WorldWideScience

Sample records for political risk strategies

  1. The place of Political Risk Insurance in the political risk management strategy of multinational corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Iftinchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Confronted with a variety of political risks that affect their international activities, multinational corporations (MNCs can use Political Risk Insurance (PRI as a method to mitigate some of those risks. The aim of this article is to present the main characteristics of the PRI policies and participants, to highlight its benefits and to put forward three limitations that prevent MNCs in using PRI in their political risk management strategy (fluctuating capacity on the market, high premium rates and small compensation value. The recent trend in incorporating corporate social responsibility requirements as a pre-condition for providing PRI can contribute to lowering PRI premium rates.

  2. Management and policy: political strategies and instruments of the risk types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Klinke, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the risk classification is to gain an effective and feasible policy tool for the evaluation and the management or risks. The characterisation provides a platform for designing specific political strategies and measures for each risk type. The strategies pursue the goal to transform unacceptable into acceptable risks, i.e. the risks should not be reduced to zero, but they should be reduced to a level that routine risk management becomes sufficient to ensure safety and integrity. All strategies and respective measures are arranged according to priorities. In the normal case more than one strategy and more than one measure are naturally appropriate and necessary. If resources are limited, strategies and measures should be taken in line with the priority list. The following part lists the prior strategies and the prior measures recommended for each risk type. (authors)

  3. Risk, responsibility and political action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov Jensen, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This paper presents an argumentative case study of the discursive representation of risk, responsibility and political action in the Spanish media. The study uses a critical discourse analytical approach combined with theories on risk, agency and political communication in the media....... It is argued that an application of the Toulmin model is useful for eliciting systematic overall repre-sentations of responsibility and agency in environmental crises such as the mad cow crisis as well as for revealing relationships between social domains such as moral, politics, economics and science...... in discourse. Discourse analysis shows that in the Spanish newspaper sample the focus was on the construal of high risk and on the construal of the national Spanish politicians, the EU and the Brit-ish nation as scapegoats. No responsibility was associated with consumers or other individual players. Political...

  4. Risk, responsibility and political action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov Jensen, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    . It is argued that an application of the Toulmin model is useful for eliciting systematic overall repre-sentations of responsibility and agency in environmental crises such as the mad cow crisis as well as for revealing relationships between social domains such as moral, politics, economics and science......ABSTRACT. This paper presents an argumentative case study of the discursive representation of risk, responsibility and political action in the Spanish media. The study uses a critical discourse analytical approach combined with theories on risk, agency and political communication in the media...... action was transformed into a moral respon-sibility on the part of the national and European politicians, constrained by economic and technical-scientific reality and represented as taking place only in the public sphere. KEY WORDS: CDA, World Risk Society, argumentation, media discourse, argumentation...

  5. Democracy, political risks and stock market performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lehkonen, Heikki; Heimonen, Kari

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impacts of democracy and political risk on stock market. Using annualized panel data for 49 emerging markets for 2000–2012 we find evidence that democracy and political risk do have impact on stock market returns and the relationship between democracy and political risk is parabolic, i.e., there is a threshold level of democracy after which political risk begins to decline. Also our results suggest that decreases in political risk lead to higher returns.

  6. Risk, science, and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.; Hoberg, G. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Case studies of seven controversial substances suspected of causing cancer in humans were analysed: the pesticides Alar and Alachor, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, radon gas, dioxin, saccharin, and asbestos. Government regulation of toxic substances in Canada and the U.S. were examined. The strengths and weaknesses of each country`s approach were weighted according to five criteria: stringency and timeliness of the regulatory decision, balancing of risks and benefits by decision makers, opportunities for public participation, and the interpretation of science in regulatory decision making. Dramatically different approaches to regulatory science in the two countries were highlighted. The Canadian approach is exemplified by closed decision making, case-by-case review relying heavily on expert judgement, and limited public debate. In contrast, the American approach is characterized by publication of lengthy rationales for regulatory decisions, reliance on standardized procedures for risk assessment, and controversy surrounding the interpretation of scientific evidence. The general conclusion was that both the Canadian and U.S.approaches offer uncertain risks and benefits; the key question is how the risks compare with the benefits, and which consequences are valued the most. Extensive bibliographic notes are provided for each chapter.

  7. The Political Economy of Intergenerational Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the political constraints of intergenerational risk sharing. The rst result is that the political process generally does not lead to ex ante optimal insurance. The second result is that in a second best political setting PAYG still contributes to intergenerational risk sharing.

  8. The Political Economy of Regulatory Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2009-01-01

    I investigate the argument that, in a two–party system with different regulatory objectives, political uncertainty generates regulatory risk. I show that this risk has a fluctuation effect that hurts both parties and an output–expansion effect that benefits one party. Consequently, at least one party dislikes regulatory risk. Moreover, both political parties gain from eliminating regulatory risk when political divergence is small or the winning probability of the regulatory–risk–averse party ...

  9. Academic boycott - political strategy or moral imperative?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    moral imperative? Selective support as a justifiable alternative. S. R. BENATAR. Summary. Academic boycott has been justified as an appropriate political strategy in the struggle .... Declaration on Human Rights and Individual Freedom of. Medical ... with recognition and responsibility for the effect this could have in eroding ...

  10. Iranian Political Strategy: Ideology or Pragmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saada, Julien

    2008-01-01

    Iranian political strategy wants to be presented as a political break, with a Pan-Islamic vocation. Brought about by Ayatollah Khomeyni, this political philosophy has produced the intended effects, as seen with the return of more moderate policies. Khomeyni's death confronted the Islamic Republic with a choice: Hachemi Rasfandjani put Iran back into the international scene by conciliating pragmatism with ideological values. In 2005, M. Ahmadinejad came to power. His declarations concerning the Hebrew State and his position on nuclear weapons pose the question as to whether or not Iran is reverting to an export policy of revolution. It is important to place these elements in the historical context of the Islamic Republic so as to see if Iranian foreign policy is again taking an ideological turn or if it is continuing down the lane of pragmatism

  11. Car manufacturers' changing political strategies on the ZEV mandate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, J. H.; Farla, J. C M; Sperling, D.; Hekkert, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    We ask how incumbent car manufacturers and their political coalitions changed their political strategy with respect to the Californian zero emission vehicle mandate over the period 2000-2013. Building on the Corporate Political Activities literature we conceptualize firms' political strategies and

  12. Political uncertainty and firm risk in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danglun Luo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The political uncertainty surrounded by the turnover of government officials has a major impact on local economies and local firms. This paper investigates the relationship between the turnover of prefecture-city officials and the inherent risk faced by local firms in China. Using data from 1999 to 2012, we find that prefecture-city official turnovers significantly increased firm risk. Our results show that the political risk was mitigated when new prefecture-city officials were well connected with their provincial leaders. In addition, the impact of political uncertainty was more pronounced for regulated firms and firms residing in provinces with low market openness.

  13. Political pugilists: recuperative gender strategies in canadian electoral politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Elise

    2015-05-01

    This paper offers the concept recuperative gender strategies to describe how political leaders work to restore their public gender identities. The author examines a charity-boxing match between two Canadian politicians, Justin Trudeau and Patrick Brazeau. Trudeau is the current leader of the Liberal Party of Canada and son of former Prime Minister, Pierre Trudeau. Brazeau was a Conservative Senator. Through a discourse analysis of 222 national newspaper articles published on the match, this paper chronicles Justin Trudeau's transition from "precariously masculine" to "sufficiently masculine" and discusses the significance of this transformation for Trudeau's suitability for Liberal Party leadership. Cet article propose le concept de stratégies de récupération des sexes pour décrire et expliquer comment des dirigeants politiques travaillent à rétablir leurs identités sexuelles publiques. J'analyse la couverture médiatique du combat de boxe caritatif datant de mars 2012 et opposant deux politiciens canadiens : Justin Trudeau, le chef du Parti libéral du Canada, et Patrick Brazeau, un sénateur conservateur. En m'appuyant sur une analyse de discours de 222 articles de journaux nationaux publiés au sujet de ce combat, je détaille la transition de Justin Trudeau d'une forme de masculinité « précaire » à une « masculinité suffisante », et je discute de l'importance de cette transformation pour l'aptitude perçue de Trudeau comme chef du Parti libéral. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  14. Firms dealing with regulatory change: innovation and political influence strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, Joeri; Farla, Jacco; Hekkert, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Firm-level strategies, particularly political strategies, are overlooked in transition studies. Therefore, we study how car manufacturers combine and change their innovation and political influence strategies in response to a technology-forcing regulation that attempts to drive transition. We use

  15. Gender, risk assessment, and political ambition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet-Cushman, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, women have long held the right to vote and can participate fully in the political process, and yet they are underrepresented at all levels of elected office. Worldwide, men's dominance in the realm of politics has also been the norm. To date, scholars have focused on supply-side and demand-side explanations of women's underrepresentation but differences in how men and women assess electoral risk (the risk involved in seeking political office) are not fully explained. To fill this gap, I explore how evolutionary theory offers insights into gendered differences in political ambition and the evaluation of electoral risk. Using the framework of life-history theory, I hypothesize that both cognitive and environmental factors in human evolution, particularly as they relate to sexual selection and social roles, have shaped the psychology of ambition in gendered ways affecting contemporary politics. Cognitive risk-assessment mechanisms evolving in the hominid line came to be expressed differently in females and males, in women and men. These gendered expressions plausibly reflect differentiable environmental pressures in the past and may help explain behaviors in and barriers to women's electoral political activity in the present. If so, then the success of efforts to increase such activity - or, regressively, to suppress it - may be better understood.

  16. Political strategy, business strategy, and the academic medical center: linking theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souba, W W; Weitekamp, M R; Mahon, J F

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to link external political strategy theory to a specific health care setting-that of the academic medical center (AMC). Political strategy encompasses those activities undertaken by AMCs to acquire, develop, and use power (clout, influence, and credibility) to gain an advantage in situations of conflict. It should be differentiated from internal politics, a topic that will not be dealt with in this review. Political strategy should also be distinguished from but not divorced from competitive strategy. As political and social action can change the competitive landscape and the rules of competition, AMCs must become adept in issues management and stakeholder management. The focus on political strategy is a reflection of the enormous changes in the external environment that have impacted AMCs in recent years. These changes have often emerged out of political and social action and they impact significantly on the organization's more traditional business strategies. We suggest that a tighter alignment between political and business strategies in the future will help ensure organizational survival and success. This article reviews the literature and theory in corporate political strategy and illustrates the application of political strategy with examples of issues and problems faced by AMCs. Models of political strategy are well crafted, and this article concludes with succinct observations on the use of political strategies to enhance the business-based strategies of AMCs. Although the focus is on AMCs, the use of political strategies is applicable to any health care institution. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Politics as Fights and Games of Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    This dissertation investigates the characteristics and consequences of political news coverage. It focuses on two features of contemporary mass media journalism: (1) the framing of politics as strategic games, and (2) the coverage of politicians’ negative campaigning. The dissertation shows...

  18. The politics of urban climate risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2018-01-01

    makes valuable contributions, this article suggests that all of them remain under-theorized from the point of view of the specific dynamics of local–global interdependencies in urban climate risk politics. In response, the article draws on Beck in outlining the contours of new urban–cosmopolitan risk...... to the study of urban climate politics, by way of asking what contribution Ulrich Beck’s theory of world risk society – and principles of methodological cosmopolitanism – make to such epochal conversations? Three main analytical frameworks stand out: low-carbon transition literature highlight generic processes...... of socio-technical ‘greening’ of urban infrastructures; urban policy mobility work documents growing intercity networks around climate and sustainability; and actor–network theory-informed takes on urban controversies engage the localized politics of specific city-based ‘riskscapes’. While each framework...

  19. A Political Campaign Strategy and Campaign Theme : How to Win a Political Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    河村, 直幸; Kawamura, Naoyuki

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to introduce a political campaign strategy. A political campaign should do on a scientific system and needs effective strategy. Before political campaign begin, a candidate and its campaigner needs to analyze election district and sample voter opinion. An election campaign needs campaign theme. The creation of campaign theme needs careful and elaborate planning. A style of campaign varies according to incumbent or challenger. The developing of an effective po...

  20. Metacognitive Strategies in the Introduction to Political Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article examines metacognitive-based teaching strategies and provides preliminary evidence about their effectiveness in the political science classroom. In a 2013 Fall semester Introduction to Political Science course, three metacognitive-based teaching strategies were designed and implemented for improving student learning through greater…

  1. Toward a new institutional strategy framework for political marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigge Winther

    2013-01-01

    The present literature on political marketing strategy has provided important knowledge about how the material context of technologies, polls or competitors influences strategy formulation. However, less attention has been directed to the constraints facing a political organization from the social...... context related to habits, norms or social conventions. This article thus aims at bringing organizational new institutional theory into the field of political marketing strategy. Accordingly, it is investigated how political organizations when initiating marketing strategies act or react toward...... that decision makers will (1) scan information from their environment, (2) interpret this incoming information in available cognitive categories and (3), finally, select a strategy premised on their cognitive interpretations. On this ground, we build a novel typology that specifies which political marketing...

  2. Politics as Fights and Games of Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    This dissertation investigates the characteristics and consequences of political news coverage. It focuses on two features of contemporary mass media journalism: (1) the framing of politics as strategic games, and (2) the coverage of politicians’ negative campaigning. The dissertation shows...... that contemporary media coverage is characterized by a very strong focus on the strategic aspects of politics, especially during election campaigns and in particular when covering negative campaigning. Furthermore, through a survey experiment and analyses of survey panel-data, the dissertation also shows...... that this type of media coverage can increase political cynicism, that it may also affect more fundamental civic attitudes such as political efficacy, and that it might not necessarily be what the news consumers want....

  3. Politically Induced Regulatory Risk and Independent Regulatory Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty in election outcomes generates politically induced regulatory risk. Political parties' risk attitudes towards such risk depend on a fluctuation effect that hurts both parties and an output--expansion effect that benefits at least one party. Notwithstanding the parties' risk attitudes, political parties have incentives to negotiate away all regulatory risk by pre-electoral bargaining. Efficient pre-electoral bargaining outcomes fully eliminate politically induced regulatory risk. P...

  4. Pronouns, Address Forms and Politeness Strategies in Odia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyanamalini SAHOO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses how various politeness strategies are implemented linguistically and how linguistic usage is related to social and contextual factors in the Indic language Odia. The study extends the validity of politeness theory (Brown & Levinson, 1978 with reference to Odia speech-patterns and shows that Odia usage of politeness would be more differentiated according to the social relationship and gender than the content of the message.  In Brown and Levinson’s model, individual speech acts are considered to be inherently polite or impolite.  However, in Odia, it is found that communities of practice, rather than individuals, determine whether speech acts are considered polite or impolite. Thus, politeness should be considered as a set of strategies or practices set by particular groups or communities of practice as a socially constructed norm for themselves.

  5. Pronouns, Address Forms and Politeness Strategies in Odia

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyanamalini SAHOO

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses how various politeness strategies are implemented linguistically and how linguistic usage is related to social and contextual factors in the Indic language Odia. The study extends the validity of politeness theory (Brown & Levinson, 1978) with reference to Odia speech-patterns and shows that Odia usage of politeness would be more differentiated according to the social relationship and gender than the content of the message.  In Brown and Levinson’s model, individual speec...

  6. Political confrontation strategy of "Strengthening civil society" in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Сидоренко, С. В.

    2014-01-01

    In the scientific article the political opposition strategy of "strengthening civil society" in Africa. It is claimed that without an effective state, which contributes to the development of science, education, economics, politics and culture, there can be a strong and democratic civil society in Ukraine, as in the globalized world. Strengthening civil society, in which there are the traditional and modern components is the key scientific, educational, socio-economic and political development...

  7. Socio-political implications of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipel, K.W.; Fraser, N.W.

    1982-01-01

    A conflict analysis technique is presented which allows risk to be considered when ascertaining the politically and socially feasible solutions to a given large scale engineering project. In particular, the improved metagame analysis algorithm can be employed to model a given conflict or game which may be concerned with risk and to predict the possible compromise solutions. Risk can be entertained in the analysis since it may affect the preference structure of a specific participant for the possible feasible outcomes in the dispute. To demonstrate how the methodology works in practice, it is applied to the Garrison Diversion Unit conflict which is a serious environmental dispute involving American and Canadian interests

  8. Rally as a Political Public Relations Strategy for Public Acceptance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the assessment of the use of rally as a political public relations strategy for public acceptance of a political party during the 2015 presidential elections in Lagos State. Public relations uses tactical methods of communication to build relations between an organisation and its internal and external publics.

  9. Toward a new institutional strategy framework for political marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigge Winther

    2013-01-01

    that decision makers will (1) scan information from their environment, (2) interpret this incoming information in available cognitive categories and (3), finally, select a strategy premised on their cognitive interpretations. On this ground, we build a novel typology that specifies which political marketing...... strategy decision makers will select under different cognitive framings of their environment. Here, we delineate four ideal type political marketing strategies—conformity, decoupling, defense and entrepreneurial—that correspond to how organizational decision makers interpret their institutional......The present literature on political marketing strategy has provided important knowledge about how the material context of technologies, polls or competitors influences strategy formulation. However, less attention has been directed to the constraints facing a political organization from the social...

  10. Insure Against Commercial and Political Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergusson, Fergus

    2003-01-01

    The oil and gas sector is enormously diverse, ranging from the giant exploration, production and supply companies to the manufacturers, suppliers and service providers that support an industry of crucial importance to the global community. For understandable reasons, risk management in the oil and gas sector has tended to concentrate on health and safety and environmental issues. Consideration must be made for the risks of engaging in domestic and international trade. The concept of risk and the consequential discipline of risk management underpin and support many of the fundamental activities that maintain successful trade flows. Risk management revolves around the organised procedures of mitigating the foreseen and unforeseen consequences of danger, injury and loss that can have adverse and potentially catastrophic effects on the environment, human lives, economies, political stability and business performance

  11. Political risk in fair market value estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruy, H.J.; Hartsock, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Political risk arises from unstable governments, commercial establishments and infrastructure as well as labor unrest. All these factors vary from country to country and from time to time. Banks and insurance companies quantify these risks, but they are reluctant to divulge their opinions for fear of alienating possible customers that have been assigned a high risk. An investment in a fixed property such as an oil and gas lease, concession or other mineral interest is subject to political risk. No one will deny that money to be received several years in the future has a greater value today in a country with a stable government, stable tax regime, a sound economy and reliable labor force than in a Third World country where a revolution is brewing. Even in stable countries, the risk of tax law changes, exorbitant environmental production regulations and cleanup costs may vary. How do these factors affect fair market value and how are these calculations made? An important consideration discussed in this paper is the treatment of capital investments

  12. Political strategies concerning technological development after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeldner-Rembold, S.

    1986-01-01

    The twelve contributions compiled in this book are intended to show political as well as technological conclusions to be drawn from the Chernobyl reactor accident. The material presented stands up to the arguments put forward by the nuclear lobbyists, and explains reasons calling for a nuclear shut-down, backing out of the fast breeder reactor technology and of the fusion technology. Brown coal is stated to be the energy source of choice. (DG) [de

  13. THE FINANCIAL TOOLS FOR COVER POLITICAL RISKS IN PROJECT FINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naumenkova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the risk-mitigation in public-private partnership. Today Ukraine is ranked as "CRT-5 country" and has high levels of economic and political risk. Political risk grows steadily because of financial and political instability in Ukraine. We conclude that investors continue to rank political risk as a key obstacle to long-term investing. The tools for cover many types of political risks such as war, terrorism, civil disturbance, breach of contract, export or operating license cancellation, currency inconvertibility and transfer restriction, change of laws and regulations etc. are described by authors. We focus on the advantages of World Bank Group Guarantee products. The guarantee instruments of the three WBG institutions for cover political risks under different circumstances are the most suitable for public-private partnership in Ukraine. In this article the political risk-mitigation with IBRD Partial Risk Guarantee put forward by authors for PPP projects in Ukraine.

  14. Food, Risk and Politics: Scare, scandal and crisis - insights into the risk politics of food safety

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Ed J.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about the risk politics of food safety. Food-related risks regularly grab the headlines in ways that threaten reasoned debate and obstruct sensible policy making. The author explains why this is the case. He goes on to make the case for a properly informed and fully open public debate about food safety issues. He argues that this is the true antidote to the politics of scare, scandal and crisis.\\ud \\ud The book skilfully weaves together the many different threads of food safety a...

  15. Countering Political Risk in Colonial India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina; Giacomin, Valeria; Schnitzer, Klara

    of their employees in British camps during both WWI and WWII. We find that internment impacted business relationships in India well beyond its endpoint and that the WWI internment shaped the subsequent perception of and strategic response to the WWII experience. We show that internment aggravated existing staffing...... challenges, impacted the perception of racial lines of distinctions and re-casted the category “European business.” While internment was perceived and managed as a political risk, the case also shows that it created unexpected networking opportunities, generating a tight community of German businesspeople...

  16. Corporate political strategy: incorporating the management of public policy issues into hospital strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, B; Arndt, M; Stone, M M

    1997-01-01

    Hospitals engage in a variety of strategies designed to anticipate, shape, and respond to public policy issues. This article describes corporate political strategy and argues for its need throughout a public policy issue's life cycle.

  17. Is political behavior a viable coping strategy to perceived organizational politics? Unveiling the underlying resource dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuhua; Chen, Huaizhong

    2017-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(10) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-34254-001). In the article, Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected.] We conduct a theory-driven empirical investigation on whether political behavior, as a coping strategy to perceived organizational politics, creates resource trade-offs in moderating the relationship between perceived organizational politics and task performance. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that political behavior mitigates the adverse effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance via psychological empowerment, yet exacerbates its adverse effect on task performance via emotional exhaustion. Three-wave multisource data from a sample of 222 employees and their 75 supervisors were collected for hypothesis testing. Findings supported our hypotheses. Our study enhances understandings of the complex resource dynamics of using political behavior to cope with perceived organizational politics and highlights the need to move stress-coping research from a focus on the stress-buffering effect of coping on outcomes to a focus on the underlying competing resource dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Element of risk: The politics of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The recent history of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to managing the risk of indoor radon offers a rich base from which to consider US practice in risk assessment, management, and communication. The biological evidence of risks from high-level exposure to radon is in many ways stronger--and the gap to be spanned by extrapolation from laboratory animal studies to ambient exposures narrower--than for many of the toxic and hazardous air pollutants that have been the focus of EPA regulatory attention. The epidemiological evidence about radon is complicated by a number of confounding variables, but this is often the state of epidemiological evidence. Radon has also been the focus of a considerable amount of research on risk communication. To complete the promising ingredients, disagreements between federal regulators at EPA and managers of federal nuclear programs run by the Department of Energy (DOE) concerning radon from uranium mill tailings, for example, and other issues in radiation health physics offer a rich array of opportunities to explore issues in federal bureaucratic politics. This book provides a straightforward report of much of the development of US policy on indoor radon over the past decade. As such, it gives readers unfamiliar with the evolution of radon regulation an opportunity to come quickly up to speed on many historical details

  19. Does Input Enhancement Work for Learning Politeness Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Safari, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of input enhancement on the acquisition of English politeness strategies by intermediate EFL learners. Two groups of freshman English majors were randomly assigned to the experimental (enhanced input) group and the control (mere exposure) group. Initially, a TOEFL test and a discourse completion test (DCT)…

  20. Academic boycott - political strategy or moral imperative? Selective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic boycott has been justified as an appropriate political strategy in the struggle against the oppression of apartheid. Moral outrage against racist policies has led to the claim that academic boycott is a morally imperative component of a broader sanctions policy. This claim has neither been substantiated by a ...

  1. POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN RESPONDING TO COMPLIMENTS IN JAVANESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarno Sukarno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Javanese has been studied from many different perspectives. However, no one discusses how Javanese respond to compliments politely. The aim of this study is to investigate the politeness strategies as applied to respond to compliments by the Javanese people in Jember, East Java. The notion of politeness plays crucial role in the realization of speech acts (utterances and verbal communication in Javanese, such as responding to compliements. As utterances and verbal communications should be interpreted based on the sosio-cultural background, the politeness strategies in responding to compliments in Javanese cannot be separated from the concepts of the Javanese culture, such as: andhap-asor (lowering oneself, while exalting the others and tanggap ing sasmita (understanding the hidden meaning. First, as a Javanese, one must be able to apply the concept of andhap-asor in responding to compliments by denigrating himself. Second, a good Javanese should also have a sense of tanggap ing sasmita while responding to compliments. Consequently, failure to apply one of the cultural factors can be detrimental to the speaker, reducing the harmony of the conversation. This paper examines how politeness is manifested and conveyed within the major framework of the Javanese culture. This study is about socio-cultural pragmatics in which utterances are discussed in relation to their situations, and the cultural background which support them. The data are in the form of dialogues among students-teachers, and students-students which show the different social status among the interlocutors. The data of this research were collected by recording, and by note taking (for the parts in which recording is not possible. The data are aimed to generate the strategies used by the Javanese (in Jember, Indonesia to build politeness strategies in responding to compliments. Finally, the data of this research are examined both from the general theory of politeness, and

  2. Political Campaigns Music Video As A Strategy For Forming Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny Gunarti Widya Wardani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Political campaigns music video not only acts as a medium of information but has the potential to form perceptions in an entertaining way. As a media campaign the music video which broadcast through television and social media are considered as a more persuasive strategy towards the target audience. This study discusses the political campaigns music video of candidates for Jakartas regional head of Gerindra Party during the Election of Jakarta Regional Head 2017 which features three different music video styles namely pop rap and religious. Qualitatively visual modalities and visual perception approach are used to analyze the formation of perceptions in the political campaigns music video. As a result music video can effectively build perceptions through elements of text image and music as an informative and entertaining campaign spectacle.

  3. The Pros and Cons of Using Joint Ventures as a Tool to Mitigate Political Risks in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Iftinchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of their political risk management strategy, multinational corporations (MNCs can use joint ventures as a tool to reduce their exposure to political risks in international activities. The aim of this article is to present the main benefits for MNCs in using joint ventures with a local partner to mitigate political risks in developing countries and to put forward three risks that MNCs have to consider when choosing the local partner (the risk of opportunistic expropriation, the risk associated with transferring of intellectual property rights and reputational risk.

  4. Political Strategies as a Response to Public and Private Stakeholder Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidenreich, Stefan; Puck, Jonas F.; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2012-01-01

    We aim at providing a more precise differentiation of external stakeholder pressures and their impact on multinational corporation (MNC) subsidiaries’ political strategies. Thus, we analyse whether external stakeholder pressures entail a more intense use of political strategies, and whether press...

  5. Political Risk and Foreign Direct Investments in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Neshat Podvorica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the importance of political risk and its impact on attracting investments, also to analyse policies made by the Kosovo institutions to reduce political risk and increase the FDIs. Attracting of the FDIs is complex because they depend on many factors, and one of the methods that measure political risk is the model used by the PRS Group that includes the flow of the economy through 12 components. Measuring political risk plays an important role in transitional countries, because these are countries that have problems in various fields and also the trust on by the investors is low. As a finding of this study is that Kosovo is estimated to have moderate political risk, and is close to joining the group of countries with low political risk. Challenges faced by Kosovo in reducing political risk are concentrated in several components, which are: socioeconomic, corruption and rule of law components. Kosovo has taken significant steps in improving the conditions for investment, government stability and positioning of the country facing internal and external conflicts.

  6. Privatization, political risk and stock market development in emerging economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; van Oijen, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates whether privatization in emerging economies has a significant indirect effect on local stock market development through the resolution of political risk. We argue that a sustained privatization program represents a major political test that gradually resolves uncertainty over

  7. Food and beverage product reformulation as a corporate political strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C; Hawkins, B; Knai, C

    2017-01-01

    Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape public health policies and decisions to suit commercial needs. We propose a taxonomy of food and beverage industry corporate political strategies that builds on the existing literature. We then analyzed the industry's responses to a 2014 U.S. government consultation on product reformulation, run as part of the process to define the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We qualitatively coded the industry's responses for predominant narratives and framings around reformulation using a purposely-designed coding framework, and compared the results to the taxonomy. The food and beverage industry in the United States used a highly similar narrative around voluntary product reformulation in their consultation responses: that reformulation is "part of the solution" to obesity and NCDs, even though their products or industry are not large contributors to the problem, and that progress has been made despite reformulation posing significant technical challenges. This narrative and the frames used in the submissions illustrate the four categories of the taxonomy: participation in the policy process, influencing the framing of the nutrition policy debate, creating partnerships, and influencing the interpretation of evidence. These strategic uses of reformulation align with previous research on food and beverage corporate political strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Political implications of science popularisation strategies: Frontiers of S cience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    This examination of the mediation strategies of a very popular factual science comic strip series from the 1960s and 1970s illustrates, in this case by highlighting the ways in which women were targeted as an audience, that science popularisations are always political. For that reason, they should not be evaluated merely in terms of scientific accuracy. I demonstrate tensions between the dissemination model of communication used in the distribution of science popularisations, on the one hand, with the advocacy of a dialogue model in their content, on the other. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Is political risk still an issue for Turkish stock market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Günay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the effects of internal political risk on the Turkish stock market in the period of 2001–2014. Empirical analyses are conducted through various methods to obtain breaks and regimes in the return volatilities of the BIST100 index. According to the results, while the number of breaks has increased in recent years, the risk level of recent periods is significantly lower than the early regimes, and the risk level trend for all regimes show a negative slope. In conclusion, the Turkish stock market responds to political events, but according to our results, not as significantly as in the past.

  10. Chinese Political Strategy in East Asia. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Александрович Баров

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the actual problem of transformation of foreign policy strategy of China in Eastern Asia during the last years. The main aspects of Chinese policy in the region are domination of economic approaches and practical embodiment of “soft power” concept. China seeks to transfer reviews about problematic points in economical interaction with the region`s countries and decisions about territorial disputes from the multilateral level to bilateral level, furthermore actively counteract to the policy of the USA and Japan, trying to make an “anti-sin coalition” from the perspective of institutional design within the political-military organization by the type of NATO.

  11. Chinese Political Strategy in Eastern Asia. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Александрович Баров

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the actual problem of transformation of foreign policy strategy of China in Eastern Asia during the last years. The main aspects of Chinese policy in the region are domination of economic approaches and practical embodiment of “soft power” concept. China seeks to transfer reviews about problematic points in economical interaction with the region`s countries and decisions about territorial disputes from the multilateral level to bilateral level, furthermore actively counteract to the policy of the USA and Japan, trying to make an “anti-sin coalition” from the perspective of institutional design within the political-military organization by the type of NATO.

  12. EFFECT OF POLITICAL RISK SHOCKS ON TOURISM REVENUE IN SOUTH AFRICA: TIME SERIES ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Muzindutsi, Paul-Francois; Manaliyo, Jean Claude

    2016-01-01

    Although political risk has an impact on all types of businesses, political risk affects tourism business performance in terms of tourist arrivals and tourism revenue because tourists are very sensitive to political risk in host countries. This study analysed the effect of political risk on revenue from the tourism industry in South Africa. The sample period of 108 months from January 2007 to December 2015 was used based on the availability of data. The political risk were measured by the cou...

  13. Political Expression on Facebook in a Context of Conflict: Dilemmas and Coping Strategies of Jewish-Israeli Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifat Mor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media, and Facebook in particular, embody a complex and challenging context for impression management, particularly when it comes to political expression. The Israeli case presents a unique context in which to examine these questions as Jewish-Israeli youth are embedded in a divided society involved in the protracted Israeli–Palestinian conflict. A thematic content analysis of 15 in-depth interviews with Israeli-Jewish students who are regular Facebook users revealed distinct dilemmas. Jewish-Israeli youth are highly motivated to discuss politics on Facebook, while also aware of social risks involved in such discussion. Thus, they adopt unique coping strategies in which political expression is an integral part in the delicate act of impression management. This research extends our understanding of Facebook as a platform for expressing political content in divided societies, characterized by considerable internal and external conflict as well as high levels of political involvement.

  14. Climate Change, State Stability, and Political Risk in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-30

    and how climate change poses threats to stability in Africa, identified strategies to support accountable and effective governance in Africa, and...interviews, the CCAPS program seeks to identify where and how climate change could undermine state stability, to define strategies for building...269–81. v Lisa Friedman, “Which Nations Are Most Vulnerable to Climate Change ? The Daunting Politics of Choosing ,” 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/cwire

  15. The New Totalitarians: Social Identities and Radical Islamist Political Grand Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, Douglas J

    2007-01-01

    ... of the ideologically-driven grand political strategy of the Islamist extremists, which represents a totalitarian, transnational, and, in many versions, universalist social revolutionary movement...

  16. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  17. Radiation risks and benefits: politics and morality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1983-01-01

    The bioethical framework from which moral reasoning concerning nuclear technology has been derived is both seriously flawed and conceptually inadequate. The reasons are examined and are arranged in response to three questions. First, what is the status of alleged scientific evidence from which moral conclusions about the unacceptability of man-made radiation exposures are derived. Secondly, what criticisms of risk assessment reasoning are pertinent to ethical reflection. Finally, what revisions in an ethical framework are necessary if risk estimates of low-dose radiation exposure are to be conducted properly

  18. Dutch Courage : The Politics of Acceptable Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan van der Meulen; prof. dr. J.M.L.M. Soeters

    2005-01-01

    In this article we analyze the ways in which the risks of military missions and the prospects for casualties have made an impact on the deployment of soldiers by the Netherlands. The question is whether the self-image of being a military nation acts as a hindrance to participation when the going

  19. THE EFFECT OF IRANIAN FEMALE EFL LEARNERS’ POLITENESS STRATEGIES AWARENESS ON THEIR LETTER WRITING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Yousefian Dastmalchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the effect of teaching politeness strategies based on the models proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987 and Leech (1983 to intermediate English learners on their ability in writing more polite letters. The instrumentation includes an IELTS test, used as a placement test, an inventory, used to measure learners’ awareness of politeness strategies, and a letter-writing test, used as a measurement of learners’ ability in using politeness strategies. Among all the participants, twenty of them were put in the control group, and twenty-four of them in the experimental group, who went under the treatment. They were taught how to write politely based on the politeness strategy models proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987 and Leech (1983. After the treatment, learners wrote letters to the same people with the same situations. Comparing the twenty learners in the control group with the twenty-four learners in experimental group, the researchers concluded that the treatment had a significant effect on the learners’ ability in writing more polite letters. They selected to use more formal strategies with those who they saw further distance with, and more informal strategies with more intimate people. Furthermore, the answers the learners provided to the questions of the inventory offered more awareness of politeness strategies. This implies that they were more aware of various choices of polite language that were available for them to use in the given situations.

  20. Reality or illusion? The efficacy of nonmarket strategy in institutional risk reduction \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Liedong, T. A.; Rajwani, T.; Mellahi, Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Non-market strategy researchers have postulated that political and social strategies reduce the exposure of firms to risk, but those arguments have received little empirical attention. In this paper, we integrate social capital and institutional theories to examine the efficacy of managerial political ties (MPTs) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in institutional risk reduction. Using survey data from 179 firms in Ghana we find that, whereas CSR reduces institutional risk exposure, MP...

  1. Consensus and conflict resolution: The politics of assessing risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelkin, D.; Pollak, M.

    1980-01-01

    Not the structure of experiments can be generalized but the conditions that will allow dissenting groups to communicate effectively with administrative agencies. This includes a careful definition of the problem that gives due weight to political concerns, the appropriate involvement of affected interests, an unbiased management of the procedures, a fair distribution of expertise, and a real margin of choice. One of the more important outcomes of recent disputes is an awareness that technologies embody not only risks but also controversial political and social choices. (DG)

  2. POLITENESS STRATEGIES EMPLOYED BY THE TRAINERS IN ROOM DIVISION DEPARTMENT BAPEPAR NUSA DUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Vina Widiadnya Putri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to analyze and discuss the politeness strategies employed by the trainers in room division department when they practice on the job training in the hotel. Politeness strategy was needed when the trainers serve the guest. This research was done by observation and interview with the trainer and the guest about their conversation. The analysis of politeness strategies that employed by the trainer focused on two discussions; (1 the kinds of politeness strategies used by trainer in room division department, and (2 the implications of politeness strategies used by trainer in room division department. This research used the theory from Brown & Levinson (1987 in his book entitled Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usages. The theory is supported by other theories that are considered relevant to the topic of discussion in this research. Based on the analysis, it was found that there were two kinds of politeness stratgies that employed by the trainer in room division department Bapepar Nusa Dua, they were positive face and negative face. Beside that, there are three implications by using politness strategies such as: respect behaviour, togheterness, and cooperative interaction.

  3. Safety Politics and Risk Perceptions in Malaysian Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    by the state from Burawoy, Beronius, and Adesina about production politics and social relations in the labour process provides an integrated perspective on individual risk perceptions, safety practices in enterprises, and government regulation. The empirical data were collected during the period 1989......Abstract The book deals with the analysis of work hazards and safety in industrial enterprises in Peninsular Malaysia, Southeast Asia. It traces the development of this theme of conflict within the context constituted by state, labour market and labour-management relations in Malaysia. The book...... and the activities, which are exercised by referring to such rationality, have to be carefully examined. 'Safety Politics and Risk Perceptions in Malaysian Industry' identifies analytical perspectives, which in detail are able to trace conflicts about the working environment in the industries of developing countries...

  4. The Political Risk of Oil and Gas Mega Projects: A Descriptive Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Veflen, Martin Elton

    2011-01-01

    Two elements can be seen to evolve progressively with globalization: political risk and mega projects. Although a fair amount of research has been carried out in regards to political risk and mega projects as separate units of investigation, few studies have attempted to combine the two. This thesis fills a void in the existing literature by providing a specialized approach to political risk, focusing on political risk of oil and gas mega projects in particular. Drawing on a comprehensive dat...

  5. Avoiding Praetorian Societies: Focusing U.S. Strategy on Political Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    political science, U.S. history in political development is long and sto- ried. It is ironic , therefore, that U.S. military doctrine and strategy...undertaken government functions in everything from establish- ing public order and law enforcement to restoring es- sential services using SWEAT -MS.42

  6. A Study of Politeness Strategies Used by the National University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Another common feature found as a strategy by NUL students to express politeness is the extension of kinship terms to all lecturers (even non - kins). I finally argue that with urbanization, caused by exodus from cities to rural areas and vice versa, modernization, and adoption of Western way of life, the polite linguistic and ...

  7. Cleantech Venture Investors and Energy Policy Risk: An Exploratory Analysis of Regulatory Risk Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bürer, Mary Jean; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The energy industry is a typical example of a heavily regulated industry, and particularly large incumbent energy firms have developed significant expertise in non-market strategies (or corporate political activity). New entrants to the energy industry, such as clean energy technology ventures, are also exposed to regulatory risk (and opportunity), but they do not have the means to engage in non-market strategies to a similar extent as large incumbent firms. On the other hand, the success of ...

  8. An Analysis of Off Record Strategies Reflecting Politeness Implicature in “Oprah Winfrey Show”

    OpenAIRE

    Yanti, Rahma

    2017-01-01

    This thesis discusses strategies off the record that describes implicatures modesty in a conversation. Off record strategy is one of the five strategies. This strategy is discussed for the use of the language used in the forms of direct.The object of research is strategies off the record that describes implicatures politeness in a famous talk show in America, namely, "Oprah Winfrey Show". The data were taken using methods refer to refer techniques involved free conversation, where the author ...

  9. Risk Assessment and Integration Team (RAIT) Portfolio Risk Analysis Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Impact at management level: Qualitative assessment of risk criticality in conjunction with risk consequence, likelihood, and severity enable development of an "investment policy" towards managing a portfolio of risks. Impact at research level: Quantitative risk assessments enable researchers to develop risk mitigation strategies with meaningful risk reduction results. Quantitative assessment approach provides useful risk mitigation information.

  10. The political image on ‘Twitter’. Uses and strategies of the Spanish political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López-Rabadán

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the digital context, social media have become powerful platforms for the dissemination of political photography. Specifically, they are set as strategic tools in building the image of political actors and their direct communication with citizens. The aim of this paper is to analyze the management of Twitter by the Spanish political parties during pre-election processes, key in the public positioning of their leaders. In this sense, there has been a content analysis of the profiles of the four main Spanish political parties at state level (PP, PSOE, Podemos and Ciudadanos and their respective leaders, during the six months prior to the general election (June-November 2015. From an own methodological approach, the results indicate an intensive use of different types of photographs in Twitter, nearly 30 per cent of all messages, where the dissemination of the image of the leader and the use of informative posters has a central importance. Furthermore, it is possible to identify very different strategic trends by parties in the management of digital projection leadership and personal attributes of the candidates.

  11. POLITENESS STRATEGIES PERFORMED BY TEACHERS TO EFFECTIVELY ASSIST CHILDREN WITH AUTISM IN THEIR LEARNING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugini Sugini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the politeness strategies conducted by teachers of autism centre in Surakarta in supporting them doing their jobs effectively. They are professionals who care and treat children with autism for their cognitive as well as psychomotoric development. Data were collected from four learning processes performed by four different female teachers with a different child for each. The analysis was carried out to see how politeness strategies selected by the teachers help them in performing effective assisting and learning process for the kids. The results show that politeness strategies were conducted by the teachers in two modes—verbally and non-verbally. They were exploited to accommodate the skill transfer to the children with autism effectively. The autism condition of each child governed each teacher to select the types of the politeness—in which bald on strategy dominated the exploitation, followed by positive and negative politeness. In addition, no teacher chose off record strategy for her class. This exploitation is considered effective due to the exceptional condition of the children. Clear and direct utterances which encourage their self esteem are good choice for them. Such utterances in that features can be accommodated by those three types of politeness strategies in either verbal or non-verbal mode.

  12. Politeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Bergson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the English translation of a speech Bergson made at Lycée Henri-IV on July 30, 1892. This is an interesting text because it anticipates Bergson’s last book, his The Two Sources of Morality and Religion. Like the distinction in The Two Sources between the open and the closed, “Politeness” defines its subject matter in two ways. There is what Bergson calls “manners” and there is true politeness. For Bergson, both kinds of politeness concern equality. Manners or material politeness amount to the ritualized greetings and formalities by means of which we usually define politeness. Unfortunately and like The Two Sources, Bergson attributes this formalized relation to other human beings with primitive and “inferior races.” Nevertheless, Bergson sees in these formalities an attempt, in the name of equality, to ignore other people’s talents and merits so that one can dominate morally superior people. In contrast, true politeness or “spiritual politeness” consists in “intellectual flexibility.” When one meets a person of superior morality, one is flexible in one’s relation to him or her; one abandons the formalities in order to really live her life and think her thoughts. Here we find equality too: “what defines this very polite person is to prefer each of his friends over the others, and to succeed in this way in loving them equally.” After making a comparison to dance, Bergson defines spiritual politeness as “a grace of the mind.” Since both kinds of politeness concern equality, Bergson associates both with justice. However, beyond these two kinds of politeness and justice there is “politeness of the heart,” which concerns charity. In order to indicate politeness of the heart, Bergson describes the kind of person, a sensitive person, who anxiously awaits a word of praise in order to feel good about herself but who also, when she hears a word of reproach, is thrown into sadness. Although Bergson calls the

  13. New discursive strategies within Political Communication. Case study: Parliamentary Parties in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ariton-Gelan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of new technologies, implicitely that of Internet contributed to the reconfiguration of the political communication field. In this respect, politicians report themselves to an electorate that is more detached from institutionalized politics and political ideologies, electorate that has the possibility to participate to debating alternative forms of the political, through some social movements and through online forums. Generally, new media created the possibility that journalists and media production agencies imagine more dynamic media formats from the point of view of interaction with citizens and visual strategies. Within the new context coming from the relation between politician, media and electorate, the Internet, through its functions, generates a special kind of „political communication management”.

  14. Strategies for psychosocial risk management in manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Guadix Martín, José; Carrillo Castrillo, Jesús Antonio; Onieva Giménez, Luis Gerardo; Lucena, David

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial risk is a concern for employers across Europe. Psychosocial risk management, however, is younger than other risk management fields such as safety, hygiene, and ergonomics. Psychosocial risk control prevents accidents and absenteeism. This study examines strategies for psychosocial risk management in manufacturing organizations. The study employs structural equation modeling to analyze results of the European Survey of Enterprises onNewand Emerging Risks (ESENER), a survey that fi...

  15. A qualitative study of politeness strategies used by Iranian EFL learners in a class blog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Reza Adel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In regard to the significant role of information and communication technology (ICT in educational systems, it becomes increasingly important to gain a better understanding of the features of the language used by learners in the new contexts created by this medium. This paper aims at analyzing politeness strategies including negative politeness, positive politeness, bald on-record, and bald-off record strategies in posts written by Iranian EFL learners in a class blog as an opportunity for asynchronous interaction in response to their teachers and peers. The participants of the study were 14 Iranian EFL learners selected based on their level of language proficiency. There were 1520 politeness utterances across all posts including 800 politeness utterances used when learners were interacting with their instructor and 720 politeness utterances used when learners were interacting with their peers. The collected data were analyzed using content analysis as well as Computer-Mediated Discourse Analysis (CMDA. The results revealed that learners frequently used positive strategies as signs of psychologically close relationship, reciprocity and friendship in a group.

  16. Variance risk premia in CO2 markets: A political perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckling, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The European Commission discusses the change of free allocation plans to guarantee a stable market equilibrium. Selling over-allocated contracts effectively depreciates prices and negates the effect intended by the regulator to establish a stable price mechanism for CO 2 assets. Our paper investigates mispricing and allocation issues by quantitatively analyzing variance risk premia of CO 2 markets over the course of changing regimes (Phase I-III) for three different assets (European Union Allowances, Certified Emissions Reductions and European Reduction Units). The research paper gives recommendations to regulatory bodies in order to most effectively cap the overall carbon dioxide emissions. The analysis of an enriched dataset, comprising not only of additional CO 2 assets, but also containing data from the European Energy Exchange, shows that variance risk premia are equal to a sample average of 0.69 for European Union Allowances (EUA), 0.17 for Certified Emissions Reductions (CER) and 0.81 for European Reduction Units (ERU). We identify the existence of a common risk factor across different assets that justifies the presence of risk premia. Various policy implications with regards to gaining investors’ confidence in the market are being reviewed. Consequently, we recommend the implementation of a price collar approach to support stable prices for emission allowances. - Highlights: •Enriched dataset covering all three political phases of the CO 2 markets. •Clear policy implications for regulators to most effectively cap the overall CO 2 emissions pool. •Applying a cross-asset benchmark index for variance beta estimation. •CER contracts have been analyzed with respect to variance risk premia for the first time. •Increased forecasting accuracy for CO 2 asset returns by using variance risk premia.

  17. Antecedents and Performance Consequences of Subsidiaries’ Political Strategies in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidenreich, Stefan; Puck, Jonas F.; Nell, Phillip C.

    their internal as well as their external environment. Our hypotheses are tested using three-stage least squares with detailed data from 156 subsidiaries in emerging markets. Results contribute to theory by differentiating effects from internal vs. external isomorphic pressures on political strategies. We also......This paper analyzes antecedents and performance consequences of political strategies deployed by MNC subsidiaries in emerging markets. Following institutional theory reasoning, we point towards institutional duality subsidiaries are confronted with, entailing isomorphic pressures stemming from...... deliver a deeper level of understanding of the latter relationship by differentiating the general concept of external isomorphic pressures into pressures from national public and national private stakeholders. Finally, we find significant support for a positive effect of political strategies on subsidiary...

  18. Antecedents and Performance Consequences of Subsidiaries’ Political Strategies in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidenreich, Stefan; Puck, Jonas F.; Nell, Phillip C.

    deliver a deeper level of understanding of the latter relationship by differentiating the general concept of external isomorphic pressures into pressures from national public and national private stakeholders. Finally, we find significant support for a positive effect of political strategies on subsidiary......This paper analyzes antecedents and performance consequences of political strategies deployed by MNC subsidiaries in emerging markets. Following institutional theory reasoning, we point towards institutional duality subsidiaries are confronted with, entailing isomorphic pressures stemming from...... their internal as well as their external environment. Our hypotheses are tested using three-stage least squares with detailed data from 156 subsidiaries in emerging markets. Results contribute to theory by differentiating effects from internal vs. external isomorphic pressures on political strategies. We also...

  19. Cancer risks: Strategies for elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannasch, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities for identifying and eliminating cancer risk factors. The current state of knowledge on the detection, assessment and elimination of chemical, physical (radiation), and biological (viruses) risk factors are comprehensively presented in 15 contributions. Chemical risk factors resulting from smoking and environmental contamination are given special attention. The coverage of cancer risks by radiation includes some of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Finally, the discussion of the possible risks that certain viruses hold for cancer in man is intended to further the development of vaccinations against these viral infections. The information is directed not only at specialists, but also at a wider interested audience. Its primary aim is to convey established findings that are already being used for cancer prevention. Furthermore, the book aims to promote more intense research in the field of primary cancer prevention. Contents: General aspects; chemical carcinogens: Risk assessment; chemical carcinogens: Primary prevention; physical carcinogens - Oncogenic viruses and subject index

  20. Formalized search strategies for human risk contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.; Pedersen, O.M.

    1982-07-01

    For risk management, the results of a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) as well as the underlying assumptions can be used as references in a closed-loop risk control; and the analyses of operational experiences as a means of feedback. In this context, the need for explicit definition and documentation of the PRA coverage, including the search strategies applied, is discussed and aids are proposed such as plant description in terms of a formal abstraction hierarchy and use of cause-consequence-charts for the documentation of not only the results of PRA but also of its coverage. Typical human risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation ''work analysis'', procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned tasks are proposed. Strategies for identifying human risk contributions outside this category are outlined. (author)

  1. The Implications Of Politeness Strategies Among Teachers And Students In The Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Bagus Yoga Widiadnya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Politeness was needed to be implemented since rudeness creates conflict between teacher and students. Politeness also used in order to teach students the way of being polite, and redress the conflict in conversation. This study aimed at analyzing the implication of using politeness strategies on teaching and learning process. The subjects of this study were the tenth grade teacher and students of SMK Nusa Dua Bali. The data were in the form of conversations among the subjects in their interactions during the teaching and learning process in the classroom. The data were collected through observations and interview. The result of this study showed that, there were some implications of the politeness strategy employed by the teacher and students at SMK Nusa Dua, such as politeness created efficient teaching and learning process, respected communications between teacher and students. Besides that cooperation interaction between teacher and students were found improving, and less imposition and indirectness in teaching and learning process. Those implications motivate students and develop a meaningful teaching and learning process.

  2. Building political will for HIV response: an operational model and strategy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Derick W

    2016-10-01

    As global programs for HIV response look to transfer responsibility and financing increasingly to country governments, the political will to take on these responsibilities becomes increasingly prominent. However, defining and assessing political will are problematic; it involves intent and motivation, and thus is inherently difficult to observe. It is intimately connected to capacity and is contextually embedded. This article describes an operational model of political will comprised of seven components that are observable and measurable. Two case studies illustrate the application of the model and shed light on the interconnections among commitment, capacity and context: South Africa and China. Strategy options to build political will for HIV response identify possible actions for both government and civil society. Political will as a concept is most usefully viewed as integrated within larger political and bureaucratic processes, as a product of the complex array of incentives and disincentives that those processes create. However, this conclusion is not a recipe for discouragement or inaction. Agent-based conceptualizations of policy change offer a solid grounding for building political will that supports HIV policy and programs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Strategies for successful software development risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Boban

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, software is becoming a major part of enterprise business. Software development is activity connected with advanced technology and high level of knowledge. Risks on software development projects must be successfully mitigated to produce successful software systems. Lack of a defined approach to risk management is one of the common causes for project failures. To improve project chances for success, this work investigates common risk impact areas to perceive a foundation that can be used to define a common approach to software risk management. Based on typical risk impact areas on software development projects, we propose three risk management strategies suitable for a broad area of enterprises and software development projects with different amounts of connected risks. Proposed strategies define activities that should be performed for successful risk management, the one that will enable software development projects to perceive risks as soon as possible and to solve problems connected with risk materialization. We also propose a risk-based approach to software development planning and risk management as attempts to address and retire the highest impact risks as early as possible in the development process. Proposed strategies should improve risk management on software development projects and help create a successful software solution.

  4. Risk impact of two accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Camp, A.

    1992-01-01

    This report probabilistic Risk Assessment is used to evaluate two accident management strategies: intentionally depressurizing the reactor coolant system of a pressurized water reactor to prevent containment-pressurization during high pressure melt ejection, and flooding the containment of a boiling water reactor to prevent or delay vessel breach. Sensitivity studies indicated that intentional depressurization would not provide a significant risk reduction at Surry. A preliminary evaluation of the containment flooding strategy indicated that it might prove beneficial for some plants, but that further strategy development would be needed to fully evaluate the strategy-

  5. Book Review: Louise Amoore, The Politics of Possibility: Risk and Security Beyond Probability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasten, Maj

    2016-01-01

    “The Politics of Possibility: Risk and Security beyond Probability” by Louise Amoore. Durham, NC; London: Duke University Press, 2013. 220 pp., £15.99, ISBN 9780822355601......“The Politics of Possibility: Risk and Security beyond Probability” by Louise Amoore. Durham, NC; London: Duke University Press, 2013. 220 pp., £15.99, ISBN 9780822355601...

  6. Provision of energy in Switzerland - politics, strategy and psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachs, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    In this address to the assembled Swiss electricity supply undertakings the author sketches the present and probable future energy situation in Switzerland as part of the World situation and the alternative strategies for dealing with the shortage of energy that is bound to occur in a country that imports 80% of its consumption. He discusses the recent report of the Federal Commission on General Questions of Energy and the public debates on energy and nuclear generation of the last few years. The main part of the address consists of a defence of the price mechanism (higher energy prices) and the operation of private enterprise in the energy field as means of providing the solutions needed by the year 2000. (C.J.D.G.)

  7. "Is political behavior a viable coping strategy to perceived organizational politics? Unveiling the underlying resource dynamics": Correction to Sun and Chen (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Reports an error in "Is Political Behavior a Viable Coping Strategy to Perceived Organizational Politics? Unveiling the Underlying Resource Dynamics" by Shuhua Sun and Huaizhong Chen ( Journal of Applied Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, May 22, 2017, np). In the article, Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-22542-001.) We conduct a theory-driven empirical investigation on whether political behavior, as a coping strategy to perceived organizational politics, creates resource trade-offs in moderating the relationship between perceived organizational politics and task performance. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that political behavior mitigates the adverse effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance via psychological empowerment, yet exacerbates its adverse effect on task performance via emotional exhaustion. Three-wave multisource data from a sample of 222 employees and their 75 supervisors were collected for hypothesis testing. Findings supported our hypotheses. Our study enhances understandings of the complex resource dynamics of using political behavior to cope with perceived organizational politics and highlights the need to move stress-coping research from a focus on the stress-buffering effect of coping on outcomes to a focus on the underlying competing resource dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Politeness strategies in written communications: the issue of Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimkhanlooei Giti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The approximation of the pragmatic knowledge of English language learners to native speakers has been a realm of concern for the scholars and researchers in applied linguistics. Thus, this research was an endeavor to figure out the association between the proficiency level and politeness strategies and external/internal modifications in written communication skills in the speech act of requests in Iranian English language learners. To this end, a written Discourse Completion Test (DCT, adapted from Rose (1994, including 8 situations was administered to elicit data from Iran Language Institute120 female and male EFL learners, 60 upper-intermediate and 60 intermediate. The data were sorted out using Brown and Levinson’s politeness strategies taxonomy (Brown and Levinson 1987 and external/internal modifications developed by Faerch and Kasper (1989. The written request utterances provided by each participant were analyzed in terms of frequency and types of politeness strategies, namely, positive, negative, bald on record, and off-record as well as external/internal modifications utilized in requests. The Pearson Chi-Square test results revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between upper-intermediate and intermediate learners’ type of politeness strategies and external/internal modifications.

  9. Politeness Strategies in Thai Graduate Research Paper Discussions: Implications for Second/Foreign Language Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getkham, Kunyarut

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of politeness strategies in 32 discussion sections of research papers produced by Thai graduate students at Graduate School of Language and Communication, National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Bangkok, Thailand. The study reported in this paper adopts Brown and Levinson's (1978, 1987) and Myers'…

  10. Hungarian Minority Politics in Post-Socialist Romania: Interests, Strategies, and Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toró Tibor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the integration strategies formulated by the Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania and the Hungarian political elite in the post-communist period. It argues that the internal debates of the political community are formulated in a field where other actors (the Hungarian and the Romanian state, political parties, European institutions, etc. carry out their activities, which deeply influences both the chosen strategies and the needed resources for their implementation. Moreover, it questions the monolithic organization of the minority organization, showing that DAHR as the representative of the minority community was shaped by several internal debates and conflicts. Also from 2003 these conflicts have grown beyond the borders of the organization and since 2008 we can follow a whole new type of institutionalization. In achieving this, I introduce three strategies - individual integration, collective integration, and organizational integration - which are chosen by different fragments of the Hungarian minority elite both toward the Hungarian and the Romanian political sphere. Throughout the 1989-2012 period, the outcome of the conflict between the supporters of these strategies is deeply influenced by the policies of the two states.

  11. He votes or she votes? Female and male discursive strategies in Twitter political hashtags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landulfo, Teixeira P Cunha E.; Magno, G.; Gonçalves, M.A.; Cambraia, C.; Almeida, V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a study about differences between female and male discursive strategies when posting in the microblogging service Twitter, with a particular focus on the hashtag designation process during political debate. The fact that men and women use language in distinct ways,

  12. Approved Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 gave FDA the authority to require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) from manufacturers to...

  13. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2018-01-01

    regression is then used to investigate the relationship between scores and farmers’ characteristics. The results demonstrate that shortage of family labor, high price of fodder, and limited farm income were perceived as the most important risks. Use of veterinary services, parasite control, and loan......This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...... utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...

  14. SHAPING THE AGENDA: FEMINIST STRATEGIES OF CIVIC AND POLITICAL ACTION IN POST-COMMUNISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena NEAGA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 years after the 1989 Revolution, the Romanian society continues to be patriarchal – and implicitly less democratic for women. This fact becomes more obvious if one looks towards the political sphere and at the way in which women’s interests are represented at the political decision level. In this social environment, civil society and especially the feminist movement have a particularly important role in terms of promoting women’s specific civic and political agendas. Our paper is an exploratory investigation of the strategies of political and civic actions used by the feminist movement in Romania during the postcommunist period. We will try to identify and categorize these strategies. Our aim is to explore a way of formulating a sort of typology (a methodological exploration of the civil and political models of action used by five Romanian feminist NGOs, while trying to assess their activity. This study is one of a prospective nature, in other words, it is not an exhaustive attempt to analyze the entire specter of feminist organizations, but rather an attempt to test the methodological apparatus and to adapt the theoretical framework to the realities found in the field.

  15. "Mind the Gap": Researchers Ignore Politics at Their Own Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Judith

    2016-02-01

    No matter how distasteful researchers find policy politics, effective policy requires that they engage. Drawing on her career bridging the research/politics gap in health care policy, the author makes a case for why and how researchers can do just that. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  16. The necessity for comparative risk analyses as seen from the political point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, U.

    1981-01-01

    The author describes the current insufficient utilization of risk analyses in the political decision process and investigates if other technologies encounter the same difficulties of acceptance as in the nuclear energy field. This being likely he is trying to find out which contribution comparative risk analyses could make to the process of democratic will-formation so that new technologies are accepted. Firstly the author establishes theses criticizing the recent scientific efforts made in the field of risk analyses and their usability for the political decision process. He then defines the criteria risk analyses have to meet in order to serve as scientific elements for consultative political discussions. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Managing price risk - setting and implementing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, D.

    1999-01-01

    The three hedging strategies for price risk management within the natural gas industry are described. The three strategies are: (1) speculative trader (characterized by 'trading for profit, i.e. small margin/large volumes); (2) price optimizer (the objective here is to outperform the market in the establishment of a price); and (3) strategic hedger( the characteristic concern in this strategy is to manage long-term company goals, i.e. balance sheet orientation). The strategies are not mutually exclusive, but overlapping areas can be the source of considerable confusion. Any firm can enter into more than one of these strategies. Integrated companies will adopt very different strategies for upstream versus downstream operations. Details of the three strategies are provided

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF OFF RECORD STRATEGIES REFLECTING POLITENESS IMPLICATURE IN “OPRAH WINFREY SHOW”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Yanti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This thesis discusses strategies off the record that describes implicatures modesty in a conversation. Off record strategy is one of the five strategies. This strategy is discussed for the use of the language used in the forms of direct. The object of research are strategies off the record that describes implicatures politeness in a famous talk show in America, namely, "Oprah Winfrey Show". The data were taken using methods refer to refer techniques involved free conversation, where the author was not involved in the dialogue that occurs because the data is taken from the TV show, recording technique with the aid of a recorded tape. Furthermore, the authors use the technique CAAT by way of transcribing talk show back in the form transcription ortrografis. This analysis uses methods equivalent pragmatic look at the role of external factors of language, especially the factor of interlocutors on selection strategies used off record. The results showed that the context of the situation and the violations of the maxim of conversation will influence the choice of strategies used off record. However there are some cases when this option do not follow the rules. This is because of other factors that come into play in a conbersation such as an intonation. mplicatures appear generally in the form of affirmation that is used in polite. In one sentence found two or more strategy off record selected speakers.

  19. Formalized Search Strategies for Human Risk Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Pedersen, O. M.

    and documentation of the PRA coverage, including the search strategies applied, is discussed and aids are proposed such as plant description in terms of a formal abstraction hierarchy and use of cause-consequence-charts for the documentation of not only the results of PRA but also of its coverage. Typical human...... risk contributions are described on the basis of general plant design features relevant for risk and accident analysis. With this background, search strategies for human risk contributions are treated: Under the designation "work analysis", procedures for the analysis of familiar, well trained, planned...

  20. INSURANCE - A RISK COVERING STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan GAVRILETEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance industry in Romania is facing for a few years a continuous decreasing in Gross Written Premium. The negative trend may be caused by the effects of financial crises for companies and also for individuals. In order to keep theirs market share, insurance companies must identify new opportunities to increase theirs’ GWP. Among these new market niches hospitality industry may represent an option to be followed. In this paper, we will analyze the types of insurance policies available for hospitality industry (except mandatory motors’ third party liability and motors’ own vehicle insurance. The conclusion represents solution both for insurance companies and for hotel as a part of theirs’ risk financing process.

  1. International financial linkages of Latin American banks: the effects of political risk and deposit dollarisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon-Ballester, Francisco; Wezel, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the extent to which the financial linkages of Latin American banks with the exterior are influenced by political risk and deposit dollarisation. We find that the sum of banks’ foreign assets and liabilities is a function of risk-return considerations and excess domestic credit demand. An increase in political risk is shown to be associated with a build-up of foreign positions by the banking sector, but this adverse effect on the banking system is mitigated ...

  2. Reducing political risk in EU pooling and sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, D.; Faleg (ed), G.

    2014-01-01

    Can states share political accountability by allowing common defence capability development, training of troops, or procurement of military equipment? Is the defence industry ready for Pooling and Sharing (PS)?

  3. From the Cause of the Other to Minoritarian Strategy: The Politics and Clinic of Included Alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Sibertin-Blanc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines certain problems related to the “antinomical” distinction, proposed by Étienne Balibar, between a majority strategy and a minority strategy. Orientated by the deleuzo-guattarian theory of “becoming-minor”, and confronting it with three different political scenes taken from Frantz Fanon, Jacques Rancière and Judith Butler, we seek to distinguish different manners of thinking the inclusion of a “cause of the other”, or of a minority point of view, in the construction of emancipatory political identities. These are different ways of problematizing a minority strategy by relating it to practices of disidentification as the very content of political subjectivation. But the hypothesis that will crystalize in the course of this confrontation is that of an internal antinomy in the idea of minority strategy itself, that intensifies when the dominant identities loose the assurance of their own “majority”, or when the difference between the majoritarian and the minoritarian becomes tendencially unassignable at the same time as it becomes more difficult to differentiate the violence of the exclusion of minorities to the violence of their inclusion.

  4. A Study on Freedom of Speech Based on Politness Strategies Used by the Jakarta Post Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartoyo Muhartoyo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Freedom of speech or expression is an indication of a democratic country. Indonesia that has transformed itself from an authoritarian government during the New Order Era into a democratic country in the so called Reform Era. This study is an attempt to find out the existence of freedom of expression in the Indonesian printed media. The data were collected from the Jakarta Post Readers’Forum from 1 November 2010 to 28 February 2011. The data were then classified and analysed based on Brown and Levinson’s theory of politeness strategies. The data analysis shows that a lot of utterances can be classified under Politeness Strategy 1 (the least polite strategy out of the four strategies. This proves that people are now free to express their ideas and criticisms in the most direct manner without fear of being arrested or reprimanded by the government. Even the sensitive issues like SARA (Ethnic, Religion, Racial and Communal conflicts can be freely discussed in the printed media. Thus freedom of expression is prevailing in Indonesia under the New Era government. 

  5. Coping strategies, stress and risk perception in a natural and industrial catastrophe risk situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vasquez, E.

    1998-01-01

    People are exposed to different environmental risks, their manifestations harm people according to the magnitude, intensity and the number of people concerned. This subject is very ample, therefore we consider only two kinds of risks: the natural risks (especially earthquakes) that have always threatened humanity, and the industrial risks that characterise our modern society. We are interested in risk perception, stress and coping strategies in these two kinds of extreme situations. We concentrate our study on two Mexican events: an industrial explosion accident in 1984 and 1985 (big earthquake, both devastated big urban zones. The consequences were enormous at all levels: personal, psychological, social, political and economical. Facing risk situations people can have stress reactions when a sign of danger appears. According to Jean RIVOLIER (1994), these situations must not be confounded with banal events of everyday life. Stress in those cases is not the stress we confront everyday, so people have to apply other strategies to face she stress and the incidents of the kind of extreme situations. To tackle our subject we are going to review some concepts used in our study: stress, coping strategies and risk perception. (author)

  6. Political risk and foreign direct investment in Nigeria: New empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Hatim Koko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The positive effect of globalization has continued to impact FDI inflow to developing countries during the last decade except for the rising influence of political risk in host locations. Mixed outcomes have trailed the findings related to the studies on FDI and political risk relationship and in particular on African countries like Nigeria. This paper investigated the effect of political risk on FDI inflow to Nigeria using secondary data from 2000 to 2014 using simple linear regression. The study combined from select variables, the institutional factors with location determinants peculiar to Nigeria’s risk environment. It is found that political risk holds a positive and significant association with FDI to Nigeria but not close enough to inhibit the inflow of foreign investment to the country. However, the findings provide a strong basis for policy shift in relation to security, country promotion and rebranding as well strengthening of institutions.

  7. He Votes or She Votes? Female and Male Discursive Strategies in Twitter Political Hashtags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Evandro; Magno, Gabriel; Gonçalves, Marcos André; Cambraia, César; Almeida, Virgilio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a study about differences between female and male discursive strategies when posting in the microblogging service Twitter, with a particular focus on the hashtag designation process during political debate. The fact that men and women use language in distinct ways, reverberating practices linked to their expected roles in the social groups, is a linguistic phenomenon known to happen in several cultures and that can now be studied on the Web and on online social networks in a large scale enabled by computing power. Here, for instance, after analyzing tweets with political content posted during Brazilian presidential campaign,we found out that male Twitter users, when expressing their attitude toward a given candidate, are more prone to use imperative verbal forms in hashtags, while female users tend to employ declarative forms. This difference can be interpreted as a sign of distinct approaches in relation to other network members: for example, if political hashtags are seen as strategies of persuasion in Twitter, imperative tags could be understood as more overt ways of persuading and declarative tags as more indirect ones. Our findings help to understand human gendered behavior in social networks and contribute to research on the new fields of computer-enabled Internet linguistics and social computing, besides being useful for several computational tasks such as developing tag recommendation systems based on users' collective preferences and tailoring targeted advertising strategies, among others. PMID:24489832

  8. He votes or she votes? Female and male discursive strategies in Twitter political hashtags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Cunha

    Full Text Available In this paper, we conduct a study about differences between female and male discursive strategies when posting in the microblogging service Twitter, with a particular focus on the hashtag designation process during political debate. The fact that men and women use language in distinct ways, reverberating practices linked to their expected roles in the social groups, is a linguistic phenomenon known to happen in several cultures and that can now be studied on the Web and on online social networks in a large scale enabled by computing power. Here, for instance, after analyzing tweets with political content posted during Brazilian presidential campaign,we found out that male Twitter users, when expressing their attitude toward a given candidate, are more prone to use imperative verbal forms in hashtags, while female users tend to employ declarative forms. This difference can be interpreted as a sign of distinct approaches in relation to other network members: for example, if political hashtags are seen as strategies of persuasion in Twitter, imperative tags could be understood as more overt ways of persuading and declarative tags as more indirect ones. Our findings help to understand human gendered behavior in social networks and contribute to research on the new fields of computer-enabled Internet linguistics and social computing, besides being useful for several computational tasks such as developing tag recommendation systems based on users' collective preferences and tailoring targeted advertising strategies, among others.

  9. He votes or she votes? Female and male discursive strategies in Twitter political hashtags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Evandro; Magno, Gabriel; Gonçalves, Marcos André; Cambraia, César; Almeida, Virgilio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a study about differences between female and male discursive strategies when posting in the microblogging service Twitter, with a particular focus on the hashtag designation process during political debate. The fact that men and women use language in distinct ways, reverberating practices linked to their expected roles in the social groups, is a linguistic phenomenon known to happen in several cultures and that can now be studied on the Web and on online social networks in a large scale enabled by computing power. Here, for instance, after analyzing tweets with political content posted during Brazilian presidential campaign,we found out that male Twitter users, when expressing their attitude toward a given candidate, are more prone to use imperative verbal forms in hashtags, while female users tend to employ declarative forms. This difference can be interpreted as a sign of distinct approaches in relation to other network members: for example, if political hashtags are seen as strategies of persuasion in Twitter, imperative tags could be understood as more overt ways of persuading and declarative tags as more indirect ones. Our findings help to understand human gendered behavior in social networks and contribute to research on the new fields of computer-enabled Internet linguistics and social computing, besides being useful for several computational tasks such as developing tag recommendation systems based on users' collective preferences and tailoring targeted advertising strategies, among others.

  10. Political Connections and Business Strategy: The Impact of Types and Destinations of Political Ties on Business Diversification in Closed and Open Political Economic

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Chi-Nien; Mahmood, Ishtiaq; Mitchell, Will

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies how different types and destinations of connections between business leaders and political actors create strategic benefits in closed and open political economic systems. The analysis examines how political ties facilitate diversification by business groups in Taiwan between 1986 and 1998, before and after the country underwent extensive political and economic liberalization that led to changes in diffusion of power, tie accountability, and public scrutiny. We show that for...

  11. Scientific risk communication about controversial issues influences public perceptions of scientists' political orientations and credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Many scientists communicate with the public about risks associated with scientific issues, but such communication may have unintended consequences for how the public views the political orientations and the credibility of the communicating scientist. We explore this possibility using an experiment with a nationally representative sample of Americans in the fall of 2015. We find that risk communication on controversial scientific issues sometimes influences perceptions of the political orientations and credibility of the communicating scientist when the scientist addresses the risks of issues associated with conservative or liberal groups. This relationship is moderated by participant political ideology, with liberals adjusting their perceptions of the scientists' political beliefs more substantially when the scientist addressed the risks of marijuana use when compared with other issues. Conservatives' political perceptions were less impacted by the issue context of the scientific risk communication but indirectly influenced credibility perceptions. Our results support a contextual model of audience interpretation of scientific risk communication. Scientists should be cognizant that audience members may make inferences about the communicating scientist's political orientations and credibility when they engage in risk communication efforts about controversial issues. PMID:29515820

  12. Scientific risk communication about controversial issues influences public perceptions of scientists' political orientations and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraga, Emily; Myers, Teresa; Kotcher, John; Beall, Lindsey; Maibach, Ed

    2018-02-01

    Many scientists communicate with the public about risks associated with scientific issues, but such communication may have unintended consequences for how the public views the political orientations and the credibility of the communicating scientist. We explore this possibility using an experiment with a nationally representative sample of Americans in the fall of 2015. We find that risk communication on controversial scientific issues sometimes influences perceptions of the political orientations and credibility of the communicating scientist when the scientist addresses the risks of issues associated with conservative or liberal groups. This relationship is moderated by participant political ideology, with liberals adjusting their perceptions of the scientists' political beliefs more substantially when the scientist addressed the risks of marijuana use when compared with other issues. Conservatives' political perceptions were less impacted by the issue context of the scientific risk communication but indirectly influenced credibility perceptions. Our results support a contextual model of audience interpretation of scientific risk communication. Scientists should be cognizant that audience members may make inferences about the communicating scientist's political orientations and credibility when they engage in risk communication efforts about controversial issues.

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL COMPONENT OF THE COUNTRY RISK FOR ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Cristina BALDAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the political component of the country risk for Romania. In the first part of the research I presented a few theoretical aspects of the country risk, and I subsequently presented the situation of the political component of the country risk for Romania in the worldwide and European context according to the Marsh Political Risk Map Report for the 2013-2015 period. In relation n to the macroeconomic analysis of the country, in 2015, the European Commission conducted, for the first time, a thorough analysis of Romania’s situation, following which this country was ranked second in terms of macroeconomic imbalances. According to this category, Romania is a country with macroeconomic imbalances which require monitoring and political actions.

  14. Political Risk and the Cost of Capital in Asia-Pacific Property Markets

    OpenAIRE

    George D. Cashman; David M. Harrison; Hainan Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of political risk on the cost of capital for publicly traded real estate firms. More specifically, by using a sample of 102 REITs and listed property trusts, which hold nearly 6,000 distinct investment properties across the Asia-Pacific region, we find strong empirical evidence that increased exposure to political risk increases both the cost of equity financing of a firm and its weighted average cost of capital. Interestingly, no such linkages are apparent ...

  15. Intergovernmental health policy decisions in Brazil: cooperation strategies for political mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Alcides S

    2007-05-01

    The advantages of established intergovernmental decision-making arenas for the implementation of health policies in decentralized settings are not well known. This paper presents the case of the joint health management committee, known as the Tripartite Committee, created to formalize intergovernmental decisions about the implementation of policies of the Brazilian Unified Health System. This paper adopts a descriptive approach for the strategic analysis of decision process among governmental actors from three federative levels, as well as of mechanisms for the negotiation of their interests in the formalization of health policy agreements. The roles and positions of governmental actors within the Tripartite Committee were analysed, together with the definition of decision agendas and strategies. The data come from normative documents and proceedings of the Tripartite Committee, interviews with their governmental actors and observations of their meetings. The distinct governmental actors from the Tripartite Committee employed cooperation strategies with permanent negotiations oriented towards interchanges and political mediation. The power of the federal Government is also pre-eminent for the constitution of decision agendas and in the shaping of negotiation processes and priorities. The Tripartite Committee formalized agreements between unequal administrative and political powers to ensure a systemic integration of governmental policies and a self-regulation of the political autonomies. There are some divergences within the governmental actors' interpretation of key policies and processes in this decision arena; the primacy of political or technical criteria as well as the applicability of laws or ad hoc norms. Although such cooperation strategies may slow down the decision-making process and render it more complicated, they also define more clearly areas of institutional responsibility and ensure a broader support from different levels of government for the

  16. Environmental risk management strategies: household response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental risk management strategies used by farmers in response to rice yield variability in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was examined. A total of 108 rice farmers were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data analysis shows that the mean age of the farmers was 45.9 years and majority (63%) had only primary ...

  17. Knowledge management: an innovative risk management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipperer, Lorri; Amori, Geri

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management effectively lends itself to the enterprise risk process. The authors introduce the concept of knowledge management as a strategy to drive innovation and support risk management. They align this work with organizational efforts to improve patient safety and quality through the effective sharing of experience and lessons learned. The article closes with suggestions on how to develop a knowledge management initiative at an organization, who should be on the team, and how to sustain this effort and build the culture it requires to drive success. © 2011 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  18. The importance of the impact of political risk factors in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Essel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Political risk factors often impact negatively on the financial results of an enterprise, industry, geographical region or an entire country. In severe cases they may even lead to financial disasters. Previous research (by Essel identified 10 specific political risk factors which are common to emerging market economies. As South Africa is a developing country with an emerging market economy, these 10 political risk factors should also be present in this country. This paper focuses on the importance of the impact of political risk factors on an agent’s total annual claims amount when underwriting political risk insurance in South Africa. The objective of this research paper embodies the improvement of financial decision-making by a particular enterprise, industry, geographical region or country operating in an emerging market economy, pertaining to the importance of the impact of political risk factors. A literature study as well as an empirical survey was done to achieve the study’s objective. The conclusions of this research should also be valuable to other enterprises, industries, geographical regions or countries which operate in an emerging market economy.

  19. Expanding the disaster risk management framework: Measuring the constructed level of national identity as a factor of political risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend Prinsloo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Political risk is identified as a dominant risk category of disaster risk management (DRM which could negatively affect the success of those measures implemented to reduce disaster risk. Key to political risk is the construct of national identity which, if poorly constructed, could greatly contribute to political risk. This article proposed a tool to measure the construct of national identity and to provide recommendations to strengthen the construct in order to mitigate the exacerbating influence it may have on political risk and ultimately on DRM. The design of the measurement tool consisted of a mixed methodological approach employing both quantitative and qualitative data. The data collection instruments included a literature review (which is shortly provided in the previous sections and an empirical study that utilised data obtained through structured questionnaires. Although the results of the proposed measuring instrument did not include a representative sample of all the cultures in SouthAfrica, the results alluded to different levels for the construction of national identity among black and white respondents, possibly because of different ideological expectations among these groups. The results of the study should be considered as a validation of the measuring tool and not necessarily of the construct of national identity in South Africa. The measuring tool is thus promising for future studies to reduce political risk and ultimately disaster risk.

  20. Portuguese Electoral Debate: Presidentialization and Linguistic Mitigation Strategies in Situations of Political Confrontation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aldina Marques

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In a context of increasing presidentialization of legislative election campaigns, I aim to study mitigation as a feature of the Portuguese electoral political debate, a genre of political discourse marked by the intersection with the television media discourse. It is a discursive genre of confrontation between participants-adversaries, seeking for the adhesion of voters by the proposals that they present and also, if not mainly, by the discredit of the political opponent. However, confrontation is not absolute, as the interlocutors must guarantee basic dimensions of political communication, ensuring by the construction, negotiation and co-management of the interpersonal relationship the preservation of a positive individual image in relation to the electorate. I hypothesize that, in this process, linguistic mitigation constitutes a nuclear strategy, carried out in each moment of the debate according to different linguistic-discursive mechanisms. The electoral debate here analysed was held in May 2011 in RTP between Pedro Passos Coelho, leader of the Social Democratic Party, and future prime minister, and José Sócrates, of the Socialist Party, prime minister in office, at the time.

  1. Existential risks: exploring a robust risk reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebari, Karim

    2015-06-01

    A small but growing number of studies have aimed to understand, assess and reduce existential risks, or risks that threaten the continued existence of mankind. However, most attention has been focused on known and tangible risks. This paper proposes a heuristic for reducing the risk of black swan extinction events. These events are, as the name suggests, stochastic and unforeseen when they happen. Decision theory based on a fixed model of possible outcomes cannot properly deal with this kind of event. Neither can probabilistic risk analysis. This paper will argue that the approach that is referred to as engineering safety could be applied to reducing the risk from black swan extinction events. It will also propose a conceptual sketch of how such a strategy may be implemented: isolated, self-sufficient, and continuously manned underground refuges. Some characteristics of such refuges are also described, in particular the psychosocial aspects. Furthermore, it is argued that this implementation of the engineering safety strategy safety barriers would be effective and plausible and could reduce the risk of an extinction event in a wide range of possible (known and unknown) scenarios. Considering the staggering opportunity cost of an existential catastrophe, such strategies ought to be explored more vigorously.

  2. "Who's winning the human race?"Cold war as pharmaceutical political strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobbell, Dominique A

    2009-10-01

    Between 1959 and 1962, Senator Estes Kefauver led a congressional investigation into the pricing practices of U.S. drug firms. As part of its defense, the industry mobilized the rhetoric of cold war and promoted the industry as a critical national asset in the global war against communism. The industry argued that any effort to undermine corporate innovation by inviting, as Kefauver proposed, greater government involvement in drug development threatened the public's health and invited socialism-in the form of socialized medicine-into the domestic political economy. This strategy proved critical to the industry's efforts to build political support for itself, particularly among the medical profession, and undermine Kefauver's reform agenda.

  3. Rancière, Marx and Claudette Colvin: Time, Knowledge, Memory and Strategy of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Fjeld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How does Jacques Rancière construct a democratic approach to politics through his critique of Marxism as a “metapolitics”? I will develop the hypothesis that Rancière reconfigures the Marxist political subject by disconnecting it from its metapolitics, searching to think it rather in terms of improper excess, untimeliness and the force to forget. I will then define how Rancière rethinks the concepts of time and knowledge, opening questions left in suspense in his thought on memory, strategy and power – questions that might belong to a more experimental and existential register. I will develop these questions through a study on the black movement in 1955-56 in Montgomery, Alabama.

  4. Integrating Agricultural Risks Management Strategies in selected EU Partner Countries: Syria, Tunisia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Capitanio, Fabian; Adinolfi, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics and transitions in the agricultural sector of emerging countries are not well understood yet. A decade of major political and economic changes is challenging the Mediterranean Economies, affecting the primary sectors of transition economies which are largely influenced by recent trends. The resulting exposure of agriculture to risks has called great attention on risk management strategies and public intervention. We explore their role in three different economies with a view to a uni...

  5. The Political Opportunity of the Outsider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    This paper examines the political strategies of two German firms—Siemens and I.G. Farben—in interwar India as a way to consider how multinational enterprises (MNEs) deal with political risk. The interwar period was characterized by rising political risks throughout the global economy, as conflicts...... contexts but actively shaping political identities and processes of legitimization. This paper uses this case to argue for a rethink of political risk in international business, to regard it as a source of political opportunities that multinationals can capitalize on, and not exclusively as a source...

  6. The Analysis of Organization Change: A Human Relations Strategy versus a Political Systems Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, J. Victor

    This paper removes one of the major drawbacks to understanding change by offering a definition of organizational change which specifies the system levels that are subject to change and explains the nature of the relationship between these various levels and the overall goals of the organization. Two strategies for studying organizational change…

  7. Measuring Strategy by Tracing Political Media Relations Tactics – A Conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Schink

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Conceptualizing the strategic interplay of communication experts with political journalists is like being in the middle of so far conflicting approaches. The mostly economic science based literature on strategic communication management often implies a prescriptive and rational approach of decision making and behavior. From a social sciences perspective, however, the empirical transfer of mere economic rational choice models has been reasonably challenged. Although many rational choice theorists accept actor rationality to be limited rather than total and the metaphor of a “game” between the two groups is frequently used, only tentative efforts of social sciences to integrate rational choice models into the concept of strategy can be observed. This article seeks to make a case for network analysis to be applied in political media relations, as it enables the integration of approaches of strategy that have been kept separate so far. Doing so would allow strategic interactions to act as infrastructure for a descriptive analysis and environment for testing cost-benefits with the help of game theory. In this way, it allows for both a systematic integration of different strategy concepts and a comparative evaluation of their validity and explanatory power for empirical ex-post analysis in different social contexts. Developed in the German context, a possible comparative approach will be exemplified by the Russian Federation in accordance with the most different systems design.

  8. WHEN THE PRESENT GETS US ... GLOBALIZATION: NEW TECHNOLOGIES, STRATEGY AND POLITICAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Martín Fragachán

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The current phase of the capitalist world development receives the name of globalization and has brought a series of consequences: a few positive and great very denials, some of which will try to be analyzed by me in the lines that continue later, insisting, very specially, in those who say to the development of new technologies of communication, to the called “social networks” and to the consequences that the same ones have had both for the communication and for the development of new modalities of political strategy.

  9. China and the global stem cell bioeconomy: an emerging political strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brian; Cooper, Melinda; Dickins, Amanda

    2006-09-01

    There is a growing consensus, amongst policy analysts and scientists alike, that China is likely to play a key role in the scientific, clinical and commercial development of stem cell research. However, to date, there exist few detailed analyses of China's current investment in the field. After introducing the UK's recent political strategy on stem cell science, this article develops an in-depth discussion of the formal organization of China's research and development in the area, as well as its rapidly evolving commercial, regulatory and ethical environment. From here, we go on to assess the probability of China's emergence as a global player in the increasingly internationalized business of stem cell biomedicine.

  10. AN EVALUATION OF RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR DAIRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Darrell J.; Johnson, Christian J.

    1992-01-01

    Variability in feed prices and crop yields are important sources of risk to dairy farmers. A simulation model of a representative dairy farm was used to evaluate crop insurance and hedging as risk management strategies. These strategies lowered expected net returns but also reduced risk. The preferred set of strategies at lower levels of risk aversion included hedging and crop insurance, although a base scenario in which no risk management strategies were employed was also efficient. The pref...

  11. EPA'S strategy to reduce risk of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988 (IRAA) directed EPA to undertake a variety of activities to address the growing public concern over dangers posed by exposure to indoor radon. Among other requirements, the law directed the Agency to study radon levels, evaluate mitigation methods, establish proficiency programs, assist states with program development, develop training centers, and provide public information. EPA has developed and implemented programs to address each of the key provisions of this statute. This paper presents EPA's broad national strategy to reduce radon risks. It combines and reinforces EPA's basic foundation, including its guiding policies and cooperative partnerships, with an overall management approach and focus for the future. The paper starts with an overview that introduces the strategy's four key elements: underlying policies and scientific principles, a decentralized system of states and other partners for targeting the public, multiple strategies for achieving radon risk reduction, and a strong focus on five key program priorities. This paper then discusses each of these elements in more detail and describes how they interact to guide future efforts and directions of the Agency

  12. Risk management: a proposal for communication strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fontana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disasters related to natural hazards have increased in the last few decades. This increment makes it necessary to develop non-structural risk prevention and mitigation measures to improve people’s safety. An effective non-structural measure that can improve the preparedness of the population is a locally adapted communication campaign that is focused on natural hazards. We have developed a hypothetical communication campaign for a specific area in the north of Italy, in which hydro-geological risk is of considerable importance. The content of the campaign is defined by the combination of the requirements of the law with the results of a survey conducted in the study area. The aim of the survey is to evaluate the level of risk perception among the residents, and their attitudes towards prevention activities. The operative procedure of the campaign is modeled on advertising strategies. The campaign is designed to reach each family, and it is aimed at affecting people’s everyday life through a horizontal communication strategy that involves flyers, billboards, umbrellas and a website. The use of umbrellas as a medium for the campaign is the key. People mostly use umbrellas when it rains. Rain is linked with hydrogeological risk. As the content of the campaign is printed on the umbrellas, each time people use these umbrellas, they remember the campaign. The campaign is integrated into a broader communication program that includes meetings with stakeholders, activities in schools, and public conferences. The final goal is to foster the creation of a shared knowledge about risk in the whole population.

  13. The Political Opportunity of the Outsider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    This paper examines the political strategies of two German firms—Siemens and I.G. Farben—in interwar India as a way to consider how multinational enterprises (MNEs) deal with political risk. The interwar period was characterized by rising political risks throughout the global economy, as conflicts...... between developed national economies rose in the wake of World War I, as anti-­‐colonial and communist movements gained ground, and international monetary instability increased. Yet, far from retrenching from the global economy, German MNEs capitalized on the growing political risks by developing...... political strategies and cultivating political capabilities that allowed them to successfully pursue international markets in geopolitically turbulent times. Identifying their mechanisms and viewing them longitudinally shows MNEs as political actors, not just adapting and dealing with novel political...

  14. Refuse and the ‘Risk Society’: The Political Ecology of Risk in Inter-war Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Timothy; Bulmer, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to current critiques of Ulrich Beck's ‘risk society’ thesis by historians of science and medicine. Those who have engaged with the concept of risk society have been content to accept the fundamental categories of Beck's analysis. In contrast, we argue that Beck's risk society thesis underplays two key themes. First, the role of capitalist social relations as the driver of technological change and the transformation of everyday life; and second, the ways in which hegemonic discourses of risk can be appropriated and transformed by counter-hegemonic forces. In place of ‘risk society’, we propose an approach based upon a ‘political ecology of risk’, which emphasises the social relations that are fundamental to the everyday politics of environmental health. PMID:24771975

  15. Risk, value conflict and political legitimacy. Chapter 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotgrove, S.

    1981-01-01

    The differing views of environmentalists, the public and industrialists on the perception of dangers to the environment are analysed. The subject is continued under the headings: competing paradigms; acceptable risk; values for money - flowers or production; a crisis of legitimacy (query). (U.K.)

  16. The Politics of Co-Production: Risks, Limits and Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Matthew; Wood, Matthew; Cunningham, Malaika

    2016-01-01

    Co-production is a risky method of social inquiry. It is time-consuming, ethically complex, emotionally demanding, inherently unstable, vulnerable to external shocks, subject to competing demands and it challenges many disciplinary norms. This is what makes it so fresh and innovative. And yet these research-related risks are rarely discussed and,…

  17. Political benchmarking as part of anti-crisis strategy of the state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Stavchenko

    2014-11-01

    Growth Risk and crisis situations in modern Ukraine involves the use of specific technologies in the development and implementation of reforms. In practice, this means that the state must not only adequately respond to the crisis, but also to carry out continuous training such action is to develop anti-crisis strategy.

  18. The health policy pathfinder: an innovative strategy to explore interest group politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Angela

    2009-10-01

    Moving a specific nursing health policy agenda forward depends on skill in building coalitions with other interest or stakeholder groups, including consumers. Often, nursing students study health policy in a discipline-specific environment without experiential opportunities to argue their views with other stakeholders in policy arenas. The health policy pathfinder, an innovative learning strategy for understanding interest group politics, will assist nursing students in meeting the following objectives: 1) analyze and articulate diverse policy arguments from various stakeholder groups; 2) identify opportunities for collaborations between stakeholder groups; 3) identify the influence of interest groups on the policy making process; and 4) critically evaluate evidence from a variety of sources ranging from peer-reviewed publications to grey literature to Internet blogs. This article describes the health policy pathfinder, including design, execution, and evaluation steps, and provides a brief excerpt from a student pathfinder. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Political risk of social security: the case of the indexation of benefits in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor

    -, Č. 318 (2007), s. 1-29 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Grant - others:GA ČR GA402/05/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : social security * political risk * pension reform Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp318.pdf

  20. Panama disease and contract farming in the Philippines: Towards a political ecology of risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Cruz, De Jaye; Jansen, Kees

    2018-01-01

    Despite the vast research on contract farming by agrarian scholars, little is known about interactions between biological risks and the social–political effects of contracts. This study analysed contract farming arrangements in the export banana industry in the Philippines amidst an expanding

  1. How political affiliation affects adaptation to climate risks: Evidence from New York City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botzen, W.J.W.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; Kunreuther, H; De Moel, H; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that liberals and conservatives in the United States diverge about their beliefs regarding climate change. We show empirically that political affiliation also matters with respect to climate related risks such as flooding from hurricanes. Our study is based on a survey conducted 6

  2. Political affiliation affects adaptation to climate risks : Evidence from New York City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botzen, W. J Wouter; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann; Kunreuther, Howard; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen C J H

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that liberals and conservatives in the United States diverge about their beliefs regarding climate change. We show empirically that political affiliation also matters with respect to climate related risks such as flooding from hurricanes. Our study is based on a survey conducted 6

  3. Integrated risk assessment and risk governance as socio-political phenomena: a synthetic view of the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmuth, Timo; Hildén, Mikael; Benighaus, Christina

    2010-08-15

    To call for integration in risk assessment and governance as a self-evident goal is deceptively easy. For more insight, we ask: what level and kind of integration and for what purposes is needed and sufficient? What opportunities and obstacles can be identified for integrative treatment of risks? What causes and impacts are there of developments in risk integration? To answer these questions we investigate the socio-political processes and factors surrounding integrated risk assessment and risk governance through a combination of literature reviews and original research. We emphasize regulatory assessment and governance of risks associated with chemicals in the EU, but we link them with other areas to better grasp options and problems in integration. We relate the problems to political factors and barriers in sector and vertical integration, including deviating interests, and further to conflicting information, concepts and mindsets. Risk assessment and risk governance involve varying notions of risks and knowledge, with tensions between stressor- or impact-oriented, exclusive or inclusive, positivist or relativist, and fixed or reflexive notions and approaches. These tensions influence the trajectories of integration between sectors, actors and regions, constraining the fulfillment of ideals of integrated governance. We conclude that risk assessment and governance can be integrated, harmonized and innovated to a limit only, but this limit is variable and flexible, and provides opportunities especially if attention is paid to the socio-political contexts, value choices and decision structures in each case. Generally, the results underline a reflexive approach whereby the meanings, framings and implications of risk integration are probed in open processes of deliberation and negotiation, as a learning process to transcend the formal and prescriptive modes of regulation and knowledge generation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. JCL roundtable: Risk evaluation and mitigation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W Virgil; Bramlet, Dean A; Ross, Joyce L; Underberg, James A

    Many factors enter into the decision by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve a new drug for use by physicians and other health care providers in treating diseases. Initially, the FDA authority was restricted to issues of safety and only later did the documentation of efficacy become part of the review process required for approval. However, all drugs have the potential for causing harm at some dose level to all and at lower doses in certain patients with vulnerability to the particular pharmacology of the agent. As new drugs have been designed to manage disorders that are uncommon, but of significant consequence, they may have adverse effects that are acceptable only because they are so uniquely beneficial to these specific conditions. The risk of these adverse effects may be acceptable since the benefit can outweigh the harm in most patients and the adversity can be predicted and managed. The approval of this category of drugs has grown rapidly since definition of a mechanism of action to manage and modify the risk has been provided by a process known as known as Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy or "REMS." In 2007, the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act (FDAAA) allowed the FDA to require postmarketing studies and the authority to mandate the implementation of a REMS for drugs with efficacy but documented potential for harm. Two relatively new drugs useful in the management of severe elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol have been approved under a requirement for a REMS. These are lomitapide, an inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and mipomersen, an antisense oligonucleotide which reduces the synthesis of apolipoprotein B. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The politics of indigeneity: Indigenous strategies for inclusion in climate change negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doolittle Amity

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous environmental activists have clearly articulated their views on global climate change policy. The content of these views was explored during the 10-day 2008 World Conservation Congress (WCC in Barcelona. Data were primarily collected through interviews and participant observation. In addition, policy statements and declarations made by indigenous environmental activists from 2000 to 2009 were analysed to place the perspectives of indigenous leaders and environmental activists in the context of their decade-long struggle to gain negotiating power at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This study examines the rhetorical strategies indigenous leaders from around the world use to gain political recognition and legitimacy in climate change negotiations. Two core principles, relating to a particular representation of indigenous environmental knowledge are identified as fundamental rhetorical tools. These are a belief that the earth is a living being with rights and the conviction that it is the responsibility of indigenous peoples to protect the earth from over-exploitation. However, reference to indigenous environmental knowledge is not the only rhetorical mechanism used by indigenous leaders in the climate debates. When faced with specific United Nations policies to combat climate change that could have a profound impact on their land rights, some indigenous leaders adopt a more confrontational response. Fearing that new polices would reinforce historical trends of marginalisation, indigenous leaders seeking recognition in climate change debates speak less about their ecological knowledge and responsibility to the earth and more about their shared histories of political and economic marginalisation and land dispossession, experienced first through colonialism and more recently through globalisation.

  6. Effects of Issue-Image Strategies, Attack and Support Appeals, Music, and Visual Content in Political Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Esther; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study analyzed four characteristics of political commercials to determine their impact on television viewers' reactions: (1) issue versus image strategies; (2) attack versus support appeals; (3) presence and absence of music; and (4) visual content, either with families or in professional campaign settings. Memory measures and attitudes are…

  7. An Investigation of Iranian EFL Learners' Use of Politeness Strategies and Power Relations in Disagreement across Different Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnam, Biook; Niroomand, Masoumeh

    2011-01-01

    The speech act of disagreement has been one of the speech acts that receives the least attention in the field of pragmatics. This study investigates the ways power relations influence politeness strategies in disagreement. In order to determine whether and to what extent the realization of the speech act of disagreeing and the of appropriate…

  8. Politeness Strategies in Healthcare Communication at "Difficult Times": A Pragmatic Analysis of the "Manga" Discourse in "Nurse Aoi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Poole, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which healthcare professionals interact with patients' family members, and/or colleagues. The data are from healthcare discourses at difficult times found in the manga series entitled Nurse AOI. As the first step, we selected several communication scenes for analysis in terms of politeness strategies. From these…

  9. Politeness Strategy in Directive Speech Acts of Tolea Pabitara on Traditional Marriage Ceremony of Tolaki-Mekongga Ethnic Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ihsan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was based on the politeness in speech acts at traditional ceremonies for Tolaki-Mekongga ethnic group as native ethnic in the mainland of Southeast Sulawesi province. In traditional wedding procession, it was known as Tolea-pabitara (spokesman, both Tolea-pabitara represented the family of the bridegroom, and Tolea pabitara represented the woman's family. The competence of politeness in speech act at the traditional procession to the continuity of interaction was crucial and was the responsibility of Tolea-pabitara. The problem in this research was how the use of directive speech acts of Tolea pabitara as politeness strategies in a traditional wedding ceremony of Tolaki-Mekongga ethnic group in Southeast Sulawesi. There were two objectives in this research. The first was to describe strategies of Tolea pabitara in using directive speech acts as a strategy of politeness in a traditional wedding ceremony of Tolaki-Mekongga ethnic that reside in mainland of Southeast Sulawesi. The second was to describe the types of directive speech acts that were used by Tolea pabitara in the traditional wedding ceremony of Tolaki-Mekongga ethnic group in Southeast Sulawesi.

  10. The Political Divide Over Same-Sex Marriage: Mating Strategies in Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie

    2016-04-01

    Although support for same-sex marriage has grown dramatically over the past decade, public opinion remains markedly divided. Here, we propose that the political divide over same-sex marriage represents a deeper divide between conflicting mating strategies. Specifically, we propose that opposition to same-sex marriage can be explained in terms of (a) individual differences in short-term mating orientation and (b) mental associations between homosexuality and sexual promiscuity. We created a novel Implicit Association Test to measure mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity. We found that mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity, at both the implicit and the explicit levels, interacted with short-term mating orientation to predict opposition to same-sex marriage. Our model accounted for 42.3% of the variation in attitudes toward same-sex marriage, and all predictors remained robust when we controlled for potential confounds. Our results reveal the centrality of mating psychology in attitudes toward same-sex marriage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Governance of sustainable development: co-evolution of corporate and political strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleischwitz, R.; College of Europe, Bruges

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes a policy framework for analysing corporate governance toward sustainable development. The aim is to set up a framework for analysing market evolution toward sustainability. In the first section, the paper briefly refers to recent theories about both market and government failures that express scepticism about the way that framework conditions for market actors are set. For this reason, multi-layered governance structures seem advantageous if new solutions are to be developed in policy areas concerned with long-term change and stepwise internalisation of externalities. The paper introduces the principle of regulated self-regulation. With regard to corporate actors' interests, it presents recent insights from theories about the knowledge-based firm, where the creation of new knowledge is based on the absorption of societal views. The result is greater scope for the endogenous internalisation of externalities, which leads to a variety of new and different corporate strategies. Because governance has to set incentives for quite a diverse set of actors in their daily operations, the paper finally discusses innovation-inducing regulation. In both areas, regulated self-regulation and innovation-inducing regulation, corporate and political governance co-evolve. The paper concludes that these co-evolutionary mechanisms may assume some of the stabilising and orientating functions previously exercised by framing activities of the state. In such a view, the government's main function is to facilitate learning processes, thus departing from the state's function as known from welfare economics. (author)

  12. Autocratic Bureacratism: Han Fei's Ancient Chinese Strategies of Governance as Contrasted with Machiavelli's Political Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Helliksen, Lars Tore

    2002-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the political philosophies of the ancient Chinese thinker Han Fei (ca. 280-233 BC) and the Western Renaissance thinker Niccolò Machiavelli (AD 1469-1527). In the thought of these pioneers of strategic political thought – both notorious for their hardheaded and “realist” approach to political life – the special problems of power maintenance and political stability are focused. The strong focus on these issues in the two thinkers must be seen in the l...

  13. A public health framework to translate risk factors related to political violence and war into multi-level preventive interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A

  14. Concepts of investment risks and strategies in electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.; Boots, M.G.

    2005-06-01

    This report deals with the specific investment risks in electricity generation and discusses the problems associated with energy investments in general and focus on the additional or changing risks resulting from electricity market liberalisation. The focus is on (1) risks under the control of the electricity company, and on (2) market risks, such as the risk of price changes. Ultimately, some of the approaches and strategies that enable electricity producers to counter or mitigate these risks are discussed

  15. The OPEC strategy dilemma, Middle East politics, and the figures that don't match

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdaire, J.M.; Noreng, O.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper answers two question: Is the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) a cartel, and do cartels learn? In both cases the answer is conditionally positive. OPEC is a cartel in the sense that as an organization of oil exporters it is able to set or strongly influence the price of the oil by allocating market shares, at last as long as productive capacity is not fully utilized. OPEC appears to have learned from the ups and downs of the oil market since the early 1970s, in the sense that the OPEC states have experienced their own interaction with the world economy and the risks involved in oil price discontinuities. Oil exporters may gain in short-term cash flow from an oil price shock, but the easy money dislocates their economies. Subsequently, they are subject to an impairing income squeeze as oil demand falls due to the setback of the world economy triggered by the initial oil price shock. This trauma now belongs to the common intellectual and political heritage of the oil exporters. As a result of this experience, there is now an apparent consensus among the OPEC nations that they have more to gain from volume expansion than from price increases in the oil market

  16. Low Membership in Czech Political Parties: Party Strategy or Structural Determinants?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš; Pecháček, Š.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2007), s. 259-275 ISSN 1352-3279 R&D Projects: GA MPS 1J004/04-DP1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : political parties * party membership * antiparty sentiments * party organization Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences

  17. Dilemma over the Issue of Inequality: A Strategy against Political Apathy ("Politikverdrossenheit")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnebel, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Politics is inseparable from conflict. But we often have the idea that the political process has to simply "solve" conflicts and in so doing make the conflict disappear. And because the politicians are not able to do this and instead simply continue arguing, we get the impression that we have incompetent politicians, whom we cannot…

  18. New digital communication strategies: the effects of personalized and interactive political communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kruikemeier, S.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    In communication research, it has been claimed that two important characteristics of online political communication, personalized and interactive two-way communication, can mobilize citizens to become more politically involved. In a survey-embedded experiment, we examine whether levels of

  19. Risk communication, radiation, and radiological emergencies: strategies, tools, and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covello, Vincent T

    2011-11-01

    Risk communication is the two-way exchange of information about risks, including risks associated with radiation and radiological events. The risk communication literature contains a broad range of strategies for overcoming the psychological, sociological, and cultural factors that create public misperceptions and misunderstandings about risks. These strategies help radiation risk communicators overcome the challenges posed by three basic observations about people under stress: (1) people under stress typically want to know that you care before they care about what you know; (2) people under stress typically have difficulty hearing, understanding, and remembering information; (3) people under stress typically focus more on negative information than positive information.

  20. Risk-Efficient Irrigation Strategies for Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Sushil

    1988-01-01

    Agricultural production is risky. When farmers are risk-averse, they are likely to put a premium on production methods that reduce perceived risks. Irrigation is generally believed to be a riskreducing input. By using the concept of stochastic dominance, risk-efficient irrigation policies for wheat grown in central India are identified and quantitative estimates of benefits due to risk reduction are obtained. Such benefits were found to be of a large order of magnitude. The more common method...

  1. Benchmarking Outdoor Expeditionary Program Risk Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa; Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Utah and the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) completed a study that developed a risk management taxonomy in the outdoor adventure industry and assessed how different outdoor expeditionary programs (OEPs) managed risk (Szolosi, Sibthorp, Paisley, & Gookin, 2003). By unifying the language around risk, the…

  2. Perceived risk and strategy efficacy as motivators of risk management strategy adoption to prevent animal diseases in pig farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2011-01-01

    For Dutch fattening pig farms, this study explored (1) farmers’ perceptions towards animal disease risks and animal health risk management; (2) factors underlying farmers’ adoption of the two risk management strategies, namely, biosecurity measures and animal health programs. The risks included

  3. Trust, Emotion, Sex, Politics, and Science: Surveying the Risk-Assessment Battlefield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Polarized views, controversy, and conflict have become pervasive. Research has begun to provide a new perspective on this problem by demonstrating the complexity of the concept 'risk' and the inadequacies of the traditional view of risk assessment as a purely scientific enterprise. This paper argues that danger is real, but risk is socially constructed. Risk assessment is inherently subjective and represents a blending of science and judgment with important psychological, social, cultural, and political factors. In addition, our social and democratic institutions, remarkable as they are in many respects, breed distrust in the risk arena. Whoever controls the definition of risk controls the rational solution to the problem at hand. If risk is defined one way, then one option will rise to the top as the most cost-effective or the safest or the best. If it is defined another way, perhaps incorporating qualitative characteristics and other contextual factors, one will likely get a different ordering of action solutions. Defining risk is thus an exercise in power. Scientific literacy and public education are important, but they are not central to risk controversies. The public is not irrational. Their judgments about risk are influenced by emotion and affect in a way that is both simple and sophisticated. The same holds true for scientists. Public views are also influenced by world views, ideologies, and values; so are scientists' views, particularly when they are working at the limits of their expertise. The limitations of risk science, the importance and difficulty of maintaining trust, and the complex, sociopolitical nature of risk point to the need for a new approach-one that focuses upon introducing more public participation into both risk assessment and risk decision making in order to make the decision process more democratic, improve the relevance and quality of technical analysis, and increase

  4. Trust, Emotion, Sex, Politics, and Science: Surveying the Risk-Assessment Battlefield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovic, Paul [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Polarized views, controversy, and conflict have become pervasive. Research has begun to provide a new perspective on this problem by demonstrating the complexity of the concept 'risk' and the inadequacies of the traditional view of risk assessment as a purely scientific enterprise. This paper argues that danger is real, but risk is socially constructed. Risk assessment is inherently subjective and represents a blending of science and judgment with important psychological, social, cultural, and political factors. In addition, our social and democratic institutions, remarkable as they are in many respects, breed distrust in the risk arena. Whoever controls the definition of risk controls the rational solution to the problem at hand. If risk is defined one way, then one option will rise to the top as the most cost-effective or the safest or the best. If it is defined another way, perhaps incorporating qualitative characteristics and other contextual factors, one will likely get a different ordering of action solutions. Defining risk is thus an exercise in power. Scientific literacy and public education are important, but they are not central to risk controversies. The public is not irrational. Their judgments about risk are influenced by emotion and affect in a way that is both simple and sophisticated. The same holds true for scientists. Public views are also influenced by world views, ideologies, and values; so are scientists' views, particularly when they are working at the limits of their expertise. The limitations of risk science, the importance and difficulty of maintaining trust, and the complex, sociopolitical nature of risk point to the need for a new approach-one that focuses upon introducing more public participation into both risk assessment and risk decision making in order to make the decision process more democratic, improve the relevance and quality of technical

  5. Explaining the unexpected success of the smoking ban in Italy: political strategy and transition to practice, 2000–2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Valentina; Compagni, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    The approval (2003) and enforcement (2005) of a smoking ban in Italy have been viewed by many as an unexpectedly successful example of policy change. The present paper, by applying a processualist approach, concentrates on two policy cycles between 2000 and 2005. These had opposing outcomes: an incomplete decisional stage and an authoritative decision, enforced two years later. Through the analysis of the different phases of agenda setting, alternative specification and decision making, we have compared the quality of participation of policy entrepreneurs in the two cycles, their political strategies and, in these, the relevance of issue image. The case allows us to direct the attention of scholars and practitioners to an early phase of the policy implementation process – which we have named "transition to practice". This, managed with political strategy, might have strongly contributed to the final successful policy outcome.

  6. How is political risk managed and prioritised in the aerospace and defence industry across different institutional contexts?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the management and prioritisation of political risk in the aerospace and defence industry using a multiple research approach of 2014 corporate annual reports, surveys, interviews and fuzzy set QCA analysis. The aim of the paper sets out to demonstrate that political risk in the aerospace and defence industry extends further than the traditional definitions based on host-country conditions and the social license to operate, but also largely on the dual relatio...

  7. Giacomo Castelvetro’s political translations: narrative strategies and literary style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa De Rinaldis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Translations of contemporary polemical and political tracts attributed to or associated with Giacomo Castelvetro (1546-1616 show a rejection of a servile adherence to the source text and the effort to produce an autonomous, readable text, one that in many cases is stylistically elevated and hence ‘literary’. Like most Renaissance translators, Castelvetro changes the form of expression of the texts and adopts narrative strategies in order to increase their communicative potential and reinforce the message they convey. An analysis of extracts from the translations of Discourse of the Maner of the Discovery of this late intended Treason (1605 and Elizabeth I’s proclamation By the Queen on the Seizure of the Earls of Essex, Rutland, Southampton (1600 will show how, through changes in emphasis and syntax, the translations give prominence to certain ‘characters’ in the narratives such as Guy Fawkes and the Earl of Essex. The stylistic elevation of the source text, moreover, shows how Castelvetro’s translations respond to a strong rhetorical tradition. Riassunto - Alcune traduzioni di testi contemporanei, di argomento politico e polemico, attribuite o associate a Giacomo Castelvetro (1546-1616 mostrano il rigetto di un’aderenza servile al testo d’origine e lo sforzo di produrre un testo autonomo, leggibile, che in molti casi è stilisticamente più elevato e quindi ‘letterario’. Come molti traduttori rinascimentali, Castelvetro cambia la forma espressiva dei testi e adotta strategie narrative per accrescere il potenziale comunicativo e rafforzare il messaggio. Un’analisi di estratti dalle traduzioni del Discourse of the Maner of the Discovery of this late intended Treason (1605 e del proclama di Elisabetta I  By the Queen on the Seizure of the Earls of Essex, Rutland, Southampton (1600 mostrerà come, attraverso cambiamenti di enfasi e di sintassi, le traduzioni diano risalto ad alcuni ‘personaggi’ della

  8. Strategy Guideline. Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Smith, P. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Porse, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) Building America team is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  9. Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  10. Conflict or accommodation? : an analysis of the transition to multiparty system in Egypt and the political strategies of the Muslim Brotherhood

    OpenAIRE

    Egset, Willy

    1998-01-01

    Conflict or Accommodation? An analysis of the Transition to Multiparty System in Egypt and the Political Strategies of the Muslim Brotherhood This thesis analyses political obstacles to democratic consolidation in Egypt with focus on the experiences of political liberalisation and establishment of a multiparty system in Egypt and the integration of the Islamist "mainstream" opposition. The study seeks to establish a historical, contingent approach to the problems involved, in which the ...

  11. The Political Psychology in the Transatlantic Perspective – A Strategy Framework for Eastern Europe: the Case of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Veljanovska Blazhevska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Each nation tends to rationalize the situation, the past – the present and the future – in order to ensure normal living conditions and possible welfare. However, some internally and externally created policies aim to focus or defocus the public’s attention in order to distort the real picture. In political psychology, lies and intrigues are often associated with political effects. All these additional attributes guide the policy into the desired direction. The situation in Ukraine is a real example of a kind of "psychological warfare" of citizens caused as a result of claims made by the neighbouring Russian Federation, political steps and tactics of the European Union and the NATO Alliance. In order to prevent future negative development in this field, there is a need to create a common security strategy for Eastern Europe, as a result of the creation of successful Trans-Atlantic relations and good-neighbourly relations with the Russian Federation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the need for encouraging the creation of a rational attitude of the nations in order to strive for the improvement of the region in which they are located. The theory of public choice is applied as a basis of encouraging a better future in public policies and strategies in a country/region. Political psychology is the main thread utilised to disclose the real picture of relations in Ukraine, and the final results need to be used in the area of ​​creating a new security strategy for Eastern Europe. This work includes empirical research conducted within the Republic of Macedonia. The same applies to the theoretical frame of the paper.

  12. An Analysis on Teachers' Politeness Strategy and Student's Compliance in Teaching Learning Process at SD Negeri 024184 Binjai Timur Binjai--North Sumatra-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manik, Sondang; Hutagaol, Juniati

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the politeness strategies used by the teachers and how the politeness affects to the student's compliance. The focus is on directive and expressive speech acts. The subjects of this study were two teachers and the students of class II-A and II-B at SD 024184 Binjai Timur Binjai. The data was gathered by video audio…

  13. Environmental Risk Assessment Strategy for Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeck J. Scott‐Fordsmand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA for nanomaterials (NMs is outlined in this paper. Contrary to other recent papers on the subject, the main data requirements, models and advancement within each of the four risk assessment domains are described, i.e., in the: (i materials, (ii release, fate and exposure, (iii hazard and (iv risk characterisation domains. The material, which is obviously the foundation for any risk assessment, should be described according to the legislatively required characterisation data. Characterisation data will also be used at various levels within the ERA, e.g., exposure modelling. The release, fate and exposure data and models cover the input for environmental distribution models in order to identify the potential (PES and relevant exposure scenarios (RES and, subsequently, the possible release routes, both with regard to which compartment(s NMs are distributed in line with the factors determining the fate within environmental compartment. The initial outcome in the risk characterisation will be a generic Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC, but a refined PEC can be obtained by applying specific exposure models for relevant media. The hazard information covers a variety of representative, relevant and reliable organisms and/or functions, relevant for the RES and enabling a hazard characterisation. The initial outcome will be hazard characterisation in test systems allowing estimating a Predicted No-Effect concentration (PNEC, either based on uncertainty factors or on a NM adapted version of the Species Sensitivity Distributions approach. The risk characterisation will either be based on a deterministic risk ratio approach (i.e., PEC/PNEC or an overlay of probability distributions, i.e., exposure and hazard distributions, using the nano relevant models.

  14. Rights of Minors and Constitutional Politics in the German Länder. Legal Framework, Party Strategies, and Constitutional Amendments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Astrid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses constitutional politics in the German Länder in the field of minors’ rights. Since this issue seems a purely legal matter dealt with at the federal, European and international level, we should expect similar, almost identically shaped policies at the Länder level. However, the analysis brings considerable variations of constitutional activities in this field to the fore: time, frequency, and contents of respective initiatives vary significantly in the period from 1999 to 2014. These variations were due to different party strategies, diverging party platforms and majority constellations in the Länder. The analysis also shows that the public arguments brought forward in favour of constitutional amendments refer only weakly and randomly to legal provisions and processes at other levels. The political debate supporting extended children's rights rather refers to general observations, to the specific regional context, and constitutional provisions in other Länder. At least with regard to this issue, the multi-level system did not systematically impact on constitutional politics in the Länder. It rather can be understood as an opportunity structure providing parties with multiple realms in which they can pursue their goals. Thus the study shows that federal and regional party strategies are key factors in explaining policy diffusion in multilevel systems.

  15. An Assessment of risk response strategies practiced in software projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Bhoola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and success in projects are highly intertwined – better approaches to project risk management tend to increase chances of project success in terms of achieving scope & quality, schedule and cost targets. The process of responding to risk factors during a project’s life cycle is a crucial aspect of risk management referred to as risk response strategies, in this paper. The current research explores the status of risk response strategies applied in the software development projects in India. India provides a young IT-savvy English-speaking population, which is also cost effective. Other than the workforce, the environment for implementation of software projects in India is different from the matured economies. Risk management process is a commonly discussed theme, though its implementation in practice has a huge scope for improvement in India. The paper talks about four fundamental treatments to risk response – Avoidance, Transference, Mitigation and Acceptance (ATMA. From a primary data of 302 project managers, the paper attempts to address the risk response factors that lead to successful achievement of project scope & quality, schedule and cost targets, by using a series of regressions followed with Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations (SURE modelling. Mitigation emerged as the most significant risk response strategy to achieve project targets. Acceptance, transference, and avoidance of risk were mostly manifested in the forms of transparency in communication across stakeholders, careful study of the nature of risks and close coordination between project team, customers/end-users and top management.

  16. Techniques for Developing an Acquisition Strategy by Profiling Software Risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ward, Mary C; Elm, Joseph P; Kushner, Susan

    2006-01-01

    ... Developing an acquisition strategy is a key component of acquisition planning that provides a means of addressing risks through the program structure Programs need structured ways to reason about software...

  17. “Will My Risk Parity Strategy Outperform?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    A letter is presented in response to the article "Will My Risk Parity Strategy Outperform?" by Robert Anderson, Stephen Bianchi, and Lisa Goldberg, which appeared in the November/December 2012 issue.......A letter is presented in response to the article "Will My Risk Parity Strategy Outperform?" by Robert Anderson, Stephen Bianchi, and Lisa Goldberg, which appeared in the November/December 2012 issue....

  18. Self-presentation and Discreditation – the Key Strategies of the Preelection Political Discourse (as Exemplified in the Pre-election Tweets of D. Trump and H. Clinton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S. Sergeeva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of self-presentation and discreditation are considered as the main strategies of the pre-election virtual discourse. The language units, used at tactics realization of communicative strategies, promote necessary political image formation during the election campaign. Tactics of «incrimination» (strategy of discreditation is frequently used in D. Trump’s tweets, whereas H. Clinton prefers tactics «consolidation» (strategy of selfpresentation.

  19. Forests at risk: integrating risk science into fuel management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2008-01-01

    The threat from wildland fire continues to grow across many regions of the Western United States. Drought, urbanization, and a buildup of fuels over the last century have contributed to increasing wildfire risk to property and highly valued natural resources. Fuel treatments, including thinning overly dense forests to reduce fuel and lower fire risk, have become a...

  20. A new energy paradigm for Turkey: A political risk-inclusive cost analysis for sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksay, Serhan; Iseri, Emre

    2011-01-01

    Implementing sustainable development policies in order to achieve economic and social development while maintaining adequate environmental protection to minimize the damage inflicted by the constantly increasing world population must be a major priority in the 21st century. While the emerging global debate on potential cost-effective responses has produced potential solutions such as cap and trade systems and/or carbon taxes as part of evolving sustainable energy/environmental policies, this kind of intellectual inquiry does not seem to be an issue among Turkish policy-making elites. This is mainly due to their miscalculation that pursuing sustainable energy policies is much more expensive in comparison to the utilization of fossil fuels such as natural gas. Nevertheless, the pegged prices of an energy sector dominated by natural gas are illusive, as both the political risks and environmental damage have not been incorporated into the current cost calculations. This paper evaluates energy policies through a lens of risk management and takes an alternative approach to calculating energy costs by factoring in political risks. This formulation reveals that the cost of traditional fossil-based energy is in fact more expensive than renewable energy. In addition to being environmentally friendly, the paradigm shift towards renewable energy policies would provide Turkey with a significant opportunity to stimulate its economy by being one of the first countries to develop green technologies and as a result this burgeoning sector would prompt job creation as well; mainly due to the externalities. - Research highlights: → This paper evaluates Turkish energy policies through risk management scope and takes an alternative approach on calculating electricity costs by factoring in political risks. → The cost of traditional fossil-based energy turns out to be more expensive than renewable energy. → The paradigm shift towards renewable energy policies could provide Turkey

  1. An Aspect of Social Interaction in Communication: Politeness Strategies and Contrastive Foreign-Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama-Cazacu, Tatiana

    A discussion of communicative interaction focuses on the knowledge needed to achieve politeness in different languages, especially how that body of knowledge differs across languages and can be taught in foreign language instruction. It is noted that oral communication must accommodate the existing social order by use of appropriate registers.…

  2. Political changes and trends in cardiovascular risk factors in the Czech Republic, 1985-92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, M; Skodova, Z; Pisa, Z; Poledne, R; Marmot, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mortality from cardiovascular diseases is substantially higher in central and eastern Europe than in the west. After the fall of communism, these countries have undergone radical changes in their political, social, and economic environments but little is known about the impact of these changes on health behaviours or risk factors. Data from the Czech Republic, a country whose mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases are among the highest, were analysed in this report. OBJECTIVES: To examine the trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Czech population over the last decade during which a major and sudden change of the political and social system occurred in 1989, and whether the trends differed in relation to age and educational group. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data from three cross sectional surveys conducted in 1985, 1988, and 1992 as a part of the MONICA project were analysed. The surveys examined random samples of men and women aged 25-64 in six Czech districts and measured the following risk factors: smoking, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. RESULTS: The numbers of subjects (response rate) examined were 2573 (84%) in 1985, 2769 (87%) in 1988, and 2353 (73%) in 1992. Total cholesterol and body mass index increased between 1985 and 1988 and decreased between 1988 and 1992. The prevalence of smoking was declining slightly in men between 1985 and 1992 but remained stable in women. There were only small changes in blood pressure. The decline in cholesterol and BMI in 1988-92 may be related to changes in foods consumption after the price deregulation in 1991. An improvement in risk profile was more pronounced in younger age groups, and the declines in cholesterol and obesity were substantially larger in men and women with higher education. By contrast, there was an increase in smoking in women educated only to primary level. CONCLUSION: Substantial changes in cholesterol, obesity, and women

  3. Risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds can only tolerate narrow temperature changes; therefore, poultry flocks are vulnerable to climate induced risk. This study investigated risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers in Oyo state. A total of 118 respondents were sampled using multi stage sampling procedure. Interview schedule was ...

  4. GFC-Robust Risk Management Strategies under the Basel Accord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA risk management strategy is proposed as being robust to the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) by selecting a Value-at-Risk (VaR) forecast that combines the forecasts of different VaR models. The robust forecast is based on the median of the point VaR forecasts of a set of conditional

  5. Economic, Socio-Political and Environmental Risks of Road Development in the Tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J; Sloan, Sean; Goosem, Miriam; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Mahmoud, Mahmoud I; Laurance, William F

    2017-10-23

    It is projected that 25 million km of new paved roads will be developed globally by 2050 - enough to encircle the planet more than 600 times. Roughly 90% of new roads will be built in developing nations, frequently in tropical and subtropical regions with high biodiversity and environmental values. Many developing nations are borrowing from international lenders or negotiating access to their natural resources in order to expand their transportation infrastructure. Given the unprecedented pace and extent of these initiatives, it is vital to thoroughly assess the potential consequences of large-scale road and highway projects. In appropriate contexts and locales, new roads can promote sizeable economic and social benefits. If poorly planned or implemented, however, new roads can provoke serious cost overruns, corruption and environmental impacts, while generating sparse economic benefits and intense social and political conflict. Using examples from developing nations, we identify risks that can hinder road projects in wet and dry tropical environments. Such risks, we assert, are often inadequately considered by project proponents, evaluators and the general public, creating a systematic tendency to overestimate project benefits while understating project risks. A more precautionary approach is needed to reduce risks while maximizing benefits of new road projects in the tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The pharmaceuticalization of sexual risk: vaccine development and the new politics of cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A public health framework to translate risk factors related to political violence and war into multi-level preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Joop T V M

    2010-01-01

    Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A public health framework was designed to address these risk factors and protective factors. The framework resulted in a matrix that combined primary, secondary and tertiary interventions with their implementation on the levels of the society-at-large, the community, and the family and individual. Subsequently, the risk and protective factors were translated into multi-sectoral, multi-modal and multi-level preventive interventions involving the economy, governance, diplomacy, the military, human rights, agriculture, health, and education. Then the interventions were slotted in their appropriate place in the matrix. The interventions can be applied in an integrative form by international agencies, governments and non-governmental organizations, and molded to meet the requirements of the historic, political-economic and socio-cultural context. The framework maps the complementary fit among the different actors while engaging themselves in preventive, rehabilitative and reconstructive interventions. The framework shows how the economic, diplomatic, political, criminal justice, human rights, military, health and rural development sectors can collaborate to promote peace or prevent the aggravation or continuation of violence. A deeper understanding of the association between risk and protective factors and the developmental pathways of generic, country-specific and culture-specific factors leading to political violence is needed.

  8. A common energy strategy: a key to a reinforced political Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierret, Christian

    2013-01-01

    With the Coal and Steel Community, energy was at the root of the creation of the European Union. Sixty years later, the energy question remains at the heart of member States' concerns, but a real common policy remains to be set up. The political and economic future of Europe is indissociable from energy challenges. To meet them, pragmatism has to carry the day over emotion. And France has to play a major role in this major venture. (authors)

  9. Export strategy risks and governance in the clothing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Mapanga

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the export strategy implementation risks in Zimbabwe’s clothing sector with a view to build a framework for improving strategy implementation and governance. The government of Zimbabwe has formulated a five year export strategic blue-print to resuscitate the clothing value chain. However, to date, no visible movement towards implementing the export strategy has materialised. The sector is on the brink of collapse putting the welfare and livelihood of over two million people dependent on the sector at risk. A desk research and key informant interviews were conducted to understand the barriers causing inertia in the implementation of the export strategy. Cotton farmers’ unions’ representatives, the cotton ginners association members, the spinning industry members and garment manufacturers representatives, clothing retailers’ representatives, workers’ unions’ members and government officials were important sources of information towards the discovery of the risks. From the research, six of the strategy implementation risks were linked to human elements. Leadership, consensus and commitment deficiencies militated against the implementation of the export strategy in the clothing value chain. There is also a lack of trust among the value chain actors leading to the dislocation of efforts to resuscitate the sector

  10. The MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy: A Flexible Strategy for Efficient Information Collection and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. J. Bos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An engineered nanomaterial (ENM may actually consist of a population of primary particles, aggregates and agglomerates of various sizes. Furthermore, their physico-chemical characteristics may change during the various life-cycle stages. It will probably not be feasible to test all varieties of all ENMs for possible health and environmental risks. There is therefore a need to further develop the approaches for risk assessment of ENMs. Within the EU FP7 project Managing Risks of Nanoparticles (MARINA a two-phase risk assessment strategy has been developed. In Phase 1 (Problem framing a base set of information is considered, relevant exposure scenarios (RESs are identified and the scope for Phase 2 (Risk assessment is established. The relevance of an RES is indicated by information on exposure, fate/kinetics and/or hazard; these three domains are included as separate pillars that contain specific tools. Phase 2 consists of an iterative process of risk characterization, identification of data needs and integrated collection and evaluation of data on the three domains, until sufficient information is obtained to conclude on possible risks in a RES. Only data are generated that are considered to be needed for the purpose of risk assessment. A fourth pillar, risk characterization, is defined and it contains risk assessment tools. This strategy describes a flexible and efficient approach for data collection and risk assessment which is essential to ensure safety of ENMs. Further developments are needed to provide guidance and make the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy operational. Case studies will be needed to refine the strategy.

  11. Theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks determining in different countries of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashina Nadezhda, I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the problems of the theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks in different countries with relative indicators of the socio-economic development level, as well as the size and condition of the public debt. Developed by the authors the methodology of determining the risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world revealed close relationship between socio-economic situation of the countries and their public debt. Within the framework of this methodology two groups of factors characterizing the socio-political and economic processes in the country are being developed. After that each exponent and indicator are being processed, using expert procedures. Maximum statutory values for tentatively referenced countries with effective and ineffective government policies are identified. Then standardization (specification and definition of integral (generalized indexes of socio-political and economic processes in the country are taking place. After that the ranking of countries by aggregated standardized ratio is arranged, taking into account the significance of the developed indicators. The final phase of implementation methodology is identifying risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world. This is the ranking of countries by ratio of stability in public policy (stability of economic and socio-political processes in the country. As the result of implementation methodology the following output was received: what really makes a difference is not the amount of the country's debt, but how effectively it manages this debt, whether it has a goal to improve social and economic indicators. Practical testing methodology has proven that studied indicators fully characterize the development of the countries, their political, social and economic situation on the world stage.

  12. A Strategy of Dialogue for Communicating Hazard and Risk Information Between the Science and Emergency Management Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will describe a collaborative dialogue process between earth scientists and emergency management officials that focused on translation of science into policy, building long term trust based relationships between sectors and unified presentation of hazards, risks and consequence management to public officials and the general public. The author will describe the structure and process of the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) in assessing the credibility of long and short term earthquake predictions, assessment of risk, and the formulation of public communication strategies and preparatory actions by government agencies. For nearly 4 decades, earth scientists, politically appointed state officials and emergency managers have engaged in ongoing discussions of the policy implications of research on potential seismic risk. Some discussions were scheduled and occurred over months, and others were ad hoc and occurred in the minutes between potential precursory incidents and possible large events. The effectiveness of this process was dependent on building respect for ones counterparts expertise, bias and responsibilities, clear communication of data, uncertainty and knowledge of the physical models assumed, history and probabilities; and the physical and political consequences of possible events; and the costs and economic and social disruption of alternative preparedness actions. But, the dialogue included political and social scientists, representatives of the print and broadcast media, political and management officials from federal, state and local governments. The presentation will provide an assessment of the effectiveness of the collaborative dialogue process and lessons on sustaining a long term partnership among the participating federal, state and local officials.

  13. SRP meeting: social and political implications of communicating radiation risk, Daresbury, Warrington, 20 June 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Karen

    2001-12-01

    The SRP held a very interesting meeting in June at the Daresbury Laboratory in Warrington on the social and political implications of communicating radiation risk. In today's risk-aware society, effective communication is just as important as the control measures introduced to prevent or restrict exposure. In relation to radiation protection, risk communicators had a hard job because of: Public dread Likelihood of risk intensification Perceived inequitable distribution of risks. The higher the uncertainty, the more wary people were likely to be. Julie cited the International Nuclear Events Scale (INES) as a possible tool for promoting a consistent message across all publics. This was because it aimed to put events into proper perspective and provide a common understanding amongst the nuclear community, the media and the public. Julie summed up by saying that the risk communication was not just any form of communication and the issue of communicating radiation risks involved special consideration. Further research established that the more information given to the local population, the more likely that they would deny that there was a problem. Denial could moderate beliefs or emotional reactions to a situation. This then affected their dose as they were more likely to adopt risky behaviour by eating contaminated food and entering contaminated areas. Avoiding the need to undertake safe behaviour reduced stress levels. Furthermore, people adopted beliefs to suit their situation. For example, some inhabitants of the affected areas became adapted to the radiation and actually felt worse outside the contaminated area. There was strong pressure for the maintenance of a situation which actually prevented appropriate precautions being taken. Peter concluded that there was often confusion over the details of technical information that sometimes might not help to prevent a course of action being taken. However on a positive note the research did find credence and

  14. Sources of risk and management strategies among food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    area. Risk management strategies available to the farmers were extension services, 67.3%; access to fertilizer, 41.2%; mixed cropping/farming, 79.3%; cooperative society 54.5%, borrowing of money, 73.0% and off farm-work, 69.7%. Attention should be shifted towards protection of farmers against market failure and price ...

  15. Socio economic analysis of risk aversion strategies among potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty five (25) structured questionnaires were administered in each of the districts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logit regression model. Findings revealed that the respondents employed different risk management strategies such as enterprise diversification and timeliness of farm operations to avert ...

  16. Between practice, policy and politics: Music therapy and the Dementia Strategy, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Neta; Farrant, Camilla L; Pavlicevic, Mercédès

    2017-04-01

    Does current music therapy practice address the goals encapsulated in the UK Department of Health document, Living well with dementia: a national dementia strategy (the Dementia Strategy) published in 2009? A survey elicited the views of clients, family members, music therapists, care home staff and care home managers, about this question by focusing on the relationship between music therapy and the 17 objectives outlined in the Dementia Strategy. The results showed that the objectives that are related to direct activity of the music therapists (such as care and understanding of the condition) were seen as most fulfilled by music therapy, while those regarding practicalities (such as living within the community) were seen as least fulfilled. Although the responses from the four groups of participants were similar, differences for some questions suggest that people's direct experience of music therapy influences their views. This study suggests that many aspects of the Dementia Strategy are already seen as being achieved. The findings suggest that developments of both music therapy practices and government strategies on dementia care may benefit from being mutually informed.

  17. Risk Preferences, Probability Weighting, and Strategy Tradeoffs in Wildfire Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Michael S; Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    Wildfires present a complex applied risk management environment, but relatively little attention has been paid to behavioral and cognitive responses to risk among public agency wildfire managers. This study investigates responses to risk, including probability weighting and risk aversion, in a wildfire management context using a survey-based experiment administered to federal wildfire managers. Respondents were presented with a multiattribute lottery-choice experiment where each lottery is defined by three outcome attributes: expenditures for fire suppression, damage to private property, and exposure of firefighters to the risk of aviation-related fatalities. Respondents choose one of two strategies, each of which includes "good" (low cost/low damage) and "bad" (high cost/high damage) outcomes that occur with varying probabilities. The choice task also incorporates an information framing experiment to test whether information about fatality risk to firefighters alters managers' responses to risk. Results suggest that managers exhibit risk aversion and nonlinear probability weighting, which can result in choices that do not minimize expected expenditures, property damage, or firefighter exposure. Information framing tends to result in choices that reduce the risk of aviation fatalities, but exacerbates nonlinear probability weighting. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. The evolution of risk and bailout strategy in banking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caux, Robert; McGroarty, Frank; Brede, Markus

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we analyse the long-term costs and benefits of bailout strategies in models of networked banking systems. Unlike much of the current literature on financial contagion that focuses on systemic risk at one point in time, we consider adaptive banks that adjust risk taking in response to internal system dynamics and regulatory intervention, allowing us to analyse the potentially crucial moral hazard aspect associated with frequent bailouts. We demonstrate that whereas bailout generally serves as an effective tool to limit the size of bankruptcy cascades in the short term, inappropriate intervention strategies can encourage risk-taking and thus be inefficient and detrimental to long term system stability. We analyse points of long-term optimal bailout and discuss their dependence on the structure of the banking network. In the second part of the paper, we demonstrate that bailout efficiency can be improved by taking into account information about the topology of and risk allocation on the banking network, and demonstrate that finely tuned intervention strategies aimed at bailing out banks in configurations with some degree of anti-correlated risk have superior performance. These results demonstrate that a suitable intervention policy may be a useful tool for driving the banking system towards a more robust structure.

  19. Risk management - unappreciated instrument of supply chain management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Machowiak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unlike Enterprise Risk Management, which is certainly quite well rooted in business practice, Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM still continues to be dynamically developing subject of academic research, whereas its practical applications are rather scarce. Material and methods: On the basis of broad review of the current state of the art in world literature, significant  relevancies to the core processes and enterprise strategy are discussed.   Results: The paper shows some interesting from the enterprise's performance and competitiveness point of view additional benefits, potentially resulting from the proactive, consistent and effective implementation of the SCRM system. Conclusions: Some additional advantages from proactive supply chain risk management account for perceiving SCRM as multifunctional instrument of strategic SC management, exceeding established understanding RM as security and threat-prevention  tool only. Positive influence from SCRM onto SC performance and competitiveness can make reasonable to enhance its position within SCM strategy.

  20. The social construction of risk and the controversial Brazilian Nuclear Program: among scientific, political and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camelo, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the Brazilian Nuclear Program (PNB) stating as reference the Fukushima nuclear accident. Its main purpose is to analyze how the Japanese accident impacted the PNB. Therefore, the program will be analyzed within 10-years (2004-2014) in order to answer this question. The discussion launched in this thesis is based on the framework of the Social Studies of Science and Technology, which enables the understanding of socio-technical controversies beyond the social or technological determinism. Through the discussion of the concepts of framing, socio-technical imaginary, risk and governance of science and technology, the research shows how the controversy in focus has resulted in the opportunity to consider not only economic, technological, environmental issues about nuclear energy, but also its political dimensions and challenges. Among these challenges, and from very different perspectives, arise questions about the role nuclear energy plays in the Brazilian context, the future of the program and the decision making process on these issues. Despite the central purpose of this study is essentially on risks, PNB and on the Brazilian context, it should be pointed that it is impossible to consider it in isolation of what is happening internationally (considering interests, tensions, relations between actors, etc.) The research thereby identifies key implications of Fukushima in the international context, but focuses on the disputes regarding possible review of the PNB. It also highlights how the socio-technical controversies, such as the nuclear energy, demand or impose a discussion on the governance of science and technology, risk and on the engagement of different sectors and actors in decision-making on issues, that are at the same time about energy, technology and nationality relevance. All this reflection is made from multi-sited analysis, which allowed following the controversy surrounding nuclear energy, reheated by the Fukushima

  1. Making sense of climate change risks and responses at the community level: A cultural-political lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainka A. Granderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to better assess, communicate and respond to risks from climate change at the community level have emerged as key questions within climate risk management. Recent research to address these questions centres largely on psychological factors, exploring how cognition and emotion lead to biases in risk assessment. Yet, making sense of climate change and its responses at the community level demands attention to the cultural and political processes that shape how risk is conceived, prioritized and managed. I review the emergent literature on risk perceptions and responses to climate change using a cultural-political lens. This lens highlights how knowledge, meaning and power are produced and negotiated across multiple stakeholders at the community level. It draws attention to the different ways of constructing climate change risks and suggests an array of responses at the community level. It further illustrates how different constructions of risk intersect with agency and power to shape the capacity for response and collective action. What matters are whose constructions of risk, and whose responses, count in decision-making. I argue for greater engagement with the interpretive social sciences in research, practice and policy. The interpretive social sciences offer theories and tools for capturing and problematising the ways of knowing, sense-making and mobilising around risks from climate change. I also highlight the importance of participatory approaches in incorporating the multiplicity of interests at the community level into climate risk management in fair, transparent and culturally appropriate ways.

  2. Energy policy. Technical developments, political strategies, and concepts of action regarding renewable energy sources and rational energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauch, H.G.

    1997-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study book deals with problems from the history of energy, energy sytems, energy engineering, and the potential of renewable energy sources: hydro and wind power, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaics and solar thermal conversion; the improvement of boundary conditions for their transfer to market; concepts of action and project funding preferences of the EU, USA and Japan in this sector; relevant activities of the federal German government and proposals by non-governmental players in the field as well as strategies for rational energy use; methods for building an energy consensus and criteria for valuating energy systems; concepts of action and proposals for extending solar energy use in the Mediterranean and Afrika, as well as political factors governing the market introduction and export promotion of renewable energy technologies in this triad: the USA, Japan, and the European Union. Seven of the papers contained in the book are individually recorded. (orig./RHM). 76 figs., 100 tabs [de

  3. Balancing Inside and Outside Lobbying: The Political Strategies of Lobbyists at Global Diplomatic Conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanegraaff, M.; Beyers, J.; De Bruycker, I.

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to explain the use of inside and outside lobbying by organised interests at global diplomatic conferences. At first sight, the lobbying at these venues is puzzling as it does not seem to be a very fruitful way to acquire influence. The use of outside strategies especially is

  4. Apologies as Politeness Strategies Expressed by Characters in "Revolutionary Road" Movie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Abedi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate kinds of offences that motivate the characters in the movie "Revolutionary Road" to deliver their apology and to describe the way the characters express their apologies. The study used Trosborg's apology strategies and Holmes' social dimensions of communication and kinds of offences finding, Hymes' ethnography of communication with SPEAKING formula. The data of the research were taken from apology expressions employed in the movie entitled "Revolutionary Road". The corpus included the sentences containing apology expressions following an offence, and other supporting expressions employed by the characters in the movie "Revolutionary Road". The dialogues containing apology expressions and the types of offenses from the apology expressions were transcribed. The result showed that the kinds of offenses were infringement on space, infringement on talk, infringement on time, infringement on possession and social behavior offence. The characters in the movie “Revolutionary Road” expressed their apologies with the simple and complex form of apology strategies both directly and indirectly. They also delivered their apologies in high tone and low tone. They also showed nonverbal expressions in apologizing. The apology strategies were influenced by the degree of severity of the offence and the response given by the addressee. The employing of apology strategy in apologizing was influenced by the social distance, the formality of the situation, and the social status of the participants. It is implied that the speech act of apology in different contexts including movies should be regarded and considered by sociolinguistics.

  5. The politics of defining and alleviating poverty: State strategies and their impacts in rural Kerala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.; Thampi, B.V.; Narayana, D.; Nandigama, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a relational approach to the study of poverty (Mosse, 2010), and uses this to critically evaluate state strategies for identifying and alleviating poverty in Kerala, India. It traces these from national planning documents through to their point of implementation, drawing on

  6. ICT Strategies of Democratic Intermediaries : A View on the Political System in the Digital Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Edwards (Arthur)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA conceptual framework is proposed for discussing the ICT strategies of intermediaries and their effects on democratic intermediation. The main line of reasoning is that both ‘disintermediation’ and ‘re-intermediation’ have to be related to specific models of democracy and styles of

  7. Identifying mismatches between institutional perceptions of water-related risk drivers and water management strategies in three river basin areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.

  8. Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries L. T. Hegger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available European countries face increasing flood risks because of urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM, including flood risk prevention (through proactive spatial planning, flood defense, flood risk mitigation, flood preparation, and flood recovery, makes countries more flood resilient. Although this thesis is plausible, it should still be empirically scrutinized. We aim to do this. Drawing on existing literature we operationalize the notion of "flood resilience" into three capacities: capacity to resist; capacity to absorb and recover; and capacity to transform and adapt. Based on findings from the EU FP7 project STAR-FLOOD, we explore the degree of diversification of FRM strategies and related flood risk governance arrangements at the national level in Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden, as well as these countries' achievement in terms of the three capacities. We found that the Netherlands and to a lesser extent Belgium have a strong capacity to resist, France a strong capacity to absorb and recover, and especially England a high capacity to transform and adapt. Having a diverse portfolio of FRM strategies in place may be conducive to high achievements related to the capacities to absorb/recover and to transform and adapt. Hence, we conclude that diversification of FRM strategies contributes to resilience. However, the diversification thesis should be nuanced in the sense that there are different ways to be resilient. First, the three capacities imply different rationales and normative starting points for flood risk governance, the choice between which is inherently political. Second, we found trade-offs between the three capacities, e.g., being resistant seems to lower the possibility to be absorbent. Third, to explain countries' achievements in terms of

  9. Communicating about risk: strategies for situations where public concern is high but the risk is low

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hooker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we summarise research that identifies best practice for communicating about hazards where the risk is low but public concern is high. We apply Peter Sandman’s ‘risk = hazard + outrage’ formulation to these risks, and review factors associated with the amplification of risk signals. We discuss the structures that determine the success of risk communication strategies, such as the capacity for early communication to ‘capture’ the dominant representation of risk issues, the importance of communicating uncertainty, and the usefulness of engaging with communities. We argue that, when facing trade-offs in probable outcomes from communication, it is always best to choose strategies that maintain or build trust, even at the cost of initial overreactions. We discuss these features of successful risk communication in relation to a range of specific examples, particularly opposition to community water fluoridation, Ebola, and routine childhood immunisation.

  10. "On lies, secrets, and silence": the politics of evidence and interpretive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Debates about identifying and naming lesbians in history and how to characterize relationships between women in earlier historical contexts have been passionately contested since publication of Carroll Smith-Rosenberg's (1975) essay "The Female World of Love and Ritual." Spurred by Adrienne Rich's influential concept of a lesbian continuum and more recent gender-crossings in Queer and Trans-theory, charting the ambiguous spaces of desire is a highly charged political act. Together, these debates pose significant challenges for feminist historians researching women whose lives disrupted any neat correspondence between sex, gender, and sexuality. This article traverses these issues in relation to Amy Bock, infamous as a criminal confidence artist and cross-dresser at the turn of the twentieth century and claimed in recent times as lesbian. Amy herself pleaded an inherited mental instability; the authorities at the time agreed she was a habitual criminal. Mad, bad, or lesbian? Or was she simply unconventional in her gender and sexuality? It is argued that how we approach these questions potentially tells us more about the desires of the researcher than those of our subjects.

  11. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Coffey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  12. Brazil’s Soft-Power Strategy: The Political Aspirations of South–South Development Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bry, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    of its cooperation agency and guided it towards sectors and targets that contribute to the creation of positive outcomes. This article contributes to the debate on the state’s behavior in soft power, that is, the ‘behavior’ of the Brazilian government in the design of its cooperation agency’s activities......By trading upon the principles of South-South cooperation, Brazil is widely viewed as having gained a positive image worldwide. Brazil’s South-South development cooperation was one of the foreign policy instruments it used to raise this profile. However, studies of the generation of soft power...... are still lacking in the international relations literature,and where empirical research exists it focuses more on the results of soft power strategies than on how soft power is created. Therefore,this article explores how Brazil’s soft power strategy is conceptualized in Brazil’s development cooperation...

  13. Brazil’s Soft-Power Strategy: The Political Aspirations of South–South Development Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bry, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    By trading upon the principles of South-South cooperation, Brazil is widely viewed as having gained a positive image worldwide. Brazil’s South-South development cooperation was one of the foreign policy instruments it used to raise this profile. However, studies of the generation of soft power...... are still lacking in the international relations literature,and where empirical research exists it focuses more on the results of soft power strategies than on how soft power is created. Therefore,this article explores how Brazil’s soft power strategy is conceptualized in Brazil’s development cooperation...... of its cooperation agency and guided it towards sectors and targets that contribute to the creation of positive outcomes. This article contributes to the debate on the state’s behavior in soft power, that is, the ‘behavior’ of the Brazilian government in the design of its cooperation agency’s activities...

  14. Strategies for risk management using the paper markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annesley, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the significant milestones in the evolution of the oil markets, with emphasis on the reasons for the changing structures of the markets, and the roles of different types of participant. After explaining the current structure of the oil markets - futures - forwards - options and derivatives the paper then explains some basic strategies. Finally some of the favourite strategies of refiners, producers and end users will be explored. Some cautionary comments on deal tracking, control systems and other associated risk management requirements will round off this paper. (author)

  15. Winning strategies of political campaigns in hybrid electoral spaces. Case study – Iasi County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Marius Tompea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our material introduces the concept of hybrid electoral area, as a distinct electoral entity set up by special territorial and administrative processes. We analyze specific cases of such spaces in Iasi and we see how the winning electoral strategies have been configured here. We provide examples of campaign activities and actions which ensured the candidates’ success by simultaneously targeting both the electoral sub-spaces and the community seen as whole.

  16. Towards an Ecological Civilization: A Gramscian Strategy for a New Political Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Ahearne

    2013-01-01

    While much work has been done theorising the concept of an ecological civilization, the actual transition to an ecological civilization is another matter. One possible strategy for transforming our world from a death-rattle industrial civilization to a life affirming ecological civilization may be found in the later work of Antonio Gramsci. It is argued that as Gramsci became increasingly disillusioned with Soviet communism, and diagnosed its failure as due to the way opposition movements ten...

  17. Aiming for Social or Political Robustness? Media Strategies Among Climate Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Tøsse, Sunniva Eikeland

    2013-01-01

    This study examines climate scientists’ views on media science communication and their strategies for dealing with journalists and climate deniers. Drawing on scholarly calls for openness and public engagement, particularly the concept of “socially robust knowledge,” this article discusses how climate scientists weigh concerns of control, openness, and transparency when considering how to best communicate with the public through the mass media. The author argues that “socially robust knowledg...

  18. Farmers risk perception and risk management strategies in an emerging mussel aquaculture industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Roth, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to provide empirical insight into how the mussel farmers perceive and manage risks. The results show that future price and demand of mussel are the high ranked perceived risk. Bad weather, oxygen depletion, harmful algal blooms, E-coli, change in governmental...... regulation and public view towards mussel culture are also considered important risk factors in mussel farming. On the other hand, produced at lowest possible cost, cooperative marketing, good relation with government, prioritize liquidity, adopt new technology and experience sharing are perceived most...... important risk management strategies. When developing and changing policies for farmers’ reliability and for the long-term sustainability of mussel aquaculture, policy-makers should consider those risks and risk management strategies which have been emphasized by the farmers....

  19. Induced seismicity and carbon storage: Risk assessment and mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Joshua A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foxall, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bachmann, Corinne [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chiaramonte, Laura [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Daley, Thomas M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is widely recognized as an important strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Like all technologies, however, sequestration projects create a number of potential environmental and safety hazards that must be addressed. These include earthquakes—from microseismicity to large, damaging events—that can be triggered by altering pore-pressure conditions in the subsurface. To date, measured seismicity due to CO2 injection has been limited to a few modest events, but the hazard exists and must be considered. There are important similarities between CO2 injection and fluid injection from other applications that have induced significant events—e.g. geothermal systems, waste-fluid injection, hydrocarbon extraction, and others. There are also important distinctions among these technologies that should be considered in a discussion of seismic hazard. This report focuses on strategies for assessing and mitigating risk during each phase of a CO2 storage project. Four key risks related to fault reactivation and induced seismicity were considered. Induced slip on faults could potentially lead to: (1) infrastructure damage, (2) a public nuisance, (3) brine-contaminated drinking water, and (4) CO2-contaminated drinking water. These scenarios lead to different types of damage—to property, to drinking water quality, or to the public welfare. Given these four risks, this report focuses on strategies for assessing (and altering) their likelihoods of occurrence and the damage that may result. This report begins with an overview of the basic physical mechanisms behind induced seismicity. This science basis—and its gaps—is crucial because it forms the foundation for risk assessment and mitigation. Available techniques for characterizing and monitoring seismic behavior are also described. Again, this technical basis—and its limitations—must be factored into the risk

  20. Illness Among Paralympic Athletes: Epidemiology, Risk Markers, and Preventative Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Dina Christina; Schwellnus, Martin; Derman, Wayne; Webborn, Nick

    2018-05-01

    Paralympic athletes have unique preexisting medical conditions that predispose them to increased risk of illness, but data are limited to studies conducted during the last 3 Paralympic Games. This article reviews the epidemiology of illness (risk, patterns, and predictors) in Paralympic athletes and provides practical guidelines for illness prevention. The incidence rate of illness (per 1000 athlete-days) in Paralympic athletes is high in Summer (10.0-13.2) and Winter (18.7) Paralympic Games. The authors propose general and specific guidelines on preventative strategies regarding illness in these athletes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Capital Structure, Environmental Dynamism, Innovation Strategy, and Strategic Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Andersen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Previous research found that capital structure affects performance when it is adapted to the level of environmental dynamism and pursuit of an innovation strategy. The current study reproduces some of these relationships in a more recent dataset but also identifies significant nuances across...... industrial environments. Analyses of a large cross sectional sample and various industry sub-samples suggest that other factors have influenced capital structure effects in recent years including flexibilities in multinational organization and effective strategic risk management capabilities....

  2. Advances in Risk Classification and Treatment Strategies for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Navin R.; Applebaum, Mark A.; Volchenboum, Samuel L.; Matthay, Katherine K.; London, Wendy B.; Ambros, Peter F.; Nakagawara, Akira; Berthold, Frank; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Park, Julie R.; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Pearson, Andrew D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Risk-based treatment approaches for neuroblastoma have been ongoing for decades. However, the criteria used to define risk in various institutional and cooperative groups were disparate, limiting the ability to compare clinical trial results. To mitigate this problem and enhance collaborative research, homogenous pretreatment patient cohorts have been defined by the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group classification system. During the past 30 years, increasingly intensive, multimodality approaches have been developed to treat patients who are classified as high risk, whereas patients with low- or intermediate-risk neuroblastoma have received reduced therapy. This treatment approach has resulted in improved outcome, although survival for high-risk patients remains poor, emphasizing the need for more effective treatments. Increased knowledge regarding the biology and genetic basis of neuroblastoma has led to the discovery of druggable targets and promising, new therapeutic approaches. Collaborative efforts of institutions and international cooperative groups have led to advances in our understanding of neuroblastoma biology, refinements in risk classification, and stratified treatment strategies, resulting in improved outcome. International collaboration will be even more critical when evaluating therapies designed to treat small cohorts of patients with rare actionable mutations. PMID:26304901

  3. PORTFOLIO INSURANCE INVESTMENT STRATEGIES: A RISK-MANAGEMENT TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Agic-Sabeta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsystemic risks in financial markets may be reduced through diversification. Systemic risks relate to the overall economy, cannot be influenced by a single company, and require special attention. Empirical research on return distributions in the long-term shows that investing under the assumption of normal distribution of returns may be dangerous. The main objectives of this article are to describe portfolio insurance strategies and investigate their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, their use in financial markets in both developed and emerging markets is explored, with special consideration placed on southeast European markets. Theoretical models are reviewed, including recent research articles in the field. The results are analyzed, summarized, and presented in the form of tables and graphs. The main finding of the article is identification of strategies that could be used in southeast Europe. It concludes that implementation of portfolio insurance strategies by asset managers may reduce financial risks in southeast European markets if implementation is done professionally and, simultaneously, it is monitored during the entire investment horizon.

  4. The contracting risks of nuclear power engineering and the risk management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shuying

    2010-01-01

    With the trend of professional operation on the nuclear power engineering (thereafter using NPE for short) construction, the companies specialized on NPE whole-contracting are established one after the other, the mode of NPE whole-contracting has been wide adopted domestically. As people always concern for the safety of nuclear power, the risks exposed to NPE contractors are also concerned with the operator, the NPE corporations and the society. Therefore, it is very meaningful to analyze on the risks exposed to NPE contractors and the strategies they should take, for it not only determines whether the NPE construction will be finished on time, but also related to sustainable development of the NPE contracting corporations. The main content of this paper includes the analysis on the features and advantages of NPE whole contracting, the major NPE contracting risks, such as nuclear safety risks, strategic risks, market risks, legal risks, financial risks and operation risks, and the strategies to prevent or to control these risks. The paper focuses on identifying those business processes which risks may frequently take place, and how to manage them, illustrating practice cases to explain the theory, in order to make reference to NPE corporations. (author)

  5. Politics and strategies for radioactive waste management: current situation and perspective for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Eliana; Cruz, Paulo Ferruz; Gonzalez, Abel; Telleria, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In some countries of the Latin America Region, policy and national strategy are well established and documented, while in others there is not an explicit formal declaration, although they may be implicit in the content of the laws, regulations and existing guides; but they are not consolidated in a single document, making it difficult to put into practice by the Government institutions, the organisms responsible for the regulation and those responsible for the safe management of waste. For practical reasons, the work concentrates the situation in the Region with the waste from medical, industrial practices, research and production, which generate a common problem in the region. This document also contains some recommendations to improve the situation in this topic in the Region

  6. Towards an Ecological Civilization: A Gramscian Strategy for a New Political Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Ahearne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While much work has been done theorising the concept of an ecological civilization, the actual transition to an ecological civilization is another matter. One possible strategy for transforming our world from a death-rattle industrial civilization to a life affirming ecological civilization may be found in the later work of Antonio Gramsci. It is argued that as Gramsci became increasingly disillusioned with Soviet communism, and diagnosed its failure as due to the way opposition movements tend to mirror the ways of thinking, practices and organization of those they are opposing. To avoid this tendency, Gramsci called not for a ‘counter-hegemony’, but an alternative hegemony based on a different conception of the world. The notion of ‘ecological civilization’ could provide this, offering the foundation for the moral leadership required in a war of position to genuinely overcome and replace existing socio-economic forms.

  7. National and transnational strategies of LGBT civil society organizations in different political environments : Modes of interaction in Western and Eastern Europe for equality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    This article focuses on the national and transnational strategies of five European Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender civil society organizations (CSOs) pressing for equality and non-discrimination. We present three modes of interaction between CSOs and their political environment. The first

  8. Emotion regulation strategies and childhood obesity in high risk preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Olivera, Yadira A; Hill, Rachael A; Beck, Ashley D; Hopwood, Veronica; Garcia, Karina Silva; Ramos, Guadalupe G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2016-12-01

    The current study examined the relationships between the specific strategies that preschool children use to regulate their emotions and childhood weight status to see if emotion regulation strategies would predict childhood weight status over and above measures of eating self-regulation. 185 4- to 5-year-old Latino children were recruited through Head Start centers in a large city in the southeastern U.S. Children completed both a delay of gratification task (emotion regulation) and an eating in the absence of hunger task (eating regulation). Eating regulation also was assessed by maternal reports. Four emotion regulation strategies were examined in the delay of gratification task: shut out stimuli, prevent movement, distraction, and attention to reward. Hierarchical linear regressions predicting children's weight status showed that both measures of eating regulation negatively predicted child obesity, and the use of prevent movement negatively predicted child obesity. Total wait time during the delay of gratification tasks was not a significant predictor. The current findings are consistent with studies showing that for preschool children, summary measures of emotion regulation (e.g., wait time) are not concurrently associated with child obesity. In contrast, the use of emotion regulation strategies was a significant predictor of lower child weight status. These findings help identify emotion regulation strategies that prevention programs can target for helping children regulate their emotions and decrease their obesity risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Collision risk analysis based train collision early warning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Hui; Cai, Bai-Gen; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    A Train Collision Early Warning System (TCEWS) has been developed for collision avoidance. However, there are few studies regarding how to evaluate the collision risk and provide an early warning concerning a preceding train on the railway. In this paper, we have found that the time for collision avoidance is constrained by the timing of events, such as wireless communication latency, driver reaction, safety protection distance and deceleration rate. Considering these timing components, the time to avoid a collision is calculated accurately. To evaluate the potential collision severity when the following train approaches, the collision risk is defined based on the time to avoid a collision. The train collision early warning signal is divided into a four-tier color-coded system based on the collision risk, with red representing the most severe collision risk, followed by orange, yellow and blue. A field test of the train collision early warning strategy on the Hankou-Yichang Railway is analysed. It is demonstrated that the strategy has sufficient capability to indicate a potential collision and warn the following train. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Farmers' motivations, risk perceptions and risk management strategies in a developing economy: Bangladesh experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    of their business. However, they did not consider market monitoring, direct contract with processors and improved marketing facilities as important risk management strategies, although these factors play a significant role in reducing the influence of intermediaries and private money lenders.......Aquaculture farmers' risk perceptions and risk management strategies have still received little attention in agricultural research. Therefore, an exploratory study has been undertaken to provide empirical insight into Bangladeshi coastal shrimp farmers' risk perceptions and risk management...... responses. Data from our study show that 95% of farmers have no formal training in shrimp aquaculture. Shrimp farmers' cooperative societies operate in only 13.3% of the studied areas and only 15% of shrimp farmers are involved with these cooperative societies. The results reveal that shrimp diseases, price...

  11. The impact of managerial political ties on cost of debt and institutional risk exposure: evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Liedong, Tahiru Azaaviele

    2016-01-01

    This thesis integrates social capital and institutional theories with corporate governance insights to explore the impact of managerial political ties on access to finance, cost of debt and institutional risk exposure. Drawing on an extensive and rigorous assessment of the literature, using a unique set of survey data from 179 firms operating in Ghana, and employing robust analytical techniques, this thesis comprises three interrelated empirical studies which make significant contributions to...

  12. TRANSFORMATION OF LUDRUK PERFORMANCES: FROM POLITICAL INVOLVEMENT AND STATE HEGEMONY TO CREATIVE SURVIVAL STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikwan Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the transformation of ludruk performances, from Soekarno to Reformation era. In discussing the problem, we apply a cultural studies perspective. From our analysis, there are three findings related to the discursive transformation of ludruk stories. Firstly, in the era of Soekarno, many ludruk groups joined Lembaga Kebudayaan Rakyat (Lekra/Institute of People’s Culture, which had many ideological similarities with Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI/ Indonesian Communist Party. Consequently, ludruk groups performed some provocative stories that exposed the problems of lower-class people and criticized Islamic religious beliefs. Secondly, after the bloody 1965 tragedy, the regional military apparatuses controlled ludruk groups and their performances, including the stories. In this era, ludruk stories supported the New Order regime’s national development programs and raised people’s consensus on the significance of militarism through popular stories about people’s resistance to colonizers. Thirdly, in the Reformation era, some ludruk groups make newer, interesting stories about many complicated social problems in contemporary society. Finally, we conclude that this mode of transformation through creating newer, social problem-based stories that intertwine with historical conditions has deep historical roots in ludruk performances. In addition, during the Reformation period in whichmarket capitalism becomes a dominant ideology and practice, such newer stories and breakthroughs of staging may become a suitable creative survival strategy for ludruk groups in the midst of techno-cultural popularity as the dominant taste and orientation in societies.

  13. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W.

    2015-01-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  14. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts...... by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter...

  15. Coopetition as Support Strategy for Supply Chain Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista de Camargo Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As supply chain management research and its adoption advance, new challenges are imposed for researchers and managers. Accordingly, the supply chain risk management (SCRM has been a prominent field because it suggests strategies and action plans to mitigate these risks. On the other hand, it is observed that the coopetition concept advocates that two competing organizations can work together in some activities in the form of a strategic alliance, contributing to achieve maximum efficiency. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to propose the extension of this concept into the activities of SCRM, treating coopetition as an action that can be added to the risk management efforts in order to make supply chains more resilient. Thus, through an exploratory literature search that uses secondary data, we drawn two propositions that deal with the possibility of adding a coopetitor to reduce risks in supply chains and on the feasibility of balanced coopetition changes the profile of a supply chain to a resilient model. Although these propositions require further empirical verification, it is believed that this is a good start for discussions about the benefits and competitive advantages that the adoption of coopetition in risk management activities in supply chains can bring to organizations.

  16. POLITENESS STRATEGIES AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR CHARACTERIZATION: A CASE STUDY ON INDONESIAN WEBTOON MY PRE-WEDDING AND ITS ENGLISH VERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikke Dewi Pratama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of information technology, webtoon has transformed into an incredible breakthrough in popular literature. Line Webtoon, one of the most influential webtoon developer, also creates ―webtoon translate‖ and ―fans translation‖ features providing readers with translated webcomics so that the works can be more accessible, in terms of languages, for its readers. My Pre-wedding is one of the most popular Indonesian webtoons that has been translated into fourteen languages. This study is a qualitative research focusing on the Indonesian and English versions of My Pre-wedding webtoon. Using pragmatic approach emphasizing on politeness strategies as proposed by Brown and Levinson, this research analyzes the speeches of the main character, Adelia, that contain politeness strategies. The shift occurs from positive politeness to bald on record due to the omission of in-group identity markers, especially in the forms of greetings that deal with cultural values. Furthermore, there is also omission on the politeness sub-strategy which employs cultural in-group identity markers. These two findings indicate that the translators do not convey the cultural value of the source text in the target text. Consequently, it leads to different characterizations of Adelia: from a girl who positions herself as ―younger sister‖ to her surrounding into a casual girl who puts herself in a parallel position to others.

  17. Reflecting Societal Values in Designing Flood Risk Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamson Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Office of Public Works (OPW began the National Catchment-based Flood Risk Assessment and Management (CFRAM Programme through a series of pilot studies. A Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA Framework was developed through the pilot studies that integrated a number of objectives related to a wide range of potential impacts and benefits into the core of process of appraising and selecting suitable flood risk management measures for a given area or location, and then for prioritising national investments for different schemes and projects. This MCA Framework, that provides a systematic process of developing a non-monetised but numerical indicator of benefit and impact, has since been implemented nationally in the preparation of the Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs. A key feature of the MCA is that it should represent societal values. To this end, nationally representative quantitative research was undertaken to determine global weights that reflect the perceived importance of each of the objectives for reducing economic, social and environmental / cultural risks in flood management strategies. Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, in conjunction with a pair-wise comparison of criteria relating to these risks, was utilised to determine weights. In excess of 1,000 structured interviews were completed where the relative importance of these objectives were assessed using a seven-point scale. The weighting given to each of the 13 specific objectives identified broadly followed expectations, with risk to people followed by risk to homes and properties being respectively the first and second most important, although some were given greater or less weighting than expected. The national application of the MCA Framework, using the weighted objectives based on this process, through the CFRAM Programme has generally lead to the identification of appropriate and, based on local consultation, acceptable options for each community.

  18. ‘Pray for the fatherland!’ Discursive and digital strategies at play in nationalist political blogging.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Katarina; Sakki, Inari

    2017-01-01

    Political blogs have come to constitute important channels for expressing nationalist and anti-immigration political views. The new forms that this rhetoric may take, comprising an intricate intermingling of verbal, digital, (audio-)visual, and communicative elements, present challenges for qualitative research. In this article we propose a way for analysing this new" nationalist political discourse from a qualitative social psychological perspective. The suggested approach combines analytica...

  19. A nutritional strategy for reducing disease and obesity risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Petroni, Paolo; Rodio, Giuseppe; Pina, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are the most common nutritional disorders in our age and are becoming more and more common worldwide. The most harmful consequences of an incorrect diet leading to overweight or obesity are a series of cardio-vascular diseases often leading to disability and death. In recent years various studies have shown that a reduction in caloric intake is the main factor involved in reduction of pathology risk. In this article, a nutrition strategy, based on the Zone diet by US biochemist Dr. Barry Sears is proposed. It underlines the importance of choosing certain types of foods over others, their beneficial physiological effects on the human body and how they can reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer.

  20. The Risk-Stratified Osteoporosis Strategy Evaluation study (ROSE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Holmberg, Teresa; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    2015-01-01

    The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE) is a randomized prospective population-based study investigating the effectiveness of a two-step screening program for osteoporosis in women. This paper reports the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population....... 35,000 women aged 65-80 years were selected at random from the population in the Region of Southern Denmark and-before inclusion-randomized to either a screening group or a control group. As first step, a self-administered questionnaire regarding risk factors for osteoporosis based on FRAX......(®) was issued to both groups. As second step, subjects in the screening group with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures ≥15 % were offered a DXA scan. Patients diagnosed with osteoporosis from the DXA scan were advised to see their GP and discuss pharmaceutical treatment according to Danish...

  1. Smoking and (Not) Voting: The Negative Relationship Between a Health-Risk Behavior and Political Participation in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Karen; Hood, Nancy; Ma, Ming; Levinson, Arnold H

    2016-03-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that cigarette smokers are an increasingly marginalized population, involved in fewer organizations and activities and with less interpersonal trust than their nonsmoking counterparts. However, only two previous studies, both among Swedish populations, have investigated smokers' attitudes toward political systems and institutions. The current, cross-sectional study examines smoking in relation to voting, a direct behavioral measure of civic and political engagement that at least partly reflects trust in formal political institutions. Secondary analyses were conducted of interview data from 11 626 respondents in the Colorado Tobacco Attitudes and Behaviors Survey. Data were collected via telephone between October 2005 and mid-April 2006 and included respondents' reported voting behavior in the 2004 national election; the participation rate was 89.7%. Balanced multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between smoking and voting while controlling for other covariates known to be associated with both variables. In the final model, daily smokers were less than half as likely as nonsmokers to report having voted in the election. The results suggest possible consonance with previous work linking smoking with political mistrust. Possible causal mechanisms are discussed. This study is the first to link a health-risk behavior with electoral participation, and provides initial evidence that smoking is negatively associated with political participation. Future research should investigate how public health might enhance tobacco control efforts by taking nonvoting behavior into consideration, or creatively combining smoking cessation interventions with voter registration and other civic engagement work, particularly among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is

  2. The European carbon market (2005-2007): banking, pricing and risk hedging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, J.

    2008-11-01

    This thesis investigates the market rules of the European carbon market (EU ETS) during 2005-2007. We provide theoretical and empirical analyses of banking and borrowing provisions, price drivers and risk hedging strategies attached to tradable quotas, which were introduced to cover the CO 2 emissions of around 10,600 installations in Europe. In Chapter 1, we outline the economic and environmental effects of banking and borrowing on tradable permits markets. More specifically, we examine the banking and borrowing provisions adopted in the EU ETS, and the effects of banning banking between Phases I and II on CO 2 price changes. We show statistically that the low levels of CO 2 prices recorded until the end of Phase I may be explained by the restriction on the inter-period transfer of allowances, besides the main explanations that were identified by market observers. In Chapter 2, we identify the carbon price drivers since the launch of the EU ETS on January 1, 2005. We emphasize the central role played by the 2005 yearly compliance event imposed by the European Commission in revealing the net short/long position at the installation level in terms of allowances allocated with respect to verified emissions. The main result of this study features that price drivers of CO 2 allowances linked to energy market prices and unanticipated weather events vary around institutional events. Moreover, we show the influence of the variation of industrial production in three sectors covered by the EU ETS on CO 2 price changes by applying a disentangling analysis, that has also been extended at the country-level. In Chapter 3, we focus on the risk hedging strategies linked to holding CO 2 allowances. By using a methodology applied on stock markets, we recover the changes in investors' average risk aversion. This study shows that, during the time period considered, risk aversion has been higher on the carbon market than on the stock market, and that the risk is linked to an increasing

  3. Complications of thoracentesis: incidence, risk factors, and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Eric P; Walter, James M; Corbridge, Thomas; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

    2016-07-01

    Although thoracentesis is generally considered safe, procedural complications are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. In this article, we review the risk factors and prevention of the most common complications of thoracentesis including pneumothorax, bleeding (chest wall hematoma and hemothorax), and re-expansion pulmonary edema. Recent data support the importance of operator expertise and the use of ultrasound in reducing the risk of iatrogenic pneumothorax. Although coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia and the use of anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications have traditionally been viewed as contraindications to thoracentesis, new evidence suggests that patients may be able to safely undergo thoracentesis without treating their bleeding risk. Re-expansion pulmonary edema, a rare complication of thoracentesis, is felt to result in part from the generation of excessively negative pleural pressure. When and how to monitor changes in pleural pressure during thoracentesis remains a focus of ongoing study. Major complications of thoracentesis are uncommon. Clinician awareness of risk factors for procedural complications and familiarity with strategies that improve outcomes are essential components for safely performing thoracentesis.

  4. Landslide risk reduction strategies: an inventory for the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Liesbet; Poesen, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Landslides constitute a serious problem globally. Moreover, landslide impact remains underestimated especially in the Global South. It is precisely there where the largest impact is experienced. An overview of measures taken to reduce risk of landslides in the Global South is however still lacking. Because in many countries of the Global South disaster risk reduction (DRR) is at an emerging stage, it is crucial to monitor the ongoing efforts (e.g. discussions on the Post-2015 Framework for DRR). The first objective of this study is to make an inventory of techniques and strategies that are applied to reduce risk from landslides in tropical countries. The second objective is to investigate what are the main bottlenecks for implementation of DRR strategies. In order to achieve these objectives, a review of both scientific and grey literature was conducted, supplemented with expert knowledge. The compilation of recommended and implemented DRR measures from landslide-prone tropical countries is based on an adapted classification proposed by the SafeLand project. According to Vaciago (2013), landslide risk can be reduced by either reducing the hazard, the vulnerability, the number or value of elements at risk or by sharing the residual risk. In addition, these measures can be combined with education and/or awareness raising and are influenced by governance structures and cultural beliefs. Global landslide datasets have been used to identify landslide-prone countries, augmented with region-specific datasets. Countries located in the tropics were selected in order to include landslide-prone countries with a different Human Development Index (HDI) but with a similar climate. Preliminary results support the statement made by Anderson (2013) that although the importance of shifting from post-disaster emergency actions to pre-disaster mitigation is acknowledged, in practice this paradigm shift seems rather limited. It is expected that this is especially the case in countries

  5. Energy strategy for averting a CO2-induced climatic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, W.

    1983-01-01

    Mankind is faced with a number of major world problems, amongst which the risk of a CO 2 -induced climatic change ranks very high. To cope effectively with this problem a safety strategy is proposed, namely to conduct vigorous research to narrow uncertainties in our knowledge, but, at the same time, to use the already available information to take precautionary measures. These include the more efficient use of energy, which reduces the demand for fossil fuels, which, in turn, saves the irreplaceable non-recombustion, and which futhermore permits the rapid deployment of pollution-free renewables, all of which leads to at least a lessening, if not altogether a prevention, of the CO 2 /climatic risk. Many of the world's problems are interrelated, notably the CO 2 and the acid hazards, in that they not only have the same common cause but also related effective control strategies. This and many other studies show that nuclear power is clearly unsuitable to solve these problems. Economics is the key to a solution showing that the cheapest and fastest energy sources are efficiency improvements, then renewables, and last, costliest and slowest, fossil fuel and nuclear fuel power plants. This finding does not guarantee the implementation of this rational energy policy. Institutional barriers and influential lobbies must also be overcome. (orig.)

  6. Income Diversification: A Strategy for Rural Region Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Wan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature shows that income diversification is an important strategy for rural households to manage drought risk in arid and semiarid regions. This article examines whether income diversification can help rural households to overcome the adverse impact of drought in Northern China. Based on field interview data from 291 rural households in 13 townships of Northern China, we found that rural households tend to have a more diversified portfolio of income; the spatial location of rural households determines the type and number of income sources, the degree of income diversification, and the income combinations, especially under the context of frequent drought strikes. These results indicate that income diversification could help rural households to reduce the adverse impact of drought, enhance their resistance and resilience to drought, and make their livelihood system more stable. Income diversification not only is a useful strategy in terms of managing disaster risk and improving social welfare, but also may offer a new perspective for the research of vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive ability of rural social-ecosystem.

  7. Multicultural Education in a Post-Race Political Age: Our Movement at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 elections ushered in a new era in U.S. politics with implications for race relations and social justice activity. Drawing parallels between the contemporary African American community and splintering undercurrents in the National Association for Multicultural Education (NAME), the author urges cross-generational coalescence around an…

  8. Political Learning by Social Engagement? Chances and Risks for Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohnig, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    More and more programs of citizenship education in Germany (and other countries) tend to advance democratic citizenship through social learning in communities. A strong emphasis is put on social engagement to get young people involved in politics as well as to teach them participation. A qualitative analysis of selected German social learning…

  9. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  10. Assessment of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies in Oncology: Summary of the Oncology Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, James N.; Jacobson, Joseph O.; Vogel, Wendy H.; Griffith, Niesha; Wariabharaj, Darshan; Garg, Rekha; Zon, Robin; Stephens, Cyntha L.; Bialecki, Alison M.; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Allen, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    To address oncology community stakeholder concerns regarding implementation of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) program, ASCO sponsored a workshop to gather REMS experiences from representatives of professional societies, patient organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stakeholder presentations and topical panel discussions addressed REMS program development, implementation processes, and practice experiences, as well as oncology drug safety processes. A draft REMS decision tool prepared by the ASCO REMS Steering Committee was presented for group discussion with facilitated, goal-oriented feedback. The workshop identified several unintended consequences resulting from current oncology REMS: (1) the release of personal health information to drug sponsors as a condition for gaining access to a needed drug; (2) risk information that is not tailored—and therefore not accessible—to all literacy levels; (3) exclusive focus on drug risk, thereby affecting patient-provider treatment discussion; (4) REMS elements that do not consider existing, widely practiced oncology safety standards, professional training, and experience; and (5) administrative burdens that divert the health care team from direct patient care activities and, in some cases, could limit patient access to important therapies. Increased provider and professional society participation should form the basis of ongoing and future REMS standardization discussions with the FDA to work toward overall improvement of risk communication. PMID:23814522

  11. Diagnosis and treatment strategies of thrombophilic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Albayrak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombophilia is defined as the general name for a group of genetic and acquired situations, arising from defects of hemostasis mechanism and generating tendency to thrombosis. Examples of the acquired risk factors that increase the tendency to thrombosis are venous catheters, sepsis, surgery, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart disease, increased lipoprotein a, old age, antiphospholipid syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, hyperviscosity, chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, heparin induced thrombocytopenia, vasculitis, immobility, obesity, major surgery, trauma, burns, malignancy, pregnancy and oral contraceptive usage. Genetic tendency to venous thromboembolism in early ages, even without any known cause, is named as thrombophilia. Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutations, factor VIII elevation, protein C, protein S and antithrombin deficiency parameters are suggested for evaluation, in patient groups suspected of inherited thrombophilia. Detection of inherited thrombophilic factors in selected patient groups is a guide in developing treatment strategies and in establishing prognosis. Due to the genetic heterogeneities, each society should determine their thrombophilic risk pool. Thus, with the determination of the risk factors, unnecessary assessments will be prevented and a cost-effective approach can be developed.

  12. RISK MANAGEMENT AND EXPERTISE: UK: Strategies for Precautionary Commercialization of GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levidow Les

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available As genetically modified (GM products approach the market stage, the UK government and agro-food industry have faced a suspicious or hostile public. Since 1998 many retail chains have undertaken to exclude any GM-derived ingredients from their own-brand lines. This commercial blockage has intensified pressures for greater precaution, even for a moratorium on cultivating GM crops. Political protest has led to strategies for precautionary commercialization. Government and industry have cooperated to plan a “managed development” of GM crops. Across the agricultural supply chain, industry has devised voluntary guidelines to ensure segregation of GM crops and to limit the spread of GM herbicide-tolerance. In particular UK regulators seek to test the risk that broad-spectrum herbicide sprays could damage wildlife habitats; they have broadened the advisory expertise accordingly. These measures open up the precautionary content to further debate, at both national and EU levels. Market-stage precautions establish a means to test claims that GM crops are environmentally-friendly products. By translating public concerns into broader risk-assessment criteria, the UK procedure involves critics in potentially influencing standards of scientific evidence and environmental harm. This social process has become a prerequisite for legitimizing commercial use.

  13. Communicating cardiovascular disease risk: an interview study of General Practitioners' use of absolute risk within tailored communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Carissa; Jansen, Jesse; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Doust, Jenny; Glasziou, Paul; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-05-29

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines encourage assessment of absolute CVD risk - the probability of a CVD event within a fixed time period, based on the most predictive risk factors. However, few General Practitioners (GPs) use absolute CVD risk consistently, and communication difficulties have been identified as a barrier to changing practice. This study aimed to explore GPs' descriptions of their CVD risk communication strategies, including the role of absolute risk. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 GPs in New South Wales, Australia. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded, using the Framework Analysis method to ensure rigour. GPs used absolute CVD risk within three different communication strategies: 'positive', 'scare tactic', and 'indirect'. A 'positive' strategy, which aimed to reassure and motivate, was used for patients with low risk, determination to change lifestyle, and some concern about CVD risk. Absolute risk was used to show how they could reduce risk. A 'scare tactic' strategy was used for patients with high risk, lack of motivation, and a dismissive attitude. Absolute risk was used to 'scare' them into taking action. An 'indirect' strategy, where CVD risk was not the main focus, was used for patients with low risk but some lifestyle risk factors, high anxiety, high resistance to change, or difficulty understanding probabilities. Non-quantitative absolute risk formats were found to be helpful in these situations. This study demonstrated how GPs use three different communication strategies to address the issue of CVD risk, depending on their perception of patient risk, motivation and anxiety. Absolute risk played a different role within each strategy. Providing GPs with alternative ways of explaining absolute risk, in order to achieve different communication aims, may improve their use of absolute CVD risk assessment in practice.

  14. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebchen, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts. [de

  15. Celebrating Risk: The Politics of Self-Branding, Transgression & Resistance in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLAKE POLAND

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Persons 'branded' as dangerous to the public's health often try to hide their status (as smokers, as HIV positive, etc. Yet, a small but growing subgroup has re-appropriated stigma symbols and voluntarily branded themselves as 'marked' individuals, rebellious, transgressive and refusing to be shamed by their status. In this article we examine voluntary branding as acts of resistance, paying particular attention to bodily practices that disrupt dominant aesthetic and moral/political sensibilities. We draw on our research and observations in the realms of smoking and bareback sex to illustrate and address broader issues of branding the self, aesthetics and the politics of resistance, surveillance, and transgression. Drawing on the work of Goffman, Bourdieu and Foucault, we examine the interpenetration of class, physical and social capital, and unequal social relations. While these works are often used to celebrate resistance, we argue, following Fiske, that it should not be romanticized as inherently liberating.

  16. Political journalism in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albæk, E.; van Dalen, A.; Jebril, N.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Political journalism is often under fire. Conventional wisdom and much scholarly research suggest that journalists are cynics and political pundits. Political news is void of substance and overly focused on strategy and persons. Citizens do not learn from the news, are politically cynical, and are

  17. THE POLITICAL APPROPRIATION OF THE TERRITORY. STRATEGIES OF POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND OF PEASANT RESISTANCE IN THE YARI PLAINS. LA APROPIACION POLITICA DEL TERRITORIO. ESTRATEGIAS DE PARTICIPACION POLÍTICA Y DE RESISTENCIA CAMPESINA EN LOS LLANOS DEL YARÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Andrea Ramírez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This current article shows the results of an investigation that dealt with the scenarios of political participation in the Yari Plains, a region inhabited by peasants from Communist tradition, with the historic presence of the FARC and where the State deploys the largest counterinsurgency strategy which has been moved forward in the history of the country since 2003. To such effect, our focus of attention is directed to the existing relationship between the conditions of the political exercise (understood as the construction of the sense of the political and the definition or participation in political scenarios per se with the history of the process of territorial appropriation. Such inspection has enabled us to establish that in this region, the platform of action of the community organization, is both its political and social platform, as its political-electoral scenario. We will delve deeply into these relationships from the narratives of peasant experiences, the social conditions in the region, and the acute war situation that people experience there. RESUMEN: En el siguiente artículo exponemos los resultados de una investigación que dio cuenta de los escenarios de participación política en los llanos del Yarí, una región habitada por campesinos de tradición comunista, con presencia histórica de las FARC y en donde el estado despliega desde 2003 la más grande estrategia contrainsurgente que se haya adelantado en la historia del país. Para tal efecto, nuestro foco de atención se orienta hacia la relación que existe entre las condiciones del ejercicio político (entendido como la construcción del sentido de lo político y la definición/participación en escenarios propios de la política con la historia del proceso de apropiación territorial. Tal inspección nos ha permitido establecer que en esta región la plataforma de acción de la organización comunitaria, constituye tanto su plataforma político-social, como su escenario

  18. Assessing surface water flood risk and management strategies under future climate change: Insights from an Agent-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, K; Surminski, S; Hall, J; Crick, F

    2017-10-01

    Climate change and increasing urbanization are projected to result in an increase in surface water flooding and consequential damages in the future. In this paper, we present insights from a novel Agent Based Model (ABM), applied to a London case study of surface water flood risk, designed to assess the interplay between different adaptation options; how risk reduction could be achieved by homeowners and government; and the role of flood insurance and the new flood insurance pool, Flood Re, in the context of climate change. The analysis highlights that while combined investment in property-level flood protection and sustainable urban drainage systems reduce surface water flood risk, the benefits can be outweighed by continued development in high risk areas and the effects of climate change. In our simulations, Flood Re is beneficial in its function to provide affordable insurance, even under climate change. However, the scheme does face increasing financial pressure due to rising surface water flood damages. If the intended transition to risk-based pricing is to take place then a determined and coordinated strategy will be needed to manage flood risk, which utilises insurance incentives, limits new development, and supports resilience measures. Our modelling approach and findings are highly relevant for the ongoing regulatory and political approval process for Flood Re as well as for wider discussions on the potential of insurance schemes to incentivise flood risk management and climate adaptation in the UK and internationally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulating genetically modified food. Policy trajectories, political culture, and risk perceptions in the U.S., Canada, and EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines whether national differences in political culture add an explanatory dimension to the formulation of policy in the area of biotechnology, especially with respect to genetically modified food. The analysis links the formulation of protective regulatory policies governing genetically modified food to both country and region-specific differences in uncertainty tolerance levels and risk perceptions in the United States, Canada, and European Union. Based on polling data and document analysis, the findings illustrate that these differences matter. Following a mostly opportunistic risk perception within an environment of high tolerance for uncertainty, policymakers in the United States and Canada modified existing regulatory frameworks that govern genetically modified food in their respective countries. In contrast, the mostly cautious perception of new food technologies and low tolerance for uncertainty among European Union member states has contributed to the creation of elaborate and stringent regulatory policies governing genetically modified food.

  20. Shadows on Israeli Gas Success Story: a Political and Geopolitical Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2015-12-01

    In Israel, both the regional geopolitical context and domestic politics play an important role in the development of the offshore gas fields. The country has been a forerunner in the discovery of the Eastern Mediterranean basin, thanks to the dedication of the private sector and the support of the State. Today, the entire region is under the spotlights for its energy potential, but the development of the gas resources in Israel still has to deal with internal challenges, related notably to the governance of the sector and the stabilization of the legislative framework to attract investments. (author)

  1. WHY THE SUDDEN CHANGE OF THE POLITICAL REGIME IS DETERMINING RISK IN ECONOMY AND SOCIETY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian MEHEDINTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors aim to gather an in-depth understanding of the evolution of manking throughout the history and its political regimes, and in the same time are analizing and determining the components of the social function that exercised a great influence on the stability and dynamics of the production and consumption, pointing out that any social organization that wants to remain rational should have as a primary objective the happiness of the people, that so called,“general happiness”, that could only be achieved through education, culture, raising people's moral and intellectual knowledge. Since any political system does not seek the general good, but the one of some persons or a specific group of people, there is only very little communion between them and the people or is entirely missing and for these reasons their reign won’t be long, because the people are always wanting a political change. This "social problem" occurred because of some significant social movements, socialist doctrines whose effects still persist in present times. The efforts of the profound thinkers and mankind throughout the history, with all the positive developments did not materialize in achieving a society in which wealth is equitably distributed, where the contributions of the people in getting them is equally shared that could satisfy the requirements and the needs of the majority members of the society. In all the transformations and society changes or the political regime of the state, the human being represented the base, with its unlimited evolution and thinking, and all of these were achieved in time and were given by a certain social environment. The human being can not be separated from its social environment. He is born to live in the society, but the freedom can not be unlimited of course. The history has shown that all the hasty attempts suffered the same fate and the only sustainable progress made by the people were those who came out

  2. 'If it makes you feel good it must be right': Embodiment strategies for healthy eating and risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, D. B.; Askegaard, S.; Jeppesen, Lene Hauge

    2013-01-01

    The following arguments are constructed around the encounter of embodied experiences and societal discourses. On the basis of an ethnographic study of 34 Danish consumers, we present different consumers' strategies in relation to their perception of healthy food and management of food-related hea......The following arguments are constructed around the encounter of embodied experiences and societal discourses. On the basis of an ethnographic study of 34 Danish consumers, we present different consumers' strategies in relation to their perception of healthy food and management of food......-related health risk. Drawing on a subsample representing particular subject positions in relation to healthy eating, we argue for an increased role of embodiment in consumers' risk handling. The study shows that because of the overload of information, consumers increasingly turn to personal experiences...... and bodily feelings as the instrument and strategy for evaluating possible health risk and benefit. Furthermore, the study shows how these evaluations are related to broader political and socio-economic issues as well as closely intertwined with notion of trust and mistrust. Through embodied feelings...

  3. Political Identitiy Of A Minority Group Study Of Noaulu State Community Survival Strategy In Sepa Central Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manaf Tubaka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has five objectives. Firstly why religion of Noaulu can survive in the Midst of social change Increasingly. Secondly how the relationship that has developed between Naulu Community and the government maintains Reviews their identity. Thirdly how the government treats the minority of Noaulu along with Reviews their existence. Fourthly how the factors of social culture and politics influence the sustainability of the political dynamic of Noaulu community in Sepa. Sixthly how the shared value that has been applied by Noaulu community and the political identity as addressing the political dynamic of the social structure of society. This study used a qualitative method with the approach of verstehen or understanding to dig the data is from inside inside view of values or meanings that comes from the subject of the study through the individuals and the phenomenon of political identity in Noaulu community. Data were gained through the observation depth interview and documentation. The analysis of data begins with making the abstraction Categorization coding checking the correctness of the data and then interpreting the data is and drawing the conclusion. Results of the study Showed that firstly the religion Becomes the adhesive strength of identity that Allows the sustainability of Noaulu Community. Secondly each of the minority community it will adapt Strategically to the power of the state in the relations of Resistance in compliance. Thirdly the New Order State has made the space plurality of race religion and ethnicity in the political stability that is rigid Thus it turns off the articulation space of religion and cultural identity of each minority group. Fourthly factors of social cultural political and give impact in the area of social relations culture and politics as well. Fifthly each of minority community always possess shared values such as high trust commitment to the religion loyaity to the group and the value of reciprocity

  4. The Success Of Stock Selection Strategies In Emerging Markets: Is It Risk Or Behavioral Bias?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Hart; G.J. de Zwart (Gerben); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe examine competing explanations, based on risk and behavioral models, for the profitability of stock selection strategies in emerging markets. We document that both emerging market risk and global risk factors cannot account for the significant excess returns of selection strategies

  5. Putting at risk what we know: reflecting on the drug-using subject in harm reduction and its political implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David; Fraser, Suzanne

    2006-06-01

    This paper provides a poststructuralist analysis of the cultural inscription of drug-using subjects in the neo-liberal discourses of contemporary harm reduction. We argue that although neo-liberal discourses downplay material constraints on individual human agency, divert policy and practice away from structural issues, limit the conception of effective strategies for harm reduction and ignore alternative formulations of the subject, they are also potentially empowering for drug users. Approximating the neo-liberal subject offers political benefits in terms of recognition, trust and legitimation, even as those values assume and reproduce understandings of behaviour, thought and sociality that fit only poorly the realities faced by many drug users. We explore this dilemma and consider three available directions in formulating the subject of harm reduction: (1) embracing the neo-liberal subject; (2) employing a more contextualised version of the neo-liberal subject; and (3) adopting alternative notions of subjectivity, extending the critique of the neo-liberal subject to all citizens, not solely drug users. To clarify some of these issues surrounding this strategic process, the paper considers another field in which struggles over the nature of the subject have been conducted--feminism. The intention is not to resolve the question of the most appropriate subject for harm reduction, but to sketch the political consequences of adopting particular models of the subject as a stimulus to further discussion and debate.

  6. Politics and scientific expertise: Scientists, risk perception, and nuclear waste policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barke, R.P.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    To study the homogeneity and influences on scientists' perspectives of environmental risks, the authors have examined similarities and differences in risk perceptions, particularly regarding nuclear wastes, and policy preferences among 1011 scientists and engineers. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the patterns of beliefs among scientists from different fields of research. In contrast to physicists, chemists, and engineers, life scientists tend to: (a) perceive the greatest risks from nuclear energy and nuclear waste management; (b) perceive higher levels of overall environmental risk; (c) strongly oppose imposing risks on unconsenting individuals; and (d) prefer stronger requirements for environmental management. On some issues related to priorities among public problems and calls for government action, there are significant variations among life scientists or physical scientists. It was also found that-independently of field of research-perceptions of risk and its correlates are significantly associated with the type of institution in which the scientist is employed. Scientists in universities or state and local governments tend to see the risks of nuclear energy and wastes as greater than scientists who work as business consultants, for federal organizations, or for private research laboratories. Significant differences also are found in priority given to environmental risks, the perceived proximity of environmental disaster, willingness to impose risks on an unconsenting population, and the necessity of accepting risks and sacrifices. 33 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Biological Risks to Public Health: Lessons from an International Conference to Inform the Development of National Risk Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Bhatiasevi, Aphaluck; Chaib, Fadela; Baggio, Ombretta; Banluta, Christina; Hollenweger, Lilian; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    Biological risk management in public health focuses on the impact of outbreaks on health, the economy, and other systems and on ensuring biosafety and biosecurity. To address this broad range of risks, the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005) request that all member states build defined core capacities, risk communication being one of them. While there is existing guidance on the communication process and on what health authorities need to consider to design risk communication strategies that meet the requirements on a governance level, little has been done on implementation because of a number of factors, including lack of resources (human, financial, and others) and systems to support effective and consistent capacity for risk communication. The international conference on "Risk communication strategies before, during and after public health emergencies" provided a platform to present current strategies, facilitate learning from recent outbreaks of infectious diseases, and discuss recommendations to inform risk communication strategy development. The discussion concluded with 4 key areas for improvement in risk communication: consider communication as a multidimensional process in risk communication, broaden the biomedical paradigm by integrating social science intelligence into epidemiologic risk assessments, strengthen multisectoral collaboration including with local organizations, and spearhead changes in organizations for better risk communication governance. National strategies should design risk communication to be proactive, participatory, and multisectoral, facilitating the connection between sectors and strengthening collaboration.

  8. THE POLITICS OF THE NATIONAL BANK OF ROMANIA TO DEAL WITH CREDITING RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vechiu Camelia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The market economy refers to the implicit presence of a banking system which could ensure the mobilization of all the monetary resources of the respective economy and their temporary orientation towards the development of efficient economic activities. A significant aspect of the bank performance refers to the measurement of risks with the aim to diminish them. If the bank management is poor and the risks are not taken into consideration, it will be possible that the earning capacity to be reduced and to lead even to the bankruptcy. Due to the fact that the banks are lending, they assume risks which are determined by the doubtful debtor (it appears the insolvency, or by the general economic evolution (which involves interest and exchange rate risks, or by the financial structure of the bank (financing long-term credits from short or sight deposits. The bank risk can be determined by external or internal factors of the bank due to the competitive environment. In the professional literature, the methodology used for the risk management involves several steps: the risk identification and analysis; the risk elimination and control; the risk assessment and assuming; the risk financing by debiting the general or specific reserves or by transfer which means the insurance of the bank company. For those banks operating in Romania, the risks are even more evident due to the hostile environment in which they operate, but also due to the specificity of the Romanian banking system which is still evolving and adapting to the competitive stringencies of the market economy. This paper is trying to follow the risk involvement towards the bank activity taking into account its importance and role in order to ensure the increase of the bank earning capacity.

  9. Inoculation in Political Campaign Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Burgoon, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Posits a strategy of resistance to the influence of attack messages in political campaigns. Finds that political campaign messages can be designed to inoculate supporters of candidates against subsequent attack messages of opposing candidates. (MS)

  10. Politics and Poetics of the Event: from silencing to a risk of voicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Regina Tognini Romaguera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our interest is to think of politics and poetics of images and words in writings traversed by the experiences (workshops, soirées, exhibitions... that have taken place in the extension and outreach project Reading and Creation Workshops with Words and Images developed by Fabulografias - ALB Center for Reading, throughout the years 2013 and 2014. How to extract the significance from words and photographs and make them vibrate, make them multiple? Launch the event in gatherings, thoughts and poetics and photographic compositions. One of the challenges of a plane of collective experimentation around the minority becoming, winds that blow in the meetings of the Collective Group Fabulografias. Among other things: doing away with the discursive orders and making life resonate from within a tense silence that drifts nearby. Compose an education that differs, blowing from within the potencies of art and the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze.

  11. Fire risk and adaptation strategies in Northern Eurasian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    On-going climatic changes substantially accelerate current fire regimes in Northern Eurasian ecosystems, particularly in forests. During 1998-2012, wildfires enveloped on average ~10.5 M ha year-1 in Russia with a large annual variation (between 3 and 30 M ha) and average direct carbon emissions at ~150 Tg C year-1. Catastrophic fires, which envelope large areas, spread in usually incombustible wetlands, escape from control and provide extraordinary negative impacts on ecosystems, biodiversity, economics, infrastructure, environment, and health of population, become a typical feature of the current fire regimes. There are new evidences of correlation between catastrophic fires and large-scale climatic anomalies at a continental scale. While current climatic predictions suggest the dramatic warming (at the average at 6-7 °C for the country and up to 10-12°C in some northern continental regions), any substantial increase of summer precipitation does not expected. Increase of dryness and instability of climate will impact fire risk and severity of consequences. Current models suggest a 2-3 fold increase of the number of fires by the end of this century in the boreal zone. They predict increases of the number of catastrophic fires; a significant increase in the intensity of fire and amount of consumed fuel; synergies between different types of disturbances (outbreaks of insects, unregulated anthropogenic impacts); acceleration of composition of the gas emissions due to enhanced soil burning. If boreal forests would become a typing element, the mass mortality of trees would increase fire risk and severity. Permafrost melting and subsequent change of hydrological regimes very likely will lead to the degradation and destruction of boreal forests, as well as to the widespread irreversible replacement of forests by other underproductive vegetation types. A significant feedback between warming and escalating fire regimes is very probable in Russia and particularly in the

  12. The Strategies in Dealing with Political Conflict in Syria: Study of Khalid Khalifah’s La Sakakin Fi Mathabikhi Hadzihil-Madinah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Budiman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel La Sakakin fi Mathabikhi hadzihil-Madinah (LSMHM is considered to have an intense ideological and political nuance for its narration on conflict. It is worth reading this novel to observe the measures chosen by the characters in dealing with existing conflict and its impacts. Sociological approach to literature is applied to reveal the strategy. The reading reveals that the characters in this novel have various strategies in dealing with conflict and related problems. Contending, yielding, problem solving, withdrawing, and inaction are the possible strategies. However, none of the characters choose yielding or problem solving. The existing preferences seem to be the writer’s outlook on that conflict. The conflict itself has been inflicting refuge, social manipulation, excision, and harassment.

  13. Should I be worried? Citizens’ experiences and the risk politics of cell site deployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    How do we deal with the risks of new technology? This research takes the mobile phone cell sites as case. The exponential growth of the wireless telecommunications network, materialized in the construction of cell sites, is raising concerns about its health risks for decades. Where do citizens’

  14. A practical approach to assess depression risk and to guide risk reduction strategies in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Alfonso, Helman; Pirkis, Jane; Kerse, Ngaire; Sim, Moira; Flicker, Leon; Snowdon, John; Draper, Brian; Byrne, Gerard; Goldney, Robert; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Stocks, Nigel; Scazufca, Marcia; Huisman, Martijn; Araya, Ricardo; Pfaff, Jon

    2011-03-01

    Many factors have been associated with the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms in later life, although this knowledge is yet to be translated into significant health gains for the population. This study gathered information about common modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for depression with the aim of developing a practical probabilistic model of depression that can be used to guide risk reduction strategies. A cross-sectional study was undertaken of 20,677 community-dwelling Australians aged 60 years or over in contact with their general practitioner during the preceding 12 months. Prevalent depression (minor or major) according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) assessment was the main outcome of interest. Other measured exposures included self-reported age, gender, education, loss of mother or father before age 15 years, physical or sexual abuse before age 15 years, marital status, financial stress, social support, smoking and alcohol use, physical activity, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and prevalent cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. The mean age of participants was 71.7 ± 7.6 years and 57.9% were women. Depression was present in 1665 (8.0%) of our subjects. Multivariate logistic regression showed depression was independently associated with age older than 75 years, childhood adverse experiences, adverse lifestyle practices (smoking, risk alcohol use, physical inactivity), intermediate health hazards (obesity, diabetes and hypertension), comorbid medical conditions (clinical history of coronary heart disease, stroke, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema or cancers), and social or financial strain. We stratified the exposures to build a matrix that showed that the probability of depression increased progressively with the accumulation of risk factors, from less than 3% for those with no adverse factors to more than 80% for people reporting the maximum number of risk factors. Our

  15. Emotional Intelligence as the Predictor of Pragmatic Competence: A Closer Look at Iranian EFL Learners' Politeness Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Masoumeh Ahmadi; Nadoushani, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2016-01-01

    Interlanguage pragmatics concerns the inspection of interactions among people in society while they are aware of the effects that interaction imposes on them regarding culture, social values and individuals' peculiar interpretations. Of high value in social interaction, politeness is an essential constituent of interlanguage pragmatics. If…

  16. Politics without Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    textabstractProf.dr. Jodi Dean, hoogleraar politieke filosofie aan Hobart and William Smith Colleges (Geneva, New York), sprak donderdag 19 februari 2009 haar inaugurele rede uit, getiteld "Politics without politics". Dean is dit jaar Erasmus Professor op de Erasmus Chair of Humanities in de Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte. De Erasmus Wisselleerstoel is ingesteld door de G. Ph. Verhagen Stichting. V In haar oratie gaat Dean in op het thema democratie in relatie tot linkse politiek. Enkele politiek...

  17. Putting politics first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  18. Withdrawing from Iraq: Alternative Schedules, Associated Risks, and Mitigating Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Powers, Office of Provincial Affairs Director Mr. Mike Dodman, Economic Counselor Mr. Michael Corbin , Political-Military Counselor Maj Gen (Ret.) William...Shiites Answer Sistani Call to Protest Bombing,” Khaleej Times (Dubai), February 23, 2006. Barkey, Henri J., “Kurdistandoff,” The National Interest, July...Logistics ROC Drill (Phase 1),” briefing, May 7, 2008. Henry , Ryan, “Memo on Op Plans,” undated. Hess, Pamela, “US: Quds, Hezbollah Training Militia in Iran

  19. Improving Fall Risk Factor Identification and Documentation of Risk Reduction Strategies by Rehabilitation Therapists through Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Michele J.

    2011-01-01

    This static group comparison study determined that an educational intervention was effective in increasing fall risk factor assessment, documentation of fall risk factors, and strategies devised to reduce fall risk factors by rehabilitation therapists for their older adult outpatients in clinics. Results showed that experimental group identified…

  20. Risk preferences, probability weighting, and strategy tradeoffs in wildfire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Hand; Matthew J. Wibbenmeyer; Dave Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires present a complex applied risk management environment, but relatively little attention has been paid to behavioral and cognitive responses to risk among public agency wildfire managers. This study investigates responses to risk, including probability weighting and risk aversion, in a wildfire management context using a survey-based experiment administered to...

  1. A functional assay-based strategy for nanomaterial risk forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendren, Christine Ogilvie, E-mail: christine.hendren@duke.edu [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Lowry, Gregory V., E-mail: glowry@andrew.cmu.edu [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Unrine, Jason M., E-mail: jason.unrine@uky.edu [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Agricultural Science Center, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States); Wiesner, Mark R., E-mail: wiesner@duke.edu [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, 121 Hudson Hall PO Box 90287, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The study of nanomaterial impacts on environment, health and safety (nanoEHS) has been largely predicated on the assumption that exposure and hazard can be predicted from physical–chemical properties of nanomaterials. This approach is rooted in the view that nanoöbjects essentially resemble chemicals with additional particle-based attributes that must be included among their intrinsic physical–chemical descriptors. With the exception of the trivial case of nanomaterials made from toxic or highly reactive materials, this approach has yielded few actionable guidelines for predicting nanomaterial risk. This article addresses inherent problems in structuring a nanoEHS research strategy based on the goal of predicting outcomes directly from nanomaterial properties, and proposes a framework for organizing data and designing integrated experiments based on functional assays (FAs). FAs are intermediary, semi-empirical measures of processes or functions within a specified system that bridge the gap between nanomaterial properties and potential outcomes in complex systems. The three components of a functional assay are standardized protocols for parameter determination and reporting, a theoretical context for parameter application and reference systems. We propose the identification and adoption of reference systems where FAs may be applied to provide parameter estimates for environmental fate and effects models, as well as benchmarks for comparing the results of FAs and experiments conducted in more complex and varied systems. Surface affinity and dissolution rate are identified as two critical FAs for characterizing nanomaterial behavior in a variety of important systems. The use of these FAs to predict bioaccumulation and toxicity for initial and aged nanomaterials is illustrated for the case of silver nanoparticles and Caenorhabditis elegans. - Highlights: • Approaches to predict risk directly from nanomaterial (NM) properties are problematic. • We propose

  2. POLAND IN AND OUTSIDE THE EURO ZONE – RISKS AND BENEFITS IN THE LIGHT OF NEW POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dobrowolski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the benefits and risks of Poland adopting the euro in the light of current political and economic conditions. For this purpose, the following research methods were used: literature research, intuitive method and descriptive statistics. Poland has fulfilled the criteria for nominal convergence for two years, apart from participating in the ERM II mechanism, but the political situation in the country precludes the adoption of measures leading to the euro zone. The future shape of this zone is yet unknown, as its closer integration is planned. Theoretical analysis indicates that the process of globalization makes it difficult for medium-sized, open-economy countries to pursue autonomous monetary and exchange rate policy, so the loss of these instruments after the adoption of the euro should not jeopardize long-term economic growth, even in the case of asymmetric shocks. The market mechanisms of restoring the balance and fiscal policy may then be used. The economy will also benefit from the elimination of transaction costs and exchange rate risks in the euro zone. The analysis shows that it is possible to use the opportunity for faster GDP growth associated with the adoption of the common currency if the right economic policy is pursued. Adopting the euro may also incur costs. For banks it can be the loss of foreign exchange earnings and commissions on FX hedge transactions. For the economy it can be the possibility of speculative bubbles, as a result of excessive consumption growth, caused by possibly too low interest rates. Expected benefits should, however, outweigh any losses.

  3. ‘Only a pawn in their game’: crime, risk and politics in the case of Robert Fardon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Hogg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 Robert Fardon was the first prisoner to be detained under the Dangerous Prisoners (Sexual Offenders Act 2003 (Qld, the first of the new generation preventive detention laws enacted in Australia and directed at keeping sex offenders in prison or under supervision beyond the expiry of their sentences where a court decides, on the basis of psychiatric assessments, that unconditional release would create an unacceptable risk to the community. A careful examination of Fardon’s case shows the extent to which the administration of the regime was from the outset governed by politics and political calculation rather than the logic of risk management and community protection. In 2003 Robert Fardon was the first person detained under the Dangerous Prisoners (Sexual Offenders Act 2003 (Qld (hereafter DPSOA, a newly enacted Queensland law aimed at the preventive detention of sex offenders. It was the first of a new generation of such laws introduced in Australia, now also in force in NSW, Western Australia and Victoria. The laws have been widely criticized by lawyers, academics and others (Keyzer and McSherry 2009; Edgely 2007. In this article I want to focus on the details of how the Queensland law was administered in Fardon’s case, he being perhaps the most well-known prisoner detained under such laws and certainly the longest held. It will show, I hope, that seemingly abstract rule of law principles invoked by other critics are not simply abstract: they afford a crucial practical safeguard against the corruption of criminal justice in which the ends both of community protection and of justice give way to opportunistic exploitation of ‘the mythic resonance of crime and punishment for electoral purposes’ (Scheingold 1998: 888.

  4. The Debate on the Risk of Genetically Modified Food: The Politics of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Gaivoronskaia, Galina; Solem, Knut Erik

    2000-01-01

    Scientific research on the use of genetic engineering in the production of new food is facing a difficult situation. Further development in this field is being impacted more and more by the debate on the risk of GM food, where consumers’ tools and the ability to influence decision-making are being enhanced. In Norway regulatory mechanisms have been introduced to address a wide range of GM-food risks, but at the same time have created certain obstacles for scientists and industry. Not yet usin...

  5. Political party affiliation, political ideology and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. How Climate Change became a Business Risk: Analyzing Non-State Agency in Global Climate Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattberg, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is widely acknowledged as a key business risk. Companies around the globe are taking action to mitigate their carbon emissions, develop climate-friendly products and services, and prepare for the negative impacts of climate change for their operations. Financial investors, on their

  7. Politics of risk-taking: Welfare state reform in advanced democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, B.

    2010-01-01

    How much and in which direction have the welfare states among the Western democracies changed over the past decades? Moreover, under which conditions have governments enacted these changes? Based on insights from prospect theory, a psychological theory of choice under risk, Vis demonstrates ably

  8. Problem-Based Teaching in International Management: A Political/Economic Risk Assessment Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Paula S.; White, Marion M.; Zisk, Daniel S.; Cavazos, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This article draws from the current literature to examine problem-based learning (PBL) as a management education tool, and provides an example of how to incorporate PBL into an undergraduate international management course. Also included are an explanation of, and specific guidelines for, a PBL exercise focused on the analysis of "country risk"…

  9. Mango Street and Malnourished Readers: Politics and Realities in an "At-Risk" Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M. Alayne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results of a literature-response study conducted with at-risk middle school students of Latino, African American, and Caucasian backgrounds. The study was guided by an assumption of students' ability to read and coherently assimilate elements of "The House on Mango Street," by Sandra Cisneros (1984). Although centered in…

  10. Public policy and risk financing strategies for global catastrophe risk management - the role of global risk initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Patrick; Mitchell, Andrew; Anderson, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    Decision-makers in both public and private organisations depend on accurate data and scientific understanding to adequately address climate change and the impact of extreme events. The financial impacts of catastrophes on populations and infrastructure can be offset through effective risk transfer mechanisms, structured to reflect the specific perils and levels of exposure to be covered. Optimal strategies depend on the likely socio-econonomic impact, the institutional framework, the overall objectives of the covers placed and the level of both the frequency and severity of loss potential expected. The diversity of approaches across different countries has been documented by the Spanish "Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros". We discuss why international public/private partnerships are necessary for addressing the risk of natural catastrophes. International initiatives such as the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) and the World Forum of Catastrophe Programmes (WFCP) can provide effective guidelines for constructing natural catastrophe schemes. The World Bank has been instrumental in the creation of many of the existing schemes such as the Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool, the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility and the Mongolian Index-Based Livestock Insurance Program. We review existing schemes and report on best practice in relation to providing protection against natural catastrophe perils. The suitability of catastrophe modelling approaches to support schemes across the world are discussed and we identify opportunities to improve risk assessment for such schemes through transparent frameworks for quantifying, pricing, sharing and financing catastrophe risk on a local and global basis.

  11. Data on German farmers risk preference, perception and management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Meraner, Manuela; Finger, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which people are willing to take on risk, i.e. their risk preferences as well as subjective risk perception plays a major role in explaining their behavior. This is of particular relevance in agricultural production, which is inherently risky. The data presented here was collected amongst a total of 64 German farmers in 2015. It includes results of three different risk preference elicitation methods (multiple price list, business statements in four relevant domains and general s...

  12. Liability-driven investing: an enterprise risk management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courson, William M

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals that understand their risks and how to address them, and can communicate thisto rating agencies, can improve their opportunities in the capital markets. Evaluating global risk requires that healthcare financial executives consider risks in the context of one another as well as the organization's overall strategic plan.

  13. Designing bidding strategies in sequential auctions for risk averse agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Robu (Valentin); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDesigning efficient bidding strategies for sequential auctions represents an important, open problem area in agent-mediated electronic markets. In existing literature, a variety of bidding strategies have been proposed and have been shown to perform with varying degrees of efficiency.

  14. Emotion regulation strategies and childhood obesity in high risk preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current study examined the relationships between the specific strategies that preschool children use to regulate their emotions and childhood weight status to see if emotion regulation strategies would predict childhood weight status over and above measures of eating self-regulation. 185 4- to 5...

  15. Coping strategies in individuals at risk and not at risk of mobile phone addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziurzyńska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide an answer to the question of whether, and what, differences in stress coping strategies could be found between university students at risk and those not at risk of mobile phone addiction. The study included 408 students aged 19 to 28 years. The following instruments were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mobile Phone Addiction Assessment Questionnaire (in Polish, Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Telefonu Komórkowego, KBUTK by Pawłowska and Potembska, and the Coping with Stress Questionnaire (SVF by Janke, Erdmann, and Boucsein, translated into Polish by Januszewska. The results of the study showed that individuals at risk of mobile phone addiction were more likely to cope with stress by seeking substitute gratification, reacting with resignation, passivity, dejection and hopelessness, blaming themselves, pitying themselves and looking for support. They also tended to ruminate over their suffering, withdraw from social interactions, react with aggression and/or take to drinking.

  16. Risk, risk conflicts, sub-politics and social and environmental accounting and accountability in Scottish salmon farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgakopoulos, G.; Thomson, I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To offer a theoretical analysis, inspired by contemporary research into risk, of the social and environmental accounting processes observed in an empirical study on Scottish salmon farming. Methodology / Approach This paper used a Grounded Theory approach. Empirical evidence was collected on

  17. Pure meat – public perceptions of risk reduction strategies in meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzen, Sara Marie; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    of risk reduction strategy in meat production, with the aim of distinguishing between forms of risk reduction in terms of their acceptability. The paper reports the result of a focus-group study. Six focus groups with Danish citizens (N: 5–9) were conducted during May 2006. The design of the groups took...... a bottom-up approach and included elements of meat quality, meat safety and risk reduction strategies. The study shows the dilemma risk reduction presents to members of the public. On the one hand, people want safe meat; on the other, the study showed that with the exception of hygiene practices, people...... generally have an aversion to risk reduction strategies. Some variation was found, however, in the rejection of the strategies. Thus, more acceptable strategies are characterised by a low degree of technological interference, and by being close to the consumer’s experience in everyday life and/or familiar...

  18. Seismic Politics: Risk and Reconstruction after the 1960 Earthquake in Agadir, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    On 29 February 1960, an earthquake struck the city of Agadir, Morocco, killing between ten and fifteen thousand Moroccans and Europeans and damaging the majority of the city's structures. Drawing on data from seismographs, witness accounts, and direct observations of destruction, international teams of experts working in the aftermath of the disaster rewrote Agadir as a seismically vulnerable space. In the process, they depoliticized destruction and assigned responsibility for the devastation of the city's poorest neighborhoods to "natural" forces and ineffective "traditional" building practices. Once established in the work of geologists, seismologists, and engineers, the notion of seismic risk shaped the material and moral trajectories of reconstruction during the first decade of Morocco's independence from France. As it cut across scientific, engineering, and bureaucratic domains, seismic risk gave rise to projects aimed less at controlling nature than at redistributing vulnerability and authority among experts, administrators, and inhabitants in Agadir.

  19. The double burden of neoliberalism? Noncommunicable disease policies and the global political economy of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Sara; Schrecker, Ted

    2015-07-01

    The growing prevalence of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is now recognized as one of the major global health policy issues of the early 21st century. Current official approaches reflect ambivalence about how health policy should approach the social determinants of health identified by the WHO Commission on the topic that released its report in 2008, and in particular the role of macro-scale economic and social processes. Authoritative framing of options for NCD prevention in advance of the September, 2011 UN high-level meeting on NCDs arguably relied on a selective reading of the scientific (including social scientific) evidence, and foregrounded a limited number of risk factors defined in terms of individual behavior: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, alcohol (ab)use and physical inactivity. The effect was to reproduce at a transnational level the individualization of responsibility for health that characterizes most health promotion initiatives in high-income countries, ignoring both the limited control that many people have over their exposure to these risk factors and the contribution of macro-scale processes like trade liberalization and the marketing activities of transnational corporations to the global burden of NCDs. An alternative perspective focuses on "the inequitable distribution of power, money, and resources" described by the WHO Commission, and the ways in which policies that address those inequities can avoid unintentional incorporation of neoliberal constructions of risk and responsibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The double burden of neoliberalism? Noncommunicable disease policies and the global political economy of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Sara; Schrecker, Ted

    2016-05-01

    The growing prevalence of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is now recognized as one of the major global health policy issues of the early 21st century. Current official approaches reflect ambivalence about how health policy should approach the social determinants of health identified by the WHO Commission on the topic that released its report in 2008, and in particular the role of macro-scale economic and social processes. Authoritative framing of options for NCD prevention in advance of the September, 2011 UN high-level meeting on NCDs arguably relied on a selective reading of the scientific (including social scientific) evidence, and foregrounded a limited number of risk factors defined in terms of individual behavior: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, alcohol (ab)use and physical inactivity. The effect was to reproduce at a transnational level the individualization of responsibility for health that characterizes most health promotion initiatives in high-income countries, ignoring both the limited control that many people have over their exposure to these risk factors and the contribution of macro-scale processes like trade liberalization and the marketing activities of transnational corporations to the global burden of NCDs. An alternative perspective focuses on "the inequitable distribution of power, money, and resources" described by the WHO Commission, and the ways in which policies that address those inequities can avoid unintentional incorporation of neoliberal constructions of risk and responsibility. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of different hedging strategies for commodity price risks of industrial cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palzer, Andreas; Westner, Günther; Madlener, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we design and evaluate eight different strategies for hedging commodity price risks of industrial cogeneration plants. Price developments are parameterized based on EEX data from 2008 to 2011. The probability distributions derived are used to determine the value-at-risk (VaR) of the individual strategies, which are in a final step combined in a mean-variance portfolio analysis for determining the most efficient hedging strategy. We find that the strategy adopted can have a marked influence on the remaining price risk. Quarter futures are found to be particularly well suited for reducing market price risk. In contrast, spot trading of CO 2 certificates is found to be preferable compared to forward market trading. Finally, portfolio optimization shows that a mix of various hedging strategies can further improve the profitability of a heat-based cogeneration plant. - Highlights: • Evaluation of commodity price risk hedging strategies for industrial cogeneration. • Value-at-risk analysis of eight different hedging strategies. • Mean-variance portfolio analysis for determining the optimal hedging strategy mix. • A mix of hedging strategies further improves profitability of heat-based CHP

  2. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  3. The Occupy Central (Umbrella) movement and mental health distress in the Hong Kong general public: political movements and concerns as potential structural risk factors of population mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph T F; Kim, Yoona; Wu, Anise M S; Wang, Zixin; Huang, Bishan; Mo, Phoenix K H

    2017-05-01

    Political tension, as expressed by mass movements such as the Occupy Central movement (2014) in Hong Kong, is a potential but understudied structural factor of population mental health. A random population-based telephone survey anonymously interviewed 344 Hong Kong Chinese adults aged 18-65 years during the 2 weeks since the termination date of the 2-month-long Occupy Central movement (15/12/2014). Linear regression models were fit using mental distress (depression, anxiety and negative mood) and self-perceived changes in mood/sleeping quality as dependent variables. Prevalence of participation in the movement was 10.5% (self), 17.7% (family members/relatives), and 34.0% (peers); 8.5% had participated for ≥2 days. Young age, but not participation, was associated with mental distress. In adjusted analysis, three types of responses to the movement (worry about safety, negative emotional responses to media reports, and conflicts with peers about the movement) and emotional responses to local political situations were significantly associated with all/some of the dependent variables related to mental distress. The variable on emotions toward local political situations was correlated with the three responses to the movement; it fully mediated the associations between such responses and mental distress. Many citizens participated in the movement, which was led by youths and might have increased the general public's mental distress. Negative personal responses to the movement and emotions toward political situations were potential risk factors. As the political tension would last and political pessimism is globally found, politics may have become a regular and persistent structural risk factor negatively affecting population mental health.

  4. The Emergence of the Javanese Sopan and Santun (Politeness) on the Refusal Strategies Used by Javanese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanto, Agus

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated refusal strategies conducted by British native speakers of English (NSE) and Javanese learners of English (JLE). The data were elicited through discourse completion tasks (DCT) from 20 NSE and 50 JLE. Refusal strategies in Javanese were elicited from 35 native speakers of Javanese (NJ) to provide a baseline for…

  5. Systemic immunomodulatory strategies in high-risk corneal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio B Abud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in the body. Although corneal grafts generally have high success rates, transplantation onto inflamed and vascularized host beds, or so-called high-risk corneal transplantation, has a high rate of graft rejection. The management of this high-risk corneal transplantation is challenging and involves numerous measures. One of the key measures to prevent graft rejection in these cases is the use of systemic immunosuppressive agents. In this article, we will review the systemic immunosuppressive agents most commonly used for high-risk corneal transplantation, which include corticosteroids, cysclosporine A, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin. Benefits, risks, and published data on the use of these medications for high-risk corneal transplantation will be detailed. We will also summarize novel immunoregulatory approaches that may be used to prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplantation.

  6. Law Enforcement Strategies for Preventing Rail Trespassing Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Volpe Center has investigated law enforcement methods that have successfully prevented trespassing along the railroad right of way. The types of law enforcement strategies currently being used and procedures followed in the field are documented, ...

  7. Panama disease in banana and neoliberal governance: towards a political ecology of risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, de la, Jaye

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of Panama disease Tropical Race 4 (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) or TR4 – a fungal disease in banana that is considered by horticulture experts as not only one of the most destructive diseases in the world (Ploetz 1994) but one with no on-hand socio-cultural or chemical method to control it satisfactorily (Ploetz 2015) – has generated conversations, dialogue, inquiry and at times controversy, on how this risk is to be managed. The onslaught of Tropical Race 1 (TR1) in the 19...

  8. The KnowRISK project: Tools and strategies for risk communication and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Amaral Ferreira, Mónica; Falsaperla, Susanna; Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Solarino, Stefano; Crescimbene, Massimo; Eva, Elena; Reitano, Danilo; Þorvaldsdottir, Solveig; Sousa Silva, Delta; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Damage of non-structural elements of buildings (i.e. partitions, ceilings, cladding, electrical and mechanical systems and furniture) is known to cause injuries and human losses. Also it has a significant impact on earthquake resilience and is yet being worldwide underestimated. The project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) is financed by the European Commission to develop prevention measures that may reduce non-structural damage in urban areas. Pilot areas of the project are within the three European participating countries, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy. They were chosen because they are prone to damage level 2 and 3 (EMS-98, European Macroseismic Scale) that typically affects non-structural elements. We will develop and test a risk communication strategy taking into account the needs of households and schools, putting into practice a portfolio of best practice to reduce the most common non-structural vulnerabilities. We will target our actions to different societal groups, considering their cultural background and social vulnerabilities, and implement a participatory approach that will promote engagement and interaction between the scientific community, practitioners and citizens to foster knowledge on everyone's own neighborhoods, resilience and vulnerability. A Practical Guide for citizens will highlight that low-cost actions can be implemented to increase safety of households, meant as being the places where the most vulnerable societal groups, including children and elderly people, spend much of their time. Since our actions towards communication will include education, we will define tools that allow a clear and direct understanding of elements exposed to risk. Schools will be one of our target societal groups and their central role played at the community level will ensure spreading and strengthening of the communication process. Schools are often located in old or re-adapted buildings, formerly used for

  9. Vascular risk factors and dementia - towards prevention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, E.; Ligthart, S. A.; Moll van Charante, E. P.; van Gool, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Several cohort studies have shown that vascular risk factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity and lack of physical exercise in midlife and to a lesser extent in late life, are associated with an increased risk of dementia. The results from randomised

  10. Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Wiering, Mark; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Matczak, Piotr; Crabbé, Ann; Raadgever, G.T.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Priest, Sally; Larrue, Corinne; Ek, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    European countries face increasing flood risks because of urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM), including flood risk prevention

  11. Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Wiering, M.A.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van; Kundzewicz, P.; Matczak, A.; Crabbé, A.; Raadgever, G.T.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Priest, S.J.; Larrue, C.; Ek, K.; Hegger, D.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Raadgever, T.; Priest, S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. European countries face increasing flood risks because of urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM), including flood risk

  12. Political, social and technical risks in the last stages of disease eradication campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Christopher J M

    2015-09-01

    Eradication of a disease is one of the greatest gifts any generation can give to subsequent ones, but most attempts have failed. The biggest challenges occur in the final stages of eradication and elimination campaigns. These include falling public support as a disease becomes less common; the emergence of groups who do not support eradication; spiralling costs; and the evolution of drug, vaccine or insecticide resistance. Mass campaigns become less effective as the disease fragments and modelling becomes less reliable. Optimism bias is the biggest risk to any eradication campaign and the long endgame must be planned for from the beginning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Risk management strategy to increase the safety of workers in the nanomaterials industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lin, Wei-Chao; Liu, Chia-Chyuan; Huang, Yi-Shiao; Chueh, Miao-Ju; Shih, Tung-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► On-site assessment of nanomaterials using physiochemical and cytotoxic analysis can help identify risks for each nanomaterials manufacturing plant. ► The risk of the nanomaterials manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on exposure routes (tier 1), aspect identification (tier 2), and toxicological screening (tier 3). ► According to the different risk levels, the precautionary risk management (PRM) such as technology control, engineering control, and personal protective equipment were applied. ► The PRM strategy can be effectively reduced workers risks for nanomaterial industries. - Abstract: In recent years, many engineered nanomaterials (NMs) have been produced, but increasing research has revealed that these may have toxicities far greater than conventional materials and cause significant adverse health effects. At present, there is insufficient data to determine the permissible concentrations of NMs in the workplace. There is also a lack of toxicity data and environmental monitoring results relating to complete health risk assessment. In view of this, we believe that workers in the NMs industry should be provided with simple and practical risk management strategy to ensure occupational health and safety. In this study, we developed a risk management strategy based on the precautionary risk management (PRM). The risk of the engineered NMs manufacturing plants can be divided into three levels based on aspect identification, solubility tests, dermal absorption, and cytotoxic analyses. The risk management strategies include aspects relating to technology control, engineering control, personal protective equipment, and monitoring of the working environment for each level. Here we report the first case in which a simple and practical risk management strategy applying in specific engineered NMs manufacturing plants. We are confident that our risk management strategy can be effectively reduced engineered NM industries risks for

  14. An Investigation of the Use of politeness strategies in refusal among Characters with different power relations in English and Farsi Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahman Farrokhi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important concerns of communicative way of learning is to be able to convey meaning and not just physical words in a language. The study of speech acts could possibly help achieve this. When using speech acts, one should take into consideration the conversational rules of the language and in order to establish a safe and harmonious conversation, it is better to use certain strategies to eliminate their possible threatening effects. Attempt is made in the present study using a mixed-method design, to investigate the employment of politeness strategies proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987, among the interlocutors with different power relations in English and Farsi novels, when using the speech act of refusal. The speech act of refusal addressed in this study is a face threatening act (FTA (Brown & Levinson, 1987, which may be used differently by speakers of different languages, with different power relations, in different situations. The materials used are five English and five Farsi novels written by native speakers of English and Farsi. The taxonomy of Beebe, Takahashi and Uliss-Weltz (1990 were employed in order to categories different types of refusal. The frequency of their use and their percentages were calculated manually. The results indicated that even though reflecting two different cultures, the similarities among the English and Farsi novels regarding the use of both speech acts, were more than the differences. The differences were more obvious in the employment of politeness strategies. The findings of this study will probably give insights into the pragmatic and conversational rules of both languages.

  15. Design of risk communication strategies based on risk perception among farmers exposed to pesticides in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Frederico; Rodrigues, Karla Meneses; da Silva Peixoto Belo, Mariana Soares; Moreira, Josino Costa; Claudio, Luz

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess pesticide exposure risk perception among farmers from three rural areas of Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 66 adults and participatory workshops with 27 teenagers and analyzed through content analysis techniques. Systematized results were discussed at local meetings, and two risk communication initiatives were devised. Study results demonstrated the use of defensive strategies by men and a diminished risk perception among women. Teenagers relied on parents to develop their own work practices. These findings supported the importance of cultural and social determinants of farmers' understandings of risk and of the relevance of different pesticide exposure pathways. Risk perceptions and work practices are strongly influenced by local cultural patterns and, therefore, must be taken into account when developing effective intervention strategies, including risk communication initiatives. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Westinghouse Hanford Company risk management strategy for retired surplus facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.E.; Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Egge, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes an approach that facilitates management of personnel safety and environmental release risk from retired, surplus Westinghouse Hanford Company-managed facilities during the predemolition time frame. These facilities are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1,450-km 2 (570-mi 2 ) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The production reactors are located in the 100 Area and the chemical separation facilities are located in the 200 Area. This paper also includes a description of the risk evaluation process, shows applicable results, and includes a description of comparison costs for different risk reduction options

  17. Money, politics, and medicine: the American Medical PAC's strategy of giving in U.S. house races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J D; Carrell, D

    1999-04-01

    We examine contributions by the American Medical Association's political action committee (AMPAC) to candidates for seats in the U.S. House of Representatives during two electoral cycles (1989-1990 and 1991-1992). In contrast to earlier studies, we do not find any systematic evidence to support the conventional wisdom that AMPAC contributes to influence legislators' positions on roll call votes or that AMPAC's contribution decisions are influenced by legislators' voting positions. We do find that AMPAC contributes to promote access to decision makers and to help elect (or reelect) legislators who would be expected to be more generally sympathetic to the economic and practice concerns of AMA physicians. As points of comparison, we also examine contributions from the top five tobacco PACs and the National Rifle Association's (NRA) PAC and find that legislators' roll call voting positions are strongly related to contributions received from these organizations.

  18. Risk mitigation strategies for operations and maintenance activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the application of integrated risk modeling to operations and maintenance activities, specifically moving operations, such as pavement testing, pavement marking, painting, snow removal, shoulder work,...

  19. Private adaptation strategies and implementation in flood risk management: why people do nothing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Maris, Fotios; Paparrizos, Spyros; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    implementation. This paper examines the private adaptation capacity and willingness in two different catchments in the Mediterranean. The catchments Evros and Rafina in Greece were affected by flood events during the past 20 years. However, even in case of extreme events, the vulnerability of the (social) system to stress is considerably low due to social networks, economic settings as well as institutional and political factors, and consequently the speed of return to the equilibrium steady state, defined as the prevailing livelihood conditions, is fast. In other words, even if the magnitude of a hazardous event is high, the vulnerability is considerably low due to multiple compensation mechanisms installed in the Greek society, ranging from spreading risk to a larger community to governmental compensation and private donation. Therefore, ex-post recovery following an event is well-organised, and the initial systems state is re-established immediately or with only little delay. Therefore, affected citizens simply do not care much about being affected by floods, will be able to prevent those damages. There are no incentives for the affected population to react pro-active by e.g. investing in local structural protection or any other management strategy. Key words: vulnerability; private adaptation; structural protection; risk management; floods; Greece References: Bohle H-G (2001) Vulnerability and criticality: Perspectives from social geography. IHDP Update 02/2001:3-5 Chambers R (1989) Vulnerability, coping and policy. IDS Bulletin 20 (2):1-7 Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Dahe Q, Dokken DJ, Plattner G-K, Ebi KL, Allen SK, Mastrandrea MD, Tignor M, Mach KJ, Midgley PM (2012) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Fuchs S (2009) Susceptibility versus resilience to mountain hazards in Austria - Paradigms of vulnerability

  20. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tonani,Marcela; Carvalho,Emilia Campos de

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed tha...

  1. [The allergic risk of transgenic foods strategy for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D-A

    2003-03-01

    A significant number of allergens arise from foods. The allergic risk of transgenic foods must be evaluated in accordance with the recommendations of the Joint Expert Committee FAO/WHO. Potential issues are the risk of cross reactivity with existing allergens, the modification of allergenicity of the transgenic protein induced by a modified metabolism in the host, the modified allergenicity of the proteins of the transgenic plant, a potential neo-allergenicity of the transgenic protein, and the risk of dissemination through pollens, inducing a respiratory sensitization then a cross food allergy. The algorithm includes three steps for evaluation: first the search for significant homology of the protein with allergens listed in allergen databanks, or the identity of a sequence of six aminoacids with known epitopes, then a cross reactivity explored through the binding to IgEs from patients allergic to the source of the gene, or allergic to organisms of the same group or botanical family, and finally the extent of the pepsine resistance. The risk of immunogenicity has to be studied with appropriate animal models. A post-marketing surveillance is recommended for monitoring of adverse effects. The structure of an Allergo-Vigilance Network, the tools for efficiency and the groups at higher risk will be discussed. The potential risk of transgenic foods to be allergenic cannot be overlooked, not ignoring the fact that current technologies modify allergenicity of foods.

  2. Capital Structure, Environmental Dynamism, Innovation Strategy, and Strategic Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Andersen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Previous research found that capital structure affects performance when it is adapted to the level of environmental dynamism and pursuit of an innovation strategy. The current study reproduces some of these relationships in a more recent dataset but also identifies significant nuances across...

  3. Multi-technology option strategy for long term R and D programs on plutonium technologies. Minimizing proliferation risks and preparing for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium programs worldwide are now facing major economic, political and technical challenges. New strategies need to address two distinctive global concerns: minimizing proliferation risks associated with plutonium use, and keeping the options alive to prepare for uncertain energy future. In order to meet those challenges, this paper proposes the introduction of 'multi-technology option strategy'. Such strategy is designed to keep so-called 'technological readiness' state of plutonium technologies worldwide without committing to a fixed technology option and exploring more innovative various technology options. This paper also suggests that such R and D programs can be coordinated and shared among nations that are interested in future plutonium use, and such cooperation can improve transparency of sensitive R and D programs. (author)

  4. A Proactive Strategy for Safe Human-Robot Collaboration based on a Simplified Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audun Sanderud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an increasing demand for human-robot collaboration systems, the need for safe robots is crucial. This paper presents a proactive strategy to enable an awareness of the current risk for the robot. The awareness is based upon a map of historically occupied space by the operator. The map is built based on a risk evaluation of each pose presented by the operator. The risk evaluation results in a risk field that can be used to evaluate the risk of a collaborative task. Based on this risk field, a control algorithm that constantly reduces the current risk within its task constraints was developed. Kinematic redundancy was exploited for simultaneous task performance within task constraints, and risk minimization. Sphere-based geometric models were used both for the human and robot. The strategy was tested in simulation, and implemented and experimentally tested on a NACHI MR20 7-axes industrial robot.

  5. Defining Functions of Danish Political Commentary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Mette

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark political commentary is still a relatively new phenomenon. This paper analyzes the metadiscourse in relation to political commentary to identify the different understandings that have coalesced around political commentary as a genre. I argue that people in different positions (e.g. cit.......g. citizens, politicians, journalists, political editors, chief editors and political commentators themselves) emphasize different explanations for the rise of the genre and thereby functions of political commentary as part of an argumentative strategy favouring their own interests...

  6. Strategy for integrated CERCLA/NEPA risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; Blunt, D.A.; Fingleton, D.J.; Picel, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a policy whereby, for remedial actions, the procedural and documentational requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) are integrated with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. However, the objectives of risk assessment under NEPA and CERCLA differ somewhat. Until its recent application at contaminated sites, NEPA analysis has typically been applied to impacts from taking actions at clean sites (e.g., for construction activities), and a somewhat loosely structured process has historically been used to estimate relative risks for NEPA analyses. Decisions such as cleanup levels were not made on the basis of the risk estimates, and they therefore tended to be conservative and were not discussed in detail. In contrast, risks estimated for Superfund (CERCLA) sites are used to focus the decision-making process for those sites and support national prioritization for cleanup, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a detailed framework for preparing baseline health risk assessments for these sites. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to intergrating the CERCLA and NEPA approaches into the risk assessments that have been prepared for a DOE remedial action project at the Weldon Spring site near St. Charles, Missouri. These issues are grouped into three basic categories: general assumptions for the impact evaluation, data management, and presentation of the methodology and results. This paper is not intended to represent DOE policy and guidance, nor does it represent the only approach that can be used for integrated risk assessments. It merely discusses the process that was used for the Weldon Spring project, articulating the issues that were encountered and how they were addressed

  7. REDESIGN CAMPAIGN STRATEGY MELALUI PERPADUAN POLITICAL MARKETING DAN NILAI LUHUR TAN MALAKA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS DEMOKRASI DALAM MENGHADAPI PEMILIHAN KEPALA DAERAH DI JAWA TIMUR (PILKADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Ananda Kurniawan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pemilihan kepala daerah (pilkada langsung Jawa Timur putaran kedua sebentar lagi akan dimulai. Calon kepala daerah telah mempersiapkan diri dalam usaha untuk memenangkan Pemilihan Kepala Daerah. Beberapa metode telah dilakukan oleh kedua pasangan pemenang Pemilihan Kepala Daerah di Wilayah Jawa Timur ini. Usaha yang dilakukan tentu saja memiliki tujuan akhir agar mendapatkan suara dari masyarakat. Pada proses political marketing, ada empat hal yang harus diperhatikan kontestan yaitu, product (platform, karakter personal, janji-janji kampanye, price (biaya kampanye, lobi-lobi politik, place (basis massa, tim sukses, dan promotion (advertising, publicity, kampanye. Selain itu, dalam berkampanye kontestan juga harus memperhatikan banyak faktor yang dapat memengaruhi jumlah perolehan suara, seperti bentuk kelompok gaya hidup masyarakat yang beranekaragam, hal-hal yang mempengaruhi pemilih dalam memilih para kontestan, tipologi pemilih, serta segmentasi dan positioning politik. Hal lain yang menjadi perhatian dan pokok kajian pemikiran politik Tan Malaka dalam keyakinan politik adalah strategi dan taktik. Kata Kunci: Political Marketing, Demokrasi yang Berkualitas, pemikiran Politik dan Sosial Tan Malaka

  8. The historical power lines. The climate political positions and strategies towards emission intensive industry in five Norwegian industrial counties; Historiens kraftlinjer. Klimapolitiske posisjoner og strategier overfor utslippsintensiv industri i fem norske industrikommuner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasa, Sjur

    2003-07-01

    What is the position of the industrial communities in Norway in the political process behind the regulation of greenhouse gases from industrial sources and what strategies do they use to achieve their objectives. Interviews conducted with local governmental leaders in five industrial communities in Norway revealed that concerns about industrial closure, both within their own and neighbouring municipalities and well established industrial traditions had a clear influence on their climate policy perspectives regardless of their party affiliation. Strategies employed by industrial communities to promote their interests and communicate their positions to central authorities include not only traditional lobbying at the state level but also co-operation through horizontal networks of both private and public actors at the inter-municipal and inter-regional level. These horizontal networks are particularly important in connection with the proposed construction of gas fired power plants and increasing the industrial application of natural gas. (Author)

  9. Toward more flood resilience: Is a diversification of flood risk management strategies the way forward?

    OpenAIRE

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Wiering, Mark; van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Matczak, Piotr; Crabbé, Ann; Raadgever, G.T.; Bakker, M.H.N.; Priest, Sally; Larrue, Corinne; Ek, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    European countries face increasing flood risks due to urbanization, increase of exposure and damage potential, and the effects of climate change. In literature and in practice, it is argued that a diversification of strategies for flood risk management (FRM) - including flood risk prevention (through pro-active spatial planning), flood defense, flood risk mitigation, flood preparation and flood recovery - makes countries more flood resilient. While this thesis is plausible, it should still be...

  10. ONLINE RISKS AND COPING STRATEGIES OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÁSZLÓ ÉVA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The internet offers young people plenty of possibilities, but according to the “more is more” hypothesis, online opportunities and risks tend to go together. We look for the features of online stressful situations to which 9−16 years old Romanian young people are exposed, and we follow the way they cope with adversity. The resilience of young people to online risks varies, as some of them cope better than others. We pursue few protective factors which can attenuate the negative online experience and enhance the resilience of young people. Among online risks we focus on the following: experiencing online sexual contents (images, messages, online bullying, offline meetings with online contacts. We base our study on the analyses conducted on the empirical data of the EU Kids Online II (2010 project regarding Romanian youth

  11. [Therapeutic Strategies. Cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia in elderly and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Clotilde; Royuela, Meritxell

    2013-01-01

    The management of cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia are justified in guidelines. In the elderly, when they are in primary prevention, recommendations are controversial, even if there is evidence in reducing morbidity. In secondary prevention, between 65 and 85 years, there is enough evidence to recommend statins. The decision to start or to continue further treatment must be complemented by comprehensive assessment of the risk-benefit factor. In elderly patients we have to support in decision-making, we take clinical judgment and not just the age criteria. In women the risk is underestimated and may be untreated. The recomendations are the same as in men. During pregnancy there are particular recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEA. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk of red queen dynamics in pneumococcal vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Johanna M C; Clarke, Stuart C; Webb, Jeremy S; Kraaijeveld, Alex R

    2011-08-01

    Pathogens increasingly evade current vaccines, and new strategies to control them are needed. There is mounting evidence that replacement of vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae with non-vaccine serotypes has taken place following widespread use of limited-serotype conjugate vaccines. New strategies to control vaccine evasion are needed and understanding evolutionary theory is important for the development of such approaches. Hosts are under selection pressure to evolve resistance against pathogens whereas pathogens are under selection pressure to evolve counter-resistance against the resistance mechanism of their host. Evolutionary changes in both host and pathogen lead to a continuous turnover of host and pathogen genotypes; this is known as Red Queen dynamics. We argue that integrating evolutionary thinking into pneumococcal vaccine design will lead to the avoidance of Red Queen dynamics and improved interventions against pneumococci. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Landscape management strategies in response to climate risks in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems play an important role in strategies for facing climate change because they address both its causes and effects through the delivery of ecosystem services. Ecosystems act as safety nets for rural livelihoods and as buffers against damage s by supplying provisioning services (e.g., food and timber) and regulating services (e.g., water regulation and erosion control). In addition, carbon sequestration by ecosystems contributes to mitigate climate change. L and management affects ecos...

  14. Risk Assessment of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Strategies in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    These simulations enabled IBACOS to identify which strategies work best for particular climate zones or house geometries and to propose solutions that homebuilders can implement to reduce the risk of occupant discomfort in individual rooms.

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuella Ellis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available risk. In view of this, the study assessed the major risk faced by farmers, the main coping strategies adopted and the determinants of the strategies employed by farmers. Cross sectional data was obtained from 208 farmers randomly selected from the Eastern region of Ghana using a structured questionnaire in the year 2014. The Multinomial Logit regression model was employed to examine the factors influencing the coping strategies adopted by farmers. To cope with risks, farmers mainly preferred to practice crop diversification, borrow money or use up their savings. Results showed that the choice of coping strategies used by the respondents were influenced by their individual and farm characteristics, and the available institutions and capital resources. The study recommends the formulation of policies aimed at increasing farm and off farm income, and promote savings to strengthen farmers’ capacity to cope with risks.

  16. Encountering Gender: Resisting a Neo-Liberal Political Rationality for Sexuality Education as an HIV Prevention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacoin, Andrée E.

    2017-01-01

    Globally, sexuality education is framed as a key programmatic strategy for achieving HIV prevention among youth. In particular, sexuality education is positioned as a way to address gender inequalities and promote youth empowerment in relation to gendered identities. In this paper, I argue that the focus on what content should be taught and…

  17. Falls in older people: risk factors and strategies for prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lord, Stephen R. (Stephen Ronald)

    2007-01-01

    ... on visual, neuropsychological and medical risk factors. The book also reviews the numerous new randomized controlled trials that have examined the effects of exercise, visual, cardiovascular and environmental interventions in preventing falls. The new edition will be an invaluable update for medical practitioners, physiotherapists, occupational therap...

  18. New Strategies for Managing Risks: A Balancing Act for Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The stately collegiate gothic buildings that define the iconic West Campus at Duke University evoke a strong sense of stability and the status quo. Like all institutions of higher learning, Duke faces many potential challenges to campus equilibrium--some of which could prove devastating to the university. Risk is inherent in academe, yet colleges…

  19. Road Rage: Risk Factors, Assessment, and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkin, Bruce S.

    2004-01-01

    Incidents of angry and aggressive driving, often referred to as "road rage," are becoming more and more commonplace in everyday driving. Many people might benefit from counseling interventions to help manage driving anger and aggression. This article provides a review of research on road rage risk factors, a description of inventories for…

  20. Adoption of risk management strategies in information resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that regular supervision and inspection of the library resources, systems and operations, installation of fire alarms systems, complete risk avoidance, installation of fire extinguishers, installation of antivirus for the computers, provision for training and retraining of library staff, availability of library amnesty ...

  1. Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies for Suicide among the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Rebecca; Burnett, Donna O.; Evans, Retta R.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a preventable public health concern affecting the nation as the 10th leading cause of death. The prevalence of suicide among the elderly is higher than any other group. Risk factors attributed to this phenomenon are depression, social isolation, substance abuse, poor physical health or function, financial stress, and access to lethal…

  2. Investment risks of utility-scale PV: Opportunities and limitations of risk mitigation strategies to reduce uncertainties of energy yield predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, B.; Heydenreich, W.; Reich, N.; Reise, C.; Farnung, B.

    2015-01-01

    Investment risks of utility-scale PV systems may arise from a wide range of sources: political stability in a region, interest rate levels and currency exchange rates or future energy price. However, the presence of stable political and economic conditions and feed-in tariffs or power purchase agreements may limit interest and price risks to acceptable levels. The technical risk of deviations between expected and actual life-time energy yield of a PV power plant is mostly influenced by the qu...

  3. Down-side Risk Metrics as Portfolio Diversification Strategies across the GFC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper features an analysis of the effectiveness of a range of portfolio diversification strategies, with a focus on down-side risk metrics, as a portfolio diversification strategy in a European market context. We apply these measures to a set of daily arithmetically compounded

  4. Coping Strategies of young mothers at risk of HIV/AIDS in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coping Strategies of young mothers at risk of HIV/AIDS in the Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... This qualitative study draws on interpretative principles with emphasis on understanding young mothers' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and explores coping strategies used to ...

  5. An alternative diagnostic strategy with lower radiatioin risk in young women with suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, R.A.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Rijnders, A.J.M.; Hendrickx, B.; Ten Wolde, M.; Büller, H.R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Since younger women have an increased risk of cancer following radiation exposure with CT scanning, they might benefit from an alternative diagnostic strategy for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE).Methods: We investigated the safety and efficiency of a diagnostic strategy consisting of

  6. Economic analysis of adaptive strategies for flood risk management under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der T.D.; Ierland, van E.C.; Gabbert, S.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change requires reconsideration of flood risk management strategies. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA), an economic decision-support tool, has been widely applied to assess these strategies. This paper aims to describe and discuss probabilistic extensions of CBA to identify welfare-maximising

  7. Alternative Testing Strategies for Nanomaterials: State of the Science and Considerations for Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, K J

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of the nanotechnology industry has warranted equal progress in the nanotoxicology and risk assessment fields. In vivo models have traditionally been used to determine human and environmental risk for chemicals; however, the use of these tests has limitations, and there are global appeals to develop reliable alternatives to animal testing. Many have investigated the use of alternative (nonanimal) testing methods and strategies have quickly developed and resulted in the generation of large toxicological data sets for numerous nanomaterials (NMs). Due to the novel physicochemical properties of NMs that are related to surface characteristics, the approach toward toxicity test development has distinct considerations from traditional chemicals, bringing new requirements for adapting these approaches for NMs. The methodical development of strategies that combine multiple alternative tests can be useful for predictive NM risk assessment and help screening-level decision making. This article provides an overview of the main developments in alternative methods and strategies for reducing uncertainty in NM risk assessment, including advantages and disadvantages of in vitro, ex vivo, and in silico methods, and examples of existing comprehensive strategies. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified toward improvements for experimental and strategy design, specifically highlighting the need to represent realistic exposure scenarios and to consider NM-specific concerns such as characterization, assay interferences, and standardization. Overall, this article aims to improve the reliability and utility of alternative testing methods and strategies for risk assessment of manufactured NMs. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Risk Communication Strategies: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters with a Focus on the Fukushima Radiation Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Tondel, Martin

    2016-12-01

    It has been difficult to both mitigate the health consequences and effectively provide health risk information to the public affected by the Fukushima radiological disaster. Often, there are contrasting public health ethics within these activities which complicate risk communication. Although no risk communication strategy is perfect in such disasters, the ethical principles of risk communication provide good practical guidance. These discussions will be made in the context of similar lessons learned after radiation exposures in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987; the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, Ukraine, in 1986; and the attack at the World Trade Center, New York, USA, in 2001. Neither of the two strategies is perfect nor fatally flawed. Yet, this discussion and lessons from prior events should assist decision makers with navigating difficult risk communication strategies in similar environmental health disasters.

  9. [Guidance of FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy and enlightenment to drug risk management of post-marketing Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The FDA risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS) aims to drugs or biological products known or potential serious risk management. Analysis with the example of the content of the Onsolis REMS named FOCOS. Our country can be reference for the analysis of relevant experience and establish a scientific evaluation mechanism, strengthen the drug risk consciousness, promote the rational drug use, organic combined with the before-marketing and post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine, and promote the evaluation of risk management of the drug development and improvement.

  10. Boardroom strategies for managing risks and preventing frauds

    OpenAIRE

    Coulson-Thomas, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Directors are expected to be entrepreneurial while at the same time exercising prudent control. Enterprise and control are two sides of the directorial coin. Considers whether risk management professionals should do more in support of creativity, innovation, enterprise and entrepreneurship before turning to some cyber security and fraud control issues and dilemmas relating to data security breaches, the internet of things, protecting customer communications, and data sharing with collaborator...

  11. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education.

  12. Cost and effects of risk factor guided screening strategies for retinopathy of prematurity for different treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske; van Sorge, Arlette J; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the cost and effects of risk factor guided screening strategies for retinopathy of prematurity. Clinical data from the Netherlands Retinopathy of Prematurity study (NEDROP study) that included all infants screened for ROP and born in 2009 were used to assess the cost and effects of several screening strategies for ROP using different criteria: (1) gestational age (GA), (2) birthweight (BW), (3) combined GA-BW and (4) combined GA-BW and presence of risk factors. Two treatment strategies were evaluated: the infants actually treated in the NEDROP study (n = 17) and all infants detected with severe ROP (n = 29). The most efficient screening strategy to include all infants treated for both treatment strategies is to screen all infants with a GA of 30 weeks or less and a BW of 1250 g or lower together with infants with a GA of 30-32 weeks and a BW of 1250-1500 g with at least one risk factor. The marginal cost ranged from €43 848 to € 226 914 per additional infant with improved vision. The current Dutch guideline may be improved: the same effectiveness can be obtained for lower costs. Releasing the precondition that no infants with severe ROP might be missed will lead to lower costs, but this will also lead to a lower number of infants with improved visual acuity. The costs of detecting all infants with severe ROP seem acceptable for society when the QALY gain and savings from a societal perspective resulting from improved vision are taken into account. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  14. The political history of biofuels in the European Union - Actors, Networks and Strategies; Den politiska historien om biodrivmedel i den Europeiska Unionen - Aktoerer, naetverk och strategier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordangaard, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    The story of biofuels in the European Union is about much more than simply replace petroleum in the transport sector. It is rather a complex story accompanied by an overall desire to change the world's political architecture. This change has been made in order to address global environmental problems such as climate change while creating frameworks and certifications for the global trade in commodities such as palm oil and soy. The process has been full of contradictions in what biofuels can solve and given rise to exaggerated rhetoric about the fuel's environmental benefits versus its harmful impact on the environment and food prices. Doomsday reeking arguments about climate disasters, oil shortages and the destruction of the world's rain forests have been used alternately in diverse contexts. In this process, various market interests have come to stand against each other in the battle for the raw materials used in biofuel production. Good intentions to protect the priceless nature from industrial exploitation has been used as a way to disadvantage certain raw materials as an energy crop. This has given rise to the unholy alliances between environmentalists and corporations to create broad support for positions while individual nations have assisted with capital and resources to promote various self-interests. In the end it has been a matter of building so powerful network as possible, and present a hard hitting problem requiring a solution for success. Out of chaos, it has been born order. This thesis describes the process and the main actors and networks that have driven this.

  15. The Foundations of Developing a Bank’s Credit Risk Management Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zveruk Liudmyla А.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of credit risk management becomes especially relevant for the banking system of Ukraine nowadays, in the context of opening up the worldwide economic space. The objective need to improve the efficiency of bank’s credit risk management requires improvement of the legal, methodological, and organizational foundations of banking activity. The carried out research discloses the nature and place of credit risk among bank risks, its specific characteristics, and the factors of influence upon. The article emphasizes that, in order to make the functioning of bank efficient, credit risk should not be perceived as the probability of a negative event or danger, but rather as the income-generating activity. The main elements of the credit risk management system have been provided. The types and levels of credit risk have been distributed by the classification attributes. The role of internal and external environment factors influencing the bank lending policy has been explored. The role of the credit risk management strategy and tactics has been emphasized. The stages of the credit risk management strategy, its main methods and tools have been disclosed. Ways to successfully implement the credit risk management strategy for contemporary banks have been determined.

  16. Office Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  17. Moral politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  18. The Effects of news media on leisure tourists' perception of risk and willingness to travel, with specific reference to events of terrorism and political instability.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapuscinski, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The perceptions people hold of destinations are of critical importance in the world of tourism as they influence individuals’ travel choices. In this sense, tourists’ negative awareness concerning safety and security present at a destination can prove disastrous for its ability to attract visitors (George, 2003; Reisinger and Mavondo, 2005). Among a multitude of factors which may amplify tourists perceived risk associated with consuming tourism products, man-made disasters of political instab...

  19. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Risk factors and preventive strategies for the dental hygienist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwatowski, L J; McFall, D B; Stach, D J

    1992-02-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is well recognized as an occupational risk for dental hygienists. The contributing risk factors fall primarily into two categories: medical and occupational. The purposes of this paper are to examine the factors that predispose one to CTS in order to increase awareness among dental hygienists, and to offer preventive strategies that can be incorporated into daily practice.

  20. Ecological models for regulatory risk assessments of pesticides: Developing a strategy for the future.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorbek, P.; Forbes, V.; Heimbach, F.; Hommen, U.; Thulke, H.H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future provides a coherent, science-based view on ecological modeling for regulatory risk assessments. It discusses the benefits of modeling in the context of registrations, identifies the obstacles that

  1. Risk mitigation strategy for the ITER electron cyclotron upper port launcher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A. P. H.; Bongers, W. A.; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; M. F. Graswinckel,; M.R. de Baar,

    2010-01-01

    A basic requirement for ITER equipment to meet is a high level of reliability, because ITER operation time is precious and radioactive operation leaves limited scope for repair. In order to reduce the risk of failure during ITER operation an effective risk mitigation strategy is necessary. This

  2. Price risk perceptions and management strategies in selected European food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assefa, Tsion T.; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural prices in European food markets have become more volatile over the past decade exposing agribusinesses to risk and uncertainty. This study goes beyond the farm stage and explores through interviews the price risk perceptions and management strategies in multiple stages of the food

  3. Risk mitigation strategy for the ITER electron cyclotron upper port launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goede, A.P.H.; Bongers, W.A.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Graswinckel, M.F.; Baar, M.R. de

    2010-01-01

    A basic requirement for ITER equipment to meet is a high level of reliability, because ITER operation time is precious and radioactive operation leaves limited scope for repair. In order to reduce the risk of failure during ITER operation an effective risk mitigation strategy is necessary. This paper presents such strategy for the ITER electron cyclotron upper port launcher (ECUPL). A preliminary ECUPL risk analysis identifies possible failure modes. A probabilistic risk assessment quantifies the risk of failure using a 4 x 4 impact-likelihood matrix. Impact is quantified through technical, cost and schedule elements. Likelihood depends on the risk mitigation strategy adopted. A cost benefit analysis determines the most cost effective risk mitigation strategy. An essential element in risk mitigation is the testing of equipment prior to installation on the ITER machine. This paper argues the need for low- and highpower millimetre wave tests carried out on the fully assembled ECUPL. It presents a conceptual design for a dedicated on-site test bed that can handle 2 of 8 microwave beams at 2 MW long pulse operation.

  4. The contribution of disaster management to integrated flood risk management strategies: lessons learned from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolen, B.; van Alphen, J

    2017-01-01

    An integrated flood risk management (IFRM) strategy consist of a comprehensive set of measures to reduce the risk: protective measures (to reduce the probability of a flood), and land use planning and disaster management (to reduce the consequences of a flood. In the Netherlands this is called a

  5. Cleared risks? Proactive strategies as service in Cloud Computing contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Moro-Cabero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of Cloud Computing services at organizations is an undeniable reality nowadays. Record managers must then adopt a proactive and compromised position, giving advice to users. However, as a consequence of lack of knowledge in the function and regulation of the field, the implementation of those services faces no little confrontation. This descriptive essay, supported by a relevant number of heterogeneous resources, systematizes the menaces of managing and storing information with these services. At the same time, the study establishes a set of action-strategies for both reaching and hiring agreements. The objective of the paper is, therefore, to make the professional aware of the potential of these services as assessing and controlling tools, as well as ensuring the digital continuity and the record resources preservation in the Cloud.

  6. Population strategies and high-risk-individual strategies for road safety in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao; Kimura, Akio

    2011-05-01

    We examined road safety policies and trends in road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Japan between 1970 and 2008 from the viewpoints of population and high-risk-individual approaches to see what lessons can be learned from the example of a country that experienced a decline in RTIs following comprehensive road safety policies. We reviewed research papers and policy documents, obtained from relevant ministries, decade by decade. We obtained data on RTIs from police and from vital statistics. Japan started the Fundamental Traffic Safety Program to combat the increase in RTIs, and succeeded in reducing both RTI mortality and morbidity rates in the 1970s by implementing vast road safety improvements, using population approaches with a particular focus on protecting the most vulnerable population groups at that time. However, RTIs increased again in the 1980s because of increasing traffic volume. In the 1990s and 2000s, safety policies targeted at high-risk driving behaviors succeeded in reducing RTI mortality rates but failed to change morbidity rates. To achieve a safer road environment, more emphasis is required on population approaches that reduce risk among the whole population, with a balance between population and high-risk-individual approaches. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bridging the gap between preventive and restorative dentistry: identification of caries risk factors and strategies for minimizing risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragliano-Muniz, Pamela

    2013-10-01

    Following the introduction of CAMBRA (Caries Management by Risk Assessment) in 2007, a number of recommendations for office protocols were introduced, and many companies have formulated products and procedures for implementing CAMBRA. As a result, the implementation of a caries management program can be confounding and overwhelming to a dental practitioner. Understanding risk factors as they contribute to the caries process can help mitigate confusion and guide the practitioner when selecting materials for their practice. Ultimately, knowing how the risk factors play a role in the progression of dental caries will lead to appropriate risk management and product recommendations. The purpose of this article is to discuss the contribution of risk factors to the caries process and to introduce strategies that restorative dentists can utilize to minimize caries risk.

  8. Is the high-risk strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease equitable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Diderichsen, Finn; Krasnik, Allan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Statins are increasingly prescribed to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in asymptomatic individuals. Yet, it is unknown whether those at higher CVD risk - i.e. individuals in lower socio-economic position (SEP) - are adequately reached by this high-risk strategy. Aim......: To examine whether the Danish implementation of the strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) by initiating statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) therapy in high-risk individuals is equitable across socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Design: Cohort study. Setting and participants: Applying individual...

  9. Between Imperative and Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    While companies from small neutral states are frequently more vulnerable to the risks of doing business with or under dictatorial regimes than are companies from great powers, they are not helpless. This article shows that the strategy that both Danish and Swedish companies selected according...... to their economic cooperation with Germany and German occupied territories were largely dictated by the choices that were made in the 1930s. The case of the Danish construction company Christiani & Nielsen in the period 1941–1945 shows that Scandinavian companies were not just passive elements in a bigger political...... game but were capable, to a certain degree, of promoting their own interests. This article reveals that the political imperative is not only a matter of political risk but also of political opportunity. The history of Christiani & Nielsen offers a useful case of the political risks and fiscal...

  10. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Colman, Ben; Grieger, Khara; Hendren, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Within toxicology there is a pressure to find new test systems and organisms to replace, reduce and refine animal testing. In nanoecotoxicology the need for alternative testing strategies (ATS) is further emphasized as the validity of tests and risk assessment practices developed for dissolved chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomater...

  11. Analysis of Supply Chain Risk Management Strategies: Case Study of Supply Chain Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Dias Carvalho; Leticia Ishikawa

    2016-01-01

    Supply Chain Risk Management refers to a set of strategies used by companies to avoid supply chain disruption caused by damage at production facilities, natural disasters, capacity issues, inventory problems, incorrect forecasts, and delays. Many companies use the techniques of the Toyota Production System, which in a way goes against a better management of supply chain risks. This paper studies key events in some multinationals to analyze the trade-off between the best supply chain risk mana...

  12. Optimal combined purchasing strategies for a risk-averse manufacturer under price uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our paper is to analyze optimal purchasing strategies when a manufacturer can buy raw materials from a long-term contract supplier and a spot market under spot price uncertainty. Design/methodology/approach: This procurement model can be solved by using dynamic programming. First, we maximize the DM’s utility of the second period, obtaining the optimal contract quantity and spot quantity for the second period. Then, maximize the DM’s utility of both periods, obtaining the optimal purchasing strategy for the first period. We use a numerical method to compare the performance level of a pure spot sourcing strategy with that of a mixed strategy. Findings: Our results show that optimal purchasing strategies vary with the trend of contract prices. If the contract price falls, the total quantity purchased in period 1 will decrease in the degree of risk aversion. If the contract price increases, the total quantity purchased in period 1 will increase in the degree of risk aversion. The relationship between the optimal contract quantity and the degree of risk aversion depends on whether the expected spot price or the contract price is larger in period 2. Finally, we compare the performance levels between a combined strategy and a spot sourcing strategy. It shows that a combined strategy is optimal for a risk-averse buyer. Originality/value: It’s challenging to deal with a two-period procurement problem with risk consideration. We have obtained results of a two-period procurement problem with two sourcing options, namely contract procurement and spot purchases. Our model incorporates the buyer’s risk aversion factor and the change of contract prices, which are not addressed in early studies.

  13. Transpacific Partnership (TPP Agreement. Is the commercial solution for political-military tension at the region? or Is an american strategy to diminish China influence in Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ramírez Zamudio

    2015-07-01

    several subjects, but they are members of one of the wealthiest regions in the world: Asia-Pacific and both of them attend the Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC, which main goal is to establish a Free Trade Area for the 21 member economies by 2020. Unfortunately, Apec’s goal has been delayed by the lack of consensus among its members. Since 2011, the United States and other Apec Apec’s members have openly supported The Transpacific Partnership Agreement (TPP, which could be a brilliant strategy to boost the members’ economic growth through their commercial linkage in Asia-Pacific. However, the fact that China has not been invited by the U.S. to TPP poses the question of whether this strategy has intentions beyond its economic interests and seeks to diminish China’s economic political influence in Asia. If the American administration intends to exclude China from this ambitious economic integration, the Tpp’s potential will never be reached.

  14. Space, politics, and the political

    OpenAIRE

    dikec, mustafa

    1987-01-01

    International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...

  15. Occupational health risks and intervention strategies for US taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kate E; Buul, Abdimalik; Aden, Rasheed; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Kidane, Luwam; Hussein, Mikaiil; Eastman, Amelia; Checkoway, Harvey

    2017-12-02

    Research has shown that taxi drivers are at risk for numerous health concerns, such as low back and leg pain, linked to their highly sedentary occupation, long work hours and stressors related to the job (e.g. low income, safety threats). The goal of this study was to explore occupational health risks and opportunities for health interventions with taxi drivers using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. A mixed methods approach included first a convenience sample of 19 East African taxi drivers participating in focus group discussions. Second, a convenience sample of 75 current taxi drivers (M age = 45.7 years) and 25 non-driver comparison participants (M age = 40.3 years) were recruited to complete a structured self-reported questionnaire and objective measures of health. Health education was provided alongside the research to address common health concerns and to ensure mutual benefit and an action orientation. The focus groups described numerous health concerns that drivers attributed to their occupation, including chronic pain, sleep deprivation, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, kidney disease and eye problems, as the most common. Participants offered ideas for health interventions that include workplace reform and driver education. Quantitative data indicate that 44% of drivers reported their health as 'fair' or 'poor'. Drivers were more likely to report musculoskeletal pain, less sleep, more fatigue and less physical activity as compared to non-drivers. The majority of drivers reported financial and job dissatisfaction. The research provides data to inform targeted health interventions that support the health and safety of taxi drivers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. 'When you use the term 'long term', how long is that term'. Risk, Exclusion, and the Politics of Knowledge Production in Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Policy Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Risk operates within Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste (NFW) management policy making as a heuristic for knowledge production about its effects which reconciles the knowledge of the nuclear industry with the outcomes of the NFW management process. In so doing it marginalizes the present and historical experiences of Aboriginal peoples with the nuclear industry, and removes from view the ways in which they have been implicated in the geography and political economy of the nuclear industry. Risk is a discursive form that protects a particular group's claims about the effects of NFW by providing it a universalizing epistemological structure with which to obscure its connection to context. Further risk discourse provides the nuclear industry with a conceptual vocabulary that deliberately casts all competing knowledge as perceptions, values, or as an object of inquiry. The arguments of Aboriginal peoples about the residual effects of radiation in their lands which hosted nuclear activities, such as uranium mining and disposal, have no representation in how the discourse of risk defines and represents knowledge, and thus no purchase in the policy debate. As a result the challenge they present to the nuclear industry's claims are contained. The arrangements which permit the unloading of the negative effects of nuclear power generation onto Aboriginal peoples are thus reproduced (both materially and conceptually), but not shown, by the policy making process and likely, its outcome. In order to raise critical questions about the democratic abilities of risk, this paper has examined the role of 'risk' in Canadian NFW policy making. I have shown how when the politics of knowledge production within the philosophy of risk is analyzed, and the use and role of the notion of risk are interrogated, difficult questions are posed for the democratic potential of risk. I have suggested, through an analysis of the NWMO's representations of Aboriginal content in their process, that in this

  17. 'Man Up': the importance and strategy for placing male reproductive health centre stage in the political and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Christopher L R; De Jonge, Christopher J; Sharpe, Richard M

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 20 young men today have sperm counts low enough to impair fertility, whereas this may not have been the case historically. The cause(s) of such a decline in male reproductive health is unknown, despite it being a global health issue. Concomitantly, little progress has been made in answering fundamental questions in andrology or in developing new diagnostic tools or alternative management strategies to ICSI in infertile men. We advocate formulation of a detailed roadmap for male reproductive health to facilitate development of a research agenda that highlights the present unmet needs and key unanswered questions, and seeks to deliver effective funding and investment to address them. This vision we term 'a Male Reproductive Health Ecosystem'.

  18. Performing Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. E. Paddock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  19. Failure to engage the public in issues related to inland fishes and fisheries: strategies for building public and political will to promote meaningful conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, S J; Lapointe, N W R; Martins, E G; Thiem, J D; Raby, G D; Taylor, M K; Beard, T D; Cowx, I G

    2013-10-01

    Generating awareness of environmental conservation issues among the public is essential if there is an expectation of them to alter their behaviour, facilitate informed decisions and engage governments or regulatory authorities to take action. There are, however, exceedingly few public engagement success stories related to inland fishes and fisheries policy and resource allocation decisions. Inland aquatic resources and their associated fisheries provide employment, recreation, culture and, in developing regions, a considerable proportion of human nutrition and food security. Freshwater fishes are incredibly diverse but are among the most endangered organisms globally. Many threats to inland fisheries are driven largely by externalities to inland fisheries. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the role and plight of inland fishes and fisheries, and the need to generate the public and political will necessary to promote meaningful conservation. With this paper, the extent to which the scientific and environmental management communities have failed to engage the public in issues related to inland fishes and fisheries is characterized. Next, the barriers or factors that serve as the basis for the problem with public engagement are identified. The paper concludes by identifying strategies, including those focused on environmental education initiatives, for building the public and political will necessary to promote meaningful conservation of inland fishes and fisheries in developed and developing countries. Scientists, environmental managers, non-governmental organizations, politicians, regulatory authorities and the media all have important roles to play in overcoming challenges to inland fisheries. Failure to engage the public in freshwater conservation and management issues will impede efforts to stem the loss of freshwater habitats, fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. Thankfully, there are opportunities to learn from success stories related to other

  20. Teaching Politically without Political Correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…

  1. Risk perception and communication strategies for the disposal of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghizadegan, R.; Tschurlovits, M.

    2005-01-01

    The public perception of the risk due to disposal of nuclear material depends less on risk as a quantifiable measure, but rather on particular patterns of societal communication. Only an understanding of these patterns and the underlying motives permits effective risk communication in the form of a risk dialogue. Risk becomes a social code word and risk communication a social process, which is determined by ''rituals'' like stigmas and taboos on one hand, and on the other hand competing world views. The latter are analyzed by means of ''Cultural Theory'' and thus diverging perceptions of risks are explained. Finally, some communication strategies on the risks and uncertainties of the disposal of nuclear material are presented. (orig.)

  2. Strategies to Modify the Risk of Heart Failure Readmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T. H. Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human factors play an important role in health-care outcomes of heart failure (HF patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trial studies on HF hospitalization may yield positive proofs of the beneficial effect of specific care management strategies. Purpose: To investigate how the 8 guiding principles of choice, rest, environment, activity, trust, interpersonal relationships, outlook, and nutrition reduce HF readmissions. Basic Procedures: Appropriate keywords were identified related to the (1 independent variable of hospitalization and treatment, (2 the moderating variable of care management principles, (3 the dependent variable of readmission, and (4 the disease of HF to conduct searches in 9 databases. Databases searched included CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ERIC, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycInfo, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Only prospective studies associated with HF hospitalization and readmissions, published in English, Chinese, Spanish, and German journals between January 1, 1990, and August 31, 2015, were included in the systematic review. In the meta-analysis, data were collected from studies that measured HF readmission for individual patients. Main Findings: The results indicate that an intervention involving any human factor principles may nearly double an individual’s probability of not being readmitted. Participants in interventions that incorporated single or combined principles were 1.4 to 6.8 times less likely to be readmitted. Principal Conclusions: Interventions with human factor principles reduce readmissions among HF patients. Overall, this review may help reconfigure the design, implementation, and evaluation of clinical practice for reducing HF readmissions in the future.

  3. Evaluation of Risk Management Strategies for a Low-Cost, High-Risk Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).

  4. Development of risk-based air quality management strategies under impacts of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Amar, Praveen; Tagaris, Efthimios; Russell, Armistead G

    2012-05-01

    Climate change is forecast to adversely affect air quality through perturbations in meteorological conditions, photochemical reactions, and precursor emissions. To protect the environment and human health from air pollution, there is an increasing recognition of the necessity of developing effective air quality management strategies under the impacts of climate change. This paper presents a framework for developing risk-based air quality management strategies that can help policy makers improve their decision-making processes in response to current and future climate change about 30-50 years from now. Development of air quality management strategies under the impacts of climate change is fundamentally a risk assessment and risk management process involving four steps: (1) assessment of the impacts of climate change and associated uncertainties; (2) determination of air quality targets; (3) selections of potential air quality management options; and (4) identification of preferred air quality management strategies that minimize control costs, maximize benefits, or limit the adverse effects of climate change on air quality when considering the scarcity of resources. The main challenge relates to the level of uncertainties associated with climate change forecasts and advancements in future control measures, since they will significantly affect the risk assessment results and development of effective air quality management plans. The concept presented in this paper can help decision makers make appropriate responses to climate change, since it provides an integrated approach for climate risk assessment and management when developing air quality management strategies. Development of climate-responsive air quality management strategies is fundamentally a risk assessment and risk management process. The risk assessment process includes quantification of climate change impacts on air quality and associated uncertainties. Risk management for air quality under the impacts of

  5. Low-cost risk reduction strategy for small workplaces: how can we spread good practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in health risk reduction approaches are examined based on inter-country networking experiences. A noteworthy progress is the wider application of low-cost improvements to risk reduction particularly in small enterprises and agriculture in both industrially developing and developed countries. This is helped by the readiness of managers and workers to implement these improvements despite many constraints. Typical improvements include mobile racks, simple workstation changes, screening hazards, better welfare facilities and teamwork arrangements. In view of the complex circumstances of work-related health risks, it is important to know whether a low-cost strategy can advance risk reduction practices effectively and what support measures are necessary. It is confirmed that the strategy can overcome related constraints through its advantages. Main advantages lie in (a) the facilitation of improved practices in multiple technical areas, (b) the strengthening of realistic stepwise risk reduction, and (c) the enhanced multiplier effects through training of local trainers. Action-oriented risk assessment tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, can encourage risk-reducing measures adjusted to each local situation. It is suggested to spread the low-cost risk reduction strategy for improving small workplaces in diversified settings with the support of these locally tailored tools.

  6. Houston's Novel Strategy to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants: A Case Study in Policy Innovation and Political Stalemate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Although ambient concentrations have declined steadily over the past 30 years, Houston has recorded some of the highest levels of hazardous air pollutants in the United States. Nevertheless, federal and state regulatory efforts historically have emphasized compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, treating "air toxics" in Houston as a residual problem to be solved through application of technology-based standards. Between 2004 and 2009, Mayor Bill White and his administration challenged the well-established hierarchy of air quality management spelled out in the Clean Air Act, whereby federal and state authorities are assigned primacy over local municipalities for the purpose of designing and implementing air pollution control strategies. The White Administration believed that existing regulations were not sufficient to protect the health of Houstonians and took a diversity of both collaborative and combative policy actions to mitigate air toxic emissions from stationary sources. Opposition was substantial from a local coalition of entrenched interests satisfied with the status quo, which hindered the city's attempts to take unilateral policy actions. In the short term, the White Administration successfully raised the profile of the air toxics issue, pushed federal and state regulators to pay more attention, and induced a few polluting facilities to reduce emissions. But since White left office in 2010, air quality management in Houston has returned to the way it was before, and today there is scant evidence that his policies have had any lasting impact.

  7. Collective strategy for facing occupational risks of a nursing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loro, Marli Maria; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner

    2017-03-09

    To socialize an educational action through the process of group discussion and reflection, with the aim to increase the care of nursing workers in facing occupational risks. A qualitative descriptive study using the Convergent Care Research modality with nursing staff working in an emergency department of a hospital in the northwest region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data collection was carried out through educational workshops and information was processed using content analysis, resulting in two thematic categories: A look at the knowledge and practices about occupational risks in nursing; and adherence to protective measures by the nursing team against occupational risks. Twenty-four (24) workers participated in the study. When challenged to critically look at their actions, the subjects found that they relate the use of safety devices to situations in which they are aware of the patient's serological status. Subjects' interaction, involvement and co-responsibility in the health education process were determinant for their reflection on risky practices. They also had the potential to modify unsafe behaviors. Socializar uma ação educativa, por meio de um processo de discussão e reflexão em grupo, com vistas a ampliar o cuidado dos trabalhadores de enfermagem frente aos riscos ocupacionais. Estudo qualitativo, descritivo na modalidade Pesquisa Convergente Assistencial, com trabalhadores da equipe de enfermagem que atuavam no pronto atendimento de um hospital da região noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de oficinas educativas, e o tratamento das informações, por análise de conteúdo, resultando em duas categorias temáticas: Um olhar direcionado a saberes e práticas sobre riscos ocupacionais na enfermagem e Adesão às medidas de proteção pela equipe de enfermagem frente aos riscos ocupacionais. Integraram o estudo 24 trabalhadores. Ao serem desafiados a olhar criticamente sobre seu fazer, os

  8. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  9. Mitigating Corporate Water Risk: Financial Market Tools and Supply Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Larson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A decision framework for business water-risk response is proposed that considers financial instruments and supply management strategies. Based on available and emergent programmes, companies in the agricultural, commodities, and energy sectors may choose to hedge against financial risks by purchasing futures contracts or insurance products. These strategies address financial impacts such as revenue protection due to scarcity and disruption of direct operations or in the supply chain, but they do not directly serve to maintain available supplies to continue production. In contrast, companies can undertake actions in the watershed to enhance supply reliability and/or they can reduce demand to mitigate risk. Intermediate strategies such as purchasing of water rights or water trading involving financial transactions change the allocation of water but do not reduce overall watershed demand or increase water supply. The financial services industry is playing an increasingly important role, by considering how water risks impact decision making on corporate growth and market valuation, corporate creditworthiness, and bond rating. Risk assessment informed by Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR measures is described, and the role of the financial services industry is characterised. A corporate decision framework is discussed in the context of water resources management strategies under complex uncertainties.

  10. The formation basics of the national anti-corruption strategy in the context of the political transformations in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Novak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the current state to prevent corruption in Ukraine. Through the use of modern scientific methods, suggested new approaches to the study of corruption as a negative factor in the process of reforming public administration. Identified the problematic issues of formation of legal mechanism for combating corruption. Based on the analysis of publications of domestic scientists, the modern problems of theoretical and practical content of counteraction of corruption. Given the direction of the implementation of the state anti-corruption policy in the context of the demands of the international community. Special attention is paid to the formation of rational mechanism of fighting corruption in government. Went to his place the social dimensions of corruption counteraction in the direction of public dialogue and interaction between government, business and society. The issues of formation of national anti-corruption strategy In the article are investigated. A comprehensive review of theoretical and practical problems of forming anticorruption policy of the government as an element of public administration is implemented. The role of regulation as part of anti-corruption policy is shown. Clarified anti-social and anti-state nature and content of corruption through constitutional and legislative justification of the importance of prevention and counteraction of corruption in bodies of power. This article analyzes the conditions of forming anti-corruption legislation of Ukraine and suggests directions for the introduction of positive foreign experience of formation of anti-corruption policy. Identify practical recommendations on key ways to improve state anti-corruption policy.

  11. Risk-Averse Suppliers’ Optimal Pricing Strategies in a Two-Stage Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk-averse suppliers’ optimal pricing strategies in two-stage supply chains under competitive environment are discussed. The suppliers in this paper focus more on losses as compared to profits, and they care their long-term relationship with their customers. We introduce for the suppliers a loss function, which covers both current loss and future loss. The optimal wholesale price is solved under situations of risk neutral, risk averse, and a combination of minimizing loss and controlling risk, respectively. Besides, some properties of and relations among these optimal wholesale prices are given as well. A numerical example is given to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  12. General strategy for the protection of organs at risk in IMRT therapy of a moving body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolfath, Ramin M.; Papiez, Lech [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    We investigated protection strategies of organs at risk (OARs) in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These strategies apply to delivery of IMRT to moving body anatomies that show relative displacement of OAR in close proximity to a tumor target. We formulated an efficient genetic algorithm which makes it possible to search for global minima in a complex landscape of multiple irradiation strategies delivering a given, predetermined intensity map to a target. The optimal strategy was investigated with respect to minimizing the dose delivered to the OAR. The optimization procedure developed relies on variability of all parameters available for control of radiation delivery in modern linear accelerators, including adaptation of leaf trajectories and simultaneous modification of beam dose rate during irradiation. We showed that the optimization algorithms lead to a significant reduction in the dose delivered to OAR in cases where organs at risk move relative to a treatment target.

  13. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  14. Political Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Casey B. Mulligan; Kevin K. Tsui

    2006-01-01

    Political competitiveness - which many interpret as the degree of democracy - can be modeled as a monopolistic competition. All regimes are constrained by the threat of "entry," and thereby seek some combination of popular support and political entry barriers. This simple model predicts that many public policies are unrelated to political competitiveness, and that even unchallenged nondemocratic regimes should tax far short of their Laffer curve maximum. Economic sanctions, odious debt repudi...

  15. Political Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    DeFriez, Joshua; Larsen, Justine; Hilton, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Environmental legislation is commonly accepted as an altruistic approach to land management. A closer examination however, reveals that political incentives and flawed arguments consistently shape U.S. environmental policy at high public costs. As student fellows at the Institute of Political Economy at Utah State University, we have had the opportunity to research this subject under the direction of Professor Randy Simmons. Political Ecology is his upcoming book that explores a variety of en...

  16. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  17. Political administration

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2000-01-01

    One of the major discussions of the 1990s has been about the relation between politics and administration. The themes of the discussions have been many and varied. It has been suggested that the level of politics should concentrate on the general political outlining and entrust the remaining to the administration. It has been criticised that politicians make their decisions on the basis of single cases, which ought to be an administrative matter entirely. It has been a theme that efficient op...

  18. The efficiency of asset management strategies to reduce urban flood risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, J A E; Clemens, F H L R

    2011-01-01

    In this study, three asset management strategies were compared with respect to their efficiency to reduce flood risk. Data from call centres at two municipalities were used to quantify urban flood risks associated with three causes of urban flooding: gully pot blockage, sewer pipe blockage and sewer overloading. The efficiency of three flood reduction strategies was assessed based on their effect on the causes contributing to flood risk. The sensitivity of the results to uncertainty in the data source, citizens' calls, was analysed through incorporation of uncertainty ranges taken from customer complaint literature. Based on the available data it could be shown that increasing gully pot blockage is the most efficient action to reduce flood risk, given data uncertainty. If differences between cause incidences are large, as in the presented case study, call data are sufficient to decide how flood risk can be most efficiently reduced. According to the results of this analysis, enlargement of sewer pipes is not an efficient strategy to reduce flood risk, because flood risk associated with sewer overloading is small compared to other failure mechanisms.

  19. Longitudinal Youth-At-Risk Study (LYRIKS): outreach strategies based on a community-engaged framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Natasha; Nah, Guo Quan Ryan; Bong, Yioe Ling; Lee, Jimmy; Chong, Siow-Ann

    2014-08-01

    Schizophrenia and psychoses are debilitating disorders often leading to serious functional impairments. Early detection efforts have shifted focus to the prodromal phase and the emphasis is now on individuals at risk of developing psychosis. The Longitudinal Youth-At-Risk Study (LYRIKS) seeks to elucidate the biological markers of psychosis. This paper describes the application of a community-engaged framework to the outreach strategies of LYRIKS. It describes the outreach goals, strategies used and their impact, as well as the various challenges faced by the research team and community partners. The target population was defined. Community organizations having close ties with the target population were identified and approached for collaboration. These included educational and healthcare institutions, and government and welfare organizations. Strategies were categorized as active or passive. Active strategies included clinical screening and recruitment, workshops, roadshows and student internships. Passive strategies included utilizing print and social media. Three thousand three hundred twenty-one youth were approached and 401 called the hotline to find out more about the study. Three thousand five hundred one were pre-screened; 864 were further screened using the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental State. One hundred seventy-eight and 346 were eventually recruited as subjects and controls, respectively. Challenges encountered included differing priorities, maintaining collaborative relationships, stigmatization and inadequate understanding of the profile of at risk youth. Future community-engaged research should be conducted more comprehensively to generate maximum benefits. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Market Efficiency and the Risks and Returns of Dynamic Trading Strategies with Commodity Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Lorne N.; Jiang, Hui

    This paper investigates relationships between profits from dynamic trading strategies, risk premium, convenience yields, and net hedging pressures for commodity futures. As a market efficiency study, it crosses a number of disciplines, including traditional finance, behavioral finance, and behavioral psychology. The term structure of oil, gold, copper and soybeans futures markets contains predictive power for the corresponding term premium. However, only oil futures and soybean futures lead their spot premium. Significant momentum profits are identified in both outright futures and spread trading strategies when the spot premium and the term premium are used to form winner and loser portfolios. Profits from active strategies based on winner and loser portfolios are conditioned on market structure and net hedging pressure effects. Dynamic trading strategies based on contracts with extreme backwardation, extreme contango, and extreme hedging pressures are also tested. On average, spread trading outperforms outright futures trading in capturing the term structure risk and hedging pressure risk. For such strategies, long-short the long-term spread offers the greatest and most significant return and it offers the only exploitable trading profits built on the past hedging pressure. The existence of profits from active trading strategies based on winners is consistent with behavioral finance and behavioral psychology models in which market participants irrationally overreact to information and trends.

  1. Strategy for prioritizing whistleblowing with potential risks related to health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fernandes Barros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Sanitary Surveillance of Health Services receives daily denunciations that refer to situations of risk that can hardly be measured quantitatively and attribute to some type of specific damage, in a context of great uncertainty. Objective: Considering such situations should be adequately addressed under the health risk paradigm, this work had as objective identifying notions about risk and its forms of analysis in the scope of Sanitary Surveillance of Health Services, as well as the existence of strategies and models in the analysis and treatment of denunciations. Method: An extensive literature review (through the Regional Portal of the BVS, databases SciELO and SciELO Books, and the journal Visa em Debate was conducted. Results: Although the results point to a relatively recent discussion regarding the model of potential risk analysis as an operational concept for the field of health surveillance in health services, there is no description of strategies or models applied to the analysis or treatment of whistleblowing. Thus, it is discussed and proposed a strategy for the initial analysis of reports with potential risk, which seeks to bring minimally objective criteria, in a field marked by enormous subjectivity. Conclusions: We conclude by indicating that the presented strategy is an initial instrument for the management of whistleblowing that must be discussed and adapted to the reality and context of health surveillance agencies.

  2. Coping strategies and self-esteem in the high-risk offspring of bipolar parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodday, Sarah M; Bentall, Richard; Jones, Steven; Weir, Arielle; Duffy, Anne

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated whether there were differences in coping strategies and self-esteem between offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (high-risk) and offspring of unaffected parents (control), and whether these psychological factors predicted the onset and recurrence of mood episodes. High-risk and control offspring were followed longitudinally as part of the Flourish Canadian high-risk bipolar offspring cohort study. Offspring were clinically assessed annually by a psychiatrist using semi-structured interviews and completed a measure of coping strategies and self-esteem. In high-risk offspring, avoidant coping strategies significantly increased the hazard of a new onset Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition twice revised mood episode or recurrence (hazard ratio: 1.89, p = 0.04), while higher self-esteem significantly decreased this hazard (hazard ratio: 2.50, p Self-esteem and avoidant coping significantly interacted with one another ( p self-esteem. A reduction of avoidant coping strategies in response to stress and improvement of self-esteem may be useful intervention targets for preventing the new onset or recurrence of a clinically significant mood disorder among individuals at high familial risk.

  3. [Strategies and key technologies for risk control and management in quality of Chinese medicine injections based on integrated pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-ping; Kang, Li-yuan; Tang, Ren-mao; Li, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the quality risk control and management of Chinese medicine (CM) injections. The most important technological requirements are analyzed, and a strategy for integrated pharmacology to study CM mechanism is proposed. A key technology system for quality risk control and management was further constructed. The strategy and technology system was finally applied to Shengmai injection for quality risk control and management.

  4. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswari, S. Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R. Gnana

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain w...

  5. Dispatching strategies for coordinating environmental awareness and risk perception in wind power integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jingliang; Zhou, Dequn; Zhou, Peng; Qian, Shuqu; Zhang, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    Wind power plays a significant role in economic and environmental operation of electric power system. Meanwhile, the variability and uncertainty characteristics of wind power generation bring technical and economical challenges for power system operation. In order to harmonize the relationship between environmental protection and risk management in power dispatching, this paper presents a stochastic dynamic economic emission dispatch model combining risk perception with environmental awareness of decision-makers by following the principle of chance-constrained programming. In this power dispatching model, the description of wind power uncertainty is derived from the probability statistic character of wind speed. Constraints-handling techniques as a heuristic strategy are embedded into non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. In addition, more information is digested from the Pareto optimum solution set by cluster analysis and fuzzy set theory. The simulation results eventually demonstrate that the increase of the share of wind power output will bring higher risk, though it is beneficial for economic cost and environmental protection. Since different risk perception and environmental awareness can possibly lead to diverse non-dominated solutions, decision-makers may choose an appropriate dispatching strategy according to their specific risk perception and environmental awareness. - Highlights: • A dispatch model combining environmental awareness and risk perception is proposed. • The uncertain characteristic of available wind power is determined. • Constraints-handling techniques are embedded into genetic algorithm. • An appropriate decision-making method is designed. • Dispatching strategies can be coordinated by the proposed model and method.

  6. Making sense of the future: The information search strategies of construction practitioners in exploring the risk landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stingl, Verena; Maytorena-Sanchez, Eunice

    This paper explores the cognitive strategies that construction practitioners rely on when searching to identify risks in a simulated project. By using the active information search methodology in interviews with 45 industry practitioners, we were able to distinguish three stereotypical information...... search strategies that provide indication for the underlying cognitive strategies. The paper furthermore discusses the impact of the followed cognitive strategy on risk identification performance....

  7. Analysis Community’s Coping Strategies and Local Risk Governance Framework in Relation to Landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Setiawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of people perception and analysis of the coping strategy to landslides are the two elements that are es-sential to determine the level of preparedness of communities to landslides. To know the preparedness of government and other stakeholders in facing landslide, the analysis risk governance framework was required. A survey using questionnaires with random sampling was applied to assess the level of people perception and people coping strategy related to landslide. Analysis of risk governance frame work was done at the district and sub-district level. ἀe study found that people perception related with landslide dominated by high and moderate level. Age and education are two factors that inḀuence the people’s perception to landslide. Local people applied four types coping strategy, which are: economic, structural, social and cultural coping strategy. Totally, 51.6% respondents have high level, 33.3% have moderate level and only 15.1% respondents that have low level of coping strategy. ἀe factors that inḀuence the level of coping strategy are education, income and building type.  Analysis of risk governance framework is limited to the three components including stakeholder involvement, risk management and risk communication. Based on the data analysis, the level of stakeholder involvement at the district scope was categorized on the moderate till high and the level of stakeholder involvement at sub-district level was categorized on the high level. Generally, the risk management of Karanganyar was categorized on the moderate level and high level and the risk management in Tawangmangu was categorized on the moderate level. ἀere are some elements must be improved on the risk governance framework, those are data management, the pattern of relationships among stakeholders, increased participation of NGOs, constructed and updated landslide risk map, enhancement of microᴀnance role in helping the com-munity when disaster strikes

  8. Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios

    Full Text Available Distracted driving is one of the most significant human factor issues in transport safety. Mobile phone interactions while driving may involve a multitude of cognitive and physical resources that result in inferior driving performance and reduced safety margins. The current study investigates characteristics of usage, risk factors, compensatory strategies in use and characteristics of high-frequency offenders of mobile phone use while driving. A series of questions were administered to drivers in Queensland (Australia using an on-line questionnaire. A total of 484 drivers (34.9% males and 49.8% aged 17-25 participated anonymously. At least one of every two motorists surveyed reported engaging in distracted driving. Drivers were unable to acknowledge the increased crash risk associated with answering and locating a ringing phone in contrast to other tasks such as texting/browsing. Attitudes towards mobile phone usage were more favourable for talking than texting or browsing. Lowering the driving speed and increasing the distance from the vehicle in front were the most popular task-management strategies for talking and texting/browsing while driving. On the other hand, keeping the mobile phone low (e.g. in the driver's lap or on the passenger seat was the favourite strategy used by drivers to avoid police fines for both talking and texting/browsing. Logistic regression models were fitted to understand differences in risk factors for engaging in mobile phone conversations and browsing/texting while driving. For both tasks, exposure to driving, driving experience, driving history (offences and crashes, and attitudes were significant predictors. Future mobile phone prevention efforts would benefit from development of safe attitudes and increasing risk literacy. Enforcement of mobile phone distraction should be re-engineered, as the use of task-management strategies to evade police enforcement seems to dilute its effect on the prevention of this

  9. Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; King, Mark; Haque, Md Mazharul; Washington, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Distracted driving is one of the most significant human factor issues in transport safety. Mobile phone interactions while driving may involve a multitude of cognitive and physical resources that result in inferior driving performance and reduced safety margins. The current study investigates characteristics of usage, risk factors, compensatory strategies in use and characteristics of high-frequency offenders of mobile phone use while driving. A series of questions were administered to drivers in Queensland (Australia) using an on-line questionnaire. A total of 484 drivers (34.9% males and 49.8% aged 17-25) participated anonymously. At least one of every two motorists surveyed reported engaging in distracted driving. Drivers were unable to acknowledge the increased crash risk associated with answering and locating a ringing phone in contrast to other tasks such as texting/browsing. Attitudes towards mobile phone usage were more favourable for talking than texting or browsing. Lowering the driving speed and increasing the distance from the vehicle in front were the most popular task-management strategies for talking and texting/browsing while driving. On the other hand, keeping the mobile phone low (e.g. in the driver's lap or on the passenger seat) was the favourite strategy used by drivers to avoid police fines for both talking and texting/browsing. Logistic regression models were fitted to understand differences in risk factors for engaging in mobile phone conversations and browsing/texting while driving. For both tasks, exposure to driving, driving experience, driving history (offences and crashes), and attitudes were significant predictors. Future mobile phone prevention efforts would benefit from development of safe attitudes and increasing risk literacy. Enforcement of mobile phone distraction should be re-engineered, as the use of task-management strategies to evade police enforcement seems to dilute its effect on the prevention of this behaviour. Some

  10. Down-Side Risk Metrics as Portfolio Diversification Strategies across the Global Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper features an analysis of the effectiveness of a range of portfolio diversification strategies, with a focus on down-side risk metrics, as a portfolio diversification strategy in a European market context. We apply these measures to a set of daily arithmetically-compounded returns, in U.S. dollar terms, on a set of ten market indices representing the major European markets for a nine-year period from the beginning of 2005 to the end of 2013. The sample period, which incorporates the periods of both the Global Financial Crisis (GFC and the subsequent European Debt Crisis (EDC, is a challenging one for the application of portfolio investment strategies. The analysis is undertaken via the examination of multiple investment strategies and a variety of hold-out periods and backtests. We commence by using four two-year estimation periods and a subsequent one-year investment hold out period, to analyse a naive 1/N diversification strategy and to contrast its effectiveness with Markowitz mean variance analysis with positive weights. Markowitz optimisation is then compared to various down-side investment optimisation strategies. We begin by comparing Markowitz with CVaR, and then proceed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of Markowitz with various draw-down strategies, utilising a series of backtests. Our results suggest that none of the more sophisticated optimisation strategies appear to dominate naive diversification.

  11. HIV sexual transmission risk among serodiscordant couples: assessing the effects of combining prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry, Arielle; Sansom, Stephanie L; Wolitski, Richard J; Green, Timothy A; Borkowf, Craig B; Patel, Pragna; Mermin, Jonathan

    2014-06-19

    The number of strategies to prevent HIV transmission has increased following trials evaluating antiretroviral therapy (ART), preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and male circumcision. Serodiscordant couples need guidance on the effects of these strategies alone, and in combination with each other, on HIV transmission. We estimated the sexual risk of HIV transmission over 1-year and 10-year periods among male-male and male-female serodiscordant couples. We assumed the following reductions in transmission: 80% from consistent condom use; 54% from circumcision in the negative male partner of a heterosexual couple; 73% from circumcision in the negative partner of a male-male couple; 71% from PrEP in heterosexual couples; 44% from PrEP in male-male couples; and 96% from ART use by the HIV-infected partner. For couples using any single prevention strategy, a substantial cumulative risk of HIV transmission remained. For a male-female couple using only condoms, estimated risk over 10 years was 11%; for a male-male couple using only condoms, estimated risk was 76%. ART use by the HIV-infected partner was the most effective single strategy in reducing risk; among male-male couples, adding consistent condom use was necessary to keep the 10-year risk below 10%. Focusing on 1-year and longer term transmission probabilities gives couples a better understanding of risk than those illustrated by data for a single sexual act. Long-term transmission probabilities to the negative partner in serodiscordant couples can be high, though these can be substantially reduced with the strategic use of preventive methods, especially those that include ART.

  12. Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy: A vision for an innovative and integrated approach to managing the risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy Project Management Team

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy (CWFS) provides a vision for a new, innovative, and integrated approach to wildland fire management in Canada. It was developed under the auspices of the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers and seeks to balance the social, ecological, and economic aspects of wildland fire through a risk management framework that emphasizes hazard...

  13. A comparative risk assessment framework for wildland fire management: the 2010 cohesive strategy science report

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Calkin; Alan A. Ager; Matthew P. Thompson; Mark A. Finney; Danny C. Lee; Thomas M. Quigley; Charles W. McHugh; Karin L. Riley; Julie M. Gilbertson-Day

    2011-01-01

    The FLAME Act of 2009 requires the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and the U.S. Department of Interior to submit to Congress a Cohesive Wildfire Management Strategy. In this report, we explore the general science available for a risk-based approach to fire and fuels management and suggest analyses that may be applied at multiple scales to inform...

  14. Exploring Young Children's Understanding of Risks Associated with Internet Usage and Their Concepts of Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey, Lesley-Anne; Cupit, C. Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children's learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five-eight-year-old children's understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their…

  15. Strategies for Mitigation of Flood Risk in the Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study observes that for flood risk mitigation strategies to be effective in the Niger Delta, there is need for establishment of coastal management zone authority, land-use zoning, legislation, building codes, flood forecasting and warning systems, flood insurance and engineering control of the major river systems ...

  16. Positive Alpha and Negative Beta (A Strategy for Counteracting Systematic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Sonne Noddeboe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Undiversifiable (or systematic risk has long been an enemy of investors. Many countercyclical strategies have been developed to counter this. However, like all insurance types, these strategies are generally costly to implement, and over time can significantly reduce portfolio returns in long and extended bull markets. In this paper, we discuss an alternative technique, founded on the premise of physiological bias and risk-aversion. We take a behavioral discussion in order to contextualize the insurance like characteristics of option pricing and discuss how this can lead to a mispricing of the asymmetric relationship between the VIX and the S&P 500. To test this, we perform studies in which we find statistical inefficiencies, thereby making it possible to implement a method of hedging index option premium in a way that has displayed no monthly drawdowns in bullish periods, while still providing large returns in major sell-offs. The three versions of the strategy discussed have negative betas to the S&P 500, while exhibiting similar risk-adjusted excess returns over both bull and bear markets. Further, the performance generated over the entire period, for all three strategies, is highly statistically significant. The results challenge the weak form of the Efficient Market Hypothesis and provide evidence that the methods of hedging could be a valuable addition to an equity rich portfolio for the purpose of counteracting systematic risk.

  17. A Minimax Regret Analysis of Flood Risk Management Strategies Under Climate Change Uncertainty and Emerging Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der T.D.; Gabbert, S.; Weikard, H.P.; Ierland, van E.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamic application of the minimax regret (MR) decision criterion to identify robust flood risk management strategies under climate change uncertainty and emerging information. An MR method is developed that uses multiple learning scenarios, for example about sea level rise

  18. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  19. Word Problem Strategy for Latino English Language Learners at Risk for Math Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    "English Language Learners" (ELLs) at risk for "math disabilities" (MD) are challenged in solving word problems for numerous reasons such as (a) learning English as a second language, (b) limited experience using math vocabulary, and (c) lack of strategies to improve word-problem-solving skills. As a result of these…

  20. The effects of risk preferences in mixed-strategy equilibria of 2x2 games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, D.; Steiner, Jakub

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2007), s. 381-388 ISSN 0899-8256 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : risk preferences * mixed strategy equilibria Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2007

  1. India in search of right Universal Health Coverage (UHC) model: The risks of implementing UHC in the absence of political demand by the citizen

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Raman; Roy, Pritam

    2016-01-01

    Amid the global push for Universal Health Coverage (UHC), the agenda is being set for India′s health care. In the absence of a constitutional mandate, a national policy and citizen-led political demand for UHC, there exist specific risks in rushing toward its implementation in India. As the debate of UHC continues, the health-care delivery system in India is at cross roads. UHC in India could take two different trajectories. The first one takes India toward becoming "Global Bazaar" of morbidi...

  2. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  3. The projected impact of population and high-risk strategies for risk-factor control on coronary heart disease and stroke events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Erkki A; Laatikainen, Tiina; Philpot, Benjamin; Janus, Edward D; Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie; Dunbar, James A

    2011-01-03

    To model the impact of both population and high-risk strategies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes. A CVD risk-factor survey was carried out in rural south-eastern Australia from 2004 to 2006. Using a stratified random sample, data for 1116 participants aged 35-74 years were analysed. Applying the Framingham risk equations to risk-factor data, 5-year probabilities of a coronary heart disease event, stroke and cardiovascular event were calculated. The effect of different changes in risk factors were modelled to assess the extent to which cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by changing the risk factors at a population level (population strategy), among the high-risk individuals (high-risk strategy) or both. Among men, a population strategy could reduce cardiovascular events by 19.3% (193 per 1000 per 5 years), the high-risk strategy by 12.6% (126 per 1000) and a combined strategy by 24.1% (241 per 1000); and among women, by 21.9% (219 per 1000), 19.0% (190 per 1000) and 28.7% (287 per 1000), respectively. For prevention of CVD in Australia, it is important both to treat high-risk individuals and to reduce the mean risk-factor levels in the population. We show how risk-factor survey data can be used to set targets for prevention and to monitor progress in line with the recommendations of the National Preventative Health Taskforce.

  4. Safety risk management of underground engineering in China: Progress, challenges and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihu Qian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Underground construction in China is featured by large scale, high speed, long construction period, complex operation and frustrating situations regarding project safety. Various accidents have been reported from time to time, resulting in serious social impact and huge economic loss. This paper presents the main progress in the safety risk management of underground engineering in China over the last decade, i.e. (1 establishment of laws and regulations for safety risk management of underground engineering, (2 implementation of the safety risk management plan, (3 establishment of decision support system for risk management and early-warning based on information technology, and (4 strengthening the study on safety risk management, prediction and prevention. Based on the analysis of the typical accidents in China in the last decade, the new challenges in the safety risk management for underground engineering are identified as follows: (1 control of unsafe human behaviors; (2 technological innovation in safety risk management; and (3 design of safety risk management regulations. Finally, the strategies for safety risk management of underground engineering in China are proposed in six aspects, i.e. the safety risk management system and policy, law, administration, economy, education and technology.

  5. Strategies for risk management using the paper markets [to minimize oil price risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annesley, M.

    1993-01-01

    The severe price movement experienced within energy markets during the last few years have awakened significant interest in hedging, and other uses of the futures, options, forward and derivative markets, to minimise price risk. There are two basic strands of structure of the markets now available for risk mangement. The first of these is the Exchange markets (IPE, NYMEX, and SIMEX) providing various futures and options alternatives; the second is the forward cargo contracts. The liquidity in these forward cargo markets, is variable but the contracts do provide some hedging and price risk management opportunities, which supplement and complement the Exchange markets, particularly for the professional risk managers and market makers. A range of forward markets is potentially available serving all regions. The more recent development of widely used derivative contracts, notably the swaps and price triggering in physical sale contracts, gives further alternatives from which interested companies may choose. The derivative market, although by definition off-exchange' may use either the Exchanges, forward markets or various oil publications for establishing their prices. Therefore, Exchange futures and options, forward markets and either standard or individually tailored derivatives all provide possible solutions to the risk management needs of coping with today's volatile prices. (author)

  6. Strategies for Worksite Health Interventions to Employees with Elevated Risk of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Meng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic disease rates have become more prevalent in the modern American workforce, which has negative implications for workplace productivity and healthcare costs. Offering workplace health interventions is recognized as an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease progression, absenteeism, and healthcare costs as well as improve population health. This review documents intervention and evaluation strategies used for health promotion programs delivered in workplaces. Using predetermined search terms in five online databases, we identified 1,131 published items from 1995 to 2014. Of these items, 27 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria; reporting data from completed United States-based workplace interventions that recruited at-risk employees based on their disease or disease-related risk factors. A content rubric was developed and used to catalogue these 27 published field studies. Selected workplace interventions targeted obesity (n = 13, cardiovascular diseases (n = 8, and diabetes (n = 6. Intervention strategies included instructional education/counseling (n = 20, workplace environmental change (n = 6, physical activity (n = 10, use of technology (n = 10, and incentives (n = 13. Self-reported data (n = 21, anthropometric measurements (n = 17, and laboratory tests (n = 14 were used most often in studies with outcome evaluation. This is the first literature review to focus on interventions for employees with elevated risk for chronic diseases. The review has the potential to inform future workplace health interventions by presenting strategies related to implementation and evaluation strategies in workplace settings. These strategies can help determine optimal worksite health programs based on the unique characteristics of work settings and the health risk factors of their employee populations.

  7. A MAINTENANCE STRATEGY MODEL FOR STATIC EQUIPMENT USING INSPECTION METHODOLOGIES AND RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Visser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Mechanical equipment used on process plants can be categorised into two main types, namely static and rotating equipment. A brief survey at a number of chemical process plants indicated that a number of maintenance strategies exist and are used for rotating equipment. However, some of these strategies are not directly applicable to static equipment, although the risk-based inspection (RBI methodology has been developed for pressure vessels. A generalised risk-based maintenance strategy for all types of static equipment does not currently exist. This paper describes the development of an optimised model of inspection methodologies, maintenance strategies, and risk management principles that are generically applicable for static equipment. It enables maintenance managers and engineers to select an applicable maintenance strategy and inspection methodology, based on the operational and business risks posed by the individual pieces of equipment.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Meganiese toerusting wat op prosesaanlegte gebruik word kan in twee kategorieë verdeel word, naamlik statiese en roterende toerusting. 'n Bondige ondersoek by 'n aantal chemiese prosesaanlegte het aangedui dat 'n aantal strategieë vir instandhouding van roterende toerusting gebruik word, terwyl die risikogebaseerde inspeksiemetodologie wel vir drukvate gebruik word. 'n Algemene risikogebaseerde instandhoudingstrategie vir alle tipes statiese toerusting is egter nie tans beskikbaar nie. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van 'n geoptimeerde model van inspeksiemetodologieë, instandhoudingstrategieë, en risikobestuursbeginsels wat algemeen gebruik kan word vir statiese toerusting. Dit stel die instandhouding-bestuurders en -ingenieurs in staat om 'n instandhoudingstrategie en inspeksie-metodologie te kies, gebaseer op die operasionele en besigheidsrisiko's van die individuele toerusting.

  8. Communication strategies to address geohydrological risks: the POLARIS web initiative in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Pernice, Umberto; Bianchi, Cinzia; Marchesini, Ivan; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    Floods and landslides are common phenomena that cause serious damage and pose a severe threat to the population of Italy. The social and economic impact of floods and landslides in Italy is severe, and strategies to target the mitigation of the effects of these phenomena are needed. In the last few years, the scientific community has started to use web technology to communicate information on geohydrological hazards and the associated risks. However, the communication is often targeted at technical experts. In the attempt to communicate relevant information on geohydrological hazards with potential human consequences to a broader audience, we designed the POpoLazione A RISchio (POLARIS) website. POLARIS publishes accurate information on geohydrological risk to the population of Italy, including periodic reports on landslide and flood risk, analyses of specific damaging events and blog posts on landslide and flood events. By monitoring the access to POLARIS in the 21-month period between January 2014 and October 2015, we found that access increased during particularly damaging geohydrological events and immediately after the website was advertised by press releases. POLARIS demonstrates that the scientific community can implement suitable communication strategies that address different societal audiences, exploiting the role of mass media and social media. The strategies can help multiple audiences understand how risks can be reduced through appropriate measures and behaviours, contributing to increasing the resilience of the population to geohydrological risk.

  9. The Neighborhood Environment: Perceived Fall Risk, Resources, and Strategies for Fall Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy; Boltz, Marie

    2015-08-01

    To explore the experience of older adults in their neighborhood in relation to perceived fall risk, fear of falling (FOF), and resources/strategies for fall prevention. Fourteen older adults, 65 years of age and older from 3 urban senior centers, participated in this qualitative study. The semistructured interview guidelines and background questionnaire were developed by the researchers based on the literature and an existing measure of walkability. Both tools were refined based on pilot interviews with seniors. Collaizzi's phenomenological method was used for data analysis. Five themes emerged from the data: (a) The built environment contributes to perceived fall risk and FOF, (b) personal strategies used to adapt to perceived neighborhood fall risks-behavioral approaches, (c) resources for physical activity and safety, (d) barriers to physical activity and exercise, and (e) neighborhood features as a motivator. Urban-dwelling seniors perceive that neighborhood features contribute to or mitigate fall risk and FOF. Behavioral strategies are used by seniors to prevent outdoor falls. The findings can help clinicians develop targeted fall prevention interventions for well elders and help urban planners to design and retrofit urban environments to reduce fall risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 4: Markets and Risk Management Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Terry; Loedolff, Gerhard; Griffin, Rob; Kydd, Robert; Micali, Vince [Eskom (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 4 (WG4). WG4 will monitor the development of power markets, in particular from the market risk management point of view, including operational risks. It will assess various risk management strategies used by market players around the world and develop recommendations for a wider deployment of successful strategies. The report covers the project approach and outcomes.

  11. Managing uncertainties of hazard risks - adaptation strategies to sustain human security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, P.; Klose, C. D.

    2010-12-01

    With regard to severities of natural forces events, measures to mitigate associated hazard risks take place under high uncertainties (i.e., information entropy). In terms of decision making, this fog of uncertainties “tends to make things seem grotesque and larger than they really are." (v. Clausewitz) Thus, expected socioeconomic risks associated with nature- or human-triggered hazards range over a wide spectrum and make decision making processes often cumbersome (e.g, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2010 Mexican Golf coast oil spills). Here, we present strategies with several tactical measures to mitigate expected risks and improve human security. Both, hazard and vulnerability mitigation/reduction strategies will be discussed in the context of nature-triggered hazards (e.g., volcanic, atmospheric events) and human-triggered hazards (e.g., earthquakes, environmental changes).

  12. Risk management strategies on small-scale commercial farms in three zobatat of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the perceptions of small-scale commercial farmers in Eritrea of the importance of various risk responses are ascertained and analysed to gain insight into their risk-management strategies.  Data were elicited through a survey of 186 small-scale commercial farmers conducted in three zobatat (regions of Eritrea. Factor Analysis is used to investigate heterogeneity in sample farmers’ responses.  Results indicate that relatively more important risk responses include the use of internal and external sources of information, on-farm and off-farm diversification, choice of production system and product marketing arrangements. Farmers’ perceptions of risk responses vary according to farm type, geographical location, farm and farmer characteristics, as well as the existence of enterprise specific risk responses (e.g. livestock insurance and differences in the marketing regulations of various agricultural products.

  13. A framework for risk assessment and decision-making strategies in dangerous good transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, B; Currò, F; Palazzi, E; Pastorino, R

    2002-07-01

    The risk from dangerous goods transport by road and strategies for selecting road load/routes are faced in this paper, by developing an original site-oriented framework of general applicability at local level. A realistic evaluation of the frequency must take into account on one side inherent factors (e.g. tunnels, rail bridges, bend radii, slope, characteristics of neighborhood, etc.) on the other side factors correlated to the traffic conditions (e.g. dangerous goods trucks, etc.). Field data were collected on the selected highway, by systematic investigation, providing input data for a database reporting tendencies and intrinsic parameter/site-oriented statistics. The developed technique was applied to a pilot area, considering both the individual risk and societal risk and making reference to flammable and explosive scenarios. In this way, a risk assessment, sensitive to route features and population exposed, is proposed, so that the overall uncertainties in risk analysis can be lowered.

  14. Multinationals' Political Activities on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the international dimensions of multinationals' corporate political activities, focusing on an international issue - climate change - being implemented differently in a range of countries. Analyzing data from Financial Times Global 500 firms, it examines the influence on types and process of multinationals' political strategies, reckoning with institutional contexts and issue saliency. Findings show that the type of political activities can be characterized as an information strategy to influence policy makers toward market-based solutions, not so much withholding action on emission reduction. Moreover, multinationals pursue self-regulation, targeting a broad range of political actors. The process of political strategy is mostly one of collective action. International differences particularly surface in the type of political actors aimed at, with U.S. and Australian firms focusing more on non-government actors (voluntary programs) than European and Japanese firms. Influencing home-country (not host-country) governments is the main component of international political strategy on climate change

  15. Political Predation and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, Jean-Paul; Bates, Robert H; Biais, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    Economic growth occurs as resources are reallocated from the traditional sector to the more productive modern sector. Yet, the latter is more vulnerable to political predation. Hence, political risk hinders development. We analyse a politico-economic game between citizens and governments, whose type (benevolent or predatory) is unknown to the citizens. In equilibrium, opportunistic governments mix between predation and restraint. As long as restraint is observed, political expectations improv...

  16. A practical approach to assess depression risk and to guide risk reduction strategies in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, O.P.; Alfonso, H.; Pirkis, J; Kerse, N.; Sim, M.; Flicker, L.; Snowdon, J.; Draper, B.; Byrne, G.; Goldney, R.; Lautenschlager, N.T.; Stocks, N.; Scazufca, M.; Huisman, M.; Araya, R.; Pfaff, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many factors have been associated with the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms in later life, although this knowledge is yet to be translated into significant health gains for the population. This study gathered information about common modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors

  17. Environmental Strategies for Prevention of Drug Use and Risks in Clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A; Holder, Harold D; Voas, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Environmental prevention strategies in club settings where music and dance events are featured could provide an important new arena for the prevention of drug use and other risky behaviors (e.g., sexual risk taking, intoxication and drug use, aggression, and driving under the influence). Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) occur in clubs that attract young, emerging adults (18-25 years of age) and attract individuals who engage in various types of drug use. Borrowing from the environmental prevention studies that focus on reducing alcohol use and related problems, a model for drug prevention in the club setting is proposed. Initially, an overview of the relationships between EMDEs and drug use and other risky behaviors are presented. Next, rationales for environmental strategies are provided. Finally, an environmental approach to prevention of drug use and risky behaviors in clubs is described. This comprehensive set of environmental strategies, is designed to be mutually supportive and interactive. Environmental strategies are believed to provide potential for developing an efficacious prevention strategy. The environmental prevention approach presented here is composed of three intervention domains: (1) Mobilization, (2) Strategies for the Exterior Environment, and (3) Strategies for the Interior Environment.

  18. Operational risk in bank governance and control: How to save capital requirement through a risk transfer strategy. Evidences from a simulated case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Scannella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Operational risk management in banking has assumed such importance during the last decade. It has become increasingly important to measure, manage, and assess the impact of operational risk in the economics of banking. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how an effective operational risk management provides mitigating effects on capital-at-risk in banking. The paper provides evidences that an implementation of an operational risk transfer strategy reduces bank capital requirement. The paper adopts the loss distribution approach, the Monte Carlo simulation, and copula methodologies to estimate the regulatory capital and simulate an operational risk transfer strategy in banking.

  19. Infanticide as a male reproductive strategy has a nutritive risk effect in brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, S M J G; Reusch, C; Brunberg, S; Swenson, J E; Hackländer, K; Zedrosser, A

    2013-10-23

    Behavioural strategies to reduce predation risk can incur costs, which are often referred to as risk effects. A common strategy to avoid predation is spatio-temporal avoidance of predators, in which prey typically trade optimal resources for safety. Analogous with predator-prey theory, risk effects should also arise in species with sexually selected infanticide (SSI), in which females with dependent offspring avoid infanticidal males. SSI can be common in brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations and explains spatio-temporal segregation among reproductive classes. Here, we show that in a population with SSI, females with cubs-of-the-year had lower quality diets than conspecifics during the SSI high-risk period, the mating season. After the mating season, their diets were of similar quality to diets of their conspecifics. Our results suggest a nutritive risk effect of SSI, in which females with cubs-of-the-year alter their resource selection and trade optimal resources for offspring safety. Such risk effects can add to female costs of reproduction and may be widespread among species with SSI.

  20. Proactive surveillance of contact allergies: an important component of the risk management strategy for skin sensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowsey, Ian R

    2007-06-01

    Risk assessment serves to ensure that dermal exposure to skin sensitizers does not result in the acquisition of allergic skin disease. Traditionally, the approach adopted was one of comparative analysis, involving benchmarking against other allergens of known potency. More recently, efforts have been made to embrace a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) approach. However, the accuracy of any risk assessment is reflected in the extent to which it meets the fundamental objective stated above. Thus, clinical experience is of key importance. There exists the possibility for the originators of risk assessments relating to chemicals that possess skin-sensitizing potential to work directly with the clinical community to proactively obtain this experience through specific surveillance programmes. This forms the focus of this review article. The current status of the QRA approach is considered initially. A recently published example of one such surveillance programme that was undertaken as a collaborative initiative between industry and the clinical community is then reviewed. Finally, a possible strategy for the future is presented, in which it is suggested that surveillance strategies might be deployed in certain situations as an adjunct to the initial risk assessment. It is hoped that such a framework might further improve the efficacy of future approaches to skin sensitization risk assessment.

  1. Pastoral Herding Strategies and Governmental Management Objectives: Predation Compensation as a Risk Buffering Strategy in the Saami Reindeer Husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Tveraa, Torkild

    2011-08-01

    Previously it has been found that an important risk buffering strategy in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway is the accumulation of large herds of reindeer as this increases long-term household viability. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated how official policies, such as economic compensation for livestock losses, can influence pastoral strategies. This study investigated the effect of received predation compensation on individual husbandry units' future herd size. The main finding in this study is that predation compensation had a positive effect on husbandry units' future herd size. The effect of predation compensation, however, was nonlinear in some years, indicating that predation compensation had a positive effect on future herd size only up to a certain threshold whereby adding additional predation compensation had little effect on future herd size. More importantly, the effect of predation compensation was positive after controlling for reindeer density, indicating that for a given reindeer density husbandry units receiving more predation compensation performed better (measured as the size of future herds) compared to husbandry units receiving less compensation.

  2. Identifying postmenopausal women at high risk of fracture in populations: a comparison of three strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Diana S M; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Manfredonia, David; Abbott, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    To describe the prevalence of risk factors for women at high risk of fracture in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women who were not using hormone replacement therapy (HRT), to demonstrate how the estimated prevalence of women at high risk of future fracture is affected by the different criteria used for classification, and to characterize the populations identified and missed by each of the criteria. A key study objective was to compare the proportion of postmenopausal women at high risk of fracture in a managed care population using several different definitions of who is at high risk. The Osteoporosis Population-based Risk Assessment study, a randomized trial of three screening strategies. Conducted at Group Health Cooperative in western Washington state. Women aged 60 to 79 who had not used HRT for at least 12 months were chosen at random. In one of the trial arms, 428 women had their bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the hip and spine (L1-L4) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Minimum t scores and z scores at all sites were used for classification. Risk factors for fractures were assessed at the time of the BMD scan. Guidelines based on the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures classified 25.1% of the women as being at high risk of fracture, compared with 30.0% and 68.0% using World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and National Osteoporosis Foundation guidelines, respectively. Classification based on low BMD alone (WHO) failed to include more than 50% of women who had already experienced a clinical fracture. Prevalence of women at high risk of fracture not using HRT varies notably depending on the criteria used for identification. The criteria used to identify women to target for primary and secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures has major implications for population-based prevention strategies.

  3. Flash Flood Risk Perception in an Italian Alpine Region. From Research into Adaptive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolobig, A.; de Marchi, B.; Borga, M.

    2009-04-01

    Flash floods are characterised by short lead times and high levels of uncertainty. Adaptive strategies to face them need to take into account not only the physical characteristics of the hydro-geological phenomena, but also peoples' risk perceptions, attitudes and behaviours in case of an emergency. It is quite obvious that a precondition for an effective adaptation, e.g. in the case of a warning, is the awareness of being endangered. At the same time the perceptions of those at risk and their likely actions inform hazard warning strategies and recovery programmes following such events. Usually low risk awareness or "wrong perceptions" of the residents are considered among the causes of an inadequate preparedness or response to flash floods as well as a symptom of a scarce self-protection culture. In this paper we will focus on flood risk perception and on how research on this topic may contribute to design adaptive strategies and give inputs to flood policy decisions. We will report on a flood risk perception study of the population residing in four villages in an Italian Alpine Region (Trentino Alto-Adige), carried out between October 2005 and January 2006. A total of 400 standardised questionnaires were submitted to local residents by face to face interviews. The surveys were preceded by focus groups with officers from agencies in charge of flood risk management and semi-structured and in-depth interviews with policy, scientific and technical experts. Survey results indicated that people are not so worried about hydro-geological phenomena, and think that their community is more endangered than themselves. The knowledge of the territory and danger sources, the unpredictability of flash floods and the feeling of safety induced by structural devices are the main elements which make the difference in shaping residents' perceptions. The study also demonstrated a widespread lack of adoption of preparatory measures among residents, together with a general low

  4. Perceptions of football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Astrid; Wellmann, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player’s perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer) club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%). It included categories with (1) history of lower extremity injuries, (2) perceptions regarding risk factors and (3) regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2%) had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1%) and environmental factors (25.9%). The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25%) and uninjured players (0.0%). Nearly all players (91.5%) perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%). Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes. PMID:28459845

  5. Perceptions of football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Zech

    Full Text Available Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player's perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%. It included categories with (1 history of lower extremity injuries, (2 perceptions regarding risk factors and (3 regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2% had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1% and environmental factors (25.9%. The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25% and uninjured players (0.0%. Nearly all players (91.5% perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%. Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes.

  6. Spiritual Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Rambeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.

  7. Risk-based replacement strategies for redundant deteriorating reinforced concrete pipe networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adey, B.; Bernard, O.; Gerard, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an example of how predictive models of the deterioration of reinforced concrete pipes and the consequences of failure can be used to develop risk-based replacement strategies for redundant reinforced concrete pipe networks. It also shows how an accurate deterioration prediction can lead to a reduction of agency costs, and illustrates the limitation of the incremental intervention step algorithm. The main conclusion is that the use of predictive models, such as those developed by Oxand S.A., in the determination of replacement strategies for redundant reinforced concrete pipe networks can lead to a significant reduction in overall costs for the owner of the structure. (author)

  8. Maintaining Identity Political Culture In Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, AM; Sudrajat, A.; Affandi, A.; Raditya, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the portrayal of traditional political cultures in West Kalimantan Province, a growing of election process. Results showed that Political life in Indonesia leads to modern political culture after experiencing a change of paradigm of political life. Political life in Indonesia leads to modern political culture after experiencing a change of paradigm of political life. Beginning Indonesia’s independence in the Old Order Phase, the politics used using the ideological paradigm, subsequent to the New Order Period used the political paradigm of unification and simplification of political parties but in practice it became the strategy of the State’s rulers to facilitate subjugating its citizens. After entering the reform era, several phenomena of political culture are displayed, some are using modern paradigm by giving women the widest possible role in political parties, and so on. Besides that there is the opposite of displaying and practicing traditional political culture, this is as it runs in West Borneo Province. The change of political culture in the modern direction is different from the political culture of the citizens in terms of who will be chosen, most West Borneo Province residents determine their political choice by using traditional patterns.

  9. Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various {open_quotes}constraint levels{close_quotes} have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the {open_quotes}costs{close_quote} of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria.

  10. Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various open-quotes constraint levelsclose quotes have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the open-quotes costs close-quote of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria

  11. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  12. Exceeding customer expectations : new purchasing, contracting and risk management strategies for energy users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of understanding the expectations of an energy customer was discussed with particular emphasis on the following topics: credit and risk management, the buyers' and sellers' opportunity, service providers in transition, energy-industry noise, the uncertain buyer of electricity. Energy savings methods include new unbundled electricity purchase methods and new energy efficiency efforts. In addition, purchase options like fixed price, index, spot, and contract terms were examined. Risk management strategies for gas and power were dealt with, followed by an evaluation of energy proposals, especially concerning electricity. Some advice of how to select an energy consultant was offered, and the legal aspects of electricity contracting were discussed. figs

  13. Risk factors of mobile phone use while driving in Queensland: Prevalence, attitudes, crash risk perception, and task-management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Mark; Haque, Md. Mazharul; Washington, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Distracted driving is one of the most significant human factor issues in transport safety. Mobile phone interactions while driving may involve a multitude of cognitive and physical resources that result in inferior driving performance and reduced safety margins. The current study investigates characteristics of usage, risk factors, compensatory strategies in use and characteristics of high-frequency offenders of mobile phone use while driving. A series of questions were administered to drivers in Queensland (Australia) using an on-line questionnaire. A total of 484 drivers (34.9% males and 49.8% aged 17–25) participated anonymously. At least one of every two motorists surveyed reported engaging in distracted driving. Drivers were unable to acknowledge the increased crash risk associated with answering and locating a ringing phone in contrast to other tasks such as texting/browsing. Attitudes towards mobile phone usage were more favourable for talking than texting or browsing. Lowering the driving speed and increasing the distance from the vehicle in front were the most popular task-management strategies for talking and texting/browsing while driving. On the other hand, keeping the mobile phone low (e.g. in the driver’s lap or on the passenger seat) was the favourite strategy used by drivers to avoid police fines for both talking and texting/browsing. Logistic regression models were fitted to understand differences in risk factors for engaging in mobile phone conversations and browsing/texting while driving. For both tasks, exposure to driving, driving experience, driving history (offences and crashes), and attitudes were significant predictors. Future mobile phone prevention efforts would benefit from development of safe attitudes and increasing risk literacy. Enforcement of mobile phone distraction should be re-engineered, as the use of task-management strategies to evade police enforcement seems to dilute its effect on the prevention of this behaviour. Some

  14. Risk Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental Strategies, Nordic Workshop, Vedbæk 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poll, Christian

    . This report compiles the papers and presentations given at the workshop. The papers present and discuss the different assessment tools and procedures - for individual chemicals through hazard and risk assessments and for products, materials and services through life-cycle assessment. The report also contains......At a Nordic workshop on Product-oriented Environmental Strategies the roles of risk and hazard assessment and life cycle assessment of products in the future regulation of chemicals were discussed by participants representing administration, academia and industry from the Nordic countries...... summaries of the workshop discussions, including comparisons between tools and strategies, as these are presently applied in administrative practice. The report also contains an overview of the most used databases within these tools. In its conclusions, the report emphasises the need for administrators...

  15. Development of a Three-Level Risk Assessment Strategy for Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, N.; Cummins, E.

    The release of nanomaterials and, in particular, free nanoparticles into the environment from secondary sources such as industrial manufacturing and consumer products as well as from intentional environmental application has compelled a need for a broad and pre-emptive analysis of nanomaterial fate and transport in the environment and subsequent potential human exposure pathways. The novel and potentially reactive characteristics of nanomaterials have lead to predictions on potential undesirable ramifications of exposure to these materials on human health. The three-level risk assessment strategy presented in this work has its basis in qualitative model equations that represent the inter-relationships between the different material and process characteristics and environmental behaviors and their relationship to potential exposure scenarios. The factors that influence these behaviors are examined, and the potential application of this risk assessment strategy in a semi-quantitative model is considered.

  16. Cost-effectiveness and harm-benefit analyses of risk-based screening strategies for breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Vilaprinyo

    Full Text Available The one-size-fits-all paradigm in organized screening of breast cancer is shifting towards a personalized approach. The present study has two objectives: 1 To perform an economic evaluation and to assess the harm-benefit ratios of screening strategies that vary in their intensity and interval ages based on breast cancer risk; and 2 To estimate the gain in terms of cost and harm reductions using risk-based screening with respect to the usual practice. We used a probabilistic model and input data from Spanish population registries and screening programs, as well as from clinical studies, to estimate the benefit, harm, and costs over time of 2,624 screening strategies, uniform or risk-based. We defined four risk groups, low, moderate-low, moderate-high and high, based on breast density, family history of breast cancer and personal history of breast biopsy. The risk-based strategies were obtained combining the exam periodicity (annual, biennial, triennial and quinquennial, the starting ages (40, 45 and 50 years and the ending ages (69 and 74 years in the four risk groups. Incremental cost-effectiveness and harm-benefit ratios were used to select the optimal strategies. Compared to risk-based strategies, the uniform ones result in a much lower benefit for a specific cost. Reductions close to 10% in costs and higher than 20% in false-positive results and overdiagnosed cases were obtained for risk-based strategies. Optimal screening is characterized by quinquennial or triennial periodicities for the low or moderate risk-groups and annual periodicity for the high-risk group. Risk-based strategies can reduce harm and costs. It is necessary to develop accurate measures of individual risk and to work on how to implement risk-based screening strategies.

  17. Destructiveness in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Яна Александровна Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Destructiveness is among the fundamental discourse categories that play a significant role in the organization of communicative interaction and define the pragmatics of discourse; its study helps to understand some mechanisms and principles of communication, identify strategies and tactics used by a destructive communicative personality. The relevance of this study is determined by the increasing aggressiveness in various types of discourse, and, accordingly, by the need to extend the knowledge of destructive behavior of a communicative personality. The study is based on the theory of discourse-analysis and theory of destructiveness (Z. Harris, T. van Dijk, A. Buss, E. Fromm, D. Ponton, K. Hacker, R. Wodak. N. Arutyunova, V. Karasik, M. Makarov, E. Sheigal et al. Developing the theory of destructiveness and relying on Erich Fromm’s research (1973, we specify the concept of “destructiveness” in relation to the political discourse and compare it with the related concept of aggressiveness. The paper analyses the category of destructiveness in modern US political discourse, using excerpts from the speeches of the candidates for presidency of 2016. Particular attention is paid to the dominant destructive intention - to harm the reputation of the opponent and reduce his political chances, as well as to the functions of verbal aggression: on the one hand - to discredit the opponent, bring accusations, on the other hand - to poison the audience mind against him/her and arouse the feeling of danger posed by a political opponent. The analysis of verbal and nonverbal means of destructiveness in the US political discourse is carried out. The article concludes that abusive remarks of politicians do not result from spontaneous emotional outburst, but from an elaborated destructive strategy where the agonistic nature of political discourse stipulates the use of instrumental aggression (Buss, 1971 for the sake of the conquest of power, lowering the

  18. The Management of Political Actors in Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Odion Omoijiade

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The argument that the minimization of the dysfunctional consequences of organizational politics is no longer dependent on self-equilibrating mechanism remains valid. This inquiry is therefore framed with a view to establishing suitable strategies for managing political actors. There is a nexus between the diagnosis typology of political actors and the qualitative classes of political actors and their management strategies. In the management of mixed blessing, supportive, non-supportive and marginal political actors; collaborative, involvement, defensive and information strategies respectively were found suitable. This research is based on existing theoretical knowledge on organizational politics and stakeholders management. Data was collected from the literature by means of critical analysis and dialectic reflection on the emerging themes. The study will enhance capability in contexts where the scientific management of political actors is yet to be exemplified.

  19. Do different groups have different risk factors for dieting and exercise as body management strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Garrusi, Behshid; Baneshi, Mohammad; Amiri, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Aim – Body change strategies are activities that could be potentially harmful. Individuals may use different methods for achieving advertised ideal body. Some of demographic and psychosocial contributing factors could be affect decision regarding body management activities. In Iran there is a few research about this matter, therefore the aim of this study was exploring risk factors in body management. Materials and Methods – In this cross sectional study, 400 people participated that includin...

  20. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  1. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  2. Radon risk in Alpine regions in Austria: Risk assessment as a settlement planning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, V.; Baumgartner, A.; Seidel, C.; Maringer, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Soil gas radon measurements complement indispensable and well-established radon indoor measurements in Austria. Radon in soil gas is a result of geochemical conditions as well as of geology, mineralogy, geophysics and meteorology. Therefore, geological factors can help to predict potential indoor radon concentrations via soil gas. Soil gas radon measurements in well-defined geological units give an estimate of local and regional radon hazards and build the basis for radon risk maps, which could be used for land-use planning and urban development. The creation of maps makes an important contribution to health care. For this purpose, several research projects were carried out in Austria. On the one hand, a study was already conducted in Lower Austria to determine the influence of meteorological and soil physical parameters on radon concentrations in soil gas and to evaluate soil gas radon concentrations with a radon emanation and migration model. On the other hand, radon measurements on different geomorphologic formations in the Austrian Alps, which are potential settlement areas, are of special interest. (authors)

  3. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  4. Political priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers.......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...

  5. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....... in developing economies from CSR. In this paper we argue that local SMEs CSR work have strong influence in developing economies, that also includes counterproductive influence for social development. Based on empirical findings from African countries, we conceptualize how CSR in African SMEs differ from...

  6. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Reichert

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.

  7. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  8. Falls in aged people of the Chinese mainland: epidemiology, risk factors and clinical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jintang; Chen, Zheng; Song, Yuetao

    2010-11-01

    Falls are a common and serious problem for aged people, causing an enormous amount of morbidity, mortality and burden to both the immediate family and the society in terms of healthcare utilization and costs. In the Chinese mainland, epidemiological data indicates a predilection for single falls, with women more at risk than men. A variety of risk factors such as weakness, unsteady gait, mental confusion and use of certain medications are associated with falls in the elderly. Addressing these risk factors can be expected to reduce rates of falling. Targeted fall risk assessments are the most effective preventive procedures, and include a plethora of assessment instruments that have been developed and designed for different purposes over the decades. Strategies for control of elderly falls have been established differently, taking into account the complex physiological and pathological conditions of the elderly. The optimal approach involves interdisciplinary assessments, physical exercise, medical intervention, environmental inspection and hazard abatement. In China, the 25 million falls suffered annually by the estimated 20 million elderly population exacts direct medical costs of about 5 billion yuan and social costs of 60-80 billion yuan. Fall-prevention strategies will thus have profound social and economic benefits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reducing disaster risk in rural Arctic communities through effective communication strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Communication is the process of exchanging and relaying vital information that has bearing on the effectiveness of all phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, making it one of the most important activities in disasters. Lack of communication between emergency managers, policy makers, and communities at risk may result in an inability to accurately identify disaster risk, and failure to determine priorities during a hazard event. Specific goals of communication change during the four phases of emergency management. Consequently, the communication strategy changes as well. Communication strategy also depends on a variety of attitudinal and motivational characteristics of the population at risk, as well as socioeconomic, cultural, and geographical features of the disaster-prone region. In May 2013, insufficient communication patterns between federal, state, tribal agencies, and affected communities significantly contributed to delays in the flood response and recovery in several rural villages along the Yukon River in central Alaska. This case study finds that long term dialogue is critical for managing disaster risk and increasing disaster resilience in rural Northern communities. It introduces new ideas and highlights best practices in disaster communication.

  10. Simulating Pelletization Strategies to Reduce the Biomass Supply Risk at America’s Biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Shane Carnohan; Andrew Ford; Allyson Beall

    2014-07-01

    Demand for cellulosic ethanol and other advanced biofuels has been on the rise, due in part to federal targets enacted in 2005 and extended in 2007. The industry faces major challenges in meeting these worthwhile and ambitious targets. The challenges are especially severe in the logistics of timely feedstock delivery to biorefineries. Logistical difficulties arise from seasonal production that forces the biomass to be stored in uncontrolled field-side environments. In this storage format physical difficulties arise; transportation is hindered by the low bulk density of baled biomass and the unprotected material can decay leading to unpredictable losses. Additionally, uncertain yields and contractual difficulties can exacerbate these challenges making biorefineries a high-risk venture. Investors’ risk could limit business entry and prevent America from reaching the targets. This paper explores pelletizer strategies to convert the lignocellulosic biomass into a denser form more suitable for storage. The densification of biomass would reduce supply risks, and the new system would outperform conventional biorefinery supply systems. Pelletizer strategies exhibit somewhat higher costs, but the reduction in risk is well worth the extra cost if America is to grow the advanced biofuels industry in a sustainable manner.

  11. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, S. Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R. Gnana

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain what behaviors are increasing a patient's risk for disease and disease progression by evaluating the current caries risk of a patient. With this modern CAMBRA protocol, a novel treatment plan can be designed to arrest dental caries thereby decreasing the chance of cavitation. After the recognition of the multi factorial nature of caries involving the biofilm, the contemporary approaches focused mainly on the various options to cope with the locally out-of-balance oral biofilm and stop the progression of the disease. The initial caries lesions can be diagnosed with modern diagnostic aids and with the help of CAMBRA, reestablishment of the integrity of the tooth surface early on in the caries process will bring great rewards for patients. This review focuses on the repair of hard tooth tissues using noninvasive strategies. PMID:26538870

  12. Caries management by risk assessment: A review on current strategies for caries prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, S Uma; Raja, Jacob; Kumar, Arvind; Seelan, R Gnana

    2015-08-01

    The current trend in treating dental caries is using nondestructive risk-based caries management strategies rather than focusing on the restorative treatment alone. Currently, there have been many changes in understanding of the multifaceted nature of caries process and its management. Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) which is an evidence-based approach focuses on determining many factors causing the expression of disease and take corrective action. The clinicians can ascertain what behaviors are increasing a patient's risk for disease and disease progression by evaluating the current caries risk of a patient. With this modern CAMBRA protocol, a novel treatment plan can be designed to arrest dental caries thereby decreasing the chance of cavitation. After the recognition of the multi factorial nature of caries involving the biofilm, the contemporary approaches focused mainly on the various options to cope with the locally out-of-balance oral biofilm and stop the progression of the disease. The initial caries lesions can be diagnosed with modern diagnostic aids and with the help of CAMBRA, reestablishment of the integrity of the tooth surface early on in the caries process will bring great rewards for patients. This review focuses on the repair of hard tooth tissues using noninvasive strategies.

  13. A Sustainable Outsourcing Strategy Regarding Cost, Capacity Flexibility, and Risk in a Textile Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Sardar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The textile industry achieves economic benefits through outsourcing to low cost markets. Today, reshoring is an emerging trend due to rising cost and unemployment concerns. This problem is primarily due to an industry-wide focus on economic benefits only. Cost saving is a basic reason for international outsourcing while domestic outsourcing provides capacity flexibility. Moreover, outsourcing risk has a major impact on strategic location of the production destinations. Therefore, the merging of capacity flexibility and outsourcing risk comprises a sustainable outsourcing strategy. This paper suggests a sustainable outsourcing strategy in which a textile manufacturer outsources to international markets for cost savings and outsources to the domestic market for capacity flexibility. The manufacturer reserves some capacity with domestic suppliers, and pays a unit penalty cost if this capacity flexibility is not utilized. The manufacturer seeks minimum risk in international markets. Operational cost, penalty cost, and outsourcing risk are considered to be objective functions. Decisions include the assignment of contracts to suitable facilities, the quantity of each contract, and allocation of reserved capacity flexibility among domestic suppliers. Multi-objective problem of this research was solved using three variants of goal programming. Several insights are proposed for outsourcing decision making in the current global environment.

  14. Skin sensitisation: the Colipa strategy for developing and evaluating non-animal test methods for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aeby, Pierre; Ashikaga, Takao; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; Diembeck, Walter; Gerberick, Frank; Kern, Petra; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schroeder, Klaus; Tailhardat, Magali; Teissier, Silvia; Winkler, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by small reactive chemicals (haptens). Currently, the sensitising potential and potency of new chemicals is usually characterised using data generated via animal studies, such as the local lymph node assay (LLNA). There are, however, increasing public and political concerns regarding the use of animals for the testing of new chemicals. Consequently, the development of in vitro, in chemico or in silico models for predicting the sensitising potential and/or potency of new chemicals is receiving widespread interest. The Colipa Skin Tolerance task force currently collaborates with and/or funds several academic research groups to expand our understanding of the molecular and cellular events occurring during the acquisition of skin sensitisation. Knowledge gained from this research is being used to support the development and evaluation of novel alternative approaches for the identification and characterisation of skin sensitizing chemicals. At present three non-animal test methods (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA), Myeloid U937 Skin Sensitisation Test (MUSST) and human Cell Line Activation Test (hCLAT)) have been evaluated in Colipa interlaboratory ring trials for their potential to predict skin sensitisation potential and were recently submitted to ECVAM for formal pre-validation. Data from all three test methods will now be used to support the study and development of testing strategy approaches for skin sensitiser potency prediction. This publication represents the current viewpoint of the cosmetics industry on the feasibility of replacing the need for animal test data for informing skin sensitisation risk assessment decisions.

  15. Efficacy of a national hydrological risk communication strategy: Domestic wastewater treatment systems in the Republic of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, Paul; Naughton, Owen; O'Neill, Eoin; Mooney, Simon

    2018-03-01

    A significant body of research has focused on the role of domestic wastewater treatment systems (DWWTSs) as sources of human-specific aquatic contaminants in both developed and developing regions. However, to date few studies have sought to investigate the awareness, attitudes and behaviours of DWWTS owners and the efficacy of associated communication initiatives. The current study provides an examination of a public national engagement campaign undertaken in the Republic of Ireland which seeks to minimise the impact of DWWTSs on human and ecological health via concurrent inspection and information dissemination. Overall, 1634 respondents were surveyed using a "before and after" study design to capture if and how awareness, attitudes and behaviours evolved over time. Findings suggest that whilst the campaign provided a modest baseline to raise general awareness associated with the basic operational and maintenance requirements of DWWTS, there has been little or no behavioural engagement as a result, suggesting a significant awareness-behaviour gap. Accordingly, efforts to minimise potential human and ecological impacts have been unsuccessful. Moreover, results suggest that public attitudes towards water-related regulation and policy became increasingly negative over the study period due to parallel political and economic issues, further complicating future engagement. Future strategies, both in Ireland and further afield, should focus on health-based demographically-focused message framing to achieve significant knowledge and attitudinal shifts amongst specific population cohorts, and thus bring about significant behavioural change. Study findings and recommendations may be used by myriad stakeholders including local, provincial and national authorities to effectively engage with individuals and communities prior to and during implementation of legislative and policy-based instruments within numerous spheres including climate change adaptation, environmental

  16. Data politics

    OpenAIRE

    Bigo, Didier; Isin, Engin; Ruppert, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    The commentary raises political questions about the ways in which data has been constituted as an object vested withcertain powers, influence, and rationalities.We place the emergence and transformation of professional practices such as‘data science’, ‘data journalism’, ‘data brokerage’, ‘data mining’, ‘data storage’, and ‘data analysis’ as part of the reconfigurationof a series of fields of power and knowledge in the public and private accumulation of data. Data politics asksquestions about ...

  17. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...

  18. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Coffey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: An introduction to the mathematics and practicalities of market trading and risk management for financial derivatives, the course will focus on examples from the short-term and long term Foreign Exchange (FX) and Interest Rate (IR) derivatives markets. Topics: - Government Bonds and IR Curves - Stochastic FX, Black-Scholes Vanilla FX Options and Martingales - Risk Management and Market Trading for Vanilla FX Options, Market Implied Volatility, Valuation and Risk Management, Market Trading Strategies - Stochastic IR Curves and Implied Volatility, IR Derivatives - Long Term FX Options: Interaction of Stochastic FX and Stochastic IR Vanilla Foreign Exchange (FX) Options - $ Government Bonds, Interest Rate (IR) Curves, Continuous IR - Domestic ($) and Foreign (Yen) Government Bonds, IR curves - Stochastic Spot FX, Forward FX: Ito processes for $ and Yen Investors - Black-Scholes Vanilla FX Options, Connection to Heat/Diffusion Equation - Stochastic Differential Equations with Mart...

  19. Female genital mutilation/cutting: risk management and strategies for social workers and health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries.

  20. Oman India Pipeline: An operational repair strategy based on a rational assessment of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the development of a repair strategy for the operational phase of the Oman India Pipeline based upon the probability and consequences of a pipeline failure. Risk analyses and cost benefit analyses performed provide guidance on the level of deepwater repair development effort appropriate for the Oman India Pipeline project and identifies critical areas toward which more intense development effort should be directed. The risk analysis results indicate that the likelihood of a failure of the Oman India Pipeline during its 40-year life is low. Furthermore, the probability of operational failure of the pipeline in deepwater regions is extremely low, the major proportion of operational failure risk being associated with the shallow water regions.

  1. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programs in solid organ transplantation: the promises of information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapepas, Demetra S; McKeen, Jaclyn T; Martin, Spencer T; Walker-McDermott, Jennifer K; Yang, Alex; Hirsch, Jamie; Mohan, Sumit; Tiwari, Ruchi

    2014-10-01

    Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) required by the Food and Drug Administration are implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing safe use throughout the life of a pharmaceutical agent. Healthcare organizations have begun to adopt information technologies with clinical decision support (CDS) to ensure safe use of medications. Systems have been expanded and customized to also ensure compliance with regulatory standards. End users who are unfamiliar with particular medication use provisions are at risk of unknowingly inappropriately fulfilling specific components. Institution-specific customization of vendor-provided CDS is useful to enhance provider awareness and ensure compliance with standards. Integration of health information technology systems to fulfill REMS requirements is novel and important to ensure consistency as healthcare standards evolve. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Study on financial risk towards individual investor as strategy to improve urban community empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, F. M.; Aprilia, A.

    2018-01-01

    Investor will be always influenced by its risk tolerance when investing, each investor has own risk tolerance that differ to another, although this still being questioned until now. This research aimed to know the influence of demography factor in distinguish and classify Financial Risk Tolerance (FRT) and Financial Risk Taking Behavior (FRB) to individual investor. Methodology in this research is data that used as primary data which distributed by offline and online. The sample in this research is 642 respondents in Jakarta. Logistic regression is analyze method that used in this research. The research found that there is influence of gender, marital, status, education and income level to Financial Risk Tolerance (FRT) and Financial Risk Taking Behavior (FRB). For FRT significantly 0.000 for gender and marital status; 0.010 for education and 0.001 for income level. Whereas for FRB significantly 0.000 for gender; 0.003 for marital status and 0.010 for education level. The research contribution is crucial for financial advisor to notice the characteristic investor based on demography factor such as gender, marital, status, education level and income level. Therefore, this research able to give optional decision for appropriate investment to clients as ones of strategy to improve urban community empowerment.

  3. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students' environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the United States. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more…

  4. Risk analysis of bidding strategies in an electricity pay as bid auction: A new theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimiyan, Morteza; Rajabi Mashhadi, Habib

    2007-01-01

    Considering the uncertainties in the power market, the bidding problem has an important role for the power supplier to reach his goals, and using risk management methods to protect against the market risk is unavoidable. Thus, in this paper, the bidding decision making problem is formulated from a supplier's viewpoint in a spot market. The spot market works based on a pay as bid auction or a discriminatory price auction. The market clearing price (MCP) is uncertain, and we consider a probabilistic model for it. Regarding the literature of the bidding problem and forecasting methods of MCP, a normal probability density function, pdf (N(μ m , σ m )), is a proper distribution for the MCP. The statistical parameters of MCP vary on different times (peak and off peak), and considering the concept of supplier risk, their effects on the supplier expected benefit and expected sell from selling energy will be discussed analytically. An important section of this research work concerns the optimal bidding strategy when μ m and σ m vary in different conditions of the power market. Thus, the coefficient of variation index (CV), as a proper measure, mathematically defined as σ m divided by μ m , is introduced to measure the market risk index. In this paper, the CV index is used to analyze and manage the supplier risk and introduce the optimal strategy. Then, for a constant amount of the CV as a theorem, it is proved that: (1) the maximum of the expected sell occurs at a constant level of the supplier risk and (2) the optimal bid price linearly depends on the standard deviation of the MCP. This theorem is generalized for the case that the expected value of the supplier benefit is considered as an objective function in the bidding process. Some numerical examples are presented, and application of the proposed theorem is discussed

  5. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    to provide for an adequate representation of women's needs and interests. The legal standards on political equality of men and women have been incorporated into the international and regional legal frameworks. Yet, the international conventions, declarations, optional protocols, strategies, action plans and recommendations for policy-makers at different levels have not generated a significant change in the general attitude to political equality of men and women. Why is it so? Women are underrepresented whenever the number of women in the elected bodies of authority is unproportional to the total number of women in the general population; such exclusion of women from politics is unjust because it diminishes the quality of political debate and undermines the essence of democratic legitimacy. For the past ten years, the academic community has been involved in a debate on different aspects of women's political representation. Within the framework of feminist research on gender, politics and state, the discussions have focused on the following issues: what are the benefits of increasing the number of women in politics; will the increase of female MPs in parliament change the nature of politics (given that it may be a chance to articulate women's perspective and discuss women's problems and interests; do women MPs make a difference in political life (and, if so, in what circumstances; and what kind of changes may be expected from their participation in politics? Most discussions have focused on establishing and analyzing the mutual relations between the descriptive and substantive women's representation in politics, primarily concerning the issue whether the increase in the number of female MPs contributes to increasing their interest in representing women's political interests. The quota system, which has been applied in the EU counties as a response to the problem of women's underrepresentation in politics, and the introduction of women's policy agencies (aimed at

  6. Pirate political parties: New democracy or political utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanović Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is changing under the influence of IT technologies, more and more we talk about 'digital revolution', and political and economic developments are shaped by computer networks. Undeniably, the Internet has opened new possibilities for socio-political expansion, networking and mobilization. Besides the political establishment, many social movements found their chance in cyberspace recognizing the IT technology as a platform for the development and improvement of their internal and external communication. In this article we will focus on the Pirate Party, movement that has been seriously growing on the European political stage for last several years. Following the example of German Pirate Party we will try to explain the characteristics of the movement, its goals and communication strategies, and political dilemmas which it brings.

  7. Avoiding Conflict Relapse Through Inclusive Political Settlements ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Existing evidence shows that the failure to focus on political settlements can increase the risk of peace agreements failing, power-sharing arrangements being contested, and states relapsing into conflict. It is clear that political settlements matter, but we are only beginning to understand the shape of political settlements that ...

  8. Risk management strategy for initiating nuclear desalination in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    Full text:The Gulf countries are one of the most water short regions in the world, classified from the arid and semiarid regions. The average precipitation received is 100 mm/year which indicate very limited renewable water resources per capita and per hectare of irrigated land. The water resources in gulf countries not only continued under pressure, but also it drought from other factors such as increasing population and water demand for irrigation and industrial use. Furthermore, Rain is considered the only source of recharging the ground water in the gulf countries and its fall depends upon the storms that occur irregularly in respect of quantity or distribution year-round. While the countries of the Gulf region have the capacity to rapidly expand their economic growth and gross domestic product (GDP). Also, one may observe that their growth rate is very high. For solving their limitation to use fresh water and to develop and sustain their economy and development, they need to nuclear desalinations. Risk management strategy helps to reduce issues in initiating nuclear desalination plants. There are vast theories, strategies and tools that have discussed in regards to risk management strategy in the nuclear desalinations. However, this paper chiefly provides and introduces a new risk management methodology in the Gulf countries This methodology helps to highlight the critical factors and their consequences at nuclear desalinations. This paper is intended to reduce risks in using nuclear desalinations and increase opportunities. Also, the objectives of this paper are how to plan and initiate nuclear desalination plants in Gulf Countries. Consequently, the new methodology helps their sustainable water industry.

  9. From Risks to Shared Value? Corporate Strategies in Building a Global Water Accounting and Disclosure Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current debate on water accounting and accountability among transnational actors such as corporations and NGOs is likely to contribute to the emergence of a global water governance regime. Corporations within the food and beverage sector (F-B are especially vulnerable to water risks; therefore, in this article we analyse motivations and strategies of the major F-B corporations participating in the debate and developing different water accounting, disclosure and risk-assessment tools. Neo-institutionalism and neo-Gramscian regime theory provide the basis for our framework to analyse the discursive, material and organisational corporate water strategies. Findings based on an analysis of the chosen F-B corporations’ sustainability reports and interviews with key informants suggest that the corporations share similar goals and values with regard to the emerging regime. They seek a standardisation that is practical and supportive in improving their water efficiency and communication with stakeholders. This indicates that some harmonisation has taken place over time and new actors have been pursuing the path of the pioneering companies, but the lead corporations are also differentiating their strategies, thus engaging in hegemonic positioning. However, so far the plethora of NGO-driven accountability initiatives and tools has fragmented the field more than 'war of position' amongst the corporations. Furthermore, several companies claim to have proceeded from internal water-risk management to reducing risks throughout their value chains and watersheds. As a result they are 'creating shared value' with stakeholders, and potentially manifesting an emergent paradigm that goes beyond a private regime framework. Nevertheless, in the absence of verification schemes, questions of sustainability and legitimacy of such actions on the ground prevail and remain a topic for further research.

  10. Prospect theory and political decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, B.

    2011-01-01

    Risk is a central feature of political decision making. Prospect theory, an empirically correct theory of choice under risk that deals precisely with this condition, therefore seems to have much to offer political science. Prospect theory's central finding is that individuals' attitude toward risk

  11. Politics 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  12. Political bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  13. Political polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.

    2007-01-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  14. Political polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2007-05-01

    Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.

  15. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  16. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term ’...

  17. Public Health Concern on Fukushima Radiation Risks in Korea and Response Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chaewon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-Ro, Seoul 139-781 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of public perception on radiation risks by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident and aims to suggest the appropriate strategies for minimizing social anxiety and managing the risk effectively on the basis of those features. In South Korea, the nearest country to Japan, fishery sales decreased 20% in 2013 due to consumers' fears over radiation contaminated seafood products. Public health concern is also increasing. The characteristics of public perception on the risk are the key factors of social anxiety, which are 'ongoing hazard' and 'uncertainty'. They can be translated same as the concepts of 'fear' and 'unknown risk', the psychometric factors of risk perception described in Slovic (1989)'s qualitative characteristics. News on a series of hazardous situations such as radioactive water leaks or radioactive steam at Fukushima is continually reported. Noting no expectation of accident settlement in near future, media coverage which has the expression of 'the maximum permissible level of radiation' without any translation of the measured dosimetric quantity causes the public's phobic fear. Uncertainties on health risks of low dose ionizing radiation in humans are not only the causes of fear but the challenges in building trust in risk communications. Rumours appear under ambiguous and uncertain situation with a lack of information. The communications among public authorities, related institutes, experts and the public become very important since the public health concern on radiation contamination turns into attention to the system of inspection, distribution, and regulation of imported food. The public shows deep interest in the safety standard of guidelines used in regulatory policy and safety management, which leads to a desire for participation in policy making process. Situational crisis communication theory can be applied to the situation quoted and

  18. Can family risk-factors moderate the link between psychopathy and life-history strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life History Theory is an explanatory evolutionary framework which explains differences in fitness-relevant outcomes using the characteristics of the environment and individual organisms. Basically, individuals can be positioned somewhere on the r/K continuum of the Life History Strategy (LHS: a K or slow strategy represents later maturity and reproduction, a smaller number of offspring with higher investment in them, while the r (or fast strategy follows the opposite pattern. Previous research offered evidence that psychopathy can represent a trait associated with fast LHS. In the present research we examined the relations between the family risk-factors, a four-factor model of psychopathy and the LHS in a sample of male convicts (N=181. The results have shown that a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style is associated with slow LHS while shallow affect and antisocial tendencies are related to fast LHS. The interactions between psychopathy and family risk-factors revealed that parental criminal behaviour enhances the relation between fast LHS and psychopathic traits, including the manipulative interpersonal style. The findings are in accordance with the Life History Theory and provide a deeper understanding of the preservation of psychopathy in contemporary populations.

  19. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  20. A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kolios

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of renewable and especially tidal energy through a political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE analysis approach and by reviewing the most up to date relevant literature. The study focuses on the United Kingdom given the favourable environmental resources for such technologies; the number of different design concepts that are currently under development as well as the research funding that has been invested over the last few years. Findings of the analysis identify the risks and multiple stakeholders involved at all stages of the tidal energy projects development from the conceptualization of the design, right through to decommissioning. Many of the stakeholders present benefits to the tidal developers through funding, incentives and knowledge sharing, but at the same time they also present potential risks to the future of projects. This is mostly down to different approaches of the most important aspect of tidal energy that needs to be considered, making it hard for technologists and developers to equally address all requirements. From this research it can be concluded that several of these risks can be mitigated early on providing that particular stakeholders are involved at the correct stage of a project.