, this research work has been based in the use of cheap systems, available to the isolated miners, to proof that it is feasible to get an important reduction of the losses and the pollution. The procedure has been accomplished by means of washing the ores with alkaline or detergent agents, together with the use of activated mercury purified by electrowinning in a simple device, easily manufactured in site by the own workers. It is also proven herewith that controlling the time of amalgamation and the total amount of mercury used could reduce the total pollution, and in addition, the gold recovery would be improved. This investigation reports the possibility of a reduction of mercury losses down to 2.4 g per 100 g of gold produced (case of rich ores like La Bruja, with gold recovery up to 94 %; and 8,6 g per 100 g of gold produced (from ores with average grades like La Gruesa, and gold recoveries in the range of 92 %. All that is about 20 to 100 times lower than data reported in current bibliography. The introduction of a previous step of the ore concentration in shaking tables, decreases the total

  4. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  5. Courtyards as solutions in green architecture to reduce environmental pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamani, Z.; Taleghani, M.; Hoseini, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    After the industrial revolution, men intended-more than ever-to use energy, specifically the fossil fuels. In spite of providing comfort conditions for human life, too much use of these energy resources can cause the pollution and destruction of environment. The result is the threatening of the

  6. Infiltration of stormwater from highway operations to reduce coastal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The coastal waters of Hawaii are extremely important for recreation as well as for the health of : the marine environment. Runoff from the construction and operation of highways can be a : source of pollution to coastal waters. Individual states in t...

  7. Reduced annealing temperatures in silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.

    1981-01-01

    Cells irradiated to a fluence of 5x10,000,000,000,000/square cm showed short circuit current on annealing at 200 C, with complete annealing occurring at 275 C. Cells irradiated to 100,000,000,000,000/square cm showed a reduction in annealing temperature from the usual 500 to 300 C. Annealing kinetic studies yield an activation energy of (1.5 + or - 2) eV for the low fluence, low temperature anneal. Comparison with activation energies previously obtained indicate that the presently obtained activation energy is consistent with the presence of either the divacancy or the carbon interstitial carbon substitutional pair, a result which agrees with the conclusion based on defect behavior in boron-doped silicon.

  8. Study on Relationship between Seasonal Temperatures and Municipal Wastewater Pollutant Concentration and Removal Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the temperatures, pollutant concentrations and other indicators of municipal wastewater influent and effluent were tested for 7 months in 6 constructed wetland microcosms; the hydraulic retention time is 2 days. The results indicated that for both influent and effluent, there was a highly significant negative correlation (P<0.01 between the temperature and the pollutant concentrations, there was a significant difference (P<0.05 between seasonal temperatures, and the pollutant concentrations in summer and autumn were significantly different from those in winter (P<0.05. Furthermore, a regression analysis of pollutant concentration (y based on changes in water temperature (x in different seasons was performed. The analysis revealed that the relationship has the form ‘y = a -bx + cx2’, that under certain circumstances, pollutant concentrations can be calculated based on the temperature, and that the concentrations of NH4-N, Total Phosphorus (TP and Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP had a significantly negative correlation with their removal rate (P < 0.01. However, seasonal temperature clearly did not have a direct impact on the pollutant concentration, and some studies have indicated that the different manners in which urban residents use water as the temperature changes may be the real reason that the pollutant concentrations of municipal wastewater vary with seasonal temperature. Furthermore, when designing and operating constructed wetlands, the impact of the changes in pollutant concentrations generated by seasonal temperature should be fully considered, dilution and other means should be taken to ensure purification.

  9. The impact of temperature and humidity on perception and emission of indoor air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Clausen, Geo; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1996-01-01

    Sensory response to air polluted by five building materials under different combinations of temperature and humidity in the ranges 18°C-28°C and 30%-70% was studied in the laboratory. The experiments were designed to study separately the impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of air...... polluted by materials, and on the emission of pollutants from the materials. At all tested pollution levels of the five materials, the air was perceived significantly less acceptable with increasing temperature and humidity, and the impact of temperature and humidity on perception decreased with increasing...... pollution level. A significant linear correlation between acceptability and enthalpy of the air was found to describe the influence of temperature and humidity on perception. The impact of temperature and humidity on sensory emission was less significant than the impact on perception; however, the sensory...

  10. Temperature determines toxicity: Bisphenol A reduces thermal tolerance in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Alexander G.; Seebacher, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous pollutant around the globe, but whether environmental concentrations have toxic effects remains controversial. BPA interferes with a number of nuclear receptor pathways, including several that mediate animal responses to environmental input. Because thermal acclimation is regulated by these pathways in fish, we hypothesized that the toxicity of BPA would change with ambient temperature. We exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to ecologically relevant and artificially high concentrations of BPA at two acclimation temperatures, and tested physiological responses at two test temperatures that corresponded to acclimation temperatures. We found ecologically relevant concentrations of BPA (20 μg l −1 ) impair swimming performance, heart rate, muscle and cardiac SERCA activity and gene expression. We show many of these responses are temperature-specific and non-monotonic. Our results suggest that BPA pollution can compound the effects of climate change, and that its effects are more dynamic than toxicological assessments currently account for. - Highlights: • Whether environmental levels of BPA have toxic effects on local ecology remains controversial. • We show that ecological concentrations of BPA impair physiological performance in fish. • We also show that the toxic effects of BPA are temperature-specific and non-monotonic with dose. • BPA pollution will likely compound the effects of climate change, and vice-versa. • The toxic effects of BPA appear to be more dynamic than toxicological assessments account for. - BPA pollution is likely to compound the effects of climate change, and climate change may worsen the effects of BPA exposure. Its effects are likely to be more dynamic than toxicological assessments currently account for

  11. Methods to reduce mercury pollution in small gold mining operations

    OpenAIRE

    Pantoja-Timarán, F.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, R.; Rodríguez-Avelló, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. Some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air and now have been ...

  12. The projects of reducing environmental pollution at the collieries belonging to Petrosani Autonomous Bituminous Coal Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arad, V.; Arad, S.; Costinas, B.; Marchis, G.

    1997-01-01

    The economic development in the Jiu Valley, as practised in the mining and processing of bituminous coal, has had a dynamic character without taking into account, however, the harmful impact on the environment. The most severe problem of environmental pollution in the Jiu Valley is that of the pollution of the Jiu River due to the discharge of waste water from the technological processes of mining and processing coal. This paper presents some solutions for reducing this environmental pollution, especially the Jiu water pollution. 1 ref

  13. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bin; Wang, Guang-Huo; Van, Den Berg Marrit; Roetter, Reimund

    2005-10-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China's Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This approach allows assessing the impact of technology on pollution, is forward looking, and can yield information on the potential of on-the-shelf technology and provide opportunities for technology development. The approach particularly suits newly developed rice technologies with large potential of reducing nitrogen pollution and for future rice and vegetables technologies. The results showed that substantial reductions in nitrogen pollution are feasible for both types of crops.

  14. The Burden of COPD Morbidity Attributable to the Interaction between Ambient Air Pollution and Temperature in Chengdu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Qiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence on the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD morbidity attributable to the interaction between ambient air pollution and temperature has been limited. This study aimed to examine the modification effect of temperature on the association of ambient air pollutants (including particulate matter (PM with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10 and <2.5 μm (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2, carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 with risk of hospital admissions (HAs for COPD, as well as the associated morbidity burden in urban areas of Chengdu, China, from 2015 to 2016. Based on the generalized additive model (GAM with quasi-Poisson link, bivariate response surface model and stratification parametric model were developed to investigate the potential interactions between ambient air pollution and temperature on COPD HAs. We found consistent interactions between ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 and low temperature on COPD HAs, demonstrated by the stronger associations between ambient air pollutants and COPD HAs at low temperatures than at moderate temperatures. Subgroup analyses showed that the elderly (≥80 years and males were more vulnerable to this interaction. The joint effect of PM and low temperature had the greatest impact on COPD morbidity burden. Using WHO air quality guidelines as reference concentration, about 17.30% (95% CI: 12.39%, 22.19% and 14.72% (95% CI: 10.38%, 19.06% of COPD HAs were attributable to PM2.5 and PM10 exposures on low temperature days, respectively. Our findings suggested that low temperature significantly enhanced the effects of PM and SO2 on COPD HAs in urban Chengdu, resulting in increased morbidity burden. This evidence has important implications for developing interventions to reduce the risk effect of COPD morbidity.

  15. Unconventional power - a factor of reducing the pollution in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzi, P.

    1996-01-01

    The unconventional power generation includes all the activities related to the utilization and management of energy sources, facilities and equipment used to produce and distribute the power obtained through systems other than those based on burning of classical fissile fuels. By its very nature it is not pollutant. The renewable energies as the solar, wind, geothermal, tidal energies, etc, enter this category. As in the same category it is included the energy recovered from different industrial processes, usually associated with the treatment of organic residues or of refuse waters, the unconventional power generation is an important factor in ecological and environmental policy. The paper stresses also the beneficial accompanying actions which are associated with exploiting other unconventional energy sources. For instance, the tidal power exploitation implies also measures of protection of see shore regions from erosion and other forms of decay

  16. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    pH. Nitrate supply and temperature finally decided the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of urban riparian denitrification. Considering both the low DR of existing riparian soils and the significance of nonpoint source nitrogen pollution, the substantial denitrification potential of urban riparian soils should be utilized to reduce nitrogen pollution using proper engineering measures that would collect the polluted urban rainfall runoff and make it flow through the riparian zones.

  17. Internal modifications to reduce pollutant emissions from marine engines. A numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, M. I.; Rodríguez, C. G.; Rodríguez, J. D.; Telmo, J.

    2013-12-01

    Taking into account the increasingly stringent legislation on emissions from marine engines, this work aims to analyze several internal engine modifications to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides) and other pollutants. To this end, a numerical model was employed to simulate the operation cycle and characterize the exhaust gas composition. After a preliminary validation process was carried out using experimental data from a four-stroke, medium-speed marine engine, the numerical model was employed to study the influence of several internal modifications, such as water addition from 0 to 100% water to fuel ratios, exhaust gas recirculation from 0 to 100% EGR rates, modification of the overlap timing from 60 to 120°, modification of the intake valve closing from 510 to 570°, and modification of the cooling water temperature from 70 to 90 oC. NOx was reduced by nearly 100%. As expected, it was found that, by lowering the combustion temperature, there is a notable reduction in NOx, but an increase in CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbons) and consumption.

  18. Internal modifications to reduce pollutant emissions from marine engines. A numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Lamas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the increasingly stringent legislation on emissions from marine engines, this work aims to analyze several internal engine modifications to reduce NOx (nitrogen oxides and other pollutants. To this end, a numerical model was employed to simulate the operation cycle and characterize the exhaust gas composition. After a preliminary validation process was carried out using experimental data from a four-stroke, medium-speed marine engine, the numerical model was employed to study the influence of several internal modifications, such as water addition from 0 to 100% water to fuel ratios, exhaust gas recirculation from 0 to 100% EGR rates, modification of the overlap timing from 60 to 120°, modification of the intake valve closing from 510 to 570°, and modification of the cooling water temperature from 70 to 90 °C. NOx was reduced by nearly 100%. As expected, it was found that, by lowering the combustion temperature, there is a notable reduction in NOx, but an increase in CO (carbon monoxide, HC (hydrocarbons and consumption.

  19. A management scheme for reducing pollution at air discharge facility in advance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Sung Yong; Lee, Shin Chul [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The developed countries are implementing a policy minimizing damage from environmental pollution by reducing discharge in advance as well as the aftermath of a pollutant. The typical example is to use BAT (Best Available Technology). This is to prevent environmental damage by reducing the discharge of pollutants with available technology and to secure environmental margin to enable industrial activities of future generation. Therefore, the feasibility of introducing BAT requirement system was reviewed by considering foreign examples and Korean situation. 38 refs., 8 figs., 69 tabs.

  20. Design and evaluation of combustors for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. E.; Grobman, J.

    1973-01-01

    Various techniques and test results are briefly described and referenced for detail. The effort arises from the increasing concern for the measurement and control of emissions from gas turbine engines. The greater part of this research is focused on reducing the oxides of nitrogen formed during takeoff and cruise in both advanced CTOL, high pressure ratio engines, and advanced supersonic aircraft engines. The experimental approaches taken to reduce oxides of nitrogen emissions include the use of: multizone combustors incorporating reduced dwell time, fuel-air premixing, air atomization, fuel prevaporization, water injection, and gaseous fuels. In the experiments conducted to date, some of these techniques were more successful than others in reducing oxides of nitrogen emissions. Tests are being conducted on full-annular combustors at pressures up to 6 atmospheres and on combustor segments at pressures up to 30 atmospheres.

  1. Impact of Black Dust Pollution on Permafrost Temperature Regime in Pechora Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilimonyuk, V.; Pustovoit, G.; Filatova, M.

    2011-12-01

    Pechora Coal basin locates in North- Easter part of Europe within permafrost zone. The coal mining and post processing lead to emission of black dust (BD) and pollution of Earth surface. The scale of snow pollution surrounding Vorkuta city reaches to 260 g/sq.m of dust that is about 1000 ppmm BD concentration in snow before melting period. Such a large concentration of dust reduces snow reflectivity (Warren and Wiscombe, 1980; Chýlek et al., 1983,Gorbacheva, 1984, Zender et al, 2010) and can thereby trigger albedo feedbacks. The goal of this study is to evaluate the role of dirty surface albedo in the observed changing of permafrost regime in this basin. Two key sites: Workuta (North permafrost zone) and Inta (South permafrost zone) areas were selected for this study. For each site the zoning of territory by typical conditions of permafrost formation was performed. For the selected typical landscapes 1-D vertical heat transfer model coupled with the surface radiation-thermal balance equation at topsoil was simulated. The simulation was performed for the soil profile of 20 m depth during 20 years period with periodical input data at dirty surface averaged on monthly base. The initial measured not disturbed soil temperature profile was used for assessment the soil thermal property for the given landscape and natural surface radiation-thermal balance. The annual cycle of albedo change for dirty surface was taken from experimental measurement (Gorbacheva, 1984) for both sites as the function of the distance from the dust source. The simulation results next were used for mapping the vulnerability of permafrost thermal regime due to black dust pollution. Generally the simulation results show that South permafrost zone with mean temperature of permafrost (-0.5 -0.1C) is more vulnerable to albedo change than North permafrost zone with mean temperature (-2.5 -2C) for the same order of dust impact on albedo.

  2. Agricultural and forest means to reduce damage caused by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knabe, W

    1971-01-01

    Agriculture and forestry may try to reduce damage caused by air pollution by the following means: under heavy pollution sensitive crops can be replaced by more tolerant ones through changes in land use; at lower grades of air pollution the kind of land use may be maintained by planting relatively tolerant species and strains; breeding of plant material which is more tolerant than the present average is necessary to meet future requirements; certain damage may be decreased by soil amelioration, fertilization and watering of plants; the impact of certain air pollutants can be reduced by planting shelterbelts and by silvicultural means which affect the structure of a stand; and a strict control of insect pests and plant diseases is of special value in air polluted regions. Any special case has to be handled individually. It has to be asked whether one of the means mentioned above will be successful and in what area it should be applied. Several methods for the delineation of polluted regions are listed. Agricultural and forest means to adapt to a given situation of air pollution is gaining increasing importance because of the large areas with a medium high level of pollution, even if the general prospects of success are not regarded as very high.

  3. Study on spraying water soluble resin to reduce pollution for Fukushima daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiong; Guo Ruiping; Zhang Chunming; Han Fujuan; Hua Jie; Zhang Jiankui

    2012-01-01

    After Fukushima nuclear accident, Tokyo electric power company used the method of spraying water soluble resin synthesis at the scene of the accident, to restrain and control the spread of the radioactive dust, by forming consolidation layer in pollution area surface. This paper briefly introduced the accident, motivation of spraying water soluble resin, spraying range and implementation process. According to the relevant report on Fukushima nuclear accident, the effect of spraying water soluble resin for reducing pollution was analyzed. The mechanism of reducing pollution for water soluble resin and the application prospect were discussed. Spraying water soluble resin for fixing radioactive dust has reasonable reducing pollution effect. It is worth to use as reference and study in China. (authors)

  4. Role of the American Institute for Pollution Prevention in reducing environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The EPA Science Advisory Board recommended that in the decade of the 1990's, EPA strategy should focus on the long-term goal of preventing and reducing environmental risk and should shift from end-of-pipe controls to preventing the generation of pollution. To assist EPA in developing and implementing this philosophy, the American Institute for Pollution Prevention (AIPP) was founded jointly by EPA and the University of Cincinnati in June, 1989. The mission of the Institute is to generate broad support from private and public sectors and to assist EPA in achieving widespread and expeditious adoption of pollution prevention concepts. AIPP will provide a novel communication bridge between EPA and industry. AIPP will provide and promote liasion between professionals in the field of pollution and those who need to employ new and improved pollution prevention techniques

  5. Ambient air pollution, temperature and out-of-hospital coronary deaths in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jinping; Chen, Renjie; Meng, Xia; Yang, Changyuan; Zhao, Zhuohui; Kan, Haidong

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effects of ambient air pollution and temperature in triggering out-of-hospital coronary deaths (OHCDs) in China. We evaluated the associations of air pollution and temperature with daily OHCDs in Shanghai, China from 2006 to 2011. We applied an over-dispersed generalized additive model and a distributed lag nonlinear model to analyze the effects of air pollution and temperature, respectively. A 10 μg/m 3 increase in the present-day PM 10 , PM 2.5 , SO 2 , NO 2 and CO were associated with increases in OHCD mortality of 0.49%, 0.68%, 0.88%, 1.60% and 0.08%, respectively. A 1 °C decrease below the minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 3.81% increase in OHCD mortality on lags days 0–21, and a 1 °C increase above minimum-mortality temperature corresponded to a 4.61% increase over lag days 0–3. No effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. This analysis suggests that air pollution, low temperature and high temperature may increase the risk of OHCDs. - Highlights: • Few studies have evaluated the effects of air pollution and temperature on OHCDs in China. • The present-day concentrations of air pollution were associated with OHCDs. • The effect of high temperatures on OHCDs was more immediate than low temperatures. • No significant effects were found for in-hospital coronary deaths. - Ambient air pollution and temperature may trigger out-of-hospital coronary deaths but not in-hospital coronary deaths

  6. Impacts of government and market on firm’s efforts to reduce pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowon Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine how the government and the market affect firm’s pollution abatement efforts, i.e. firm’s efforts to reduce its pollution emission. The way for the government to control firm’s pollution is to impose penalty, whereas the consumers (the market make their purchasing decision by taking into account the pollution, i.e. the demand is affected by the stock of pollution. In effect, we consider two forces, government penalty and consumer’s sensitivity to pollution, as primary factors to control firm’s pollution and analyze their interaction in relation to the firm’s pollution reduction efforts. The analysis suggests as follows. The government penalty and the consumer’s awareness are substitutes either (1 when the market size is relatively large or (2 when the market is relatively small, but the government penalty is relatively heavy. On the contrary, the two factors are complements when the market size is relatively small and the government penalty is relatively light. We discuss managerial and economic implications of the analysis results.

  7. A universal reduced glass transition temperature for liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedors, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Data on the dependence of the glass transition temperature on the molecular structure for low-molecular-weight liquids are analyzed in order to determine whether Boyer's reduced glass transition temperature (1952) is a universal constant as proposed. It is shown that the Boyer ratio varies widely depending on the chemical nature of the molecule. It is pointed out that a characteristic temperature ratio, defined by the ratio of the sum of the melting temperature and the boiling temperature to the sum of the glass transition temperature and the boiling temperature, is a universal constant independent of the molecular structure of the liquid. The average value of the ratio obtained from data for 65 liquids is 1.15.

  8. Could Expanded Freight Rail Reduce Air Pollution from Trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, E. E.; Holloway, T.; Johnston, M.

    2010-12-01

    Cars, trucks and trains are a significant source of emissions that impact both climate and air quality on regional to global scales. Diesel vehicles, most used for freight transport, account for 42% of on-road nitrogen oxide emissions, 58% of on-road fine particulate emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. With freight tonnage projected to increase 28% by 2018, and freight trucks the fastest growing source of transportation emissions, we evaluate the potential for increased rail capacity to reduce the environmental impacts of trucks. Most widely available mobile source emissions inventories contain insufficient spatial detail to quantify realistic emission scenario options, and none to date have been linked with commodity flow information in a manner appropriate to consider the true potential of rail substitution. To support a truck-to-rail analysis, and other policy assessments requiring roadway-by-roadway analysis, we have developed a freight emissions inventory for the Upper Midwest based on the Federal Highway Administration’s Freight Analysis Framework version 2.2 and the Environmental Protection Agency’s on-road emissions model, Mobile6.2. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS), we developed emissions scenarios for truck-to-rail modal shifts where 95% of freight tonnage on trips longer than 400 miles is shifted off of trucks and onto railways. Scenarios will be analyzed with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional model to assess air quality impacts of associated changes. By using well-respected transportation data and realistic assumptions, results from this study have the potential to inform decisions on transportation sustainability, carbon management, public health, and air quality.

  9. [Application of biodegradable plastic film to reduce plastic film residual pollution in Chinese agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Changrong; He, Wenqing; Xue, Yinghao; Liu, Enke; Liu, Qin

    2016-06-25

    Plastic film has become an important agriculture production material in recent years. Over the past three decades, the amount and application area of plastic film have increased steadily, and in 2014, which are 1.4 million tons and more than 180 million hm² respectively. It plays a key role for ensuring the supply of agricultural goods in China. Meanwhile, plastic film residual pollution becomes more and more serious, and in some regions, the amount of plastic film residues has reached over 250 kg/hm². In part of the Northwest region, soil structure of farmland has been destroyed by plastic film residues and then crop growth and farming operations were suppressed. It is recognized as a good choice to replace plastic film with biodegradable plastic film, an effective measure to solve the plastic film residue pollution. Now, it is in a critical stage of study and assessment of biodegradable plastic film in China and fortunately some biodegradable plastic films show effects in the production of potatoes, peanuts and tobacco. Overall, a series of challenges has still been faced by the biodegradable plastic film, mainly including improving the quality of biodegradable plastic products, such as tensile strength, flexibility, improving the controllability of rupture and degradation, enhancing the ability of increasing soil temperature and preserving soil moisture, and to satisfy the demand of crops production with mulching. In addition, it is essential to reduce the cost of the biodegradable film and promote the application of biodegradable film on large-scale. With the development of biodegradable plastic technology and agricultural production environment, the application of the biodegradable film will have a good future.

  10. Addressing equity in interventions to reduce air pollution in urban areas: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Rey, Lynda; Cartier, Yuri; Clary, Christelle M; Deguen, Séverine; Brousselle, Astrid

    2014-12-01

    We did a systematic review to assess quantitative studies investigating the association between interventions aiming to reduce air pollution, health benefits and equity effects. Three databases were searched for studies investigating the association between evaluated interventions aiming to reduce air pollution and heath-related benefits. We designed a two-stage selection process to judge how equity was assessed and we systematically determined if there was a heterogeneous effect of the intervention between subgroups or subareas. Of 145 identified articles, 54 were reviewed in-depth with eight satisfying the inclusion criteria. This systematic review showed that interventions aiming to reduce air pollution in urban areas have a positive impact on air quality and on mortality rates, but the documented effect on equity is less straightforward. Integration of equity in evidence-based public health is a great challenge nowadays. In this review we draw attention to the importance of considering equity in air pollution interventions. We also propose further methodological and theoretical challenges when assessing equity in interventions to reduce air pollution and we present opportunities to develop this research area.

  11. Reducing pollution at five critical points of shale gas production: Strategies and institutional responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, Terence J.

    2016-01-01

    While the public and governments debate the advisability of engaging in shale gas production, the United States has proceeded to develop its resources with an accompanying remarkable increase in natural gas production. The development of shale gas has not been without problems, and some countries have decided that shale gas production should not proceed until more is known about the accompanying health issues and environmental damages. From experiences in the United States, careful consideration of five critical points relating to shale gas production can form the basis for developing strategies for reducing discharges of pollutants: (1) casing and cementing, (2) handling wastewater, (3) venting and flaring, (4) equipment with air emissions, and (5) seismic events. For each strategy, institutional responses to markedly reduce the risks of harm to people and the environment are identified. These responses offer state and local governments ideas for enabling shale gas resources to be developed without sacrificing public health and environmental quality. - Highlights: •Shale gas development involves releases of unnecessary pollutants. •Major sources of unnecessary pollutants can be identified. •For major pollutant sources, strategies can be developed to reduce releases of contaminants. •Alternative strategies can offer firms and governments ways to reduce pollutant releases.

  12. Reducing personal exposure to particulate air pollution improves cardiovascular health in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Li, Xi; Wang, Shengfeng; Lee, Matthew M Y; Barnes, Gareth D; Miller, Mark R; Cassee, Flemming R; Boon, Nicholas A; Donaldson, Ken; Li, Jing; Li, Liming; Mills, Nicholas L; Newby, David E; Jiang, Lixin

    2012-03-01

    Air pollution exposure increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and is a major global public health concern. We investigated the benefits of reducing personal exposure to urban air pollution in patients with coronary heart disease. In an open randomized crossover trial, 98 patients with coronary heart disease walked on a predefined route in central Beijing, China, under different conditions: once while using a highly efficient face mask, and once while not using the mask. Symptoms, exercise, personal air pollution exposure, blood pressure, heart rate, and 12-lead electrocardiography were monitored throughout the 24-hr study period. Ambient air pollutants were dominated by fine and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) that was present at high levels [74 μg/m³ for PM(2.5) (PM with aerodynamic diamater reduced maximal ST segment depression (-142 vs. -156 μV, p = 0.046) over the 24-hr period. When the face mask was used during the prescribed walk, mean arterial pressure was lower (93 ± 10 vs. 96 ± 10 mmHg, p = 0.025) and heart rate variability increased (high-frequency power: 54 vs. 40 msec², p = 0.005; high-frequency normalized power: 23.5 vs. 20.5 msec, p = 0.001; root mean square successive differences: 16.7 vs. 14.8 msec, p = 0.007). However, mask use did not appear to influence heart rate or energy expenditure. Reducing personal exposure to air pollution using a highly efficient face mask appeared to reduce symptoms and improve a range of cardiovascular health measures in patients with coronary heart disease. Such interventions to reduce personal exposure to PM air pollution have the potential to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in this highly susceptible population.

  13. Interactive short-term effects of equivalent temperature and air pollution on human mortality in Berlin and Lisbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Canário, Paulo; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Scherber, Katharina; Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria João; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that both temperature and air pollution are predictors of mortality. Thus far, few studies have focused on the potential interactive effects between the thermal environment and different measures of air pollution. Such interactions, however, are biologically plausible, as (extreme) temperature or increased air pollution might make individuals more susceptible to the effects of each respective predictor. This study investigated the interactive effects between equivalent temperature and air pollution (ozone and particulate matter) in Berlin (Germany) and Lisbon (Portugal) using different types of Poisson regression models. The findings suggest that interactive effects exist between air pollutants and equivalent temperature. Bivariate response surface models and generalised additive models (GAMs) including interaction terms showed an increased risk of mortality during periods of elevated equivalent temperatures and air pollution. Cold effects were mostly unaffected by air pollution. The study underscores the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interactive short-term effects of equivalent temperature and air pollution on human mortality in Berlin and Lisbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, Katrin; Canário, Paulo; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Scherber, Katharina; Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria João; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that both temperature and air pollution are predictors of mortality. Thus far, few studies have focused on the potential interactive effects between the thermal environment and different measures of air pollution. Such interactions, however, are biologically plausible, as (extreme) temperature or increased air pollution might make individuals more susceptible to the effects of each respective predictor. This study investigated the interactive effects between equivalent temperature and air pollution (ozone and particulate matter) in Berlin (Germany) and Lisbon (Portugal) using different types of Poisson regression models. The findings suggest that interactive effects exist between air pollutants and equivalent temperature. Bivariate response surface models and generalised additive models (GAMs) including interaction terms showed an increased risk of mortality during periods of elevated equivalent temperatures and air pollution. Cold effects were mostly unaffected by air pollution. The study underscores the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat effects. -- Highlights: • Interactive effects between air pollution and equivalent temperature result in augmented excess mortality. • High levels of ozone and particulate matter increase adverse heat effects on human mortality. • Cold effects are mostly unaffected by air pollution. • Findings underscore the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat-related mortality. -- Interactive effects between air pollution and elevated (equivalent) temperatures underscore the importance of air pollution control in mitigating the adverse effects of heat

  15. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bin; Wang, Guang-huo; Van den berg, Marrit; Roetter, Reimund

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China’s Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This approach allows assessing the impact of technology on pollution, is forward looking, and can yield information on the potential of on-the-shelf technology and provide opportunities for technology development. The approach particularly suits newly developed rice technologies with large potential of reducing nitrogen pollution and for future rice and vegetables technologies. The results showed that substantial reductions in nitrogen pollution are feasible for both types of crops. PMID:16187411

  16. Reducing air-pollution: a new argument for getting drivers to abide by the speed limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhomme, P; Chappé, J; Grenier, K; Pinto, M; Martha, C

    2010-01-01

    Speeding is one of the main factors of car crash-risk, but it also contributes to increasing air-pollution. In two studies we attempted to lead drivers to abide by speed limits using "reducing air-pollution" as a new argument. We presented prevention messages that highlighted the role of speeding in increasing "crash-risk", "air-pollution", or both (Studies 1 and 2). The messages were also positively or negatively framed (Study 2). Given that women are more concerned with environmental issues than are men, we expected the following hypotheses to be validated for women. The message with the "air-pollution" argument was expected to be evaluated more positively than the "crash-risk" message (H1). The "air-pollution" and "crash-risk and air-pollution" messages were expected to be more effective than the "crash-risk" message on the behavioral intention to observe speed limits (H2a) and on the perceived efficacy of speed-limit observance in reducing air-pollution (H2b; Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, positive framing was expected to be more effective than negative framing (H3), and presenting a message to be more effective than presenting no message (H4; Study 2). Broadly, our results argue in favor of our hypotheses. However in Study 2, the effects of message framing did not allow us to conclude that negative or positive framing was superior. All in all, messages with the "air-pollution" argument were more effective at leading drivers to observe speed limits. Thus, environmental protection may be a fruitful route to explore for increasing road safety.

  17. Exchanges across land-water-scape boundaries in urban systems: strategies for reducing nitrate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenasso, M L; Pickett, S T A; Groffman, P M; Band, L E; Brush, G S; Galvin, M F; Grove, J M; Hagar, G; Marshall, V; McGrath, B P; O'Neil-Dunne, J P M; Stack, W P; Troy, A R

    2008-01-01

    Conservation in urban areas typically focuses on biodiversity and large green spaces. However, opportunities exist throughout urban areas to enhance ecological functions. An important function of urban landscapes is retaining nitrogen thereby reducing nitrate pollution to streams and coastal waters. Control of nonpoint nitrate pollution in urban areas was originally based on the documented importance of riparian zones in agricultural and forested ecosystems. The watershed and boundary frameworks have been used to guide stream research and a riparian conservation strategy to reduce nitrate pollution in urban streams. But is stream restoration and riparian-zone conservation enough? Data from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study and other urban stream research indicate that urban riparian zones do not necessarily prevent nitrate from entering, nor remove nitrate from, streams. Based on this insight, policy makers in Baltimore extended the conservation strategy throughout larger watersheds, attempting to restore functions that no longer took place in riparian boundaries. Two urban revitalization projects are presented as examples aimed at reducing nitrate pollution to stormwater, streams, and the Chesapeake Bay. An adaptive cycle of ecological urban design synthesizes the insights from the watershed and boundary frameworks, from new data, and from the conservation concerns of agencies and local communities. This urban example of conservation based on ameliorating nitrate water pollution extends the initial watershed-boundary approach along three dimensions: 1) from riparian to urban land-water-scapes; 2) from discrete engineering solutions to ecological design approaches; and 3) from structural solutions to inclusion of individual, household, and institutional behavior.

  18. Reducing the pollution risk of pesticide using nano networks induced by irradiation and hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Liu, Zuojun; Zhang, Guilong; Qiu, Guannan; Zhong, Naiqin; Wu, Lifang; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pesticides (TP) often do not adhere tightly to crop foliage. They can easily enter the surrounding environment through precipitation and volatilization. This can result in the pollution of the surrounding soil, water, and air. To reduce pesticide pollution, we developed a loss-control pesticide (LCP) by adding attapulgite with a nano networks structure fabricated using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment to TP. HEEB irradiation effectively dispersed originally aggregated attapulgite through modified thermal, charge, and physical effects. Hydrothermal treatment further enhanced the dispersion of attapulgite to form nano porous networks via thermal and wet expansion effects, which are beneficial for pesticide binding. An LCP has improved retention on crop leaf surfaces. It has a higher adhesion capacity, reduced leaching and volatilization, and extended residual activity compared with the TP formulation. The treatment increases the residual activity of pesticides on crop foliage and decreases environmental pollution.

  19. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-02

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in

  1. Proceedings Norwegian-Polish Seminar on Measures to Reduce the Pollution of the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The report presents papers presented at the Norwegian-Polish Seminar on Measures to Reduce the Pollution of the Environment held in Oslo on the 25th August 1998. The report contains also a chairman report on discussions during the meeting. (Author)

  2. Residential demand response reduces air pollutant emissions on peak electricity demand days in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbraith, Nathaniel; Powers, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas in the United States have experienced difficulty meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), partially due to pollution from electricity generating units. We evaluated the potential for residential demand response to reduce pollutant emissions on days with above average pollutant emissions and a high potential for poor air quality. The study focused on New York City (NYC) due to non-attainment with NAAQS standards, large exposed populations, and the existing goal of reducing pollutant emissions. The baseline demand response scenario simulated a 1.8% average reduction in NYC peak demand on 49 days throughout the summer. Nitrogen oxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter emission reductions were predicted to occur (−70, −1.1 metric tons (MT) annually), although, these were not likely to be sufficient for NYC to meet the NAAQS. Air pollution mediated damages were predicted to decrease by $100,000–$300,000 annually. A sensitivity analysis predicted that substantially larger pollutant emission reductions would occur if electricity demand was shifted from daytime hours to nighttime hours, or the total consumption decreased. Policies which incentivize shifting electricity consumption away from periods of high human and environmental impacts should be implemented, including policies directed toward residential consumers. - Highlights: • The impact of residential demand response on air emissions was modeled. • Residential demand response will decrease pollutant emissions in NYC. • Emissions reductions occur during periods with high potential for poor air quality. • Shifting demand to nighttime hours was more beneficial than to off-peak daytime hours

  3. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  4. The role of meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies in reducing air pollution in Beijing during APEC 2014 and Victory Parade 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pengfei; Zhu, Tong; Fang, Yanhua; Li, Yingruo; Han, Yiqun; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Wang, Junxia

    2017-11-01

    To control severe air pollution in China, comprehensive pollution control strategies have been implemented throughout the country in recent years. To evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies, the influence of meteorological conditions on levels of air pollution needs to be determined. Using the intensive air pollution control strategies implemented during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum in 2014 (APEC 2014) and the 2015 China Victory Day Parade (Victory Parade 2015) as examples, we estimated the role of meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies in reducing air pollution levels in Beijing. Atmospheric particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) samples were collected and gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO, NOx, and O3) were measured online at a site in Peking University (PKU). To determine the influence of meteorological conditions on the levels of air pollution, we first compared the air pollutant concentrations during days with stable meteorological conditions. However, there were few days with stable meteorological conditions during the Victory Parade. As such, we were unable to estimate the level of emission reduction efforts during this period. Finally, a generalized linear regression model (GLM) based only on meteorological parameters was built to predict air pollutant concentrations, which could explain more than 70 % of the variation in air pollutant concentration levels, after incorporating the nonlinear relationships between certain meteorological parameters and the concentrations of air pollutants. Evaluation of the GLM performance revealed that the GLM, even based only on meteorological parameters, could be satisfactory to estimate the contribution of meteorological conditions in reducing air pollution and, hence, the contribution of control strategies in reducing air pollution. Using the GLM, we found that the meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies contributed 30 and 28 % to the reduction

  5. Xenoendocrine pollutants may reduce size of sexual organs in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Leifsson, Páll Skuli; Dietz, Rune

    2006-01-01

    Reproductive organs from 55 male and 44 female East Greenland polar bears were examined to investigate the potential negative impact from organohalogen pollutants (OHCs). Multiple regressions normalizing for age showed a significant inverse relationship between OHCs and testis length and baculum.......01) and uterine horn length and HCB (p = 0.02). The study suggests thatthere is an impact from xenoendocrine pollutants on the size of East Greenland polar bear genitalia. This may pose a riskto this polar bear subpopulation in the future because of reduced sperm and egg quality/quantity and uterus and penis size...

  6. Association between obesity and reduced body temperature in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, G; Giudice, E; Fazio, F; Refinetti, R

    2011-08-01

    Industrialized nations are currently experiencing an obesity epidemic, the causes of which are not fully known. One possible mechanism of enhanced energy efficiency that has received almost no attention is a reduction in the metabolic cost of homeothermy, which could be achieved by a modest lowering of body core temperature. We evaluated the potential of this obesity-inducing mechanism in a canine model of the metabolic syndrome. We compared the rectal temperature of lean dogs and obese dogs by (a) conducting cross-sectional measurements in 287 dogs of many breeds varying greatly in body size, (b) conducting longitudinal measurements in individual dogs over 7-10 years and (c) tracking rectal temperature of lean and obese dogs at 3-h intervals for 48 consecutive hours in the laboratory. We found that larger dogs have lower rectal temperatures than smaller dogs and that, for the same body mass, obese dogs have lower rectal temperatures than lean dogs. The results were consistent in the cross-sectional, longitudinal and around-the-clock measurements. These findings document an association between obesity and reduced body temperature in dogs and support the hypothesis that obesity in this and other species of homeotherms may result from an increase in metabolic efficiency achieved by a regulated lowering of body temperature.

  7. Impact of air pollution and temperature on adverse birth outcomes: Madrid, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Virginia; Díaz, Julio; Carmona, Rocío; Ortiz, Cristina; Linares, Cristina

    2016-11-01

    Low birth weight (<2500 g) (LBW), premature birth (<37 weeks of gestation) (PB), and late foetal death (<24 h of life) (LFD) are causes of perinatal morbi-mortality, with short- and long-term social and economic health impacts. This study sought to identify gestational windows of susceptibility during pregnancy and to analyse and quantify the impact of different air pollutants, noise and temperature on the adverse birth outcomes. Time-series study to assess the impact of mean daily PM 2.5 , NO 2 and O 3 (μg/m 3 ), mean daily diurnal (Leqd) and nocturnal (Leqn) noise levels (dB(A)), maximum and minimum daily temperatures (°C) on the number of births with LBW, PB or LFD in Madrid across the period 2001-2009. We controlled for linear trend, seasonality and autoregression. Poisson regression models were fitted for quantification of the results. The final models were expressed as relative risk (RR) and population attributable risk (PAR). Leqd was observed to have the following impacts in LBW: at onset of gestation, in the second trimester and in the week of birth itself. NO 2 had an impact in the second trimester. In the case of PB, the following: Leqd in the second trimester, Leqn in the week before birth and PM 2.5 in the second trimester. In the case of LFD, impacts were observed for both PM 2.5 in the third trimester, and minimum temperature. O 3 proved significant in the first trimester for LBW and PB, and in the second trimester for LFD. Pollutants concentrations, noise and temperature influenced the weekly average of new-borns with LBW, PB and LFD in Madrid. Special note should be taken of the effect of diurnal noise on LBW across the entire pregnancy. The exposure of pregnant population to the environmental factors analysed should therefore be controlled with a view to reducing perinatal morbi-mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reducing mortality risk by targeting specific air pollution sources: Suva, Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isley, C F; Nelson, P F; Taylor, M P; Stelcer, E; Atanacio, A J; Cohen, D D; Mani, F S; Maata, M

    2018-01-15

    Health implications of air pollution vary dependent upon pollutant sources. This work determines the value, in terms of reduced mortality, of reducing ambient particulate matter (PM 2.5 : effective aerodynamic diameter 2.5μm or less) concentration due to different emission sources. Suva, a Pacific Island city with substantial input from combustion sources, is used as a case-study. Elemental concentration was determined, by ion beam analysis, for PM 2.5 samples from Suva, spanning one year. Sources of PM 2.5 have been quantified by positive matrix factorisation. A review of recent literature has been carried out to delineate the mortality risk associated with these sources. Risk factors have then been applied for Suva, to calculate the possible mortality reduction that may be achieved through reduction in pollutant levels. Higher risk ratios for black carbon and sulphur resulted in mortality predictions for PM 2.5 from fossil fuel combustion, road vehicle emissions and waste burning that surpass predictions for these sources based on health risk of PM 2.5 mass alone. Predicted mortality for Suva from fossil fuel smoke exceeds the national toll from road accidents in Fiji. The greatest benefit for Suva, in terms of reduced mortality, is likely to be accomplished by reducing emissions from fossil fuel combustion (diesel), vehicles and waste burning. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Simulations of dimensionally reduced effective theories of high temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hietanen, Ari

    Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory describing interaction between quarks and gluons. At low temperatures, quarks are confined forming hadrons, e.g. protons and neutrons. However, at extremely high temperatures the hadrons break apart and the matter transforms into plasma of individual quarks and gluons. In this theses the quark gluon plasma (QGP) phase of QCD is studied using lattice techniques in the framework of dimensionally reduced effective theories EQCD and MQCD. Two quantities are in particular interest: the pressure (or grand potential) and the quark number susceptibility. At high temperatures the pressure admits a generalised coupling constant expansion, where some coefficients are non-perturbative. We determine the first such contribution of order g^6 by performing lattice simulations in MQCD. This requires high precision lattice calculations, which we perform with different number of colors N_c to obtain N_c-dependence on the coefficient. The quark number susceptibility is studied by perf...

  10. Geobacteraceae community composition is related to hydrochemistry and biodegradetion in an iron-reducing aquifer polluted by a neigbour landfill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, B; van Breukelen, B.M.; van Verseveld, H.W.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between community composition of the iron-reducing Geobacteraceae, pollution levels, and the occurrence of biodegradation were established for an iron-reducing aquifer polluted with landfill leachate by using cultivation-independent Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA gene-targeting techniques.

  11. Geobacteraceae community composition is related to hydrochemistry and biodegradation in an iron-reducing aquifer polluted by a neighboring landfill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, B.; Braster, M.; van Breukelen, B.M.; van Verseveld, H.W.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between community composition of the iron-reducing Geobacteraceae, pollution levels, and the occurrence of biodegradation were established for an iron-reducing aquifer polluted with landfill leachate by using cultivation-independent Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA gene-targeting techniques.

  12. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-05-15

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Light pollution reduces activity, food consumption and growth rates in a sandy beach invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luarte, T; Bonta, C C; Silva-Rodriguez, E A; Quijón, P A; Miranda, C; Farias, A A; Duarte, C

    2016-11-01

    The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. In the field, an artificial light system was assembled to assess the local influence of artificial light conditions on the amphipod's locomotor activity and use of food patches in comparison to natural (ambient) conditions. Meanwhile in the laboratory, two experimental chambers were set to assess amphipod locomotor activity, consumption rates, absorption efficiency and growth under artificial light in comparison to natural light-dark cycles. Our results indicate that artificial light have significantly adverse effects on the activity patterns and foraging behavior of the amphipods, resulting on reduced consumption and growth rates. Given the steady increase in artificial light pollution here and elsewhere, sandy beach communities could be negatively affected, with unexpected consequences for the whole ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multitaxon activity profiling reveals differential microbial response to reduced seawater pH and oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Cleary, Daniel F R; Costa, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Marina; Polónia, Ana R M; Silva, Artur M S; Simões, Mário M Q; Oliveira, Vanessa; Gomes, Newton C M

    2016-09-01

    There is growing concern that predicted changes to global ocean chemistry will interact with anthropogenic pollution to significantly alter marine microbial composition and function. However, knowledge of the compounding effects of climate change stressors and anthropogenic pollution is limited. Here, we used 16S and 18S rRNA (cDNA)-based activity profiling to investigate the differential responses of selected microbial taxa to ocean acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results revealed that a lower relative abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus clade) due to an adverse effect of seawater acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination (reduced pH-oil treatment) may be coupled to changes in sediment archaeal communities. In particular, we observed a pronounced compositional shift and marked reduction in the prevalence of otherwise abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal Marine Benthic Group B and Marine Hydrothermal Vent Group (MHVG) in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Conversely, the abundance of several putative hydrocarbonoclastic fungal OTUs was higher in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Sediment hydrocarbon profiling, furthermore, revealed higher concentrations of several alkanes in the reduced pH-oil treatment, corroborating the functional implications of the structural changes to microbial community composition. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of the response of a complex microbial community to the interaction between reduced pH and anthropogenic pollution. In future acidified marine environments, oil hydrocarbon contamination may alter the typical mixotrophic and k-/r-strategist composition of surface sediment microbiomes towards a more heterotrophic state with lower doubling rates, thereby impairing the ability of the ecosystem to recover from acute oil contamination events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. High Temperature Thermosetting Polyimide Nanocomposites Prepared with Reduced Charge Organoclay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sandi; Liang, Margaret I.

    2005-01-01

    The naturally occurring sodium and calcium cations found in bentonite clay galleries were exchanged with lithium cations. Following the cation exchange, a series of reduced charge clays were prepared by heat treatment of the lithium bentonite at 130 C, 150 C, or 170 C. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis showed that heating the lithium clay at elevated temperatures reduced its cation exchange capacity. Ion exchange of heat-treated clays with either a protonated alkyl amine or a protonated aromatic diamine resulted in decreasing amounts of the organic modifier incorporated into the lithium clay. The level of silicate dispersion in a thermosetting polyimide matrix was dependent upon the temperature of Li-clay heat treatment as well as the organic modification. In general, clays treated at 150 C or 170 C, and exchanged with protonated octadcylamine or protonated 2,2'-dimethlybenzidine (DMBZ) showed a higher degree of dispersion than clays treated at 130 C, or exchanged with protonated dodecylamine. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed little change in the storage modulus or T(sub g) of the nanocomposites compared to the base resin. However, long term isothermal aging of the samples showed a significant decrease in the resin oxidative weight loss. Nanocomposite samples aged in air for 1000 hours at 288 C showed of to a decrease in weight loss compared to that of the base resin. This again was dependent on the temperature at which the Li-clay was heated and the choice of organic modification.

  16. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter. The three multi-stage scrubbers were one double-stage scrubber (acid stage+ bio-filter), one double-stage ...

  17. Effects of temperature and copper pollution on soil community--extreme temperature events can lead to community extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Oliveira, Vanessa B; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Amorim, Monica J B

    2013-12-01

    Global warming affects ecosystems and species' diversity. The physiology of individual species is highly influenced by changes in temperature. The effects on species communities are less studied; they are virtually unknown when combining effects of pollution and temperature. To assess the effects of temperature and pollution in the soil community, a 2-factorial soil mesocosms multispecies experiment was performed. Three exposure periods (28 d, 61 d, and 84 d) and 4 temperatures (19 °C, 23 °C, 26 °C, and 29 °C) were tested, resembling the mean annual values for southern Europe countries and extreme events. The soil used was from a field site, clean, or spiked with Cu (100 mg Cu/kg). Results showed clear differences between 29 °C treatment and all other temperature treatments, with a decrease in overall abundance of organisms, further potentiated by the increase in exposure time. Folsomia candida was the most abundant species and Enchytraeus crypticus was the most sensitive to Cu toxicity. Differences in species optimum temperatures were adequately covered: 19 °C for Hypoaspis aculeifer or 26 °C for E. crypticus. The temperature effects were more pronounced the longer the exposure time. Feeding activity decreased with higher temperature and exposure time, following the decrease in invertebrate abundance, whereas for the same conditions the organic matter turnover increased. Hence, negative impacts on ecosystem services because of temperature increase can be expected by changes on soil function and as consequence of biodiversity loss. © 2013 SETAC.

  18. Reducing greenhouses and the temperature history of earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1977-01-01

    It has been suggested that NH3 and other reducing gases were present in the earth's primitive atmosphere, enhancing the global greenhouse effect; data obtained through isotopic archeothermometry support this hypothesis. Computations have been applied to the evolution of surface temperatures on Mars, considering various bolometric albedos and compositions. The results are of interest in the study of Martian sinuous channels which may have been created by aqueous fluvial errosion, and imply that clement conditions may have previously occurred on Mars, and may occur in the future.

  19. Reduced density matrix functional theory at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldsiefen, Tim

    2012-10-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) is highly successful in many fields of research. There are, however, areas in which its performance is rather limited. An important example is the description of thermodynamical variables of a quantum system in thermodynamical equilibrium. Although the finite-temperature version of DFT (FT-DFT) rests on a firm theoretical basis and is only one year younger than its brother, groundstate DFT, it has been successfully applied to only a few problems. Because FT-DFT, like DFT, is in principle exact, these shortcomings can be attributed to the difficulties of deriving valuable functionals for FT-DFT. In this thesis, we are going to present an alternative theoretical description of quantum systems in thermal equilibrium. It is based on the 1-reduced density matrix (1RDM) of the system, rather than on its density and will rather cumbersomly be called finite-temperature reduced density matrix functional theory (FT-RDMFT). Its zero-temperature counterpart (RDMFT) proved to be successful in several fields, formerly difficult to address via DFT. These fields include, for example, the calculation of dissociation energies or the calculation of the fundamental gap, also for Mott insulators. This success is mainly due to the fact that the 1RDM carries more directly accessible ''manybody'' information than the density alone, leading for example to an exact description of the kinetic energy functional. This sparks the hope that a description of thermodynamical systems employing the 1RDM via FT-RDMFT can yield an improvement over FT-DFT. Giving a short review of RDMFT and pointing out difficulties when describing spin-polarized systems initiates our work. We then lay the theoretical framework for FT-RDMFT by proving the required Hohenberg-Kohn-like theorems, investigating and determining the domain of FT-RDMFT functionals and by deriving several properties of the exact functional. Subsequently, we present a perturbative method to

  20. Reduced density matrix functional theory at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldsiefen, Tim

    2012-10-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is highly successful in many fields of research. There are, however, areas in which its performance is rather limited. An important example is the description of thermodynamical variables of a quantum system in thermodynamical equilibrium. Although the finite-temperature version of DFT (FT-DFT) rests on a firm theoretical basis and is only one year younger than its brother, groundstate DFT, it has been successfully applied to only a few problems. Because FT-DFT, like DFT, is in principle exact, these shortcomings can be attributed to the difficulties of deriving valuable functionals for FT-DFT. In this thesis, we are going to present an alternative theoretical description of quantum systems in thermal equilibrium. It is based on the 1-reduced density matrix (1RDM) of the system, rather than on its density and will rather cumbersomly be called finite-temperature reduced density matrix functional theory (FT-RDMFT). Its zero-temperature counterpart (RDMFT) proved to be successful in several fields, formerly difficult to address via DFT. These fields include, for example, the calculation of dissociation energies or the calculation of the fundamental gap, also for Mott insulators. This success is mainly due to the fact that the 1RDM carries more directly accessible ''manybody'' information than the density alone, leading for example to an exact description of the kinetic energy functional. This sparks the hope that a description of thermodynamical systems employing the 1RDM via FT-RDMFT can yield an improvement over FT-DFT. Giving a short review of RDMFT and pointing out difficulties when describing spin-polarized systems initiates our work. We then lay the theoretical framework for FT-RDMFT by proving the required Hohenberg-Kohn-like theorems, investigating and determining the domain of FT-RDMFT functionals and by deriving several properties of the exact functional. Subsequently, we present a perturbative method to iteratively construct

  1. Xenoendocrine pollutants May Reduce Size of Sexual Organs in East Greenland Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Leifsson, Pall S.; Dietz, Rune

    2006-01-01

    .01) and uterine horn length and HCB (p = 0.02). The study suggests thatthere is an impact from xenoendocrine pollutants on the size of East Greenland polar bear genitalia. This may pose a riskto this polar bear subpopulation in the future because of reduced sperm and egg quality/quantity and uterus and penis size......Reproductive organs from 55 male and 44 female East Greenland polar bears were examined to investigate the potential negative impact from organohalogen pollutants (OHCs). Multiple regressions normalizing for age showed a significant inverse relationship between OHCs and testis length and baculum...... length and weight, respectively, and was found in both subadults (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethanes, dieldrin, chlordanes, hexacyclohexanes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) and adults (hexachlorobenzene [HCB]) (all p

  2. Cadmium and high temperature effects on brain and behaviour of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars originating from polluted and less-polluted forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Petković, Branka; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Dronjak Čučaković, Slađana; Todorović, Dajana; Vlahović, Milena

    2017-10-01

    Insects brain as a part of nervous system is the first-line of fast stress response that integrate stress signals to regulate all aspects of insect physiology and behaviour. The cadmium (Cd) bioaccumulation factor (BF), activity of the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dopamine content, expression and amount of Hsp70 in the brain and locomotor activity were evaluated in the 4th instar of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars fed a Cd supplemented diet and reared in an optimal temperature regime (23 °C) and/or exposed to high temperature (28 °C). The insects originated from two forests, one close to "Nikola Tesla" thermoelectric power plant, Obrenovac (polluted population), and the other Kosmaj mountain (less-polluted population, far from any industrial region). The Cd BF was higher in the less-polluted than in the polluted population especially at the high ambient temperature. AChE activity and dopamine content were changed in the brains of L. dispar from both populations in the same manner. Hsp70 concentration in caterpillar brains showed opposite trends, a decrease in the less-polluted and an increase in the polluted population. Locomotor activity was modified in both Lymantria dispar populations, but the pattern of changes depended on the stressors and their combined effect. ACh activity and dopamine content are sensitive parameters to Cd exposure, regardless of pollutant experience, and might be promising biomarkers in monitoring forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reducing greenhouses and the temperature history of Earth and Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The modern theory of stellar evolution implies that the Sun has increased in brightness by several tens per cent over geological time. Were all other global parameters held constant, this would imply that the mean temperature of the Earth was below the freezing point of seawater about 2 x 10 9 yr ago. There is, however, excellent geological and palaeontological evidence that there were extensive bodies of liquid water on the Earth between 3 and 4 x 10 9 yr ago. A possible solution to this puzzle is that the Earth's primitive atmosphere contained small quantities of NH 3 and other reducing gases which significantly enhanced the global 'greenhouse' effect. Cosmochemical considerations point strongly to a higher abundance of reduced constituents in the primitive than in the contemporary terrestrial atmosphere; and reduced atmospheric components such as NH 3 and CH 4 are required to understand the accumulation of prebiological organic compounds necessary for the origin of life between 3 and 4 x 10 9 yr ago. Similar arguments may apply to Mars. (author)

  4. Reducing greenhouses and the temperature history of Earth and Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, C [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. (USA). Lab. for Planetary Studies

    1977-09-15

    The modern theory of stellar evolution implies that the Sun has increased in brightness by several tens per cent over geological time. Were all other global parameters held constant, this would imply that the mean temperature of the Earth was below the freezing point of seawater about 2 x 10/sup 9/ yr ago. There is, however, excellent geological and palaeontological evidence that there were extensive bodies of liquid water on the Earth between 3 and 4 x 10/sup 9/ yr ago. A possible solution to this puzzle is that the Earth's primitive atmosphere contained small quantities of NH/sub 3/ and other reducing gases which significantly enhanced the global 'greenhouse' effect. Cosmochemical considerations point strongly to a higher abundance of reduced constituents in the primitive than in the contemporary terrestrial atmosphere; and reduced atmospheric components such as NH/sub 3/ and CH/sub 4/ are required to understand the accumulation of prebiological organic compounds necessary for the origin of life between 3 and 4 x 10/sup 9/ yr ago. Similar arguments may apply to Mars.

  5. The Treatment Train approach to reducing non-point source pollution from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, N.; Reaney, S. M.; Barker, P. A.; Benskin, C.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Haygarth, P.; Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Surridge, B.; Quinn, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental approach has been applied to an agricultural catchment in NW England, where non-point pollution adversely affects freshwater ecology. The aim of the work (as part of the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment project) is to develop techniques to manage agricultural runoff whilst maintaining food production. The approach used is the Treatment Train (TT), which applies multiple connected mitigation options that control nutrient and fine sediment pollution at source, and address polluted runoff pathways at increasing spatial scale. The principal agricultural practices in the study sub-catchment (1.5 km2) are dairy and stock production. Farm yards can act as significant pollution sources by housing large numbers of animals; these areas are addressed initially with infrastructure improvements e.g. clean/dirty water separation and upgraded waste storage. In-stream high resolution monitoring of hydrology and water quality parameters showed high-discharge events to account for the majority of pollutant exports ( 80% total phosphorus; 95% fine sediment), and primary transfer routes to be surface and shallow sub-surface flow pathways, including drains. To manage these pathways and reduce hydrological connectivity, a series of mitigation features were constructed to intercept and temporarily store runoff. Farm tracks, field drains, first order ditches and overland flow pathways were all targeted. The efficacy of the mitigation features has been monitored at event and annual scale, using inflow-outflow sampling and sediment/nutrient accumulation measurements, respectively. Data presented here show varied but positive results in terms of reducing acute and chronic sediment and nutrient losses. An aerial fly-through of the catchment is used to demonstrate how the TT has been applied to a fully-functioning agricultural landscape. The elevated perspective provides a better understanding of the spatial arrangement of mitigation features, and how they can be

  6. Temperature-related mortality estimates after accounting for the cumulative effects of air pollution in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić Stojić, Svetlana; Stanišić, Nemanja; Stojić, Andreja

    2016-07-11

    To propose a new method for including the cumulative mid-term effects of air pollution in the traditional Poisson regression model and compare the temperature-related mortality risk estimates, before and after including air pollution data. The analysis comprised a total of 56,920 residents aged 65 years or older who died from circulatory and respiratory diseases in Belgrade, Serbia, and daily mean PM10, NO2, SO2 and soot concentrations obtained for the period 2009-2014. After accounting for the cumulative effects of air pollutants, the risk associated with cold temperatures was significantly lower and the overall temperature-attributable risk decreased from 8.80 to 3.00 %. Furthermore, the optimum range of temperature, within which no excess temperature-related mortality is expected to occur, was very broad, between -5 and 21 °C, which differs from the previous findings that most of the attributable deaths were associated with mild temperatures. These results suggest that, in polluted areas of developing countries, most of the mortality risk, previously attributed to cold temperatures, can be explained by the mid-term effects of air pollution. The results also showed that the estimated relative importance of PM10 was the smallest of four examined pollutant species, and thus, including PM10 data only is clearly not the most effective way to control for the effects of air pollution.

  7. Preparation of activated carbon from banana peel waste for reducing air pollutant from motorcycle muffler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafidz Achmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gas or emission from motor vehicle contains various pollutants and some of them are toxic and very harmful for human health. In the present work, we prepared an activated carbon to reduce the toxic pollutants (via adsorption process from the exhaust gas of the motor vehicle (particularly motorcycle in this work. The activated carbon was prepared from local banana peel which considered as an agricultural waste without economic value. To prepare the activated carbon, banana peel was carbonized using furnace at 500°C. Then the resulted carbon was activated using chemical activation with ZnCl2 and physical activation with either microwave (300 W or furnace (700°C. The prepared activated carbon was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR analysis. The SEM result showed that the pore of microwave induced ZnCl2 activated carbon (ACM was larger than the pore of virgin char/carbon and furnace induced ZnCl2 activataed carbon (ACF. The FT-IR spectrum of ACM showed some peaks at 3408.59 cm-1, 1589.25 cm-1, and 1093.63 cm-1. They are assigned to O-H stretching, C=O stretching, and C-OH stretching. Additionally, the adsorption performance of the prepared activation carbon to reduce the pollutants concentration (i.e. CO and CH from the exhaust gas of motor vehicle was investigated. The results showed that the activated carbon induced by microwave and ZnCl2 activation (ACM gave the best result. The adsorption or removal efficiency of gas CO reached approximately 97.64 %vol.

  8. Reducing Nitrogen Pollution while Decreasing Farmers' Costs and Increasing Fertilizer Industry Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, David R; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) pollution is emerging as one of the most important environmental issues of the 21st Century, contributing to air and water pollution, climate change, and stratospheric ozone depletion. With agriculture being the dominant source, we tested whether it is possible to reduce agricultural N pollution in a way that benefits the environment, reduces farmers' costs, and increases fertilizer industry profitability, thereby creating a "sweet spot" for decision-makers that could significantly increase the viability of improved N management initiatives. Although studies of the economic impacts of improved N management have begun to take into account farmers and the environment, this is the first study to consider the fertilizer industry. Our "sweet spot" hypothesis is evaluated via a cost-benefit analysis of moderate and ambitious N use efficiency targets in U.S. and China corn sectors over the period 2015-2035. We use a blend of publicly available crop and energy price projections, original time-series modeling, and expert elicitation. The results present a mixed picture: although the potential for a "sweet spot" exists in both countries, it is more likely that one occurs in China due to the currently extensive overapplication of fertilizer, which creates a greater potential for farmers and the fertilizer industry to gain economically from improved N management. Nevertheless, the environmental benefits of improving N management consistently dwarf the economic impacts on farmers and the fertilizer industry in both countries, suggesting that viable policy options could include incentives to farmers and the fertilizer industry to increase their support for N management policies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. The role of catchment vegetation in reducing atmospheric inputs of pollutant aerosols in Ganga river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubhashish, Kumar; Pandey, Richa; Pandey, Jitendra

    2012-08-01

    The role of woody perennials in the Ganga river basin in modifying the run-off quality as influenced by atmospheric deposition of pollutant aerosols was investigated. The concentration of seven nutrients and eight metals were measured in atmospheric deposits as well as in run-off water under the influence of five woody perennials. Nutrient retention was recorded maximum for Bougainvillea spectabilis ranged from 4.30 % to 33.70 %. Metal retention was recorded highest for Ficus benghalensis ranged from 5.15 % to 36.98 %. Although some species showed nutrient enrichment, all the species considered in the study invariably contribute to reduce nutrients and metal concentration in run-off water. Reduction in run off was recorded maximum for B. spectabilis (nutrient 6.48 %-40.66 %; metal 7.86 %-22.85 %) and minimum for Ficus religiosa (nutrient 1.68 %-27.19 %; metal 6.55 %-31.55 %). The study forms the first report on the use of woody perennials in reducing input of atmospheric pollutants to Ganga river and has relevance in formulating strategies for river basin management.

  10. Temperature, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharovsky R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in daily mortality from myocardial infarction has been observed in association with meteorological factors and air pollution in several cities in the world, mainly in the northern hemisphere. The objective of the present study was to analyze the independent effects of environmental variables on daily counts of death from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region in South America. We used the robust Poisson regression to investigate associations between weather (temperature, humidity and barometric pressure, air pollution (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and inhalable particulate, and the daily death counts attributed to myocardial infarction in the city of São Paulo in Brazil, where 12,007 fatal events were observed from 1996 to 1998. The model was adjusted in a linear fashion for relative humidity and day-of-week, while nonparametric smoothing factors were used for seasonal trend and temperature. We found a significant association of daily temperature with deaths due to myocardial infarction (P < 0.001, with the lowest mortality being observed at temperatures between 21.6 and 22.6ºC. Relative humidity appeared to exert a protective effect. Sulfur dioxide concentrations correlated linearly with myocardial infarction deaths, increasing the number of fatal events by 3.4% (relative risk of 1.03; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.05 for each 10 µg/m³ increase. In conclusion, this study provides evidence of important associations between daily temperature and air pollution and mortality from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region, even after a comprehensive control for confounding factors.

  11. Which offers more scope to suppress river phytoplankton blooms: reducing nutrient pollution or riparian shading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, M G; Johnson, A C; Deflandre-Vlandas, A; Comber, S; Posen, P; Boorman, D

    2010-10-01

    River flow and quality data, including chlorophyll-a as a surrogate for river phytoplankton biomass, were collated for the River Ouse catchment in NE England, which according to established criteria is a largely unpolluted network. Against these data, a daily river quality model (QUESTOR) was setup and successfully tested. Following a review, a river quality classification scheme based on phytoplankton biomass was proposed. Based on climate change predictions the model indicated that a shift from present day oligotrophic/mesotrophic conditions to a mesotrophic/eutrophic system could occur by 2080. Management options were evaluated to mitigate against this predicted decline in quality. Reducing nutrient pollution was found to be less effective at suppressing phytoplankton growth than the less costly option of establishing riparian shading. In the Swale tributary, ongoing efforts to reduce phosphorus loads in sewage treatment works will only reduce peak (95th percentile) phytoplankton by 11%, whereas a reduction of 44% is possible if riparian tree cover is also implemented. Likewise, in the Ure, whilst reducing nitrate loads by curtailing agriculture in the headwaters may bring about a 10% reduction, riparian shading would instead reduce levels by 47%. Such modelling studies are somewhat limited by insufficient field data but offer a potentially very valuable tool to assess the most cost-effective methods of tackling effects of eutrophication. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Roof-Edge Roughness on Air Temperature and Pollutant Concentration in Urban Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Krayenhoff, E. Scott; Nazarian, Negin; Chew, Lup Wai; Armstrong, Peter R.; Afshari, Afshin; Norford, Leslie K.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of roof-edge roughness elements on airflow, heat transfer, and street-level pollutant transport inside and above a two-dimensional urban canyon is analyzed using an urban energy balance model coupled to a large-eddy simulation model. Simulations are performed for cold (early morning) and hot (mid afternoon) periods during the hottest month of the year (August) for the climate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The analysis suggests that early in the morning, and when the tallest roughness elements are implemented, the temperature above the street level increases on average by 0.5 K, while the pollutant concentration decreases by 2% of the street-level concentration. For the same conditions in mid afternoon, the temperature decreases conservatively by 1 K, while the pollutant concentration increases by 7% of the street-level concentration. As a passive or active architectural solution, the roof roughness element shows promise for improving thermal comfort and air quality in the canyon for specific times, but this should be further verified experimentally. The results also warrant a closer look at the effects of mid-range roughness elements in the urban morphology on atmospheric dynamics so as to improve parametrizations in mesoscale modelling.

  13. One-step approach to prepare magnetic iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid for efficient organic and inorganic pollutants removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Suman; Karak, Niranjan, E-mail: karakniranjan@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    An environmentally friendly effective technique was demonstrated to prepare iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid (IO/RGO) at room temperature by using banana peel ash aqueous extract as the base source and Colocasia esculenta leaves aqueous extract as the reducing agent. The nanohybrid was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, Raman spectroscopy and thermal studies. The results indicated the decoration of superparamagnetic IO nanoparticles on the surface of the RGO. Both organic and inorganic pollutants were effectively removed from the contaminated water (for Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} within 10 min, whereas for tetrabromobisphenol A within 30 min) by IO/RGO. The study revealed that adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics and isotherms were well described by the Langmuir model in all the cases. The thermodynamics parameters (ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH°) were calculated from the temperature dependent isotherms and indicated that the adsorptions were endothermic and spontaneous. - Highlights: • Eco-friendly one step preparation of iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid. • The nanohybrid has excellent pollutants removal capacity from contaminated water. • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles help in easy recycle. • The adsorption processes of pollutants are endothermic and spontaneous.

  14. One-step approach to prepare magnetic iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid for efficient organic and inorganic pollutants removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Suman; Karak, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    An environmentally friendly effective technique was demonstrated to prepare iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid (IO/RGO) at room temperature by using banana peel ash aqueous extract as the base source and Colocasia esculenta leaves aqueous extract as the reducing agent. The nanohybrid was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, Raman spectroscopy and thermal studies. The results indicated the decoration of superparamagnetic IO nanoparticles on the surface of the RGO. Both organic and inorganic pollutants were effectively removed from the contaminated water (for Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ within 10 min, whereas for tetrabromobisphenol A within 30 min) by IO/RGO. The study revealed that adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics and isotherms were well described by the Langmuir model in all the cases. The thermodynamics parameters (ΔG°, ΔS° and ΔH°) were calculated from the temperature dependent isotherms and indicated that the adsorptions were endothermic and spontaneous. - Highlights: • Eco-friendly one step preparation of iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid. • The nanohybrid has excellent pollutants removal capacity from contaminated water. • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles help in easy recycle. • The adsorption processes of pollutants are endothermic and spontaneous

  15. Miniaturized Planar Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Electrochemical Gas Sensor for Rapid Multiple Gas Pollutants Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hao; Yin, Heyu; Lin, Lu; Zeng, Xiangqun; Mason, Andrew J

    2018-02-01

    The growing impact of airborne pollutants and explosive gases on human health and occupational safety has escalated the demand of sensors to monitor hazardous gases. This paper presents a new miniaturized planar electrochemical gas sensor for rapid measurement of multiple gaseous hazards. The gas sensor features a porous polytetrafluoroethylene substrate that enables fast gas diffusion and room temperature ionic liquid as the electrolyte. Metal sputtering was utilized for platinum electrodes fabrication to enhance adhesion between the electrodes and the substrate. Together with carefully selected electrochemical methods, the miniaturized gas sensor is capable of measuring multiple gases including oxygen, methane, ozone and sulfur dioxide that are important to human health and safety. Compared to its manually-assembled Clark-cell predecessor, this sensor provides better sensitivity, linearity and repeatability, as validated for oxygen monitoring. With solid performance, fast response and miniaturized size, this sensor is promising for deployment in wearable devices for real-time point-of-exposure gas pollutant monitoring.

  16. Reduced Arctic air pollution due to decreasing European and North American emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Anna R.; Palmer, Paul I.; Barlow, James M.; Finch, Douglas P.; Novelli, Paul; Jaeglé, Lyatt

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric transport of midlatitude pollutant emissions to the Arctic can result in disproportionate impacts on the receptor region. We use carbon monoxide (CO), a tracer of incomplete combustion, to study changes in pollutant transport to the Arctic. Using a wavelet transform, we spectrally decompose CO mole fraction measurements from three Arctic sites (Alert, Barrow, and Zeppelin) collected by NOAA over the past 20-25 years. We show that CO concentrations have decreased by -1.0 to -1.2 ppb/yr. We find that the dampened seasonal cycle (-1.2 to -2.3 ppb/yr) is mostly due to a reduction in peak concentrations (-1.5 to -2.4 ppb/yr), which we attribute to reduced source emissions. We find no evidence to support a persistent increase in hydroxyl radical concentration. Using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model, we show that observed decreases are consistent with reductions in fossil fuel usage from Europe and North America.

  17. Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John

    2012-12-01

    1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects.2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the 'trespass' of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting.3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards 'whiter' light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths.4.Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse

  18. Outdoor air pollution, genetic susceptibility, and asthma management: opportunities for intervention to reduce the burden of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Frank D

    2009-03-01

    Outdoor air pollution at levels occurring in many urban areas around the world has substantial adverse effects on health. Children in general, and children with asthma in particular, are sensitive to the adverse effects of outdoor air pollutants, including ozone, nitrogen oxides, and respirable particulate matter. A growing number of studies also show that children living in environments near traffic have increased risks of new-onset asthma, asthma symptoms, exacerbations, school absences, and asthma-related hospitalizations. The large population of children exposed to high levels of outdoor air pollutants and the substantial risks for adverse health effects present unexploited opportunities to reduce the burden of asthma. Because the evidence indicates significant adverse effects of air pollution at current levels, there is clearly a need to reduce levels of regulated pollutants such as ozone, as well as unregulated pollutants in tailpipe emissions from motor vehicles. Achieving this long-term goal requires the active involvement of physicians and medical providers to ensure that the health of children is at the top of the list of competing priorities for regulatory policy decision-making. Clinical approaches include treatment to control asthma and patient education to reduce adverse effects of the disease. Reduction in exposures also can be approached at a policy level through changes in schools and school bus operations. Beyond clinical and public health approaches to reduce exposure, another strategy to be used before clean air goals are met is to decrease the susceptibility of children to air pollution. Emerging research indicates that dietary supplementation for individuals with low antioxidant levels is one promising approach to reducing susceptibility to air pollution. A second approach involves induction of enzymatic antioxidant defenses, especially for individuals with at-risk genetic variants of key antioxidant enzymes.

  19. Outdoor air pollution as a possible modifiable risk factor to reduce mortality in post-stroke population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Desikan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor air pollution is a known risk factor for mortality and morbidity. The type of air pollutant most reliably associated with disease is particulate matter (PM, especially finer particulate matter that can reach deeper into the lungs like PM2.5 (particulate matter diameter < 2.5 μm. Some subpopulations may be particularly vulnerable to PM pollution. This review focuses on one subgroup, long-term stroke survivors, and the emerging evidence suggesting that survivors of a stroke may be at a higher risk from the deleterious effects of PM pollution. While the mechanisms for mortality are still under debate, long-term stroke survivors may be vulnerable to similar mechanisms that underlie the well-established association between PM pollution and cardiovascular disease. The fact that long-term stroke survivors of ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, strokes appear to be more vulnerable to the risk of death from higher PM pollution may also bolster the connection to ischemic heart disease. Survivors of an ischemic stroke may be more vulnerable to dying from higher concentrations of PM pollution than the general population. The clinical implications of this association suggest that reduced exposure to PM pollution may result in fewer deaths amongst stroke survivors.

  20. Reducing the need for surgeons by reducing pollution-derived workload: is there a role for surgeons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Jamsheer J; Agha, Riaz; Agha, Maliha; Rosin, Richard David

    2011-01-01

    The need for additional surgical workforce personnel is likely to increase dramatically at a rate beyond our capacity to train them. As surgical training programmes cannot be rapidly expanded, this paper explores an alternative solution to the quandary, a reduction of the disease burden by a war on pollution. Highlighting the role of pollutants in increasing the surgical workload, it identifies potential roles for surgeons in the battle against pollution and draws attention to the need to research out agents which could protect humans against their carcinogenic effects. Copyright © 2011 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Szabolcs Péter; Fernando Holguin; Lisa G. Wood; Jane E. Clougherty; Daniel Raederstorff; Magda Antal; Peter Weber; Manfred Eggersdorfer

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors?including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)?as well as l...

  2. Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraoui, Fayçal; Grizzetti, Bruna

    2014-01-15

    Agriculture is responsible for large scale water quality degradation and is estimated to contribute around 55% of the nitrogen entering the European Seas. The key policy instrument for protecting inland, transitional and coastal water resources is the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Reducing nutrient losses from agriculture is crucial to the successful implementation of the WFD. There are several mitigation measures that can be implemented to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural areas to surface and ground waters. For the selection of appropriate measures, models are useful for quantifying the expected impacts and the associated costs. In this article we review some of the models used in Europe to assess the effectiveness of nitrogen mitigation measures, ranging from fertilizer management to the construction of riparian areas and wetlands. We highlight how the complexity of models is correlated with the type of scenarios that can be tested, with conceptual models mostly used to evaluate the impact of reduced fertilizer application, and the physically-based models used to evaluate the timing and location of mitigation options and the response times. We underline the importance of considering the lag time between the implementation of measures and effects on water quality. Models can be effective tools for targeting mitigation measures (identifying critical areas and timing), for evaluating their cost effectiveness, for taking into consideration pollution swapping and considering potential trade-offs in contrasting environmental objectives. Models are also useful for involving stakeholders during the development of catchments mitigation plans, increasing their acceptability. © 2013.

  3. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D; Butz, Arlene M; Hackstadt, Amber J; Williams, D'Ann L; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2015-02-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area.

  4. Evaluation of policy measures and methods to reduce diffuse water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Ute; Doehler, Helmut; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Goemann, Horst; Jaeger, Peter; Kreins, Peter; Moeller, Christine; Prigge, Achim; Ristenpart, Erik; Schultheiss, Ute

    2006-11-15

    After considerable improvements of wastewater treatment, the loads of nutrients and plant protection agents, deriving from agriculture and heavy metals from urban drainages effluents as well as from erosion of agricultural soils are the main sources of nutrients and harmful substances in the loads of water bodies. The targets of the project were on the one hand the analysis of the political and legislative framework of both policy fields and on the other hand the evaluation of several, selected water protection measures with regard to their contribution to reduce water pollution, their economical effects as well as their political enforceability. The focus was laid on diffuse water pollution caused by agriculture. As main reasons for the diffuse water pollution stagnating at high level, the analysis of the political framework identified a lack of implementation discipline of water law, followed by the fragmented and insufficient water protection legislation itself and the previous design of the common agricultural policy slanted towards increasing productivity. For the future co-operation of agricultural and water authorities in implementation of their reforms and better definition of 'Good Farming Practice' are recommended. The second investigation level focuses on the analysis and assessment of selected measures to reduce the input of nutrients and plant protection agents. This part was done with help of calculation models focussing on the specific cost/benefit ratios for water protection. In detail the following measures have been analysed: decoupling of direct payments, coupling of livestock farming to areas, tax on mineral nitrogen, pesticide levy, buffer stripes alongside of watercourses, all season crop cover on arable land, soil cultivation procedures, changing the use of arable land, optimisation of animal nutrition, optimisation of manure storage and application, co-operative agreements, education and training. Co-operations and water protection

  5. [Temperature that modifies the effect of air pollution on emergency room visits for circulatory and respiratory diseases in Beijing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L L; Zhang, Q; Bai, R H; Mi, B B; Yan, H

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To analyze the temperature modification effect on emergency room visits for circulatory and respiratory diseases caused by air pollution, in Beijing. Methods: Data on both circulatory and respiratory diseases in 2010 and 2011 were collected, Both meteorological and air pollutants related data were obtained from the National Scientific Data Sharing Platform for Population and Health. By using the stratified time-series models, we analyzed the effects of air pollution on emergency room visits for circulatory and respiratory diseases under different temperature zones, from 2010 to 2011, in Beijing. Results: Low temperature (daily average temperatureeffect of air pollution index (API) on emergency room visits for circulatory diseases, Under 10 units of API, the relative risks and confidence interval appeared as 1.067 (1.054-1.080). However, high (daily average temperature between 24.4 ℃ and 28.5 ℃) and extra-high temperature (daily average temperature >28.5 ℃) could enhance the effect of API on emergency room visits for respiratory diseases, Under 10 units of API, the relative risks and confidence interval were 1.021 (1.015-1.028) and 1.006 (1.003-1.008), respectively. Conclusion: Temperature seemed to have modified the association between air pollution and both circulatory and respiratory diseases.

  6. High-temperature radiation-induced removal of gaseous air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Rojas, I.; Thomson, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the use of high-temperature electron beam irradiation to simultaneous remove aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling with validated mechanisms predicts that electron beam irradiation will simultaneously reduce NO with the thermal De-NO x process and oxidize benzene or ethyl chloride over a wide temperature range. Electron beam dosage of 2-10 kGy more than double the width of the temperature window over which the thermal De-NO x process is effective. At these dosages, the benzene and ethyl chloride removal efficiencies can exceed 90% within this temperature window. (author)

  7. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  8. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2017-11-07

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  9. Prenatal exposure to traffic pollution: associations with reduced fetal growth and rapid infant weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal air pollution exposure inhibits fetal growth, but implications for postnatal growth are unknown. We assessed weights and lengths of US infants in the Project Viva cohort at birth and 6 months. We estimated 3rd-trimester residential air pollution exposures using spatiotemporal models. We estimated neighborhood traffic density and roadway proximity at birth address using geographic information systems. We performed linear and logistic regression adjusted for sociodemographic variables, fetal growth, and gestational age at birth. Mean birth weight-for-gestational age z-score (fetal growth) was 0.17 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.97; n = 2,114), 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain was 0.23 z-units (SD = 1.11; n = 689), and 17% had weight-for-length ≥95th percentile at 6 months of age. Infants exposed to the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of neighborhood traffic density had lower fetal growth (-0.13 units [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.25 to -0.01]), more rapid 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain (0.25 units [95% CI = 0.01 to 0.49]), and higher odds of weight-for-length ≥95th percentile at 6 months (1.84 [95% CI = 1.11 to 3.05]). Neighborhood traffic density was additionally associated with an infant being in both the lowest quartile of fetal growth and the highest quartile of 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain (Q4 vs. Q1, odds ratio = 3.01 [95% CI = 1.08 to 8.44]). Roadway proximity and 3rd-trimester black carbon exposure were similarly associated with growth outcomes. For 3rd-trimester particulate matter (PM2.5), effect estimates were in the same direction, but smaller and imprecise. Infants exposed to higher traffic-related pollution in early life may exhibit more rapid postnatal weight gain in addition to reduced fetal growth.

  10. The impact of European legislative and technology measures to reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnock, S T; Butt, E W; Richardson, T B; Mann, G W; Reddington, C L; Forster, P M; Carslaw, K S; Spracklen, D V; Haywood, J; Johnson, C E; Crippa, M; Janssens-Maenhout, G; Bellouin, N

    2016-01-01

    European air quality legislation has reduced emissions of air pollutants across Europe since the 1970s, affecting air quality, human health and regional climate. We used a coupled composition-climate model to simulate the impacts of European air quality legislation and technology measures implemented between 1970 and 2010. We contrast simulations using two emission scenarios; one with actual emissions in 2010 and the other with emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of technological improvements and end-of-pipe treatment measures in the energy, industrial and road transport sectors. European emissions of sulphur dioxide, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in 2010 are 53%, 59% and 32% lower respectively compared to emissions that would have occurred in 2010 in the absence of legislative and technology measures. These emission reductions decreased simulated European annual mean concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) by 35%, sulphate by 44%, BC by 56% and particulate organic matter by 23%. The reduction in PM 2.5 concentrations is calculated to have prevented 80 000 (37 000–116 000, at 95% confidence intervals) premature deaths annually across the European Union, resulting in a perceived financial benefit to society of US$232 billion annually (1.4% of 2010 EU GDP). The reduction in aerosol concentrations due to legislative and technology measures caused a positive change in the aerosol radiative effect at the top of atmosphere, reduced atmospheric absorption and also increased the amount of solar radiation incident at the surface over Europe. We used an energy budget approximation to estimate that these changes in the radiative balance have increased European annual mean surface temperatures and precipitation by 0.45 ± 0.11 °C and by 13 ± 0.8 mm yr −1 respectively. Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants has improved air quality

  11. International food trade reduces environmental effects of nitrogen pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaxing; Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Shenglu; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The globalization of agricultural trade has dramatically altered global nitrogen flows by changing the spatial pattern of nitrogen utilization and emissions at a global scale. As a major trading country, China uses a large amount of nitrogen, which has a profound impact on global nitrogen flows. Using data on food production and trade between China and 26 other countries and regions, we calculated nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production ecosystem in each country. We estimated nitrogen flows in international food trade and analyzed their impact on nitrogen pollution in China. We divided nitrogen flows into embodied and virtual nitrogen flows. Embodied nitrogen is taken up by the plant and incorporated into the final food product, whereas virtual nitrogen is lost to the environment throughout the food production process and is not contained in the final food product. Our results show that China mainly imports food products from America and Asia, accounting for 95 % of all imported food. Asia (mainly Japan) and Europe are the main exporters of food from China, with Japan and the EU accounting for 17 and 10 % of all exported food, respectively. Total nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production in China were 55,400 and 61,000 Gg respectively, which were much higher than in other countries. About 1440 and 950 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow into China through the food trade, mainly from food-exporting countries such as the USA, Argentina, and Brazil. Meanwhile, 177 and 160 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow out of China from the export of food products, mainly to Japan. China's net food imports have reduced 720 and 458 Gg for nitrogen utilization and outputs, respectively, which accounted for 1.3 and 0.78 % of total nitrogen inputs and outputs in China. These results suggest that food trade in China has a profound effect on nitrogen flows and has greatly reduced environmental impacts on nitrogen pollution in China.

  12. Effect of inlet temperature on the performance of a catalytic reactor. [air pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    A 12 cm diameter by 15 cm long catalytic reactor was tested with No. 2 diesel fuel in a combustion test rig at inlet temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 K. Other test conditions included pressures of 3 and 6 x 10 to the 5th power Pa, reference velocities of 10, 15, and 20 m/s, and adiabatic combustion temperatures in the range 1100 to 1400 K. The combustion efficiency was calculated from measurements of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Nitrogen oxide emissions and reactor pressure drop were also measured. At a reference velocity of 10 m/s, the CO and unburned hydrocarbons emissions, and, therefore, the combustion efficiency, were independent of inlet temperature. At an inlet temperature of 1000 K, they were independent of reference velocity. Nitrogen oxides emissions resulted from conversion of the small amount (135 ppm) of fuel-bound nitrogen in the fuel. Up to 90 percent conversion was observed with no apparent effect of any of the test variables. For typical gas turbine operating conditions, all three pollutants were below levels which would permit the most stringent proposed automotive emissions standards to be met.

  13. Temperature extremes reduce seagrass growth and induce mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, C.J.; Waycott, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Temperature extremes occur during low tide in shallow seagrass meadows. • The effects of temperature extremes were tested experimentally at 35 °C, 40 °C and 43 °C. • 40 °C was a critical threshold with a large impact on growth and mortality. • At 43 °C there was complete mortality after 2–3 days. • Lower light conditions (e.g. poor water quality) led to a greater negative impact. - Abstract: Extreme heating (up to 43 °C measured from five-year temperature records) occurs in shallow coastal seagrass meadows of the Great Barrier Reef at low tide. We measured effective quantum yield (ϕ PSII ), growth, senescence and mortality in four tropical seagrasses to experimental short-duration (2.5 h) spikes in water temperature to 35 °C, 40 °C and 43 °C, for 6 days followed by one day at ambient temperature. Increasing temperature to 35 °C had positive effects on ϕ PSII (the magnitude varied between days and was highly correlated with PPFD), with no effects on growth or mortality. 40 °C represented a critical threshold as there were strong species differences and there was a large impact on growth and mortality. At 43 °C there was complete mortality after 2–3 days. These findings indicate that increasing duration (more days in a row) of thermal events above 40 °C is likely to affect the ecological function of tropical seagrass meadows

  14. Cross-ecosystem impacts of stream pollution reduce resource and contaminant flux to riparian food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Walters, David; Wanty, Richard B.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Wolf, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aquatic contaminants are propagated across ecosystem boundaries by aquatic insects that export resources and contaminants to terrestrial food webs; however, the mechanisms driving these effects are poorly understood. We examined how emergence, contaminant concentration, and total contaminant flux by adult aquatic insects changed over a gradient of bioavailable metals in streams and how these changes affected riparian web-building spiders. Insect emergence decreased 97% over the metal gradient, whereas metal concentrations in adult insects changed relatively little. As a result, total metal exported by insects (flux) was lowest at the most contaminated streams, declining 96% among sites. Spiders were affected by the decrease in prey biomass, but not by metal exposure or metal flux to land in aquatic prey. Aquatic insects are increasingly thought to increase exposure of terrestrial consumers to aquatic contaminants, but stream metals reduce contaminant flux to riparian consumers by strongly impacting the resource linkage. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the contaminant-specific effects of aquatic pollutants on adult insect emergence and contaminant accumulation in adults to predict impacts on terrestrial food webs.

  15. Biogas Stoves Reduce Firewood Use, Household Air Pollution, and Hospital Visits in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jessica J; Hollingsworth, John W; Chartier, Ryan T; Cooper, Ellen M; Foster, William Michael; Gomes, Genna L; Kussin, Peter S; MacInnis, John J; Padhi, Bijaya K; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Rodes, Charles E; Ryde, Ian T; Singha, Ashok K; Stapleton, Heather M; Thornburg, Jonathan; Young, Cora J; Meyer, Joel N; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K

    2017-01-03

    Traditional cooking using biomass is associated with ill health, local environmental degradation, and regional climate change. Clean stoves (liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), biogas, and electric) are heralded as a solution, but few studies have demonstrated their environmental health benefits in field settings. We analyzed the impact of mainly biogas (as well as electric and LPG) stove use on social, environmental, and health outcomes in two districts in Odisha, India, where the Indian government has promoted household biogas. We established a cross-sectional observational cohort of 105 households that use either traditional mud stoves or improved cookstoves (ICS). Our multidisciplinary team conducted surveys, environmental air sampling, fuel weighing, and health measurements. We examined associations between traditional or improved stove use and primary outcomes, stratifying households by proximity to major industrial plants. ICS use was associated with 91% reduced use of firewood (p biogas stoves in a context in which traditional stove use persists, although pollution levels in ICS households still remained above WHO guidelines.

  16. The role of wastewater treatment in reducing pollution of surface waters with zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromadzka, Karolina; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Świetlik, Joanna; Bocianowski, Jan; Goliński, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species in food and feed. The toxicity of ZEA and its metabolites is related to the chemical structure of the mycotoxin, which is similar to naturally occurring oestrogens. Currently, there is increasing awareness of the presence of fungi and their toxic metabolites in the aquatic environment. One of the sources of these compounds are the effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The average annual efficiency of zearalenone reduction in the Łęczyca plant in our three-year study was in the range from 51.35 to 69.70 %. The threeway analysis of variance (year, month, and kind of wastewater) shows that the main effects of all factors and all interactions between them were significant for zearalenone and dissolved organic carbon content. Our findings suggest that wastewater is not the main source of surface water pollution with zearalenone. Future research should investigate the means to reduce ZEA and its migration from the fields through prevention strategies such as breeding for crops, plant debris management (crop rotation, tillage), and/or chemical and biological control.

  17. Temperature fluctuation reducing device for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Fumio; Shiratori, Fumihiro.

    1991-01-01

    In existent FBR type reactors, since temperature fluctuation in the reactor upper portion has been inevitable, thermal fatigue may be caused possibly in reactor core upper mechanisms. Then, a valve is disposed to a control rod lower guide tube contained in a reactor container for automatically controlling the amount of passing coolants in accordance with the temperature of the passing coolants, to mix and control coolants passing through a fuel assembly in adjacent with the guide tube and coolants passing through the guide tube. Further, a rectification cylinder is disposed, in which a portion of coolants passing through the fuel assembly is caused to flow. An orifice is disposed to the cylinder with an exit being disposed to the upstream thereof such that the coolants not flown into the rectification cylinder and the coolants passing through the guide tube are mixed to moderate the temperature fluctuation. That is, a portion of the coolants flown into the rectification cylinder can not pass through the orifice, but flow backwardly to the upstream and is discharged out of the rectification cylinder from the coolants exit and mixed sufficiently with coolants passing through the guide tube. In this way, temperature fluctuation can be moderated. (N.H.)

  18. Food additives reducing volatility of antioxidants at frying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    At frying temperature, antioxidants are lost not only by reaction with radicals formed by oil oxidation, but also by decomposition and evaporation before they are able to exert antioxidant activity. In this study it was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant coul...

  19. Temperature extremes reduce seagrass growth and induce mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, C J; Waycott, M

    2014-06-30

    Extreme heating (up to 43 °C measured from five-year temperature records) occurs in shallow coastal seagrass meadows of the Great Barrier Reef at low tide. We measured effective quantum yield (ϕPSII), growth, senescence and mortality in four tropical seagrasses to experimental short-duration (2.5h) spikes in water temperature to 35 °C, 40 °C and 43 °C, for 6 days followed by one day at ambient temperature. Increasing temperature to 35 °C had positive effects on ϕPSII (the magnitude varied between days and was highly correlated with PPFD), with no effects on growth or mortality. 40 °C represented a critical threshold as there were strong species differences and there was a large impact on growth and mortality. At 43 °C there was complete mortality after 2-3 days. These findings indicate that increasing duration (more days in a row) of thermal events above 40 °C is likely to affect the ecological function of tropical seagrass meadows. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing Selected Behaviors to Reduce Indoor Air Pollution Exposure in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, B. R.; Mathee, A.; Krieger, L.; Shafritz, L.; Favin, M.; Sherburne, L.

    2004-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is responsible for the deaths and illness of millions of young children in developing countries. This study investigated the acceptability (willingness to try) and feasibility (ability to perform) of four indoor air pollution reduction behaviors (improve stove maintenance practices, child location practices, ventilation…

  1. A review of vegetated buffers and a meta-analysis of their mitigation efficacy in reducing nonpoint source pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Liu, Xingmei; Zhang, Minghua; Dahlgren, Randy A; Eitzel, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetated buffers are a well-studied and widely used agricultural management practice for reducing nonpoint-source pollution. A wealth of literature provides experimental data on their mitigation efficacy. This paper aggregated many of these results and performed a meta-analysis to quantify the relationships between pollutant removal efficacy and buffer width, buffer slope, soil type, and vegetation type. Theoretical models for removal efficacy (Y) vs. buffer width (w) were derived and tested against data from the surveyed literature using statistical analyses. A model of the form Y = K x (1-e(-bxw)), (0 pollutant removal, where K reflects the maximum removal efficacy of the buffer and b reflects its probability to remove any single particle of pollutant in a unit distance. Buffer width alone explains 37, 60, 44, and 35% of the total variance in removal efficacy for sediment, pesticides, N, and P, respectively. Buffer slope was linearly associated with sediment removal efficacy either positively (when slope 10%). Buffers composed of trees have higher N and P removal efficacy than buffers composed of grasses or mixtures of grasses and trees. Soil drainage type did not show a significant effect on pollutant removal efficacy. Based on our analysis, a 30-m buffer under favorable slope conditions (approximately 10%) removes more than 85% of all the studied pollutants. These models predicting optimal buffer width/slope can be instrumental in the design, implementation, and modeling of vegetated buffers for treating agricultural runoff.

  2. How Have Political Incentives for Local Officials Reduced Environmental Pollution in Resource-Depleted Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese resource-exhausted cities face more severe environmental pollution problems than other cities. In addressing these problems, the way local officials (usually senior party and government leaders operate is very important, as their focus on political achievements may complicate how they manage environmental pollution in these cities. On the one hand, the traditional Gross Domestic Product-based quest for political achievement may lead top leaders to de-emphasize environmental pollution. On the other hand, changes made in 2003 to the way the performance of Chinese officials is evaluated have encouraged some local senior party and government leaders to pay more attention to environmental problems. Based on this, we analyze the relationship between political incentives and environmental pollution by applying the 2004–2014 panel data from 37 resource-exhausted cities. The findings reveal that firstly, among the factors which impact the environmental pollution of resource-exhausted cities, investment in fixed assets, foreign direct investment, industrial structure, per-capita education expenditure, and population density do not have a significant impact, thus indicating that local openness levels, the degree of industrial upgrading, and local investment in fixed assets are not the key variables in environmental pollution control. Secondly, the extent to which officials vie for political achievement affects environmental pollution in resource-exhausted cities. This depends upon whether the officials are municipal party secretaries or mayors; the former play a greater dynamic role in environmental pollution and have stronger robustness than the latter. The conclusion verifies both the existing authority structure of China and its effectiveness in the control of environmental pollution of resource-exhausted cities. That is to say, in contrast to the principles of the party committees, the mayors are in a subordinate position and often fail to

  3. The influence of atmospheric circulation on the air pollution concentration and temperature inversion in Sosnowiec. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widawski Artur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sosnowiec is located in the Katowice Region, which is the most urbanized and industrialized region in Poland. Urban areas of such character favor enhancement of pollution concentration in the atmosphere and the consequent emergence of smog. Local meteorological and circulation conditions significantly influence not only on the air pollution level but also change air temperature considerably in their centers and immediate vicinities. The synoptic situation also plays the major role in dispersal and concentration of air pollutants and changes in temperature profile. One of the most important are the near-ground (100 m inversions of temperature revealed their highest values on clear winter days and sometimes stay still for the whole day and night. Air temperature inversions in Sosnowiec occur mainly during anticyclone stagnation (Ca-anticyclone centre and Ka-anticyclonic ridge and in anticyclones with air advection from the south and southwest (Sa and SWa which cause significantly increase of air pollution values. The detailed evaluation of the influence of circulation types on the appearance of a particular concentration of pollutants carried out in this work has confirmed the predominant influence of individual circulation types on the development of air pollution levels at the Katowice region. This paper presents research case study results of the thermal structure of the near-ground atmospheric layer (100 m and air pollution parameters (PM10, SO2, NO, NO2 changes in selected days of 2005 year according to regional synoptic circulation types. The changes in urban environment must be taken into account in analyses of multiyear trends of air temperature and air conditions on the regional and global scales.

  4. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC OPEN MOLDING PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce styrene emissions, such as new materials, and application equipment, are commercially available to the operators of open molding processes. However, information is lacking on the emissions reduction that these options can achieve. To me...

  5. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Rosen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Results: Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02. Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02. Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Conclusions: Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure.

  6. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Laura J; Myers, Vicki; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Kott, Jeff

    2015-12-18

    Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM). We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02). Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02). Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM) in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure.

  7. Glacial ocean circulation and stratification explained by reduced atmospheric temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Malte F

    2017-01-03

    Earth's climate has undergone dramatic shifts between glacial and interglacial time periods, with high-latitude temperature changes on the order of 5-10 °C. These climatic shifts have been associated with major rearrangements in the deep ocean circulation and stratification, which have likely played an important role in the observed atmospheric carbon dioxide swings by affecting the partitioning of carbon between the atmosphere and the ocean. The mechanisms by which the deep ocean circulation changed, however, are still unclear and represent a major challenge to our understanding of glacial climates. This study shows that various inferred changes in the deep ocean circulation and stratification between glacial and interglacial climates can be interpreted as a direct consequence of atmospheric temperature differences. Colder atmospheric temperatures lead to increased sea ice cover and formation rate around Antarctica. The associated enhanced brine rejection leads to a strongly increased deep ocean stratification, consistent with high abyssal salinities inferred for the last glacial maximum. The increased stratification goes together with a weakening and shoaling of the interhemispheric overturning circulation, again consistent with proxy evidence for the last glacial. The shallower interhemispheric overturning circulation makes room for slowly moving water of Antarctic origin, which explains the observed middepth radiocarbon age maximum and may play an important role in ocean carbon storage.

  8. A multipurpose pollution-free high temperature heat supply system for 21st century service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    In the 21st century, increasing environmental concerns, together with decreasing fossil fuel resources, will result in a gradual transition in the power industry to the use of nuclear energy on a global scale. The demand for energy to meet growing populations and the needs of industry, transportation, and the heating market, will be based on the increasing use of electricity and hydrogen, these being produced, first by fission and later by fusion reactors. The realization of this scenario will be the deployment of a high temperature reactor (HTR), which together with a heat transport loop constitutes a nuclear heat source (NHS). The initial large-scale use of the NHS will likely be for nuclear process heat, namely the fossil-free production of hydrogen by thermochemical water splitting. The same NHS will also be used for the high efficiency generation of electricity using an indirect cycle helium gas turbine. An important stepping stone towards this goal will be the operation of a high temperature test reactor (HTTR) currently under construction in Japan. This will pave the way for introduction of the HTR for hydrogen production and electricity generation around the year 2020. This paper puts into perspective technological aspects of a futuristic, pollution free, high temperature nuclear heat source

  9. LED lighting increases the ecological impact of light pollution irrespective of color temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, S M; Bader, M K-F

    Recognition of the extent and magnitude of night-time light pollution impacts on natural ecosystems is increasing, with pervasive effects observed in both nocturnal and diurnal species. Municipal and industrial lighting is on the cusp of a step change where energy-efficient lighting technology is driving a shift from “yellow” high-pressure sodium vapor lamps (HPS) to new “white” light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We hypothesized that white LEDs would be more attractive and thus have greater ecological impacts than HPS due to the peak UV-green-blue visual sensitivity of nocturnal invertebrates. Our results support this hypothesis; on average LED light traps captured 48% more insects than were captured with light traps fitted with HPS lamps, and this effect was dependent on air temperature (significant light × air temperature interaction). We found no evidence that manipulating the color temperature of white LEDs would minimize the ecological impacts of the adoption of white LED lights. As such, large-scale adoption of energy-efficient white LED lighting for municipal and industrial use may exacerbate ecological impacts and potentially amplify phytosanitary pest infestations. Our findings highlight the urgent need for collaborative research between ecologists and electrical engineers to ensure that future developments in LED technology minimize their potential ecological effects.

  10. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions. PMID:26690474

  11. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-10

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  12. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Péter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  13. Opposing effects of particle pollution, ozone, and ambient temperature on arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Barbara; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Cohen, Allison; Zanobetti, Antonella; de Souza, Celine; Foley, Christopher; Suh, Helen H; Coull, Brent A; Schwartz, Joel; Mittleman, Murray; Stone, Peter; Horton, Edward; Gold, Diane R

    2012-02-01

    Diabetes increases the risk of hypertension and orthostatic hypotension and raises the risk of cardiovascular death during heat waves and high pollution episodes. We examined whether short-term exposures to air pollution (fine particles, ozone) and heat resulted in perturbation of arterial blood pressure (BP) in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a panel study in 70 subjects with T2DM, measuring BP by automated oscillometric sphygmomanometer and pulse wave analysis every 2 weeks on up to five occasions (355 repeated measures). Hourly central site measurements of fine particles, ozone, and meteorology were conducted. We applied linear mixed models with random participant intercepts to investigate the association of fine particles, ozone, and ambient temperature with systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP in a multipollutant model, controlling for season, meteorological variables, and subject characteristics. An interquartile increase in ambient fine particle mass [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)] and in the traffic component black carbon in the previous 5 days (3.54 and 0.25 μg/m3, respectively) predicted increases of 1.4 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0, 2.9 mmHg] and 2.2 mmHg (95% CI: 0.4, 4.0 mmHg) in systolic BP (SBP) at the population geometric mean, respectively. In contrast, an interquartile increase in the 5-day mean of ozone (13.3 ppb) was associated with a 5.2 mmHg (95% CI: -8.6, -1.8 mmHg) decrease in SBP. Higher temperatures were associated with a marginal decrease in BP. In subjects with T2DM, PM was associated with increased BP, and ozone was associated with decreased BP. These effects may be clinically important in patients with already compromised autoregulatory function.

  14. Effect modification of the association between temperature variability and daily cardiovascular mortality by air pollutants in three Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kai; Li, Runkui; Wang, Zongshuang; Zhang, Ruiming; Xu, Qun

    2017-11-01

    There is limited evidence showing the mortality effects of temperature variability (TV) on cardiovascular diseases. The joint effects between TV and air pollutants are also less well-established. This study aims to assess the effect modification of TV-cardiovascular mortality by air pollutants in three Chinese cities (Beijing, Nanjing and Chengdu). Data of daily mortality, air pollutants and meteorological factors from 2008 to 2011 was collected from each city. TV was calculated as the standard deviation of daily maximum and minimum temperatures over exposure days. The city-specific effect estimates of TV on cardiovascular mortality were calculated using a quasi-Poisson regression model, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., seasonality and temperature). An interaction term of TV and a three-level air pollutants stratum indicator was included in the models. Effect modifications by air pollutants were assessed by comparing the estimates of TV's effect between pollutant stratums and calculating the corresponding 95% confidential interval of the differences. Multivariate meta-analysis was conducted to obtain the pooled estimates. The data showed that TV was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, especially for longer TV exposure days (0-8 days, TV08). This association was still observed after adjusting for air pollutants on current day or the previous two days. Stronger estimates were observed in females, but no significant difference between males and females was detected, indicating the absence of evidence of effect modification by gender. Estimates of TV-cardiovascular mortality varied across two season periods (warm and cool season) and age groups, but the evidence of effect modification by age and seasons was absent. Regarding the effect modification of TV-cardiovascular mortality association by air pollutants, a significant effect modification was identified for PM 10, but not for NO 2 and SO 2 in the whole population for all TV

  15. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang*

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Bin; Wang, Guang-huo; Van den berg, Marrit; Roetter, Reimund

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China’s Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This approach allows assessing the impact of technology on pollution, is forward looking, and can yield information on the potential of on-the-shelf technology and provide opportunities for technology de...

  16. A numerical study of diurnally varying surface temperature on flow patterns and pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zijing; Dong, Jingliang; Xiao, Yimin; Tu, Jiyuan

    2015-03-01

    The impacts of the diurnal variation of surface temperature on street canyon flow pattern and pollutant dispersion are investigated based on a two-dimensional street canyon model under different thermal stratifications. Uneven distributed street temperature conditions and a user-defined wall function representing the heat transfer between the air and the street canyon are integrated into the current numerical model. The prediction accuracy of this model is successfully validated against a published wind tunnel experiment. Then, a series of numerical simulations representing four time scenarios (Morning, Afternoon, Noon and Night) are performed at different Bulk Richardson number (Rb). The results demonstrate that uneven distributed street temperature conditions significantly alters street canyon flow structure and pollutant dispersion characteristics compared with conventional uniform street temperature assumption, especially for the morning event. Moreover, air flow patterns and pollutant dispersion are greatly influenced by diurnal variation of surface temperature under unstable stratification conditions. Furthermore, the residual pollutant in near-ground-zone decreases as Rb increases in noon, afternoon and night events under all studied stability conditions.

  17. Habitat pollution and thermal regime modify molecular stress responses to elevated temperature in freshwater mussels (Anodonta anatina: Unionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falfushynska, H.; Gnatyshyna, L.; Yurchak, I.; Ivanina, A.; Stoliar, O.; Sokolova, I.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated temperature and pollution are common stressors in freshwater ecosystems. We study cellular stress response to acute warming in Anodonta anatina (Unionidae) from sites with different thermal regimes and pollution levels: a pristine area and an agriculturally polluted site with normal temperature regimes (F and A, respectively) and a polluted site with elevated temperature (N) from the cooling pond of an electrical power plant. Animals were exposed to different temperatures for 14 days and stress response markers were measured in gills, digestive gland and hemocytes. Mussels from site N and A had elevated background levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity indicating higher reliance on anaerobic metabolism for ATP production and/or redox maintenance. Exposure to 25 °C and 30 °C induced oxidative stress (indicated by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products) in digestive gland and gills of mussels from A and F sites, while in mussels from N sites elevated oxidative stress was only apparent at 30 °C. Temperature-induced changes in levels of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, metallothioneins and glutathione) were tissue- and population-specific. Acute warming led to destabilization of lysosomal membranes and increased frequencies of nuclear lesions in mussels from F and A sites but not in their counterparts from N site. Elevated temperature led to an increase in the frequency of micronuclei in hemocytes in mussels from F and A sites at 25 °C and 30 °C and in mussels from N site at 30 °C. The mussels from N site also demonstrated better survival at elevated temperature (30 °C) than their counterparts from the F and A sites. Taken together, these data indicate that long-term acclimation and/or adaptation of A. anatina to elevated temperatures result in increased thermotolerance and alleviate stress response to moderate temperature rise. In contrast, extreme warming (30 °C) is harmful to mussels from all populations indicating limit to this induced

  18. Habitat pollution and thermal regime modify molecular stress responses to elevated temperature in freshwater mussels (Anodonta anatina: Unionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falfushynska, H.; Gnatyshyna, L.; Yurchak, I. [Research Laboratory of Comparative Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ternopil National Pedagogical University, Kryvonosa Str 2, 46027 Ternopil (Ukraine); Ivanina, A. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Stoliar, O. [Research Laboratory of Comparative Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ternopil National Pedagogical University, Kryvonosa Str 2, 46027 Ternopil (Ukraine); Sokolova, I., E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Elevated temperature and pollution are common stressors in freshwater ecosystems. We study cellular stress response to acute warming in Anodonta anatina (Unionidae) from sites with different thermal regimes and pollution levels: a pristine area and an agriculturally polluted site with normal temperature regimes (F and A, respectively) and a polluted site with elevated temperature (N) from the cooling pond of an electrical power plant. Animals were exposed to different temperatures for 14 days and stress response markers were measured in gills, digestive gland and hemocytes. Mussels from site N and A had elevated background levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity indicating higher reliance on anaerobic metabolism for ATP production and/or redox maintenance. Exposure to 25 °C and 30 °C induced oxidative stress (indicated by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products) in digestive gland and gills of mussels from A and F sites, while in mussels from N sites elevated oxidative stress was only apparent at 30 °C. Temperature-induced changes in levels of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, metallothioneins and glutathione) were tissue- and population-specific. Acute warming led to destabilization of lysosomal membranes and increased frequencies of nuclear lesions in mussels from F and A sites but not in their counterparts from N site. Elevated temperature led to an increase in the frequency of micronuclei in hemocytes in mussels from F and A sites at 25 °C and 30 °C and in mussels from N site at 30 °C. The mussels from N site also demonstrated better survival at elevated temperature (30 °C) than their counterparts from the F and A sites. Taken together, these data indicate that long-term acclimation and/or adaptation of A. anatina to elevated temperatures result in increased thermotolerance and alleviate stress response to moderate temperature rise. In contrast, extreme warming (30 °C) is harmful to mussels from all populations indicating limit to this induced

  19. Elevated water temperature reduces the acute toxicity of the widely used herbicide diuron to a green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmin, Rumana; Shimasaki, Yohei; Tsuyama, Michito; Qiu, Xuchun; Khalil, Fatma; Okino, Nozomu; Yamada, Naotaka; Fukuda, Shinji; Kang, Ik-Joon; Oshima, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    In the actual environment, temperatures fluctuate drastically through season or global warming and are thought to affects risk of pollutants for aquatic biota; however, there is no report about the effect of water temperature on toxicity of widely used herbicide diuron to fresh water microalgae. The present research investigated inhibitory effect of diuron on growth and photosynthetic activity of a green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at five different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C) for 144 h of exposure. As a result, effective diuron concentrations at which a 50% decrease in algal growth occurred was increased with increasing water temperature ranging from 9.2 to 20.1 μg L(-1) for 72 h and 9.4-28.5 μg L(-1) for 144 h. The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F v/F m ratio) was significantly reduced at all temperatures by diuron exposure at 32 μg L(-1) after 72 h. Inhibition rates was significantly increased with decreased water temperature (P diuron treatment groups and were about 2.5 times higher in diuron treatment groups than that of controls (P diuron in freshwater and should therefore be considered in environmental risk assessment.

  20. Reduced one-body density matrix of Tonks–Girardeau gas at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiao-Chen; Hao Ya-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    With thermal Bose–Fermi mapping method, we investigate the Tonks–Girardeau gas at finite temperature. It is shown that at low temperature, the Tonks gas displays the Fermi-like density profiles, and with the increase in temperature, the Tonks gas distributes in wider region. The reduced one-body density matrix is diagonal dominant in the whole temperature region, and the off-diagonal elements shall vanish rapidly with the deviation from the diagonal part at high temperature. (paper)

  1. Temporal variability in Cu speciation, phytotoxicity, and soil microbial activity of Cu-polluted soils as affected by elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Long; Weng, Nanyan; Fujii, Manabu; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Global warming has obtained increasing attentions due to its multiple impacts on agro-ecosystem. However, limited efforts had been devoted to reveal the temporal variability of metal speciation and phytotoxicity of heavy metal-polluted soils affected by elevated temperature under the global warming scenario. In this study, effects of elevated temperature (15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C) on the physicochemical properties, microbial metabolic activities, and phytotoxicity of three Cu-polluted soils were investigated by a laboratory incubation study. Soil physicochemical properties were observed to be significantly altered by elevated temperature with the degree of temperature effect varying in soil types and incubation time. The Biolog and enzymatic tests demonstrated that soil microbial activities were mainly controlled and decreased with increasing incubation temperature. Moreover, plant assays confirmed that the phytotoxicity and Cu uptake by wheat roots were highly dependent on soil types but less affected by incubation temperature. Overall, the findings in this study have highlighted the importance of soil types to better understand the temperature-dependent alternation of soil properties, Cu speciation and bioavailability, as well as phytotoxicity of Cu-polluted soils under global warming scenario. The present study also suggests the necessary of investigating effects of soil types on the transport and accumulation of toxic elements in soil-crop systems under global warming scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Silicon photonics thermal phase shifter with reduced temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L; Kekatpure, Rohan D; DeRose, Christopher; Davids, Paul; Watts, Michael R

    2013-12-17

    Optical devices, phased array systems and methods of phase-shifting an input signal are provided. An optical device includes a microresonator and a waveguide for receiving an input optical signal. The waveguide includes a segment coupled to the microresonator with a coupling coefficient such that the waveguide is overcoupled to the microresonator. The microresonator received the input optical signal via the waveguide and phase-shifts the input optical signal to form an output optical signal. The output optical signal is coupled into the waveguide via the microresonator and transmitted by the waveguide. At an operating point of the optical device, the coupling coefficient is selected to reduce a change in an amplitude of the output optical signal and to increase a change in a phase of the output optical signal, relative to the input optical signal.

  3. Reducing nonpoint source pollution through collaboration: policies and programs across the U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Scott D; Koontz, Tomas M

    2008-03-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution has emerged as the largest threat to water quality in the United States, influencing policy makers and resource managers to direct more attention toward NPS prevention and remediation. In response, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) spent more than $204 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 on the Clean Water Act's Section 319 program to combat NPS pollution, much of it on the development and implementation of watershed-based plans. State governments have also increasingly allocated financial and technical resources to collaborative watershed efforts within their own borders to fight NPS pollution. With increased collaboration among the federal government, states, and citizens to combat NPS pollution, more information is needed to understand how public resources are being used, by whom, and for what, and what policy changes might improve effectiveness. Analysis from a 50-state study suggests that, in addition to the average 35% of all Section 319 funds per state that are passed on to collaborative watershed groups, 35 states have provided financial assistance beyond Section 319 funding to support collaborative watershed initiatives. State programs frequently provide technical assistance and training, in addition to financial resources, to encourage collaborative partnerships. Such assistance is typically granted in exchange for requirements to generate a watershed action plan and/or follow a mutually agreed upon work plan to address NPS pollution. Program managers indicated a need for greater fiscal resources and flexibility to achieve water quality goals.

  4. Effect of reducing indoor air pollution on women's respiratory symptoms and lung function: the RESPIRE Randomized Trial, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Díaz, Esperanza; Pope, Dan; Lie, Rolv T; Díaz, Anaite; McCracken, John; Bakke, Per; Arana, Byron; Smith, Kirk R; Bruce, Nigel

    2009-07-15

    Exposure to household wood smoke from cooking is a risk factor for chronic obstructive lung disease among women in developing countries. The Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) is a randomized intervention trial evaluating the respiratory health effects of reducing indoor air pollution from open cooking fires. A total of 504 rural Mayan women in highland Guatemala aged 15-50 years, all using traditional indoor open fires, were randomized to either receive a chimney woodstove (plancha) or continue using the open fire. Assessments of chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function and individual measurements of carbon monoxide exposure were performed at baseline and every 6 months up to 18 months. Use of a plancha significantly reduced carbon monoxide exposure by 61.6%. For all respiratory symptoms, reductions in risk were observed in the plancha group during follow-up; the reduction was statistically significant for wheeze (relative risk = 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.25, 0.70). The number of respiratory symptoms reported by the women at each follow-up point was also significantly reduced by the plancha (odds ratio = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.97). However, no significant effects on lung function were found after 12-18 months. Reducing indoor air pollution from household biomass burning may relieve symptoms consistent with chronic respiratory tract irritation.

  5. Analysis of emission charges as a method of reducing sulfur pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.G.; Chen, P.W.

    1976-06-01

    Requiring sulfur polluters to make payments which are functions of the emissions discharged (the ''polluter-pay-principle'') is a method of regulation which is an alternative but not an equivalent to the setting of sulfur-emission standards and the punishing of those who permit the emission of the facilities under their control to exceed these standards. It is shown that this approach gives greater incentives toward the rapid reduction of sulfur emissions than does the setting of standards, particularly when the charges are adjusted to represent estimates of the health and property damage resulting from the emissions. Some variations of an extension of the polluter-pay-principle are also examined.

  6. Co3O4/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for removal of organic pollutants from aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amodini; Kuanr, B. K.; Mohanty, T.

    2017-05-01

    The magnetic nanocomposite (MNC) of cobalt oxide/graphene oxide (Co3O4/rGO) has been synthesized by hydrothermal method to demonstrate its use as organic pollutants remover. The phase formation of the cobalt oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The nanocomposite has been characterized by Raman spectroscopic technique and two Raman peaks associated with graphene oxide are observed. The morphological study of the nanocomposite has been done using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The nanocomposite has been used for removal of organic pollutants from aqueous medium by using ultra-violet spectroscopy.

  7. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE EXPOSURE TO TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTION AT THE LOCAL LEVEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    As public health concerns for populations living, working and going to school near high-traffic roadways have increased, so have the need to identify and implement air pollution control strategies effective at the local level. While strategies implemented at the federal and stat...

  8. Identification of technology options for reducing nitrogen pollution in cropping systems of Pujiang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, B.; Wang, G.; Berg, van den M.M.; Roetter, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    This work analyses the potential role of nitrogen pollution technology of crop systems of Pujiang, County in Eastern China¿s Zhejiang Province, rice and vegetables are important cropping systems. We used a case study approach involving comparison of farmer practices and improved technologies. This

  9. Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermatt, Florian; Ebert, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared with populations of the same species from pristine dark-sky habitats. Using a common garden setting, we reared moths from 10 different populations from early-instar larvae and experimentally compared their flight-to-light behaviour under standardized conditions. Moths from urban populations had a significant reduction in the flight-to-light behaviour compared with pristine populations. The reduced attraction to light sources of 'city moths' may directly increase these individuals' survival and reproduction. We anticipate that it comes with a reduced mobility, which negatively affects foraging as well as colonization ability. As nocturnal insects are of eminent significance as pollinators and the primary food source of many vertebrates, an evolutionary change of the flight-to-light behaviour thereby potentially cascades across species interaction networks. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Quality Improvement Initiative to Reduce Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Noise Pollution With the Use of a Pediatric Delirium Bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yu; Weatherhead, Jeffrey R; Traube, Chani; Owens, Tonie A; Shaw, Brenda E; Fraser, Erin J; Scott, Annette M; Wojczynski, Melody R; Slaman, Kristen L; Cassidy, Patty M; Baker, Laura A; Shellhaas, Renee A; Dahmer, Mary K; Shever, Leah L; Malas, Nasuh M; Niedner, Matthew F

    2017-01-01

    Noise pollution in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) contributes to poor sleep and may increase risk of developing delirium. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends noise pollution, to develop a delirium bundle targeted at reducing noise, and to assess the effect of the bundle on nocturnal noise pollution. This is a QI initiative at an academic PICU. Thirty-five sound sensors were installed in patient bed spaces, hallways, and common areas. The pediatric delirium bundle was implemented in 8 pilot patients (40 patient ICU days) while 108 non-pilot patients received usual care over a 28-day period. A total of 20,609 hourly dB readings were collected. Hourly minimum, average, and maximum dB of all occupied bed spaces demonstrated medians [interquartile range] of 48.0 [39.0-53.0], 52.8 [48.1-56.2] and 67.0 [63.5-70.5] dB, respectively. Bed spaces were louder during the day (10AM to 4PM) than at night (11PM to 5AM) (53.5 [49.0-56.8] vs. 51.3 [46.0-55.3] dB, P noise pollution exists in our PICU, and utilizing the pediatric delirium bundle led to a significant noise reduction that can be perceived as half the loudness with hourly nighttime average dB meeting the EPA standards when compliant with the bundle.

  11. Bioleaching of heavy metal polluted sediment: influence of temperature and oxygen. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeser, C. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Lebensmittel- und Bioverfahrenstechnik, Bergstrasse 120, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zehnsdorf, A. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Umwelt- und Biotechnologisches Zentrum, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Goersch, K.; Seidel, H. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Department Bioremediation, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    A remediation process for heavy metal polluted sediment has previously been developed in which the heavy metals are removed from the sediment by solid-bed bioleaching using elemental sulfur (S{sup 0}): the added S{sup 0} is oxidized by the indigenous microbes to sulfuric acid that dissolves the heavy metals which are finally extracted by percolating water. In this process, the temperature is a factor crucially affecting the rate of S{sup 0} oxidation and metal solubilization. Here, the effect of temperature on the kinetics of S{sup 0} oxidation has been studied: oxidized Weisse Elster River sediment (dredged near Leipzig, Germany) was mixed with 2 % S{sup 0}, suspended in water and then leached at various temperatures. The higher the temperature was, the faster the S{sup 0} oxidized, and the more rapid the pH decreased. But temperatures above 35 C slowed down S{sup 0} oxidation, and temperatures above 45 C let the process - after a short period of acidification to pH 4.5 - stagnate. The latter may be explained by the presence of both neutrophilic to less acidophilic thermotolerant bacteria and acidophilic thermosensitive bacteria. Within 42 days, nearly complete S{sup 0} oxidation and maximum heavy metal solubilization only occurred at 30 to 45 C. The measured pH(t) courses were used to model the rate of S{sup 0} oxidation depending on the temperature using an extended Arrhenius equation. Since molecular oxygen is another factor highly influencing the activity of S{sup 0}-oxidizing bacteria, the effect of dissolved O{sub 2} (controlled by the O{sub 2} content in the gas supplied) on S{sup 0} oxidation was studied in suspension: the indigenous S{sup 0}-oxidizing bacteria reacted quite tolerant to low O{sub 2} concentrations; the rate of S{sup 0} oxidation - measured as the specific O{sub 2} consumption - was not affected until the O{sub 2} content of the suspension was below 0.05 mg/L, i.e., the S{sup 0}-oxidizing bacteria showed a high affinity to O{sub 2} with a

  12. Household ventilation may reduce effects of indoor air pollutants for prevention of lung cancer: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Yi Jin

    Full Text Available Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk.To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer.A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj and their 95% confidence intervals (CI.Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98, bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03, and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00. Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00, secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94, and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99. Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources.A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.

  13. Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H.; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. Objectives To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. Conclusions A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation. PMID:25019554

  14. Household ventilation may reduce effects of indoor air pollutants for prevention of lung cancer: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zi-Yi; Wu, Ming; Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.

  15. Developing risk-based priorities for reducing air pollution in urban settings in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Michael; Caldwell, Jane; Golub, Alexander

    2007-02-01

    Ukraine, when part of the former Soviet Union, was responsible for about 25% of its overall industrial production. This aging industrial infrastructure continues to emit enormous volumes of air and water pollution and wastes. The National Report on the State of Environment in Ukraine 1999 (Ukraine Ministry of Environmental Protection [MEP], 2000) shows significant air pollution. There are numerous emissions that have been associated with developmental effects, chronic long-term health effects, and cancer. Ukraine also has been identified as a major source of transboundary air pollution for the eastern Mediterranean region. Ukraine's Environment Ministry is not currently able to strategically target high-priority emissions and lacks the resources to address all these problems. For these reasons, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency set up a partnership with Ukraine's Ministry of Environmental Protection to strengthen its capacity to set environmental priorities through the use of comparative environmental risk assessment and economic analysis--the Capacity Building Project. The project is also addressing improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of the use of its National Environmental Protection Fund. The project consists of a series of workshops with Ukrainian MEP officials in comparative risk assessment of air pollutant emissions in several heavily industrialized oblasts; cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis; and environmental finance. Pilot risk assessment analyses have been completed. At the end of the Capacity Building Project it is expected that the use of the National Environmental Protection fund and the regional level oblast environmental protection funds will begin to target and identify the highest health and environmental risk emissions.

  16. Self-Policing Statutes: Do They Reduce Pollution and Save Regulatory Costs?

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Guerrero; Robert Innes

    2013-01-01

    State-level statutes provide firms that engage in environmental self-audits, and that self-report their environmental violations, a variety of regulatory rewards, including "immunity" from penalties and "privilege" for information contained in self-audits. This article studies a panel of state-level industries from 1989 through 2003, to determine the effects of the different types of statutes on toxic pollution and government inspections. We find that, by encouraging self-auditing, privilege ...

  17. The role of social marketing, marine turtles and sustainable tourism in reducing plastic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Lynne; Hamann, Mark; Low, David R

    2016-06-15

    Environmental plastic pollution constitutes a significant hazard to marine turtles, human health and well-being. We describe a transdisciplinary approach to draw together findings from diverse disciplines in order to highlight key environmental pollution problems and their consequences, together with social marketing-based strategies to address the problems. The example of plastic pollution and impacts to marine turtles illustrates the severity of the problem. Wildlife tourism and sustainable tourism activity have not focussed on specific behaviours to change and have had minimal impact on subsequent human behaviour regarding environmental issues, indicating the need for new strategies. Social marketing principles offer promise, but there is a need to investigate the utility of various theoretical foundations to aid the design and implementation of interventions. We offer insight towards using sophisticated multi-method research to develop insights into behaviours and segmentation-based strategies, that can aid the identification of barriers to, and enablers of, sustained behaviour change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Numerical Investigation of Temperature Distribution in an Eroded Bend Pipe and Prediction of Erosion Reduced Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongjun; Feng, Guang; Wang, Qijun

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of erosion thickness is essential for pipe engineering. The objective of the present paper is to study the temperature distribution in an eroded bend pipe and find a new method to predict the erosion reduced thickness. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations with FLUENT software are carried out to investigate the temperature field. And effects of oil inlet rate, oil inlet temperature, and erosion reduced thickness are examined. The presence of erosion pit brings about the obvious fluctuation of temperature drop along the extrados of bend. And the minimum temperature drop presents at the most severe erosion point. Small inlet temperature or large inlet velocity can lead to small temperature drop, while shallow erosion pit causes great temperature drop. The dimensionless minimum temperature drop is analyzed and the fitting formula is obtained. Using the formula we can calculate the erosion reduced thickness, which is only needed to monitor the outer surface temperature of bend pipe. This new method can provide useful guidance for pipeline monitoring and replacement. PMID:24719576

  19. Reduced gene expression levels after chronic exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Tulupová, Elena; Rössnerová, Andrea; Líbalová, Helena; Hoňková, Kateřina; Gmuender, H.; Pastorková, Anna; Švecová, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Šrám, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 780, oct (2015), s. 60-70 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1508; GA ČR GA13-13458S; GA MŠk 2B08005 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chronic exposure * air pollution * gene expression profiles * human health * particulate matter * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2015

  20. Thickened water-based hydraulic fluid with reduced dependence of viscosity on temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Improved hydraulic fluids or metalworking lubricants, utilizing mixtures of water, metal lubricants, metal corrosion inhibitors, and an associative polyether thickener, have reduced dependence of the viscosity on temperature achieved by the incorporation therein of an ethoxylated polyether surfactant.

  1. Effect of modern technology in improving spoil bank design and reducing environmental pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, D [Rudarski Institut, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Zavod za Pripremu Mineralnih Sirovina

    1988-01-01

    States that Yugoslav thermal power plants produce 10 Mt ash annually with only 10% being utilized as a secondary raw material, and that the environmental pollution resulting from inappropriate disposal methods is no longer acceptable. Points out that hydraulic ash transport at thermal power plants uses 20,000 m{sup 3} water per hour for 200 MW plants, and that the water dissolves heavy metal ions. Very high levels of Pb, As, and Cu ions together with sulphates were found in water released from the ash disposal sites of the Nikola Tesla and Kostolac thermal power plants where the level of suspended particles was found in spring 1985 to have risen to 4,500 mg/l against a permitted level of 30 mg/l. Recommends the use of sealing foil under ash disposal areas to prevent the contamination of ground water. The spraying of dry ash and slag waste is also recommended to prevent air pollution by dust. Slag is stated to be the more serious contaminant; typical ash to slag ratios vary from 95:5 to 80:20. With large disposal areas such as at the Kostolac or Nikola Tesla A and B power plants where 250-400 ha could be involved, a program of land reclamation and recultivation is suggested. Further recommends that outmined coalfields be used as sites for ash and slag disposal. 7 refs.

  2. Reducing NOx and SOx pollutants in an industrial units using electron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nouri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam accelerators technology has made significant progress in environmental applications in recent years. Including some environmental applications of industrial accelerators, is clearing the air from oxides of nitrogen and sulfur(NOx , SOx produced by industrial facilities. Combustion  of coal, oil, natural gas and other gases that are produced in power plant, refineries and industrial factories, produce high extent of these oxides wshich exceed the limit in most cases. Clearing by irradiation involves adding amounts of ammonia to output gases and irradiation by Electron beam accelerators. Irradiation produces radicals that interact again with  NOx , SOx  and produced the related gases. Due to the ammonia, these acids transform into ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 are precipitated by electrostatic precipitators, and are used as chemical fertilizer. Cosidering purification process of pollutant  gases by electron beam and the importance of electron accelerator in industrial plants that are polluting the environment in Iran, can be a suitable sollution for this environmental problem

  3. Sustainable, alternative farming practices as a means to simultaneously secure food production and reduce air pollution in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A. P. K.; Fung, K. M.; Yong, T.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Proper agricultural land management is essential for securing food supply and minimizing damage to the environment. Among available farming practices, relay strip intercropping and fertilizer application are commonly used, but to study their wider environmental implications and possible feedbacks we require an Earth system modeling framework. In this study, the effectiveness of a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system and fertilizer reduction is investigated using a multi-model method. The DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model is used to simulate agricultural activities and their impacts on the environment through nitrogen emissions and changes in soil chemical composition. Crop yield, soil nutrient content and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere in major agricultural regions of China are predicted under various cultivation scenarios. The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model is then used to estimate the effects on downwind particle and ozone air pollution. We show that relay strip intercropping and optimal fertilization not only improve crop productivity, but also retain soil nutrients, reduce ammonia emission and mitigate downwind air pollution. By cutting 25% fertilization inputs but cultivating maize and soybean together in a relay strip intercropping system used with field studies, total crop production was improved slightly by 4.4% compared to monoculture with conventional amount of fertilizers. NH3 volatilization decreases by 29%, equivalent to saving the pollution-induced health damage costs by about US$2.5 billion per year. The possible feedback effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition onto the croplands are also investigated. We show that careful management and better quantitative understanding of alternative farming practices hold huge potential in simultaneously addressing different global change issues including the food crisis, air pollution and climate change, and calls for greater collaboration between scientists, farmers and

  4. Air quality more extensive monitoring of particulates pollution but concentrations must be reduced by 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, M.; Colosio, J.

    2000-09-01

    Most epidemiological data point to a link between the concentrations of particles measured in the ambient air and the effects of air pollution on human health. Particulates emitted by road traffic and industry are among the most harmful; they carry serious risks. The particulate monitoring network and legislation on the issue are constantly changing. In France, the number of monitoring stations has more than doubled in recent years. EC Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 sets limit values for concentrations of particulates in ambient air to be complied with at certain given dates. In France, while the concentrations measured in urban areas with over 100 000 inhabitants are below the limit values set by the Directive for today, they are significantly higher than those to be complied with by 1 January 2005. (author)

  5. NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: 2016 projects in priority watersheds to reduce the impacts of land based sources of pollution on corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2016 the following projects will take place to work on understanding and reducing the impacts of land based sources pollution on corals: Input of Sediments and...

  6. Brachial artery responses to ambient pollution, temperature, and humidity in people with type 2 diabetes: a repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanobetti, Antonella; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Horton, Edward S; Cohen, Allison; Coull, Brent A; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schwartz, Joel D; Mittleman, Murray A; Li, Yongsheng; Stone, Peter H; de Souza, Celine; Lamparello, Brooke; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R

    2014-03-01

    Extreme weather and air pollution are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. In a population with diabetes, we conducted a novel assessment of vascular brachial artery responses both to ambient pollution and to weather (temperature and water vapor pressure, a measure of humidity). Sixty-four 49- to 85-year-old Boston residents with type 2 diabetes completed up to five study visits (279 repeated measures). Brachial artery diameter (BAD) was measured by ultrasound before and after brachial artery occlusion [i.e., flow-mediated dilation (FMD)] and before and after nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD). Ambient concentrations of fine particulate mass (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, particle number, and sulfate were measured at our monitoring site; ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone were obtained from state monitors. Particle exposure in the home and during each trip to the clinic (home/trip exposure) was measured continuously and as a 5-day integrated sample. We used linear models with fixed effects for participants, adjusting for date, season, temperature, and water vapor pressure on the day of each visit, to estimate associations between our outcomes and interquartile range increases in exposure. Baseline BAD was negatively associated with particle pollution, including home/trip-integrated BC (-0.02 mm; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.003, for a 0.28 μg/m3 increase in BC), OC (-0.08 mm; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.03, for a 1.61 μg/m3 increase) as well as PM2.5, 5-day average ambient PM2.5, and BC. BAD was positively associated with ambient temperature and water vapor pressure. However, exposures were not consistently associated with FMD or NMD. Brachial artery diameter, a predictor of cardiovascular risk, decreased in association with particle pollution and increased in association with ambient temperature in our study population of adults with type 2 diabetes. Zanobetti A, Luttmann

  7. Informing policy to protect coastal coral reefs: insight from a global review of reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Schaffelke, Britta; Bartley, Rebecca

    2014-08-15

    The continuing degradation of coral reefs has serious consequences for the provision of ecosystem goods and services to local and regional communities. While climate change is considered the most serious risk to coral reefs, agricultural pollution threatens approximately 25% of the total global reef area with further increases in sediment and nutrient fluxes projected over the next 50 years. Here, we aim to inform coral reef management using insights learned from management examples that were successful in reducing agricultural pollution to coastal ecosystems. We identify multiple examples reporting reduced fluxes of sediment and nutrients at end-of-river, and associated declines in nutrient concentrations and algal biomass in receiving coastal waters. Based on the insights obtained, we recommend that future protection of coral reef ecosystems demands policy focused on desired ecosystem outcomes, targeted regulatory approaches, up-scaling of watershed management, and long-term maintenance of scientifically robust monitoring programs linked with adaptive management. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment.

  9. Reducing Mercury Pollution from Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    To reduce airborne mercury emissions from these Gold Shops, EPA and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have partnered to design a low cost, easily constructible technology called the Gold Shop Mercury Capture System (MCS).

  10. Dynamic Simulation pro-environmental behavior in reducing air pollution in el Valle de Aburra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera P, Juan D

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes to expose some of the theoretical, methodological and conceptual aspects of the study of the pro-environmental behaviour on which the Master in Environmental and Development thesis named Dynamic simulation of stake holders under a structure based in beliefs, desires and intentions. Study in case: Pact for Air Quality Improvement of the AMVA, which justifies a reorientation of the intervention programs of the metropolitan authorities. Likewise, it is tried to provide to the reader with an ample point of view, with rigorous criteria, that do possible to analyze the multiple identities, the diversity of aims and the heterogeneity of intentions, to make visible what are behind the citizen's of environmental policies. By means of the analysis of the theoretical models: the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It's presented the aspects that influence the pro environmental behaviour of the individuals, and their dynamics in a systemic environment. An approach from methodological individualism of the TRA was applied to the reduction 01 air pollution in the valley of Aburra, and the proposed model is validated in abstract. Finally, so me considerations are presented about their application in the metropolitan environmental management. The analysis of the intention of behaviour of the actors and stake holders who participate in the execution of the programs tend to the diminution of the contamination establishes by the authorities, serves to understand how strong they will try, or how much effort they will exert to realise the promoted pro environmental behaviour.

  11. Tandem bike design for apartment residents as an idea to reduce air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandriawan Bambang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical housing is recently popular in urban areas since the availability of land is very limited. A strong preference for living in the city is mainly due to the home to work travel that is relatively close for those who work in the city. While residing in the vertical housing (i.e. apartment can be an advantage, several accommodation facilities are often provided at their minimum standards. As such, a special design of bicycle for apartment residents may an effective solution. Multi-function bike, ridden either by one or two riders and its aesthetic part of interior element can be an attractive offer. Identification of marketing objectives and observation of comparable products were a crucial step in the initial process of tandem bike design. The use of bicycle in urban areas can overcome a number of motorized vehicles operating wherever the using of them may create issues such as traffic jam and air pollution. This study aims to adjust the tandem bike which can be produced commercially for the apartment residents. Stated in the research problems, the design process was successfully fulfilled. Fabrication and product testing were positively completed. A concise and comfortable bike to carry from the lobby to the apartment unit, or vice versa, was successfully created.

  12. Reduced temperature phase diagrams of the silver-rare earths binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, R.; Delfino, S.; Capelli, R.; Borsese, A.

    1975-01-01

    Phase equilibria of the silver-rare earth binary systems have been reported in ''reduced temperature'' diagrams (the ''reduced temperature'' being defined as the ratio between a characteristic temperature of the Agsub(x)R.E. phase and the melting temperature of the corresponding R.E. metal, both in 0 K). The smooth trends of the various characteristic reduced temperatures, when plotted against the R.E. atomic number, have been demonstrated. On passing from the light- to the heavy-rare-earths, a correlation has been found between the crossing of these curves and other phenomena, such as the disappearing of the Ag 5 R.E. phases from incongruently, to congruently melting compounds. The trends of the reduced-temperature curves have been briefly discussed in terms of the treatment suggested by Gschneidner together with the volumetric data known for the different Agsub(x)R.E. phases. In addition, the characteristic data of the 1:1 AgR.E. compounds have been compared with those of the analogous AuR.E. phases. (Auth.)

  13. A reduced low-temperature electro-thermal coupled model for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jiuchun; Ruan, Haijun; Sun, Bingxiang; Zhang, Weige; Gao, Wenzhong; Wang, Le Yi; Zhang, Linjing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A reduced low-temperature electro-thermal coupled model is proposed. • A novel frequency-dependent equation for polarization parameters is presented. • The model is validated under different frequency and low-temperature conditions. • The reduced model exhibits a high accuracy with a low computational effort. • The adaptability of the proposed methodology for model reduction is verified. - Abstract: A low-temperature electro-thermal coupled model, which is based on the electrochemical mechanism, is developed to accurately capture both electrical and thermal behaviors of batteries. Activation energies reveal that temperature dependence of resistances is greater than that of capacitances. The influence of frequency on polarization voltage and irreversible heat is discussed, and frequency dependence of polarization resistance and capacitance is obtained. Based on the frequency-dependent equation, a reduced low-temperature electro-thermal coupled model is proposed and experimentally validated under different temperature, frequency and amplitude conditions. Simulation results exhibit good agreement with experimental data, where the maximum relative voltage error and temperature error are below 2.65% and 1.79 °C, respectively. The reduced model is demonstrated to have almost the same accuracy as the original model and require a lower computational effort. The effectiveness and adaptability of the proposed methodology for model reduction is verified using batteries with three different cathode materials from different manufacturers. The reduced model, thanks to its high accuracy and simplicity, provides a promising candidate for development of rapid internal heating and optimal charging strategies at low temperature, and for evaluation of the state of battery health in on-board battery management system.

  14. Reducing surface water pollution through the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of BMPs at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Y; Makropoulos, C; Mimikou, M

    2011-10-01

    Two kinds of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) were examined with respect to cost-effectiveness (CE) in reducing sediment, nitrates-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) and total phosphorus (TP) losses to surface waters of the Arachtos catchment in Western Greece. The establishment of filter strips at the edge of fields and a non-structural measure, namely fertilization reduction in alfalfa, combined with contour farming and zero-tillage in corn and reduction of animal numbers in pastureland, were evaluated. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used as the non-point-source (NPS) estimator, while a simple economic component was developed estimating BMP implementation cost as the mean annual expenses needed to undertake and operate the practice for a 5-year period. After each BMP implementation, the ratio of their CE in reducing pollution was calculated for each Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) separately, for each agricultural land use type entirely and for the whole catchment. The results at the HRU scale are presented comprehensively on a map, demonstrating the spatial differentiation of CE ratios across the catchment that enhances the identification of locations where each BMP is most advisable for implementation. Based on the analysis, a catchment management solution of affordable total cost would include the expensive measure of filter strips in corn and only in a small number of pastureland fields, in combination with the profitable measure of reducing fertilization to alfalfa fields. When examined for its impact on river loads at the outlet, the latter measure led to a 20 tn or 8% annual decrease of TP from the baseline with savings of 15€/kg of pollutant reduction. Filter strips in corn fields reduced annual sediments by 66 Ktn or 5%, NO(3)-N by 71 tn or 9.5% and TP by 27 tn or 10%, with an additional cost of 3.1 €/tn, 3.3 €/kg and 8.1 €/kg of each pollutant respectively. The study concludes that considerable reductions of several

  15. Daphnia fed algal food grown at elevated temperature have reduced fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Sikora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lake water temperature is negatively correlated with fatty acids content and P:C ratio in green algae. Hence, elevated temperature may indirectly reduce the fitness of Daphnia due to induced decrease in algal food quality. The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that quality of algal food decreases with increasing temperature of its culture and that large-bodied Daphnia are more vulnerable to the temperature-related deterioration of algal food quality than small-bodied ones. Laboratory life-table experiments were performed at 20°C with large-bodied D. pulicaria and small-bodied D. cucullata fed with the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, that had been grown at temperatures of 16, 24 or 32°C. The somatic growth rates of both species decreased significantly with increasing algal culture temperature and this effect was more pronounced in D. pulicaria than in D. cucullata. In the former species, age at first reproduction significantly increased and clutch size significantly decreased with increasing temperature of algae growth, while no significant changes in these two parameters were observed in the latter species. The proportion of egg-bearing females decreased with increasing algal culture temperature in both species. The results of this study support the notion that the quality of algal food decreases with increasing water temperature and also suggest that small-bodied Daphnia species might be less vulnerable to temperature-related decreases in algal food quality than large-bodied ones.

  16. THE USE OF HALLOYSITE TO REDUCE POLLUTIONS CONCENTRATION IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Machnicka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of municipal wastewater treatment allows the use of biofilters. The study used a bed filled halloysite. In operation of the bed, depending on the hydraulic load, the concentration of phosphate, ammonium and organic matter was reduced. Highest reduction of the concentration PO43- (89% and N – NH4+ (81% in the waste water of the hydraulic load – 0,04 m3/m2h was obtained. The concentration of the organic substrate was reduced by approximately 86%.

  17. Air pollution, lagged effects of temperature, and mortality: The Netherlands 1979-87

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenbach, J. P.; Looman, C. W.; Kunst, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To explore whether the apparent low threshold for the mortality effects of air pollution could be the result of confounding. DESIGN--The associations between mortality and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were analysed taking into account potential confounding factors. SETTING--The Netherlands,

  18. Containing urban sprawl : An integrated improvement of space-tranport strategies to reduce air pollution emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambarwati, L.; Verhaeghe, R.J.; Pel, A.J.; van Arem, B.

    2014-01-01

    Diverse effective strategies have been designed to minimize the phenomenon of urban sprawl. Previous research focused on the link between spatial and transport development strategies to achieve this goal, with the intention of increasing mobility, reducing commuting time and travel costs. However, a

  19. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.

    2014-07-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.; Apprill, A.; Cervino, J.M.; Ossolinski, J.E.; Hughen, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The effects of annealing temperature on the permittivity and electromagnetic attenuation performance of reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Zeng, Qiao; Xia, Yilu; Sun, Mengxiao; Xie, Aming

    2018-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has been prepared through the thermal reduction method with different annealing temperatures to explore the effects of temperature on the permittivity and electromagnetic attenuation performance. The real and imaginary parts of permittivity increase along with the decrease in the oxygen functional group and the increase in the filler loading ratio. A composite only loaded with 1 wt. % of RGO can possess an effective electromagnetic absorption bandwidth of 7.60 GHz, when graphene oxide was reduced under 300 °C for 2 h. With the annealing temperature increased to 700 °C and the well reduced RGO loaded 7 wt. % in the composite, the electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency can get higher than 35 dB from 2 to 18 GHz. This study shows that controlling the oxygen functional groups on the RGO surface can also obtain an ideal electromagnetic attenuation performance without any other decorated nanomaterials.

  2. Simulating land management options to reduce nitrate pollution in an agricultural watershed dominated by an alluvial aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Itsasne; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Srinavasan, Raghavan; Sauvage, Sabine; Volk, Martin; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The study area (Alegria watershed, Basque Country, Northern Spain) considered here is influenced by an important alluvial aquifer that plays a significant role in nitrate pollution from agricultural land use and management practices. Nitrates are transported primarily from the soil to the river through the alluvial aquifer. The agricultural activity covers 75% of the watershed and is located in a nitrate-vulnerable zone. The main objective of the study was to find land management options for water pollution abatement by using model systems. In a first step, the SWAT model was applied to simulate discharge and nitrate load in stream flow at the outlet of the catchment for the period between October 2009 and June 2011. The LOADEST program was used to estimate the daily nitrate load from measured nitrate concentration. We achieved satisfactory simulation results for discharge and nitrate loads at monthly and daily time steps. The results revealed clear variations in the seasons: higher nitrate loads were achieved for winter (20,000 kg mo NO-N), and lower nitrate loads were simulated for the summer (model was used to evaluate the long-term effects of best management practices (BMPs) for a 50-yr period by maintaining actual agricultural practices, reducing fertilizer application by 20%, splitting applications (same total N but applied over the growing period), and reducing 20% of the applied fertilizer amount and splitting the fertilizer doses. The BMPs were evaluated on the basis of local experience and farmer interaction. Results showed that reducing fertilizer amounts by 20% could lead to a reduction of 50% of the number of days exceeding the nitrate concentration limit value (50 mg L) set by the European Water Framework Directive. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Enhanced rice production but greatly reduced carbon emission following biochar amendment in a metal-polluted rice paddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Afeng; Bian, Rongjun; Li, Lianqing; Wang, Xudong; Zhao, Ying; Hussain, Qaiser; Pan, Genxing

    2015-12-01

    Soil amendment of biochar (BSA) had been shown effective for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and alleviating metal stress to plants and microbes in soil. It has not yet been addressed if biochar exerts synergy effects on crop production, GHG emission, and microbial activity in metal-polluted soils. In a field experiment, biochar was amended at sequential rates at 0, 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively, in a cadmium- and lead-contaminated rice paddy from the Tai lake Plain, China, before rice cropping in 2010. Fluxes of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were monitored using a static chamber method during the whole rice growing season (WRGS) of 2011. BSA significantly reduced soil CaCl2 extractable pool of Cd, and DTPA extractable pool of Cd and Pb. As compared to control, soil CO2 emission under BSA was observed to have no change at 10 t ha(-1) but decreased by 16-24% at 20 and 40 t ha(-1). In a similar trend, BSA at 20 and 40 t ha(-1) increased rice yield by 25-26% and thus enhanced ecosystem CO2 sequestration by 47-55% over the control. Seasonal total N2O emission was reduced by 7.1, 30.7, and 48.6% under BSA at 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively. Overall, a net reduction in greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB) by 53.9-62.8% and in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) by 14.3-28.6% was observed following BSA at 20 and 40 t ha(-1). The present study suggested a great potential of biochar to enhancing grain yield while reducing carbon emission in metal-polluted rice paddies.

  4. Estimating the health and economic benefits associated with reducing air pollution in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura; Sunyer, Jordi; Künzli, Nino

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the health and economic benefits that would result from two scenarios of improved air quality in 57 municipalities of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. We used attributable fractions and life tables to quantify the benefits for selected health outcomes, based on published concentration-response functions and economic unit values. The mean weighted concentration of PM(10) for the study population was estimated through concentration surface maps developed by the local government. The annual mean health benefits of reducing the mean PM(10) exposure estimated for the population in the study area (50microg/m(3)) to the annual mean value recommended by the World Health Organization (20microg/m(3)) were estimated to be 3,500 fewer deaths (representing an average increase in life expectancy of 14 months), 1,800 fewer hospitalizations for cardio-respiratory diseases, 5,100 fewer cases of chronic bronchitis among adults, 31,100 fewer cases of acute bronchitis among children, and 54,000 fewer asthma attacks among children and adults. The mean total monetary benefits were estimated to be 6,400 million euros per year. Reducing PM(10) to comply with the current European Union regulatory annual mean level (40microg/m(3)) would yield approximately one third of these benefits. This study shows that reducing air pollution in the metropolitan area of Barcelona would result in substantial health and economic benefits. The benefits are probably underestimated due to the assumptions made in this study. Assessment of the health impact of local air pollution is a useful tool in public health.

  5. Mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide and its high-temperature coefficient of resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to study the formation mechanisms of photocurrents in graphene and reduced graphene oxide films under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. A built-in field and photo-thermal electrons have been applied to explain the experiments. However, much less attention has been paid to clarifying the mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide films at room temperature. Thus, mid-infrared photoresponse and annealing temperature-dependent resistance experiments were carried out on reduced graphene oxide films. A maximum photocurrent of 75 μA was observed at room temperature, which was dominated by the bolometer effect, where the resistance of the films decreased as the temperature increased after they had absorbed light. The electrons localized in the defect states and the residual oxygen groups were thermally excited into the conduction band, forming a photocurrent. In addition, a temperature increase of 2 °C for the films after light irradiation for 2 minutes was observed using absorption power calculations. This work details a way to use reduced graphene oxide films that contain appropriate defects and residual oxygen groups as bolometer-sensitive materials in the mid-infrared range.

  6. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  7. Synthesis copolymer use to reduce pour point temperature of diamond crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Dao Viet; Chuong, Thai Hong; Tuy, Dao Quoc

    2017-09-01

    Diamond oil field is located in Block 01&02 Offshore Vietnam. Crude oil from Diamond Well Head Platform (WHP) is evacuated to FPSO via 20km 10" subsea flexible pipeline. The lowest seabed temperature in the field is 22°C, while the pour point temperature (PPT) of Diamond crude oil is very high (36°C) due to high paraffin content (25%). So studying to research a suitable Pour Point Depressant (PPD) for the crude oil is very important. The PPD must have ability to reduce pour point temperature of crude oil from 36°C to 21°C.

  8. Reducing the ordering temperature of FePt nanoparticles by Cu additive and alternate reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available (FePt85Cu15 nanoparticles were successfully prepared by alternate reduction of metal salts in aqueous medium. Detailed investigations on the correlation between the magnetic and structural properties of these nanoparticles are presented as a function of annealing temperature. Both the X-ray diffraction patterns and the magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show the existence of L10-FePt phase at a relative low annealing temperature. It is proved that the Cu additive and alternate reduction are very effective methods in reducing the ordering temperature of FePt nanoparticles.

  9. [Temperature modifies the acute effect of particulate air pollution on mortality in Jiang'an district of Wuhan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y H; Wu, R; Zhong, P R; Zhu, C H; Ma, L

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the temperature modification effect on acute mortality due to particulate air pollution. Daily non-accidental mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and respiratory mortality data were obtained from Jiang'an District Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Daily meteorological data on mean temperature and relative humidity were collected from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. The daily concentration of particulate matter was collected from Wuhan Environmental Monitoring center. By using the stratified time-series models, we analyzed effects of particulate air pollution on mortality under different temperature zone from 2002 to 2010, meanwhile comparing the difference of age, gender and educational level, in Wuhan city of China. High temperature (daily average temperature > 33.4 ℃) obviously enhanced the effect of PM10 on mortality. With 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM10 concentrations, non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality increased 2.95% (95%CI: 1.68%-4.24%), 3.58% (95%CI: 1.72%-5.49%), and 5.07% (95%CI: 2.03%-9.51%) respectively. However, low temperature (daily average temperature respiratory mortality with 3.31% (95% CI: 0.07%-6.64%) increase. At high temperature, PM10 had significantly stronger effect on non-accidental mortality of female aged over 65 and people with high educational level groups. With an increase of 10 μg/m(3), daily non-accidental mortality increased 4.27% (95% CI:2.45%-6.12%), 3.38% (95% CI:1.93%-4.86%) and 3.47% (95% CI:1.79%-5.18%), respectively. Whereas people with low educational level were more susceptible to low temperature. A 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM10 was associated with 2.11% (95% CI: 0.20%-4.04%) for non-accidental mortality. Temperature factor can modify the association between the PM10 level and cause-specific mortality. Moreover, the differences were apparent after considering the age, gender and education groups.

  10. Two-way effect modifications of air pollution and air temperature on total natural and cardiovascular mortality in eight European urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wolf, Kathrin; Breitner, Susanne; Gasparrini, Antonio; Stafoggia, Massimo; Samoli, Evangelia; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Bero-Bedada, Getahun; Bellander, Tom; Hennig, Frauke; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Pekkanen, Juha; Hampel, Regina; Cyrys, Josef; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2018-07-01

    Although epidemiological studies have reported associations between mortality and both ambient air pollution and air temperature, it remains uncertain whether the mortality effects of air pollution are modified by temperature and vice versa. Moreover, little is known on the interactions between ultrafine particles (diameter ≤ 100 nm, UFP) and temperature. We investigated whether the short-term associations of particle number concentration (PNC in the ultrafine range (≤100 nm) or total PNC ≤ 3000 nm, as a proxy for UFP), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) and ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), and ozone with daily total natural and cardiovascular mortality were modified by air temperature and whether air pollution levels affected the temperature-mortality associations in eight European urban areas during 1999-2013. We first analyzed air temperature-stratified associations between air pollution and total natural (nonaccidental) and cardiovascular mortality as well as air pollution-stratified temperature-mortality associations using city-specific over-dispersed Poisson additive models with a distributed lag nonlinear temperature term in each city. All models were adjusted for long-term and seasonal trend, day of the week, influenza epidemics, and population dynamics due to summer vacation and holidays. City-specific effect estimates were then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled associations between air pollutants and total and cardiovascular mortality were overall positive and generally stronger at high relatively compared to low air temperatures. For example, on days with high air temperatures (>75th percentile), an increase of 10,000 particles/cm 3 in PNC corresponded to a 2.51% (95% CI: 0.39%, 4.67%) increase in cardiovascular mortality, which was significantly higher than that on days with low air temperatures (air pollution (>50th percentile), both heat- and cold-related mortality risks increased. Our findings showed that

  11. Tried and tested automation system helps to reduce air pollution. Ausgereifte Automatisierung hilft beim Reduzieren schaedlicher Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haack, R. (Still Otto GmbH, Bochum (Germany, F.R.)); Schreiter, K.D. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Bereich Anlagentechnik)

    An important step in the coking process is the cooling of the red hot coke. This is mainly done by dowsing with water. The result is the emission of pollutant gases and the waste of heat energy. Disadvantages of this kind can be reduced by the use of a coke drying and cooling plant. This requires, however, because of its complex technology, a tried and tested automation system. A homogeneous solution to the problems faced by the automation system is found in the SIMATIC S5-150U automation unit which was delivered with the coke drying and cooling plant for Pohang (Korea) from the firm Still Otto GmbH in Bochum. This is the largest of its kind. (orig.).

  12. From fire whirls to blue whirls and combustion with reduced pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael J.; Oran, Elaine S.

    2016-08-01

    Fire whirls are powerful, spinning disasters for people and surroundings when they occur in large urban and wildland fires. Whereas fire whirls have been studied for fire-safety applications, previous research has yet to harness their potential burning efficiency for enhanced combustion. This article presents laboratory studies of fire whirls initiated as pool fires, but where the fuel sits on a water surface, suggesting the idea of exploiting the high efficiency of fire whirls for oil-spill remediation. We show the transition from a pool fire, to a fire whirl, and then to a previously unobserved state, a “blue whirl.” A blue whirl is smaller, very stable, and burns completely blue as a hydrocarbon flame, indicating soot-free burning. The combination of fast mixing, intense swirl, and the water-surface boundary creates the conditions leading to nearly soot-free combustion. With the worldwide need to reduce emissions from both wanted and unwanted combustion, discovery of this state points to possible new pathways for reduced-emission combustion and fuel-spill cleanup. Because current methods to generate a stable vortex are difficult, we also propose that the blue whirl may serve as a research platform for fundamental studies of vortices and vortex breakdown in fluid mechanics.

  13. From fire whirls to blue whirls and combustion with reduced pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael J; Oran, Elaine S

    2016-08-23

    Fire whirls are powerful, spinning disasters for people and surroundings when they occur in large urban and wildland fires. Whereas fire whirls have been studied for fire-safety applications, previous research has yet to harness their potential burning efficiency for enhanced combustion. This article presents laboratory studies of fire whirls initiated as pool fires, but where the fuel sits on a water surface, suggesting the idea of exploiting the high efficiency of fire whirls for oil-spill remediation. We show the transition from a pool fire, to a fire whirl, and then to a previously unobserved state, a "blue whirl." A blue whirl is smaller, very stable, and burns completely blue as a hydrocarbon flame, indicating soot-free burning. The combination of fast mixing, intense swirl, and the water-surface boundary creates the conditions leading to nearly soot-free combustion. With the worldwide need to reduce emissions from both wanted and unwanted combustion, discovery of this state points to possible new pathways for reduced-emission combustion and fuel-spill cleanup. Because current methods to generate a stable vortex are difficult, we also propose that the blue whirl may serve as a research platform for fundamental studies of vortices and vortex breakdown in fluid mechanics.

  14. Seasonal variation of semen parameters correlates with environmental temperature and air pollution: A big data analysis over 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Daniele; Magnani, Elisa; Michelangeli, Marco; Grassi, Roberto; Vecchi, Barbara; Pedroni, Gioia; Roli, Laura; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Baraldi, Enrica; Setti, Monica; Trenti, Tommaso; Simoni, Manuela

    2018-04-01

    Male fertility is progressively declining in many developed countries, but the relationship between male infertility and environmental factors is still unclear. To assess the influence of environmental temperature and air pollution on semen parameters, using a big-data approach. A big data analysis of parameters related to 5131 men, living in a province of Northern Italy and undergoing semen analyses between January 2010 and March 2016 was performed. Ambient temperature was recorded on the day of analysis and the 90 days prior to the analysis and the average value of particulate matter (PM) and NO2 in the year of the test. All data were acquired by geocoding patients residential address. A data warehouse containing 990,904,591 data was generated and analysed by multiple regressions. 5573 semen analyses were collected. Both maximum and minimum temperatures registered on the day of collection were inversely related to total sperm number (p < .001), non-progressive motility (NPrM) (p < .005) and normal forms (p < .001). Results were confirmed considering temperature in the 30 and 60 days before collection, but not in the 90 days before collection. Total sperm number was lower in summer/autumn (p < .001) and was inversely related with daylight duration (p < .001). PM10 and PM2.5 were inversely related to PrM (p < .001 and p < .005) and abnormal forms (p < .001). This is the first evaluation of the relationship between male fertility-related parameters and environment using a big-data approach. A seasonal change in semen parameters was found, with a fluctuation related to both temperature and daylight duration. A negative correlation between air pollution and semen quality is suggested. Such seasonal and environmental associations should be considered when assessing changes of male fertility-related parameters over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Light pollution and solid-state lighting: reducing the carbon dioxide footprint is not enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bará, Salvador

    2013-11-01

    Public and private lighting account for a relevant share of the overall electric power consumption worldwide. The pressing need of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions as well as of lowering the lumen•hour price tag has fostered the search for alternative lighting technologies to substitute for the incandescent and gas-discharge based lamps. The most successful approach to date, solid-state lighting, is already finding its way into the public lighting market, very often helped by substantial public investments and support. LED-based sources have distinct advantages: under controlled coditions their efficacy equals or surpasses that of conventional solutions, their small source size allows for an efficient collimation of the lightbeam (delivering the photons where they are actually needed and reducing lightspill on the surrounding areas), and they can be switched and/or dimmed on demand at very high rates, thus allowing for a taylored schedule of lighting. However, energy savings and carbon dioxide reduction are not the only crucial issues faced by present day lighting. A growing body of research has shown the significance of the spectral composition of light when it comes to assess the detrimental effects of artificial light-at-night (ALAN). The potential ALAN blueshift associated to the deployment of LED-based lighting systems has raised sensible concerns about its scientific, cultural, ecological and public health consequences, which can be further amplified if an increased light consumption is produced due to the rebound effect. This contribution addresses some of the challenges that these issues pose to the Optics and Photonics community.

  16. Air quality in a simulated office environment as a result of reducing pollution sources and increasing ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Clausen, Geo

    2002-01-01

    Air quality was studied in an office space classified as low-polluting and ventilated with outdoor air at a rate of 1 h-1. The pollution load in the space was changed by introducing or removing common building-related indoor pollution sources (linoleum, sealant and wooden shelves with books and p...

  17. The range and effectiveness of short-term measures to reduce traffic emissions during high air pollution episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsom, Derek M.

    1999-01-01

    Concern for continuing poor urban air quality, caused primarily by motor vehicles emissions, and the slow progress being made towards reducing total vehicle emissions by long-term measures, such as improving fuel and vehicle technologies, has prompted some authorities to try to reduce the severity and duration of high air pollution episodes by implementing short-term traffic restraint measures. This paper reviews the range of episodic air quality management schemes applied in cities around the world and comments on the effectiveness of such schemes. The difficulty of targeting vehicles according to the contribution they make to the air quality problem is highlighted. The problem of some schemes simply causing a displacement of the area of excessive vehicle emissions rather than reducing total emissions is reviewed. Rapid developments in telematics and improved urban air quality and traffic monitoring networks (e.g. Urban Traffic Management and Control systems) may offer significant improvements in the effectiveness of episodic management schemes in the future. (Author)

  18. Heat recovery from flue gas of coal fired installations with reduced pollutant emission - the Zittau process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H; Strauss, R; Hofmann, K -D; Suder, M; Hultsch, T; Wetzel, W; Gabrysch, H; Jung, J [Technische Hochschule, Zittau (German Democratic Republic)

    1988-12-01

    Reviews the technology applied in the Zittau process for flue gas heat recovery and flue gas desulfurization in small brown coal fired power plants. Steam generators have a capacity of 6.5 or 10 t/h, low grade fuel with 8.2 MJ/kg calorific value is combusted. Technology has been developed on an experimental 10 t/h steam generator since 1986; an industrial 6.5 t/h prototype steam generator is now in operation achieving 95% SO{sub 2} removal from flue gas with 5600 to 7800 mg SO{sub 2} per m{sup 3} of dry flue gas. The Zittau technology is available in 3 variants: with maximum waste heat recovery, with partial waste heat recovery or without waste heat recovery and only wet flue gas scrubbing. Two flowsheets of flue gas and suspension circulation are provided. The first variant recovers 25.7% of nominal heat capacity (1.1 thermal MW from a 4.2 MW steam generator with 6.5 t/h steam capacity), the second variant recovers 6.5% of waste heat by reducing heat exchangers to 20% of the size of the first variant. Flue gas suspension scrubbing utilizes power plant ash, which is capable of absorbing 50 to 70% of SO{sub 2}, additional 25% SO{sub 2} removal is achieved by providing either 40% ash from another power plant or limestone for suspensions. Various technological details are included. 5 refs.

  19. Cu-modified carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide as a high sensitivity of gas sensor for NO2 detection at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhibin; Tan, Li; Yang, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Yu; Tao, Jin; Zhang, Nan; Wen, Fusheng

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as one of the most serious air pollution is harmful to people's health, therefore high-performance gas sensors is critically needed. Here, Cu-modified carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide (Cu@CS/RGO) composite have been prepared as NO2 gas sensor material. Carbon sphere in the interlayer of RGO can increase the specific surface area of RGO. Copper nanoparticles decorated on the surface of CS can effectively enhance the adsorption activity of RGO as supplier of free electrons. The experimental results showed that its particular structure improved the gas sensitivity of RGO at different NO2 concentrations at room temperature.

  20. A proper choice of route significantly reduces air pollution exposure--a study on bicycle and bus trips in urban streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Ole; Hvidberg, Martin; Ketzel, Matthias; Storm, Lars; Stausgaard, Lizzi

    2008-01-15

    A proper selection of route through the urban area may significantly reduce the air pollution exposure. This is the main conclusion from the presented study. Air pollution exposure is determined for two selected cohorts along the route going from home to working place, and back from working place to home. Exposure is determined with a street pollution model for three scenarios: bicycling along the shortest possible route, bicycling along the low exposure route along less trafficked streets, and finally taking the shortest trip using public transport. Furthermore, calculations are performed for the cases the trip takes place inside as well as outside the traffic rush hours. The results show that the accumulated air pollution exposure for the low exposure route is between 10% and 30% lower for the primary pollutants (NO(x) and CO). However, the difference is insignificant and in some cases even negative for the secondary pollutants (NO(2) and PM(10)/PM(2.5)). Considering only the contribution from traffic in the travelled streets, the accumulated air pollution exposure is between 54% and 67% lower for the low exposure route. The bus is generally following highly trafficked streets, and the accumulated exposure along the bus route is therefore between 79% and 115% higher than the high exposure bicycle route (the short bicycle route). Travelling outside the rush hour time periods reduces the accumulated exposure between 10% and 30% for the primary pollutants, and between 5% and 20% for the secondary pollutants. The study indicates that a web based route planner for selecting the low exposure route through the city might be a good service for the public. In addition the public may be advised to travel outside rush hour time periods.

  1. A reduced model for ion temperature gradient turbulent transport in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunami, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.

    2013-07-01

    A novel reduced model for ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulent transport in helical plasmas is presented. The model enables one to predict nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation results from linear gyrokinetic analyses. It is shown from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the ITG turbulence in helical plasmas that the transport coefficient can be expressed as a function of the turbulent fluctuation level and the averaged zonal flow amplitude. Then, the reduced model for the turbulent ion heat diffusivity is derived by representing the nonlinear turbulent fluctuations and zonal flow amplitude in terms of the linear growth rate of the ITG instability and the linear response of the zonal flow potentials. It is confirmed that the reduced transport model results are in good agreement with those from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations for high ion temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. (author)

  2. Use of extremity insulation during whole body hyperthermia to reduce temperature nonuniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, D.E.; Page, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The author previously documented during whole body hyperthermia in dogs using a radiant heating device that temperature at superficial sites, including tibial bone marrow, falls below systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase of heating. This may be due to direct heat loss to the environment. Sites where temperature is lower than systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase may become sanctuary sites where tumor deposits are spared because they do not receive the prescribed thermal dose. In an attempt to decrease temperature nonuniformity and increase thermal dose delivered to such superficial sites, extremity insulation has been employed during whole body hyperthermia in dogs. The author measured temperature at cutaneous and subcutaneous sites and within tibial bone marrow in insulated and noninsulated extremities of dogs undergoing whole body hyperthermia in the radiant heating device. The author found that extremity insulation is effective in reducing extremity temperature nonuniformity. Specific results are presented. Extremity insulation may be necessary during whole body hyperthermia to assure that extremity tumor deposits receive a thermal dose similar to that prescribed for the entire body

  3. Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Foronda, Humberto M.

    2017-11-23

    In this work, reduced threading dislocation density AlN on (0 0 0 1) 6H-SiC was realized through the use of reduced temperature AlN interlayers in the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth. We explored the dependence of the interlayer growth temperature on the AlN crystal quality, defect density, and surface morphology. The crystal quality was characterized using omega rocking curve scans and the threading dislocation density was determined by plan view transmission electron microscopy. The growth resulted in a threading dislocation density of 7 × 108 cm−2 indicating a significant reduction in the defect density of AlN in comparison to direct growth of AlN on SiC (∼1010 cm−2). Atomic force microscopy images demonstrated a clear step-terrace morphology that is consistent with step flow growth at high temperature. Reducing the interlayer growth temperature increased the TD inclination and thus enhanced TD-TD interactions. The TDD was decreased via fusion and annihilation reactions.

  4. Impacts of ozone air pollution and temperature extremes on crop yields: Spatial variability, adaptation and implications for future food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Amos P. K.; Val Martin, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Ozone air pollution and climate change pose major threats to global crop production, with ramifications for future food security. Previous studies of ozone and warming impacts on crops typically do not account for the strong ozone-temperature correlation when interpreting crop-ozone or crop-temperature relationships, or the spatial variability of crop-to-ozone sensitivity arising from varietal and environmental differences, leading to potential biases in their estimated crop losses. Here we develop an empirical model, called the partial derivative-linear regression (PDLR) model, to estimate the spatial variations in the sensitivities of wheat, maize and soybean yields to ozone exposures and temperature extremes in the US and Europe using a composite of multidecadal datasets, fully correcting for ozone-temperature covariation. We find generally larger and more spatially varying sensitivities of all three crops to ozone exposures than are implied by experimentally derived concentration-response functions used in most previous studies. Stronger ozone tolerance is found in regions with high ozone levels and high consumptive crop water use, reflecting the existence of spatial adaptation and effect of water constraints. The spatially varying sensitivities to temperature extremes also indicate stronger heat tolerance in crops grown in warmer regions. The spatial adaptation of crops to ozone and temperature we find can serve as a surrogate for future adaptation. Using the PDLR-derived sensitivities and 2000-2050 ozone and temperature projections by the Community Earth System Model, we estimate that future warming and unmitigated ozone pollution can combine to cause an average decline in US wheat, maize and soybean production by 13%, 43% and 28%, respectively, and a smaller decline for European crops. Aggressive ozone regulation is shown to offset such decline to various extents, especially for wheat. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering ozone regulation

  5. Predicting Comfort Temperature in Indonesia, an Initial Step to Reduce Cooling Energy Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Harso Karyono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has no reliable thermal comfort standard that is based on research works. The current national standard (SNI 6390:2011 states only a single range of comfort temperature that is 25.5 °C Ta, with a range of +1.5 °C Ta. Previous thermal studies in a number of different buildings in Indonesia showed that the neutral (comfort temperatures of subjects were about 27 to 28 °C, which is higher than the values stated in the standard. As a big country with various ambient temperatures, Indonesian needs a better and more reliable thermal comfort predictor which can be applied properly across the country. This study is an attempt to propose an initial Indonesian thermal predictor, in the form of a simple equation, which could predict comfort temperatures properly across the country. Reanalysing the previous comfort studies in Indonesia, a simple regression equation is constructed as to be used as the initial Indonesian comfort predictor. Using this predictor, the comfort temperatures in a lowland or coastal cities like Jakarta is found to be higher than the current comfort standard. It is expected that this predictor would help to provide a better indoor thermal environment and at the same reduce the cooling energy in air conditioning (AC building, thus reducing a building’s carbon emissions.

  6. Low LET radiolysis escape yields for reducing radicals and H2 in pressurized high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterniczuk, Marcin; Yakabuskie, Pamela A.; Wren, J. Clara; Jacob, Jasmine A.; Bartels, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiolysis escape yields (G values) are reported for the sum (G(radH)+G(e-)aq) and for G(H2) in subcritical water up to 350 °C. The scavenger system 1-10 mM acetate/0.001 M hydroxide/0.00048 M N2O was used with simultaneous mass spectroscopic detection of H2 and N2 product. Temperature-dependent measurements were carried out with 2.5 MeV electrons from a van de Graaff accelerator, while room temperature calibration measurements were done with a 60Co gamma source. The concentrations and dose range were carefully chosen so that initial spur chemistry is not perturbed and the N2 product yield corresponds to those reducing radicals that escape recombination in pure water. In comparison with a recent review recommendation of Elliot and Bartels (AECL report 153-127160-450-001, 2009), the measured reducing radical yield is seven percent smaller at room temperature but in fairly good agreement above 150 °C. The H2 escape yield is in good agreement throughout the temperature range with several previous studies that used much larger radical scavenging rates. Previous analysis of earlier high temperature measurements of Gesc(radOH) is shown to be flawed, although the actual G values may be nearly correct. The methodology used in the present report greatly reduces the range of possible error and puts the high temperature escape yields for low-LET radiation on a much firmer quantitative foundation than was previously available.

  7. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

    1999-01-01

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented

  8. Approach for energy saving and pollution reducing by fueling diesel engines with emulsified biosolution/ biodiesel/diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2008-05-15

    The developments of both biodiesel and emulsified diesel are being driven by the need for reducing emissions from diesel engines and saving energy. Artificial chemical additives are also being used in diesel engines for increasing their combustion efficiencies. But the effects associated with the use of emulsified additive/biodiesel/diesel blends in diesel engines have never been assessed. In this research, the premium diesel fuel (PDF) was used as the reference fuel. A soy-biodiesel was selected as the test biodiesel. A biosolution made of 96.5 wt % natural organic enzyme-7F (NOE-7F) and 3.5 wt % water (NOE-7F water) was used as the fuel additive. By adding additional 1 vol % of surfactant into the fuel blend, a nanotechnology was used to form emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends for fueling the diesel engine. We found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did not separate after being kept motionless for 30 days. The above stability suggests that the above combinations are suitable for diesel engines as alternative fuels. Particularly, we found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did have the advantage in saving energy and reducing the emissions of both particulate matters (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel engines as compared with PDF, soy-biodiesel/PDF blends, and emulsified soy-biodiesel/ PDF blends. The results obtained from this study will provide useful approaches for reducing the petroleum reliance, pollution, and global warming. However, it should be noted that NO(x) emissions were not measured in the present study which warrants the need for future investigation.

  9. Heat wave during the summer 2003: relationship between temperature, air pollution and mortality in nine French towns; Vague de chaleur de l'ete 2003: relations entre temperatures, pollution atmospherique et mortalite dans neuf villes francaises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate, by taking the a particular period of summer 2003, the relationship between the exposure to ozone and the mortality risk. This estimation has for aim to realize a more valid, scientifically, evaluation of sanitary impact, for the period of heat wave that this one that could has been lead from anterior results. This study searches also to estimate, for the period of heat wave, the excess of mortality risk linked with the exposure to temperature and air pollution and the relative part of each of these factors in this combined effect. The analysis searches to evaluate an eventual displacement of mortality at short term that is to say a period of under mortality occurring at the immediate declining of the heat wave. (N.C.)

  10. Temperature-Dependent Alkyl Glycerol Ether Lipid Composition of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnauld Vinçon-Laugier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of non-isoprenoid alkyl glycerol ether lipids in Bacteria and natural environments is increasingly being reported and the specificity and diagenetic stability of these lipids make them powerful biomarkers for biogeochemical and environmental studies. Yet the environmental controls on the biosynthesis of these peculiar membrane lipids remain poorly documented. Here, the lipid content of two mesophilic (Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans and Desulfatibacillum alkenivorans and one thermophilic (Thermodesulfobacterium commune sulfate-reducing bacteria—whose membranes are mostly composed of ether lipids—was investigated as a function of growth temperature (20–40°C and 54–84°C, respectively. For all strains, the cellular lipid content was lower at sub- or supra-optimal growth temperature, but the relative proportions of dialkyl glycerols, monoalkyl glycerols and fatty acids remained remarkably stable whatever the growth temperature. Rather than changing the proportions of the different lipid classes, the three strains responded to temperature changes by modifying the average structural composition of the alkyl and acyl chains constitutive of their membrane lipids. Major adaptive mechanisms concerned modifications of the level of branching and of the proportions of the different methyl branched lipids. Specifically, an increase in temperature induced mesophilic strains to produce less dimethyl branched dialkyl glycerols and 10-methyl branched lipids relative to linear structures, and the thermophilic strain to decrease the proportion of anteiso relative to iso methyl branched compounds. These modifications were in agreement with a regulation of the membrane fluidity. In one mesophilic and the thermophilic strains, a modification of the growth temperature further induced changes in the relative proportions of sn-2 vs sn-1 monoalkyl glycerols, suggesting an unprecedented mechanism of homeoviscous adaptation in Bacteria. Strong

  11. Temperature dependent thermoelectric property of reduced graphene oxide-polyaniline composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Mousumi, E-mail: mousumimitrabesu@gmail.com; Banerjee, Dipali, E-mail: dipalibanerjeebesu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Howrah-711103 (India); Kargupta, Kajari, E-mail: karguptakajari2010@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Ganguly, Saibal, E-mail: gangulysaibal2011@gmail.com [Chemical Engineering department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak, Tronoh (Malaysia)

    2016-05-06

    A composite material of reduced graphene oxide (rG) nanosheets with polyaniline (PANI) protonated by 5-sulfosalicylic acid has been synthesized via in situ oxidative polymerization method. The morphological and spectral characterizations have been done using FESEM and XRD measurements. The thermoelectric (TE) properties of the reduced graphene oxide-polyaniline composite (rG-P) has been studied in the temperature range from 300-400 K. The electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of rG-P is higher than the of pure PANI, while the thermal conductivity of the composite still keeps much low value ensuing an increase in the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) in the whole temperature range.

  12. Study on Increasing High Temperature pH(t) to Reduce Iron Corrosion Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Man; Hur, Nam Yong; Kim, Waang Bae

    2011-01-01

    The transportation and deposition of iron corrosion products are important elements that affect both the steam generator (SG) integrity and secondary system in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants. Most of iron corrosion products are generated on carbon steel materials due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). The several parameters like water chemistry, temperature, hydrodynamic, and steel composition affect FAC. It is well established that the at-temperature pH of the deaerated water system has a first order effect on the FAC rate of carbon steels through nuclear industry researches. In order to reduce transportation and deposition of iron corrosion products, increasing pH(t) tests were applied on secondary system of A, B units. Increasing pH(t) successfully reduced flow accelerated corrosion. The effect of increasing pH(t) to inhibit FAC was identified through the experiment and pH(t) evaluation in this paper

  13. Reducibility of ceria-lanthana mixed oxides under temperature programmed hydrogen and inert gas flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, S.; Blanco, G.; Cifredo, G.; Perez-Omil, J.A.; Pintado, J.M.; Rodriguez-Izquierdo, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper deals with the preparation and characterization of La/Ce mixed oxides, with La molar contents of 20, 36 and 57%. We carry out the study of the structural, textural and redox properties of the mixed oxides, comparing our results with those for pure ceria. For this aim we use temperature programmed reduction (TPR), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), nitrogen physisorption at 77 K, X-ray diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy. The mixed oxides are more easy to reduce in a flow of hydrogen than ceria. Moreover, in an inert gas flow they release oxygen in higher amounts and at lower temperatures than pure CeO 2 . The textural stability of the mixed oxides is also improved by incorporation of lanthana. All these properties make the ceria-lanthana mixed oxides interesting alternative candidates to substitute ceria in three-way catalyst formulations. (orig.)

  14. The Effect of Annealing Temperature on Nickel on Reduced Graphene Oxide Catalysts on Urea Electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, Dean E.; Galvan, Vicente; Prakash, G.K. Surya

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Nickel was reduced on graphene oxide and annealed under argon from 300 to 700 °C. •Nickel was oxidized from the removal of oxygen groups on the graphene oxide. •Higher annealed catalysts displayed decreased urea electrooxidation currents. •Micro direct urea/hydrogen peroxide fuel cells were employed for the first time. •Ni/rGO catalysts displayed enhanced fuel cell performance than the bare nickel. -- Abstract: The annealing temperature effects on nickel on reduced graphene oxide (Ni/rGO) catalysts for urea electrooxidation were investigated. Nickel chloride was directly reduced in an aqueous solution of graphene oxide (GO) followed by annealing under argon at 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 °C, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed an increase in the crystallite size of the nickel nanoparticles while the Raman spectra displayed an increase in the graphitic disorder of the reduced graphene oxide at higher annealing temperatures due to the removal of oxygen functional groups. The Ni/rGO catalysts annealed at higher temperatures displayed oxidized nickel surface characteristics from the Ni 2p X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) due to the oxidation of the nickel from the oxygen functional groups in the graphitic lattice. In the half-cell testing, the onset potential of urea electrooxidation decreased while the urea electrooxidation currents decreased as the annealing temperature was increased. The nickel catalyst annealed at 700 °C displayed a 31% decrease in peak power density while the catalyst annealed at 300 °C displayed a 13% increase compared with the unannealed Ni/rGO catalyst in the micro direct urea/hydrogen peroxide fuel cells tests.

  15. Lower temperatures in cases with doors improve produce quality and safety with reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time-temperature control of fresh-cut produce at 41 °F (5 ºC) or less can significantly reduce the growth of human pathogens. Since 2009, the FDA Food Code has required that packaged ready-to-eat leafy greens be kept at 41 °F (5 ºC) or lower to minimize the potential of pathogen proliferation in the...

  16. Projected near-future levels of temperature and pCO2 reduce coral fertilization success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Albright

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2 are projected to contribute to a 1.1-6.4°C rise in global average surface temperatures and a 0.14-0.35 reduction in the average pH of the global surface ocean by 2100. If realized, these changes are expected to have negative consequences for reef-building corals including increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching and reduced rates of calcification and reef accretion. Much less is known regarding the independent and combined effects of temperature and pCO2 on critical early life history processes such as fertilization. Here we show that increases in temperature (+3°C and pCO2 (+400 µatm projected for this century negatively impact fertilization success of a common Indo-Pacific coral species, Acropora tenuis. While maximum fertilization did not differ among treatments, the sperm concentration required to obtain 50% of maximum fertilization increased 6- to 8- fold with the addition of a single factor (temperature or CO2 and nearly 50- fold when both factors interact. Our results indicate that near-future changes in temperature and pCO2 narrow the range of sperm concentrations that are capable of yielding high fertilization success in A. tenuis. Increased sperm limitation, in conjunction with adult population decline, may have severe consequences for coral reproductive success. Impaired sexual reproduction will further challenge corals by inhibiting population recovery and adaptation potential.

  17. Reducing the ordering temperature of CoPt nanoparticles by B additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khemjeen, Yutthaya [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pinitsoontorn, Supree, E-mail: psupree@kku.ac.th; Chompoosor, Apiwat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Nanotec-KKU Center of Excellence on Advanced Nanomaterials for Energy Production and Storage, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maensiri, Santi [School of Physics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2014-08-07

    We reported the effect of boron addition on magnetic properties and structure of CoPt nanoparticles prepared by a polyol method. The magnetic property measurement showed that the CoPt-B sample exhibited a much larger coercivity compared to the sample without B additive at the same annealing temperature. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that the average particle size was about 2 nm for the as-synthesized sample with the ratio of Co and Pt close to 1:1. After annealing, the particle sizes increased but the composition was maintained. The phase transformation of the nanoparticles versus temperature was investigated using a combination of X-ray diffraction and in-situ X-ray absorption analysis. It was shown that the phase transition temperature at which the nanoparticles change from the disordered A1 phase to the ordered L1{sub 0} phase occurs at temperature of 600 °C. We concluded that boron additives could reduce the ordering temperature of CoPt of about 100 °C.

  18. Increasing temperature reduces the coupling between available nitrogen and phosphorus in soils of Chinese grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Baumann, Frank; Song, Chao; Zhang, Mi; Shi, Yue; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas; He, Jin-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Changes in climatic conditions along geographical gradients greatly affect soil nutrient cycling processes. Yet how climate regimes such as changes in temperature influence soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and their stoichiometry is not well understood. This study investigated the spatial pattern and variability of soil N and P availability as well as their coupling relationships at two soil layers (0-10 and 10-20 cm) along a 4000-km climate transect in two grassland biomes of China, the Inner Mongolian temperate grasslands and the Tibetan alpine grasslands. Our results found that in both grasslands, from cold to warm sites the amounts of soil total N, total P and available P all decreased. By contrast, the amount of available N was positively related to mean annual temperature in the Tibetan grasslands. Meanwhile, with increasing temperature ratio of available N to P significantly increased but the linear relationship between them was considerably reduced. Thus, increasing temperature may not only induce a stoichiometric shift but also loose the coupling between available N and P. This N-P decoupling under warmer conditions was more evident in the Tibetan alpine grasslands where P limitation might become more widespread relative to N as temperatures continue to rise.

  19. Efficiency of source control systems for reducing runoff pollutant loads: feedback on experimental catchments within Paris conurbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressy, Adèle; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Saad, Mohamed; Leroy, Florent; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2014-06-15

    Three catchments, equipped with sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS: vegetated roof, underground pipeline or tank, swale, grassed detention pond) for peak flow mitigation, have been compared to a reference catchment drained by a conventional separate sewer system in terms of hydraulic behaviour and discharged contaminant fluxes (organic matter, organic micropollutants, metals). A runoff and contaminant emission model has been developed in order to overcome land use differences. It has been demonstrated that the presence of peak flow control systems induces flow attenuation even for frequent rain events and reduces water discharges at a rate of about 50% depending on the site characteristics. This research has also demonstrated that this type of SUDS contributes to a significant reduction of runoff pollutant discharges, by 20%-80%. This level of reduction varies depending on the considered contaminant and on the design of the drainage system but is mostly correlated with the decrease in runoff volume. It could be improved if the design of these SUDS focused not only on the control of exceptional events but also targeted more explicitly the interception of frequent rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Formation of brominated pollutants during the pyrolysis and combustion of tetrabromobisphenol A at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortuño, Nuria; Moltó, Julia; Conesa, Juan A.; Font, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most widely used brominated flame retardant worldwide. A detailed examination of the degradation products emitted during thermal decomposition of TBBPA is presented in the study. Runs were performed in a laboratory furnace at different temperatures (650 and 800 °C) and in different atmospheres (nitrogen and air). More than one hundred semivolatile compounds have been identified by GC/MS, with special interest in brominated ones. Presence of HBr and brominated light hydrocarbons increased with temperature and in the presence of oxygen. Maximum formation of PAHs is observed at pyrolytic condition at the higher temperature. High levels of 2,4-, 2,6- and 2,4,6- bromophenols were found. The levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans have been detected in the ppm range. The most abundant isomers are 2,4,6,8-TeBDF in pyrolysis and 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF in combustion. These results should be considered in the assessment of thermal treatment of materials containing brominated flame retardants. - Highlights: • Decomposition of a brominated flame retardant is performed in a laboratory furnace. • Both pyrolysis and combustion at two different temperatures are studied. • Brominated organic compounds such as Br-dioxins and furans are analysed. • Main product of decomposition is HBr, accounting for ca. 50%. • Very high and dangerous levels of PBDD/Fs and precursors (bromophenols) are detected. - TBBPA mainly decomposes to give HBr and brominated hydrocarbons at high temperature, but high levels of bromophenols and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans are also produced

  1. Significantly Reduced Health Burden from Ambient Air Pollution in the United States under Emission Reductions from 1990 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2015 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has listed air pollution as the fourth-ranking global mortality risk factor. Few studies have attempted to understand how these burdens change through time, especially in the United States (US). Here we aim to estimate air pollution-r...

  2. Significantly reduced health burden from ambient air pollution in the United States under emission reductions from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2015 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has listed air pollution as the fourth-ranking global mortality risk factor. Many studies have estimated the global or national burden of disease attributed to air pollution. However, little effort has been focused on understanding ho...

  3. Enhanced and selective ammonia sensing of reduced graphene oxide based chemo resistive sensor at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramesh; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2016-05-01

    The reduced graphene oxide thin films were fabricated by using the spin coating method. The reduced graphene oxide samples were characterised by Raman studies to obtain corresponding D and G bands at 1360 and 1590 cm-1 respectively. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra consists of peak corresponds to sp2 hybridisation of carbon atoms at 1560 cm-1. The reduced graphene oxide based chemoresistive sensor exhibited a p-type semiconductor behaviour in ambient conditions and showed good sensitivity to different concentration of ammonia from 25 ppm to 500 ppm and excellent selectivity at room temperature. The sensor displays selectivity to several hazardous vapours such as methanol, ethanol, acetone and hydrazine hydrate. The sensor demonstrated a sensitivity of 9.8 at 25 ppm concentration of ammonia with response time of 163 seconds.

  4. Enhanced and selective ammonia sensing of reduced graphene oxide based chemo resistive sensor at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ramesh, E-mail: rameshphysicsdu@gmail.com; Kaur, Amarjeet, E-mail: amarkaur@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The reduced graphene oxide thin films were fabricated by using the spin coating method. The reduced graphene oxide samples were characterised by Raman studies to obtain corresponding D and G bands at 1360 and 1590 cm{sup −1} respectively. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra consists of peak corresponds to sp{sup 2} hybridisation of carbon atoms at 1560 cm{sup −1}. The reduced graphene oxide based chemoresistive sensor exhibited a p-type semiconductor behaviour in ambient conditions and showed good sensitivity to different concentration of ammonia from 25 ppm to 500 ppm and excellent selectivity at room temperature. The sensor displays selectivity to several hazardous vapours such as methanol, ethanol, acetone and hydrazine hydrate. The sensor demonstrated a sensitivity of 9.8 at 25 ppm concentration of ammonia with response time of 163 seconds.

  5. Reduce synthesis temperature and improve dispersion of YAG nanopowders based on the co-crystallization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, G.F.; Tang, Y.Q.; Lu, W.Z., E-mail: lwz@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zhang, X.R.; Xu, X.

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • YAG nanopowders were synthesized through a co-crystallization method. • A three-layer core–shell structure was made to lower the synthesis temperature. • PAA again reduced the synthesis temperature based on the core–shell structure. • YAG nanopowders were synthesized at 700 °C in normal apparatus. • Agglomeration was greatly improved by PAA. - Abstract: Pure yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) nanopowders were synthesized at 950 °C from the co-crystallization precursor of Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅6H{sub 2}O and Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅9H{sub 2}O (nitrate process). When 17 wt.% of Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅6H{sub 2}O was replaced by Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders, so as to make up a three-layer core–shell structure of the precursor, the synthesis temperature was reduced to 850 °C (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} process). Based on Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} process, further reducing the synthesis temperature to 700 °C was realized by adding polyacrylic acid (PAA, 50% M), which was used to shorten the distance of the metal ions and provide combustion heat (PAA process). TEM characterizations indicated that the powders produced through nitrate and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} processes agglomerated, while the powders produced through PAA process were dispersed much better. The agglomerate size analysis results demonstrated that the powders produced through PAA process were with smaller agglomerate size and wider agglomerate size distribution than those through nitrate process or Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} process. And they were more likely to be sintered to YAG transparent ceramics.

  6. Simulation-based design of a steerable acoustic warning device to increase (H)EV detectability while reducing urban noise pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Genechten, B.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation-based design methodology used in the eVADER project for the development of targeted acoustic warning devices for increased detectability of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEVs) while, at the same time, reducing urban noise pollution compared to conventional

  7. Low-cost options for reducing consumer health risks from farm to fork where crops are irrigated with polluted water in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoah, Philip; Keraita, Bernard; Akple, Maxwell

    To identify interventions which reduce health risks of consumers where highly polluted irrigation water is used to irrigate vegetables in West Africa, scientists worked over 5 years with farmers, market traders and street food vendors in Ghana. The most promising low-cost interventions with high...

  8. Low-cost options for reducing consumer health risks from farm to fork where crops are irrigated with polluted water in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoah, Philip; Keraita, Bernard; Akple, Maxwell

    To identify interventions which reduce health risks of consumers where highly polluted irrigation water is used to irrigate vegetables in West Africa, scientists worked over 5 years with farmers, market traders and street food vendors in Ghana. The most promising low-cost interventions with high......) guidelines. The tested market-based interventions were important to prevent new or additional contamination...

  9. Regional scale temperature and circulation impacts of short-lived climate pollutants reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudar, T.; Kushner, P. J.; Fyfe, J. C.; von Salzen, K.; Shrestha, R.

    2017-12-01

    The role of anthropogenic aerosols on climate is still not clearly understood. Aerosol forcing is spatially heterogeneous and their emissions are controlled by regional economic and regulatory factors. For example, it is known that black carbon is responsible for a global net warming but its regional impacts are less understood. We evaluate the regional climate impacts of anthropogenic aerosol emission changes over the recent past and near future. Specifically, we report on numerical experiments using aerosol emissions from the Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants (ECLIPSE, Stohl et al., 2015) project. These scenarios are alternative mitigation pathways for black carbon and organic aerosol over the period from 1990 to 2050. With these scenarios, we carried out three sets of simulation using the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2): 1) A current legislation emission (CLE) scenario for black carbon and organic aerosols; 2) A mitigation (MIT) scenario for black carbon and organic aerosols, and; 3) A black carbon only mitigation scenario (MIT-BC). Five simulations were carried out for each scenario and the response analyzed in the context of a large fifty-member initial condition ensemble of simulations using historical anthropogenic aerosol forcings to 2005 as well as those forcing from the RCP8.5 scenario to 2020. Our main finding is a significant springtime cooling over the Northern midlatitudes that attributable to black carbon. Other cooling signals attributable to black carbon reductions are found in the boreal summer over Southern Europe as well as over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropical troposphere in boreal summer and fall. All of these cooling signals are to some degree offset by simultaneous reductions in organic aerosols. As a check on the robustness, we will also report on results of five-member draws from the large ensemble over periods of comparably strong radiative forcing changes, to

  10. High Temperature Elastic Properties of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) Steel Using Impulse Excitation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Raju, Subramanian; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Saibaba, Saroja

    2018-03-01

    The polycrystalline elastic constants of an indigenous variant of 9Cr-1W-based reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel have been determined as a function of temperature from 298 K to 1323 K (25 °C to 1000 °C), using impulse excitation technique (IET). The three elastic constants namely, Young's modulus E, shear modulus G, and bulk modulus B, exhibited significant softening with increasing temperature, in a pronounced non-linear fashion. In addition, clearly marked discontinuities in their temperature variations are noticed in the region, where ferrite + carbides → austenite phase transformation occurred upon heating. Further, the incidence of austenite → martensite transformation upon cooling has also been marked by a step-like jump in both elastic E and shear moduli G. The martensite start M s and M f finish temperatures estimated from this study are, M s = 652 K (379 °C) and M f =580 K (307 °C). Similarly, the measured ferrite + carbide → austenite transformation onset ( Ac 1) and completion ( Ac 3) temperatures are found to be 1126 K and 1143 K (853 °C and 870 °C), respectively. The Poisson ratio μ exhibited distinct discontinuities at phase transformation temperatures; but however, is found to vary in the range 0.27 to 0.29. The room temperature estimates of E, G, and μ for normalized and tempered microstructure are found to be 219 GPa, 86.65 GPa, and 0.27, respectively. For the metastable austenite phase, the corresponding values are: 197 GPa, 76.5 GPa, and 0.29, respectively. The measured elastic properties as well as their temperature dependencies are found to be in good accord with reported estimates for other 9Cr-based ferritic-martensitic steel grades. Estimates of θ D el , the elastic Debye temperature and γ G, the thermal Grüneisen parameter obtained from measured bulk elastic properties are found to be θ D el = 465 K (192 °C) and γ G = 1.57.

  11. A cross-coupled-structure-based temperature sensor with reduced process variation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tie Meng; Cheng Xu, E-mail: tiemeng@mprc.pku.edu.c [Microprocessor Research and Development Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-04-15

    An innovative, thermally-insensitive phenomenon of cascaded cross-coupled structures is found. And a novel CMOS temperature sensor based on a cross-coupled structure is proposed. This sensor consists of two different ring oscillators. The first ring oscillator generates pulses that have a period, changing linearly with temperature. Instead of using the system clock like in traditional sensors, the second oscillator utilizes a cascaded cross-coupled structure to generate temperature independent pulses to capture the result from the first oscillator. Due to the compensation between the two ring oscillators, errors caused by supply voltage variations and systematic process variations are reduced. The layout design of the sensor is based on the TSMC13G process standard cell library. Only three inverters are modified for proper channel width tuning without any other custom design. This allows for an easy integration of the sensor into cell-based chips. Post-layout simulations results show that an error lower than +-1.1 deg. C can be achieved in the full temperature range from -40 to 120 deg. C. As shown by SPICE simulations, the thermal insensitivity of the cross-coupled inverters can be realized for various TSMC technologies: 0.25 mum, 0.18 mum, 0.13 mum, and 65 nm.

  12. Exogenous Nitrogen Addition Reduced the Temperature Sensitivity of Microbial Respiration without Altering the Microbial Community Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition is changing in both load quantity and chemical composition. The load effects have been studied extensively, whereas the composition effects remain poorly understood. We conducted a microcosm experiment to study how N chemistry affected the soil microbial community composition characterized by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs and activity indicated by microbial CO2 release. Surface and subsurface soils collected from an old-growth subtropical forest were supplemented with three N-containing materials (ammonium, nitrate, and urea at the current regional deposition load (50 kg ha-1 yr-1 and incubated at three temperatures (10, 20, and 30°C to detect the interactive effects of N deposition and temperature. The results showed that the additions of N, regardless of form, did not alter the microbial PLFAs at any of the three temperatures. However, the addition of urea significantly stimulated soil CO2 release in the early incubation stage. Compared with the control, N addition consistently reduced the temperature dependency of microbial respiration, implying that N deposition could potentially weaken the positive feedback of the warming-stimulated soil CO2 release to the atmosphere. The consistent N effects for the surface and subsurface soils suggest that the effects of N on soil microbial communities may be independent of soil chemical contents and stoichiometry.

  13. Damage behavior in helium-irradiated reduced-activation martensitic steels at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fengfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Zheng, Zhongcheng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yao, Z. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston K7L 3N6, ON (Canada); Suo, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Dislocation loops induced by helium irradiation at elevated temperatures in reduced-activation martensitic steels were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Steels were irradiated with 100 keV helium ions to 0.8 dpa between 300 K and 723 K. At irradiation temperatures T{sub irr} ⩽ 573 K, small defects with both Burger vectors b = 1/2〈1 1 1〉 and b = 〈1 0 0〉 were observed, while at T{sub irr} ⩾ 623 K, the microstructure was dominated by large convoluted interstitial dislocation loops with b = 〈1 0 0〉. Only small cavities were found in the steels irradiated at 723 K.

  14. Effects of creep and oxidation on reduced modulus in high-temperature nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Fang, Xufei; Lu, Siyuan; Yu, Qingmin; Hou, Guohui; Feng, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Nanoindentation tests were performed on single crystal Ni-based superalloy at temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 800 °C in inert environment. Load-displacement curves at temperatures higher than 500 °C exhibit obvious creep inferred by increasing displacements at load-holding segments. Load-displacement curves obtained at 800 °C also display negative unloading stiffness. Examination of the microstructure beneath the indented area using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) reveals abundant dislocation piling up as well as oxide formation on the substrate. A method considering the creep effect is proposed to calculate the reduced modulus. In addition, a dimensionless ratio relating indentation depth and oxide film thickness is introduced to explain the oxidation effect on the mechanical properties derived from the load-displacement curves.

  15. Application of tire chips to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes in municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoor, Azadeh; Rowe, R Kerry

    2012-05-01

    Heat generated by the biodegradation of waste and other chemical processes in a landfill can potentially affect the long-term performance of landfill liner system, in particular that of a high-density polyethylene geomembrane. In a double liner system, the difference in leachate exposure and temperature might improve the long-term performance of the secondary geomembrane compared to that of the primary geomembrane. However, in some cases, the temperature is likely to be high enough to substantially reduce the service-life of the secondary geomembrane. This study explores the possible effectiveness of using tire chips as thermal insulation between primary and secondary liners to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes as compared to traditional soil materials. Heat and contaminant migration analyses are performed for cases with no insulation and for cases in which a layer of soil or tire chips has been used as thermal insulation between the primary and secondary liners. The effect of insulation on prolonging the service-life of a secondary geomembrane and, consequently, on contaminant transport through a liner system is examined for the case of a volatile organic compound (dichloromethane) found in landfill leachate. The study suggests that the use of tire chips warrants consideration, however there are other practical issues that require consideration in the detailed design and construction of landfill liners. Issues such as finite service-life, low working temperature, excessive settlement, ability to generate internal heat, leaching of tire chips and limitations in performing electrical resistivity leak detection tests are identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Composite polymer membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures and reduced humidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) are the leading candidate in the fuel cell technology due to the high power density, solid electrolyte, and low operational temperature. However, PEMFCs operating in the normal temperature range (60-80°C) face problems including poor carbon monoxide tolerance and heat rejection. The poisoning effect can be significantly relieved by operating the fuel cell at elevated temperature, which also improves the heat rejection and electrochemical kinetics. Low relative humidity (RH) operation is also desirable to simplify the reactant humidification system. However, at elevated temperatures, reduced RH PEMFC performance is seriously impaired due to irreversible water loss from presently employed state-of-the-art polymer membrane, Nafion. This thesis focuses on developing polymer electrolyte membranes with high water retention ability for operation in elevated temperature (110-150°C), reduced humidity (˜50%RH) PEMFCs. One approach is to alter Nafion by adding inorganic particles such as TiO2, SiO2, Zr(HPO 4)2, etc. While the presence of these materials in Nafion has proven beneficial, a reduction or no improvement in the PEMFC performance of Nafion/TiO2 and Nafion/Zr(HPO4)2 membranes is observed with reduced particle sizes or increased particle loadings in Nafion. It is concluded that the PEMFC performance enhancement associated with addition of these inorganic particles was not due to the particle hydrophilicity. Rather, the particle, partially located in the hydrophobic region of the membrane, benefits the cell performance by altering the membrane structure. Water transport properties of some Nafion composite membranes were investigated by NMR methods including pulsed field gradient spin echo diffusion, spin-lattice relaxation, and spectral measurements. Compared to unmodified Nafion, composite membranes materials exhibit longer longitudinal relaxation time constant T1. In addition to the Nafion material, sulfonated styrene

  17. Reduced nutrient pollution in a rural stream following septic tank upgrade and installation of runoff retention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenden, M C; Quinton, J N; Favaretto, N; Deasy, C; Surridge, B

    2014-07-01

    Surface water quality in the UK and much of Western Europe has improved in recent decades, in response to better point source controls and the regulation of fertilizer, manure and slurry use. However, diffuse sources of pollution, such as leaching or runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields, and micro-point sources including farmyards, manure heaps and septic tank sewerage systems, particularly systems without soil adsorption beds, are now hypothesised to contribute a significant proportion of the nutrients delivered to surface watercourses. Tackling such sources in an integrated manner is vital, if improvements in freshwater quality are to continue. In this research, we consider the combined effect of constructing small field wetlands and improving a septic tank system on stream water quality within an agricultural catchment in Cumbria, UK. Water quality in the ditch-wetland system was monitored by manual sampling at fortnightly intervals (April-October 2011 and February-October 2012), with the septic tank improvement taking place in February 2012. Reductions in nutrient concentrations were observed through the catchment, by up to 60% when considering total phosphorus (TP) entering and leaving a wetland with a long residence time. Average fluxes of TP, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and ammonium-N (NH4-N) at the head of the ditch system in 2011 (before septic tank improvement) compared to 2012 (after septic tank improvement) were reduced by 28%, 9% and 37% respectively. However, TP concentration data continue to show a clear dilution with increasing flow, indicating that the system remained point source dominated even after the septic tank improvement.

  18. Evaluation of retrofit crankcase ventilation controls and diesel oxidation catalysts for reducing air pollution in school buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbath, Kim; Hannigan, Michael P.; Milford, Jana B.

    2009-12-01

    This study evaluates the effect of retrofit closed crankcase ventilation filters (CCFs) and diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) on the in-cabin air quality in transit-style diesel school buses. In-cabin pollution levels were measured on three buses from the Pueblo, CO District 70 fleet. Monitoring was conducted while buses were driven along their regular routes, with each bus tested three times before and three times after installation of control devices. Ultrafine number concentrations in the school bus cabins were 33-41% lower, on average, after the control devices were installed. Mean mass concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were 56% lower, organic carbon (OC) 41% lower, elemental carbon (EC) 85% lower, and formaldehyde 32% lower after control devices were installed. While carbon monoxide concentrations were low in all tests, mean concentrations were higher after control devices were installed than in pre-retrofit tests. Reductions in number, OC, and formaldehyde concentrations were statistically significant, but reductions in PM2.5 mass were not. Even with control devices installed, during some runs PM2.5 and OC concentrations in the bus cabins were elevated compared to ambient concentrations observed in the area. OC concentrations inside the bus cabins ranged from 22 to 58 μg m -3 before and 13 to 33 μg m -3 after control devices were installed. OC concentrations were correlated with particle-bound organic tracers for lubricating oil emissions (hopanes) and diesel fuel and tailpipe emissions (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons). Mean concentrations of hopanes, PAH, and aliphatic hydrocarbons were lower by 37, 50, and 43%, respectively, after the control devices were installed, suggesting that both CCFs and DOCs were effective at reducing in-cabin OC concentrations.

  19. Evidence for Reduced Fatigue Resistance of Contemporary Rotary Instruments Exposed to Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Rafaela Andrade; Murphy, Sarah; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Govindjee, Rajiv G; Govindjee, Sanjay; Peters, Ove A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 different temperatures (20°C and 37°C) on the cyclic fatigue life of rotary instruments and correlate the results with martensitic transformation temperatures. Contemporary nickel-titanium rotary instruments (n = 20 each and tip size #25, including Hyflex CM [Coltene, Cuyahoga Falls, OH], TRUShape [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK], Vortex Blue [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties], and ProTaper Universal [Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties]) were tested for cyclic fatigue at room temperature (20°C ± 1°C) and at body temperature (37°C ± 1°C). Instruments were rotated until fracture occurred in a simulated canal with an angle curvature of about 60° and a radius curvature of 3 mm; the center of the curvature was 4.5 mm from the instrument tip. The number of cycles to fracture was measured. Phase transformation temperatures for 2 instruments of each brand were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. Data were analyzed using the t test and 1-way analysis of variance with the significance level set at 0.05. For the tested size and at 20°C, Hyflex CM showed the highest resistance to fracture; no significant difference was found between TRUShape and Vortex Blue, whereas ProTaper Universal showed the lowest resistance to fracture. At 37°C, resistance to fatigue fracture was significantly reduced, up to 85%, for the tested instruments (P rotary instruments tested. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-07

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification.

  1. Reducing NOx emissions from a biodiesel-fueled engine by use of low-temperature combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tiegang; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Foong, Tien Mun; Lee, Chia-Fon

    2008-12-01

    Biodiesel is popularly discussed in many countries due to increased environmental awareness and the limited supply of petroleum. One of the main factors impacting general replacement of diesel by biodiesel is NOx (nitrogen oxides) emissions. Previous studies have shown higher NOx emissions relative to petroleum diesel in traditional direct-injection (DI) diesel engines. In this study, effects of injection timing and different biodiesel blends are studied for low load [2 bar IMEP (indicated mean effective pressure)] conditions. The results show that maximum heat release rate can be reduced by retarding fuel injection. Ignition and peak heat release rate are both delayed for fuels containing more biodiesel. Retarding the injection to post-TDC (top dead center) lowers the peak heat release and flattens the heat release curve. It is observed that low-temperature combustion effectively reduces NOx emissions because less thermal NOx is formed. Although biodiesel combustion produces more NOx for both conventional and late-injection strategies, with the latter leading to a low-temperature combustion mode, the levels of NOx of B20 (20 vol % soy biodiesel and 80 vol % European low-sulfur diesel), B50, and B100 all with post-TDC injection are 68.1%, 66.7%, and 64.4%, respectively, lower than pure European low-sulfur diesel in the conventional injection scenario.

  2. Can slow-diffusing solute atoms reduce vacancy diffusion in advanced high-temperature alloys?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Kamal Nayan; Mottura, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The high-temperature mechanical properties of precipitate-strengthened advanced alloys can be heavily influenced by adjusting chemical composition. The widely-accepted argument within the community is that, under certain temperature and loading conditions, plasticity occurs only in the matrix, and dislocations have to rely on thermally-activated climb mechanisms to overcome the barriers to glide posed by the hard precipitates. This is the case for γ′-strengthened Ni-based superalloys. The presence of dilute amounts of slow-diffusing solute atoms, such as Re and W, in the softer matrix phase is thought to reduce plasticity by retarding the climb of dislocations at the interface with the hard precipitate phase. One hypothesis is that the presence of these solutes must hinder the flow of vacancies, which are essential to the climb process. In this work, density functional theory calculations are used to inform two analytical models to describe the effect of solute atoms on the diffusion of vacancies. Results suggest that slow-diffusing solute atoms are not effective at reducing the diffusion of vacancies in these systems

  3. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification.

  4. Optimizing residence time, temperature and speed to improve TMP pulp properties and reduce energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; Xu, E.; Cort, B.; Boileau, I.; Waller, A.

    1997-04-01

    The concept of reducing energy consumption in pulp mills by increasing the disc speed of refining has been established using single disc and double disc refiners in both pilot plant and mill applications. The RTS study evaluated in this paper reviews the effect of high-speed single disc refining coupled with shortdwell-high pressure retention conditions. Coupling these variables permitted evaluation of an optimum residence time, temperature and speed (RTS) operational window. The objective of the RTS conditions to sufficiently soften the wood chips through high temperature such that the fibre is more receptive to initial defiberization at high intensity. The improved pulp from the primary refiner at high intensity could potentially demonstrate improvements in physical pulp properties at a reduced specific energy requirement. The spruce/fir RTS-TMP described here required significantly less specific energy and produced TMP with slightly improved strength properties and equivalent optical properties compared to conventional TMP pulp. Studies on the radiate pine furnish indicated that the physical pulp property/specific energy relationships could be adjusted by manipulating the residence time. 4 refs., 10 tabs., 10 figs.

  5. Waste Tyres as Heat Sink to Reduce the Driveway Surface Temperatures in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniza Abdul Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of roads and driveways are on the rise as automobiles are now a necessity to all. This excessive development with its requirements increased the urban heat temperature and the generation of waste tyres. Waste tyre management has therefore been taken seriously by developed countries and since the European directive to ban used tyre products and whole tire disposal from landfill in 2003 and 2006 respectively, many researchers have looked for alternative ways to use the waste tyre. In Malaysia, The Smart and Cool Home Developer attempted to develop an eco-house by utilising waste tyre as the foundation for the driveway and claimed that the buried tyres act as a heat sink for the concrete and reduce the surface temperature of the driveway. Hence investigations were conducted on two sample houses to investigate this phenomenon. Findings from this pilot study show that waste tyres do act as a heat sink to the concrete driveways which affect the ambient temperature and relative humidity of the immediate surroundings.

  6. Toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus changes under a global warming perspective: Variations in air temperature and soil moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Alcaraz, M.N.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess how the current global warming perspective, with increasing air temperature (20 °C vs. 25 °C) and decreasing soil moisture content (50% vs. 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), affected the toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus

  7. Activation of temperature-sensitive TRPV1-like receptors in ARC POMC neurons reduces food intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Jeong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC respond to numerous hormonal and neural signals, resulting in changes in food intake. Here, we demonstrate that ARC POMC neurons express capsaicin-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1-like receptors. To show expression of TRPV1-like receptors in ARC POMC neurons, we use single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, TRPV1 knock-out (KO, and TRPV1-Cre knock-in mice. A small elevation of temperature in the physiological range is enough to depolarize ARC POMC neurons. This depolarization is blocked by the TRPV1 receptor antagonist and by Trpv1 gene knockdown. Capsaicin-induced activation reduces food intake that is abolished by a melanocortin receptor antagonist. To selectively stimulate TRPV1-like receptor-expressing ARC POMC neurons in the ARC, we generate an adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5 carrying a Cre-dependent channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP expression cassette under the control of the two neuronal POMC enhancers (nPEs. Optogenetic stimulation of TRPV1-like receptor-expressing POMC neurons decreases food intake. Hypothalamic temperature is rapidly elevated and reaches to approximately 39 °C during treadmill running. This elevation is associated with a reduction in food intake. Knockdown of the Trpv1 gene exclusively in ARC POMC neurons blocks the feeding inhibition produced by increased hypothalamic temperature. Taken together, our findings identify a melanocortinergic circuit that links acute elevations in hypothalamic temperature with acute reductions in food intake.

  8. Basking hamsters reduce resting metabolism, body temperature and energy costs during rewarming from torpor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Fritz; Gasch, Kristina; Bieber, Claudia; Stalder, Gabrielle L; Gerritsmann, Hanno; Ruf, Thomas

    2016-07-15

    Basking can substantially reduce thermoregulatory energy expenditure of mammals. We tested the hypothesis that the largely white winter fur of hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), originating from Asian steppes, may be related to camouflage to permit sun basking on or near snow. Winter-acclimated hamsters in our study were largely white and had a high proclivity to bask when resting and torpid. Resting hamsters reduced metabolic rate (MR) significantly (>30%) when basking at ambient temperatures (Ta) of ∼15 and 0°C. Interestingly, body temperature (Tb) also was significantly reduced from 34.7±0.6°C (Ta 15°C, not basking) to 30.4±2.0°C (Ta 0°C, basking), which resulted in an extremely low (thermal conductance. Induced torpor (food withheld) during respirometry at Ta 15°C occurred on 83.3±36.0% of days and the minimum torpor MR was 36% of basal MR at an average Tb of 22.0±2.6°C; movement to the basking lamp occurred at Tb50%) during radiant heat-assisted rewarming; however, radiant heat per se without an endogenous contribution by animals did not strongly affect metabolism and Tb during torpor. Our data show that basking substantially modifies thermal energetics in hamsters, with a drop of resting Tb and MR not previously observed and a reduction of rewarming costs. The energy savings afforded by basking in hamsters suggest that this behaviour is of energetic significance not only for mammals living in deserts, where basking is common, but also for P. sungorus and probably other cold-climate mammals. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Optimal Technological Development Path to Reduce Pollution and Restructure Iron and Steel Industry for Sustainable Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, M.; Xu, X.; Ermolieva, T.; Cao, G.-Y.; Yermoliev, Y.

    2018-01-01

    China is the world’s largest iron and steel producer and Jing-Jin-Ji (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) region accounts for nearly 1/3 of the national iron and steel production, while it is facing serious air pollution. Among the top 10 worst polluted cities in China, seven were located in Hebei province in 2014. Recent years Jing-Jin-Ji region has been promoted iron & steel industry with green clean technology for accelerating sustainable economic transition. This paper tries to response the basic ques...

  11. Changes of NSSS control system setpoint for operation at reduced temperature at YGN 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, I. H.; Son, S. H.; Lee, K. C.; Son, J. J.; Seo, J. T.; Lee, S. H.; Park, W. K.; Hwang, H. C.; Lee, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The differences of the design operational conditions and best estimate operational conditions, which were expected to be conditions during the plant operation, during the application of operation at reduced temperature at YGN 3 and 4 are larger than those during the construction period. Therefore, each sets of NSSS control system setpoints were generated for ORT design operational condition and for ORT best estimate operational condition. The analytical results shows that the plant performance requirements are satisfied by changing the NSSS control system setpoints for each operational conditions. The NSSS control system setpoints were changed after power operation after application of the ORT due to unexpected mismatch of plant conditions from the best estimate operational conditions. The plant conditions are needed to be monitored cycle by cycle for the detection of such conditions which requires the changing of the NSSS control system

  12. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN reduces damages to freezing temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eSU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are known to improve plant tolerance to multiple stresses, including low temperatures. However, mechanisms underlying this protection are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the endophytic PGPR, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN (Bp PsJN, on Arabidopsis thaliana cold tolerance using photosynthesis parameters as physiological markers.Under standard conditions, our results indicated that Bp PsJN inoculation led to growth promotion of Arabidopsis plants without significant modification on photosynthesis parameters and chloroplast organization. However, bacterial colonization induced a cell wall strengthening in the mesophyllImpact of inoculation modes (either on seeds or by soil irrigation and their effects overnight at 0, -1 or -3°C, were investigated by following photosystem II (PSII activity and gas exchanges. Following low temperatures stress, a decrease of photosynthesis parameters was observed. In addition, during three consecutive nights or days at -1°C, PSII activity was monitored. Pigment contents, RuBisCO protein abundance, expression of several genes including RbcS, RbcL, CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, ICE1, COR15a, and COR78 were evaluated at the end of exposure. To assess the impact of the bacteria on cell ultrastructure under low temperatures, microscopic observations were achieved. Results indicated that freezing treatment induced significant changes in PSII activity as early as the first cold day, whereas the same impact on PSII activity was observed only during the third cold night. The significant effects conferred by PsJN were differential accumulation of pigments, and reduced expression of RbcL and COR78. Microscopical observations showed an alteration/disorganization in A. thaliana leaf mesophyll cells independently of the freezing treatments. The presence of bacteria during the three successive nights or days did not significantly improved A

  13. Transient turbid water mass reduces temperature-induced coral bleaching and mortality in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is seen as one of the greatest threats to the world’s coral reefs and, with the continued rise in sea surface temperature predicted into the future, there is a great need for further understanding of how to prevent and address the damaging impacts. This is particularly so for countries whose economies depend heavily on healthy reefs, such as those of the eastern Caribbean. Here, we compare the severity of bleaching and mortality for five dominant coral species at six representative reef sites in Barbados during the two most significant warm-water events ever recorded in the eastern Caribbean, i.e., 2005 and 2010, and describe prevailing island-scale sea water conditions during both events. In so doing, we demonstrate that coral bleaching and subsequent mortality were considerably lower in 2010 than in 2005 for all species, irrespective of site, even though the anomalously warm water temperature profiles were very similar between years. We also show that during the 2010 event, Barbados was engulfed by a transient dark green turbid water mass of riverine origin coming from South America. We suggest that reduced exposure to high solar radiation associated with this transient water mass was the primary contributing factor to the lower bleaching and mortality observed in all corals. We conclude that monitoring these episodic mesoscale oceanographic features might improve risk assessments of southeastern Caribbean reefs to warm-water events in the future. PMID:27326377

  14. Thermophilic nitrate-reducing microorganisms prevent sulfate reduction in cold marine sediments incubated at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomnyashchaya, Yana; Rezende, Julia; Hubert, Casey

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen sulphide produced during metabolism of sulphate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) is toxic, corrosive and causes detrimental oil reservoir souring. During secondary oil recovery, injecting oil reservoirs with seawater that is rich in sulphate and that also cools high temperature formations provides favourable growth conditions for SRM. Nitrate addition can prevent metabolism of SRM by stimulating nitrate-reducing microorganisms (NRM). The investigations of thermophilic NRM are needed to develop mechanisms to control the metabolism of SRM in high temperature oil field ecosystems. We therefore established a model system consisting of enrichment cultures of cold surface marine sediments from the Baltic Sea (Aarhus Bay) that were incubated at 60°C. Enrichments contained 25 mM nitrate and 40 mM sulphate as potential electron acceptors, and a mixture of the organic substrates acetate, lactate, propionate, butyrate (5 mM each) and yeast extract (0.01%) as potential carbon sources and electron donors. Slurries were incubated at 60°C both with and without initial pasteurization at 80°C for 2 hours. In the enrichments containing both nitrate and sulphate, the concentration of nitrate decreased indicating metabolic activity of NRM. After a four-hour lag phase the rate of nitrate reduction increased and the concentration of nitrate dropped to zero after 10 hours of incubation. The concentration of nitrite increased as the reduction of nitrate progressed and reached 16.3 mM after 12 hours, before being consumed and falling to 4.4 mM after 19-day of incubation. No evidence for sulphate reduction was observed in these cultures during the 19-day incubation period. In contrast, the concentration of sulphate decreased up to 50% after one week incubation in controls containing only sulphate but no nitrate. Similar sulfate reduction rates were seen in the pasteurized controls suggesting the presence of heat resistant SRM, whereas nitrate reduction rates were lower in the

  15. Room-temperature synthesis and enhanced catalytic performance of silver-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thu, Tran Viet; Ko, Pil Ju; Phuc, Nguyen Huu Huy; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of supported, ultrasmall metallic nanoparticles (NPs) is of great importance for catalytic applications. In this study, silver-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrids (Ag–rGO NHs) were prepared by reducing Ag ions and graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature using sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) and trisodium citrate. The resulting products were characterized using UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The rich chemistry of GO surface provided many sites for the nucleation of Ag ions and efficiently limited their growth. Ag NPs were uniformly grown on basal planes of rGO with a high density (∼1,700 NPs μm −2 ) and well-defined size (3.6 ± 0.6 nm) as evidenced in SEM and HRTEM studies. The resulting Ag–rGO NHs were readily dispersed in water and exhibited enhanced catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol by NaBH 4 in comparison to unsupported Ag NPs. The role of rGO as an excellent support for Ag catalyst is discussed

  16. Room-temperature synthesis and enhanced catalytic performance of silver-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thu, Tran Viet, E-mail: thu@eiiris.tut.ac.jp; Ko, Pil Ju, E-mail: ko@eiiris.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (Japan); Phuc, Nguyen Huu Huy [Toyohashi University of Technology, Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering (Japan); Sandhu, Adarsh [Toyohashi University of Technology, Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    The synthesis of supported, ultrasmall metallic nanoparticles (NPs) is of great importance for catalytic applications. In this study, silver-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrids (Ag-rGO NHs) were prepared by reducing Ag ions and graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature using sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) and trisodium citrate. The resulting products were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The rich chemistry of GO surface provided many sites for the nucleation of Ag ions and efficiently limited their growth. Ag NPs were uniformly grown on basal planes of rGO with a high density ({approx}1,700 NPs {mu}m{sup -2}) and well-defined size (3.6 {+-} 0.6 nm) as evidenced in SEM and HRTEM studies. The resulting Ag-rGO NHs were readily dispersed in water and exhibited enhanced catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol by NaBH{sub 4} in comparison to unsupported Ag NPs. The role of rGO as an excellent support for Ag catalyst is discussed.

  17. Effect of reducing agents on low-temperature synthesis of nanostructured LiFePO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulka, Andrzej; Walczak, Katarzyna; Zając, Wojciech; Molenda, Janina

    2017-09-01

    Simple co-precipitation synthesis procedure yielding nanometric LiFePO4 with enhanced electrochemical properties without any post-synthesis heat treatment is presented. XRD, SEM and TEM analysis of the obtained powders revealed platelet crystallites and well crystalized bulk structure. Effective way of decreasing amount of Fe3+ containing phases by addition of reducing agents (KI, (NH4)2S2O3, glucose and the atmosphere of 5%H2-95%Ar) during low-temperature (107 °C) synthesis is described. The traditional analytical chemistry methods or the Mӧssbauer spectroscopy methods revealed that utilization of selected reducing agents diminished Fe3+ concentration from 25 to 12 at%. The constructed cells with optimized LiFePO4 as a cathode material showed superior electrochemical performances, including high reversible capacity up to 162 mAh/g at C/10 current discharge rate, flat voltage plateau with a value close to 3.45 V vs. Li0/+.

  18. Increasing ocean temperatures reduce activity patterns of a large commercially important coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J L; Messmer, V; Coker, D J; Hoey, A S; Pratchett, M S

    2014-04-01

    Large-bodied fish are critical for sustaining coral reef fisheries, but little is known about the vulnerability of these fish to global warming. This study examined the effects of elevated temperatures on the movement and activity patterns of the common coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), which is an important fishery species in tropical Australia and throughout the Indo West-Pacific. Adult fish were collected from two locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (23°S and 14°S) and maintained at one of four temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 °C). Following >4 weeks acclimation, the spontaneous swimming speeds and activity patterns of individuals were recorded over a period of 12 days. At 24-27 °C, spontaneous swimming speeds of common coral trout were 0.43-0.45 body lengths per second (bls(-1)), but dropped sharply to 0.29 bls(-1) at 30 °C and 0.25 bls(-1) at 33 °C. Concurrently, individuals spent 9.3-10.6% of their time resting motionless on the bottom at 24-27 °C, but this behaviour increased to 14.0% at 30 °C and 20.0% of the time at 33 °C (mean ± SE). The impact of temperature was greatest for smaller individuals (55 cm TL) were first affected by 30 °C and 33 °C, respectively. Importantly, there was some indication that populations can adapt to elevated temperature if presented with adequate time, as the high-latitude population decreased significantly in swimming speeds at both 30 °C and 33 °C, while the low-latitude population only showed significant reductions at 33 °C. Given that movement and activity patterns of large mobile species are directly related to prey encounter rates, ability to capture prey and avoid predators, any reductions in activity patterns are likely to reduce overall foraging and energy intake, limit the energy available for growth and reproduction, and affect the fitness and survival of individuals and populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Elevated CO2 reduced floret death in wheat under warmer average temperatures and terminal drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eDias de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Elevated CO2 often increases grain yield in wheat by enhancing grain number per ear, which can result from an increase in the potential number of florets or a reduction in the death of developed florets. The hypotheses that elevated CO2 reduces floret death rather than increases floret development, and that grain size in a genotype with more grains per unit area is limited by the rate of grain filling, were tested in a pair of sister lines contrasting in tillering capacity (restricted- vs free-tillering. The hypotheses were tested under elevated CO2, combined with +3 C above ambient temperature and terminal drought, using specialized field tunnel houses. Elevated CO2 increased net leaf photosynthetic rates and likely the availability of carbon assimilates, which significantly reduced the rates of floret death and increased the potential number of grains at anthesis in both sister lines by an average of 42%. The restricted-tillering line had faster grain-filling rates than the free-tillering line because the free-tillering line had more grains to fill. Furthermore, grain-filling rates were faster under elevated CO2 and +3 C above ambient. Terminal drought reduced grain yield in both lines by 19%. Elevated CO2 alone increased the potential number of grains, but a trade-off in yield components limited grain yield in the free-tillering line. This emphasizes the need for breeding cultivars with a greater potential number of florets, since this was not affected by the predicted future climate variables.

  20. Elevated CO2 Reduced Floret Death in Wheat Under Warmer Average Temperatures and Terminal Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias de Oliveira, Eduardo; Palta, Jairo A.; Bramley, Helen; Stefanova, Katia; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated CO2 often increases grain yield in wheat by enhancing grain number per ear, which can result from an increase in the potential number of florets or a reduction in the death of developed florets. The hypotheses that elevated CO2 reduces floret death rather than increases floret development, and that grain size in a genotype with more grains per unit area is limited by the rate of grain filling, were tested in a pair of sister lines contrasting in tillering capacity (restricted- vs. free-tillering). The hypotheses were tested under elevated CO2, combined with +3°C above ambient temperature and terminal drought, using specialized field tunnel houses. Elevated CO2 increased net leaf photosynthetic rates and likely the availability of carbon assimilates, which significantly reduced the rates of floret death and increased the potential number of grains at anthesis in both sister lines by an average of 42%. The restricted-tillering line had faster grain-filling rates than the free-tillering line because the free-tillering line had more grains to fill. Furthermore, grain-filling rates were faster under elevated CO2 and +3°C above ambient. Terminal drought reduced grain yield in both lines by 19%. Elevated CO2 alone increased the potential number of grains, but a trade-off in yield components limited grain yield in the free-tillering line. This emphasizes the need for breeding cultivars with a greater potential number of florets, since this was not affected by the predicted future climate variables. PMID:26635837

  1. Potential Impacts of Modifiable Behavioral and Environmental Exposures on Reducing Burden of Under-five Mortality Associated with Household Air Pollution in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Sabrina; Page, Andrew; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Household air pollution (HAP) is one of the leading causes of respiratory illness and deaths among young children in low and lower-middle income countries. This study examines for the first time trends in the association between HAP from cooking fuel and under-five mortality and measures the potential impact of interventions to reduce HAP using Nepal Demographic and Health Survey datasets (2001-2011). Methods A total of 17,780 living children across four age-groups (neonatal 0-28 days, post-neonatal 1-11 months, child 12-59 months and under-five 0-59 months) were included and multi-level logistic regression models were used for analyses. Population attributable fractions of key risk factors and potential impact fractions assessing the impact of previous interventions to reduce exposure prevalence were also calculated. Results Use of cooking fuel was associated with total under-five mortality (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.37-3.51, P = 0.001) in Nepal, with stronger associations evident for sub-group analyses of neonatal mortality (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.47-4.82, P = 0.001). Higher association was found in rural areas and for households without a separate kitchen using polluting fuel for cooking, and in women who had never breastfed for all age-groups of children. PIF estimates, assuming a 63% of reduction of HAP based on previously published interventions in Nepal, suggested that a burden of 40% of neonatal and 33% of under-five mortality cases associated with an indoor kitchen using polluting fuel could be avoidable. Conclusion Improved infrastructure and behavioral interventions could help reduce the pollution from cooking fuel in the household resulting in further reduction in under-five mortality in Nepal.

  2. Best management practices to reduce and prevent water pollution with herbicides from run-off and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The natural phenomenon of run-off and erosion lead to unpreventable pesticide water pollution in case of extreme weather conditions. In this relationship the use of herbicides involves a higher risk than other pesticides because of the specific terms of application. Directive 2009/128/EC for the sustainable use of pesticides aspires to enhanced water protection. German national action plan contains quantitative objectives which require strong reduction of water pollution by run-off and erosion of pesticides and accordingly herbicides. The European TOPPS prowadis project developed a consolidated and basic diagnosis concept for the first time to determine the field specific run-off risk. Compatible mitigation measures were linked to specific risk scenarios. Risk diagnosis and suitable mitigation measures determine best management practices for the prevention of run-off and erosion. Different new diagnosis methods and the implementation are presented. Further documents and information are available on the web [http://www.topps-life.org/].

  3. Protecting China's children: valuing the health impacts of reduced air pollution in Chinese cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, R.W.; Brajer, V. [California State University, Fullerton, CA (United States). Dept. of Economics

    2005-12-15

    As China advances its overall program of economic development, many Chinese cities consistently suffer from unhealthy levels of air pollution. One of the groups most affected is children. This paper provides some quantification regarding the extent of various morbidity costs upon children in portions of urban China. Using China-based health-effects and valuation studies, the authors project, and value in dollar figures, the number of averted cases of childhood colds, bronchitis, asthma, and respiratory-related hospital visits resulting from a lowering of air pollution levels. The results indicate that these child morbidity benefits may be substantial, with a mid-range value of nearly $3.5 billion over the period 2002-2011. (author)

  4. Methodologies of health impact assessment as part of an integrated approach to reduce effects of air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Aunan, Kristin; Seip, Hans Martin

    1995-01-01

    Quantification of average frequencies of health effects on a population level is an essential part of an integrated assessment of pollution effects. Epidemiological studies seem to provide the best basis for such estimates. This paper gives an introduction to a methodology for health impact assessment. It also gives results from some selected parts of a case-study in Hungary. This study is aimed at testing and improving the methodology for integrated assessment and focuses on energy productio...

  5. Dual direction blower system powered by solar energy to reduce car cabin temperature in open parking condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, N. S.; Radzi, M. F. M.; Damanhuri, A. A. M.; Mokhtar, S. N.

    2017-10-01

    El-nino phenomenon that strikes Malaysia with temperature recorded more than 35°C can lead to extreme temperature rise in car cabin up to 80°C. Various problems will arise due to this extreme rising of temperature such as the occupant are vulnerable to heat stroke, emission of benzene gas that can cause cancer due to reaction of high temperature with interior compartments, and damage of compartments in the car. The current solution available to reduce car cabin temperature including tinted of window and portable heat rejection device that are available in the market. As an alternative to reduce car cabin temperature, this project modifies the car’s air conditioning blower motor into dual direction powered by solar energy and identifies its influence to temperature inside the car, parked under scorching sun. By reducing the car cabin temperature up to 10°C which equal to 14% of reduction in the car cabin temperature, this simple proposed system aims to provide comfort to users due to its capability in improving the quality of air and moisture in the car cabin.

  6. Methodologies of health impact assessment as part of an integrated approach to reduce effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunan, K; Seip, H M

    1995-12-01

    Quantification of average frequencies of health effects on a population level is an essential part of an integrated assessment of pollution effects. Epidemiological studies seem to provide the best basis for such estimates. This paper gives an introduction to a methodology for health impact assessment and also the results from selected parts of a case study in Hungary. This case study is aimed at testing and improving the methodology for integrated assessment and focuses on energy production and consumption and implications for air pollution. Using monitoring data from Budapest, the paper gives estimates of excess frequencies of respiratory illness, mortality and other health end-points. For a number of health end-points, particles probably may serve as a good indicator component. Stochastic simulation is used to illustrate the uncertainties imbedded in the exposure-response function applied. The paper uses the ``bottom up approach`` to find cost-effective abatement strategies against pollution damages, where specific abatement measures such as emission standards for vehicles are explored in detail. It is concluded that in spite of large uncertainties in every step of the analysis, an integrated assessment of costs and benefits of different abatement measures is valuable as it clarifies the main objectives of an abatement policy and explicitly describes the adverse impacts of different activities and their relative importance. 46 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. School buses, air pollution and children's health : improving children's health and local air quality by reducing school bus emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, K. [Ontario Public Health Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    The exhaust gases from school buses was examined and recommendations were presented for the establishment of a healthy school bus program in Ontario that is directed at improving children's health and local air quality. The Ontario Public Health Association is concerned with school bus emissions because they are heavy-duty vehicles that emit large quantities of diesel-related air pollutants such as fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides and diesel particulates. In addition, school buses can be self-polluting vehicles that expose children on-board to high levels of fine particulates and diesel particulate matter. Both these pollutants have been associated with a range of acute and chronic health problems such as asthma, respiratory infections, allergies, and school absences. With nearly 800,000 Ontario children being transported on school buses annually, these exposures can represent a serious public health concern, as childhood exposures can also influence the health of exposed individuals later in life. Exposure studies have found that tailpipe and engine emissions contribute greatly to concentrations of air pollutants on-board school buses. The studies also showed that on-board concentrations were also influenced by local air quality in the communities studied, traffic density, wind direction, the configuration of windows, idling and queuing patterns. It was recommended that the use of ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel along with the installation of diesel particulate filters and closed crankcase filters can reduce the concentrations of air pollutants on-board school buses to almost ambient air levels, even under idling conditions. This report recommended the replacement of pre-1994 school buses, the retrofitting of 1994-2003 school buses with filters, and maintaining proper maintenance, idling and vehicle operation practices. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. The impact of traffic-related pollution and temperature on adverse birth outcomes in Madrid. An analysis of time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Díaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (< 37 weeks, low birth weight (< 2500 g and fetal mortality are perinatal morbi-mortality causes impacting public health, society and the economy. Their etiology is multifaceted. There is scientific evidence pointing to environmental variables being risk factors. The purpose of this study was to analyze and quantify the impact on a daily and a weekly basis of PM2.5, NO2 and O3 (μg/m3, noise levels (Leq, and temperature (°C on variables detrimental to health in Madrid from 2001 till 2009. Poisson regression models were prepared from an ecological study of time series, and the results were expressed in terms of the Relative Risk (RR. The environmental variables were included in previously identified explanatory delays. 298,705 births were analyzed: the average weekly prematurity was 7.5, the average low weight 6.9, and the average fetal mortality 3.7. In the case of preterm births, a relation with PM2.5 during the 2nd quarter of pregnancy [RR: 1.026 (1.018-1.034] and with Leq in the week prior to childbirth [RR: 1.020 (1.012-1.028] was detected. This impact was also noticeable in the daily results. In addition, heat waves also affect prematurity. With regard to low birth weight, noise levels had an impact throughout the pregnancy and the effect of NO2 during the 2nd quarter thereof. As for fetal mortality, the most significant effects were those of the three analyzed pollutants during the 2nd and 3rd quarters. The gestating population is a group that is particularly vulnerable to the analyzed environmental factors, so it should be taken into account in the existing prevention plans.

  9. Crop Model Improvement Reduces the Uncertainty of the Response to Temperature of Multi-Model Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, Andrea; Martre, Pierre; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Mueller, Christoph; Roetter, Reimund P.; Ruane, Alex C.; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Wallach, Daniel; Wang, Enli

    2016-01-01

    To improve climate change impact estimates and to quantify their uncertainty, multi-model ensembles (MMEs) have been suggested. Model improvements can improve the accuracy of simulations and reduce the uncertainty of climate change impact assessments. Furthermore, they can reduce the number of models needed in a MME. Herein, 15 wheat growth models of a larger MME were improved through re-parameterization and/or incorporating or modifying heat stress effects on phenology, leaf growth and senescence, biomass growth, and grain number and size using detailed field experimental data from the USDA Hot Serial Cereal experiment (calibration data set). Simulation results from before and after model improvement were then evaluated with independent field experiments from a CIMMYT worldwide field trial network (evaluation data set). Model improvements decreased the variation (10th to 90th model ensemble percentile range) of grain yields simulated by the MME on average by 39% in the calibration data set and by 26% in the independent evaluation data set for crops grown in mean seasonal temperatures greater than 24 C. MME mean squared error in simulating grain yield decreased by 37%. A reduction in MME uncertainty range by 27% increased MME prediction skills by 47%. Results suggest that the mean level of variation observed in field experiments and used as a benchmark can be reached with half the number of models in the MME. Improving crop models is therefore important to increase the certainty of model-based impact assessments and allow more practical, i.e. smaller MMEs to be used effectively.

  10. Community effectiveness of stove and health education interventions for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels in four Chinese provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zheng; Jin Yinlong; Liu Fan; Cheng Yibin; Liu Jiang; Kang Jiaqi; He Gongli; Tang Ning; Chen Xun; Baris, Enis; Ezzati, Majid

    2006-01-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass and coal is a leading cause of mortality and disease burden in the developing world. There is limited evidence of the community effectiveness of interventions for reducing IAP exposure. We conducted a community-based intervention study of stove and health education interventions in four low-income Chinese provinces: Gansu, Guizhou, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. Separate townships in one county in each province were assigned to stove plus behavioral interventions, behavioral interventions alone, and control. Data on household fuel and stove use, and on concentrations of respirable particles (RPM), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), were collected in peak and late heating seasons before and after interventions. The effectiveness of interventions was evaluated using difference-in-difference analysis. Pollutant concentrations were also measured in controlled tests, in which stoves were operated by expert users. In controlled tests, there was consistent and substantial reduction in concentrations of RPM (>88%) and CO (>66%); in the two coal-using provinces, SO 2 concentrations declined more in Shaanxi than in Guizhou. In community implementation, combined stove and behavioral interventions reduced the concentrations of pollutants in rooms where heating was the main purpose of stove use in the peak heating season, with smaller, non-significant, reduction in late heating season. Gansu was the only province where combined stove and behavioral interventions led to pollution reduction where cooking was the primary purpose of stove use. Compared to the control group, no significant IAP reductions were seen in groups with health education alone

  11. Graphene synthesis on SiC: Reduced graphitization temperature by C-cluster and Ar-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.; Li, H.; Zhang, Z.D.; Wang, Z.S.; Zhou, S.Y.; Wang, Z.; Li, T.C.; Liu, J.R.; Fu, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of SiC is a promising method for high quality production of wafer-scale graphene layers, when the high decomposition temperature of SiC is substantially reduced. The high decomposition temperature of SiC around 1400 °C is a technical obstacle. In this work, we report on graphene synthesis on 6H–SiC with reduced graphitization temperature via ion implantation. When energetic Ar, C 1 and C 6 -cluster ions implanted into 6H–SiC substrates, some of the Si–C bonds have been broken due to the electronic and nuclear collisions. Owing to the radiation damage induced bond breaking and the implanted C atoms as an additional C source the graphitization temperature was reduced by up to 200 °C

  12. Structure, temperature and frequency dependent electrical conductivity of oxidized and reduced electrochemically exfoliated graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoń, Adrian; Włodarczyk, Patryk; Łukowiec, Dariusz

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the influence of reduction by hydrogen in statu nascendi and modification by hydrogen peroxide on the structure and electrical conductivity of electrochemically exfoliated graphite. It was confirmed that the electrochemical exfoliation can be used to produce oxidized nanographite with an average number of 25 graphene layers. The modified electrochemical exfoliated graphite and reduced electrochemical exfoliated graphite were characterized by high thermal stability, what was associated with removing of labile oxygen-containing groups. The presence of oxygen-containing groups was confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Influence of chemical modification by hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide on the electrical conductivity was determined in wide frequency (0.1 Hz-10 kHz) and temperature range (-50 °C-100 °C). Material modified by hydrogen peroxide (0.29 mS/cm at 0 °C) had the lowest electrical conductivity. This can be associated with oxidation of unstable functional groups and was also confirmed by analysis of Raman spectra. The removal of oxygen-containing functional groups by hydrogen in statu nascendi resulted in a 1000-fold increase in the electrical conductivity compared to the electrochemical exfoliated graphite.

  13. Nanocellulose-assisted low-temperature synthesis and supercapacitor performance of reduced graphene oxide aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Ran, Ran; Sunarso, Jaka; Yin, Chao; Zou, Honggang; Feng, Yi; Li, Xiaobao; Zheng, Xu; Yao, Jianfeng

    2017-04-01

    Here, we have synthesized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) aerogels using a nanocellulose-assisted low temperature (less than 500 °C) thermal treatment route where nanocelluloses promote the gelation of graphene oxide (GO) solution that benefits the fabrication of GO aerogels from low concentration dispersion (2.85 mg mL-1), and after their thermal decomposition the residual nanofibers act as spacer both prevent the re-stacking of graphene sheets and integrate with rGO sheets to give a particular kind of carbon-based aerogel along with numerous defects (holes). Thermal decomposition of nanocellulose appears to be complete beyond 350 °C thus its presence in form of amorphous carbon nanofibers in rGO sheets. The rGO aerogels synthesized at 350 °C provide the best balance in terms of wide interlayer spacing, high content of CO-type functional groups, and high defects content. This translates into a high discharge capacitance of 270 F g-1 at a current rate of 1 A g-1 for compressed rGO aerogels without any binder or conductive additive. Detailed electrochemical tests using 6 M KOH electrolyte establish the fact that pseudocapacitance component has substantial contribution towards the overall capacitance; closely approaching the contribution of the double layer capacitance that is the most dominant capacitance component.

  14. Warmer temperatures reduce net carbon uptake, but not water use, in a mature southern Appalachian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing air temperature is expected to extend growing season length in temperate, broadleaf forests, leading to potential increases in evapotranspiration and net carbon uptake. However, other key processes affecting water and carbon cycles are also highly temperature-dependent...

  15. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  16. Proposing of an aerated water treatment plant for reducing water pollution problem in Losari Beach after reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Sri; Maharani, Hamzah, Muhammad Alimuddin

    2017-01-01

    Losari Beach is the most important site in Makassar. It lies at the west side of Makassar city. This place is known as the place where people are relaxed and gathering with friends or family after working, and now it becomes the icon of Makassar city. As the biggest city in eastern Indonesia, Makassar grows very fast. We can find constructions for building hospitals, shopping malls, bussines activities, and residences everywhere. The most important construction activities that will effect Losari Beach is the reclamation to build the Center Point of Indonesia that takes an area of 157 hectares and it is located at the west side of Losari Beach. In the last research presented in 9th International Conference on Marine Technology (October 2014) using surface-water modeling system (SMS) software showed that reclamation will significantly increase concentrations of BOD and COD (± 7 mg/L for BOD and 6.2 mg/L for COD). This condition will cause Losari Beach becomes very polluted. A probable solution to overcome this problem is to clean the wastewater before introducing to the sea. This paper will describe the type of the wastewater treatment plant that can be used to solve the water pollution problem in Losari Beach.

  17. Association between Traffic Air Pollution and Reduced Forced Vital Capacity: A Study Using Personal Monitors for Outdoor Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubiratan Paula Santos

    Full Text Available The effects of outdoor air pollution on lung function in adults are still controversial.Evaluate the effects of exposure to different levels of traffic-generated PM2.5 on workers' lung functions in São Paulo, Brazil.To cover a wide range of exposures, 101 non-smoking workers from three occupations (taxi drivers, traffic controllers, and forest rangers were selected for the study. After clinical evaluation, the participants were scheduled to attend four consecutive weekly visits in which they received a 24-hour personal PM2.5 sampler and had lung function tests measured on the following day. The association between the spirometric variables and the averaged PM2.5 levels was assessed using robust regression models adjusted for age, waist circumference, time at the job, daily work hours, diabetes or hypertension and former smoking habits.Relative to workers in the lowest exposed group (all measures 39.6 μg/m3 showed a reduction of predicted FVC (-12.2%; CI 95%: [-20.0% to -4.4%], a marginal reduction of predicted FEV1 (-9.1%; CI 95%: [-19.1% to 0.9%] and an increase of predicted FEF25-75%/FVC (14.9%; CI 95%: [2.9% to 26.8%] without changes of FEV1/FVC.Exposure to vehicular traffic air pollution is associated with a small but significant reduction of FVC without a reduction of FEV1/FVC.

  18. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    Air pollution emissions control strategies to reduce ozone precursor pollutants are analyzed by applying a photochemical modeling system. Simulations of air quality conditions during an ozone episode which occurred in June, 2006 are undertaken by increasing or reducing area source emissions in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Two air pollutants are primary drivers in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) undergo multiple chemical reactions under favorable meteorological conditions to form ozone, which is a secondary pollutant that irritates respiratory systems in sensitive individuals especially the elderly and young children. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to limit ambient air pollutants such as ozone by establishing an 8-hour average concentration of 0.075 ppm as the threshold at which a violation of the standard occurs. Ozone forms primarily due reactions in the troposphere of NOx and VOC emissions generated primarily by anthropogenic sources in urban regions. Data from emissions inventories indicate area sources account for ˜15 of NOx and ˜45% of regional VOC emissions. Area sources include gasoline stations, automotive paint bodyshops and nonroad mobile sources. Multiplicity of air pollution emissions sources provides an opportunity to investigate and potentially implement air quality improvement strategies to reduce emissions which contribute to elevated ozone concentrations. A baseline modeling scenario was established using the CAMx photochemical air quality model from which a series of sensitivity analyses for evaluating air quality control strategies were conducted. Modifications to area source emissions were made by varying NOx and / or VOC emissions in the areas of particular interest. Model performance was assessed for each sensitivity analysis. Normalized bias (NB) and normalized error (NE) were used to identify

  19. Can Energy Structure Optimization, Industrial Structure Changes, Technological Improvements, and Central and Local Governance Effectively Reduce Atmospheric Pollution in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Area in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxuan Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region has been achieved by consuming large amounts of fossil fuels. This produces a large number of pollutants, which damage the physical and mental health of residents, and prevent sustainable economic development. The most urgent task at present is improving the quality of the environment. This paper takes carbon emission as a pollution index, and adopts an extended stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology (STIRPAT model in order to study the impact of the optimization of industry structure (in particular the reduction of the proportion of energy-intensive secondary industry, the optimization of the energy structure, and technological improvements on the atmospheric environmental quality. We obtain some important and enlightening discoveries. First of all, the rapid economic growth that has been based on magnanimous fossil fuel consumption is still the main reason for the deterioration of the atmospheric environment. This means that the main driving force of economic growth still comes from high pollution industries, despite a strategy for the transformation of the pattern of economic growth having been proposed for many years. Second, the optimization of the industrial structure has not played a significant role in promoting the reduction of carbon emissions. Through further research, we believe that this may be due to the low-quality development of the third industry. In other words, the traditional service industry related to high energy consumption accounts for a large proportion in regional total output, while the high-end service industry related to small pollution accounts for a relatively small proportion. Third, reducing the consumption of coal and improving the technological level can effectively curb the deterioration of the environmental quality. In addition, we find that transboundary pollution is an important factor affecting the environment in

  20. Estimation of time-varying pollutant emission rates in a ventilated enclosure: inversion of a reduced model obtained by experimental application of the modal identification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, M; Maillet, D; Bonthoux, F; Galland, B; Martin, P; Braconnier, R; Fontaine, J R

    2008-01-01

    A method is proposed for the estimation of time-varying emission rates of pollutant sources in a ventilated enclosure, through the resolution of an inverse forced convection problem. Unsteady transport–diffusion of the pollutant is considered, with the assumption of a stationary velocity field remaining unchanged during emission (passive contaminant). The pollutant transport equation is therefore linear with respect to concentration. The source's location is also supposed to be known. As the first step, a reduced model (RM) linking concentrations at a set of control points to emission rates of sources is identified from experimental data by using the modal identification method (MIM). This parameter estimation problem uses transient contaminant concentration measurements made at control points inside the ventilated enclosure, corresponding to increasing and decreasing steps of emission rates. Such experimental modelling allows us to avoid dealing with a CFD code involving turbulence modelling and to get rid of uncertainties about sensors position. In a second step, the identified RM is used to solve an inverse forced convection problem: from contaminant concentration measured at the same control points, rates of sources emitting simultaneously are estimated with a sequential in time algorithm using future time steps

  1. Observation of reduced phase transition temperature in N-doped thermochromic film of monoclinic VO_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Meinan; Xiong, Mo; Li, Neng; Liu, Baoshun; Wang, Shuo; Ching, Wai-Yim; Zhao, Xiujian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • N-doped VO_2(M1) thin films have been synthesized by annealing in NH_3 atmosphere. • The phase purity, microstructure and optical property of VO_2 thin film can be regulated by NH_3 concentration. • First-principles calculations have been carried out to study the mechanism of N-doping on energy band structures of VO_2(M1). • The energy band gaps of VO_2(M1) are tuned by substitution N-doping or interstitial N-doping. - Abstract: Research on monoclinic (M1) phase of VO_2 has attracted a great of interest for smart coating applications due to its exceptional thermochromic property. Herein, we report the results using a novel approach to synthesize N-doped VO_2(M1) thin films with high purity by heat treatment in NH_3 atmosphere. The N dopant in the film can be regulated by varying NH_3 concentration during the annealing process. We find that the N atoms are located at the interstitial sites or substitute oxygen atoms, and the V-N bonds in the VO_2 thin films increase with NH_3 concentration. The metal to insulator transition (MIT) temperature (τ_c_,_h) of the VO_2 thin film is effectively reduced from 80.0 to 62.9 °C, while the solar modulation efficiency (ΔT_s_o_l) and the modulation efficiency at 2000 nm (ΔT_2_0_0_0_n_m) are 7.36% and 55.6% respectively. The band gap of N-doped VO_2 thin films related to MIT (E_g_1) is estimated to be as low as 0.18–0.25 eV whereas the band gap associated with the visible transparency (E_g_2) is about 1.50–1.58 eV. Based on the highly accurate first-principles calculations, the E_g_1 of VO_2 (M1) is reduced after substituted or interstitial N-doping, while the E_g_2 alters with the mode of N-doping, which is excellent agreement with experimental measurement.

  2. IMPACT OF REDUCING THE 100 C LIQUIDUS TEMPERATURE OFFSET ON WASTE LOADING TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-11

    The objective of this report is to assess the potential impact of reducing conservatism in the implementation of the current liquidus temperature (TL) model in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) on the ability to target higher waste loadings (WLs) for future sludge batches. No changes to the TL model or the associated uncertainties (model or measurement) are proposed, rather only changes in the magnitude of the offset used between the nominal melt pool temperature (1150 C) and the Property Acceptance Region (PAR) value (1050 C). This strategy is consistent with that outlined and initially assessed by Brown et al. (2001). In that report, the authors stated even a fairly conservative change in this safety factor could have a significant impact on waste loading. The results of this study clearly indicate that the implementation of an 1100 C TL PAR criterion (which translates into a reduction in the TL offset from 100 C to 50 C) can have significantly positive impacts on the ability to gain access to WLs exceeding 45%. This is especially true for those frit and sludge systems that are TL limited using the current 1050 C TL criterion, and are not limited by a second constraint (such as viscosity, nepheline, or durability) until much higher WLs. Examples of various glass forming systems are provided that are currently limited to maximum WLs in the mid-40s, but could be processed in the lower 50s through implementation of this new strategy. One example is in the Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) system, where for a specific glass forming system the projected operating window of 38-41% WL (using the current constraints) became 38-52% WL with the use of an 1100 C TL PAR value. This change both provided access to significantly higher WLs, and transitioned a once infeasible flowsheet to a system that could potentially be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This potential change in the TL constraint also provides access to frit compositions (or glass

  3. Efficiency of mitigation measures to reduce particulate air pollution--a case study during the Olympic Summer Games 2008 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Shulan

    2012-06-15

    Atmospheric particles were studied before, during, and after the period of the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the mitigation measures implemented by the Chinese Government. Total suspended particles (TSP) and fine particles (PM(2.5) and PM(1)) were collected continuously from October 2007 to February 2009 and were analyzed in detail with regard to mass and element concentrations, water-soluble ions, and black carbon (BC). Mass as well as element concentrations during the Olympic air quality control period were lower than the respective concentrations during the time directly before and after the Olympic Games. The results showed that the applied aerosol source control measures, such as shutting down industries and reducing traffic, had a huge impact on the reduction of aerosol pollution in Beijing. However, the meteorological conditions, especially rainfall, certainly also contributed to the successful reduction of particulate air pollution. Coarse particles were reduced more efficiently than finer particles, which indicates that long-range transport of atmospheric particles is difficult to control and that presumably the established mitigation area was not large enough. The study further showed that elements from predominantly anthropogenic sources, such as S, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb, as well as BC, were reduced more efficiently during the Olympic Games than elements for which geogenic sources are more significant, such as Al, Fe, Rb or Sr. Furthermore, the mentioned anthropogenic element concentrations were reduced more in the finer PM(2.5) samples whereas geogenic ones were reduced stronger in TSP samples including the coarser fraction. Consequently, it can be assumed that the mitigation measures, as intended, were successful in reducing more toxic and health-relevant particles from anthropogenic sources. Firework displays, especially at the Opening Ceremony, could be identified as a special short

  4. Cool temperatures reduce antifungal activity of symbiotic bacteria of threatened amphibians--implications for disease management and patterns of decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua H Daskin

    Full Text Available Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is a widespread disease of amphibians responsible for population declines and extinctions. Some bacteria from amphibians' skins produce antimicrobial substances active against Bd. Supplementing populations of these cutaneous antifungal bacteria might help manage chytridiomycosis in wild amphibians. However, the activity of protective bacteria may depend upon environmental conditions. Biocontrol of Bd in nature thus requires knowledge of how environmental conditions affect their anti-Bd activity. For example, Bd-driven amphibian declines have often occurred at temperatures below Bd's optimum range. It is possible these declines occurred due to reduced anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts at cool temperatures. Better understanding of the effects of temperature on chytridiomycosis development could also improve risk evaluation for amphibian populations yet to encounter Bd. We characterized, at a range of temperatures approximating natural seasonal variation, the anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts from the skins of three species of rainforest tree frogs (Litoria nannotis, Litoria rheocola, and Litoria serrata. All three species declined during chytridiomycosis outbreaks in the late 1980s and early 1990s and have subsequently recovered to differing extents. We collected anti-Bd bacterial symbionts from frogs and cultured the bacteria at constant temperatures from 8 °C to 33 °C. Using a spectrophotometric assay, we monitored Bd growth in cell-free supernatants (CFSs from each temperature treatment. CFSs from 11 of 24 bacteria showed reduced anti-Bd activity in vitro when they were produced at cool temperatures similar to those encountered by the host species during population declines. Reduced anti-Bd activity of metabolites produced at low temperatures may, therefore, partially explain the association between Bd-driven declines and cool temperatures. We show that to

  5. Cool temperatures reduce antifungal activity of symbiotic bacteria of threatened amphibians--implications for disease management and patterns of decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskin, Joshua H; Bell, Sara C; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Alford, Ross A

    2014-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a widespread disease of amphibians responsible for population declines and extinctions. Some bacteria from amphibians' skins produce antimicrobial substances active against Bd. Supplementing populations of these cutaneous antifungal bacteria might help manage chytridiomycosis in wild amphibians. However, the activity of protective bacteria may depend upon environmental conditions. Biocontrol of Bd in nature thus requires knowledge of how environmental conditions affect their anti-Bd activity. For example, Bd-driven amphibian declines have often occurred at temperatures below Bd's optimum range. It is possible these declines occurred due to reduced anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts at cool temperatures. Better understanding of the effects of temperature on chytridiomycosis development could also improve risk evaluation for amphibian populations yet to encounter Bd. We characterized, at a range of temperatures approximating natural seasonal variation, the anti-Bd activity of bacterial symbionts from the skins of three species of rainforest tree frogs (Litoria nannotis, Litoria rheocola, and Litoria serrata). All three species declined during chytridiomycosis outbreaks in the late 1980s and early 1990s and have subsequently recovered to differing extents. We collected anti-Bd bacterial symbionts from frogs and cultured the bacteria at constant temperatures from 8 °C to 33 °C. Using a spectrophotometric assay, we monitored Bd growth in cell-free supernatants (CFSs) from each temperature treatment. CFSs from 11 of 24 bacteria showed reduced anti-Bd activity in vitro when they were produced at cool temperatures similar to those encountered by the host species during population declines. Reduced anti-Bd activity of metabolites produced at low temperatures may, therefore, partially explain the association between Bd-driven declines and cool temperatures. We show that to avoid

  6. Modelling Common Agricultural Policy-Water Framework Directive interactions and cost-effectiveness of measures to reduce nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Russell, Graham; Topp, Cairistiona; Louhichi, Kamel; Moran, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Selecting cost-effective measures to regulate agricultural water pollution to conform to the Water Framework Directive presents multiple challenges. A bio-economic modelling approach is presented that has been used to explore the water quality and economic effects of the 2003 Common Agricultural Policy Reform and to assess the cost-effectiveness of input quotas and emission standards against nitrate leaching, in a representative case study catchment in Scotland. The approach combines a biophysical model (NDICEA) with a mathematical programming model (FSSIM-MP). The results indicate only small changes due to the Reform, with the main changes in farmers' decision making and the associated economic and water quality indicators depending on crop price changes, and suggest the use of target fertilisation in relation to crop and soil requirements, as opposed to measures targeting farm total or average nitrogen use.

  7. Bright light exposure reduces TH-positive dopamine neurons: implications of light pollution in Parkinson's disease epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Stefania; Viaggi, Cristina; Di Camillo, Daniela; Willis, Allison W; Lozzi, Luca; Rocchi, Cristina; Capannolo, Marta; Aloisi, Gabriella; Vaglini, Francesca; Maccarone, Rita; Caleo, Matteo; Missale, Cristina; Racette, Brad A; Corsini, Giovanni U; Maggio, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. Twenty-one days after birth, Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. At the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin formation and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. The rats exposed to bright light for 20 days or 90 days showed a relatively greater number of neuromelanin-positive neurons. Surprisingly, TH-positive neurons decreased progressively in the substantia nigra reaching a significant 29% reduction after 90 days of continuous bright light exposure. This decrease was paralleled by a diminution of dopamine and its metabolite in the striatum. Remarkably, in preliminary analysis that accounted for population density, the age and race adjusted Parkinson's disease prevalence significantly correlated with average satellite-observed sky light pollution.

  8. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Zhang; Xinxin Yu; Hongrui Hu; Yang Li; Mingzai Wu; Zhongzhu Wang; Guang Li; Zhaoqi Sun; Changle Chen

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4?7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, ?-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from ?-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via ?-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide ...

  9. Simulation and Experimental Study on Effect of Phase Change Material Thickness to Reduce Temperature of Photovoltaic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indartono, Y. S.; Prakoso, S. D.; Suwono, A.; Zaini, I. N.; Fernaldi, B.

    2015-09-01

    Solar energy is promising renewable energy which can be applied in Indonesia. Average solar radiation in the country is 4.8 kWh/day/m2. Weakness of silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) is efficiency reduction caused by temperature increase. Many attempts have been done to reduce PV temperature. In previous study, palm oil, which is widely available in Indonesia, is suitable to be used as phase change material (PCM) to reduce PV temperature. In this study, thickness of aluminium rectangular-tube containing phase change material oil is varied. The tube is placed at back part of PV. Numerical and experimental study was done to evaluate the effect of tube thickness to the temperature reduction of the PV. Variation of tube thickness used in the experiment is 50.8mm, 76.2 mm, 101.6 mm. Both studies show that increase of PCM thickness reduces PV temperature. Higher PCM thickness cause large reduction on PV temperature. Simulation result shows there is an optimum thickness of the PCM which is applied to the PV.

  10. Simulation and Experimental Study on Effect of Phase Change Material Thickness to Reduce Temperature of Photovoltaic Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indartono, Y S; Prakoso, S D; Suwono, A; Zaini, I N; Fernaldi, B

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is promising renewable energy which can be applied in Indonesia. Average solar radiation in the country is 4.8 kWh/day/m2. Weakness of silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) is efficiency reduction caused by temperature increase. Many attempts have been done to reduce PV temperature. In previous study, palm oil, which is widely available in Indonesia, is suitable to be used as phase change material (PCM) to reduce PV temperature. In this study, thickness of aluminium rectangular-tube containing phase change material oil is varied. The tube is placed at back part of PV. Numerical and experimental study was done to evaluate the effect of tube thickness to the temperature reduction of the PV. Variation of tube thickness used in the experiment is 50.8mm, 76.2 mm, 101.6 mm. Both studies show that increase of PCM thickness reduces PV temperature. Higher PCM thickness cause large reduction on PV temperature. Simulation result shows there is an optimum thickness of the PCM which is applied to the PV. (paper)

  11. Reducing CO2 emissions in temperature-controlled road transportation using the LDVRP model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingwerf, Helena M.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature-controlled transport is needed to maintain the quality of products such as fresh and frozen foods and pharmaceuticals. Road transportation is responsible for a considerable part of global emissions. Temperature-controlled transportation exhausts even more emissions than ambient

  12. Mechanisms controlling temperature dependent mechanical and electrical behavior of SiH4 reduced chemically vapor deposited W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, R.V.; Prasad, V.; Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Yu, M.; Norcott, M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of deposition temperature on growth, composition, structure, adhesion properties, stress, and resistivity of chemically vapor deposited W deposited purely by SiH 4 reduction of WF 6 are discussed. At lower deposition temperatures, due to incomplete Si reduction reaction, a small amount of Si is incorporated in the film. This elemental Si in W is responsible for the observed high stresses and high resistivities over a wide temperature range. With the increase in the deposition temperature, the conversion of incorporated Si as well as the initial Si reduction are taking place, stimulating increased grain growth and thereby relieving stress and reducing resistivity. The optimum values for stress and resistivity are achieved around 500 degree C, as Si content is at its minimum. At higher temperatures the reaction between residual Si and W, is the prime cause of resistivity increase

  13. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  14. The uncertainty of crop yield projections is reduced by improved temperature response functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Enli; Martre, Pierre; Zhao, Zhigan

    2017-01-01

    , we show that variations in the mathematical functions currently used to simulate temperature responses of physiological processes in 29 wheat models account for >50% of uncertainty in simulated grain yields for mean growing season temperatures from 14 °C to 33 °C. We derived a set of new temperature......Quality) and analysing their results against the HSC data and an additional global dataset from the International Heat Stress Genotpye Experiment (IHSGE)8 carried out by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). More importantly, we derive, based on newest knowledge and data, a set of new...

  15. Synchronous temperature rate control and apparatus for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    A refrigerator appliance configuration, and associated methods of operation, for an appliance with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The controller, by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system, depending on the appliance configuration, synchronizes alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature.

  16. The effects of zinc nanooxide on cellular stress responses of the freshwater mussels Unio tumidus are modulated by elevated temperature and organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falfushynska, Halina; Gnatyshyna, Lesya; Yurchak, Irina [Research Laboratory of Comparative Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ternopil National Pedagogical University, 46027, Kryvonosa Str. 2, Ternopil (Ukraine); Sokolova, Inna, E-mail: isokolov@uncc.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Stoliar, Oksana [Research Laboratory of Comparative Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ternopil National Pedagogical University, 46027, Kryvonosa Str. 2, Ternopil (Ukraine)

    2015-05-15

    decrease in the levels of protein carbonyls in all exposures except nZnO + Ta. Expos ure to n-ZnO in the absence of other stressors also led to a strong (∼7-fold) elevation of cathepsin D activity. Cellular responses to Zn{sup 2+} and n-ZnO were different indicating that n-ZnO was not due exclusively to Zn release. Ca-channel blocker Nfd affected intracellular Zn distribution (reflected in the prominent elevation of Zn-MT levels) and caused reductive stress indicated by elevated levels of reduced glutathione levels and an increase in lactate/pyruvate ratio (reflecting higher NADH/NAD ratio). Elevated temperature (25 °C) abolished most of the typical responses to n-ZnO and induced oxidative injury, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in n-ZnO-exposed mussels. DNA fragmentation was also induced by exposure to organic toxins (alone and in combination with n-ZnO) but not by n-ZnO alone. These data indicate that n-ZnO toxicity to freshwater organisms is modulated by organic pollutants and enhanced by elevated temperatures.

  17. The effects of zinc nanooxide on cellular stress responses of the freshwater mussels Unio tumidus are modulated by elevated temperature and organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falfushynska, Halina; Gnatyshyna, Lesya; Yurchak, Irina; Sokolova, Inna; Stoliar, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    levels of protein carbonyls in all exposures except nZnO + Ta. Expos ure to n-ZnO in the absence of other stressors also led to a strong (∼7-fold) elevation of cathepsin D activity. Cellular responses to Zn 2+ and n-ZnO were different indicating that n-ZnO was not due exclusively to Zn release. Ca-channel blocker Nfd affected intracellular Zn distribution (reflected in the prominent elevation of Zn-MT levels) and caused reductive stress indicated by elevated levels of reduced glutathione levels and an increase in lactate/pyruvate ratio (reflecting higher NADH/NAD ratio). Elevated temperature (25 °C) abolished most of the typical responses to n-ZnO and induced oxidative injury, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in n-ZnO-exposed mussels. DNA fragmentation was also induced by exposure to organic toxins (alone and in combination with n-ZnO) but not by n-ZnO alone. These data indicate that n-ZnO toxicity to freshwater organisms is modulated by organic pollutants and enhanced by elevated temperatures

  18. Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: the experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of

  19. Bootstrap-after-bootstrap model averaging for reducing model uncertainty in model selection for air pollution mortality studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven; Martin, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about findings of associations between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and mortality that have been based on a single "best" model arising from a model selection procedure, because such a strategy may ignore model uncertainty inherently involved in searching through a set of candidate models to find the best model. Model averaging has been proposed as a method of allowing for model uncertainty in this context. To propose an extension (double BOOT) to a previously described bootstrap model-averaging procedure (BOOT) for use in time series studies of the association between PM and mortality. We compared double BOOT and BOOT with Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and a standard method of model selection [standard Akaike's information criterion (AIC)]. Actual time series data from the United States are used to conduct a simulation study to compare and contrast the performance of double BOOT, BOOT, BMA, and standard AIC. Double BOOT produced estimates of the effect of PM on mortality that have had smaller root mean squared error than did those produced by BOOT, BMA, and standard AIC. This performance boost resulted from estimates produced by double BOOT having smaller variance than those produced by BOOT and BMA. Double BOOT is a viable alternative to BOOT and BMA for producing estimates of the mortality effect of PM.

  20. Low threading dislocation density aluminum nitride on silicon carbide through the use of reduced temperature interlayers

    KAUST Repository

    Foronda, Humberto M.; Wu, Feng; Zollner, Christian; Alif, Muhammad Esmed; Saifaddin, Burhan; Almogbel, Abdullah; Iza, Michael; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.

    2017-01-01

    temperature on the AlN crystal quality, defect density, and surface morphology. The crystal quality was characterized using omega rocking curve scans and the threading dislocation density was determined by plan view transmission electron microscopy. The growth

  1. Structure-property relationships in flavour-barrier membranes with reduced high-temperature diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitfeld, Kevin A.; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2009-01-01

    Encapsulation is used to decrease the premature release of volatile flavour ingredients while offering protection against environmental damage such as oxidation, light-induced reactions, etc. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) is investigated here as a 'smart,' temperature responsive membrane for flavour encapsulation and delivery. Gel films were synthesized and characterized by diffusion and small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. Increasing temperature typically increases the diffusion rate across a membrane; HPC, however, can be tailored to give substantially improved elevated temperature properties. Scattering results indicate processing conditions have a significant impact on membrane morphology (micro phase separation). Under certain synthetic conditions, micro phase separation is mitigated and the membranes show temperature-independent diffusivity between 25 C and 60 C.

  2. Multi-pollutant interactions in hyporheic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S.; Weatherill, J.; Bonet, B.; Blaen, P.; Khamis, K.; Cassidy, N. J.; Hannah, D. M.; Rivett, M. O.; Lynch, I.; Ullah, S.

    2017-12-01

    Hyporheic zones represent hotspots of biogeochemical reactivity, with the potential to attenuate pollutants and ameliorate their impact on ecosystem functioning. Sources and types of pollutants in streambed environments are manifold, with legacy industry contaminants, agricultural pollution and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals or engineered nanoparticles entering hyporheic zones along different flow paths where they mix and potentially react with each other. Current conceptualizations of drivers and controls of biogeochemical turnover in hyporheic zones highlight primarily the role of transport and reaction times but do not account for potential interactions between different pollutants. This study presents two case studies of multi-pollutant interactions to illustrate the need to consider interferences between different pollutants, their transport and reaction pathways for adequate impact assessment. We discuss in the first instance how the natural attenuation of a Trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume in an agricultural catchment is limited by high riparian and hyporheic nitrate concentrations. As nitrate outcompeted TCE in its reaction with organic carbon as electron donor, TCE attenuation was in this case limited to hyporheic denitrification hotspots. Hence any pollution control measures to reduce the impact of this TCE plume require a reduction of agricultural nitrate loads, highlighting the connectedness of legacy (TCE) and more recent (nitrate) pollution problems. In the second case, we investigate how the labile organic carbon content of streambed sediments as main control of hyporheic respiration is overridden by exposure to different silver nanoparticle concentrations, representing emerging pollutants in many of our rivers. Also in this case, the impacts of different stressors (nanoparticle exposure) and drivers (availability of organic matter, water temperature) are interacting in their impacts on hyporheic zone functioning. We argue that

  3. Temperature and pressure adaptation of a sulfate reducer from the deep subsurface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFichtel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life in deep marine subsurface faces increasing temperatures and hydrostatic pressure with depth. In this study, we have examined growth characteristics and temperature-related adaptation of the Desulfovibrio indonesiensis strain P23 to the in situ pressure of 30 MPa. The strain originates from the deep subsurface of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (IODP Site U1301. The organism was isolated at 20 °C and atmospheric pressure from ~61 °C-warm sediments approximately five meters above the sediment-basement interface. In comparison to standard laboratory conditions (20 °C and 0.1 MPa, faster growth was recorded when incubated at in situ pressure and high temperature (45 °C, while cell filamentation was induced by further compression. The maximum growth temperature shifted from 48°C at atmospheric pressure to 50°C under high-pressure conditions. Complementary cellular lipid analyses revealed a two-step response of membrane viscosity to increasing temperature with an exchange of unsaturated by saturated fatty acids and subsequent change from branched to unbranched alkyl moieties. While temperature had a stronger effect on the degree of fatty acid saturation and restructuring of main phospholipids, pressure mainly affected branching and length of side chains. The simultaneous decrease of temperature and pressure to ambient laboratory conditions allowed the cultivation of our moderately thermophilic strain. This may in turn be one key to a successful isolation of microorganisms from the deep subsurface adapted to high temperature and pressure.

  4. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  5. Smoke flow temperature beneath tunnel ceiling for train fire at subway station: Reduced-scale experiments and correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Na; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Zhaoxia; Li, Xiao; Yang, He

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced-scale experiments on train fire at subway station. • Smoke flow temperature beneath tunnel ceiling measured and correlated. • Effect of platform-tunnel conjunction door type on smoke temperature is clarified. - Abstract: This paper is to investigate the smoke flow temperature beneath tunnel ceiling for a train on fire stopping besides a subway station. Experiments were carried out in a reduced-scale (1:10) subway station model to study the maximum smoke temperature and the longitudinal temperature distribution beneath the tunnel ceiling by considering platform-tunnel conjunction doors of two types: the full-seal platform screen door (PSD) and the full-height safety door. For the maximum temperature beneath the tunnel ceiling, it is found to be well correlated non-dimensionally with heat release rate by a 3.65 and a 2.92 power law function for the full-seal platform screen door and the full-height safety door, respectively. For the longitudinal temperature distribution along the tunnel ceiling, it can be well correlated by an exponential function for both types of platform-tunnel conjunction doors. Concerning the effect of the door type, the maximum temperature is lower and the longitudinal temperature decays faster for full-height safety door than that for full-seal PSD. This is due to that with the full-height safety door, the effective width of the tunnel ceiling is widened, which results in more heat losses from the smoke flow to the ceiling.

  6. Shape-Dependent Activity of Ceria for Hydrogen Electro-Oxidation in Reduced-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaofeng; Luo, Ting; Meng, Xie; Wu, Hao; Li, Junliang; Liu, Xuejiao; Ji, Xiaona; Wang, Jianqiang; Chen, Chusheng; Zhan, Zhongliang

    2015-11-04

    Single crystalline ceria nanooctahedra, nanocubes, and nanorods are hydrothermally synthesized, colloidally impregnated into the porous La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) scaffolds, and electrochemically evaluated as the anode catalysts for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Well-defined surface terminations are confirmed by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy--(111) for nanooctahedra, (100) for nanocubes, and both (110) and (100) for nanorods. Temperature-programmed reduction in H2 shows the highest reducibility for nanorods, followed sequentially by nanocubes and nanooctahedra. Measurements of the anode polarization resistances and the fuel cell power densities reveal different orders of activity of ceria nanocrystals at high and low temperatures for hydrogen electro-oxidation, i.e., nanorods > nanocubes > nanooctahedra at T ≤ 450 °C and nanooctahedra > nanorods > nanocubes at T ≥ 500 °C. Such shape-dependent activities of these ceria nanocrystals have been correlated to their difference in the local structure distortions and thus in the reducibility. These findings will open up a new strategy for design of advanced catalysts for reduced-temperature SOFCs by elaborately engineering the shape of nanocrystals and thus selectively exposing the crystal facets. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Analysis of Catalitic Reactors Usefulness to Reduce Pollution Generated by Piston Combustion Engines with Regard to Ship Main Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielińska Edyta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results which indicate that the use of catalytic reactors to reduce emissions of harmful compunds contained in the exhaust gas is important in the operation of vehicle motors operation. Efforts of the shipbuilding industry to reduce the toxicity of exhaust gas emitted by the main engines have been indicated and pointed to the desirability of the use of these catalysts in maritime transport. It has been pointed out that studies of the harmful substances in exhaust gases performer at vehicle inspection stations have an impact on increasing the safety of drivers and other road users and contribute to preserving the natural environment by reducing the danger coming from cars operating on Polish roads. An opinion has been expressed that the most serious threats to the environment are emitted by car transport exhaust fumes, which are characterized by significant emission of toxic compounds excreted into the atmosphere from tailpipe emissions.

  8. Benefits of reducing prenatal exposure to coal-burning pollutants to children's neurodevelopment in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, F.; Li, T.Y.; Zhou, Z.J.; Yuan, T.; Chen, Y.H.; Qu, L.R.; Rauh, V.A.; Zhang, Y.G.; Tang, D.L. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

    2008-10-15

    Coal burning provides 70% of the energy for China's industry and power, but releases large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other pollutants. PAHs are reproductive and developmental toxicants, mutagens, and carcinogens. We evaluated the benefit to neurobehavioral development from the closure of a coal-fired power plant that was the major local source of ambient PAHs. The research was conducted in Tongliang, Chongqing, China, where a coal-fired power plant operated seasonally before it was shut down in May 2004. Two identical prospective cohort studies enrolled nonsmoking women and their newborns in 2002 (before shutdown) and 2005 (after shutdown). Prenatal PAH exposure was measured by PAH-DNA adducts (benzo(a)pyrene-DNA) in umbilical cord blood. Child development was assessed by the Gesell Developmental Schedules at 2 years of age. Prenatal exposure to other neurotoxicants and potential confounders (including lead, mercury, and environmental tobacco smoke) was measured. We compared the cohorts regarding the association between PAH-DNA adduct levels and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Significant associations previously seen in 2002 between elevated adducts and decreased motor area developmental quotient (DQ) (p = 0.043) and average DQ (p = 0.047) were not observed in the 2005 cohort (p = 0.546 and p = 0.146). However, the direction of the relationship did not change. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral development in Tongliang children benefitedby elimination of PAH exposure from the coal-burning plant, consistent with the significant reduction in PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood of children in the 2005 cohort. The results have implications for children's environmental health in China and elsewhere.

  9. Effectiveness of Six Improved Cookstoves in Reducing Household Air Pollution and Their Acceptability in Rural Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilishvili, Tamara; Loo, Jennifer D; Schrag, Stephanie; Stanistreet, Debbi; Christensen, Bryan; Yip, Fuyuen; Nyagol, Ronald; Quick, Robert; Sage, Mike; Bruce, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) from biomass fuel burning is linked to poor health outcomes. Improved biomass cookstoves (ICS) have the potential to improve HAP. A pre-/post- intervention study assessed the impact of six ICS on indoor air quality and acceptability of ICS to local users in rural Western Kenya. We measured mean personal and kitchen level concentrations of particulate matter <2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5, μg/m3) and carbon monoxide (CO, ppm) during the 48-hour period of each ICS use in 45 households. We compared these levels to those observed with traditional 3-stone fire (TSF) use. We assessed ICS acceptability through interviews and focus groups. We evaluated association of stove type, fuel use, and factors related to cooking practices with mean kitchen PM2.5 and CO using multivariable regression. Stove type, exclusive ICS use (vs. concurrent TSF use), and the amount of fuel used were independently associated with kitchen PM2.5 and CO levels. Reductions (95%CI) in mean PM2.5 compared to TSF, ranged by ICS from 11.9% (-2.8-24.5) to 42.3% (32.3-50.8). Reductions in kitchen CO compared to TSF, ranged by ICS from -5.8% (-21.9-8.2) to 34.5% (23.2-44.1). Mean kitchen PM2.5 ranged from 319μg/m3 to 518μg/m3 by ICS. Women thought ICS were easy to use, more efficient, produced less smoke, and cooked faster, compared to TSF. Women also reported limitations for each ICS. We documented reductions in HAP from ICS compared to TSF. The PM2.5 levels with ICS use were still considerably higher than WHO indoor air quality guidelines. Achieving maximal potential of ICS requires adherence to more exclusive use and addressing user reported ICS limitations.

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMUM LEVEL TO REDUCE POLLUTION AND OF THE INDICATOR OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY A TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan DOBROTA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of anytechnologicalprocesscauseenvironmentalpollution, andthisimplies a reductionin the quality of theworkenvironmentandthe ambient environment. In theseconditions, inthispaperwasaimedtoestablishingtheoptimumpointto reduce pollutionaccordingtoexpenditure made to reduceandpreventenvironmentalpollution , but it wasdeterminedthepoint of reduction of ofpollutionbased onthecostsand social utilities. It wasalsodeterminedhowthecorrect design of a technologicalprocess or anactivitywithenvironmental impact consideringenvironmental quality indicator for eachstage of it.

  11. Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elements which constitute an important class of pollutants. Such pollutants ... spheric transport processes. In rural regions ... response of redox potential: those which are fixed in reducing conditions ... pollution in urban areas of northern Britain in the eighteenth .... adjusting the desired flame condition, the instrument is cali-.

  12. Study of graphene growth on copper foil by pulsed laser deposition at reduced temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elhamid, Abd Elhamid M.; Hafez, Mohamed A.; Aboulfotouh, Abdelnaser M.; Azzouz, Iftitan M.

    2017-01-01

    Graphene has been successfully grown on commercial copper foil at low temperature of 500 °C by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction patterns showed that films have been grown in the presence of Cu(111) and Cu(200) facets. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to study the effects of temperature, surface structure, and cooling rate on the graphene growth. Raman spectra indicate that the synthesis of graphene layers rely on the surface quality of the Cu substrate together with the proper cooling profile coupled with graphene growth temperature. PLD-grown graphene film on Cu has been verified by transmission electron microscopy. Surface mediated growth of graphene on Cu foil substrate revealed to have a favorable catalytic effect. High growth rate of graphene and less defects can be derived using fast cooling rate.

  13. Increasing thermal drying temperature of biosolids reduced nitrogen mineralisation and soil N2O emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, Sean; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies found that thermally dried biosolids contained more mineralisable organic nitrogen (N) than the raw or anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids they were derived from. However, the effect of thermal drying temperature on biosolid N availability is not well understood. This will be o......Previous studies found that thermally dried biosolids contained more mineralisable organic nitrogen (N) than the raw or anaerobically digested (AD) biosolids they were derived from. However, the effect of thermal drying temperature on biosolid N availability is not well understood...

  14. Increasing the efficiency of heating systems by reducing the flue gas temperature below the dew point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, H.

    1981-06-01

    This paper deals with the fundamentals and technical possibilities of increasing the combustion efficiency of gas-fired heating units for domestic heating by cooling the flue gases below their water vapor saturation temperature. The improvement of the efficiency can be more than 15% in comparison even to modern warm water heating boilers. Important however is the availability of cooling fluids of sufficiently low temperatures which could be recirculated heating water, freshwater and air. Different possible applications of this method are discussed in detail.

  15. A Flexible Temperature Sensor Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Robot Skin Used in Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanyu; Tan, Qiulin; Kou, Hairong; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jinqi; Lv, Wen; Dong, Helei; Xiong, Jijun

    2018-05-02

    Flexible electronics, which can be distributed on any surface we need, are highly demanded in the development of Internet of Things (IoT), robot technology and electronic skins. Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter, and it is an important indicator in many applications. Therefore, a flexible temperature sensor is required. Here, we report a simple method to fabricate three lightweight, low-cost and flexible temperature sensors, whose sensitive materials are reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). By comparing linearity, sensitive and repeatability, we found that the r-GO temperature sensor had the most balanced performance. Furthermore, the r-GO temperature sensor showed good mechanical properties and it could be bent in different angles with negligible resistance change. In addition, the performance of the r-GO temperature sensor remained stable under different kinds of pressure and was unaffected by surrounding environments, like humidity or other gases, because of the insulating layer on its sensitive layer. The easy-fabricated process and economy, together with the remarkable performance of the r-GO temperature sensor, suggest that it is suitable for use as a robot skin or used in the environment of IoT.

  16. A Flexible Temperature Sensor Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Robot Skin Used in Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyu Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronics, which can be distributed on any surface we need, are highly demanded in the development of Internet of Things (IoT, robot technology and electronic skins. Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter, and it is an important indicator in many applications. Therefore, a flexible temperature sensor is required. Here, we report a simple method to fabricate three lightweight, low-cost and flexible temperature sensors, whose sensitive materials are reduced graphene oxide (r-GO, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. By comparing linearity, sensitive and repeatability, we found that the r-GO temperature sensor had the most balanced performance. Furthermore, the r-GO temperature sensor showed good mechanical properties and it could be bent in different angles with negligible resistance change. In addition, the performance of the r-GO temperature sensor remained stable under different kinds of pressure and was unaffected by surrounding environments, like humidity or other gases, because of the insulating layer on its sensitive layer. The easy-fabricated process and economy, together with the remarkable performance of the r-GO temperature sensor, suggest that it is suitable for use as a robot skin or used in the environment of IoT.

  17. Threshold temperatures mediate the impact of reduced snow cover on overwintering freeze-tolerant caterpillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Katie E.; Sinclair, Brent J.

    2012-01-01

    Decreases in snow cover due to climate change could alter the energetics and physiology of ectothermic animals that overwinter beneath snow, yet how snow cover interacts with physiological thresholds is unknown. We applied numerical simulation of overwintering metabolic rates coupled with field validation to determine the importance of snow cover and freezing to the overwintering lipid consumption of the freeze-tolerant Arctiid caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella. Caterpillars that overwintered above the snow experienced mean temperatures 1.3°C lower than those below snow and consumed 18.36 mg less lipid of a total 68.97-mg reserve. Simulations showed that linear temperature effects on metabolic rate accounted for only 30% of the difference in lipid consumption. When metabolic suppression by freezing was included, 93% of the difference between animals that overwintered above and below snow was explained. Our results were robust to differences in temperature sensitivity of metabolic rate, changes in freezing point, and the magnitude of metabolic suppression by freezing. The majority of the energy savings was caused by the non-continuous reduction in metabolic rate due to freezing, the first example of the importance of temperature thresholds in the lipid use of overwintering insects.

  18. Sulfate reducing processes at extreme salinity and temperature. extending its application window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallero, M.V.G.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of various sulfate-rich wastewaters, such as temperature, pH and salinity, are determined by the (industrial) process from which they originate, and can be far from the physiological optima of the sulfur cycle microorganisms. The main goal of the research described in this thesis

  19. Reduced substrate supply limits the temperature response of soil organic carbon decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Randall K. Kolka

    2013-01-01

    Controls on the decomposition rate of soil organic carbon (SOC), especially the more stable fraction of SOC, remain poorly understood, with implications for confidence in efforts to model terrestrial C balance under future climate. We investigated the role of substrate supply in the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition in laboratory incubations of coarse-...

  20. Photochemical air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Te Winkel, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    During periods of severe photochemical air pollution (smog) the industry in the Netherlands is recommended by the Dutch government to strongly reduce the emissions of air pollutants. For the electric power generating companies it is important to investigate the adequacy of this policy. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the contribution of electric power plants to photochemical air pollution and to assess the efficacy of emission reducing measures. A literature survey on the development of photochemical air pollution was carried out and modelled calculations concerning the share of the electric power plants to the photochemical air pollution were executed

  1. Short Communication - Aquatic Oil Pollution Impact Indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic oil pollution impact indicators such as oil-grease, low dissolved oxygen concentration, increased biochemical oxygen demand, increased water temperature and acidity of the water are associated with aquatic habitat degradation, reduced productivity and or loss of biodiversity. These impact indicators are ...

  2. Instruments to reduce pollutant emissions of the existing inland vessel fleet. Position paper for international workshop 'Emissions from the Legacy Fleet'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, E.

    2011-11-15

    Inland waterway transport (IWT) has a key performance on the GHG emissions per tonne kilometre shipped. Due to its potential to limit climate change, the recent EU Transport White Paper has set high goals for the non-road modes. The Ports of Rotterdam (NL), Antwerp (BE) and others strive to increase the use of IWT in their hinterland transport. The Port of Rotterdam authority has imposed a modal split on the newly built container terminals, thus increasing the use of rail and IWT. The growth is estimated to result in a quadrupling of inland barge container traffic on the Rhine corridor in the timeframe 2010-2035. Local air quality is another environmental issue, however, that plays a key role. Due to reasons of long ship engine lifetimes and progress made in road transport emissions, IWT needs to improve its air pollution profile. To turn the potential of IWT into real growth, it is important to: improve the air pollutant profile of inland shipping; take responsibility to maintain the air quality levels along inland waterway corridors over Europe, especially in urban areas where road transport, industry and IWT contribute to levels that will need to be in accordance with the EU air quality directive 2008/51. A new set of standards for new engines will shortly be proposed by the European Commission to be introduced in 2016. However, these will probably not be as tight as the Euro-VI standards for road transport. In addition, the long lifetime of inland barge engines (30,000 to over 200,000 hours, depending on the engine type) will result in a slow uptake of the phase-IV engines in the fleet. The German and Dutch authorities have the opinion that not only the air pollutant emissions of new engines need to be curbed, but deliberate over the development of instruments that will reduce the pollutant emissions of the existing fleet (legacy fleet), in addition to the limitedly effective subsidy schemes applied in recent years. This paper demonstrates the need for measures

  3. Réduction de la pollution atmosphérique due à l'automobile et économie d'énergie Reducing Air Pollution Caused by Automobiles and Energy Conservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salé B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'action engagée dans les pays industriels pour réduire la pollution atmosphérique doit maintenant tenir compte, plus encore que par le passé, de la nécessité, imposée par la conjoncture, d'économiser l'énergie. L'article est consacré à l'étude de la compatibilité de ces deux objectifs en ce qui concerne l'automobile. L'ensemble des actions antigaspillage ou antipollution ne portant pas sur le générateur d'énergie constitue un domaine de compatibilité évident. En revanche la réduction des émissions de polluants nécessite des modifications plus ou moins profondes du moteur dont certaines peuvent poser des problèmes du point de vue de l'économie d'énergie. Dans le but de préciser la nature de ces problèmes, les techniques antipollution correspondant à différents niveaux de limitation des émissions sont examinées du point de vue de leur coût, de leur incidence sur la consommation de carburant et de leur interaction avec les procédés visant à l'économie d'énergie. Sont ainsi passés en revue les moyens de réduction des émissions basés sur une amélioration de la combustion, les procédés de post-combustion, le problème de la réduction de la teneur en plomb des essences. Cette analyse montre que dans une large mesure la réduction des émissions de polluants et la diminution de la consommation sont des objectifs compatibles, mais que la difficulté des problèmes à résoudre pour que les mesures antipollution n'aient pas d'effet négatif au plan de l'économie d'énergie croît très rapidement avec la sévérité de ces mesures au-delà d'un certain niveau. L'effort de recherche entrepris dans le monde sur ce thème devrait progressivement permettre à la fois de réduire encore de façon substantielle les émissions de polluants et d'améliorer le rendement des moteurs. Efforts made by industrialized countries ta reduce air pollution must now, more than ever, give consideration to the need for energy

  4. Measurements of water temperature in fountains as an indicator of potential secondary water pollution caused by Legionella bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąk, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    At high air temperatures persisting for a long time, water temperature in the fountains may also increase significantly. This can cause a sudden and significant increase in Legionella bacteria, which results in secondary water contamination. This phenomenon with water - air aerosol generated by fountains can be very dangerous for people. During the test, water temperature measurements in fountains in Poland were made. These research tests was conducted in the spring and summer. The research was conducted in order to determine whether there is a possibility of growth of Legionella bacteria. One of the aims of the study was to determine what temperature range occurs in the fountains and how the temperature changes in the basin of the fountain and when the highest temperature occurs. Single temperature measurements were made and also the temperature distribution was measured during daylight hours. The water temperature in most cases was greater than 20°C, but in no case exceed 26°C. The paper presents also the review about the effect of water temperature on the presence and bacterial growth. The study confirmed the existence of the risk of increasing the number of bacteria of the genus Legionella in the water in the fountains.

  5. Measurements of water temperature in fountains as an indicator of potential secondary water pollution caused by Legionella bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At high air temperatures persisting for a long time, water temperature in the fountains may also increase significantly. This can cause a sudden and significant increase in Legionella bacteria, which results in secondary water contamination. This phenomenon with water – air aerosol generated by fountains can be very dangerous for people. During the test, water temperature measurements in fountains in Poland were made. These research tests was conducted in the spring and summer. The research was conducted in order to determine whether there is a possibility of growth of Legionella bacteria. One of the aims of the study was to determine what temperature range occurs in the fountains and how the temperature changes in the basin of the fountain and when the highest temperature occurs. Single temperature measurements were made and also the temperature distribution was measured during daylight hours. The water temperature in most cases was greater than 20°C, but in no case exceed 26°C. The paper presents also the review about the effect of water temperature on the presence and bacterial growth. The study confirmed the existence of the risk of increasing the number of bacteria of the genus Legionella in the water in the fountains.

  6. Interactive effects of ocean acidification, elevated temperature, and reduced salinity on early-life stages of the pacific oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ginger W K; Dineshram, R; Campanati, Camilla; Chan, Vera B S; Havenhand, Jon; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2014-09-02

    Ocean acidification (OA) effects on larvae are partially attributed for the rapidly declining oyster production in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. This OA effect is a serious concern in SE Asia, which produces >80% of the world's oysters. Because climate-related stressors rarely act alone, we need to consider OA effects on oysters in combination with warming and reduced salinity. Here, the interactive effects of these three climate-related stressors on the larval growth of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were examined. Larvae were cultured in combinations of temperature (24 and 30 °C), pH (8.1 and 7.4), and salinity (15 psu and 25 psu) for 58 days to the early juvenile stage. Decreased pH (pH 7.4), elevated temperature (30 °C), and reduced salinity (15 psu) significantly delayed pre- and post-settlement growth. Elevated temperature lowered the larval lipid index, a proxy for physiological quality, and negated the negative effects of decreased pH on attachment and metamorphosis only in a salinity of 25 psu. The negative effects of multiple stressors on larval metamorphosis were not due to reduced size or depleted lipid reserves at the time of metamorphosis. Our results supported the hypothesis that the C. gigas larvae are vulnerable to the interactions of OA with reduced salinity and warming in Yellow Sea coastal waters now and in the future.

  7. Synchronous compartment temperature control and apparatus for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Stephen J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    A refrigerator appliance configuration, and associated methods of operation, for an appliance with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The controller, by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system, depending on the appliance configuration, controls the cooling rate in one or both compartments to synchronize, alternating cycles of cooling the compartments to their set point temperatures.

  8. Waste Tyres as Heat Sink to Reduce the Driveway Surface Temperatures in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Aniza Abdul Aziz; Sreenivasaiah Purushothama Rao; Elias Salleh

    2013-01-01

    The development of roads and driveways are on the rise as automobiles are now a necessity to all. This excessive development with its requirements increased the urban heat temperature and the generation of waste tyres. Waste tyre management has therefore been taken seriously by developed countries and since the European directive to ban used tyre products and whole tire disposal from landfill in 2003 and 2006 respectively, many researchers have looked for alternative ways to use the waste tyr...

  9. Low temperatures reduce skin healing in the Jacaré do Pantanal (Caiman yacare, Daudin 1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Nogueira Pressinotti

    2013-09-01

    Studies of skin wound healing in crocodilians are necessary given the frequent occurrence of cannibalism in intensive farming systems. Air temperature affects tissue recovery because crocodilians are ectothermic. Therefore, the kinetics of skin wound healing in Caiman yacare were examined at temperatures of 33°C and 23°C. Sixteen caiman were selected and divided into two groups of eight maintained at 23°C or 33°C. The studied individuals' scars were photographed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days of the experimental conditions, and samples were collected for histological processing after 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. Macroscopically, the blood clot (heterophilic granuloma noticeably remained in place covering the wound longer for the caiman kept at 23°C. Microscopically, the temperature of 23°C slowed epidermal migration and skin repair. Comparatively, new blood vessels, labeled using von Willebrand factor (vWF antibody staining, were more frequently found in the scars of the 33°C group. The collagen fibers in the dermis were denser in the 33°C treatment. Considering the delayed healing at 23°C, producers are recommended to keep wounded animals at 33°C, especially when tanks are cold, to enable rapid wound closure and better repair of collagen fibers because such lesions tend to compromise the use of their skin as leather.

  10. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and

  11. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartono R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM regulation in order to achieve “Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik” (CPOB of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  12. A paddy eco-ditch and wetland system to reduce non-point source pollution from rice-based production system while maintaining water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yujiang; Peng, Shizhang; Luo, Yufeng; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong

    2015-03-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution from agricultural drainage has aroused widespread concerns throughout the world due to its contribution to eutrophication of water bodies. To remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural drainage in situ, a Paddy Eco-ditch and Wetland System (PEDWS) was designed and built based on the characteristics of the irrigated rice district. A 2-year (2012-2013) field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of this system in Gaoyou Irrigation District in Eastern China. The results showed that the reduction in water input in paddy field of the PEDWS enabled the maintenance of high rice yield; it significantly increased irrigation water productivity (WPI), gross water productivity (WPG), and evapotranspiration water productivity (WPET) by 109.2, 67.1, and 17.6%, respectively. The PEDWS dramatically decreased N and P losses from paddy field. Compared with conventional irrigation and drainage system (CIDS), the amount of drainage water from PEDWS was significantly reduced by 56.2%, the total nitrogen (TN) concentration in drainage was reduced by 42.6%, and thus the TN and total phosphorus (TP) losses were reduced by 87.8 and 70.4%. PEDWS is technologically feasible and applicable to treat nutrient losses from paddy fields in situ and can be used in similar areas.

  13. The Capability of Equisetum ramosissium and Typha angustifolia as Phytoremediation Agents to Reduce Nitrate-Phosphate Pollutants and Prevent Microcystis Blooming in Fresh Water Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viky Vidayanti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to find out the kind of hydromacrophyte composition having the highest capability to reduce nitrate-phosphate pollutant and Microcystis growth in phytoremediation media using Equisetum ramosissium, Typha angustifolia and the combination of both. Microcystis were obtained from Sutami reservoir, then being inoculated in a media grown by hydromacrophytes (E. ramosissium, T. angustifolia and both of the hydromacrophytes in the batch culture system. The number of Microcystis was counted every day within fifteen days. Abiotic factors were observe, including the concentration of nitrate using brucine-colorimetry method and orthophosphate (dissolved phosphate using stannous chloride-colorimetry method on day 0, 6th, 12th and 15th. The growth rate of Microcystis carrying capacity and orthophosphate-nitrate levels among treatments were analysed by ANOVA test. The results showed that E. ramosissium and T. angustifolia in mono and polyculture techniques had similar potentiality to reduce the nitrate and ortophosphate. The concentrations of nitrate and orthophosphate decreased over 70 % in the 6th day after incubation. All of the treatments were able to reduce the carrying capacity of Microcystis up to 46 % , but the growth rates were similar in all media, that is, around 97-170 cells/L/day.

  14. Strategic of Applying Free Chemical Usage In Purified Water System For Pharmaceutical Industry Toward CPOB (Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik) Indonesia To Reducing Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartono, R.; Basuki, Y. T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the sets of model and literature review to prove that strategy of applying free chemical usage in purified water system for pharmaceutical industry would be help the existing and new pharmaceutical companies to comply with part of Natioanal Agency of Drug and Food Control / Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (NADFC/BPOM) regulation in order to achieve "Cara Pembuatan Obat yang Baik" (CPOB) of Indonesia pharmaceutical industry. One of the main reasons is when we figured out the number of Indonesian pharmaceutical industries in 2012 are kept reducing compare to the increasing numbers of Indonesian population growth. This strategy concept also might help the industries to reducing environmental pollution, and operational cost in pharmaceutical industries, by reducing of the chemical usage for water treatment process in floculation and cougulation and chlorination for sterillization. This new model is free usage of chemicals for purified water generation system process and sterilization. The concept offering of using membrane technology- Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane base treatment to replace traditional chemical base treatment, following enhance Electrodeionization (EDI) as final polisher for controlling conductivity, and finally Ultra Violet (UV) disinfectant technology as final guard for bacteria controls instead of chemical base system in purified water generation system.

  15. Reducing the fuel temperature for pressure-tube supercritical-water-cooled reactors and the effect of fuel burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichita, E., E-mail: eleodor.nichita@uoit.ca; Kovaltchouk, V., E-mail: vitali.kovaltchouk@uoit.ca

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Typical PT-SCWR fuel uses single-region pins consisting of a homogeneous mixture of ThO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}. • Using two regions (central for the ThO{sub 2} and peripheral for the PuO{sub 2}) reduces the fuel temperature. • Single-region-pin melting-to-average power ratio is 2.5 at 0.0 MW d/kg and 2.3 at 40 MW d/kg. • Two-region-pin melting-to-average power ratio is 36 at 0.0 MW d/kg and 10.5 at 40 MW d/kg. • Two-region-pin performance drops with burnup due to fissile-element buildup in the ThO{sub 2} region. - Abstract: The Pressure-Tube Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (PT-SCWR) is one of the concepts under investigation by the Generation IV International Forum for its promise to deliver higher thermal efficiency than nuclear reactors currently in operation. The high coolant temperature (>625 K) and high linear power density employed by the PT-SCWR cause the fuel temperature to be fairly high, leading to a reduced margin to fuel melting, thus increasing the risk of actual melting during accident scenarios. It is therefore desirable to come up with a fuel design that lowers the fuel temperature while preserving the high linear power ratio and high coolant temperature. One possible solution is to separate the fertile (ThO{sub 2}) and fissile (PuO{sub 2}) fuel materials into different radial regions in each fuel pin. Previously-reported work found that by locating the fertile material at the centre and the fissile material at the periphery of the fuel pin, the fuel centreline temperature can be reduced by ∼650 K for fresh fuel compared to the case of a homogeneous (Th–Pu)O{sub 2} mixture for the same coolant temperature and linear power density. This work provides a justification for the observed reduction in fuel centreline temperature and suggests a systematic approach to lower the fuel temperature. It also extends the analysis to the dependence of the radial temperature profile on fuel burnup. The radial temperature profile is

  16. Can air pollutant controls change global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strefler, Jessica; Luderer, Gunnar; Kriegler, Elmar; Meinshausen, Malte

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air pollution policies do not affect long-term climate targets. • Reduction of aerosols counteracts a fraction of the reduction of Kyoto forcing. • Air pollution policies may affect the rate of climate change in the short term. • There is no tradeoff between clean air and climate policies. - Abstract: In this paper we analyze the interaction between climate and air pollution policies using the integrated assessment model REMIND coupled to the reduced-form climate model MAGICC. Since overall, aerosols tend to cool the atmosphere, there is a concern that a reduction of pollutant emissions could accelerate global warming and offset the climate benefits of carbon dioxide emission reductions. We investigate scenarios which independently reduce emissions from either large-scale sources, such as power plants, or small-scale sources, such as cooking and heating stoves. Large-scale sources are likely to be easier to control, but their aerosol emissions are characterized by a relatively high sulfur content, which tends to result in atmospheric cooling. Pollution from small-scale sources, by contrast, is characterized by a high share of carbonaceous aerosol, which is an important contributor to global warming. We find that air pollution policies can significantly reduce aerosol emissions when no climate policies are in place. Stringent climate policies lead to a large reduction of fossil fuel use, and therefore result in a concurrent reduction of air pollutant emissions. These reductions partly reduce aerosol masking, thus initially counteracting the reduction of greenhouse gas forcing, however not overcompensating it. If climate policies are in place, air pollution policies have almost no impacts on medium- and long-term radiative forcing. Therefore there is no conflict of objectives between clean air and limiting global warming. We find that the stringency of air pollution policies may influence the rate of global temperature change in the first decade

  17. Crop model improvement reduces the uncertainty of the response to temperature of multi-model ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiorano, Andrea; Martre, Pierre; Asseng, Senthold

    2017-01-01

    of models needed in a MME. Herein, 15 wheat growth models of a larger MME were improved through re-parameterization and/or incorporating or modifying heat stress effects on phenology, leaf growth and senescence, biomass growth, and grain number and size using detailed field experimental data from the USDA...... ensemble percentile range) of grain yields simulated by the MME on average by 39% in the calibration data set and by 26% in the independent evaluation data set for crops grown in mean seasonal temperatures >24 °C. MME mean squared error in simulating grain yield decreased by 37%. A reduction in MME...

  18. Rock outcrops reduce temperature-induced stress for tropical conifer by decoupling regional climate in the semiarid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locosselli, Giuliano Maselli; Cardim, Ricardo Henrique; Ceccantini, Gregório

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to understand the effect of rock outcrops on the growth of Podocarpus lambertii within a microrefuge. Our hypothesis holds that the growth and survival of this species depend on the regional climate decoupling provided by rock outcrops. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the microclimate of (1) surrounding vegetation, (2) rock outcrop corridors, and (3) adjacencies. We assessed population structure by collecting data of specimen stem diameter and height. We also assessed differences between vegetation associated or not with outcrops using satellite imaging. For dendrochronological analyses, we sampled 42 individuals. Tree rings of 31 individuals were dated, and climate-growth relationships were tested. Rock outcrops produce a favorable microclimate by reducing average temperature by 4.9 °C and increasing average air humidity by 12 %. They also reduce the variability of atmospheric temperature by 42 % and air humidity by 20 % supporting a vegetation with higher leaf area index. Within this vegetation, specimen height was strongly constrained by the outcrop height. Although temperature and precipitation modulate this species growth, temperature-induced stress is the key limiting growth factor for this population of P. lambertii. We conclude that this species growth and survival depend on the presence of rock outcrops. These topography elements decouple regional climate in a favorable way for this species growth. However, these benefits are restricted to the areas sheltered by rock outcrops. Although this microrefuge supported P. lambertii growth so far, it is unclear whether this protection would be sufficient to withstand the stress of future climate changes.

  19. Enhanced Temperature During Grain Filling Reduces Protein Concentration of Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Miglietta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is cultivated over more than 13 millions of hectares (ha world wide and Italy is the main European producer with 3.5 millions tons per year. The protein concentration of durum wheat is very important, it ensures high nutritional value and is highly appreciated by the pasta production industries. The protein concentration of wheat is determined during the grain filling period when carbon and nitrogen compounds are translocated into the grains. Air temperature affects translocation rates and contributes to final protein concentration of wheat grains. Two common commercial varieties of durum and bread wheat were exposed from anthesis to harvest, to a source of infrared radiation in the field. This allowed to investigate the relative effect of temperature on translocation of carbon and nitrogen compound during grain filling. The heat treatment imposed affected marginally dry mass accumulation of the grains in bread wheat and didn’t affect dry mass in durum wheat. Grain protein was affected by heat treatment in durum but not in bread wheat. Carbon accumulation rate was higher for durum than for bread wheat. The protein concentration was greater in durum than in bread wheat and we can assume that the absolute nitrogen accumulation rates were higher for the former species. Such difference may be either caused by a faster nitrogen uptake rate and translocation or a more efficient relocation of nitrogen accumulated in reserve organs.

  20. Visible light responsive Cu2MoS4 nanosheets incorporated reduced graphene oxide for efficient degradation of organic pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshbabu, R.; Vinoth, R.; Navaneethan, M.; Harish, S.; Hayakawa, Y.; Neppolian, B.

    2017-10-01

    Visible light active copper molybdenum sulfide (Cu2MoS4) nanosheets were successfully anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using facile hydrothermal method. During the hydrothermal reaction, reduction of graphene oxide into rGO and the formation of Cu2MoS4 nanosheets were successfully obtained. The charge transfer interaction between the rGO sheets and Cu2MoS4 nanosheets extended the absorption to visible region in comparison with bare Cu2MoS4 nanosheets i.e without rGO sheets. Furthermore, the notable photoluminescence quenching observed for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite revealed the effective role of rGO towards the significant inhibition of electron-hole pair recombination. The photocatalytic efficiencies of bare Cu2MoS4 and Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was evaluated for the degradation of methyl orange dye under visible irradiation (λ > 420 nm). A maximum photodegradation efficiency of 99% was achieved for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite, while only 64% photodegradation was noted for bare Cu2MoS4. The enhanced optical absorption in visible region, high surface area, and low charge carrier recombination in the presence of rGO sheets were the main reasons for the enhancement in photodegardation of MO dye. In addition, the resultant Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was found to be reusable for five successive cycles without significant loss in its photocatalytic performance.

  1. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  2. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties and flow behaviour of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanaja, J., E-mail: jvanaja4@gmail.com [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Laha, K. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2012-05-15

    Tensile strength and flow behaviour of a Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) steel (9Cr-1W-0.06Ta-0.22V-0.08C) have been investigated over a temperature range of 300-873 K at different strain rates. Tensile strength of the steel decreased with temperature and increased with strain rate except at intermediate temperatures. Negative strain rate sensitivity of flow stress of the steel at intermediate temperatures revealed the occurrence of dynamic strain ageing in the steel, even though no serrated flow was observed. The tensile flow behaviour of the material was well represented by the Voce strain hardening equation for all the test conditions. Temperature and strain rate dependence of the various parameters of Voce equation were interpreted with the possible deformation mechanisms. The equivalence between the saturation stress at a given strain rate in tensile test and steady state deformation rate at a given stress in creep test was found to be satisfied by the RAFM steel.

  3. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties and flow behaviour of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Sam, Shiju; Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2012-05-01

    Tensile strength and flow behaviour of a Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) steel (9Cr-1W-0.06Ta-0.22V-0.08C) have been investigated over a temperature range of 300-873 K at different strain rates. Tensile strength of the steel decreased with temperature and increased with strain rate except at intermediate temperatures. Negative strain rate sensitivity of flow stress of the steel at intermediate temperatures revealed the occurrence of dynamic strain ageing in the steel, even though no serrated flow was observed. The tensile flow behaviour of the material was well represented by the Voce strain hardening equation for all the test conditions. Temperature and strain rate dependence of the various parameters of Voce equation were interpreted with the possible deformation mechanisms. The equivalence between the saturation stress at a given strain rate in tensile test and steady state deformation rate at a given stress in creep test was found to be satisfied by the RAFM steel.

  4. Influence of strain rate and temperature on tensile properties and flow behaviour of a reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Sam, Shiju; Nandagopal, M.; Panneer Selvi, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2012-01-01

    Tensile strength and flow behaviour of a Reduced Activation Ferritic–Martensitic (RAFM) steel (9Cr–1W–0.06Ta–0.22V–0.08C) have been investigated over a temperature range of 300–873 K at different strain rates. Tensile strength of the steel decreased with temperature and increased with strain rate except at intermediate temperatures. Negative strain rate sensitivity of flow stress of the steel at intermediate temperatures revealed the occurrence of dynamic strain ageing in the steel, even though no serrated flow was observed. The tensile flow behaviour of the material was well represented by the Voce strain hardening equation for all the test conditions. Temperature and strain rate dependence of the various parameters of Voce equation were interpreted with the possible deformation mechanisms. The equivalence between the saturation stress at a given strain rate in tensile test and steady state deformation rate at a given stress in creep test was found to be satisfied by the RAFM steel.

  5. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-19

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4 · 7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  6. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Au Nanocomposite for NO2 Sensing at Low Operating Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A reduced grapheme oxide (rGO/Au hybrid nanocomposite has been synthesized by hydrothermal treatment using graphite and HAuCl4 as the precursors. Characterization, including X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectra, X-ray photoelecton spectroscopy (XPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, indicates the formation of rGO/Au. A gas sensor fabricated with rGO/Au nanocomposite was applied for NO2 detection at 50 °C. Compared with pure rGO, rGO/Au nanocomposite exhibits higher sensitivity, a more rapid response–recovery process and excellent reproducibility.

  7. The Decision Support Matrix (DSM) Approach to Reducing Risk of Flooding and Water Pollution in Farmed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Caspar J. M.; Quinn, Paul; Wilkinson, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Intense farming plays a key role in contributing to problems such as increased flood risk, soil erosion and poor water quality. This means that there is great potential for agricultural practitioners to play a major part in reducing multiple risks through better land-use management. Greater understanding by farmers, land managers, practitioners and policy-makers of the ways in which farmed landscapes contribute to risks and the ways in which those risks might be mitigated can be an essential component in improving practice. The Decision Support Matrix (DSM) approach involves the development of a range of visualization and communication tools to help compare the risks associated with different farming practices and explore options to manage runoff. DSMs are simple decision support systems intended for use by the non-expert which combine expert hydrological evidence with local knowledge of runoff patterns. They are developed through direct engagement with stakeholders, ensuring that the examples and language used makes sense to end-users. A key element of the tools is that they show the current conditions of the land and describe extremes of land-use management within a hydrological and agricultural land-management context. The tools include conceptual models of a series of pre-determined runoff scenarios, providing the end-user with a variety of potential land management practices and runoff management options. Visual examples of different farming practices are used to illustrate the impact of good and bad practice on specific problems such as nutrient export or risk of flooding. These show both how current conditions cause problems downstream and how systems are vulnerable to changes in climate and land-use intensification. The level of risk associated with a particular land management option is represented by a mapping on a two- or three-dimensional matrix. Interactive spreadsheet-based tools are developed in which multiple questions allow the user to explore

  8. Desulfobacter psychrotolerans sp. nov., a new psychrotolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium and descriptions of its physiological response to temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpgaard, Irene H; Boetius, Antje; Finster, Kai

    2006-01-01

    A psychrotrolerant acetate-oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (strain akvb(T)) was isolated from sediment from the northern part of The North Sea with annual temperature fluctuations between 8 and 14 degrees C. Of the various substrates tested, strain akvb(T) grew exclusively by the oxidation of acetate coupled to the reduction of sulfate. The cells were motile, thick rods with round ends and grew in dense aggregates. Strain akvb(T) grew at temperatures ranging from -3.6 to 26.3 degrees C. Optimal growth was observed at 20 degrees C. The highest cell specific sulfate reduction rate of 6.2 fmol cell(-1) d(-1) determined by the (35)SO(2-)(40) method was measured at 26 degrees C. The temperature range of short-term sulfate reduction rates exceeded the temperature range of growth by 5 degrees C. The Arrhenius relationship for the temperature dependence of growth and sulfate reduction was linear, with two distinct slopes below the optimum temperatures of both processes. The critical temperature was 6.4 degrees C. The highest growth yield (4.3-4.5 g dry weight mol(-1) acetate) was determined at temperatures between 5 and 15 degrees C. The cellular fatty acid composition was determined with cultures grown at 4 and 20 degrees C, respectively. The relative proportion of cellular unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. 16:1omega7c) was higher in cells grown at 4 degrees C than in cells grown at 20 degrees C. The physiological responses to temperature changes showed that strain akvb(T) was well adapted to the temperature regime of the environment from which it was isolated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain akvb(T) is closest related to Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.6%. DNA-DNA-hybridization showed a similarity of 32% between D. hydrogenophilus and strain akvb(T). Based on phenotypic and DNA-based characteristics we propose that strain akvb(T) is a member of a new species, Desulfobacter psychrotolerans sp. nov.

  9. Reducing irradiation damage to 'Arkin' carambola by plastic packaging or storage temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Carambolas (Averrhoa carambola L.) require quarantine treatment for control of the Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa Loew) (CFF) prior to shipment to certain domestic and export markets. Low-dose irradiation, less than or equal to kGy, is effective for sterilizing CFF and other fruit flies; however, carambolas are susceptible to irradiation-induced peel injury. Low-dose gamma irradiation treatment generally reduced fruit quality, but the effects were mitigated by packaging carambola fruit in ''clamshell'' polystyrene containers, rather than conventional fiberboard boxes, prior to treatment. Use of clamshell containers reduced peel pitting, stem-end breakdown, shriveling, and loss of mass after storage for 14 days at 5 or 7 degrees C. In addition, fruit held in clamshell containers were firmer, with slightly less green peel, and had lower total soluble solids, but the flavor was not quite as good as that of fruit stored in fiberboard boxes. There was no difference in the mastication texture or acidity of fruit by package type at final storage. Packing carambolas in clamshell containers increased their tolerance to irradiation-induced peel disorders and improved the potential for usage of low-dose irradiation for quarantine treatment

  10. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  11. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  12. Reduced bed temperature at thermo-chemical conversion of difficult fuels; Saenkt baeddtemperatur vid termokemisk omvandling av svaara braenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik; Haraldsson, Conny; Johansson, Andreas; Claesson, Frida; Baefver, Linda; Ryde, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    This work investigates the prospect of reducing the concentrations of alkali chlorides in the flue gas by lowering the temperature in the bottom zone of a fluidized bed (FB) furnace below the often used 850 deg C. The directive of a retention time of at least two seconds above 850 deg C is fulfilled by the raise of the flue gas temperature that follows the combustion of unburned gases at the point of injection of secondary and tertiary air, above the bottom bed zone. The aim of the present experiments is to determine the dependency between the temperature and the amount of alkali metals leaving the bottom bed for some selected waste and biomass fuels. The results are intended for plant owners as well as boiler manufacturers. The experiments were performed in an FB-reactor, which was externally heated to specific temperatures between 550 and 850 deg C. The reactor is made of a quartz glass tube with an inner diameter of 60 mm and a length of 1.2 m. The fluidized bed rests upon a porous plate of sintered quartz. The bed material used was 180 gram purified sea sand with particle sizes between 0.1 and 0.3 mm. The fluidizing gas was a mixture of nitrogen and air, introduced in the bottom of the reactor by mass flow controllers. At the outlet of the reactor, the flue gas was divided between conventional gas analyzers and an ICP-MS instrument. The gas flow to the ICP-MS instrument was cooled before a slip stream was sucked out via a capillary to a nebulizer from which the sample gas was led to the ICP-MS instrument. The function of the nebulizer is normally to form an aerosol of liquids, but here it was used solely as a pump. In addition, a known flow of krypton was added into the nebulizer to be used as an internal standard. The novel technique to measure the amount of alkali metals on-line from a batch fired FB-reactor has been shown to work in practice and to provide interesting results, which so far is qualitative only. Further development and calibration work is

  13. Carbon monoxide and hospital admissions for congestive heart failure: evidence of an increased effect at low temperatures; Pollution par le monoxyde de carbone et hospitalisations pour insuffisance cardiaque congestive: mise en evidence d'une augmentation d'effet a basse temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.D.; Naumova, E.N.

    2001-01-01

    This study presents the combined effect of the low temperatures and the air pollution exposure, especially the carbon monoxide, on the hospital admissions for congestive heart failure in Chicago during 1986-1989. (A.L.B.)

  14. Bio-oil Stabilization by Hydrogenation over Reduced Metal Catalysts at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huamin; Lee, Suh-Jane; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-30

    Biomass fast pyrolysis integrated with bio-oil upgrading represents a very attractive approach for converting biomass to hydrocarbon transportation fuels. However, the thermal and chemical instability of bio-oils presents significant problems when they are being upgraded, and development of effective approaches for stabilizing bio-oils is critical to the success of the technology. Catalytic hydrogenation to remove reactive species in bio-oil has been considered as one of the most efficient ways to stabilize bio-oil. This paper provides a fundamental understanding of hydrogenation of actual bio-oils over a Ru/TiO2 catalyst under conditions relevant to practical bio-oil hydrotreating processes. Bio-oil feed stocks, bio-oils hydrogenated to different extents, and catalysts have been characterized to provide insights into the chemical and physical properties of these samples and to understand the correlation of the properties with the composition of the bio-oil and catalysts. The results indicated hydrogenation of various components of the bio-oil, including sugars, aldehydes, ketones, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids, over the Ru/TiO2 catalyst and 120 to 160oC. Hydrogenation of these species significantly changed the chemical and physical properties of the bio-oil and overall improved its thermal stability, especially by reducing the carbonyl content, which represented the content of the most reactive species (i.e., sugar, aldehydes, and ketones). The change of content of each component in response to increasing hydrogen additions suggests the following bio-oil hydrogenation reaction sequence: sugar conversion to sugar alcohols, followed by ketone and aldehyde conversion to alcohols, followed by alkene and aromatic hydrogenation, and then followed by carboxylic acid hydrogenation to alcohols. Hydrogenation of bio-oil samples with different sulfur contents or inorganic material contents suggested that sulfur poisoning of the reduced Ru metal catalysts was

  15. Diet-induced obesity reduces core body temperature across the estrous cycle and pregnancy in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rachael C; Waddell, Brendan J; Maloney, Shane K; Mark, Peter J

    2018-04-16

    Obesity during pregnancy causes adverse maternal and fetal health outcomes and programs offspring for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Obesity also disrupts core body temperature (T c ) regulation in nonpregnant rodents; however, it is unknown whether obesity alters normal maternal T c adaptations to pregnancy. Since T c is influenced by the circadian system, and both obesity and pregnancy alter circadian biology, it was hypothesized that obesity disrupts the normal rhythmic patterns of T c before and during gestation. Obesity was induced by cafeteria (CAF) feeding in female Wistar rats for 8 weeks prior to and during gestation, whereas control (CON) animals had free access to chow. Intraperitoneal temperature loggers measured daily T c profiles throughout the study, while maternal body composition and leptin levels were assessed near term. Daily temperature profiles were examined for rhythmic features (mesor, amplitude and acrophase) by cosine regression analysis. CAF animals exhibited increased fat mass (93%) and associated hyperleptinemia (3.2-fold increase) compared to CON animals. CAF consumption reduced the average T c (by up to 0.29°C) across the estrous cycle and most of pregnancy; however, T c for CAF and CON animals converged toward the end of gestation. Obesity reduced the amplitude of T c rhythms at estrus and proestrus and on day 8 of pregnancy, but increased the amplitude at day 20 of pregnancy. Photoperiod analysis revealed that obesity reduced T c exclusively in the light period during pre-pregnancy but only during the dark period in late gestation. In conclusion, obesity alters rhythmic T c profiles and reduces the magnitude of the T c decline late in rat gestation, which may have implications for maternal health and fetal development.

  16. Selective chloroform sensor using thiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midya, Anupam; Mukherjee, Subhrajit; Roy, Shreyasee; Santra, Sumita; Manna, Nilotpal; Ray, Samit K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a highly selective chloroform sensor using functionalised reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a sensing layer. Thiol group is covalently attached on the basal plan of RGO film by a simple one-step aryl diazonium chemistry to improve its selectivity. Several spectroscopic techniques like X-ray photoelectron, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm successful thiol functionalization of RGO. Finally, the fabricated chemiresistor type sensor is exposed to chloroform in the concentration range 200-800 ppm (parts per million). The sensor shows a 4.3% of response towards 800 ppm chloroform. The selectivity of the sensor is analyzed using various volatile organic compounds as well. The devices show enhanced response and faster recovery attributed to the physiosorption of chloroform onto thiol functionalized graphene making them attractive for 2D materials based sensing applications.

  17. Bacterial corrosion in low-temperature geothermal. Mechanisms of corrosion by sulphate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumas, Sylvie

    1987-01-01

    Within the frame of researches aimed at determining the causes of damages noticed on geothermal equipment, this research thesis aims at assessing the respective importance of physical-chemical processes and bacterial intervention in corrosion phenomena. It proposes an ecological approach of the fluid sampled in the Creil geothermal power station. The aim is to define the adaptation and activity degree of isolated sulphate-reducing bacteria with respect to their environment conditions. The author studied the effect of the development of these bacteria on the corrosion of carbon steel used in geothermal. Thus, he proposes a contribution to the understanding of mechanisms related to iron attack by these bacteria. Electrochemical techniques have been adapted to biological processes and used to measure corrosion [fr

  18. Effect of Ni, Fe and Mn in different proportions on microstructure and pollutant-catalyzed properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O negative temperature coefficient ceramic nanocompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Yonglin, E-mail: leiyonglin@163.com [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: linxy@swust.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Liao, Huiwei, E-mail: liaohw@swust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2017-06-15

    The effect of Ni, Fe and Mn in different proportions on microstructure and pollutant-catalyzed properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O negative temperature coefficient ceramic nanocompositions was studied. Structural and physical characterization of all the samples was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric (TG). The results revealed that the interplanar spacing decreased with increasing Fe content, the grain size decreased with increasing Ni content, the substitution of Ni{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral sites by Fe{sup 2+} increased with increasing Fe content. And increase of iron could improve Ni-Fe-Mn-O high temperature stability. The low-temperature thermal removal efficiencies of 30 mg/L methyl orange solution for NiFeMnO{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4,} Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2.1}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} systems were 83.8%, 75.2%, 78.5% and 60.3% at 2400 min, respectively. And the microwave combining with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removal efficiencies of 30 mg/L methyl orange solution for NiFeMnO{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4,} Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2.1}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} systems were 96.5%,93.8%, 98.7% and 98% at 6.0 min, respectively. These results indicated that the Ni-Fe-Mn-O ceramics with appropriate increase of iron were useful for industrial applications on degrading organic pollute. - Highlights: • The relationship of composition and catalytic properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O was proposed. • The interplanar spacing decreased with increasing Fe content. • The grain size decreased with increasing Ni content. • The substitution of Ni{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral site by Fe{sup 2+} with increasing Fe content.

  19. Fast temperature optimization of multi-source hyperthermia applicators with reduced-order modeling of 'virtual sources'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K-S; Stakhursky, Vadim; Craciunescu, Oana I; Stauffer, Paul; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to build the foundation for facilitating real-time magnetic resonance image guided patient treatment for heating systems with a large number of physical sources (e.g. antennas). Achieving this goal requires knowledge of how the temperature distribution will be affected by changing each source individually, which requires time expenditure on the order of the square of the number of sources. To reduce computation time, we propose a model reduction approach that combines a smaller number of predefined source configurations (fewer than the number of actual sources) that are most likely to heat tumor. The source configurations consist of magnitude and phase source excitation values for each actual source and may be computed from a CT scan based plan or a simplified generic model of the corresponding patient anatomy. Each pre-calculated source configuration is considered a 'virtual source'. We assume that the actual best source settings can be represented effectively as weighted combinations of the virtual sources. In the context of optimization, each source configuration is treated equivalently to one physical source. This model reduction approach is tested on a patient upper-leg tumor model (with and without temperature-dependent perfusion), heated using a 140 MHz ten-antenna cylindrical mini-annular phased array. Numerical simulations demonstrate that using only a few pre-defined source configurations can achieve temperature distributions that are comparable to those from full optimizations using all physical sources. The method yields close to optimal temperature distributions when using source configurations determined from a simplified model of the tumor, even when tumor position is erroneously assumed to be ∼2.0 cm away from the actual position as often happens in practical clinical application of pre-treatment planning. The method also appears to be robust under conditions of changing, nonlinear, temperature-dependent perfusion. The

  20. Toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus changes under a global warming perspective: Variations in air temperature and soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-12-15

    This study aimed to assess how the current global warming perspective, with increasing air temperature (20°C vs. 25°C) and decreasing soil moisture content (50% vs. 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), affected the toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus. Enchytraeids were exposed for 21d to a dilution series of the agricultural soil with Lufa 2.2 control soil under four climate situations: 20°C+50% WHC (standard conditions), 20°C+30% WHC, 25°C+50% WHC, and 25°C+30% WHC. Survival, reproduction and bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were obtained as endpoints. Reproduction was more sensitive to both climate factors and metal(loid) pollution. High soil salinity (electrical conductivity~3dSm -1 ) and clay texture, even without the presence of high metal(loid) concentrations, affected enchytraeid performance especially at drier conditions (≥80% reduction in reproduction). The toxicity of the agricultural soil increased at drier conditions (10% reduction in EC10 and EC50 values for the effect on enchytraeid reproduction). Changes in enchytraeid performance were accompanied by changes in As, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn bioaccumulation, with lower body concentrations at drier conditions probably due to greater competition with soluble salts in the case of Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. This study shows that apart from high metal(loid) concentrations other soil properties (e.g. salinity and texture) may be partially responsible for the toxicity of metal(loid)-polluted soils to soil invertebrates, especially under changing climate conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Low ambient temperature elevates plasma triiodothyronine concentrations while reducing digesta mean retention time and methane yield in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M C; McFarlane, J R; Hegarty, R S

    2015-06-01

    Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta within the rumen of sheep, resulting in a reduction of MY. To test this hypothesis, six Merino sheep were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (cold treatment, 9 ± 1 °C; warm control 26 ± 1 °C). The effects on MY, digesta MRT, plasma T3 concentration, CO2 production, DM intake, DM digestibility, change in body weight (BW), rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, estimated microbial protein output, protozoa abundance, wool growth, water intake, urine output and rectal temperature were studied. Cold treatment resulted in a reduction in MY (p < 0.01); digesta MRT in rumen (p < 0.01), hindgut (p = 0.01) and total digestive tract (p < 0.01); protozoa abundance (p < 0.05); and water intake (p < 0.001). Exposure to cold temperature increased plasma T3 concentration (p < 0.05), CO2 production (p = 0.01), total VFA concentrations (p = 0.03) and estimated microbial output from the rumen (p = 0.03). The rate of wool growth increased (p < 0.01) due to cold treatment, but DM intake, DM digestibility and BW change were not affected. The results suggest that exposure of sheep to cold ambient temperatures reduces digesta retention time in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a reduction in enteric methane yield. Further research is warranted to determine whether T3 could be used as an indirect selection tool for genetic selection of low enteric methane-producing ruminants. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The effect of the thermal reduction temperature on the structure and sorption capacity of reduced graphene oxide materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolbin, Alexandr V., E-mail: dolbin@ilt.kharkov.ua [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov 61103 (Ukraine); Khlistyuck, Maria V.; Esel' son, Valentin B.; Gavrilko, Viktor G.; Vinnikov, Nikolay A.; Basnukaeva, Razet M. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov 61103 (Ukraine); Maluenda, Irene; Maser, Wolfgang K.; Benito, Ana M. [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán, 4, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The influence of reduction temperatures on the structure and the sorption capacity of thermally reduced graphene (TRGO) has been investigated systematically. A set of TRGO materials were prepared by thermal treatment of parent graphene oxide (GO) at five temperatures (T = 200, 300, 500, 700, and 900 °C). Investigations of these materials by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy methods have shown that both the structure and the residual oxygen functional groups on the TRGO surface can be controlled by varying the temperature of the thermal treatment. The data on the sorption and desorption of {sup 4}He, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, Ne and Kr gases in the temperature interval T = 2–290 K clearly demonstrate that the sorption capacity of TRGO is closely related to the structural changes induced by the treatment temperatures. It is important that the sorption capacities of TRGOs treated at 300 °C and at 900 °C significantly increase for all the gases used. The prominent increase in the sorption capacity at 300 °C is attributed to the structural disorder and liberation of the pores caused by the removal of intercalated water and labile oxygen functional groups (oFGs) favored at this temperature. At 900 °C the sorption capacity increases due to the generation of new defects on the TRGO surface, which provide additional access to the internal space between the folds and sheets of the TRGO structure. By tailoring the structural properties we emphasize the potential of TRGO as a highly efficient sorbent.

  3. A Comparison between Temperature-Controlled Laminar Airflow Device and a Room Air-Cleaner in Reducing Exposure to Particles While Asleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Sigsgaard, Torben; Takai, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep...... was significantly lower with the TLA device compared to the room air cleaner. The TLA device provided a barrier which significantly reduced the introduction of airborne particles into the breathing zone. Further studies should be conducted for the understanding of the transport of resuspended particles between...

  4. Analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell polarization losses at elevated temperature 120 C and reduced relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hui; Kunz, H. Russell [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Fenton, James M. [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Polarization losses of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells at 120 C and reduced relative humidity (RH) were analyzed. Reduced RH affects membrane and electrode ionic resistance, catalytic activity and oxygen transport. For a cell made of Nafion {sup registered} 112 membrane and electrodes that have 35 wt.% Nafion {sup registered} and 0.3 mg/cm{sup 2} platinum supported on carbon, membrane resistance at 20%RH was 0.407 {omega} cm{sup 2} and electrode resistance 0.203 {omega} cm{sup 2}, significantly higher than 0.092 and 0.041 {omega} cm{sup 2} at 100%RH, respectively. In the kinetically controlled region, 20%RH resulted in 96 mV more cathode activation loss than 100%RH. Compared to 100%, 20%RH also produced significant oxygen transport loss across the ionomer film in the electrode, 105 mV at 600 mA/cm{sup 2}. The significant increase in polarization losses at elevated temperature and reduced RH indicates the extreme importance of designing electrodes for high temperature PEM fuel cells since membrane development has always taken most emphasis. (author)

  5. Drift algae, an invasive snail and elevated temperature reduce ecological performance of a warm-temperate seagrass, through additive effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffle, H.; Wernberg, T.; Thomsen, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Seagrasses are under pressure from multiple concurrent threats, including rising temperatures, invasive species and nutrient-driven algal accumulations. We quantified the abundance of drift algae and the invasive snail Batillaria australis in 3 Halophila ovalis seagrass beds in the Swan River....... The survey showed that drift algae varied considerably between sites and sampling times, and sites experienced average loads of 0.4 to 0.8 kg fresh wt m(-2) and extreme loads up to 2.5 kg fresh wt m(-2). In contrast, invasive snails were constantly abundant at all sites at all collection times (mean...... reduced the length of the 2nd inter node. We found relatively few significant higher-order interactions, suggesting a dominance of additive effects of stress. We conclude that temperature, drift algae and invasive snails are already affecting the ecological performance of H. ovalis in Swan River...

  6. Growth and production kinetics of human x mouse and mouse hybridoma cells at reduced temperature and serum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, N; Heider, R; Assadian, A; Katinger, H

    1992-09-01

    The growth and production kinetics of a mouse hybridoma cell line and a human-mouse heterohybridoma were analyzed under conditions of reduced temperature and serum content. The mouse hybridoma P24 had a constant cell specific production rate and RNA content, while the heterohybridoma 3D6-LC4 showed growth associated production kinetics and an increased RNA content at higher growth rates. This behaviour of 3D6-LC4 cells can be explained by the unusual cell cycle kinetics of this line, which can be arrested in any phase under growth limiting conditions, so that a low growth rate does not result in a greater portion of high producing G1-phase cells. Substrate limitation changes the cell cycle distribution of this cell line to a greater extent than low temperature or serum content, which indicates that this stress factor exerts a greater physiological control than assumed.

  7. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated by HPHT processing or conventional high-temperature (HT) treatments. Browning was reduced, and early and advanced Maillard reactions were retarded under HPHT processing at all pH values compared to HT treatment. HPHT induced a larger pH drop than HT treatments, especially at pH 9, which was not associated with Maillard reactions. After HPHT processing at pH 7, protein aggregation and viscosity of whey protein isolate-glucose/trehalose solutions remained unchanged. It was concluded that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar-containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.

  8. Responses of biofilm characteristics to variations in temperature and NH4(+)-N loading in a moving-bed biofilm reactor treating micro-polluted raw water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangfu; Wang, Yayi; He, Weitao; Wu, Min; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Gao, Naiyun; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-03-01

    A pilot-scale moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for biological treatment of micro-polluted raw water was operated over 400days to investigate the responses of biofilm characteristics and nitrification performance to variations in temperature and NH4(+)-N loading. The mean removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N in the MBBR reached 71.4±26.9%, and batch experiments were performed to study nitrification kinetics for better process understanding. Seven physical-chemical parameters, including volatile solids (VS), polysaccharides (PS) and phospholipids (PL) increased firstly, and then rapidly decreased with increasing temperature and NH4(+)-N loading, and properly characterized the attached biomass during biofilm development and detachment in the MBBR. The biofilm compositions were described by six ratios, e.g., PS/VS and PL/VS ratios showed different variation trends, indicating different responses of PS and PL to the changes in temperature and NH4(+)-N loading. Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that increased NH4(+)-N loadings caused an enrichment of the nitrifying biofilm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced absorption of glyphosate and decreased translocation of dicamba contribute to poor control of kochia (Kochia scoparia) at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Junjun; Stahlman, Phillip W; Jugulam, Mithila

    2018-05-01

    Plant growth temperature is one of the important factors that can influence postemergent herbicide efficacy and impact weed control. Control of kochia (Kochia scoparia), a major broadleaf weed throughout the North American Great Plains, often is unsatisfactory when either glyphosate or dicamba are applied on hot summer days. We tested effects of plant growth temperature on glyphosate and dicamba phytotoxicity on two Kansas kochia populations (P1 and P2) grown under the following three day/night (d/n) temperature regimes: T1, 17.5/7.5°C; T2, 25/15°C; and T3, 32.5/22.5°C. Visual injury and above-ground dry biomass data from herbicide dose-response experiments indicated greater susceptibility to both glyphosate and dicamba when kochia was grown under the two cooler temperature regimes, i.e. T1 and T2. At T1, the ED 50 of P1 and P2 kochia were 39 and 36 g ha -1 of glyphosate and 52 and 105 g ha -1 of dicamba, respectively. In comparison, at T3 the ED 50 increased to 173 and 186 g ha -1 for glyphosate and 106 and 410 g ha -1 for dicamba, respectively, for P1 and P2. We also investigated the physiological basis of decreased glyphosate and dicamba efficacy under elevated temperatures. Kochia absorbed more glyphosate at T1 and T2 compared to T3. Conversely, there was more dicamba translocated towards meristems at T1 and T2, compared to T3. Reduced efficacy of dicamba or glyphosate to control kochia under elevated temperatures can be attributed to decreased absorption and translocation of glyphosate and dicamba, respectively. Therefore, it is recommended to apply glyphosate or dicamba when the temperature is low (e.g. d/n temperature at 25/15°C) and seedlings are small (less than 12 cm) to maximize kochia control. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The effect of temperature and addition of reducing agent on sodium stannate preparation from cassiterite by the alkaline roasting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalasari, Latifa Hanum; Andriyah, Lia; Arini, Tri; Firdiyono, F.

    2018-04-01

    Sodium stannate is an intermediate compound with the formula Na2SnO3. This compound is easily dissolved in water and has many applications in the electroplating industry, tin alloy production, and catalysts for organic synthesis. In this occasion was investigated the effect of temperature and the addition of reducing agent on making of sodium stannate phase from cassiterite by an alkaline roasting process using sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Firstly, cassiterite was roasted at 700 °C for 3 hours and continued leaching process using 10% HCl solution at 110 °C for 2 hours. The cassiterite residue than was dried at 110 °C and mixed homogenously with a Na2CO3 decomposer at a mass ratio Na2CO3/cassiterite as 5:3 for the decomposition process. It was done by variation temperatures (300 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C, 870 °C, 900 °C) for 3 hours, variation times (3, 4, 5 hours) at a roasting temperature of 700 °C and addition of reducing agent such as sub-bituminous coal. The result of the experiment shows that cassiterite prepared by roasting and acid leaching process has the chemical composition as follows: 59.98% Sn, 22.58% O, 3.20% Ce, 3.15% La, 2.57% Nd, 1.67% Ti, 1.56% Fe, 1.24% P, 0.62% Ca and others. The Na2SnO3 phase begins to form at a roasting temperature of 870 °C for 3 hours. Although the roasting times was extended from 3 hours to 5 hours at 700 °C, the Na2SnO3 phase also has not yet formed. In other conditions, the addition of coal reducing agent to the roasting process would cause formations of Sn metal besides Na2SnO3 phase at 870 °C. At temperatures lower than 870 °C, the addition of coal only forms Sn metal, whereas the sodium stannate phase is not formed.

  11. Temperature dependent selective detection of hydrogen and acetone using Pd doped WO3/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Anand, Kanica; Kohli, Nipin; Kaur, Amanpreet; Singh, Ravi Chand

    2018-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Pd doped WO3 nanocomposites were fabricated by employing electrostatic interactions between poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) modified Pd doped WO3 nanostructures and graphite oxide (GO) and studied for their gas sensing application. XRD, Raman, FTIR, FESEM-EDX, TEM, TGA, XPS and Photoluminescence techniques were used for characterization of as-synthesized samples. Gas sensing studies revealed that the sensor with optimized doping of 1.5 mol% Pd and 1 wt% GO shows temperature dependent selectivity towards hydrogen and acetone. The role of WO3, Pd and RGO has been discussed in detail for enhanced sensing performance.

  12. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  14. Facile fabrication of carbon brush with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for decreasing resistance and accelerating pollutants removal in bio-electrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dan; Yang, Li-Ming; Liu, Wen-Zong; Cui, Min-Hua; Cai, Wei-Wei; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2018-07-15

    Low electrode resistance is crucial for achieving efficient reactions in bio-electrochemical system (BES), especially considering the factors of BES scaling-up and microbial effects. Graphene has revealed a cornucopia of potential applications due to its high conductivity and extraordinary electrochemical properties. Here, significant reduction of electrode resistance and increment of electrochemical activity were achieved by fabricating the three-dimensional carbon brush using reduced graphene oxide (rGO/carbon brush) through one-step electro-deposition without any binder. The rGO/carbon brush was employed as cathode in BES equipped with bio-anode for azo compound (AO7) removal. The charge transfer resistances of cathode part and whole cell were decreased by 89% and 65%, respectively. The reactor showed quickly start-up within 48 h with peak cycle current six fold increase relative to the control. AO7 decolorization efficiency reached 91.1 ± 0.1% at 4 h and 97.6 ± 0.4% at 6 h. Effective decolorization of AO7 was at rate up to 650.7 g AO7/m 3 ·h. The results indicated that the advantages of graphene and three-dimensional carbon brush successfully improved the overall performance of BES and enhanced refractory pollutants removal when applied to specific wastewater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Attributable risk and potential impact of interventions to reduce household air pollution associated with under-five mortality in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Sabrina; Page, Andrew; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore

    2018-01-01

    Solid fuel use is the major source of household air pollution (HAP) and accounts for a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality in low and middle income countries. To evaluate and compare childhood mortality attributable to HAP in four South Asian countries. A series of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets for Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan were used for analysis. Estimates of relative risk and exposure prevalence relating to use of cooking fuel and under-five mortality were used to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) for each country. Potential impact fractions (PIFs) were also calculated assessing theoretical scenarios based on published interventions aiming to reduce exposure prevalence. There are an increased risk of under-five mortality in those exposed to cooking fuel compared to those not exposed in the four South Asian countries (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.07-1.57, P  = 0.007). Combined PAF estimates for South Asia found that 66% (95% CI: 43.1-81.5%) of the 13,290 estimated cases of under-five mortality was attributable to HAP. Joint PIF estimates (assuming achievable reductions in HAP reported in intervention studies conducted in South Asia) indicates 47% of neonatal and 43% of under-five mortality cases associated with HAP could be avoidable in the four South Asian countries studied. Elimination of exposure to use of cooking fuel in the household targeting valuable intervention strategies (such as cooking in separate kitchen, improved cook stoves) could reduce substantially under-five mortality in South Asian countries.

  16. Recent status and improvement of reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels for high-temperature service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, L., E-mail: tanl@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Katoh, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Tavassoli, A.-A.F.; Henry, J. [DMN/Dir, DEN, CEA Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Rieth, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, 76021 (Germany); Sakasegawa, H. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Rokkasho, Aomori, 039-3212 (Japan); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Tanigawa, H. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Rokkasho, Aomori, 039-3212 (Japan); Huang, Q. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels, candidate structural materials for fusion reactors, have achieved technological maturity after about three decades of research and development. The recent status of a few developmental aspects of current RAFM steels, such as aging resistance, plate thickness effects, fracture toughness, and fatigue, is updated in this paper, together with ongoing efforts to develop next-generation RAFM steels for superior high-temperature performance. In addition to thermomechanical treatments, including nonstandard heat treatment, alloy chemistry refinements and modifications have demonstrated some improvements in high-temperature performance. Castable nanostructured alloys (CNAs) were developed by significantly increasing the amount of nanoscale MX (M = V/Ta/Ti, X = C/N) precipitates and reducing coarse M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M = Cr). Preliminary results showed promising improvement in creep resistance and Charpy impact toughness. Limited low-dose neutron irradiation results for one of the CNAs and China low activation martensitic are presented and compared with data for F82H and Eurofer97 irradiated up to ∼70 displacements per atom at ∼300–325 °C.

  17. Reducing agent-free synthesis of curcumin-loaded albumin nanoparticles by self-assembly at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maryam Sadat; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Yang, Hye Gyeong; Kim, Yejin; Park, Eun Ji; Lee, Kang Choon; Na, Dong Hee

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study was to prepare curcumin-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (CCM-BSA-NPs) by reducing agent-free self-assembly at room temperature. A 2 4 factorial design approach was used to investigate the CCM-BSA-NP preparation process at different pH values, temperatures, dithiothreitol amounts, and CCM/BSA mass ratios. Increasing the ionic strength enabled preparation of CCM-BSA-NPs at 25°C without reducing agent. CCM-BSA-NPs prepared under the optimized conditions at 25°C showed a particle size of 110±6nm, yield of 88.5%, and drug loading of 7.1%. The CCM-BSA-NPs showed strong antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects in glutamate-induced mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells. This study suggests that ionic strength can be a key parameter affecting the preparation of albumin-based NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing the layer number of AB stacked multilayer graphene grown on nickel by annealing at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, J Marquez; Giamini, S A; Kelaidis, N; Tsipas, P; Tsoutsou, D; Kordas, G; Raptis, Y S; Boukos, N; Dimoulas, A

    2015-10-09

    Controlling the number of layers of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is crucial for large scale graphene application. We propose here an etching process of graphene which can be applied immediately after growth to control the number of layers. We use nickel (Ni) foil at high temperature (T = 900 °C) to produce multilayer-AB-stacked-graphene (MLG). The etching process is based on annealing the samples in a hydrogen/argon atmosphere at a relatively low temperature (T = 450 °C) inside the growth chamber. The extent of etching is mainly controlled by the annealing process duration. Using Raman spectroscopy we demonstrate that the number of layers was reduced, changing from MLG to few-layer-AB-stacked-graphene and in some cases to randomly oriented few layer graphene near the substrate. Furthermore, our method offers the significant advantage that it does not introduce defects in the samples, maintaining their original high quality. This fact and the low temperature our method uses make it a good candidate for controlling the layer number of already grown graphene in processes with a low thermal budget.

  19. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  20. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  1. Facile Quantification and Identification Techniques for Reducing Gases over a Wide Concentration Range Using a MOS Sensor in Temperature-Cycled Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Schultealbert; Tobias Baur; Andreas Schütze; Tilman Sauerwald

    2018-01-01

    Dedicated methods for quantification and identification of reducing gases based on model-based temperature-cycled operation (TCO) using a single commercial MOS gas sensor are presented. During high temperature phases the sensor surface is highly oxidized, yielding a significant sensitivity increase after switching to lower temperatures (differential surface reduction, DSR). For low concentrations, the slope of the logarithmic conductance during this low-temperature phase is evaluated and can ...

  2. Towards better understanding of the response of Sphagnum peatland to increased temperature and reduced precipitation in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Radoslaw; Basińska, Anna; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Gąbka, Maciej; Hoffmann, Mathias; Józefczyk, Damian; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Leśny, Jacek; Łuców, Dominika; Moni, Christophe; Reczuga, Monika; Samson, Mateusz; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Stróżecki, Marcin; Urbaniak, Marek; Zielińska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Janusz

    2017-04-01

    With respect to climate change peatlands are highly vulnerable ecosystems. Especially a potential drying in future might result in a major carbon source and release to the atmosphere. We carried out a field climate manipulation experiment at Rzecin peatland in western Poland to assess how increased temperature and reduced precipitation may impact carbon balance, vegetation, microbes and water chemistry of the Sphagnum peatland. Here, we present results of measurements conducted in two contrasting years (417 mm and 678 mm of precipitation in very dry 2015 and wet 2016, respectively). The experimental design consists of four treatments, each one replicated three times (control, CO; simulated warming, W; prolonged drought, D and warming & drought, W+D). Increased temperatures (T) during the year were achieved by infrared heaters (400W × 4 per site, approx. 60 Wṡm-2 addition of LW radiation). Precipitation was reduced using an automatic curtain, covering the site during nighttime hours of the growth seasons. The manipulation experiment was successful during both years, increasing the air (30 cm height) and soil temperature (5 cm depth, sites W and D) by up to 0.2 oC and 1.0 oC, respectively. Precipitation was reduced to 37 % during both years. At W+D site the peat temperature was nearly two times higher than on W site indicating the impact of drought on T increase. To study the C exchange we developed an automatic mobile platform for measuring CO2/CH4/H2O fluxes (LGR) as well as 13CO2 and 13CH4 fluxes (PICARRO CRDS G2201-i). Measurements were performed, using dynamic ecosystem chambers (for NEE and Reco) and combined with simultaneous measurements of surface spectral properties. Flux calculation and gap filling was done according to Hoffmann et al. 2015. Methane emissions were significantly higher on manipulated plots than on CO (25 gCṡm-2yr-1) during both years, but only in the very dry 2015, CH4 fluxes were the highest on W+D site (33 gC gCṡm-2yr-1). Besides

  3. Can Temperate-Water Immersion Effectively Reduce Rectal Temperature in Exertional Heat Stroke? A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truxton, Tyler T; Miller, Kevin C

    2017-09-01

    Clinical Scenario: Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a medical emergency which, if left untreated, can result in death. The standard of care for EHS patients includes confirmation of hyperthermia via rectal temperature (T rec ) and then immediate cold-water immersion (CWI). While CWI is the fastest way to reduce T rec , it may be difficult to lower and maintain water bath temperature in the recommended ranges (1.7°C-15°C [35°F-59°F]) because of limited access to ice and/or the bath being exposed to high ambient temperatures for long periods of time. Determining if T rec cooling rates are acceptable (ie, >0.08°C/min) when significantly hyperthermic humans are immersed in temperate water (ie, ≥20°C [68°F]) has applications for how EHS patients are treated in the field. Are T rec cooling rates acceptable (≥0.08°C/min) when significantly hyperthermic humans are immersed in temperate water? T rec cooling rates of hyperthermic humans immersed in temperate water (≥20°C [68°F]) ranged from 0.06°C/min to 0.19°C/min. The average T rec cooling rate for all examined studies was 0.11±0.06°C/min. Clinical Bottom Line: Temperature water immersion (TWI) provides acceptable (ie, >0.08°C/min) T rec cooling rates for hyperthermic humans post-exercise. However, CWI cooling rates are higher and should be used if feasible (eg, access to ice, shaded treatment areas). Strength of Recommendation: The majority of evidence (eg, Level 2 studies with PEDro scores ≥5) suggests TWI provides acceptable, though not ideal, T rec cooling. If possible, CWI should be used instead of TWI in EHS scenarios.

  4. Impact of the initial streamwise inclination of a double jet emitted within a cool crossflow on its temperature field and pollutants dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhouane, A.; Mahjoub Said, Nejla; Mhiri, H. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Unite de Thermique et Thermodynamique des Procedes Industriels, Monastir (Tunisia); Palec, G. le; Bournot, P. [IUSTI, UMR 6595, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (France)

    2009-04-15

    An experimental study and a numerical modeling are carried out simultaneously on a twin inclined jets' configuration issuing into a cooler crossflow. The main purpose of this study is to track the overall evolution of the jets among the surrounding flow and then determine the thermal and mass transfer features that characterize the resulting flowfield. The experimental data are depicted by means of a particle image velocimetry technique; whereas the numerical three-dimensional model is simulated through the resolution of the different governing Navier-Stokes' equations by means of the finite volume method. Two different closure models were tested: the standard k-{epsilon} model and the Reynolds stress model (RSM) second order model. The introduction of the latter in such a configuration brings some valuable improvement since it allows the detection of the slightest variations within the domain and then describes the least occurring mechanisms. The confrontation of the differently processed numerical results with the experimentally tracked data comforted our opinion since it proved the better efficiency of the RSM model for the description of the handled flow; that's why we adopted it for the rest of the paper. Once the validation obtained, we proceeded to the evaluation of the influence of the initial streamwise inclination of the emitted jets on the engendered thermal field and on the pollutants' dispersion. For the matter, we tested the following angles: 30 , 45 , 60 and 90 . After that, we represented the temperature variation along different directions in order to detail its behavior in all of them and at different levels. This characterization is highly recommended since it may promote the efficiency of several applications (mainly the cooling applications). We also evaluated the influence of this same parameter; the initial inclination; on the pollutants' dispersion due to the high and alarming importance of the problem on the

  5. Effect of temperature on nitrate removal from polluted groundwater by biofilm technology; Efecto de la temperatura en la eliminacion de nitrato de aguas subterraneas contaminadas mediante sistemas de biopeliculas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rua Ruiz, A. de la; Gonzalez Lopez, J.; Gomez Nieto, M. A.

    2007-07-01

    The effect of temperature on biofilm formation and denitrification activity was evaluated, using a lab-scale submerged filter for the denitrification of polluted groundwater, inoculated with activated sludge and with a selected strain of Pseudomonas sp. Different temperatures were tested: 5, 10, 20 and 30 degree centigree. Our results showed that colonization of the support material of the filter and denitrification capacity have a dependency with temperature, although this factor influences the process in a different way depending on the inoculum used. Nitrite concentration also showed a dependency with temperature. (Author) 12 refs.

  6. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  7. Analysis of residents' willingness to pay to reduce air pollution to improve children's health in community and hospital settings in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keran; Wu, Jinyi; Wang, Rui; Yang, Yingying; Chen, Renjie; Maddock, Jay E; Lu, Yuanan

    2015-11-15

    Shanghai, along with many major cities in China, faces deterioration of air quality and increases in air pollution-related respiratory diseases (RDs) in children due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used to qualitatively and quantitatively measure the willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing children's RDs through air quality improvement. Between April and May, 2014, 975 face-to-face interviews were collected from parents in a community-based and a hospital-setting in Shanghai. Multiple imputation and the Probit model were used to determine the relationship between the WTP and the related environmental factors, child health factors and the socio-economic status. Most respondents reported being willing to make a financial contribution to improve air quality in both the community (52.6%) and hospital (70.2%) samples. Those in the hospital setting were willing to pay significantly more ¥504 (USD$80.7) compared to the community sample ¥428 ($68.5) as expected. Reasons for those not being willing to pay included lack of disposable income and believing that responsibility of the air quality was a community issue. These did not differ by sample. Annual household income and education were related to WTP. This study indicated that parents in Shanghai would be willing to pay for improved air quality. Children's health can be the incentive for the citizens' participation and support in the air quality improvement, therefore, hospital settings may present unique places to improve education about air quality and enhance advocacy efforts. This study also suggested that future environmental policies be addressed more rigorously for targeted populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    Five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (strains ASv26, LSv21, PSv29, LSv54 and LSv514) isolated from Arctic sediments were examined for their adaptation to permanently low temperatures, All strains grew at -1.8 degrees C, the freezing point of sea water, but their optimum temperature...... and T(opt). For strains LSv21 and LSv514, however, growth yields were highest at the lowest temperatures, around 0 degrees C. The results indicate that psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria are specially adapted to permanently low temperatures by high relative growth rates and high growth yields...... at in site conditions....

  9. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wu Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs' that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules. Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the

  10. Influence of DAD-TA temperature-reducing additive on physical and mechanical properties of bitumen and compaction of asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadykina, V. V.; Akimov, A. E.; Trautvain, A. I.; Kholopov, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the use of DAD-TA temperature-reducing additive for the preparation and pouring of asphalt concrete mixes at reduced temperatures. It also shows positive influence of the modified bitumen on the efficiency of organo-mineral composite compaction at reduced temperatures. Physical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete with the use of bitumen modified by DAD-TA additive including indicators characterizing road surfacing life are presented. Arguments to use this material from the point of view of its production technology and environmental impact are given.

  11. Evaluation of the impact of reducing national emissions of SO2 and metals in Poland on background pollution using a bioindication method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Baczewska-Dąbrowska, Aneta H; Dąbrowski, Piotr; Gworek, Barbara; Suwara, Irena

    2018-01-01

    Changes in environmental pollution by S, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in 2006-2014 were evaluated using a bioindication method. This method was based on measurements of pollutants in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles. The measurements were performed in the Chojnowskie Forests, a region recognized as a background area for central Poland. The changes in the contents of sulfur (S) and metals in needles were not comparable with the changes in the global emissions of the pollutants in Poland. On average, the pollution level in the study area decreased by 9.9% for S, 61.4% for Pb, 22.5% for Cd, 11.7% for Zn and 10.4% for Cu. During the same period, global emissions in Poland decreased by 38.1% for S, 8.0% for Pb, 63.2% for Cd, 11.7% for Zn and 14.0% for Cu. Therefore, the differences in the changes in emissions and the needle contents of each element should be examined separately which was not a goal of this study. However, the discrepancy between these results did not prevent the use of bioindication methods. Evaluation of pollutant contents in plants reflected their incorporation in biological processes rather than air or soil pollution levels.

  12. Hyperphagia, lower body temperature, and reduced running wheel activity precede development of morbid obesity in New Zealand obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Hella S; Schürmann, Annette; Kluge, Reinhart; Ortmann, Sylvia; Klaus, Susanne; Joost, Hans-Georg; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2006-04-13

    Among polygenic mouse models of obesity, the New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse exhibits the most severe phenotype, with fat depots exceeding 40% of total body weight at the age of 6 mo. Here we dissected the components of energy balance including feeding behavior, locomotor activity, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis compared with the related lean New Zealand black (NZB) and obese B6.V-Lep(ob)/J (ob/ob) strains (11% and 65% fat at 23 wk, respectively). NZO mice exhibited a significant hyperphagia that, when food intake was expressed per metabolic body mass, was less pronounced than that of the ob/ob strain. Compared with NZB, NZO mice exhibited increased meal frequency, meal duration, and meal size. Body temperature as determined by telemetry with implanted sensors was reduced in NZO mice, but again to a lesser extent than in the ob/ob strain. In striking contrast to ob/ob mice, NZO mice were able to maintain a constant body temperature during a 20-h cold exposure, thus exhibiting a functioning cold-induced thermogenesis. No significant differences in spontaneous home cage activity were observed among NZO, NZB, and ob/ob strains. When mice had access to voluntary running wheels, however, running activity was significantly lower in NZO than NZB mice and even lower in ob/ob mice. These data indicate that obesity in NZO mice, just as in humans, is due to a combination of hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure, and insufficient physical activity. Because NZO mice differ strikingly from the ob/ob strain in their resistance to cold stress, we suggest that the molecular defects causing hyperphagia in NZO mice are located distal from leptin and its receptor.

  13. Environmental pollution from new chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1995-01-01

    New chemical pollutants have entered the environment because of industrialisation, urbanization and developments. The new pollutants include polymers, plasticizers, polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitriles, detergents, lead, dioxins and pesticides. Investigations showed substational amount of their presence in the environment. Pesticides and polymers can be controlled by using photo sensitizers. Lead pollution in ambient air can be controlled by reducing lead content in the gasoline. Detergents can be controlled by switching over the manufacturing process from ABS to LAS. Dioxins can be controlled by incinerating the chlorinated waste above 1200 C. (author)

  14. The use of reduced temperatures for reversible developmental arrest of organ cultures prior to spaceflight experimentation and for postflight analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klement, B.J. [Space Medicine and Life Sciences Research Center Department of Anatomy Morehouse School of Medicine 720 Westview Dr. S.W. Atlanta, Georgia30310-1495 (United States); van Twest, J. [The Bionetics Corporation Life Sciences Support Facility Hanger L Mailcode Bio-3 Kennedy Space Center, Florida32899 (United States); Staudenmaier, R.A.; Brittain, H.; Spooner, B.S. [NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training Division of Biology Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas66506 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One complication of using rapidly growing and developing tissues for spaceflight experimentation is that, due to early turnover and launch delays, the tissues often undergo complete development before orbit is achieved. We conducted a series of studies using three different types of tissue, chick pre-cardiac explants, embryonic mouse lung rudiments and embryonic mouse pre-metatarsal mesenchyme, to examine the use of reduced temperature as an inexpensive means to slow growth and development, before the experiment begins. Pre-cardiac explants could be held at 4{degree}C (277K), 13{degree}C (286K), or 22{degree}C (295K) for up to 48 hours and still begin normal beating within 24 hours of culture at 37{degree}C (310K). Lung explants could be held at 5{degree}C (278K), 15{degree}C (288K), and 24{degree}C (297K) for 3{endash}6 days without clefts changing in appearance, but would resume branching morphogenesis and growth after being placed at 37{degree}C (310K). Pre-metatarsal cultures could be held at 15{degree}C (288K), 22{degree}C (295K) and 24{degree}C (297K) for 6 days with very little change in rod length. After additional incubation at 37{degree}C (310K) the rods increased in length and mineralized. These results suggest that incubation at temperatures below standard culture temperature are capable of slowing tissue growth, but growth and development will resume after standard incubation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Effect of heat treatment and irradiation temperature on impact behavior of irradiated reduced-activation ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Charpy tests were conducted on eight normalized-and-tempered reduced-activation ferritic steels irradiated in two different normalized conditions. Irradiation was conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility at 393 C to ∼14 dpa on steels with 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% Cr (0.1% C) with varying amounts of W, V, and Ta. The different normalization treatments involved changing the cooling rate after austenitization. The faster cooling rate produced 100% bainite in the 2.25 Cr steels, compared to duplex structures of bainite and polygonal ferrite for the slower cooling rate. For both cooling rates, martensite formed in the 5 and 9% Cr steels, and martensite with ∼25% δ-ferrite formed in the 12% Cr steel. Irradiation caused an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and a decrease in the upper-shelf energy. The difference in microstructure in the low-chromium steels due to the different heat treatments had little effect on properties. For the high-chromium martensitic steels, only the 5 Cr steel was affected by heat treatment. When the results at 393 C were compared with previous results at 365 C, all but a 5 Cr and a 9 Cr steel showed the expected decrease in the shift in DBTT with increasing temperature

  16. Microstructure of V-based ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures at a reduced annealing temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, A., E-mail: alexander.schmid@physik.tu-freiberg.de; Schroeter, Ch.; Otto, R.; Heitmann, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Schuster, M. [Namlab gGmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Klemm, V.; Rafaja, D. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2015-02-02

    Ohmic contacts with V/Al/Ni/Au and V/Ni/Au metalization schemes were deposited on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The dependence of the specific contact resistance on the annealing conditions and the V:Al thickness ratio was shown. For an optimized electrode stack, a low specific contact resistance of 8.9 × 10{sup −6} Ω cm{sup 2} was achieved at an annealing temperature of 650 °C. Compared to the conventional Ti/Al/Ni/Au contact, this is a reduction of 150 K. The microstructure and contact formation at the AlGaN/metal interface were investigated by transmission electron microscopy including high-resolution micrographs and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. It was shown that for low-resistive contacts, the resistivity of the metalization has to be taken into account. The V:Al thickness ratio has an impact on the formation of different intermetallic phases and thus is crucial for establishing ohmic contacts at reduced annealing temperatures.

  17. Reduced energy use for ventilation of buildings through selection of low-polluting building materials and furniture. Final Report; Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger hvori der systematisk er valgt lav-forurenende materialer og inventar. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-11-15

    The main objective of the research project was to study the potential of reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials and thereby ensuring that indoor air quality will not be compromised. To quantify this potential, the exposure-response relationships, i.e. the relationships between ventilation rate and the perceived indoor air quality (indoor air quality perceived by humans as opposed to indoor air quality evaluated by chemical measurements), were established for rooms furnished with different more or less polluting materials. Based on these results simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out for selected building scenarios. The exposure-response relationships were established by summarizing existing data reported in the literature and by a series of new experiments. The data summarized by reviewing the literature included data for building materials and furnishing tested in a laboratory setting in small-scale ventilated glass chambers, and in full-scale in ventilated climate chambers, test rooms or normal offices. Relevant low-polluting building materials were selected based on the literature review and a series of new experiments performed in ventilated small-scale glass chambers. Then the final experiments in which the effects of using low-polluting materials on perceived air quality were carried out in ventilated small-scale glass chambers and in full-scale test rooms ventilated with different outdoor air supply rates. Simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out using BSim software. During simulations the ventilation rate was varied to obtain different levels of air quality when low-polluting building materials had been used, and it was examined how these changes influence the energy use. The results show that the exposure-response relationships vary between different building materials and thus the ventilation requirement to achieve a certain level of perceived indoor air quality vary

  18. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  19. Luminal esophageal temperature monitoring with a deflectable esophageal temperature probe and intracardiac echocardiography may reduce esophageal injury during atrial fibrillation ablation procedures: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Luiz R; Santos, Simone N; Maia, Henrique; Henz, Benhur D; Giuseppin, Fábio; Oliverira, Anderson; Zanatta, André R; Peres, Ayrton K; Novakoski, Clarissa; Barreto, Jose R; Vassalo, Fabrício; d'Avila, Andre; Singh, Sheldon M

    2011-04-01

    Luminal esophageal temperature (LET) monitoring is one strategy to minimize esophageal injury during atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. However, esophageal ulceration and fistulas have been reported despite adequate LET monitoring. The objective of this study was to assess a novel approach to LET monitoring with a deflectable LET probe on the rate of esophageal injury in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation. Forty-five consecutive patients undergoing an atrial fibrillation ablation procedure followed by esophageal endoscopy were included in this prospective observational pilot study. LET monitoring was performed with a 7F deflectable ablation catheter that was positioned as close as possible to the site of left atrial ablation using the deflectable component of the catheter guided by visualization of its position on intracardiac echocardiography. Ablation in the posterior left atrial was limited to 25 W and terminated when the LET increased 2°C from baseline. Endoscopy was performed 1 to 2 days after the procedure. All patients had at least 1 LET elevation >2°C necessitating cessation of ablation. Deflection of the LET probe was needed to accurately measure LET in 5% of patients when ablating near the left pulmonary veins, whereas deflection of the LET probe was necessary in 88% of patients when ablating near the right pulmonary veins. The average maximum increase in LET was 2.5±1.5°C. No patients had esophageal thermal injury on follow-up endoscopy. A strategy of optimal LET probe placement using a deflectable LET probe and intracardiac echocardiography guidance, combined with cessation of radiofrequency ablation with a 2°C rise in LET, may reduce esophageal thermal injury during left atrial ablation procedures.

  20. Transport of gaseous pollutants by convective boundary layer around a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sekhar, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of the human convective boundary layer to transport pollution in a quiescent indoor environment. The impact of the source location in the vicinity of a human body is examined in relation to pollution distribution in the breathing zone and the thickness...... of the pollution boundary layer. The study, in addition, evaluates the effects of the room air temperature, table positioning, and seated body inclination. The human body is represented by a thermal manikin that has a body shape, size, and surface temperature that resemble those of a real person. The results show...... at the upper back or behind the chair. The results also indicate that a decrease in personal exposure to pollutants released from or around the human body increases the extent to which the pollution spreads to the surroundings. Reducing the room air temperature or backward body inclination intensifies...

  1. Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in microtearing-dominated National Spherical Torus eXperiment plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, S. M., E-mail: skaye@pppl.gov; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    A representative H-mode discharge from the National Spherical Torus eXperiment is studied in detail to utilize it as a basis for a time-evolving prediction of the electron temperature profile using an appropriate reduced transport model. The time evolution of characteristic plasma variables such as β{sub e}, ν{sub e}{sup ∗}, the MHD α parameter, and the gradient scale lengths of T{sub e}, T{sub i}, and n{sub e} were examined as a prelude to performing linear gyrokinetic calculations to determine the fastest growing micro instability at various times and locations throughout the discharge. The inferences from the parameter evolutions and the linear stability calculations were consistent. Early in the discharge, when β{sub e} and ν{sub e}{sup ∗} were relatively low, ballooning parity modes were dominant. As time progressed and both β{sub e} and ν{sub e}{sup ∗} increased, microtearing became the dominant low-k{sub θ} mode, especially in the outer half of the plasma. There are instances in time and radius, however, where other modes, at higher-k{sub θ}, may, in addition to microtearing, be important for driving electron transport. Given these results, the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) electron thermal diffusivity model, which is based on microtearing-induced transport, was used to predict the time-evolving electron temperature across most of the profile. The results indicate that RLW does a good job of predicting T{sub e} for times and locations where microtearing was determined to be important, but not as well when microtearing was predicted to be stable or subdominant.

  2. Effects of temperature and fertilization on total vs. active bacterial communities exposed to crude and diesel oil pollution in NW Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Arturo; Antoine, Virginie [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 310 allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Canada G5L 3A1 (Canada); Delille, Daniel [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); Ghiglione, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ghiglione@obs-banyuls.f [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France)

    2010-03-15

    The dynamics of total and active microbial communities were studied in seawater microcosms amended with crude or diesel oil at different temperatures (25, 10 and 4 deg. C) in the presence/absence of organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22). Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were enumerated by fluorescence microscopy and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, respectively. Total (16S rDNA-based) vs. active (16S rRNA) bacterial community structure was monitored by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting. Hydrocarbons were analyzed after 12 weeks of incubation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial counts were highly influenced by fertilization while no important differences were observed between temperatures. Higher biodegradation levels were observed in fertilized microcosms. Temperature and fertilization induced changes in structure of total bacterial communities. However, fertilization showed a more important effect on active bacterial structure. The calculation of Simpson's diversity index showed similar trends among temperatures whereas fertilization reduced diversity index of both total and active bacterial communities. - Nutrient availability was the most important factor influencing microbial oil biodegradation in coastal waters of the North-western Mediterranean Sea.

  3. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pollution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently small (large), bilateral tariff reduction always decreases (increases) the pollution tax, irrespective of the value of the transboundary pollution parameter. However, when the pollution damage parameter takes intermediate values, bilateral tariff reduction decreases the pollution tax if and only if the transboundary pollution parameter is sufficiently large (or even sufficiently small, in certain cases). Moreover, with pollution being transboundary, the impact of trade liberalization on welfare is non-monotonic and concave. The greater the extent to which pollution crosses borders, the more likely is trade liberalization to reduce welfare

  4. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baksi, S. [Department of Economics, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg (Canada); Ray Chaudhuri, A. [Department of Economics, CentER, TILEC, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pollution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently small (large), bilateral tariff reduction always decreases (increases) the pollution tax, irrespective of the value of the transboundary pollution parameter. However, when the pollution damage parameter takes intermediate values, bilateral tariff reduction decreases the pollution tax if and only if the transboundary pollution parameter is sufficiently large (or even sufficiently small, in certain cases). Moreover, with pollution being transboundary, the impact of trade liberalization on welfare is non-monotonic and concave. The greater the extent to which pollution crosses borders, the more likely is trade liberalization to reduce welfare.

  5. Reduced thermal budget processing of Y--Ba--Cu--O high temperature superconducting thin films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Sinha, S.; Hsu, N.J.; Ng, J.T.C.; Chou, P.; Thakur, R.P.S.; Narayan, J.

    1991-01-01

    Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has the potential of emerging as a viable technique to fabricate ribbons, tapes, coated wires, and the deposition of films of high temperature superconductors, and related materials. As a reduced thermal budget processing technique, rapid isothermal processing (RIP) based on incoherent radiation as the source of energy can be usefully coupled to conventional MOCVD. In this paper we report on the deposition and characterization of high quality superconducting thin films of Y--Ba--Cu--O (YBCO) on MgO and SrTiO 3 substrates by RIP assisted MOCVD. By using a mixture of N 2 O and O 2 as the oxygen source films deposited initially at 600 degree C for 1 min and then at 740 degree C for 30 min are primarily c-axis oriented and with zero resistance being observed at 84 and 89 K for MgO and SrTiO 3 substrates, respectively. The zero magnetic field current densities at 77 K for MgO and SrTiO 3 substrates are 1.2x10 6 and 1.5x10 6 A/cm 2 , respectively. It is envisaged that high energy photons from the incoherent light source and the use of a mixture of N 2 O and O 2 as the oxygen source, assist chemical reactions and lower overall thermal budget for processing of these films

  6. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  7. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  8. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  9. Can heavy metal pollution defend seed germination against heat stress? Effect of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2016-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution, as well as greenhouse effect, has become a serious threat today. Both heavy metal and heat stresses can arrest seed germination. What response can be expected for seed germination under both stress conditions? Here, the effects of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+)) on maize seed germination were investigated at 20 °C and 40 °C. Compared with 20 °C, heat stress induced thermodormancy. However, this thermodormancy could be significantly alleviated by the addition of a low concentration of heavy metals. Heavy metals, as well as heat stress induced H2O2 accumulation in germinating seeds. Interestingly, this low concentration of heavy metal that promoted seed germination could be partly blocked by DMTU (a specific ROS scavenger), irrespective of temperature. Accordingly, H2O2 addition reinforced this promoting effect on seed germination, which was induced by a low concentration of heavy metal. Furthermore, we found that the NADPH oxidase derived ROS was required for seed germination promoted by the heavy metals. Subsequently, treatment of seeds with fluridone (a specific inhibitor of ABA) or ABA significantly alleviated or aggravated thermodormancy, respectively. However, this alleviation or aggravation could be partly attenuated by a low concentration of heavy metals. In addition, germination that was inhibited by high concentrations of heavy metals was also partly reversed by fluridone. The obtained results support the idea that heavy metal-mediated ROS and hormone interaction can finally affect the thermodormancy release or not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Facile Quantification and Identification Techniques for Reducing Gases over a Wide Concentration Range Using a MOS Sensor in Temperature-Cycled Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schultealbert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated methods for quantification and identification of reducing gases based on model-based temperature-cycled operation (TCO using a single commercial MOS gas sensor are presented. During high temperature phases the sensor surface is highly oxidized, yielding a significant sensitivity increase after switching to lower temperatures (differential surface reduction, DSR. For low concentrations, the slope of the logarithmic conductance during this low-temperature phase is evaluated and can directly be used for quantification. For higher concentrations, the time constant for reaching a stable conductance during the same low-temperature phase is evaluated. Both signals represent the reaction rate of the reducing gas on the strongly oxidized surface at this low temperature and provide a linear calibration curve, which is exceptional for MOS sensors. By determining these reaction rates on different low-temperature plateaus and applying pattern recognition, the resulting footprint can be used for identification of different gases. All methods are tested over a wide concentration range from 10 ppb to 100 ppm (4 orders of magnitude for four different reducing gases (CO, H2, ammonia and benzene using randomized gas exposures.

  11. Facile Quantification and Identification Techniques for Reducing Gases over a Wide Concentration Range Using a MOS Sensor in Temperature-Cycled Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultealbert, Caroline; Baur, Tobias; Schütze, Andreas; Sauerwald, Tilman

    2018-03-01

    Dedicated methods for quantification and identification of reducing gases based on model-based temperature-cycled operation (TCO) using a single commercial MOS gas sensor are presented. During high temperature phases the sensor surface is highly oxidized, yielding a significant sensitivity increase after switching to lower temperatures (differential surface reduction, DSR). For low concentrations, the slope of the logarithmic conductance during this low-temperature phase is evaluated and can directly be used for quantification. For higher concentrations, the time constant for reaching a stable conductance during the same low-temperature phase is evaluated. Both signals represent the reaction rate of the reducing gas on the strongly oxidized surface at this low temperature and provide a linear calibration curve, which is exceptional for MOS sensors. By determining these reaction rates on different low-temperature plateaus and applying pattern recognition, the resulting footprint can be used for identification of different gases. All methods are tested over a wide concentration range from 10 ppb to 100 ppm (4 orders of magnitude) for four different reducing gases (CO, H₂, ammonia and benzene) using randomized gas exposures.

  12. Polluted Runoff: Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpoint Source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground, it picks up and carries natural and human-made pollutants, depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.

  13. Statutory Rewards to Environmental Self-Auditing: Do They Reduce Pollution and Save Regulatory Costs? Evidence from a Cross-State Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Santiago; Innes, Robert

    2008-01-01

    State-level statutes provide firms that engage in environmental self-audits, and that self-report their environmental violations, with a variety of different regulatory rewards, including "immunity" from penalties and "privilege" for information contained in self-audits. This paper studies a panel of State-level industries from 1989-2003, in order to determine the effects of the different statutes on toxic pollution and government inspections. We find that, by encouraging self-auditing, privi...

  14. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Baeza, Carlos; Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NO x , NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM 10 ) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH 4 , N 2 O and CO 2 ), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NO x and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  15. Observation of reduced phase transition temperature in N-doped thermochromic film of monoclinic VO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Meinan; Xiong, Mo [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Li, Neng, E-mail: lineng@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Baoshun; Wang, Shuo [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Ching, Wai-Yim [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Zhao, Xiujian, E-mail: opluse@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • N-doped VO{sub 2}(M1) thin films have been synthesized by annealing in NH{sub 3} atmosphere. • The phase purity, microstructure and optical property of VO{sub 2} thin film can be regulated by NH{sub 3} concentration. • First-principles calculations have been carried out to study the mechanism of N-doping on energy band structures of VO{sub 2}(M1). • The energy band gaps of VO{sub 2}(M1) are tuned by substitution N-doping or interstitial N-doping. - Abstract: Research on monoclinic (M1) phase of VO{sub 2} has attracted a great of interest for smart coating applications due to its exceptional thermochromic property. Herein, we report the results using a novel approach to synthesize N-doped VO{sub 2}(M1) thin films with high purity by heat treatment in NH{sub 3} atmosphere. The N dopant in the film can be regulated by varying NH{sub 3} concentration during the annealing process. We find that the N atoms are located at the interstitial sites or substitute oxygen atoms, and the V-N bonds in the VO{sub 2} thin films increase with NH{sub 3} concentration. The metal to insulator transition (MIT) temperature (τ{sub c,h}) of the VO{sub 2} thin film is effectively reduced from 80.0 to 62.9 °C, while the solar modulation efficiency (ΔT{sub sol}) and the modulation efficiency at 2000 nm (ΔT{sub 2000nm}) are 7.36% and 55.6% respectively. The band gap of N-doped VO{sub 2} thin films related to MIT (E{sub g1}) is estimated to be as low as 0.18–0.25 eV whereas the band gap associated with the visible transparency (E{sub g2}) is about 1.50–1.58 eV. Based on the highly accurate first-principles calculations, the E{sub g1} of VO{sub 2} (M1) is reduced after substituted or interstitial N-doping, while the E{sub g2} alters with the mode of N-doping, which is excellent agreement with experimental measurement.

  16. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  17. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  18. ZnO Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide Bilayer Thin Films for Improved NH3-Sensing Performances at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huiling; Yuan, Zhen; Zheng, Weijian; Ye, Zongbiao; Liu, Chunhua; Du, Xiaosong

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) thin film were deposited on gold interdigital electrodes (IDEs) in sequence via simple spraying process, which was further restored to ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) bilayer thin film by the thermal reduction treatment and employed for ammonia (NH3) detection at room temperature. rGO was identified by UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analyses, and the adhesion between ZnO nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets might also be formed. The NH3-sensing performances of pure rGO film and ZnO/rGO bilayer films with different sprayed GO amounts were compared. The results showed that ZnO/rGO film sensors exhibited enhanced response properties, and the optimal GO amount of 1.5 ml was achieved. Furthermore, the optimal ZnO/rGO film sensor showed an excellent reversibility and fast response/recovery rate within the detection range of 10-50 ppm. Meanwhile, the sensor also displayed good repeatability and selectivity to NH3. However, the interference of water molecules on the prepared sensor is non-ignorable; some techniques should be researched to eliminate the effect of moisture in the further work. The remarkably enhanced NH3-sensing characteristics were speculated to be attributed to both the supporting role of ZnO nanoparticles film and accumulation heterojunction at the interface between ZnO and rGO. Thus, the proposed ZnO/rGO bilayer thin film sensor might give a promise for high-performance NH3-sensing applications.

  19. Experimental investigation on the effect of ultrasonic waves on reducing asphaltene deposition and improving oil recovery under temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Dehshibi, Reza; Mohebbi, Ali; Riazi, Masoud; Niakousari, Mehrdad

    2018-07-01

    A well-known complication in the oil reservoir during oil production is asphaltene deposition in and around the production wellbore. Deposition of asphaltene around the production wellbore may cause a significant pressure drop and in turn loss of efficiency in the production process. Various mechanical and chemical methods have been employed in order to reduce asphaltene formation or to eliminate the precipitate. A novel technique which presented a great potential for prevention or elimination of asphaltene is spreading out the high energy ultrasound wave within the oil reservoir. In this study, in a glass micro-model, asphaltene precipitation was first simulated in a transparent porous medium and its removal by application of high energy ultrasound wave was then investigated. To simulate asphaltene precipitation, the micro-model was first saturated with oil and then a normal-pentane was injected. This was followed by flooding the porous media with brine while propagating ultrasound waves (30 kHz and 100 W) to eliminate asphaltene precipitation. The experiment setup was equipped with a temperature controller. The results indicate a significant reduction in asphaltene precipitation in the oil reservoir may be achieved by application of ultrasound energy. Asphaltene particle deposition has been solved reversibly in the oil layer of porous medium and with the oil layering mechanism, the rate of oil production has been increased. In some spots, water/oil emulsion has been formed because of the ultrasonic vibration on the wall. Both the crude and synthetic oils were examined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Hester, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10 -3 range

  1. New aspects about reduced LCF-life time of spherical ductile cast iron due to dynamic strain aging at intermediate temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Hayato; Wunderlich, Wilfried; Hayashi, Morihito

    2009-01-01

    Spherical ductile cast iron (FCD400) is widely used as container material in nuclear energy processing line due to its superior mechanical properties and low price. Fatigue properties in low cycle fatigue (LCF) can be described well by the Manson-Coffin-Basquin's rule. However, at intermediate temperature range between 453 and 723 K the elongation-temperature-diagram shows a significantly 20-10% reduced elongation and an increase in yield stress in tensile test experiments. These non-linear deviations and the phenomenon of less ductility at intermediate temperatures are known for a long time [K. Chijiiwa, M. Hayashi, Mechanical properties of ductile cast iron at temperature in the region of room temperature to liquid, Imono 51 (7) (2004) 395-400]. But the following explanation is presented for the first time. In the same temperature range as the reduced fatigue life time dynamic strain ageing (DSA) also known as Portevin-le-Chartelier effect with the formation of visible serrations occurs. Both phenomena are explained by interaction effects between carbon diffusion and dislocation velocity which have at this temperature the same order of magnitude. However, this phenomenon shows interesting behavior at intermediate temperature range. During the low cycle fatigue test, DSA phenomenon disappeared, but mechanical properties show clear evidence of DSA phenomenon. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to study the correlation of DSA occurrence, LCF and mechanical properties.

  2. The effect of reduced oxygen content powder on the impact toughness of 316 steel powder joined to 316 steel by low temperature HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Anders; Sundstroem, Johan

    2004-11-01

    During the manufacture of the blanket modules, 316L steel powder is simultaneously consolidated and joined to tubes and blocks of 316L materials by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). The high processing temperature can detrimentally increase the grain size of the water cooling tubes in the structure and the blocks reducing their strength. It is well known that surface oxides on the powder particles negatively influence the impact toughness of material and joints consolidated in this way. By increasing the consolidation temperature the metallurgical bonding is improved, due to a redistribution of oxygen within the oxide layer towards more discrete oxide particles. In order to get acceptable mechanical properties of materials produced at a low HIP temperature the oxygen content on the powder surfaces needs to be reduced. The aim of this new techniques to reduce the oxygen content of the metal powder. The influence on Charpy impact energy and tensile strength were demonstrated

  3. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce indoor air pollution and/or improve health in homes using solid fuel in lower and middle income countries: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Reginald; Ochieng, Caroline A; Semple, Sean; Juvekar, Sanjar; Emina, Jacques; Armah, Frederick Ato; Luginaah, Isaac

    2015-03-04

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) interventions are widely promoted as a means of reducing indoor air pollution/health from solid fuel use; and research addressing impact of these interventions has increased substantially in the past two decades. It is timely and important to understand more about effectiveness of these interventions. We describe the protocol of a systematic review to (i) evaluate effectiveness of IAP interventions to improve indoor air quality and/or health in homes using solid fuel for cooking and/or heating in lower- and middle-income countries, (ii) identify the most effective intervention to improve indoor air quality and/or health, and (iii) identify future research needs. This review will be conducted according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines and will be reported following the PRISMA statement. Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, SCOPUS, and PubMed searches were conducted in September 2013 and updated in November 2014 (and include any further search updates in February 2015). Additional references will be located through searching the references cited by identified studies and through the World Health Organization Global database of household air pollution measurements. We will also search our own archives. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment of all included papers will be conducted independently by five reviewers. The study will provide insights into what interventions are most effective in reducing indoor air pollution and/or adverse health outcomes in homes using solid fuel for cooking or heating in lower- or middle-income countries. The findings from this review will be used to inform future IAP interventions and policy on poverty reduction and health improvement in poor communities who rely on biomass and solid fuels for cooking and heating. The review has been registered with PROSPERO (registration number CRD42014009768 ).

  4. Germination response of Hylocereus setaceus (Salm-Dyck ex DC: ) Ralf Bauer (Cactaceae) seeds to temperature and reduced water potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, E; Takaki, M; Cardoso, V J M

    2010-02-01

    The germination response of Hylocereus setaceus seeds to isothermic incubation at different water potentials was analysed by using the thermal time and hydrotime models, aiming to describe some germination parameters of the population and to test the validity of the models to describe the response of the seeds to temperature and water potential. Hylocereus setaceus seeds germinated relatively well in a wide range of temperatures and the germination was rate limited from 11 to 20 degrees C interval and beyond 30 degrees C until 40 degrees C, in which the germination rate respectively shifts positively and negatively with temperature. The minimum or base temperature (T(b)) for the germination of H. setaceus was 7 degrees C, and the ceiling temperature varied nearly from 43.5 to 59 degrees C depending on the percent fraction, with median set on 49.8 degrees C. The number of degrees day necessary for 50% of the seeds to germinate in the infra-optimum temperature range was 39.3 degrees C day, whereas at the supra-optimum interval the value of theta = 77 was assumed to be constant throughout. Germination was sensitive to decreasing values of psi in the medium, and both the germinability and the germination rate shift negatively with the reduction of psi, but the rate of reduction changed with temperature. The values of base water potential (psi(b)) shift to zero with increasing temperatures and such variation reflects in the relatively greater effect of low psi on germination in supra optimum range of T. In general, the model described better the germination time courses at lower than at higher water potentials. The analysis also suggest that Tb may not be independent of psi and that psi(b(g)) may change as a function of temperature at the infra-otimum temperature range.

  5. Air Pollution Dispersion Modeling of Abadan oil Refinery Using SCREEN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati Rad, F.; Salman-Mahini, A.; Mirkarimi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major problem that has been recognized throughout the world. Refineriers normally create environmental pollution through emissions of pollutants gaseous from a variety of sources. Analysing air pollution distribution and dispersion can help in reducing the negative effects. In this study NO_X and SO_2 emissions and distributions were investigated for Abadan oil refinery using SCREEN3 software. In this softweare, wind speed and direction, air temperature, location and physical characteristics of chimnies and atmospheric stability were taken into consideration.The concentration of pollutants in different distances from the stacks in the range 25 km were predicted and mapped in Idrisi software. The output from software SCREEN3 for emissions from stacks were also examined and compared with the standard output of the refineries. According to our results, the concentration of pollutants in summer and autumn seasons exceeds of the environmental standards.

  6. Kinetics Study of Gas Pollutant Adsorption and Thermal Desorption on Silica Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Silica gel is a typical porous desiccant material. Its adsorption performance for gaseous air pollutants was investigated to determine its potential contribution to reducing such pollutants. Three gaseous air pollutants, toluene, carbon dioxide, and methane, were investigated in this paper. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to obtain the equilibrium adsorption capacity of gases on single silica gel particles. The silica gel adsorption capacity for toluene is much higher than that for carbon dioxide and methane. To understand gas pollutant thermal desorption from silica gel, the thermogravimetric analysis of toluene desorption was conducted with 609 ppm toluene vapor at 313 K, 323 K, and 333 K. The overall regeneration rate of silica gel was strongly dependent on temperature and the enthalpy of desorption. The gas pollutant adsorption performance and thermal desorption on silica gel material may be used to estimate the operating and design parameters for gas pollutant adsorption by desiccant wheels.

  7. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  8. Oral administration of a medium containing both D-aspartate-producing live bacteria and D-aspartate reduces rectal temperature in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, P H; Tran, P V; Bahry, M A; Yang, H; Han, G; Tsuchiya, A; Asami, Y; Furuse, M; Chowdhury, V S

    2017-10-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on the rectal temperature of young chicks of the oral administration of a medium that contained both live bacteria that produce D-aspartate (D-Asp) and D-Asp. 2. In Experiment 1, chicks were subjected to chronic oral administration of either the medium (containing live bacteria and 2.46 μmol D-Asp) or water from 7 to 14 d of age. Plasma-free amino acids as well as mitochondrial biogenic gene expression in the breast muscle were analysed. In Experiment 2, 7-d-old chicks were subjected to acute oral administration of the above medium or of an equimolar amount of D-Asp to examine their effect on changes in rectal temperature. In Experiment 3, after 1 week of chronic oral administration of the medium, 14-d-old chicks were exposed to either high ambient temperature (HT; 40 ± 1°C, 3 h) or control thermoneutral temperature (CT; 30 ± 1°C, 3 h) to monitor the changes in rectal temperature. 3. Chronic, but not acute, oral administration of the medium significantly reduced rectal temperature in chicks, and a chronic effect also appeared under HT conditions. 4. Chronic oral administration of the medium significantly reduced the mRNA abundance of the avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) in the breast muscle, but led to a significant increase in avian adenine nucleotide translocator (avANT) mRNA in the same muscle. 5. (a) These results indicate that the medium can reduce body temperature through the decline in avUCP mRNA expression in the breast muscle that may be involved in reduced mitochondrial proton leaks and heat production. (b) The increase in avANT further suggests a possible enhancement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis.

  9. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzuck, W.

    1982-01-01

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  10. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  11. Estimating emissions on vehicular traffic based on projected energy and transport demand on rural roads: Policies for reducing air pollutant emissions and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozan, Cenk; Haldenbilen, Soner; Ceylan, Halim

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with the estimation of emissions caused by vehicular traffic based on transport demand and energy consumption. Projected transport demand is calculated with Genetic Algorithm (GA) using population, gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) and the number of vehicles. The energy consumption is modelled with the GA using the veh-km. The model age of the vehicles and their corresponding share for each year using the reference years is obtained. The pollutant emissions are calculated with estimated transport and energy demand. All the calculations are made in line to meet the European standards. For this purpose, two cases are composed. Case 1: Emissions based on energy consumption, and Case 2: Emissions based on transport demand. The both cases are compared. Three policies are proposed to control demand and the emissions. The policies provided the best results in terms of minimum emissions and the reasonable share of highway and railway mode as 70% and 30% usage for policy I, respectively. The emission calculation procedure presented in this study would provide an alternative way to make policies when there is no adequate data on emission measurement in developing countries. - Research highlights: → Emissions caused by vehicular traffic are modelled. → The pollutant emissions are calculated with estimated transport and energy demand. → All the calculations are made in line with to meet the European standards. → The calculation procedure will provide an alternative way to make policies. → The procedure will help planners to convince politicians to impose policies.

  12. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  13. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  14. The effect of reduced oxygen content powder on the impact toughness of 316 steel powder joined to 316 steel by low temperature HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Anders; Sundstroem, Johan; Peacock, Alan

    2005-01-01

    During the manufacture of the blanket modules, 316L steel powder is simultaneously consolidated and joined to tubes and blocks of 316L materials by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The high processing temperature can detrimentally increase the grain size of the water-cooling tubes in the structure and the blocks reducing their strength. It is well known [L. Arnberg, A. Karlsson, Influence of powder surface oxidation on some properties of a HIPed martensitic chromium steel, Int. J. Powder Metall. 24 (2) (1988) 107-112] that surface oxides on the powder particles negatively influence the impact toughness of material and joints consolidated in this way. At a high HIP temperature, the oxides are at least partly transformed, thereby improving the impact toughness [L. Nyborg, I. Olefjord, Surface analysis of PM martensitic steel before and after consolidation. Part 2. Surface analysis of compacted material, Powder Metall. 31 (1) (1988) 40-44]. In order to get acceptable mechanical properties of materials produced at a low HIP temperature, the oxygen content on the powder surfaces needs to be reduced. In order to study the effect of reducing the powder oxygen content, it was reduced and the results were compared to those of specimens with ordinary oxygen content. The effect on the impact toughness and the tensile strength of low temperature (1020 and 1060 deg. C) HIP joints between steel blocks and powder consolidated material with low and ordinary oxygen content was measured

  15. Influence of climate change on the multi-generation toxicity to Enchytraeus crypticus of soils polluted by metal/metalloid mining wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barmentlo, S.H.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Alvarez-Rogel, J.; Gonzalez Alcaraz, M.N.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of increased air temperature and reduced soil moisture content on the multi-generation toxicity of a soil polluted by metal/metalloid mining wastes. Enchytraeus crypticus was exposed to dilution series of the polluted soil in Lufa 2.2 soil under different

  16. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  17. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi; Fortuna, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of OMW. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46–51% in 24 h) particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials. PMID:24790964

  18. Reducing the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater by photocatalytic membranes and monitoring the process using both tyrosinase biosensor and COD test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMartini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic technique had already been employed in the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW using the photocatalysis in suspension. The coupling of photocatalytic and membrane techniques should result in a very powerful process bringing great innovation to OMW depollution. Despite the potential advantages using these hybrid photoreactors, research on the combined use of photocatalysis and membranes has so far not been sufficiently developed. The present paper describes a study to assess the photocatalytic efficacy of a new ceramic membrane containing titanium dioxide, irradiated by UV light, used to abate the pollutant load of olive mill wastewater. Good results were obtained (more than 90% of the phenol content was removed and the COD decrease was of the order of 46-51 % in 24 h particularly using the ceramic membrane compared with those offered by analogous catalytic membranes made of metallic or polymeric materials.

  19. Effects of reduction temperature on the optoelectronic properties of diodes based on n-type Si and reduced graphene oxide doped with a conductive polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Jian-Jhou; Lin, Yow-Jon; Ruan, Cheng-He; Lin, Jian-Huang

    2013-01-01

    The effect of reduction temperature on the optoelectronic properties of diodes based on n-type Si and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) doped with a conductive polymer [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)] was examined in this study. It is found that conductivity of RGO-doped PEDOT:PSS films increases with increasing reduction temperature of graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The improvement of electrical conductivity is considered to mainly come from the carrier mobility enhancement. In addition, the ideality factor of n-type Si/RGO-doped PEDOT:PSS diodes decreases with increasing reduction temperature of GO sheets. The device-performance improvement originates from high-mobility hole transport combined with long-lifetime electron trapping in the RGO-doped PEDOT:PSS film. In addition, note that a suitable reduction temperature is an important issue for improving the device performance. (paper)

  20. The impact of temperature change on the activity and community composition of sulfate-reducing bacteria in arctic versus temperate marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robador, Alberto; Brüchert, Volker; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2009-01-01

    Arctic regions may be particularly sensitive to climate warming and, consequently, rates of carbon mineralization in warming marine sediment may also be affected. Using long-term (24 months) incubation experiments at 0°C, 10°C and 20°C, the temperature response of metabolic activity and community...... composition of sulfate-reducing bacteria were studied in the permanently cold sediment of north-western Svalbard (Arctic Ocean) and compared with a temperate habitat with seasonally varying temperature (German Bight, North Sea). Short-term 35S-sulfate tracer incubations in a temperature-gradient block...... (between -3.5°C and +40°C) were used to assess variations in sulfate reduction rates during the course of the experiment. Warming of arctic sediment resulted in a gradual increase of the temperature optima (Topt) for sulfate reduction suggesting a positive selection of psychrotolerant/mesophilic sulfate...

  1. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  2. Influence of matrices on electron temperature of laser micro-plasma in argon atmosphere at reduced pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qinlin; Zhou Yulong; Zhang Bo; Zhang Qiulin; Zhang Jinping; Huai Sufang

    2007-01-01

    Laser micro-spectral analysis coupled with CCD spectrometer was used in this experiment. With Fe I 356.54 nm and Fe I 358.12 nm as analysis spectral lines, the micro-plasma temperature and its spatial distribution were investigated in different matrices, namely Mg, Al, Si, and steel alloy6-0. The electron temperature as a function of location in each matrix and the differences of that at the same location in different matrices were determined and an explanation was given. Finally, with Cu I 324.75 nm and Zn I 394.50 nm as analysis spectral lines, we have successfully used the calculated micro-plasma temperature to discuss the matrix effect. (authors)

  3. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  4. General thermodynamic description of pollutants and preservatives in water at high temperature: application to primary and secondary circuits of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Jorge L.; Kukuljan, Juan A.; Gutkowski, Karin; Japas, Maria L.; Fernandez Prini, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    A formalism has been developed for the description of solubilities and other thermodynamic functions, based only on the Krichevskii function and properties of the pure solvent. This formalism is applied to pollutants of primary and secondary circuits nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Leaf wettability as a measure of air pollution effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagels, R.

    1994-01-01

    Droplet contact angle (DCA) is a technique that can be used to measure wettability and, in turn, provide an assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of a surface. As adapted to plant bioligy, DCA measurements have been useful in characterizing changes in the type or condition of leaf epicuticular waxes. Environmental as well as temporal factors can modify the biophysical features of epicuticular wax surfaces and thereby affect DCA measurements. An understanding of the role of these non-pollutant factors is necessary before pollution damage can be accurately assessed. Controlled chamber experiments and field pollutant gradient studies have shown that DCA is generally reduced when plants are exposed to air pollutants such as ozone, So 2 , and acidic fog. In some cases, environmental influences, such as temperature, have been separated from the pollutant effect. However, mixtures of anthropogenic pollutants or anthropogenic and natural compounds (sea salts, dust particles) which are often present in field studies can confound the interpretation of DCA measurements. A few studies that attempt to separate these factors have been conducted, but more are needed before the potential for using DCA measurements in long-term bioindicator studies can be fully realized. Some studies have demonstrated that pollutants do not necessarily affect leaf surfaces in a uniform pattern, but rather are specific for certain structures such as stomates or trichomes; deposition levels can also be different on ad-and abaxial surfaces. The degree to which these inhomogeneities of action can affect DCA measurements needs further study. (orig.)

  6. Exploring the role of green and blue infrastructure in reducing temperature in Iskandar Malaysia using remote sensing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanniah, K D; Sheikhi, A; Kang, C S

    2014-01-01

    Development of cities has led to various environmental problems as a consequence of non sustaibale town planning. One of the strategies to make cities a livable place and to achieve low levels of CO 2 emissions (low carbon cities or LCC) is the integration of the blue and green infrastructure into the development and planning of new urban areas. Iskandar Malaysia (IM) located in the southern part of Malaysia is a special economic zone that has major urban centres. The planning of these urban centres will incorporate LCC strategies to achieve a sustainable development. The role of green (plants) and blue bodies (lakes and rivers) in moderating temperature in IM have been investigated in the current study. A remotely sensed satellite imagery was used to calculate the vegetation density and land surface temperature (LST). The effect of lakes in cooling the surrounding temperature was also investigated. Results show that increasing vegetation density by 1% can decrease the LST by 0.09°C. As for the water bodies we found as the distance increased from the lake side the temperature also increased about 1.7°C and the reduction in air humidity is 9% as the distance increased to 100 meter away from the lake

  7. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were

  8. Effectiveness of a temperature control system in home induction hobs to reduce acrylamide formation during pan frying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillen, S.; Oria, R.; Salvador, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to determine the influence of the use of temperature control systems on physico-chemical characteristics and acrylamide formation in the domestic preparation of potatoes. French fries were pre-treated by soaking in water or acidified water, and then they were cooked...

  9. Anthropogenic impacts on global organic river pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. To implement integrated water

  10. The Reduced Rank of Ensemble Kalman Filter to Estimate the Temperature of Non Isothermal Continue Stirred Tank Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Erna Apriliani; Dieky Adzkiya; Arief Baihaqi

    2011-01-01

    Kalman filter is an algorithm to estimate the state variable of dynamical stochastic system. The square root ensemble Kalman filter is an modification of Kalman filter. The square root ensemble Kalman filter is proposed to keep the computational stability and reduce the computational time. In this paper we study the efficiency of the reduced rank ensemble Kalman filter. We apply this algorithm to the non isothermal continue stirred tank reactor problem. We decompose the covariance of the ense...

  11. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    and T(opt). For strains LSv21 and LSv514, however, growth yields were highest at the lowest temperatures, around 0 degrees C. The results indicate that psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria are specially adapted to permanently low temperatures by high relative growth rates and high growth yields......Five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (strains ASv26, LSv21, PSv29, LSv54 and LSv514) isolated from Arctic sediments were examined for their adaptation to permanently low temperatures, All strains grew at -1.8 degrees C, the freezing point of sea water, but their optimum temperature...... for growth (T(opt)) were 7 degrees C (PSv29), 10 degrees C (ASv26, LSv54) and 18 degrees C (LSv21, LSv514), Although T(opt) was considerably above the in situ temperatures of their habitats (-1.7 degrees C and 2.6 degrees C), relative growth rates were still high at 0 degrees C, accounting for 25...

  12. Synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen for bubble swelling in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel under sequential helium and hydrogen irradiation at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wenhui [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Jihong; Luo, Fengfeng; Li, Tiecheng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Ren, Yaoyao [Center for Electron Microscopy, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Suo, Jinping; Yang, Feng [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • Helium/hydrogen synergistic effect can increase irradiation swelling of RAFM steel. • Hydrogen can be trapped to the outer surface of helium bubbles. • Too large a helium bubble can become movable. • Point defects would become mobile and annihilate at dislocations at high temperature. • The peak swelling temperature for RAFM steel is 450 °C. - Abstract: In order to investigate the synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen on swelling in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, specimens were separately irradiated by single He{sup +} beam and sequential He{sup +} and H{sup +} beams at different temperatures from 250 to 650 °C. Transmission electron microscope observation showed that implantation of hydrogen into the specimens pre-irradiated by helium can result in obvious enhancement of bubble size and swelling rate which can be regarded as a consequence of hydrogen being trapped by helium bubbles. But when temperature increased, Ostwald ripening mechanism would become dominant, besides, too large a bubble could become mobile and swallow many tiny bubbles on their way moving, reducing bubble number density. And these effects were most remarkable at 450 °C which was the peak bubble swelling temperature for RAMF steel. When temperature was high enough, say above 450, point defects would become mobile and annihilate at dislocations or surface. As a consequence, helium could no longer effectively diffuse and clustering in materials and bubble formation was suppressed. When temperature was above 500, helium bubbles would become unstable and decompose or migrate out of surface. Finally no bubble was observed at 650 °C.

  13. Synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen for bubble swelling in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel under sequential helium and hydrogen irradiation at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenhui; Guo, Liping; Chen, Jihong; Luo, Fengfeng; Li, Tiecheng; Ren, Yaoyao; Suo, Jinping; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Helium/hydrogen synergistic effect can increase irradiation swelling of RAFM steel. • Hydrogen can be trapped to the outer surface of helium bubbles. • Too large a helium bubble can become movable. • Point defects would become mobile and annihilate at dislocations at high temperature. • The peak swelling temperature for RAFM steel is 450 °C. - Abstract: In order to investigate the synergistic effect of helium and hydrogen on swelling in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel, specimens were separately irradiated by single He + beam and sequential He + and H + beams at different temperatures from 250 to 650 °C. Transmission electron microscope observation showed that implantation of hydrogen into the specimens pre-irradiated by helium can result in obvious enhancement of bubble size and swelling rate which can be regarded as a consequence of hydrogen being trapped by helium bubbles. But when temperature increased, Ostwald ripening mechanism would become dominant, besides, too large a bubble could become mobile and swallow many tiny bubbles on their way moving, reducing bubble number density. And these effects were most remarkable at 450 °C which was the peak bubble swelling temperature for RAMF steel. When temperature was high enough, say above 450, point defects would become mobile and annihilate at dislocations or surface. As a consequence, helium could no longer effectively diffuse and clustering in materials and bubble formation was suppressed. When temperature was above 500, helium bubbles would become unstable and decompose or migrate out of surface. Finally no bubble was observed at 650 °C

  14. Optimal Pollution Trading without Pollution Reductions : A Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  15. Comparing Contingent Valuation, Conjoint Analysis and decition Panels: An Application to the valuation of reduced damages from air pollution in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, B.; Strand, J.; Saelensminde, K.; Wenstoep, F.

    1996-12-31

    The need for assessing values of non-market goods has led to the development of two main groups of valuation approaches, those based on revealed preferences, and those on stated preferences (SP). One of the stated preference approaches, the Contingent Valuation Method, has recently been heavily criticized and alternative SP valuation approaches have appeared. This report discusses three SP approaches to eliciting willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental goods, namely open-ended contingent valuation (OE-CVM), conjoint analysis (CA) and multi-attribute utility theory applied to decision panels of experts (DPE). Each approach has advantages and disadvantages relative to the others and the relation between WTP estimates from the approaches cannot be predicted on prior arguments alone. The three approaches are applied in three different surveys, seeking valuation of specific damages due to air pollution in Norway. In all cases studied, OE-CVM yields the lowest average WTP estimate, while those from CA and EDP are similar. Possible explanations are offered, based on the principle differences between the approaches and on particular features of the three surveys. 35 refs., 10 tabs.

  16. SEE Action Guide for States: Energy Efficiency as a Least-Cost Strategy to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution and Meet Energy Needs in the Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); shenot, John [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Colburn, Ken [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); James, Chris [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Zetterberg, Johanna [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Roy, Molly [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This guide is designed to provide information to state decision makers and staff on options to advance energy efficiency through strategies designed or implemented at the state and local levels of government and in the private sector.1 The information in this guide is intended to be useful to a wide variety of partners and stakeholders involved in energy-related discussions and decision-making at state and local levels. These energy efficiency options, or “pathways” as they are identified in this guide, can assist states in using energy efficiency to meet air pollution reduction and other policy objectives such as energy affordability and reliability. A pathway is a set of interdependent actions that results in measurable energy savings streams and associated avoided air emissions and other benefits over a period of time. These activities can include state, local, or private sector regulations, policies, programs and other activities. For each of five broad pathways that offer sizable cost-effective energy savings, the guide addresses likely questions policy makers and regulators face when screening for the best opportunities to advance energy efficiency in their state.

  17. Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong IK

    1990-03-01

    This book tells US that what nature is, which gives descriptions of the world of living things like the role of plant, order of the vegetable kingdom, the world of plant, destruction of the natural world, and the world of bugs, nature and human with man's survive and change of nature, environment and human, and in creasing population and environment, philosophy of conservation of nature on meaning, destroy and management, and direction, air pollution spot, water pollution, soil pollution conservation of nature and industry case of foreign country and view of environment and environmental assimilating capacity.

  18. Effect of new type of synthetic waxes on reduced production and compaction temperature of asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Mastný, Jan; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Lower mixing and paving temperatures of asphalt mixtures, which are an important issue in recent years, with respect to increased energy demand of civil engineering structures during their processing, allow reduction of this demand and result in minimized greenhouse gas production. In present time, there are many possibilities how to achieve reduction of production temperature during the mixing and paving of an asphalt mixture. The existing solutions distinguish in target operating temperature behaviour which has to be achieved in terms of good workability. This paper is focused on technical solutions based on use of new types of selected synthetic and bio-based waxes. In case of bio-based additive sugar cane wax was used, which is free of paraffins and is reclaimed as waste product during processing of sugar cane. The used waxes are added to bituminous binder in form of free-flowing granules or fine-grained powder. Synthetic waxes are represented by new series of Fischer-Tropsch wax in form of fine granules as well as by polyethylene waxes in form of fine-grained powder or granules. Those waxes were used to modify a standard paving grade bitumen dosed into asphalt mixture of ACsurf type containing up to 30 % of reclaimed asphalt (RA).

  19. The Reduced Rank of Ensemble Kalman Filter to Estimate the Temperature of Non Isothermal Continue Stirred Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Apriliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kalman filter is an algorithm to estimate the state variable of dynamical stochastic system. The square root ensemble Kalman filter is an modification of Kalman filter. The square root ensemble Kalman filter is proposed to keep the computational stability and reduce the computational time. In this paper we study the efficiency of the reduced rank ensemble Kalman filter. We apply this algorithm to the non isothermal continue stirred tank reactor problem. We decompose the covariance of the ensemble estimation by using the singular value decomposition (the SVD, and then we reduced the rank of the diagonal matrix of those singular values. We make a simulation by using Matlab program. We took some the number of ensemble such as 100, 200 and 500. We compared the computational time and the accuracy between the square root ensemble Kalman filter and the ensemble Kalman filter. The reduced rank ensemble Kalman filter can’t be applied in this problem because the dimension of state variable is too less.

  20. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  1. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with ... NIEHS Newsletter) Karletta Chief Featured in Science Friday Film (April 2018) Chlorine Levels Help Detect Risk for ...

  2. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  3. Fast and low-temperature sintering of silver complex using oximes as a potential reducing agent for solution-processible, highly conductive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Su Bin; Kim, Ji Man; Han, Dae Sang; Chae, Jangwoo; Kwak, Jeonghun

    2014-01-01

    Highly conductive, solution-processed silver thin-films were obtained at a low sintering temperature of 100 °C in a short sintering time of 10 min by introducing oximes as a potential reductant for silver complex. The thermal properties and reducibility of three kinds of oximes, acetone oxime, 2-butanone oxime, and one dimethylglyoxime, were investigated as a reducing agent, and we found that the thermal decomposition product of oximes (ketones) accelerated the conversion of silver complex into highly conductive silver at low sintering temperature in a short time. Using the acetone oxime, the silver thin-film exhibited the lowest surface resistance (0.91 Ω sq −1 ) compared to those sing other oximes. The silver thin-film also showed a high reflectance of 97.8%, which is comparable to evaporated silver films. We also demonstrated inkjet printed silver patterns with the oxime-added silver complex inks. (paper)

  4. Assessing the potential impacts of a revised set of on-farm nutrient and sediment 'basic' control measures for reducing agricultural diffuse pollution across England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A L; Newell Price, J P; Zhang, Y; Gooday, R; Naden, P S; Skirvin, D

    2018-04-15

    The need for improved abatement of agricultural diffuse water pollution represents cause for concern throughout the world. A critical aspect in the design of on-farm intervention programmes concerns the potential technical cost-effectiveness of packages of control measures. The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) calls for Programmes of Measures (PoMs) to protect freshwater environments and these comprise 'basic' (mandatory) and 'supplementary' (incentivised) options. Recent work has used measure review, elicitation of stakeholder attitudes and a process-based modelling framework to identify a new alternative set of 'basic' agricultural sector control measures for nutrient and sediment abatement across England. Following an initial scientific review of 708 measures, 90 were identified for further consideration at an industry workshop and 63 had industry support. Optimisation modelling was undertaken to identify a shortlist of measures using the Demonstration Test Catchments as sentinel agricultural landscapes. Optimisation selected 12 measures relevant to livestock or arable systems. Model simulations of 95% implementation of these 12 candidate 'basic' measures, in addition to business-as-usual, suggested reductions in the national agricultural nitrate load of 2.5%, whilst corresponding reductions in phosphorus and sediment were 11.9% and 5.6%, respectively. The total cost of applying the candidate 'basic' measures across the whole of England was estimated to be £450 million per annum, which is equivalent to £52 per hectare of agricultural land. This work contributed to a public consultation in 2016. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Public health benefits of reducing air pollution in Shanghai: a proof-of-concept methodology with application to BenMAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, A Scott; Wang, Jiandong; Wang, Cuicui; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Kan, Haidong

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, levels of particulate matter (PM) air pollution in China have been relatively high, exceeding China's Class II standards in many cities and impacting public health. This analysis takes Chinese health impact functions and underlying health incidence, applies 2010-2012 modeled and monitored PM air quality data, and estimates avoided cases of mortality and morbidity in Shanghai, assuming achievement of China's Class II air quality standards. In Shanghai, the estimated avoided all cause mortality due to PM10 ranged from 13 to 55 cases per day and from 300 to 800 cases per year. The estimated avoided impact on hospital admissions due to PM10 ranged from 230 cases to 580 cases per day and from 5400 to 7900 per year. The estimated avoided impact on all cause mortality due to PM2.5 ranged from 6 to 26 cas