WorldWideScience

Sample records for political economic context

  1. Cyclicality of Economic Development of Ukraine in the Context of its Political and Legal Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryzhychenko Kostyantyn A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The cyclicality in the development of the Ukrainian economy during the years of its independence under conditions of its political and legal transformations has been studied. On the basis of the analysis of worldwide research the problem of influence of political transformations on the socio-economic development of the state has been identified. There has been developed a methodological approach to studying the evolutionary development of the Ukrainian economy in the context of its European integration, which comprises three main blocks: Block 1 – studying the development of the legal field of Ukraine; Block 2 – studying the policy of development of Ukraine and orientation of its economic system; Block 3 – analyzing the evolutionary development of the Ukrainian economy and determining its cyclical nature. Within the developed approach there were used wavelet models, spectral analysis – Fourier expansion and Johanson test. The paper puts forward three hypotheses: hypothesis 1 – about the existence of short-term 5-year cycles of evolutionary development of the economy; hypothesis 2 – about the existence of a long-term cycle lasing 25 years and conditioned by political and legal processes in the society; hypothesis 3 – about the existence of cointegration relationships between the evolutionary development of the economy of Ukraine and the EU. On the basis of the modern political transformations the phases of development of the Ukrainian legal environment have been defined and comparison of these phases with the specifics of its economic development has been carried out. The analysis of the economic system of Ukraine and its policy made it possible to determine the vector of development of the Ukrainian economy. The approximating (trend and detailing (cyclic components of the economic development of Ukraine were determined with the help of wavelet expansion. Using Fourier analysis for the detailing components allowed to distinguish 5

  2. Primary care in an unstable security, humanitarian, economic and political context: the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor, Ali R; Klazinga, Niek S; Kringos, Dionne S

    2017-08-23

    This study presents a descriptive synthesis of Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI) primary care system, which is undergoing comprehensive primary care reforms within the context of a cross-cutting structural economic adjustment program and protracted security, humanitarian, economic and political crises. The descriptive analysis used a framework operationalizing Starfield's classic primary care model for health services research. A scoping review was performed using relevant sources, and expert consultations were conducted for completing and validating data. The descriptive analysis presents a complex narrative of a primary care system undergoing classical developmental processes of transitioning middle-income countries. The system is simultaneously under tremendous pressure to adapt to the continuously changing, complex and resource-intensive needs of sub-populations exhibiting varying morbidity patterns, within the context of protracted security, humanitarian, economic, and political crises. Despite exhibiting significant resilience in the face of the ongoing crises, the continued influx of IDPs and Syrian refugees, coupled with extremely limited resources and weak governance at policy, organizational and clinical levels threaten the sustainability of KRI's public primary care system. Diverse trajectories to the strengthening and development of primary care are underway by local and international actors, notably the World Bank, RAND Corporation, UN organizations and USAID, focusing on varying imperatives related to the protracted humanitarian and economic crises. The convergence, interaction and outcomes of the diverse initiatives and policy approaches in relation to the development of KRI's primary care system are complex and highly uncertain. A common vision of primary care is required to align resources, initiatives and policies, and to enable synergy between all local and international actors involved in the developmental and humanitarian response. Further

  3. Primary care in an unstable security, humanitarian, economic and political context: the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukor, Ali R.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Kringos, Dionne S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study presents a descriptive synthesis of Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI) primary care system, which is undergoing comprehensive primary care reforms within the context of a cross-cutting structural economic adjustment program and protracted security, humanitarian, economic and

  4. Mission as liberation in socio-economic and political contexts: towards contextual and liberating theology of mission in the context of migration and human dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffel, Olehile A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that for mission to be contextual and liberating it has to take seriously the plight of those who for various socio-economic and political factors have been forced to migrate from their countries of birth. Furthermore it critically analyses those factors that have led to the uprooting and the dislocation of Africans who are further impoverished, if not enslaved in the new countries where they are domiciled, particularly in the South African context. The paper argues that it is time, just like at Melbourne (1980 with regard to the poor, for those people who are dislocated to be put in the very centre of missiological reflection. In addition they also have to be put in the centre of theological reflection, and in particular theological education. Only if the plight of foreigners (migrants who have been dislocated is placed at the centre of theological education can the churches through their main functionaries who benefit directly from theological education play a liberating and humanising role in welcoming and humanising the foreigners who have been dislocated. Clergy, theologians and laity have significant roles to play in view of uprooting and dispelling the myths, stereotypes and resentment that often fuel xenophobia, in view making Africa hospitable to Africans.

  5. Teaching Psychology: The Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, John

    2008-01-01

    In this commentary, the author raises two critical aspects not adequately addressed in John Radford's (2008) wide ranging article on the teaching of psychology in higher education. The first aspect is the relevance of boundaries. The second aspect is the political context(s). These two issues, though artificially dissociated for current purposes,…

  6. Political and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The political and socio-economic aspects of oil and gas exploration in Canada's Arctic and the Beaufort Sea were reviewed. The federal government was very interested in developing the North because they saw oil and gas development in the North as a means of strengthening sovereignty claims. The projected profits from Northern oil and gas development were also very attractive, and after dealing with environmental and social concerns, the government granted the necessary drilling permits. The federal government also made allowances for huge tax incentives for the oil and gas companies to encourage exploration. Although oil has been found, large-scale production in the Beaufort Sea never materialized. During the period from 1984 to 1988, world prices for oil fell and it was no longer economical to undertake frontier production. Beaufort Sea operation were shut down as the oil industry changed its focus to more cost-effective reservoirs in southern Canada. 1 fig

  7. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  8. Economic Integration and Political Disintegration

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Enrico Spolaore; Romain Wacziarg

    1997-01-01

    Trade liberalization and political separatism go hand in hand. In a world of trade restrictions, large countries enjoy economic benefits because political boundaries determine the size of the market. In a world of free trade and global markets even relatively small cultural, linguistic or ethnic groups can benefit from forming small and homogeneous political jurisdictions that trade peacefully and are economically integrated with others. This paper provides a formal model of the relationship ...

  9. CHALLENGES OF INTERPRETING THE NOTION OF SOFTWARE COPYRIGHTS IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND SOCIO-POLITICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DUMITRAȘCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Every country has it’ s own interpretation and enforcement of copyrights. The challenge is in case of a conflict of interpretations to create a common structure accepted by all parties as a base of mutual understanding and agreement. ESCIA guidelines seek to provide a scalable assessment framework which in turn can be a tool for research and development of structures to deal with the different cultural and social economic circumstances of the different countries / the assessment of which system is dominant is an ongoing, ever-changing debate for which you need the guideline tools to steer the discussion in the right direction which is a challenge on it’s own.the digital economy is the most important part of the global economy.The digital transformation of international production requires regulation,governing, investor behaviour. The negative impact of manipulation of data obtained from consumers by global powerfull multinationals is to be considered a major insentive for a rigourus monitorization and regulation of international productions. The diversity of interests, political and finacial, make fair regulations covering all aspects of the situation, extremlely difficult, in addition to the ever chainging parameters governing the subject as such. The complexity of the matter should not prevent an indepth assassement and solution seeking policy.

  10. Political Instability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Sule Ozler; Nouriel Roubini; Phillip Swagel

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...

  11. International Contexts for Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    1991-01-01

    Uses international examples of the ways in which political learning takes place--indoctrination, political socialization, and political education--to suggest that open and democratic political education is not common, even in democracies. (SK)

  12. Oil: economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    This article deals with the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special view to interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused upon: (1) the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and (2) the determination of oil prices. The latter involves a discussion of, on the one hand, the political and economic behaviour of the United States and Saudi Arabia and, on the other, the combination of cooperation and conflict that has tended to characterize relations among OPEC countries. (author). 30 refs

  13. Confrontation of economic politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noralv Veggeland

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Keynesianism is a national focused economic theory. The Keynesian theory builds on the assumption that prices and wages are sticky sizes evolves imbalance; high inflation or deflation follows. This in combination with various market crises, such as the current financial crisis, is suggesting that the market always fails, both in achieving full employment and avoiding crisis that affects unemployment. Thus, Keynesian argues that for an active state stabilization and labor market policy in the form of fiscal and monetary policies that can create just full employment and good business, while market deregulation and laissez-faire policies fail.

  14. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  15. Stakeholders in the Political Marketing Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert

    Stakeholders influence the ability of organisations to achieve their aims, but little work has been carried out into understanding the stakeholder concept as applied to the political marketing context. This paper first discusses the contextual nature of stakeholders using normative...... occurs in. Finally, it is proposed that in the political marketing context, the stakeholder concept can be defined as ‘context-specific actors that directly or indirectly influence or are influenced by the political actor’......./strategic and broad/narrow dimensions. Building on the assumption that ‘political marketing is different’, the paper argues that stakeholders can be considered as direct or indirect depending on which of the three interaction marketplaces of the political exchange triad the political actor-stakeholder interaction...

  16. Cross-cultural Context and Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芬

    2012-01-01

    In social interaction,politeness is a universal phenomenon existing in all languages.However,for social,ethnographic and even historical reasons,politeness strategies in a specific cultural context may vary from one to another.And for most time it is not language itself but different politeness strategies that lead to cross-cultural communicative failure.Knowing about these differences will help to overcome pragmatic failure in cross-cultural communication.

  17. Economics in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensky, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Academic departmentalization has limited the dimensionality and thus the richness of analysis in the social sciences. The author examines the case of a modern economics as an example. He reviews the ideas of Williamson (2000), who cites the limits of scope in the New Institutional Economics; Buchanan, who lays bare the ethical foundations of…

  18. Economic and Other Determinants of Political Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. DiPietro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Political trust is important for the effective functioning of government. This paper uses cross country regression analysis to see whether three different measures of economic performance matter for political trust. The results lend support to the hypothesis that political trust is influenced by economic growth, the standard of living, and the appropriate use of government spending. In addition, the paper considers two institutional variables, perceived independence of the judiciary and the degree of democracy to assess their effect on political trust. It finds that perceived judicial independence has a positive effect on political trust, but democracy has a negative effect.

  19. USSR Report, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 7, July 1984

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    .... This document contains articles about economics, politics and ideology. Some topics discussed are energy, nuclear nonproliferation, foreign policy, conservation, political science, labor, and book reviews of political books...

  20. How does political instability affect economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Aisen, Ari; Veiga, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically determine the effects of political instability on economic growth. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models on a sample covering up to 169 countries, and 5-year periods from 1960 to 2004, we find that higher degrees of political instability are associated with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. Regarding the channels of transmission, we find that political instability adversely affects growth by lowering the rates of pr...

  1. Political Investment in Economic Protection: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenio M. Balisacan

    1987-01-01

    This note presents some aspects of the neoclassical political economy of economic protection. It develops a conceptual framework which focuses on the costs and benefits of investment in political in?uence to certain conditions in the society and how the benefit-cost structure may affect the level of economic protection and the amount of what Bhagwati called "directly unproductive profit-seeking" activities.

  2. Economic Liberalization and Political Violence

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The liberal promise has permeated international discourses and practices. In the ... Actually, many of the core principles of neoliberalism were specifically conceived of as ...... Di John, J. (2006) “The Political Economy of Taxation and Tax Reform in ...... Malaysia. Ireland. Guatemala. New Zealand. Italy. Honduras. Philippines.

  3. Economic Dominance with Political Incompetence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The fraudulent claims by policymakers and pundits that the United States is losing its economic competitiveness due to a failing education system continue unabated. However, the latest data on competitiveness suggest that it is poor economic policy, not education, that is holding back the economy.

  4. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom.

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the association between political ideology and the size of government and quality of the legal system and regulations. A cross-country indicator of government and citizen ideology is presented. Empirical results suggest that ideologically leftwing governments increase the size of government while the long-term ideological convictions of citizens affect the size of government and the quality of the legal system and regulations. These effects depend on the degree of politica...

  5. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper examines the association between political ideology and the size of government and quality of the legal system and regulations. A cross-country indicator of government and citizen ideology is presented. Empirical results suggest that ideologically leftwing governments increase the size...... of government while the long-term ideological convictions of citizens but not governments affect the quality of the legal system and regulations....

  6. Does Political Ideology Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper asks the question whether political ideology affects economic growth. Voters may demand inefficient levels of redistribution and government intervention, and they may care too little for aspects that really matter for the economy. Their norms and perceptions of society might, via...... their political ideology, affect economic performance. The paper presents evidence suggesting that rightwing societies have grown faster in the last decades than other democratic societies. Further analysis suggests that these societies develop better legal systems and less government intervention, which in turn...

  7. Socio-economic institutions in classical political economy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Ushchapovskyy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentary researches of socio-economic institutions by classical political economy are caused by the absence of social components in its methodological «core». The article concentrates on the ideas of institutionalism in the context of classical political economy formation. The author underlines the necessity to adapt the analysis of socio-economic institutions in the heritage of classical political economy in Ukraine of the 19-th century to the creation of an integral conception of genesis and evolution of institutionalism in Ukrainian economic thought. Following the traditions of European economic science, Ukrainian scientists tried to take into account social contradictions, the needs in democratic transformations of social relations in their works. In spite of absence of the category of «standard (rule» among Adam Smith’s followers, and Ukrainian economists paid attention to a social problematic in the context of traditional researches of classical political economy, there is the necessity to examine socio-economic institutions in their heritage and the possibility of its application to the formation of the paradigm of modern institutionalism. Michail Baludyanskiy considered that a state could limit the freedom of an economic activity only on the base of generally accepted standards, but in this case contributing to safety and freedom of an economic activity. National system of economy, its legislative and management systems must conceptually obey economic policy, Anthropocentrism defined the philosophical conception of Tihon Stepanov’s political economy. He followed methodological holism as he concluded the characteristics of an individual on the base of characteristics of institutions (society. Ivan Vernadskiy’s researches concerning behavior of an individual and his trials to characterize value from a consumer’s point of view don’t fully correspond to traditional classical political economy. To improve Adam Smith’s study

  8. Nudge this : behavioural economics & political marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Passera, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Nudge This – Behavioural Economics & Political Marketing\\ud \\ud A key aspect of a behavioural economic paradigm is that there are limitations in defining the citizen as an informed rational processing machine. Arguing that rationality is bounded: human motivation and behaviour can be viewed as more likely to be influenced by biases, perceptions and general rules of thumbs (heuristics). \\ud \\ud Sunstein & Thaler (2008) in Nudge debunk the assumption of homo economicus and focus instead on desi...

  9. Growth and Women's Economic Empowerment: Can Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project will generate evidence on how women's political ... Kingdom's Department for International Development, The William and Flora Hewlett ... support 11 projects addressing barriers to women's economic empowerment and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  10. The economic and political integration of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book covers issues concerning US coal and mineral exports to Europe in the wake of the economic and political integration of Europe. Topics addressed include: The European Energy Charter; the implications of the European Energy Charter for coal companies; and tax issues, coal development and the European Common Market

  11. Politics, Economics, and Testing: Some Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    In this keynote address, the author shares his reflections on politics, economics, and testing. He focuses on assessment and accountability and begins with some data from large scale written educational testing, "circa 1840". The author argues that people's penchant for accountability and their appetite for standardized testing are, in…

  12. China Update: Economic Reforms and Political Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates that China has been undergoing an unprecedented rapidity of change. Discusses the high unemployment rates, job markets, reform movements, differences in economic equality, the role of the National People's Congress, and the changing political climate. Reveals that freedom is subtly beginning to permeate the lives of Chinese citizens.…

  13. Energy, economics, environment and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The pressure on the Earth's environment and resources is the ultimate result of population growth and the only humane means available for stabilizing world population is to increase per capita living standards in the developing countries. However, this will require a very large increase in global energy consumption. If, as at present, the energy demand is met largely by fossil fuels, atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 will rise rapidly. Until the end of the century, and perhaps beyond it, any actions to control CO 2 emissions will be taken for precautionary reasons alone, because no reliable basis will exist for predicting their global (or regional) impact on the climate. The sustainability of the natural environment is also under threat from human activities such as the clearing of forests for crop-growing and grazing. The resulting elimination of habitats for, and genetic variability in, the victor is as serious a concern as global warming. The economic and social consequences of rigidly curtailing the growth of energy use in developed countries would be severe, and in developing countries extreme; even then greenhouse gas build up could only be slowed not prevented. On the other hand, a wealthier world would be more able to bear the financial burden of protecting biodiversity. It is concluded that since the developed countries on whom the main cost would have to fall, adequate effort into both biodiversity and greenhouse gas reduction, biodiversity must take procedence. (1 figure, 2 tables). (UK)

  14. Political institutions as substitute for democracy: a political economy analysis of economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carlos; Teles, Vladimir Kühl

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript empirically assesses the effects of political institutions on economic growth. It analyzes how political institutions affect economic growth in different stages of democratization and economic development by means of dynamic panel estimation with interaction terms. The new empirical results obtained show that political institutions work as a substitute for democracy promoting economic growth. In other words, political institutions are important for increasing economic growth, ...

  15. Essays in Labor Economics and Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case of immigr......This dissertation consists of three chapters, each representing a self-contained research paper in labor economics and political economy. The first chapter studies the impact of immigration and ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on the case...... in particular. The effects appear present both in municipal and national elections, despite the very different issues decided at the two levels of government. The second chapter (co-authored with Raymond Fisman, Emir Kamenica and Inger Munk) studies the effect of a salary reform in the European Parliament...... to learn about the impact of salaries on the behavior and composition of legislators. Increases in salaries cause large increases in the willingness to hold office but do not affect the level of effort exerted while in office. For the composition of legislators, increases in salaries leads to elected...

  16. Gambling in the Public Marketplace: Adaptations to Economic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for public games of chance was examined over a 24-year period, across various contexts of the prevailing gaming environment that included significant political and economic events. Lottery sales trends revealed devaluation of large jackpots beyond that due to inflation as they became more common, with the steepest discounting in the…

  17. Political, religious and occupational identities in context: placing identity status paradigm in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Hurry, Jane

    2008-04-01

    This study critically contrasts global identity with domain-specific identities (political, religious and occupational) and considers context and gender as integral parts of identity. In a cross-sectional survey, 1038 Greek Cypriot adolescents (449 boys and 589 girls, mean age 16.8) from the three different types of secondary schools (state, state technical and private) and from different SES completed part of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status-2 (EOMEIS-2). The macro-context of Greek Cypriot society is used to understand the role of context in adolescents' identities. Results showed that Greek Cypriot young people were not in the same statuses across their global, political, religious and occupational identities. This heterogeneity in the status of global identity and of each identity domain is partially explained by differences in gender, type of school and SES (socio-economic status). The fact that identity status is found to be reactive to context suggests that developmental stage models of identity status should place greater emphasis on context.

  18. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  19. The Political Context of School Finance Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmiller, Richard A.; Geske, Terry G.

    1976-01-01

    Reports the results of a case study of the political decision-making process in Wisconsin through which control over educational finance reform was exercised between January, 1972, and August, 1973. (Author)

  20. Political behavior in organizational context: nature, research and paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Jafariani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates political behavior in organization context. In the first section, it studies inappropriate terminology in political behavior arena and recommends that political behaviors are neither positive nor negative in nature. The study also demonstrates that ends and means for influencing others are two criteria for determining faces of political behavior. In the second section, related and important research are reviewed and categorized in terms of content. Finally, we present the dominant paradigm of political behavior as a philosophical infrastructure. The study also presents some guidelines for further research the limitations are discussed in conclusion part.

  1. Homoeconomico-politicus, Scientific Consciousness, and the Defense of Fundamental Values in the Context of the Climate Change Crisis: The Challenge of Scientific Responsibility for the Future of Economic and Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P Nagan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The general framework of this paper is to focus on the evolution of scientific consciousness and the dramatic technological developments it has generated, which have vital and highly consequential consequences for social organization on a global basis. The central fact about the current technological revolution is the enormous challenges it provides for political and economic decision-making. The political and economic choices are often merged in a symbiotic wave of challenges. In politics, we have understood the background and challenges that confront homopoliticus. These challenges are even more pronounced as challenges for homoeconomicus. In short, homoeconomico-politicus is both an observer and a participator in the challenges of dramatic technological change. What ties these two concepts together is that they are fed by a form of scientific consciousness. Dramatic forces of change, now unleashed, literally require new paradigms of political and economic thinking to inform wise policy makers about sensible political and economic choices. Both economics and politics are dramatically interrelated and shaped by the philosophy of science known as Logical Positivism. The problem with this approach is that it demands a form of scientific objectivity that rigorously excludes the study of values in the science of politics and economics. But the broader level of scientific consciousness would virtually require that these disciplines adequately account for the value implications of their work. These generalized comments may be an appropriate introduction to a deeper understanding of the impact of technological changes on the organization of political economy at all levels of social organization from the local to the global. One of the issues that we seek to underscore in this paper is a better understanding of the idea of economic consciousness. It would seem to be obvious that economic consciousness influences economic theory and practice. In this

  2. Understading neoliberal politics by the mediation of institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Akansel, İlkben

    2014-01-01

    Neoliberalism, which cannot be described by a certain rule, includes a wide range of perspective. Therefore, it is a highly effective notion in terms of economics and politics. This efficiency has a mutual meaning in socio-cultural area. However, it is obvious that the most effective area of neoliberal politics is economics, because intended efficiency in politics and socio-cultural levels are provided through applicable economics politics. Although it has some certain notions derived from al...

  3. Asian flus in ethnographic and political context: A biosocial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Arthur M; Bloom, Barry R; Saich, Anthony; Mason, Katherine A; Aulino, Felicity

    2008-04-01

    This collection highlights some of the social, cultural, political and economic factors that must be considered in developing a biosocial approach to pandemic influenza control and prevention. To date, most discussions of the current spread of avian influenza and a predicted human influenza pandemic have lacked rigorous analysis of the local contexts in which flus arise and in which the effects of a pandemic would most strongly be felt. Such local engagement is necessary to the development of an effective and ethical programme of epidemic control. The papers in this special issue take a step towards filling this gap by exploring the local moral worlds associated with avian influenza in China, Indonesia and Thailand.

  4. Measuring critical thinking in a political context | Bester | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondly, a significant correlation was found between political knowledge and critical thinking abilities in a political context. This implied that critical thinking ability varied directly with the amount of knowledge of the subject required by the problem. Thirdly, the results of the research indicated that gender and environment ...

  5. Political Conversation in Everyday Communicative Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at forms of interaction and communicative exchanges in discussion groups composed of beneficiaries of a Brazilian income transfer program (Bolsa-Família Program and at how these forms contribute to the deliberative process. Discussion groups are used as a method for showing how everyday conversation and political discussion are interrelated. Our interest is not to analyze this program, but rather represents an attempt to capture and research moments in which group participants establish their own position relative to one another. At such moments, conversations on everyday subjects and personal dramas shift towards attitudes that include taking the risk of expressing dissonant opinions, explaining background assumptions, and producing counter-narratives. Eight discussion groups were established in two Brazilian cities in the Southeastern region: four in Belo Horizonte (MG and four in Campinas (SP. Keywords: everyday conversation; political discussion; deliberative process; discussion groups; poor women.

  6. Violent political contexts and the emotional concerns of township youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, G; Mendelsohn, M; Moosa, F; Tudin, P

    1996-02-01

    This article presents the findings of a series of studies that examine the perceptions of black South African youth about township life and the civil conflict and violence it encompasses. The studies were conducted with comparable samples of 58-82 youth at 3 points in South Africa's history, all characterized by high levels of violence but differing in terms of their political contexts. These contexts were overt State-community conflict, covert opposition and political repression, and intracommunity violence. The data revealed that in all 3 contexts youth reported a high exposure to violence, but only when violence occurred in the context of intracommunity conflict was it subjectively construed to be the most problematic. Reasons for this may include the real increase in more extreme forms of violence, including deaths, that occurs in intracommunity violence and the blurring of the distinction between political and criminal violence in this context.

  7. Understanding voter orientation in the context of political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation. The relationships between different behavioural aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal influences of such behaviour are analysed, and the study includes structural equation...... modelling to test several hypotheses. While the results show that political parties focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behaviour, especially using an internal and societal orientation as cultural antecedents, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation...... on political market orientation. This lends support to the argument of 'looking beyond the customer' in political marketing research and practice. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature on political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  8. The Political Economy of Recent Economic Growth in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghbendra Jha

    2004-01-01

    The political economy of India’s economic growth is an issue of abiding interest. Higher and sustained economic growth has, all over the world, been the surest and most time tested means of raising living standards and reducing poverty. Further, given that it is a functioning democracy, economic policy in India can often be dictated by political expediency as political parties indulge in competitive populism in the face of improvements in social indicators such as literacy, infant mortality a...

  9. Essays in political economy and resource economic : A macroeconomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Acosta, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four chapters in Political Economy and Resource Economics from a macroeconomic perspective. This collection of works emphasizes the endogenous nature of institutions and their importance for economic development. The four chapters revolve around two central questions:

  10. Economic Education in an International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael; Walstad, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain the purpose and context for the 2009 International Symposium on Economic Education that was the source for articles on four nations with relatively developed systems for economic education: Australia, England, Japan, and Korea. The authors highlight several key comparisons from the four articles that appear in…

  11. The nuclear: energy and environmental stakes and political and strategic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauvergeon, A.

    2003-01-01

    This document mentions the intervention of Anne Lauvergeon, at the colloquium Adapes, ''the nuclear: energy and environmental stakes and political and geo-strategic context''. Anne Lauvergeon is president of the Areva board. This speech takes stock on the energy resources and demand facing the economic development in a context of an environmental quality and especially the part of the nuclear energy in the future. (A.L.B.)

  12. Economic and Political Liberalization in Tanzania and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the onset of globalization one-party state regimes were forced to liberalize politically and economically. Liberalization was seen as beneficial for it opened up both the political and economic space for all actors in the development process. Liberalization was embraced because of its perceived advantages to all sections ...

  13. Economic Liberalization and Political Violence : Utopia or Dystopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-06

    Economic Liberalization and Political Violence : Utopia or Dystopia ? Couverture du livre Economic Liberalization and Political Violence : Utopia or Dystopia ? Editor(s):. Francisco Gutiérrez et Gerd Schönwälder. Publisher(s):. Pluto Press, CRDI. August 6, 2010. ISBN: 9780745330631. 360 pages. e-ISBN: 9781552504826.

  14. Economic Liberalization and Political Violence : Utopia or Dystopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economic Liberalization and Political Violence : Utopia or Dystopia ? Couverture du livre Economic Liberalization and Political Violence : Utopia or Dystopia ? Directeur(s):. Francisco Gutiérrez et Gerd Schönwälder. Maison(s) d'édition: Pluto Press, CRDI. 6 août 2010. ISBN : 9780745330631. 360 pages. e-ISBN :.

  15. The genetic architecture of economic and political preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Van Der Loos, Matthijs J.H.M.; Dawes, Christopher T.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Conley, Dalton; Laibson, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Preferences are fundamental building blocks in all models of economic and political behavior. We study a new sample of comprehensively genotyped subjects with data on economic and political preferences and educational attainment. We use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to estimate the

  16. The genetic architecture of economic and political preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); D. Cesarini (David); M.J.H.M. van der Loos (Matthijs); C.T. Dawes (Christopher T.); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); D. Conley (Dalton); D. Laibson (David); M. Johannesson (Magnus); P.M. Visscher (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPreferences are fundamental building blocks in all models of economic and political behavior. We study a new sample of comprehensively genotyped subjects with data on economic and political preferences and educational attainment. We use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to

  17. Do Crisis Response Operations Affect Political and Economic Stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    military presence itself actually affects overall levels of political and economic stability is still an open question. We look at the following two...relationship between military actions and political and economic stability . In this paper, we focus only on the crisis response piece of the overseas presence issue.

  18. Economics and politics of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental issue is what steps, if any, nations should take to control greenhouse gas emissions. Robert Hahn argues that over the next decade the best strategy for policy makers is to build institutions that can address climate change in the future by developing a capacity at the nation-state level to measure greenhouse gas emissions and to implement and enforce cost-effective ways of limiting emissions. Policy makers must also improve the capacity of an international body to assess greenhouse gas inventories and review national policies. Hahn recommends that the developed nations craft an agreement for the next decade that provides a slight emission limitation and allows for a series of case studies, in which developing nations would participate, to preserve diversity and build useful institutional knowledge. The Economics and Politics of Climate Change is one in a series of new AEI studies related to the globalization of environmental policy. These studies will focus on specific issues and on the new institutional arrangements required to deal with them. A list of publications in this series appears inside

  19. Economic crisis and levels of political participation in Europe (2002-2010): the role of resources and grievances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, A.; Marien, S.; Hooghe, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of the recent economic crisis on political participation levels in Europe. As the civic voluntarism model and grievances theory predict different effects of economic downturn on political participation, the crisis provides a unique context to evaluate the explanatory

  20. Formation of the Institute of Youth Political Elite in the Context of Political Transformation in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктория Александровна Мясоедова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the formation of the institute of youth political elite in the Russian Federation. The author proved that the formation of youth political elites directly dependent on the fulfillment of opportunities and professional development of representatives of the youth community and requires a systematic campaign in the formation of the young man and his political socialization. Revealed aspects in the context of which it is necessary to consider the formation of the institute of youth political elite: the socio-economic, political, cognitive. Proposed key methods and forms of interaction between state institutions with the younger generation. The conditions, the implementation of which is necessary for the formation of the institute of youth political elites in Russia: the current administrative and managerial elite has to be aware of the need to create such an elite institution for young people; the existence of regulatory and organizational methods of the activities of youth leaders; a reflection of the youth leader action together communicative interactions; subject-object position of the individual in the current political process of socialization; foster civic political culture, "foundation" which are the concepts of citizenship and patriotism. In conclusion, it is concluded that the development of the political system of education and the building of the Institute of Youth elites should be based on scientific and sociological studies of actual data, reflecting the dynamics of the youth mentality and preferences. A special attention on the part of government actors should be given new urgency to inclusion of young people in the processes of formation of state policy.

  1. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  2. Economic Growth as a Factor of Political Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Олеговна Ярославцева

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes actual problems of the impact of economic growth on the political stability of different state. The author shows that despite the undoubted correlation of the level of economic development and political stability, economic growth by itself is not a panacea for destabilization risks because of the effects of inflated expectations and transformations of social consciousness. The author argues that the impact of economic growth on political stability is largely ambivalent. On the basis of “Tocqueville's law” and the range of theories of “relative deprivation”, the author makes a conclusion about the principal limitations of predictive and interpretive capabilities of economic indicators (primarily economic growth for the analysis of political stability.

  3. The Political Context for Transnational Actor Soft Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2015-01-01

    There is growing awareness and understanding of the role of non-state actors for the smart power of states. However, there is not yet a clear understanding of the impact of the political context and the state for non-state actors and their soft power. We look at American missionary universities...

  4. Historical intersections of psychology, religion, and politics in national contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmann, Robert; Belzen, Jacob A

    2009-08-01

    Various types of psychology have come into existence in and have been interacting with a plurality of contexts, contexts that have been radically varying in different states or nations. One important factor in the development of psychology has been the multiple relationships to the Christian religion, whether understood as an institution, a worldview, or a form of personal spirituality. The articles in this issue focus on the intertwinements between institutional religion and national political structures and on their influence on developing forms of psychology in four different national contexts: Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Within these four settings, aspects of the ways in which varying forms of Christian religion coconstituted, facilitated, and shaped psychology, theoretically, practically, and institutionally, are examined. The formative power of the religions was not independent of the relationships between religion and political power, but rather mediated by these.

  5. Economic, Political and Communicative power in the neoliberal societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bergés-Saura, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the relations between the economic, political and communicative powers in the socioeconomic model of neoliberal capitalism. Firstly, it examines the transformations in the economic power, to analyse later the various mechanisms linking this changing economic power to the media performance. Among these mechanisms, the article analyses the control of ownership and other external financial sources; the origin of commercial income; and business management techniques, while simultaneously investigating the relations between these variables and the transformations in the economic sphere. Following the political economy tradition, the article addresses the implications that the concentration of economic, political and communicative power have on democracy and freedom, taking into account the evolution of the socioeconomic and political system in the last decades.

  6. Economic growth in a politically fragmented world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2014), s. 402-416 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : economic integration * economic growth * intergenerational bargain Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2014

  7. Economic growth in a politically fragmented world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2014), s. 402-416 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : economic integration * economic growth * intergenerational bargain Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2014

  8. Political regime change, economic liberalization and growth accelerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-A-Pin, Richard; De Haan, Jakob

    We examine whether the type of political regime, regime changes, and economic liberalization are related to economic growth accelerations. Our results show that growth accelerations are preceded by economic liberalizations. We also find that growth accelerations are less likely to happen the longer

  9. Economic Growth and the Rise of Political Extremism

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Bruckner; Hans Peter Gruner

    2011-01-01

    In many western democracies, political parties with extreme platforms challenge more moderate incumbents. This paper analyses the impact of economic growth on the support for extreme political platforms. We provide a theoretical argument in favor of growth effects (as opposed to level effects) on the support for extreme political parties and we empirically investigate the relationship between growth and extremist votes. Lower growth rates benefit right-wing and nationalist parties, but do not...

  10. THE ROLE OF THE ECONOMIC RENTS IN THE POLITICAL TRANSFORMATION OF TURKEY AFTER THE 1980S*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugra Kalkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is claimed in this article that one of the main aims of the “bureaucratic tutelage” system in Turkey is to control the distribution of the economic rents created by the import-substituting industrialization. Thus, economic statism and the bureaucratic control over elected politicians were compatible with each other until economic liberalization in 1980. Even a limited economic liberalization created great opportunities for the politicians to weaken the power of the bureaucratic elites, particularly military officers. Thus, there is a strong relationship between economic liberalization and democratization in Turkey after 1980. However, even though, bureaucratic tutelage is regressed, Turkey is still far from having a transparent government and efficient public organizations. The conventional explanations are not adequate to grasp the intermingled relations between economic and political institutionalization in Turkey. Therefore, public choice may help to understand the role of the economic motivations of the political actors/elites in the context of shaping the political institutions. The political actors are seen as utility maximizers within the limits of institutional rules and practices, and the institutional change is explained with the help of changing interests and power relations of these actors. Enlarging economic liberties have gradually forced bureaucratic tutelage system to dissolve. For sure, dissolving the bureaucratic tutelage system is not a perfect or an intended process but examining this process from Turgut Ozal to Tayyip Erdogan gives us a theoretical framework to understand the political transformation of Turkey in the era of an open economy.

  11. Argentina: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    Argentina's restructuring of over $100 billion in defaulted bond debt in June 2005 demonstrated the country's emergence from its 2001-2002 economic crisis that had caused severe stress on the political system...

  12. Security Reasoning, Spatial Politics, Patriarchy and the Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Security Reasoning, Spatial Politics, Patriarchy and the Economic Rights of ... find a job, start a business, and participate in the formal or informal economy. ... and engage in public policy dialogue will be an important aspect of this project.

  13. The genetic architecture of economic and political preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; van der Loos, Matthijs J. H. M.; Dawes, Christopher T.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Chabris, Christopher F.; Conley, Dalton; Laibson, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPreferences are fundamental building blocks in all models of economic and political behavior. We study a new sample of comprehensively genotyped subjects with data on economic and political preferences and educational attainment. We use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to estimate the proportion of variation in these traits explained by common SNPs and to conduct genome-wide association study (GWAS) and prediction analyses. The pattern of results is consistent with ...

  14. the Arab boycott of Israel: economic political warfare against Israel.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilat, Eliyau Zeev

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the effectiveness of the Arab Boycott of Israel from an economic and a political perspective. This study covers the Arab boycott from 1946 until 1990. It demonstrates that economically and politically, the Arab boycott had three distinct phases. The first of these was the period from the declaration of the Arab boycott in 1946 until the 1973 War. The second phase took place between the 1973 War...

  15. 'Economic' and 'Political' cooperation in various climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, Bertrand

    2003-01-01

    Cooperation in the economic sense considers efficiency issues. Cooperation in the political sense, like the Kyoto Protocol, considers other issues like equity and historical responsibility. The environmental and economic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol and other scenarios are thus examined. The US pullout may then be viewed, among others, as the result of not untying 'economic' and 'political' cooperation; and since the Protocol will be much less effective without the US, it is shown that an external economic stimulus should and may theoretically be found for retaining their participation

  16. The political context of social inequalities and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Shi, L

    2001-01-01

    This analysis reflects on the importance of political parties, and the policies they implement when in government, in determining the level of equalities/inequalities in a society, the extent of the welfare state (including the level of health care coverage by the state), the employment/unemployment rate, and the level of population health. The study looks at the impact of the major political traditions in the advanced OECD countries during the golden years of capitalism (1945-1980)--social democratic, Christian democratic, liberal, and ex-fascist--in four areas: (1) the main determinants of income inequalities; (2) levels of public expenditures and health care benefits coverage; (3) public support of services to families; and (4) the level of population health as measured by infant mortality. The results indicate that political traditions more committed to redistributive policies (both economic and social) and full-employment policies, such as the social democratic parties, were generally more successful in improving the health of populations. The erroneous assumption of a conflict between social equity and economic efficiency is also discussed. The study aims at filling a void in the growing health and social inequalities literature, which rarely touches on the importance of political forces in influencing inequalities.

  17. ANCHORING IN THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana L. Shklyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of marketing, both ineconomy and in politics is to attract themaximum number of customers or voters, maximizing customer satisfaction and ,ideally, improve the quality of life.The author, in various aspects, thetechnology of anchoring used in NLP, to attract customers and voters, both in the economy and in politics.In different examples demonstrate theoverall impact on the psychology of the consumer. Separating policy and the economy, marketers are missing something. The author proposes to look at how psychologicalanchors affect these two, at fi rst glance, different vector.

  18. Political culture of civil society within synergetic paradigm context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Derzhko

    2014-12-01

    society can be defined as a system separate and independent from the state, interpersonal, family, economic, cultural, religious, political relations and structures that are designed to provide the conditions for self-realization of individuals and groups. Priorities of civil society are in inverse points of the political process - the elections, the formation of the state, where society depend on the prospects for change; renewal of power, improve administrative efficiency of its structures. Political culture permeates the entire set of relationships that develop between political actors, the po­tential impact on the form of government, the structure of its institutions, allowing effectively regulate the relationship between the state and civil society, ensure social consensus. Political culture is a factor that can directly help or hinder democratic political development. This confirms the practice of developed democra­cies, which shows that it is a democratic political culture, is the foundation of stability and dynamic perfor­mance. Understanding the political regime as functional characteristics of the political system, including the methods and techniques of political domination, and the order of the citizen, society and political power, helps to define the connection mode of political culture and its place in it.  In a democracy, trust in government is directly determined by its ability to real dialogue with public opin­ion and its main source - the civil society. Democratic political systems require for their existence a certain type of political culture. The lack of long-term and large-scale practices of democratic institutions and pre­vent the consolidation of a democratic political culture society. The main areas of transformation of political culture are: establishment of a democratic type of political consciousness, the formation of political behavior on democratic principles, establishment of a democratic culture functioning administrative institutions

  19. Market and Money: Economic Instruments of Political Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Pînzaru

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By the creation of the unique currency, the European construction advanced, in the late twenty years, more in economic terms than in political ones. Still, at a closer look there can be found interesting arguments to sustain the idea of a political background for this surprising economic acceleration. Creating the common market and a new currency are things which have been possible only because of favourable factors in economy and of strong political will. This paper analyses the market as a frame of a political construction, and euro as a decisive tool for the purpose of the United Europe. For the first time in history, there is a space which approaches beliefs and values with the “help” of a currency, integrated in the political agenda.

  20. Politics, economics and the price of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki Yamani, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes petroleum price instability in connection with politics intrusion into the oil business. The author shows the dominant position of OPEC on petroleum market during the 70s and the 80s, the influence of Iranian revolution, Iran / Iraq war and Kuwait invasion by Iraq on petroleum price evolution. 5 figs

  1. Practical Theory: Teaching Political and Economic Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. Wesley

    2010-01-01

    How can philosophical instruction inform practical analysis and decision making among college students in a way that demonstrably benefits them as individual members of our polity and economy? I pose this question because each year, I introduce classic political theory to first- and second-year college students who simultaneously confront a fiscal…

  2. Managing Mexican Oil: Politics or Economics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Puyana Mutis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available During decades the policies towards oil and energy implemented in Mexico have resulted in the de pletion of reserves, the explosion of debt of Pemex (90 per cent of its capital, and the dramatic petrolization of the total fiscal revenue. High prices, the war on terror and political instability in oil rich regions have reinforced usA policy of "energy security" and the interest in the creation of the Common Market on Energy, as the way to strengthen the TLCAN. To respond to these two forces Mexico will have to reform its traditional oil policy. All possible options: to reduce the fiscal burden upon Pemex or to open to private investments the exploration of oil have excruciating political costs, which no government has shown the will to confront.

  3. The political chaff from the economic grain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The idea that economic activities may be described and studied as ‘embedded’ in social relations has been central to much debate in recent economic sociology. The present study analyses legal struggles over the status of begging in Unites States law, and argues that conflicting rhetorical accounts...

  4. Economics, Politics and Education. Sociology of the School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, David

    This monograph, one in a series on theory and educational issues in Australia, explores links between education and political and economic structures. Two sections provide an analysis of an education-work program and five readings. The Transition Education Program is described as a government response to the 1979 economic crisis. The policy and…

  5. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  6. 'Western Balkans': Political context and the media usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilar Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By accessing the content analysis of media archives, available both on the Internet presentations of the most significant and most influential media, press agencies, web search engines, and official public institutions, international government and non-government organizations, we will make an attempt to point to political conditioning, appearances and uses, as well as political etymology of the term Western Balkans. The attention will also be called to the fact that the term has its origin in Anglo-Saxon political and historiographical tradition, through the examples of its use, as well as to the similarities of political relations which bring to its applicability. By analyzing the content of media inscriptions, reports, documents, official announcements, authorial reviews and analyses, it came to a conclusion that Western Balkans occurs as a regional reference in particular historical and political circumstances and that geographical frames it is being used within, could be located outside the time frames and there are specified the particularities of its use. We will demonstrate that through the analysis of the political context and media usage, Western Balkans could be interpreted on more than one level. Western Balkans can at the same time represent both a terminological construction and a regional reference which expresses the indecisiveness of the West on social and cultural properties of the Balkans and the founding of Balkan cultures as immanently European, but at the same time the means of measurement, which is not only the determination of regionalism, but the determination of historical and political moment likewise. Besides, Western Balkans could also be interpreted as a mean of practical methodology and classification of naming the societies on the Balkans, which are the only outside the European Union frames, but also stand for the synchronization of the Balkanistic discourse with current political and historical circumstances and

  7. Growing Economic Inequality and Its (Partially Political Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Lehman Schlozman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing economic inequality fosters inequality in the political processes of American democracy. Since the 1970’s inequalities in earnings and wealth have increased dramatically in the United States creating a higher level of inequality in disposable income than in other developed democracies. The United States also lags behind other rich nations in the way it provides for those at the bottom of the income distribution, and there is no evidence that the opportunities for success promised by the American Dream compensate for inequality in America. Technological and economic developments are significant causes of this growing economic inequality. The role of politics is more controversial, but government policy influences the distribution of income and education by the way it determines government benefits, taxes and the way markets function. For a number of reasons—including, most importantly, the relationship between education and income and the ability of the affluent to make large campaign donations—those who are economically well-off speak more loudly in politics. They are more likely to engage in most forms of individual political participation—not only ones that involve using cash but also ones that cost nothing except time. Moreover, when it comes to political voice through organizations, a professionalized domain dominated by hired experts in which the volume of political voice can be altered to reflect available economic resources, affluent interests are more likely to be organized and active. This essay considers the growing economic inequalities that form an important part of the backdrop for unequal political voice.

  8. Economics, political science, and law. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Lasswel (harald); O. Schachter (Oscar); J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractLASSWELLT:h e first of our discussants is of the discipline that the rest of the social scientists examine with mixed feelings of respect and envy, namely, economics. Prof. Jan Tinbergen. TINBERGEIN p: ropose not only to give a very brief summary of my paper but to add a few remarks that

  9. Political and economic factors of late transition in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition in Serbia is late, from the aspects of both its start and course. The initial conditionality, strategy, sequentially, prospects and results shape transition profile. Key factors of the late transition are grouped within a complex of political and economic factors, which are themselves ambivalent - their external and internal effects are evident. An institutional vacuum is especially limiting complex, with a significant influence on the political and economic aspects of the transition. An analysis of the two groups of intertwined factors serves as a basis for making a projection of future course and reform dynamics in Serbia. Different scenarios are present. An increase or decrease in the transition dynamics is conditioned by elimination of negative impacts of political and economic factors, i.e. by promotion of positive aspects of the solutions.

  10. Windfall gains, political economy and economic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Olsson, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joi...... in a large cross-section of countries. Our results suggest that whereas more aid means less corruption, natural resource rents is positively correlated with corruption, although both relationships are non-linear......Natural resource rents and foreign aid have the character of windfall gains that affect economic outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown that the indirect effect typically works via institutions like corruption. In this article, we offer a theoretical framework for a joint...

  11. Striving for Economic and Political Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Hu Jintao, China’s president and Communist Party chief, is asking his government to abandon its 25-year-old policy of striving for the fastest possible economic growth, regardless of the costs to society and the environment. Instead, he wants China to balance sustainable growth with a programme to redress the many negative consequences of two decades of 9%-plus GDP growth. Although we do not expect Hu to fix China’s health care system or to deliver a clean and green environment in just five y...

  12. Demographics, political power and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz-eakin, D

    1993-01-01

    "Growth theory may be used to predict the response of saving, capital formation, and output growth to large demographic shifts. Such large shifts would also be expected to alter the demand for government services and the desired levels of taxation in the population. This paper extends the overlapping-generations model of economic growth to predict the evolution of government tax and spending policy through the course of a major demographic shift. Simulations suggest that this approach may yield valuable insights into the evolution of policy in the United States and other industrialized economies." excerpt

  13. ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FACTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu RADU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the turbulent year of 2016, with deep geopolitical changes, the new year of 2017 promises to be full of challenges in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. The key events of the last year (the Brexit, the elections in the USA, the events in Turkey, the force demonstrations of Russia, the situation of the migration wave etc. shall have an impact on the global economic development and on the repositioning of its main actors. This paperwork intends to analyze the main consequences of the recent events on the short term progress in what concerns the economic, social, political and geostrategic area. We hereby intend to review the facts and the main potential progress on the economic status of this year which was so complicated, both for the European Union and for every member of it.

  14. How do political and economic institutions affect each other?

    OpenAIRE

    Braunfels, Elias

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides evidence for the mutually reinforcing relation of political and economic institutions. To overcome problems of endogeneity I utilize lag instruments within a GMM framework for dynamic panel data. Employing recently developed tests, I show that limiting the number of lag instruments and collapsing the instru- ment matrix eliminates many and weak instrument biases. My major findings are that (i) improving economic institutions has a large positive effec...

  15. The law, economics and politics of international standardisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    In an era of increased reliance on private regulatory bodies and globalised economic activity, standardisation is the field where politics, technical expertise and strategic behaviour meet and interact. International standard-setting bodies exemplify the rise of transnational governance and the

  16. Major socio-economic and political developments in Nigeria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-economic and political developments that affected economy of the country in general and its currency in particular, during the period under review included: attainment of independence on 1st October, 1960, attainment of republican status in 1963, the country's civil war (1967-1970), decimalization of currency in ...

  17. Economic Liberalization and Political Violence: Utopia or Dystopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-08-06

    Aug 6, 2010 ... Economic Liberalization and Political Violence: Utopia or Dystopia? ... Narrowing the concept of globalization to the more manageable notion of “neoliberalism,” ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity ... of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  18. More Media for Southern Africa? The Place of Politics, Economics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with global trends, media in Southern Africa in the past decade has been moving slowly towards mergers, partnerships and multi-platform publishing. Driven by politics and facilitated by technology, the process has had to confront the difficulty of establishing viable economic models, the lack of regional integration ...

  19. The political economics of the permanent war and the political economics of the nuclear war. Strategic approaches for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez L, I.I.

    2005-01-01

    This work treats on the hypothesis that the American imperialism uses its nuclear arsenal for reforming geographical spaces that allow him to impel its economic development in the context of the progressive exhaustion of the natural resources of the planet and of the ferocious dispute for market niches and investment destinations, and like the political and military decisions crawl to the different scenarios of economic competition. In the chapter 1 it is insinuated like has been reproduced the Warlike-industrial Complex (CBI) American from the second world postwar period until the present time in the idea of explaining like it is that it is valorized to the capital in scale enlarged starting from the denominated sector producing of destruction means and understanding that the system specifically capitalist is a system where continually the is destroyed previously taken place to manufacture a new merchandise in a luck of creative destruction. In the chapter 2, the topic of the specific contradictions of the CBI is approached that disable him to be the tip of lance of the world imperialism. The chapter 3 try on the productive linkages in the production of nuclear bombs, as well as in the production of the vectors of nuclear transportation and on the implications derived for the world security of the different industries associated to the nuclear energy (as the petroleum, the electricity, the natural gas) and to the transportation vectors of these locating which you/they are the different States where the world supremacy is disputed and that they have like one of its so many negotiation-confrontation letters its nuclear strategic arsenals. What is looked for in a thermonuclear war is the enemy's total elimination, from their offensive capacity, their defensive capacity, until their supplies, their reservations, etc., with the result that the chapters 4 and 5 of this thesis are presented to offer a better understanding that they mean the nuclear arsenals in the

  20. Economic and political hybridity: Patrimonial capitalism in the post-Soviet sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Hybridity in non-democratic states can be economic as well as political. Economic hybridity is produced by the same kind of pressures that create political hybridity, but the relationship between economic and political hybridity has not been as much studied by political scientists. This article uses the concept of patrimonial capitalism to look at economic hybridity, its stability and relationship to political hybridity. Using examples from Russia and other former Soviet states it argues that...

  1. [Economic and political aspects of prostate cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Zaleski, I

    2008-04-01

    Deciding on a health policy in practice means dedicating human and financial resources and prioritising spendings. The economic evaluation of prevention strategies attempts to establish a relationship between the medical benefit of prevention and its additional cost (or in some cases cost reduction) compared to no prevention. Decisions on reimbursing drugs, interventions or funding health programmes do not usually follow efficiency criteria which define economic rationality. Politics may for example decide to make prostate cancer a public health priority if mortality in a country or in some regions of the country appears to be excessively high. Economic rationality alone is not an appropriate factor on which to base a decision which may be purely political, reflecting the actual values of the society at a given point in time.

  2. ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF GENDER EQUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Khatuna BERISHVILI

    2016-01-01

    Term “gender” means socially constructed roles of man and woman, which are ascribed to them according to gender marker. Thus, gender roles depend on concrete socio-economic, political and culturological context and experience influence of various factors according to race, ethnic origin, class, sexual orientation and age. Gender roles widely differ within each culture and cultures. Unlike the individual’s biological gender, the gender role can be changed. This concept implies the views, cond...

  3. GLOBALIZATION AS A POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Flores Trujillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is defined as a process that integrates knowledge worldwide, has its historical reference on changes in the ways processes, methods and information are addressed; documented its inception in the late twentieth century, Castells, M. (2001 beyond the discrepancy about whether it is a product of technological development or an inevitable evolution of capitalism, research arises from the formulation of the following questions: How important is the study of globalization ?, What has produced important contributions in the scientific community about globalization? And What are the perspectives or approaches addressed? . This work aims to show how the scientific community has produced knowledge about this phenomenon addressing the political, economic and social approaches: From the economic point of view reconfigures how to address the processes of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in the world, permeating this way all international economic events. From the political point of view, besides the redistribution of emerging geopolitical blocs, it establishes a new category of state, transnational state. From the social point of view, it shows evidence of the negative effects of globalization on resizing the category personal, local or regional or even in global risk-Global group. The research is documentary literature, their contribution to social science evidence to characterize globalization as political, economic and social phenomenon of the century that permeates all areas of study applied.

  4. The Political Economy of Postwar Economic Development in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna-Perera Welgamage Lalith Prasanna-Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty years of civil war in Sri Lanka has affected economic, political, social, cultural and psychological aspects of the society significantly. This paper presents an overview of postwar development strategies in Sri Lanka and compares it with the prewar economy from a political economic perspective. The paper specifically examines the progress of the overall postwar development in the war affected Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Using mixed methodologies data was gathered on critical aspects related to political economy. According to the current study, no clear progress has been made in the areas of economic growth, FDI growth, household income, and poverty and income inequality in the postwar economy of Sri Lanka when compared with the prewar economy. Government fiscal policy targets the postwar reconstruction works while monetary policy enjoys the amalgamation of North and East provinces to country’s aggregate supply apart from introducing very few loan schemes. Security phobia of the government of Sri Lanka limits local, national, regional and international none-government organizations especially in the North and East. There is a considerable amount of progress made in the area of infrastructure development and resettlement of displaced persons. However, primary data from the study indicates these strategies lack conflict sensitivity and public trust. This study emphasizes that postwar economic development strategies should address the critical determinants of sustainable recovery, peace and development aiming at protecting human rights, ensuring rule of law, establishing efficient public service system and finally offering constitutional reforms in Sri Lanka.

  5. Politics sans economics: commentary on the political economy of demonetization in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaad Mahmood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 8th November and 31st December 2016 the Indian government instituted one of the biggest demonetisation exercises in the world by withdrawing 86 percent of all currency in the form of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes. This paper looks at the debate surrounding the demonetisation exercise and attempts to provide a political economy logic. Interrogating the various arguments around demonetisation, it argues that demonetisation has been reduced to a political posturing as the economic consequences remain highly debated.

  6. Political and economic situation in Ukraine: results and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Gennadievna Ilinova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After November events of 2013 in Ukraine there were big political transformations: early presidential and parliamentary elections were as a result held. But whether economic and political reforms during war are possible - for Ukraine it is one of the main issues. 22-year history of the Ukrainian state including history of the "new" power (since February, 2014, testify that Ukraine everything leaves from reforms further: unstable rate of national currency, production falling, decrease in GDP, deterioration of economic and social situation of the country. The authorities of Kiev still hope that the credits from the West will help with the short term, and in long-term - Ukraine the new European markets will open. The prolonged course of Kiev on the EU, can lead not to integration, and to degradation of the Ukrainian economy.

  7. Plasma technology: a technical economical and political challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, V.A. de; Vicente, L.C.; Bender, O.W.; Sanches Junior, O.

    1987-01-01

    To survey the State of the Art and Technic in Material, Process and Products by Plasma, it was needed to assemble economic, political and managerial variables that will affect the absortion and implantation of this technology in Brazil. Through a survey in industries, universities, research centers, energy agencies and financial and forster institutions it was possible to build a frame that gave us conditions to forecasting and suggest some mesures to Plasma sector. (author) [pt

  8. Malaysia: Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-13

    general election. Key observers have also pointed to decisions by Parti-Islam sa- Malaysia (PAS), Parti Keadilan Rakyat , and the Democratic Action Party...Sultan fulfills this function. Each state has a state legislature. The lower house of Malaysia’s Parliament, the Dewan Rakyat , has 193 members elected...Order Code RL33878 Malaysia : Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered February 13, 2007 Bruce Vaughn, Coordinator Specialist in

  9. Maritime Piracy: Socio-Economic, Political, and Institutional Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gries; Margarete Redlin

    2014-01-01

    Over the last twenty years piracy has become an increasing threat. Yet there are only very few econometric studies that examine under which conditions this phenomenon arises. As the number of maritime piracy and armed robbery incidents is characterized as count data and exhibits overdispersion, we apply random-effects negative binomial regressions for a panel dataset covering the period 1991-2010. Our results indicate that poor socio-economic, political, and institutional conditions in the ho...

  10. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    RN) and the rightist Independent Democratic Union (Unión Demócrata Independiente , UDI). A third coalition, the “Broad Party of the Socialist Left...independents and members of the Regionalist Party of Independents (Partido Regionalista de los Independientes , PRI), who are unaffiliated with either of the...Wilde, “Piñera Won. Will he uphold Chile’s post -Pinochet moral legacy?” Christian Science Monitor, January 18, 2010. Chile: Political and Economic

  11. Politics and economics to shape international oil and gas activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that political and economic events play unusually strong roles in shaping worldwide oil and gas activity levels this year. Developments in the former U.S.S.R. will be critical. As the now-independent republics adopt new economic systems, production and demand patterns will change, as will exports from what has been the world's leading oil producer. Changing conditions in the Middle East among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries also will affect the industry in the year following the brief Persian Gulf war. Unless worldwide demand surges unexpectedly, these substantial additions to supply will tend to weaken oil prices in 1992

  12. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...

  13. The genetic architecture of economic and political preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Dawes, Christopher T; Koellinger, Philipp D; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Chabris, Christopher F; Conley, Dalton; Laibson, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M

    2012-05-22

    Preferences are fundamental building blocks in all models of economic and political behavior. We study a new sample of comprehensively genotyped subjects with data on economic and political preferences and educational attainment. We use dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to estimate the proportion of variation in these traits explained by common SNPs and to conduct genome-wide association study (GWAS) and prediction analyses. The pattern of results is consistent with findings for other complex traits. First, the estimated fraction of phenotypic variation that could, in principle, be explained by dense SNP arrays is around one-half of the narrow heritability estimated using twin and family samples. The molecular-genetic-based heritability estimates, therefore, partially corroborate evidence of significant heritability from behavior genetic studies. Second, our analyses suggest that these traits have a polygenic architecture, with the heritable variation explained by many genes with small effects. Our results suggest that most published genetic association studies with economic and political traits are dramatically underpowered, which implies a high false discovery rate. These results convey a cautionary message for whether, how, and how soon molecular genetic data can contribute to, and potentially transform, research in social science. We propose some constructive responses to the inferential challenges posed by the small explanatory power of individual SNPs.

  14. Political instability and economic growth: an empirical evidence from the Baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislava Grochová; Luděk Kouba

    2011-01-01

    For more than last 20 decades, new political economics has been dealing with theories of economic growth (for example influential contributions by Mancur Olson, Dani Rodrik). However, less attention has been paid to their empirical verification. The new political economics growth theory defines some factors that are necessary for economic growth among which political stability. Our aim is to test the theory focused on political stability empirically in order to enrich the studies with recent ...

  15. Futile Pursuits of Metonymic Targets in Political and Legal Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Twardzisz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores problematic aspects of metonymic target identification in specialist language. Searching for and establishing metonymic targets has been the goal of numerous studies pursued in cognitive linguistics. Not infrequently, one may get the impression that the deliberate refinement of the metonymic reference point, geared to bring in more semantic precision, leads to confusing and inconsistent results. In this article, the focus will be on unveiling such confusing and inconsistent cases of metonymic target identification in political and legal contexts. For this purpose, three case studies will be analysed. In one of these, it will be shown how the interlocutors deliberately play with reference points/targets for rhetorical purposes. In another case, an example of target identification will be reviewed in which the linguist/researcher arbitrarily proposes metonymic targets. As a third example, a case of metonymic target identification in a legal document will be reviewed. A closer look at the co-referring entities, the major players in this document, reveals an error made by the drafters. This case is illustrative of a certain erroneousness underlying the assumption of straightforward and automatic target identification.

  16. Analyzing Inflation and Its Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Michael K.; Leak, Sarah

    Background information for teachers on inflation and self-contained learning activities to help students view inflation from both economic and political perspectives are provided. The introduction contains economics and political science frameworks for analyzing policy issues. How to integrate economics and political science is also discussed.…

  17. Telecommunications, politics, economics, and national sovereignty: A new game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugliarello, G.

    1996-12-31

    The impact of telecommunications on politics, economics and national sovereignty is creating a new game. Political and economic power may operate over the same territory, as in the now-rare case of isolated economies, but, more often, their domains do not coincide. Increasingly, telecommunications create major challenges for countries preoccupied with issues of national sovereignty because the national state has only a limited ability to control these intrinsic and at times potentially destabilizing powers of telecommunications and the {open_quotes}telecommunities{close_quotes} they make possible. As many traditional aspects of sovereignty are becoming weakened by telecommunications, and as the intense dynamics of networks and the expansion of telecommunities revolutionize business and politics, there is a need to prevent the situation from becoming chaotic and uncontrollable, even while recognizing the possibilities of enhanced opportunities. This requires focusing on a more flexible conception of sovereignty which can enhance the state`s attractiveness for telecommunications infrastructure, while addressing issues of ethics and morality in the new telecommications environment. A new, broad socio-technological research agenda needs to be developed - with the ultimate purpose of providing society with the tools to play the new game and thrive. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. POLITICAL OPTIONS AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS WITHIN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sandu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes in the security environment of Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus have been reshaping the strategies of the six small countries in the proximity of both the EU and Russia. Their attempts to take upon themselves their Soviet heritage and their sensitive geographical position were reflected by a mix of East-West orientations. Some of them chose to create stronger economic bonds with the EU members while others decided to anticipate Russian discontent in separatist areas they shelter and became members of the EEU. Regardless of their option, the Eastern Partnership members embarked? on a long road of political, social and economic changes, so that their stability and growth would become pillars of a stronger role on the regional and international arena in the future. The EU, in turn, has been supporting its partners to the East according to their level of commitment to reform and approximation, although the economic benefits of this relation are imperceptible.

  19. A Matter of Politics: The Effects of the Political Context on Social Work in Norway and Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Tuastad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To which extent do dysfunctional political systems lead to everyday challenges for social workers? Moreover, how do social workers benefit from working in well-ordered democracies?  The purpose of this paper is to gain insights into how the interplay between the political context and social work actually operates. Our main question is: How do accountability and state capacity levels affect daily social work? This interplay frequently becomes associated with levels of democracy and redistribution. We also draw attention to how social workers’ are dependent on the capacity of the state to implement policies. We compare social work and the political and legal contexts in two widely different polities – Norway and Bolivia. Our primary findings indicate that the effects of generally unfavourable political conditions permeate the possibilities for effective social work in previously unforeseen ways. Coordination problems, clientelism and political rivalry lead to everyday challenges on the ground, as many problems seem to reflect the overall institutional system and political culture. In well-ordered political systems, these problems are hardly an issue. In our concluding discussion, we address how the nature of the institutional system and political culture apparently might call for a differentiated approach towards reform strategies. For instance, progressive politicians, citizens and social workers advocating a policy transfer could face severe hindrances in polities, thus comprising weak state capacities.

  20. Africa's Elites Ways of Commodifying Politics to Valorise Economic Rent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    This paper starts with incredulity first. Whilst doing some research for this paper, I came across members of the top political elite from Zaire to Nigeria often taken as 'kleptocrat extraordinaire' to be also in the forefront in denoucing rennt-seeking and corruption with an equal extraordinaire...... on this dlemma in order to address how rent-seeking cleansing can be attempted to align the elites as part of the solution rather than the problem of African economic and political development.......' flair and completeness at the same time.Some might ignore their stance as cynical and self-servingg and move on to other concerns. Others might condemn the fadulent behaviour, add what one can expect anyway from such immoral and unethical characters and pass on to other things.... This paper reflects...

  1. The Changing Context of Interpersonal Communication in Political Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Garrett J.

    Critiques and studies have found the traditional two-step flow model of social influence inadequate to describe and explain relationships between interpersonal and mass communications during political campaigns. A study was undertaken to incorporate a wider range of variables pertinent to both kinds of political communication behaviors to redefine…

  2. An Agent-Based Dynamic Model of Politics, Fertility and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zining Yang

    2016-01-01

    In the political economy of development, government policy choices at a single point in time can dramatically affect a country's development path by impacting fertility, economic and political decisions across generations. Combining system dynamics and agent-based modeling approaches in a complex adaptive system, a simulation framework of the Politics of Fertility and Economic Development (POFED) is formalized to understand the relationship between politics, economic, and demography change at...

  3. Decommissioning wind energy projects: An economic and political analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, Shannon L.; DeVuyst, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing segment of new electrical power capacity in the United States, with the potential for significant growth in the future. To facilitate such growth, a number of concerns between developers and landowners must be resolved, including assurance of wind turbine decommissioning at the end of their useful lives. Oklahoma legislators enlisted the authors to develop an economically-sound proposal to ensure developers complete their decommissioning obligations. Economic analysis of turbine decommissioning is complicated by a lack of operational experience, as few U.S. projects have been decommissioned. This leads to a lack of data regarding decommissioning costs. Politically, the negotiation leading to the finally-enacted solution juxtaposed economic theory against political pragmatism, leading to a different but hopefully sound solution. This article will provide background for the decommissioning issue, chronicle the development of the decommissioning component of the Oklahoma Wind Energy Act, and frame issues that remain for policymakers in regulating wind power development. - Highlights: ► Wind energy is the fastest-growing component of U.S. power generation. ► Decommissioning wind projects is policy concern for wind development. ► Little public information on wind turbine decommissioning costs exists. ► Oklahoma’s solution attempts to account for both costs and risks. ► Additional research is needed to create a more precise policy solution.

  4. A demographic-economic explanation of political stability: Mauritius as a microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, D

    1987-06-01

    "This paper examines current models of economic and political development--social modernization theory, political and economic characteristics of stable regimes, and cross country analysis of political stability--and tests them on the Indian Ocean Island of Mauritius. The analysis continues with a causal explanation for political stability in Mauritius' recent history, derived from an examination of economic policies and demographic patterns. Political change in Mauritius over the past sixty years seems to be explained best by a model for political stability which integrates specific economic and demographic factors. The model, applicable to development in other third world nations, revises Malthus' conclusion that population and economic conditions move in an oscillatory relationship and replaces it with a more comprehensive theory, suggesting that political stability is a function of both economic development and a repeating cyclical relationship between economics and population." excerpt

  5. Oil: economics and politics. Preliminary considerations on the Gulf Crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oil price fixing politics are first reviewed (existence of a floor price and of a maximum price, independently of economical consideration). In fact, geopolitical consideration are of premium importance in the oil demand/supply evolution. The Gulf Crisis and its surroundings (the Israel-Arab conflict) are revealing the supply and price logics of the oil market. An oil new order should be instaured through an OPEP restructuration and/or bilaterals relations and market dominance, organized by United States and Saoudi Arabia

  6. Images of Economic Integration Groups in Russian Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Rudenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other countries, Russian citizens watch all the details of everything that happens outside the country, especially if it concerns economic partnerships and Russia’s participation in different organizations and associations. The official view of Russian cooperation with other countries in various formats is presented in nationwide media, though the public opinion is not usually accepted there. However, with the help of images, that are created in the political discourse, one can understand, what kind of support can the government expect, working in a certain direction, which is important, considering the aspiration to raise awareness and civil activity. 

  7. Strategies for managing nuclear proliferation: economic and political issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, D.L.; Intriligator, M.D.; Wick, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    Several new ways of approaching nuclear-weapons proliferation emerged at an April 1982 conference at Tulane University. The new ideas use statistical techniques to emphasize political and economic rather than technological determinants, recognize the possibility that proliferation could have a stabilizing influence, shift their emphasis from eliminating to managing proliferation, and focus on regional factors. The four divisions of this book reflect these new trends. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 18 individual papers selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). 6 figures, 23 tables

  8. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-10

    pace to meet all eight of the United Nations ( UN ) Millennium Development Objectives by 2015.9 Recent Political and Economic Developments Bachelet...Front For Elections,” EFE News Service, June 15, 2009; “‘Hombres Fuertes’ de Las Campañas Analizan lo que Está en Juego en la Elección Presidencial...Enriquez-Ominami Paves Way For Younger Leaders,” Oxford Analytica, September 7, 2009. 42 “Marco Enríquez es, Políticamente, Hijo de Bachelet y Lagos

  9. Trade, Tarsands and Treaties: The Political Economy Context of Community Energy in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L. MacArthur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Governments today are increasingly looking to non-state and bottom up community actors to help achieve climate change mitigation targets. Canada is a resource rich state with one of the highest per capita greenhouse gas footprints in the world. It is also a state where issues of political will, geographic scale and incumbent industries contribute to a challenging context for broad community participation. Despite this, a long history of co-operative and municipal activity exists in the energy sector, exhibited in diverse ways across its provinces and territories. Provincial variation in energy sources and actors illustrates a far more nuanced picture than exists at the national level, providing a case rich with both promising and cautionary tales for the community energy sector. This article examines the emergence of community energy in the context of broader energy sector moves towards increasingly powerful trade agreements, privatization, and conflicts over Indigenous rights in Canada. It argues that significant potential exists to strengthen the role of local actors in Canadian energy governance, but that macro-level political and economic developments have also created significant challenges for widespread community energy transitions.

  10. The silencing of political context in health research in Ethiopia: why it should be a concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østebø, Marit Tolo; Cogburn, Megan D; Mandani, Anjum Shams

    2018-03-01

    In 2004, the Ethiopian government launched what has been called an innovative and groundbreaking solution to the country's public health challenges; the Health Extension Programme (HEP). The positive public health outcomes that have been reported following the implementation of the HEP have led researchers and global health actors to propose it as a model for other countries to emulate. In this systematic review, we point to a potential weakness and methodological bias in the existing research. Despite being implemented within a context of an increasingly authoritarian regime, research conducted following the implementation of HEP reflects a limited discussion of the political context. Following a discussion of why political context is marginalized we provide arguments for why a focus on political context is important: first, political context has an impact on health systems and actualizes questions related to good governance and ethics. While some of the studies we reviewed acknowledge the importance of political factors we contend that the one-sided focus on the positive relationship between political will, political commitment and political leadership on the one hand, and key public health outcomes on the other, reflects a narrow engagement with health system governance frameworks. This leads to a silencing of issues actualized by the authoritarian nature of the Ethiopian regime. Secondly, the political context has methodological implications. More specifically, we contend that the current political situation increases the probability of social desirability bias. In order to balance the overarching positive literature on Ethiopia's health system, research that takes the political context into account is much needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Benjamin

    2005-10-25

    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology, particularly Geographic Information Systems, have allowed political parties and other organizations to create election districts with increasingly precise political and demographic characteristics. Scholars have made considerable progress in measuring and evaluating the racial and partisan biases of districting plans, and some states have tried to use Geographic Information Systems technology to produce more representative districts. However, case studies of Texas and Arizona illustrate that such analytic and technical advances have not overcome the basic contradictions that underlie the American system of territorial political representation.

  12. ECONOMIC SECURITY – NEW APPROACHES IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more than ever, economic relations between states are the ones that define the general character of the relations between them and establish economic security as a concept which cannot be neglected anymore. Globalization, the process that shapes the international environment, undermines the old definition of economic security and forces its redefinition. The article aims to identify and analyse the effects of globalization on economic security and the new approaches it takes in this context.

  13. Designer ecosystems, capitalism, and boom-bust economic cycles: linking political economy and hydroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M. W.; Rigby, J.

    2011-12-01

    The basic premise of the term "anthropocene" is that human practices are becoming a primary force in shaping ecosystems even at the global scale. Ecohydrologists and hydroecologists often consider human effects to be a collective term that is culturally and politically invariant. "Anthropogenic change" is often cited regardless of whether these changes occur in liberal democracies or totalitarian autocracies. Yet there is potential for socio-politically driven variation in basic human impacts on the environment. Analyzing the anthropocene requires considering the rise in global population convolved with dramatically shifting political and economic conditions. How humans affect the environment, and how environmental change feedbacks operate, are likely highly dependent on cultural and political contexts. We posed the question, "Does capitalism leave a distinct signature on the hydroecological landscape?" We analyzed emerging designer ecosystems markets using Mankiw-Whinston free-entry equilibria model coupled with simple species-area curves and tested it with an extensive database of ecosystem service trades in North Carolina. Free-entry leads to a diffusion of small restored ecosystems whereas restricted entry leads to fewer, large sites; the difference in site locations and sizes in turn impact regional species distribution and water quality. We next analyzed the effect of deregulating electricity markets on river flow regimes in North Carolina; market deregulation increases potential profits derived from rapid power production in response to price changes on the spot market to which hydropower is uniquely able to respond. Results showed the potential for increased flow variability associated with price volatility in purely market-driven cases, but additional constraints required of infrastructure (e.g., flood control) restrict purely market-driven flow regimes. Changes in macro-economic conditions may also leave distinct signatures, often reflecting political

  14. Lived experience of economic and political trends related to globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushon, Jennifer A; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Labonte, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method case study examined how the economic and political processes of globalization have influenced the determinants of health among low-income children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. This paper presents the results from the qualitative interview component of the case study. The purpose of the interviews was to uncover the lived experience of low-income families and their children in Saskatoon with regards to political and economic trends related to globalization, an important addition to the usual globalization and health research that relies primarily on cross-country regressions in which the personal impacts remain hidden. In-depth phenomenological interviews with 26 low-income parents of young children (aged zero to five) who were residents of Saskatoon. A combination of volunteer and criterion sampling was used. Interview questions were open-ended and based upon an analytical framework. Analysis proceeded through immersion in the data, a process of open coding, and finally through a process of selective coding. The larger case study and interviews indicate that globalization has largely not been benefiting low-income parents with young children. Low-income families with young children were struggling to survive, despite the tremendous economic growth occurring in Saskatchewan and Saskatoon at the time of the interviews. This often led to participants expressing a sense of helplessness, despair, isolation, and/or anger. Respondents' experiences suggest that globalization-related changes in social conditions and public policies and programs have great potential to negatively affect family health through either psychosocial effects in individuals and/or decreased levels of social cohesion in the community.

  15. The Political Context of Judicial Review in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Edward Siregar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia Constitutional Court will celebrate 12th birthday this August 2015, and it cannot be denied that the Court play significant role in securing democracy in Indonesia. In exercising their authorities, including the election result dispute and judicial review, the Court continue to affirm institutional judicial legitimacy and pursue their role to guard 1945 Constitution and continue to do so. The first Chief Justice Jimly showed how within five years of the Court’s creation, he could strategically maximise its momentum and build up the Court as a respectful institution. The Chief Justice Mahfud MD was then elected to reduce the judicial activism started by Jimly’s bench. However, against promises and expectations, Mahfud MD brought the Court to a level far beyond the imagination of the Constitution drafters. Parliament and President tried to limit Court’s authority, not ones, and the Court able to overcome those constrain. Current various available studies observed only how the Court issued their decision and solely focus to the impact of the decision. Scholars slightly ignore that study about the Court, by reducing other constitutional actor in Indonesia, produce study about the Court itself isn’t complete. In fact, political environment in which the Court operated at that time is one of utmost importance the strengthen of the Court institutional legitimacy. This paper is trying to discover the rise of the Indonesia Constitutional Court, not from what the Court did, but from political environment outside the court. Political parties realize that the Court is the only institution that act as political dispute resolution among them. Political parties maturity and political constraint are the key factor that support the development of the Court’s institutional power.

  16. Transformation of conceptual basis of political science under cultural and historical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Tokovenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is submitted to a scientific discussion the possibility of considering the idea of political science, based on the criteria of intellectual integrity and disciplinary unity. In this context, generally accepted among professionals and political scientists idea that political science as a scientific discipline occurs in the early twentieth century and its conceptual framework is still in a state of development, and a long preceding period should be characterized as a period of political thought is being challenged. The main idea that is being proved is recognition the existence of such scientific discipline as political science requires recognition of the existence of specific inherent ideals of science, cognitive standards, rules, procedures, explanations, etc. They allow political thinkers from the ancient world as well as modern researchers to combine it into a single, unique, different from others in their methodological principles and heuristic potential Science. It is convinced that the existence of intellectual integrity and disciplinary unity in Political Science is possible due to the existence of the ideals of scholarship, which are closely related to the cultural and historical context in which Political Science is being developed. The possibility of applying such disciplinary and integrated approach is considered as an example of the impact that was made by changes of the Great French Revolution and its consequences on transformation of the conceptual framework of Political Science.  It is concluded that the consideration of the peculiarities of political thought development in the social and cultural contexts related to the events of the Great French Revolution and its consequences argues that political science is responsive to changing the social context, makes changes in categorical apparatus, introduces the new field of scientific inquiry, actualized subject field. These actions are due to the specific disciplinary unity

  17. Acquisition of Politeness Markers in an EFL Context: Impact of Input Enhancement and Output Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddin, Zia; Pezeshki, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Although politeness markers are frequently used in written and spoken communication, pragmatic studies have not sufficiently explored the instruction of such markers to English as a foreign language (EFL) learners who lack sufficient opportunity to communicate with native speakers to acquire them in the context of use. Ignoring politeness as a…

  18. Economic Dimensions of Urban Agriculture in the Context of Urban ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economic Dimensions of Urban Agriculture in the Context of Urban Poverty ... price crisis and the threat of climate change to traditional sources of food security. ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  19. [Food in the contemporary context: consumption, political action and sustainability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilho, Fátima; Castañeda, Marcelo; de Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    The interdisciplinary field of reflections on food as politics goes through a process of expansion and overflow to the private sphere, and routine daily food consumption. This process seems to be a reflection of transformations in the global agrifood markets, the wide publicity and awareness of food hazards and the politicization of consumption. To the extent that individuals are to assume responsibility for the environmental and social consequences of their everyday choices, the specificity of political power in contemporary societies goes beyond the institutional level (food security and nutrition, social inequalities in access to food, agricultural policies and regulations advertising of food) to meet the private sphere. This paper shows, initially, some of the recent debates about the process of politicization of consumption and then explores a theoretical reflection on the ethical, political and ideological habits that relate to food consumption, including the locations and ways of acquiring and food preparation, the values of environmental preservation, solidarity with local producers and reflexive caution against food risks. Finally, points to a research agenda capable of capturing the processes of politicization of food and consumer practices in the field of political power.

  20. POLITICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF RICE SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nuryanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice self-sufficiency is an important programme in Indonesia. The programme has four major targets, i.e. increasing production, stabilizing prices and reserve stocks, and minimizing import. For that purpose, the government gave a mandate to a parastatal, namely National Logistic Agency (Bulog in implementing the rice policies. Some studies found that involvement of such a parastatal could lead to government failure in budget allocation. The study aimed to estimate social cost of rice self-sufficiency programme based on the implementation of rice instrument policies by Bulog. The study used the national annual data of 2002–2014 period. The method used was the political preference function model to estimate economic rent and dead-weight loss using rice price elasticity of demand and supply. The result showed that in terms of percentage of food security budget, the average of economic rent reached IDR 6.37 trillion per annum (18.54%, while the average of dead-weight loss amounted at IDR 0.90 trillion per annum (2.34%. It proved that rice self-sufficiency programme along with the involvement of Bulog was economically inefficient. The government should provide better agricultural infrastructure, review governmental procurement prices, and stop rice import policy to remedy market failure.

  1. Tobacco, politics and economics: implications for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, K R

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the expanding presence of multinational cigarette companies into almost every country in the world, and discusses the health implications of this global penetration. Cigarettes deserve special attention because tobacco is the only legally available consumer product that is harmful to one's health when used as intended. A temptation exists to blame governments for the existence of health-threatening products within their borders. However, this paper illustrates the extent to which extra-national forces influence domestic policies and circumstances. Cigarette smokers are often blamed for their lethal habit, despite billion-dollar promotional schemes which attract people to smoking, obscuring the harmful consequences of consuming a highly addictive drug. Multinational cigarette companies are increasingly targeting Asian and Third World populations. To facilitate this market penetration, political avenues are often pursued with considerable success, disregarding the health implications associated with cigarette tobacco. The use of tobacco in development programs (e.g. the U.S. 'Food for Peace' program) has political and economic implications for donor and recipient countries, and lucrative advantages for the tobacco companies. However, this paper recommends that corporate profits and foreign policy should not be pursued at the expense of tobacco-related diseases and premature deaths among Third World peoples.

  2. Challenges in Swedish hydropower – politics, economics and rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two systems working in parallel have contributed to implementation difficulties in Swedish water governance. While the old system is designed to be predictable and stable over time, the new system is intended to be transparent and holistic, guided by the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management. The paper disentangles the challenges in Swedish water governance and proposes a blueprint for future research. The proposed research project is unique in the sense that it explores the imbalances between the new and the old water governance systems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, elaborating upon the clashes between the traditional, nationally based regulatory system and the new holistic water governance system from legal, political and economic perspectives.

  3. Relative Importance of Political Instability and Economic Variables on Perceived Country Creditworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Suk Hun Lee

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of political instability and economic variables on perceived country creditworthiness. Our results indicate that both political instability and economic variables are taken into account in evaluating country creditworthiness; however, it appears that bankers assign larger weight to economic performances, which we except of reflect longer term political stability. In addition, the frequency of changes in the regime and armed conflict, both proxying f...

  4. Historical intersections of psychology, religion, and politics in national contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.; Kugelmann, R.

    2009-01-01

    Various types of psychology have come into existence in and have been interacting with a plurality of contexts, contexts that have been radically varying in different states or nations. One important factor in the development of psychology has been the multiple relationships to the Christian

  5. Corruption, Political Instability and Economic Development in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): Is There a Causal Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Nurudeen Abu; Mohd Zaini Abd Karim; Mukhriz Izraf Azman Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundant research on economic development, corruption and political instability, little research has attempted to examine whether there is a causal relationship among them. This paper examines the causal relationship among corruption, political instability and economic development in the ECOWAS using the Granger causality test within a multivariate cointegration and error-correction framework for the 1996 - 2012 period. The findings indicate that political instability Granger-caus...

  6. Political instability and economic growth: an empirical evidence from the Baltic states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislava Grochová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than last 20 decades, new political economics has been dealing with theories of economic growth (for example influential contributions by Mancur Olson, Dani Rodrik. However, less attention has been paid to their empirical verification. The new political economics growth theory defines some factors that are necessary for economic growth among which political stability. Our aim is to test the theory focused on political stability empirically in order to enrich the studies with recent European results. The paper uses a single-equation model to reject a hypothesis that political stability is a necessary condition for economic growth finding a relationship between economic growth and political instability. A demonstration that political stability is not a crucial factor for economic development in general then represents the main goal of the contribution. There are distinguished two types of political instability – elite and non-elite – in topical literature. While non-elite political instability concerns about violent coups, riots or civil wars, elite political instability is represented with “soft changes” such as government breakdowns, fragile majority or minority governments. A number of government changes is used as a proxy of elite political instability. The disproof of the hypothesis is demonstrated on data from the Baltic states where number of government changes takes place and still fast economic growth could be seen within last two decades. Since it is shown that political instability has almost no impact on economic growth, we consider the hypothesis regarding a necessity of political stability for economic development to be only a specific non-generalizable case.

  7. Strategic Integration: The Practical Politics of Integrated Research in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrae van Kerkhoff

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing an integrative research program requires that research leaders negotiate a balance between the scientific interest of research and the practical interests of non-scientific partners. This paper examines the ways integrated research is formally categorised, and analyses the tangible expressions of the practical politics involved in reconciling scientific and practical interests. Drawing on a comparative study of two Australian Cooperative Research Centres, I argue that categories used by the research leaders to describe the research programs embody three different strategies for structuring the relationships between researchers and their partners. These include matching research program categories to partners’ implementation program categories, reproducing existing integrative partnership models, and filling gaps in understanding with new technical approaches. These strategies offer different advantages and disadvantages. The cases suggest that the integrative approach favoured by each Centre depended on issues such as the geographic scope of policy arenas, sources of scientific credibility, and the political risks facing partners. The practical politics of research organisation offers a new lens for understanding both the practice and theory of integrated research.

  8. Many paths to walk: the political and economic integration of nomadic communities in Roman North Africa (I-III cent. A.D.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanacker, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    The colonial image of endemic political and economic antagonism between nomadic and sedentary groups in the context of Roman North Africa should be discarded. Likewise, the rigid adherence to symbiosis and cooperation in more recent studies is based on a rather one-sided reading of anthropological literature. For the analysis of literary, epigraphic and archaeological sources, supported by insights derived from anthropology, shows that political and economic integration trajectories of nomads...

  9. Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    Current energy policies address environmental issues including environmentally friendly technologies to increase energy supplies and encourage cleaner, more efficient energy use, and address air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. The biofuel policy aims to promote the use in transport of fuels made from biomass, as well as other renewable fuels. Biofuels provide the prospect of new economic opportunities for people in rural areas in oil importer and developing countries. The central policy of biofuel concerns job creation, greater efficiency in the general business environment, and protection of the environment. Projections are important tools for long-term planning and policy settings. Renewable energy sources that use indigenous resources have the potential to provide energy services with zero or almost zero emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependence on imported petroleum with associated political and economic vulnerability, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, and revitalize the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. (author)

  10. Children's Reasoning about Lie-Telling and Truth-Telling in Politeness Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D.; Sweet, Monica A.; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    Children's reasoning about lying and truth-telling was examined among participants ages 7-11 (total N = 181) with reference to conflicts between being honest and protecting the feelings of others. In Study 1, participants showed different patterns of evaluation and motivational inference in politeness contexts vs. transgression contexts: in…

  11. Global energy efficiency governance in the context of climate politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.; Ivanova, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that energy efficiency and conservation is a noncontroversial, critical, and equitable option for rich and poor alike. Although there is growing scientific and political consensus on its significance as an important option at global and national level, the political momentum for taking action is not commensurate with the potential in the sector or the urgency with which measures need to be taken to deal with climate change. The current global energy (efficiency) governance framework is diffuse. This paper submits that there are four substantive reasons why global governance should play a complementary role in promoting energy efficiency worldwide. Furthermore, given that market mechanisms are unable to rapidly mobilize energy efficiency projects and that there are no clear vested interests in this field which involves a large number of actors, there is need for a dedicated agency to promote energy efficiency and conservation. This paper provides an overview of energy efficiency options presented by IPCC, the current energy efficiency governance structure at global level, and efforts taken at supranational and national levels, and makes suggestions for a governance framework.

  12. Thinking Like an Economist: The Neoliberal Politics of the Economics Textbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidhof, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    This article surveys 10 introductory economics textbooks to examine whether and how economics contributed to the rise of neoliberalism. It defines neoliberalism as a political rationality characterized by market constructivism. In contrast with conventional liberal approaches that view limited

  13. An Agent-Based Dynamic Model of Politics, Fertility and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zining Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the political economy of development, government policy choices at a single point in time can dramatically affect a country's development path by impacting fertility, economic and political decisions across generations. Combining system dynamics and agent-based modeling approaches in a complex adaptive system, a simulation framework of the Politics of Fertility and Economic Development (POFED is formalized to understand the relationship between politics, economic, and demography change at both macro and micro levels. First, a new political capacity measurement is used; and the system dynamics model is validated with the latest data. Second, the endogenous attributes are fused with non-cooperative game theory in an agent-based framework to simulate the interactive political economic dynamics of individual intra-societal transactions. Finally, macro and micro levels are connected with policy levers of political capacity and political instability by merging system dynamics and agent-based components. This paper also explores the agent-based model's behavioral dynamics via simulation methods to identify paths towards economic development and political stability. This model demonstrates micro level human agency can act, react and interact, thus driving macro level dynamics, while macro structures provide political, social and economic environments that constrain or incentivize micro level human behavior.

  14. Brazilian nuclear politics in the context of contemporary international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpes, Mariana Montez

    2006-09-01

    The present dissertation analyses the retaking of the debate over Brazilian nuclear Program's recovery by Luis Inacio Lula da Silva government, based on the defense of the utilization of an already acquired technology of its own to enrich uranium. In spite of the intrinsic duality on this subject and having in mind the pacific ends concerning the utilization of such technology by Brazil, the hypothesis sustained in this work is that the Program's defense is considered a strategy of sovereign international insertion with relative autonomy and an instrument of national valorization against other powers. In order to verify the hypothesis outlined above, we will analyse the actual government, comparing it to, two other moments in Brazilian History in which the nuclear issue also acquired preponderance on the national agenda, namely, Geisel and Sarney governments. Although these three moments differ in relation to their internal political regime, our goal is to identify their similarities. (author)

  15. Analyzing Crime and Crime Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Ruth I.; And Others

    This document, the fourth in a series of resource guides emphasizing economic-political analysis of contemporary public policies and issues, focuses on crime control. Designed as a three-week unit for secondary school students, the guide is presented in three sections. The introduction presents an economic and a political science framework for…

  16. The Political and Economic Perspectives of the Tiv-Jukun Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These conflicts, which have political and economic undertones, hinge on the struggle for political appointments and control of cherished economic resources in the area such as farmland. In order to achieve lasting peace in the area, the paper proposes reconciliatory efforts on the part of the belligerents. On the other hand, ...

  17. The Impact of China on South American Political and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2018-01-01

    The analysis compares three typologies of South American countries in terms of the impact of China on their political and economic development.......The analysis compares three typologies of South American countries in terms of the impact of China on their political and economic development....

  18. Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    these policy recommendations are second best in strict economic terms, they are the best economic designs given that they must be politically feasible. Understanding the politics of green taxation is the prerequisite for the development of effective green taxation models which have a chance of being...

  19. Impact of Globalisation On Economic Growth in Romania: An Empirical Analysis of Its Economic, Social and Political Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the link between globalisation and economic growth in Romania for a time span of 24 years. Data from World Bank were used in an econometrical model in order to highlight the impact of globalisation, expressed by the KOF globalisation index and its components (economic, social and political globalisation indices on economic growth rate. A statistical strong and positive link is found between GDP per capita dynamics and overall globalisation index as well as between GDP growth rate and economic and political globalisation, except the social dimension of globalisation which has a negative impact on economic growth in Romania for the time span 1990-2013.

  20. Political and economic structure and energy industry status of Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Looking at the composition of energy resources import of Korea per each country, Australian-made import takes up 11.8% of total energy resources import. It possesses the highest import composition of 30.5% when petroleum sector is excluded. In the order of Korea`s mineral import per each country, Australia still keep the number one position every year though Korea keep promoting the diversification of import sources. In the mean time, reflecting on the treatment aspect of import country of Australia, when Korea`s energy, the import size of resources, import intensity of Australia`s primary raw material resources and international resources situation are considered, Korea is thought to receive less treatment from Australia as the second export country of Australia than Japan who is the number one export country of Australia, relatively. Though the increase ratio of Korean tourists in Australia is the highest for the past few years and international promotion effect shows big with the IMF financial support of Korea who faces sudden economic crisis recently as a momentum, sincere evaluation through in-depth analysis between Korea and Australia is still in the initial stage. The necessity to diagnosis the general political and economic structure of Australia more in detail emerges as trade volume between two countries keep growing, esp. in the import of energy and resources sectors, the number of visits between two countries keep increasing. Therefore, the purpose of this study lies mainly in the structure of the new Australian government, general macroeconomics structure and the understanding of energy industry-related status such as energy supply and demand, development status of energy, related laws, and government`s energy agencies, etc. 6 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Sustainable development in the EU: a political and economic explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creaco, Salvo

    2005-01-01

    envisaged when the recent European environmental policy was adopted. With the inevitable consequence that the most common environmental policy solution had frequently continued to be direct regulations. The scant progress in widening the range of instruments for control and behavioural change confirms the existence of a large disagreement between the normative prescriptions of economic theory and decisions effectively taken within the political process. If a large divergence between theory and practices often prevails, the relevant issue is then to understand why ED and Member States have failed to refer to the proposed wider box of instruments. In this direction, this paper points out the usefulness of the contribution that public choice theory can provide for understanding why particular environmental instruments are actually adopted and implemented. According to the individualistic approach of public choice, the paper deals with the issue concerning the choice and implementation of environmental policy tools through the analysis of the functioning of two strictly connected markets: the political market and the para-political market, and tries to give an explanation as to why in representative democracies, in which forces may be identified as demand and supply, an incentive-oriented environmental policy has many difficulties of being implemented [it

  2. Political realities and economic realities towards a Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdaire, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The current climate change commitments and the negotiating positions of Annex I countries were discussed. It was pointed out that the energy sector is not homogeneous and therefore, climate change should focus on the areas all over the world which are most sensitive to a carbon value. It was also noted that while the present time is ripe for action on climate change, actions should not take place at any cost. A scenario based on the three principal functions of energy, i.e. to supply mobility, electricity and heat was proposed. It was claimed that this proposal had the potential to bridge the gap between the political reality of Kyoto and the economic realities of the energy sector. The essence of the proposal centred around the concept of 'carbon value'. The effect of establishing carbon values for each of the different energy services worldwide, was discussed. Various mechanisms for establishing carbon values, such as emission trading, joint implementation with non-Annex I parties, penalties for non-compliance, mitigation efforts in least-cost options, were also reviewed

  3. Political and economic heritage of postcommunist Europe and energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transition countries include a group of countries with similar political, economic and social problems that signify the period after the end of the cold war and the fall of Communism. The paper presents the characteristics of the European Communist countries before and after the fall of the iron curtain, which influenced the transition process toward market economy. The centralist (Russian) economy model had enormous advantages at the beginning, particularly in the energy sector, owing to unlimited consumption of blood, sweat and tears during the construction of major power plants. The bureaucratic system executed ruthless expropriation of land and the existing power system, neglecting the environment and human health and even disregarding the feasibility of new power plants. The market creation and particularly the creation of an energy market, under which we understand selling and buying of all forms of energy, fuels, power plants' equipment and capital for energy sector, asks for a series of tasks from the Eastern European countries. They must accept market rules, standards of highly industrialised western countries and achievements in parliamentary democracy as the canon of behaviour in democracy. Setting up a legal infrastructure for the private sector, devising a taxation system, determining ownership rights, stabilising the macro economy in the sense of managing the government budget so as to avoid an excessive fiscal deficit, and stabilising monetary policy are primary tasks of the transition countries. The paper particularly reviews the tasks specifically related to the energy sector and analyses the problems taking into account national strategic interests. (author)

  4. Corruption, Political Instability and Economic Development in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS: Is There a Causal Relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudeen Abu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant research on economic development, corruption and political instability, little research has attempted to examine whether there is a causal relationship among them. This paper examines the causal relationship among corruption, political instability and economic development in the ECOWAS using the Granger causality test within a multivariate cointegration and error-correction framework for the 1996-2012 period. The findings indicate that political instability Granger-causes economic development in the short term, while political instability and economic development Granger-cause corruption in the long term. In addition, we employed the forecast error variance decomposition and impulse response function analyses to investigate the dynamic interaction between the variables. The results demonstrate positive unidirectional Granger causality from political instability to economic development in the short term and positive unidirectional Granger causality from political instability and economic development to corruption in the long term in ECOWAS countries. Thus, ECOWAS governments should employ policies to promote political stability in the region.

  5. THE ENTRANCE OF VENEZUELA IN MERCOSUR: ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Schmuziger Goldzweig

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the perception of the political agents of the Congress through the analysis of their votes on the context of the acceptance of Venezuela into MERCOSUR, relating it to the potential gains coming from its admission. The relevance of the topic is justified by the importance that the bloc would acquire accepting a new member, considering the expansion of the internal consumer market and the increase of oil reserves of the bloc. Therefore, the intention is to clarify the political situation favorable to the integration and, taking the Brazilian perception in consideration, establish the relationship between economic gains that would come from the acceptance of Venezuela as a state member and the political discourse regarding this subject in the National Congress. Through the votes of deputies and senators we mapped the variables that act as important factors in the decision-making process of lawmakers. It was found that the party influence, though strong, suffers marginal effects of variables such as the influence of regional and local interests when it comes to voting on foreign policy.

  6. Gambling in Sweden: the cultural and socio-political context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2014-02-01

    To provide an overview, with respect to Sweden, of the cultural history of gambling, the commercialization of gambling, problem gambling research, the prevalence of problem gambling and its prevention and treatment. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Sweden; involvement in gambling research and regulation. Gambling has long been part of Swedish culture. Since about 1980 the gambling market, although still largely monopolistic, has been commercialized. At the same time, problem gambling has emerged as a concept in the public health paradigm. Debate regarding whether or not Sweden's national restrictions on the gambling market are compliant with European Community legislation has helped to put problem gambling on the political agenda. Despite expanded gambling services, the extent of problem gambling on the population level has not changed significantly over the past decade. The stability of problem gambling in Sweden at the population level suggests a homeostatic system involving the gambling market, regulation, prevention and treatment and adaption to risk and harm by gamblers. We have relatively good knowledge of the extent and characteristics of problem gambling in Sweden and of how to treat it, but little is known of how to prevent it effectively. Knowledge is needed of the effectiveness of regulatory actions and approaches, and of responsible gambling measures implemented by gambling companies. © 2013 The Author, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Do political and economic choices rely on common neural substrates? A systematic review of the emerging neuropolitics literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekoul eKrastev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods of cognitive neuroscience are beginning to be applied to the study of political behavior. The neural substrates of value-based decision-making have been extensively examined in economic contexts; this might provide a powerful starting point for understanding political decision-making. Here, we asked to what extent the neuropolitics literature to date has used conceptual frameworks and experimental designs that make contact with the reward-related approaches that have dominated decision neuroscience. We then asked whether the studies of political behavior that can be considered in this light implicate the brain regions that have been associated with subjective value related to economic rewards. We performed a systematic literature review to identify papers addressing the neural substrates of political behavior and extracted the fMRI studies reporting behavioral measures of subjective value as defined in decision neuroscience studies of reward. A minority of neuropolitics studies met these criteria and relatively few brain activation foci from these studies overlapped with regions where activity has been related to subjective value. These findings show modest influence of reward-focused decision neuroscience on neuropolitics research to date. Whether the neural substrates of subjective value identified in economic choice paradigms generalize to political choice thus remains an open question. We argue that systematically addressing the commonalities and differences in these two classes of value-based choice will be important in developing a more comprehensive model of the brain basis of human decision-making.

  8. Do Political and Economic Choices Rely on Common Neural Substrates? A Systematic Review of the Emerging Neuropolitics Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastev, Sekoul; McGuire, Joseph T; McNeney, Denver; Kable, Joseph W; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2016-01-01

    The methods of cognitive neuroscience are beginning to be applied to the study of political behavior. The neural substrates of value-based decision-making have been extensively examined in economic contexts; this might provide a powerful starting point for understanding political decision-making. Here, we asked to what extent the neuropolitics literature to date has used conceptual frameworks and experimental designs that make contact with the reward-related approaches that have dominated decision neuroscience. We then asked whether the studies of political behavior that can be considered in this light implicate the brain regions that have been associated with subjective value related to "economic" reward. We performed a systematic literature review to identify papers addressing the neural substrates of political behavior and extracted the fMRI studies reporting behavioral measures of subjective value as defined in decision neuroscience studies of reward. A minority of neuropolitics studies met these criteria and relatively few brain activation foci from these studies overlapped with regions where activity has been related to subjective value. These findings show modest influence of reward-focused decision neuroscience on neuropolitics research to date. Whether the neural substrates of subjective value identified in economic choice paradigms generalize to political choice thus remains an open question. We argue that systematically addressing the commonalities and differences in these two classes of value-based choice will be important in developing a more comprehensive model of the brain basis of human decision-making.

  9. South African oil dependency : geo-political, geo-economic and geo-strategic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Ph.D. There is little research undertaken on the economic assessment of oil security of supply from the dimensions of geo-politics, geo-economics and geo-strategy. This study seeks to bridge the gap by providing new analytical and empirical work that captures the impact of geo-politics, geo-economics and geo-strategy on oil supply, consumption and price. This study is the first to define, analyse and contextualise the South African oil security of supply from a geo-political, geo-economic ...

  10. VALUE ADDED TAX IN THE ECONOMIC CRISIS CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to present the major aspects concerning the value added tax in the context of economic crisis in European Union countries and Romania. The paper realizes an analysis of the impact of economic crises on VAT in the European space underlining the current situation when the revenues from VAT represent a valuable source of financing the public expenditures. In Romania the economic crises has led to increasing o f VAT rate from 19% to 24%. This measure is an important fiscal measure for the state budget and this study tries to reflect the impact of this VAT rate increase on the public revenues and consumption.

  11. How do Five American Political Science Textbooks Deal with the Economic Dimension?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2011-01-01

    Politics and economics interact. As a consequence, political science textbooks must often relate to the economic dimension—implicitly or explicitly. But we know very little about how these textbooks relate to economics. Are they merely unreflective customers of neoclassical economics or do...... they strive for a cross-disciplinary approach? An analysis of five American textbooks identifies two very different and concurrent interactions between politics and economics. The first is a theoretically conceived market economy in which market forces independently drive growth and create equilibrium, where...... politics has a rather secluded role. The second is the actually existing mixed economy, characterized by increased inequality, economic concentration, power, and environmental problems, influenced by a state forced to regulate. The problems of operating with such a dichotomy— and possible solutions...

  12. An economic analysis of the political promotion system in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiancai Pi

    2017-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the political promotion system in China. Specifically, we develop a generalized analytical framework by introducing the contest success function. On the one hand, the central government can give the optimal political promotion benefits to local officials to incentivize them to exert desirable developmental efforts. On the other hand, the central government can undertake a further design of the political promotion system to motivate local officials vi...

  13. Diffusion of Telecommunications Services in a Complex Socio-Economic Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Abdullah

    This research aims at creating a detailed account on the diffusion of telecommunications services in a complex socio-economic context, taking Pakistan as a case study. The core research question of this thesis is to investigate why the successful experience of the rapid and an effective diffusion...... of mobile communications services in case of Pakistan couldn’t be replicated in the cases of fixed telephony and internet services. The book investigates those major attributes which play a significant role in the diffusion of telecommunications services in a complex socio-economic and political context...... of telecom services within a complex unit of adoption. The empirical part of the research includes a significantly high number of interviews that were conducted from the key players of the local telecom market, and they essentially represented all the five major domains i.e. the supplier, policy, regulatory...

  14. Broader context for social, economic, and cultural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Jonathan W. Long; Frank K. Lake; Susan. Charnley

    2014-01-01

    This chapter sets the context for the following sociocultural sections of the synthesis by providing information on the broader social, cultural, and economic patterns in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Range. Demographic influences surrounding population change, including those accounted for through amenity migration, are examined. Social and cultural concerns...

  15. Dietary patterns, overweight and obesity from 1961 to 2011 in the socioeconomic and political context of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Martín; Moreno-Altamirano, Laura; Hernández-Montoya, Dewi; Capraro, Santiago; García-García, Juan José; Soto-Estrada, Guadalupe

    2017-02-01

    To analyse the changes in eating patterns in Argentina from 1961 to 2011, and to assess changes in overweight and obesity in their socioeconomic and political context, we performed a hierarchical cluster analysis. We used the information from Food Balance Sheets of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation to identify dietary patterns of apparent consumption. Years were grouped into five patterns. The food group with the highest apparent consumption was cereals (30% of total kcal/person/day) although this decreased slightly. Meats were second and their contribution decreased by 12%. The following foods contribution increased during the period: Sugar and milk by 2% and vegetable oils by 6%. The changes observed in the number of kcal/person/day were in line with changes in real wage, and coincided with economic and political crises that Argentina experienced during that period. Changes in eating patterns allow us to interpret that they relate to the increase in overweight and obesity.

  16. The Effect of Political and Economic Factors on Corporate Tax Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Åsa; Porter, Susan; Perry Williams, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Economists and political scientists have long been interested in factors that affect the statutory tax rate on businesses set by federal governments. In this study, we examine the impact of political and economic factors on several measures of tax rates and tax incentives offered across 19 developed countries for the years 1979 through 2005. Our results indicate that while economic conditions such as openness, strategic interaction, budget constraints, economic downturns and an aging populati...

  17. The Political Economy of India’s Economic Reforms: Three Periods from 1947-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ECONOMY OF INDIA’S ECONOMIC REFORMS: THREE PERIODS FROM 1947–2016 by Vinamra V. Pande June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Naazneen Barma Co-Advisor...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF INDIA’S ECONOMIC REFORMS: THREE PERIODS FROM 1947–2016 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...India’s economic history. This research explores some of the most notable parts of India’s political economy and analyzes the domestic and

  18. Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At a time of unprecedented political transitions in the Arab world, this project will ... While the Arab revolts brought with them a wave of political change and ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  19. Teacher collaboration and curriculum construction: Political, cultural, and structural contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterle, Rochelle Eda Penn

    This longitudinal case study is the story of one high school's efforts to implement curriculum reform and the profound effect of local circumstances on reform ideologies. What began as a study of inter- and intradisciplinary collaborative science curriculum integration became the study of a systemic failure to modify cultural practices. Poritical, economic, and structural measures initiated to facilitate reform ultimately represent inherent conflicts of interest which undermine the reform effort. This research exposes obstacles that are deeply embedded within the school's governance, the beliefs and knowledge of teachers, and the culture of schools. The study site is both a new entity and a new concept: a specialized math/science high school located on a state university campus; the school recruits underrepresented students to become acclimated to university coursework and culture. To date, the school has maintained an exceptional record of college and university placements. The school is governed by a partnership representing the university, the corporate sector, and 11 surrounding K-12 school districts. Free from the regularities of a traditional high school, the school appears to be ideally situated for innovation. The principle innovations at this school relate to its organizational structure--heterogeneous student groupings, cooperative group work, curriculum integration, block scheduling, and concurrent university coursework. For teachers, grade level teams replace departments as the dominant unit for professional, curricular, and social interactions. Within teacher teams, collaboration centers around ongoing student problems and policies, subordinating academic content and significant interdisciplinary connections. Without active discipline-based departments and curricular leadership, however, this research finds an absence of academic direction and accountability.

  20. Technical change and economic policy: science and technology in the new economic and social context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Links between scientific research, technological development, and economic growth by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development are analyzed. The analysis is broken into four parts: (1) The New Economic and Social Context; (2) Trends in R and D and Innovation; (3) Technological Change and the Economy; and (4) Conclusions and Recommendations. The long-term structural nature of many of the problems facing western Europe are emphasized, and the limitations of short-term-demand management strategies in solving them.

  1. Do Political and Economic Choices Rely on Common Neural Substrates? A Systematic Review of the Emerging Neuropolitics Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastev, Sekoul; McGuire, Joseph T.; McNeney, Denver; Kable, Joseph W.; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2016-01-01

    The methods of cognitive neuroscience are beginning to be applied to the study of political behavior. The neural substrates of value-based decision-making have been extensively examined in economic contexts; this might provide a powerful starting point for understanding political decision-making. Here, we asked to what extent the neuropolitics literature to date has used conceptual frameworks and experimental designs that make contact with the reward-related approaches that have dominated decision neuroscience. We then asked whether the studies of political behavior that can be considered in this light implicate the brain regions that have been associated with subjective value related to “economic” reward. We performed a systematic literature review to identify papers addressing the neural substrates of political behavior and extracted the fMRI studies reporting behavioral measures of subjective value as defined in decision neuroscience studies of reward. A minority of neuropolitics studies met these criteria and relatively few brain activation foci from these studies overlapped with regions where activity has been related to subjective value. These findings show modest influence of reward-focused decision neuroscience on neuropolitics research to date. Whether the neural substrates of subjective value identified in economic choice paradigms generalize to political choice thus remains an open question. We argue that systematically addressing the commonalities and differences in these two classes of value-based choice will be important in developing a more comprehensive model of the brain basis of human decision-making. PMID:26941703

  2. Regulation of international energy markets: Economic effects of political actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.

    Recent increases in volatility of energy prices have led many governments to reevaluate their regard of national energy reserves and reconsider future exploration, production, and consumption patterns. The flurry of activity that has been generated by such price volatility has included large-scale nationalizations of energy sectors, unilateral renegotiations of foreign energy development contracts, and expropriations of resources from foreign energy firms on one hand, and on the other hand more rapid energy sector liberalization, intensified search for and development of renewable fuels and technologies, and development of incentives for increased energy efficiency and conservation. The aim of this dissertation is to examine and quantify the extent of positive and negative effects that have resulted from some of these activities. The first chapter focuses on quantifying the effect that nationalistic sentiment has had on economic attractiveness of energy sectors during the decade prior to the recent global economic crisis, as measured by foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Empirical results demonstrate that both political and economic conditions play an important role in investors' decisions. A combination of investment friendliness, corruption levels, and democracy all help to explain the trends in energy-sector investment levels over time in my sample countries, although differences in the types of corruption existing in these nations do not. Investment levels, in turn, appear to influence future levels of oil production, underscoring the significance of good investment policies for future success of energy sectors. Chapter two considers the response of energy stock prices to severe regulatory actions. It employs an event study framework to examine causal effects of critical informational announcements (i.e. events of expropriation and nationalization) on daily returns and cumulative losses in firm value of energy corporations. Results show that a firm

  3. Who is the Troll?: The Construction of Political Identities on Social Media in the Peruvian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cerna Aragón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One can easily find discrediting accusations between users with different political affiliations or ideological orientations on social media. The objective of this article is to affirm that these practices are neither superfluous nor secondary, but rather fundamental in the formation and consolidation of political identities of those who participate in these discussions. This article reviews up-to-date academic literature about three recent trends in the dynamics of political discussion on social media (the polarization of the political debate, the focus on personalities and figures, and the trolls’ practices and, using tools taken from Netnography, it explores and applies these concepts to the Peruvian context. Consequently, the article offers an outline about the daily political dynamics on social media, how users take sides and disputes happen, and how this serves to the (reproduction of political identities. The results of this investigation show a scenario where two characteristics prevail: the polarization between different political stances and the uncertainty about the information and identities in circulation.

  4. Reading Ancient Reliefs: An Approach to Interperation of Architectural Decoration in Historical and Political Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgr. Lucia Novakova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ancient treasuries promoted wealth and prosperity of the donation community. Preserved relief scenes portrayed mythological stories used for expressing certain characteristic reflection of reality (chaos, wilderness, heroism, etc. By analyzing historical sources is possible to assign events related to the poleis in historical context. This paper shall serve as introduction of hypothetical nature of political program and contribution to the knowledge of political promotion of polis in relief decoration. Figural decoration became a form of political program, or even metaphorical ideology. The main carrier of ideological reference were figure decorated pediments and friezes. Those visualized political agenda of polis even for illiterate observers. In particular mythological stories, those that might have some ideological scheme, were preferred. They can be applied to current events of polis, but only if adequate historical sources or archaeological evidence. Mythological battles were frequent motifs. The story of Gigantomachy allowed various kind of exploitation in political ideology. The main idea was the battle between world full of chaos and world representing stability and certainty. Analogies are identifiable in the whole archaic period. The main inspiration were military confrontations with other Greek or non-Greek cities. From preserved decorative elements is possible to roughly characterize also political significance of mythological heroes. Visual display is closely related to foreign policy and inner political conflict of poleis. It is important that preserved reliefs with motives that do not deal with panhellenic scenes are lessnumerous.

  5. Divided politics and economic growth in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Batalla, Eric Vincent C.

    2016-01-01

    As the 2016 elections drew near and the prospects of a Rodrigo Duterte presidency became stronger, there were concerns that the economy might be adversely affected by the expected political volatility under the new regime. Since the start of the campaign season, Duterte had been rocking the establishment through controversial pronouncements and outbursts, attracting the enmity of leaders of the Catholic Church, the United States, and the United Nations. Based on a review of recent political a...

  6. Economics, funding and the influence of politics on the UMTRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamp, S.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation discusses the factors contributing to the cost of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project and the political process involved in the funding. Topics covered include the following: Funding estimate and growth of estimate; Management actions during process; how the political process worked; cost of completed sites; economic benefit analysis of the project to Colorado; cost reduction program for the UMTRA project

  7. Gifted Education's Reflection of Country-Specific Cultural, Political, and Economic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Roger S.; McClarty, Katie Larsen

    2016-01-01

    Educational policies and practices are influenced by cultural, political, and economic factors, and this is also true of specialized educational approaches such as gifted education. Factors such as a country's cultural tendency toward egalitarianism or meritocracy, whether the political system is centralized or decentralized, and the degree to…

  8. Economic and Social Political Ideology and Homophobia: The Mediating Role of Binding and Individualizing Moral Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Öz, Haluk C M; Marsden, Arthur D

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has linked conservative political ideology with homophobia. Political ideology has also been linked to differences in moral decision-making, with research suggesting that conservatives and liberals may use different values in their moral decision-making processes. Moral foundations theory is a model of moral decision-making that proposes that individuals emphasize different domains in moral decision-making. Conservatives tend to emphasize binding foundations, while liberals tend to emphasize individualizing foundations. Utilizing large, ethnically diverse college samples, the purpose of these two cross-sectional studies (Study 1 N = 492; Study 2 N = 861) was to explore whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and homophobia. These studies explored economic and social political ideology separately and utilized a two-factor model of moral foundations theory (individualizing and binding foundations). Results of both studies found that conservative economic and social political ideology was positively associated with homophobia. Study 1 found that both conservative economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through binding foundations. Study 2 found that both economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through both binding and individualizing foundations. Overall, the results were consistent with the notion that moral foundations may explain the relationship between political ideology and homophobia.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POLITICAL INSTABILITY AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF TURKEY (1987-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SELİM ŞANLISOY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Economy and policy are always in mutual interaction. Especially the fact that sharp judgement between economical variables and democratization cannot be put forward shows that the relationship between political instability and economical variables should be analysed. In recent studies political stability or instability variables including more comprehensive variables instead of democratization variables have been used. The main aim of this study is to analyse the effects of political instability often experienced in Turkey’s conditions on economic growth. Here in terms of the analysis of variables (data time series a model with single equation was established and within the framework of this model some analyses were carried out with the help of main and control variables. To the findings, in accordance with the literature, it is verified that there is a reverse relationship between political instability and economic growth in Turkey and in the light of the findings, some policy suggestions are also made.

  10. Political economy constraints on carbon pricing policies: What are the implications for economic efficiency, environmental efficacy, and climate policy design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments. - Highlights: • Political economy constraints can bind carbon pricing policies. • These constraints can prevent implementation of theoretically optimal carbon prices. • U.S. household willingness-to-pay for climate policy likely falls in the range of $80–$200 per year. • U.S. carbon prices may be politically constrained to as low as $2–$8 per ton of CO 2 . • An opportunity space exists for improvements in climate policy design and outcomes

  11. The Impact of Race and Ethnicity, Immigration, and Political Context on Participation in American Electoral Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R; Darrah, Jennifer; Oh, Sookhee

    2012-01-01

    This study uses national survey data in federal election years during 1996-2004 to examine voter registration and voting. It shows that racial/ethnic disparities in socio-economic resources and rootedness in the community do not explain overall group differences in electoral participation. It contradicts the expectation from an assimilation perspective that low levels of Latino participation are partly attributable to the large share of immigrants among Latinos. In fact net differences show higher average Latino participation than previously reported. The study focuses especially on contextual factors that could affect collective responses of group members. Moving beyond past research, significant effects are found for the group's representation among office holders, voting regulations, and state policies related to treatment of immigrants.

  12. CHINESE BUSINESSMEN AND “LEADERS” IN MADRID: POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Betrisey Nadali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the emergence of “leaders” of the Chinese community in Madrid, based on a study of a conflict that was brief but significant; specifically, the social protests carried out by shopkeepers and workers in the central district of Lavapiés in 2005 and 2006, and who were protesting against a controversial municipal regulations on trade. What is interesting about this study is the way that it analyses – through this experience of the mobilisation and representation of their community – the way in which these “leaders” were constituted as political entities, with links to the main relevant social actors (associationist movements, political parties and economic groups in Madrid and how they co-opted a certain ability to represent the collective by incorporating such complex, symbolic elements as “being Chinese”, social class, affiliation to local parties and discourses on belonging to the welcoming country. The analysis shows, furthermore, that the various expressions of ethnicity do not represent a fixed, inert reality, but rather a dynamic process which, in addition to the actual paths of the main characters, takes shape based on the context in which it is immersed.

  13. DIRECTIONS AND MEASURES FOR THE RE-LAUNCHING OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE WORLD ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Loredana JUNCU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The re-launching of the Romanian economy in the context of the world economic crisis can be implemented by using a set of principles and economic measures that will lead to a strict monetary policy, a fiscal and budgetary discipline as well as a reduction of the inflation. This paper presents a series of reforms that Romania needs in the present context, to start the process of re-launching the economy that is currently in a significant descending trend. It is necessary that all the economic and political actors participate actively in progressively meeting the competitive conditions of the Comunitary economies. Corrective, stimulating and functional measures need to be undertaken to permit the applicability towards all the actors that define the structure of the economic environment. The application and enforcement of the needed anti-crisis measures will determine a stop of the decline and the creation of the premises to economical re-launching.

  14. Sovereign Wealth Funds as Global Economic and Political Actors: Defining of Notions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Алексеевич Кинякин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article devoted to consideration of sovereign wealth funds (SWF as economic and political actors as well as analysis of different forms of their activity in the contemporary global economics and politics. The author comes to the conclusion, that sovereign wealth funds play not only the role of providers of interests of the national states, but being the special purpose vehicles (SPV, designated to fulfill the different tasks, turn out to be the new type of global actors.

  15. The Comparison of Politeness Strategies in Chinese Culture and in Eng-lish Speaking Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆龄

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society, as the development of globalization a growing tendency of how to communication effective⁃ly between different culture and languages has becoming a matter of fact. Even though a great number of communication strate⁃gies used to reduce the culture shock, obstacles in cultural exchanges still remains due to the culture differences. Politeness theory, as an important communication strategy, is still the most important and influential theory for cross-cultural communication. While there still has a few controversial arguments being conducted. It results in the issue of this article:Is there different compar⁃ing Chinese culture with English Speaking Culture in Terms of Politeness Strategies? In this paper, I will present a general review of classic politeness theories including Brown&Levinson, Leech’s research in English speaking culture and Gu and Xu’s findings in Chinese culture. Among their theories some specific politeness strategies such as face-saving strategy, politeness principle and its maxims will be used to give an image of the difference between Chinese culture and English speaking culture in terms of po⁃liteness strategies. In the definition of‘politeness’, two characteristics are worth mentioning:universality as well as culture-specif⁃ic. Therefore the article concludes by the arguing that, in spite of a few similarities, there are differences between in Chinese cul⁃ture and in English speaking context in politeness.

  16. Political and Economic Scope for Permit Markets in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    (organized polluters) due to the possibility of a free, initial distribution (grand-fathering). As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically...... of permit markets in the US. Therefore, the policy recommendation for e.g. CO2 reduction in Europe is to apply taxation in relation to large and non-organized groups only, such as households and the transportation sector. A permit market, on the other hand, is politically more attrac-tive to the industry...

  17. INVESTMENT STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODAU CIPRIAN-CRACIUN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is the evolution analysis of net investment in Romania between economic growth and international economic crisis. The analysis captures both the evolution of net investment by structure elements (buildings, outfits, other investments and the structure and evolution of investments by sources of financing. Also there is an analysis of the foreign direct investment (FDI share in the total net investment and the impact of the economic crisis on this share. The article aims to identify the main factors for the evolution of investments in Romania before the financial crisis and determine how the financial crisis influenced the structure and volume of investments in the national economy. Most previous studies have focused either on a small part of the investments made in Romania (in most cases the FDI have been analyzed or on the period of economic expansion without capturing the evolution of investment during the economic crisis. Previous research has highlighted especially the FDI influence on macroeconomic indicators of high importance for the economy (unemployment rate, GDP growth rate, etc. with less focus on the factors influencing these investments and the close connection between the economic context (economy status and the volume of these investments. For the analysis of the investment evolution during the mentioned period statistical data was used that captured both the investment evolution trend and the changes occurred by the national economy stepping into recession amid the global financial crisis established. To get an overview of the situation it was considered a time internal that captured both the economic growth and the period after the onset of the economic crisis. Thereby information was obtained on the volume of net investment during 2000-2010, on foreign direct investment in the period 2003-2010 and their share in total net investment and also on the main sources of investment financing during the

  18. Political Capitalism: The Interaction between Income Inequality, Economic Freedom and Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Tim; Meierrieks, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we study the relationship between income inequality and economic freedom for a panel of 100 countries for the 1971-2010 period. From a panel causality study we find that income inequality has a negative causal effect on economic freedom, while causation does not run in the opposite direction. We argue that the negative effect of inequality on economic liberty is due to the elite's political power stemming from its disproportionate control over a country's economic resourc...

  19. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda,

  20. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, Dionne S.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda,

  1. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political

  2. Spatial Regulation, Politics of Access and Informal economic Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to draw attention to the political contestation over space. The city was 'invaded' and 'conquered' by traders who were formerly excluded (Nesvag, 2000, 2001; Tsoeu, 2003). At the same time, attention is drawn to the current attempts by city managers to control and regulate this contested space in an environment of flux.

  3. Iran’s Political, Demographic, and Economic Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    were able to uti - lize the political system to bolster their agenda while undermining the forces of change. For example, in 2000, Khatami and his...their pregnancies , discouraged women under the age of 18 or over 35 from becoming pregnant, and encour- aged families to limit themselves to two to

  4. Beyond Political Rhetoric and Discourse: What Type of Educational, Socio-Economic, and Political Change Should Educators Expect of President Barack Obama?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orelus, Pierre W.

    2009-01-01

    This article critically analyzes Obama's singular political victory. The author begins by laying out current racial, socio-economic, educational and political challenges that await President-elect Obama. He goes on to analyze Obama's political discourse and then questions whether or not Obama would be able to meet these challenges. The author…

  5. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancygier, Rafaela M; Donnelly, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration.

  6. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration. PMID:24363457

  7. An assessment of potential hydro-political tensions in transboundary river basins using environmental, political, and economic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Lucia; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob; Sproles, Eric; Eynard, James; Wolf, Aaron T.

    2015-04-01

    Globally 286 river basins extend across international borders, covering over 61.9 million km2 of the earth's surface and hosting a total of approximately 2.7 billion people. In these basins, transboundary water resources support an interdependent web of environmental, political, and economic systems that can enhance or destabilize a region. We present an integrated global-scale assessment of transboundary watersheds to identify regions more likely to experience hydro-political tensions over the next decade and beyond based upon environmental, political, and economic indicators. We combine NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) measurements of changes in terrestrial water storage with metrics of projected climate change impacts on water variability, the institutional capacity of countries to manage shared water resources, the development of new water infrastructure, per capita gross national income, domestic and international armed conflicts, and recent history of disputes over transboundary waters. The construction of new water-related infrastructure is on-going or planned in many basins worldwide. New water infrastructure is foreseen also in areas where instruments of international cooperation are still absent or limited in scope, e.g. in Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central America, the northern part of the South American continent, and the southern Balkans as well as in different parts of Africa. Moreover, in Central and Eastern Africa, the Middle East, and Central, South and South-East Asia there is a concomitance of several political, environmental and socioeconomic factors that could exacerbate hydropolitical tensions. Our analysis integrates political, economic and environmental metrics and is part of the United Nation's Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme to provide the first global-scale assessment of its type.

  8. The Impact of Political Context on the Measurement of Postmaterial Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Tranter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research highlights the influence of political context upon the measurement of postmaterial value orientations. Drawing upon a variety of international survey data, Inglehart claims that since World War II a shift has occurred in advanced industrialized nations from material toward postmaterial values. However, cross-sectional data from Australian Election Study surveys collected over more than two decades indicate that atypically for an advanced democracy, Australian value orientations tend toward the materialist pole. Australian Election Study values estimates are also at odds with those from other national social surveys that portray Australia as a far more postmaterialist nation. Regression analysis demonstrates that after controlling for election issues, attitudes toward political leaders, political party identification, and social background, predicted values estimates are substantially more postmaterial than the raw estimates. The findings have international implications as they suggest that measuring values during or soon after election campaigns may affect the measurement of postmaterial value orientations.

  9. Karl Marx, Civil Society And Political Community in the Context Of The Jewish Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus ENTERİLİ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, debates and discourses developed over the concepts of civil society and political society are usually made through religious discourses or religious identities, and the individual emerges as a problem of emancipation. In his “Jewish Question”, which Marx wrote during his youthful period with Bauer’s thoughts, it is thought that the religious identities and rhetoric accompanied the present debate about the emergence of the emancipation of individuals in social and political contexts. It is thought that this problem, which emerged as the problem of individual liberation or citizenship, and which is regarded as a Jewish problem and emerged in different forms in different geographies, is the result of the fact that the religious identities can not be torn from the religious part of the world. Another reason for the lack of emancipation of the individual is the understanding of colonialism that is at the core of the capitalist system. In today’s society, it wants to keep up with the existence of religions or to keep up with the capitalist system and wants to influence the capitalist system with state policies by making itself active in the political arena. Judaism and Christianity in this context religion, the effects of the formation of capitalist society, will be discussed from the rhetoric of Marx and Bauer. The issue of the citizenship identity of the individual in this study will be addressed through the relationship between civil society and political society. There will also be mentioned here some other thinkers (Hegel, Feuerbach etc. that affect Marx’s ideas about civil society and political society, besides Marx and Bauer. Civil society, citizenship, liberation of religion, political emancipation, the effects of emancipation of individuals such as the state will be handled through the Jewish example. Prior to this assessment, a better understanding of the subject will be addressed to the civil society and state relationship

  10. Political contexts and maternal health policy: insights from a comparison of south Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 300,000 women die from pregnancy-related complications each year. One-fifth of these deaths occur in India. Maternal survival rose on India's national policy agenda in the mid-2000s, but responsibility for health policy and implementation in the federal system is largely devolved to the state level where priority for the issue and maternal health outcomes vary. This study investigates sources of variation in maternal health policy and implementation sub-nationally in India. The study is guided by four analytical categories drawn from policy process literature: constitutional, governing and social structures; political contexts; actors and ideas. The experiences of two south Indian states-Tamil Nadu a leader and Karnataka a relatively slow mover-are examined. Process-tracing, a case study methodology that helps to identify roles of complex historical events in causal processes, was employed to investigate the research question in each state. The study is informed by interviews with public health policy experts and service delivery professionals, observation of implementation sites and archival document analysis. Historical legacies-Tamil Nadu's non-Brahmin social movement and Karnataka's developmental disparities combined with decentralization-shape the states' political contexts, affecting variation in maternal health policy and implementation. Competition to advance consistent political priorities across regimes in Tamil Nadu offers fertile ground for policy entrepreneurship and strong public health system administration facilitates progress. Inconsistent political priorities and relatively weak public health system administration frustrate progress in Karnataka. These variations offer insights to the ways in which sub-national political and administrative contexts shape health policy and implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PUBLIC RELATIONS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: ROLE AND MANAGEMENT, IN A SOCIO-POLITICAL MARKETING CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Pocovnicu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many agree that PR and marketing are at their best when used together, when it comes to local public administration institutions there is the need for both an individual and symbiotic approach of the two. Taking into consideration that public interest organizations act within public space, PR represents a public communication strategy. Thus they present the role of generating a climate and state of social normality and, especially in democratic societies, PR plays the part of generator of communication flows between public institutions, citizens and stakeholders. In a social-political marketing context, envisaged as an aggregate of processes, with a multiple purpose, the generator which is PR must unfold coherently for each of the processes. It is our purpose in this paper to depict the PR role and management in the case of one local public administration institution (Bacau Prefect Institution, in a socio-political marketing context.

  12. Economic, Socio-Political and Environmental Risks of Road Development in the Tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J; Sloan, Sean; Goosem, Miriam; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Mahmoud, Mahmoud I; Laurance, William F

    2017-10-23

    It is projected that 25 million km of new paved roads will be developed globally by 2050 - enough to encircle the planet more than 600 times. Roughly 90% of new roads will be built in developing nations, frequently in tropical and subtropical regions with high biodiversity and environmental values. Many developing nations are borrowing from international lenders or negotiating access to their natural resources in order to expand their transportation infrastructure. Given the unprecedented pace and extent of these initiatives, it is vital to thoroughly assess the potential consequences of large-scale road and highway projects. In appropriate contexts and locales, new roads can promote sizeable economic and social benefits. If poorly planned or implemented, however, new roads can provoke serious cost overruns, corruption and environmental impacts, while generating sparse economic benefits and intense social and political conflict. Using examples from developing nations, we identify risks that can hinder road projects in wet and dry tropical environments. Such risks, we assert, are often inadequately considered by project proponents, evaluators and the general public, creating a systematic tendency to overestimate project benefits while understating project risks. A more precautionary approach is needed to reduce risks while maximizing benefits of new road projects in the tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In Preparation or Response: Examining Health Care Coalitions Amid a Changing Economic and Political Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornauer, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    The Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response within the US Department of Health and Human Services leads the nation in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from the adverse health effects of public health emergencies, in part through formal collaborations between hospitals, health systems, community health centers, public health departments, and community organizations via health care coalitions (HCCs). HCCs endeavor to meet the medical surge demands inherent to disasters and to improve health outcomes before, during, and after public health emergencies. Nevertheless, significant changes in health economics and policy can impact the operations, capabilities, and scope of HCCs. Specifically, hospital consolidation and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are altering the national health care landscape, as well as the emergency preparedness sector, and are challenging HCCs to adapt to large-scale, industry-wide transformations. This article examines HCCs in the context of the developments of hospital consolidation and the ACA in order to facilitate future discourse regarding the strategy and policy of HCCs amid a changing economic and political landscape.

  14. Ecology, economics and political will: the vicissitudes of malaria strategies in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidson, C; Indaratna, K

    1998-06-01

    and control as alternative strategies. China has for years held high the goal of "basic elimination", eradication by another name, in sensible semi-defiance of WHO dictates. The Chinese experience makes it clear that, given community organization, exhaustive attention to case detection, management and focus elimination, plus the political will at all levels of society, it is possible both to eliminate malaria from large areas of an expansive nation and to implement surveillance necessary to maintain something approaching eradication status in those areas. But China has not succeeded in the international border regions of the tropical south where unfettered population movement confounds the program. Thailand, Malaysia and to an extent Vietnam have also reached essential elimination in their rice field plains by vigorous vertical programs but fall short at their forested borders. Economics is central to the history of the rise and fall of nations, and to the history of disease in the people who constitute nations. The current love affair with free market economics as the main driving force for advance of national wealth puts severe limitations on the essential involvement of communities in malaria management. The task of malaria control or elimination needs to be clearly related to the basic macroeconomic process that preoccupies governments, not cloistered away in the health sector Historically malaria has had a severe, measurable, negative impact on the productivity of nations. Economic models need rehoning with political aplomb and integrating with technical and demographic strategies. Recent decades in Chinese malaria history carry some lessons that may be relevant in this context.

  15. The Impact of Political Relations Between Countries on Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the implications of changes in bilateral diplomatic relations with the United States for economic relations. We identify countries whose relations with the US changed during two historic and significant milestones in the past three decades, and a third group of countries after their leftist governments failed/collapsed in early 1990s. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we measure the significance of changes in economic relations. We chose the following set of economic indices to reflect economic relations: imports and exports to and from the US, capital outflows from the US to the country, economic and military assistance provided by the US, flow of students to the US, US arms export to the country, the country’s military expenditures, and believing in the importance of remittances and FDI and portfolio investment we use total figures as we did not have bilateral figures. Our results, though mixed, offer some interesting insights.

  16. Economic Prospects for African Americans, 2001-2010: Politics and Promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimmer, Andrew F.

    Given the different economic policy approaches of the two candidates for the 2000 presidential election, Vice President Al Gore and Texas Governor George W. Bush, the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies analyzed and assessed the plans put forth by both candidates, focusing on the expected impacts on African Americans. Six analyses were…

  17. From Whitlam to Economic Rationalism and Beyond: A Conceptual Framework for Political Activism in Children's Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Thirty years after the dismissal of the Whitlam Government, the Australian political, economic and social landscape is dominated by discourses of economic rationalism. The reification of market forces presents challenges for early childhood professionals seeking to establish a viable future trajectory for children's services that includes…

  18. The impacts of tourism, energy consumption and political instability on economic growth in the MENA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chor Foon; Abosedra, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Using panel data of 24 countries in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region from 2001 to 2009, the purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of tourism, energy consumption and political instability on economic growth within the neoclassical growth framework. To address the objective of this study, we utilise both the static panel data approach as well as the dynamic generalised method of moments (GMM) estimator to examine the impact of candidate variables. Our results show that energy consumption and tourism significantly contribute to the economic growth of countries in the MENA region. Hence, our study lends some support to the existence of the tourism-led growth and energy-led growth hypotheses in the region. In line with our expectation, our estimation results also reveal that political instability impedes the process of economic growth and development in the MENA region. Therefore, macroeconomic policies to promote expansion in tourism and energy consumption will directly stimulate economic growth. Additionally, efforts to help the region overcome its history of political instability would attract more international tourist arrivals and further invigorate economic growth. - Highlights: • Tourism and energy consumption have positive impacts on GDP growth. • GDP reacts negatively to political instability. • Energy-led growth and tourism-led growth hypotheses are validated in MENA countries. • Supporting tourism, energy use and political stability will enhance economic growth

  19. Political economy with affect: on the role of emotions and relationships in political economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses and provides experimental evidence on the role of emotions and, in particular, the neglected role of endogenous affective relationships (bonding) in three key areas of political economy: (i) appropriation, with compliance or resistance as response; (ii) competition for access to

  20. Does extreme political ideology predict conspiracy beliefs, economic evaluations and political trust? Evidence from Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krouwel, Andre; Kutiyski, Yordan; van Prooijena, Jan Willem; Martinsson, Johan; Markstedt, Elias

    2018-01-01

    A large volume of academic research has demonstrated that individuals who profess radical political ideology, both left- and right-wing, tend to share similar underlying psychological patterns. By utilizing data collected through a voting advice application in Sweden, this study aims to assess

  1. Sociological context of economic activity in modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Danilo Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper points to the need of thinking about economic activity in modern society in terms of its basic features as a society of global capitalism with many contradictions and their stakeholders in dynamic social structure. In the context of such an approach, an overview to the main phases has been made in the recent history of capitalism (since the 1960th. It has also been pointed to the impact of globalization in promoting money as a driving force of the phase development of capitalism and the consequences of capital virtualization Within those considerations, it is specifically pointed to the connection of globalization and virtualization of capital in shaping the social background, to the creation of economic activity, its social stratification, social inequality and demands for the pursuit of justice and fairness in these conditions, as well as the limiting factors of that realization.

  2. Information and Communications Technology Development and its Economic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pajgrt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with economic context of Information a Communications Technology (ICT development’s analysis. Historical data of ICT revenue in USA for last 53 years were analyzed and were compared with the historical data in Czech Republic, Germany, China, India, Japan and Brazil for last 13 years. The ratio of ICT revenues to GDP was used as proper indicator in the examined countries to reflect the influences of the surrounding progress and define the individual progress stages. The formulation of the progress’ general rules and its prediction was done. It was monitored the dynamics of ICT sales, depending on its form and the influence of global economy.

  3. The equilibrium price range of oil: economics, politics and uncertainty in the formation of oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.-N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify the articulation between economic and political factors in the formation of petroleum prices. The essential point is that when factors control significant low cost reserves and will not or cannot adopt behaviour of a 'substantial economic rationality' then the economic analysis does not allow a unique dynamic equilibrium price to be determined. However, it does permit definition of an equilibrium price range within which political preferences may be expressed. Finally, the paper draws some conclusions on what could be discussed within the scope of a new oil producer-consumer dialogue. (author)

  4. Modeling the Economic Behavior of Households within the Context of Development of Economic Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Roman V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the publication is to study formation of the household economic behavior modeling in the context of development of economic thought and methods of the economic-mathematical modeling. The study was carried out under the assumption that, when studying the development of theoretical and methodological foundations of the economic behavior of households one must take into account not only the history of development of economic theory, but also the transformation of attitudes in other areas of human knowledge, in particular the paradigm shift in scientific thinking. It has been specified that the massive use of mathematical methods in economics is associated with formation of the marginal theory and at the same time – with the proliferation of the marginal analysis. At the present stage, the economic behavior of households is being analyzed in the terms of concepts such as neoclassicism, institutionalism and behaviorism. But by dividing the concepts of «individual» and «household», it can be argued that precisely the institutionalism in conjunction with synergistic approach provide the basis for elaboration of strategies for the economic behavior of households, ensuring their economic security.

  5. Political freedom and the response to economic incentives: labor migration in Africa, 1972-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, A P; Mcmillan, J

    1994-12-01

    This study examines the thesis that political institutions and the freedoms and civil rights generated by these institutions affect migration decisions. The hypothesis is based on one stated by Adam Smith in 1776, that economic conditions that reflect greater political freedoms and civil liberties harbor higher levels of resource mobility in response to economic incentives. Pooled cross-sectional and time-series analysis is based on data from the World Bank for 32 African countries during 1972-87. Findings support the hypothesis that migration rate is more affected by the expected returns ratio to labor in countries where civil liberties are greater than in nations with fewer civil liberties. The implication, from the inclusion of institutional factors in the model, is that civil liberties have an indirect impact on the rate of labor migration out of agriculture in Africa. The impact is a mix of economic incentives and civil liberties. In the political rights model, the most free countries had the largest migration elasticity. The findings on political rights impacts support findings by Friedman and McMillan that civil liberties are a more important determinant of economic growth than political rights. Further testing for measurement error confirmed that the data were flawed, but not so greatly that the basic findings were overturned. The migration out of African agriculture was found to be sensitive to the effect of price signals, which were conditioned by the degree of political rights and civil liberties. Policy makers are urged to consider both changes in pricing and institutions.

  6. Malaysia: Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaughn, Bruce; Martin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This report discusses key aspects of the U.S.-Malaysia relationship, including economics and trade, counterterrorism cooperation, defense ties, and Malaysia's external posture as it affects Amen can interests...

  7. Aid as a catalyst to development? : the Case of Ghana’s Political and Economic Transformation (1957-2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vondee-Awortwi (Joana)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractGhana’s economic and political past and present show that foreign aid has provided support for infrastructural development, budget financing, macroeconomic policy reforms, institutional restructuring and political reforms. Existing literature and pronouncements by leading aid

  8. The Arab Boycott of Israel Economic Political Warfare Against Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Corollas a year in Israel beginning in 1992. Nissan has indicated it is ready to make a similar move, and Mazda appears to be not far behind. [Ref. 104...Political and Diplomatic History of the Arab World, 1900-1967, A Chronological Study, vol.1, Information Handling Services Publishers, Washington D.C...pp.167-170, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1987. 48. Faud Rouhani, A History of OPEC, pp.5-13, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1970. 49. Faisal and Oil

  9. ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, AND CIVIL SOCIETIES AT PEMUTERAN VILLAGE, BALI IN COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Mudana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on questions (1 what factors caused the economic, political, and civil societies to invest their social capital in the preservation of marine and coastal environments at Pemuteran Village? (2 What was the social capital invested by the economic, political, and civil societies in the preservation of coastal and marine environments at Pemuteran Village like? (3 What was done to discipline the maintenance of the social capital invested in the preservation of the coastal and marine environments at Pemuteran Village? Some critical theories were used to analyze the answers to the problems. Qualitative research method with the approach of cultural studies was employed in this study. The data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and library research. The data were qualitatively and descriptively analyzed. The result of the study showed that the cooperation among the economic, political, and civil societies to invest their social capital in the preservation of the marine and coastal environments at Pemuteran Village was based on the awareness of the condition of the natural environment, ecological smartness, meaningfulness which was economic, political, sociological, and socio-religious in nature, and developmental policy. The social capital invested by the economic, political and civil societies was in the forms of the ideologies of tri hita karana, nyegara-gunung, menyama braya, kinship system, neighborhood relation, traditional village, and administrative village. It was maintained through cultural socialization process, and physical and spiritual disciplining process.

  10. The importance of national political context to the impacts of international conservation aid: evidence from the W National Parks of Benin and Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel C.; Minn, Michael; Sinsin, Brice

    2015-11-01

    National political context is widely understood to be an important factor shaping the ecological and socio-economic impacts of protected areas (PAs) and other conservation interventions. Despite broad recognition that national political context matters, however, there is little systematic understanding about how and why it matters, particularly in the context of PAs. This article seeks to advance empirical and theoretical understanding of the influence of national political context on the impacts of conservation interventions through study of an international aid project in a large transboundary PA in West Africa. It uses multilevel regression analysis to analyze the variable effects of changes in enforcement—a central mechanism through which the Protected Ecosystems in Sudano-Sahelian Africa project sought to achieve its objectives—in the W National Parks (WNP) of Benin and Niger. We find that differences in national political context relating to governance quality and extent of democratic decentralization moderated the social-ecological effects of enforcement. Increasing enforcement levels in Benin’s WNP were associated with significant increases in mammal species abundance while having little average effect on the incomes of households around the Park. By contrast, greater levels of enforcement in Niger’s WNP were associated with sharply decreasing income levels among Park neighbors but did not have a statistically significant effect on wildlife populations. These results highlight the importance of national political context to the outcomes of aid-funded conservation efforts. They suggest that state-led PA enforcement will have more positive social-ecological impacts in better-governed, more decentralized countries and that conservation policy centered on PAs should therefore devote greater attention to engagement with higher levels of governance.

  11. Political, cultural and economic foundations of primary care in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringos, Dionne S; Boerma, Wienke G W; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2013-12-01

    This article explores various contributing factors to explain differences in the strength of the primary care (PC) structure and services delivery across Europe. Data on the strength of primary care in 31 European countries in 2009/10 were used. The results showed that the national political agenda, economy, prevailing values, and type of healthcare system are all important factors that influence the development of strong PC. Wealthier countries are associated with a weaker PC structure and lower PC accessibility, while Eastern European countries seemed to have used their growth in national income to strengthen the accessibility and continuity of PC. Countries governed by left-wing governments are associated with a stronger PC structure, accessibility and coordination of PC. Countries with a social-security based system are associated with a lower accessibility and continuity of PC; the opposite is true for transitional systems. Cultural values seemed to affect all aspects of PC. It can be concluded that strengthening PC means mobilising multiple leverage points, policy options, and political will in line with prevailing values in a country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. LABOUR MIGRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS. MEDIA REFRAMING A PUBLIC ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA BECIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how Romanian media (through opinion articles in mainstream newspapers, political talk-shows and news broadcasts, sampled between 2011 and 2014 addressed the issue of the labour migration within two European contexts: the economic crisis that began in 2008, having multiple implications for the emigration policies in the EU states, and the opening of the full labour market access to Romanians and Bulgarians starting January 1, 2014. We tested the hypothesis that media discourse instrumentalizes migration in order to legitimize collective identities and public issues, especially those related to identity. Drawing upon the critical discourse analysis and the sociology of public issues, this research argues that the identity categorization practices are based on the dynamics of the migration flows and the economic developments in Europe. Media reframe identity by shifting the angle of approach from the access to the labour market, in terms of liberalization, to the way in which Romanians are perceived in the destination countries, and its extension to Romania’s status within the EU. This redefinition of the public issue occurs through particular types of identity counter-discourses used to deconstruct stereotypical dominant discourses against migrants and Romanians and to revalorize the Romanians working in the EU, as an extension of the (national collective identity. Labour migration becomes a symbolic resource in negotiating the nation image and a political status

  13. Relationships between Institutional Economics of Cooperation and the Political Economy of Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hernandéz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between institutional economics of cooperation and the political economy of trust. Transactions costs, principal-agent theory, market power, increasing-returns theory and value creation, strategic management: competitive forces, resource-based theory, organisationtal knowledge and learning, strategic choice theory and collective efficiency theory are reviewed. Lastly, the political economy of trust is sustained.

  14. Political competition, economic reform and growth : theory and evidence from transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pavletic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Which political and institutional factors trigger reforms that enable the poor to benefit from the process of economic growth? How can the incentives of policy makers be influenced in order to achieve such a dynamic? These are the questions this study seeks to address by examining the transition process in post-communist countries. The author argues that political competition within an accepted and respected institutional environment has been a driving force in shaping the direction and succe...

  15. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-21

    under the Concertación’s free market economic policies and moderate social programs, which have produced notable economic growth and considerable...April 8, 2009. 21 “Supera Enríquez-Ominami a Candidato Presidencial Oficialista en Chile,” Agencia Mexicana de Noticias, June 2, 2009. 22 “People...Negociaría Estado Chileno Con Bancos Que Ocultaron Dinero de Pinochet,” Agencia Mexicana de Noticias, March 15, 2009. 34 Helen Hughes & Jack Chang, “Ex

  16. Regional Political Economic Relations: The Ecowas and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development in this context is conceived in the commonplace social science parlance of orderly social change from pre-colonial primitive and primordial mode of production to attempts towards pulling resources for the greater good of the greatest number in the spirit of the utilitarian theorists. The Post-colonial state within ...

  17. A New Economic and Political State of Play in the Energy Sector: On Jean-Pierre Hansen and Jacques Percebois, Energy. Economy and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.

    2011-01-01

    If there is one sector in which the state of play has changed radically over a few decades, it is the energy sector. It has been affected simultaneously by the prospect that the main fossil fuels will become exhausted, by the impact on our planet's climate of the consumption of this fossil energy (implying increased recourse to renewable sources) and by the rapid economic development of large nations consuming increasing quantities of energy. Energy-related policies (particularly economic and technological policies) are, in fact, being developed in an increasingly complex and international context, which is, at times, very difficult to grasp. Fortunately, two specialists in energy matters, Jean-Pierre Hansen and Jacques Percebois, have published a very comprehensive survey of this new economic and political state of play in the energy field: 'Energie. Economie et politiques' [Energy: Economics and Policies] (Brussels: De Boeck, 2010). It clearly is not possible here to go into all the questions they confront, but in this review Jacques Lesourne, who has read the book for Futuribles, clearly demonstrates its importance and presents the reader with the main facets of the work that make it a reference tool for all involved in this sector, including the most highly specialized. (author)

  18. A Legacy of Peaceful Coexistence: Historico-Political and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the relations between Nigeria and Benin Republic in various aspects of life before and after colonialism. The paper discovered that historical, cultural and economic relations between the two countries predate colonialism and this is due to the belief by the people that they are one and belong to same ...

  19. The history, economics, and politics of CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evens, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the historical medical background in which computed tomography (CT) has been introduced. Early investigations in CT are discussed. The clinical development of both CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The economics and efficacy of both techniques is discussed and compared

  20. Security Reasoning, Spatial Politics, Patriarchy and the Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3 mars 2010 ... This grant will allow MADA al-Carmel (the Arab Center for Applied Social Research) to undertake a comprehensive investigation of Palestinian women's economic situation in Israel, with particular focus on the policies and processes that affect their ability to obtain an education, find a job, start a business, ...

  1. Continent of pessimism or continent of realism? A multilevel study into the impact of macro-economic outcomes and political institutions on societal pessimism, European Union 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenvoorden, Eefje H; van der Meer, Tom Wg

    2017-06-01

    The often-posed claim that Europe is a pessimistic continent is not unjustified. In 2012, 53 percent of European Union (EU) citizens were pessimistic about their country. Surprisingly, however, societal pessimism has received very little scientific attention. In this article, we examine to what extent political and economic factors drive societal pessimism. In terms of political factors, we expect that supranationalization, political instability, and corruption increase societal pessimism, as they diminish national political power and can inspire collective powerlessness. Economically, we expect that the retrenchment of welfare state provisions and economic decline drive societal pessimism, as these developments contribute to socioeconomic vulnerability. We assess the impact of these political and economic factors on the level of societal pessimism in the EU, both cross-nationally and over time, through multilevel analyses of Eurobarometer data (13 waves between 2006 and 2012 in 23 EU countries). Our findings show that the political factors (changes in government, corruption) primarily explain cross-national differences in societal pessimism, while the macro-economic context (economic growth, unemployment) primarily explains longitudinal trends within countries. These findings demonstrate that, to a large extent, societal pessimism cannot be viewed separately from its political and economic context.

  2. How great is Latvia's success story? The economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Austers, Aldis

    2014-01-01

    The current state of Latvia can be best described in medical terms: the patient is pale, but alive. The financial woes have been successfully resolved, but economic, social and political challenges remain. The crisis is continuing to affect the fabric of social and political life in Latvia. This paper looks at the economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis and the ensuing economic collapse in Latvia and suggests some remedial actions.

  3. How Context Matters? Mobilization, Political Opportunity Structures and Non-Electoral Political Participation in Old and New Democracies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vráblíková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2014), s. 203-229 ISSN 0010-4140 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP408/12/1474 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Political participation * political opportunity structure * national institutions Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 2.028, year: 2014

  4. Situating the practice of organ donation in familial, cultural, and political context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Margaret; Crowley-Makota, Megan

    2008-07-01

    This article provides a discussion of the factors that have contributed in recent years to the assertion that there is a growing shortage of organs for transplant. Findings from ethnographic research carried out in 3 settings--the United States, Japan, and Mexico--are then presented to demonstrate that factors other than low education levels, irrationality, or a lack of generosity are at work when individuals make decisions about organ donation. In all 3 sites, it is clear that both the donation and receiving of organs are based on moral positions and felt obligations concerning appropriate behavior among close relatives and that the ideal of autonomous choice is not readily applicable. Culturally informed expectations are at work in all 3 sites, and in Japan and Mexico, social and political dimensions additionally come into play. We argue that a better accounting is called for of the familial, cultural, and political contexts within which organ transfer takes place.

  5. IMPACT OF CIVILIZATIONAL SPECIFICS OF THE BIGGEST COUNTRIES ON THEIR SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Lunev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to civilizational factors of the largest Asian states, which attract much academic attention around the world, India and China, and the infl uence of these factors and their peculiarities on social, political and economic development. The article is prepared as a discussion of two books prepared by the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences: “Indian Civilization in the Globalizing World” and “Chinese Civilization in the Globalizing World”. The authors rely on comparative method to analyze civilizational codes of India and China, to define key peculiarities of cultural and political development of the both states, to speculate on their historical paths, political systems, religious and ideological factors in the context of civilizational codes. Moreover, the article discusses international environment and the level and trends of economic development. The authors draw a number of conclusion about similarities and differences in two ancient civilizations, as well as their modernization patterns.

  6. Economical, political and social aspects of atomic energy in Bulgaria; Dvadtsat` let atomnoj ehnergetiki Respubliki Bolgarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervashidze, N

    1996-12-31

    The future of atomic energy in Bulgaria is discussed in terms of the challenge to make correct political and economical decisions. The building of a second nuclear power plant at Belene should be considered taking into account the time needed for project realisation and the adherence to standards. The political aspects are connected closely to the financial crediting and to marketing research for electricity export. It is stressed that the development of atomic energy is closely related to the national stability and economical independence.

  7. Socio-economic, scientific, and political benefits of mycotourism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Latorre, J.; Egli, S.; Martinez-Pena, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2017), č. článku e01870. ISSN 2150-8925 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * economic crisis * Iberian Peninsula * long-term drying * non-wood forest products * Perigord black truffle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.490, year: 2016

  8. Political Authoritarianism and Economic Success in Indonesia and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    liberal in philosophy , yet it contained nepotism, corruption, and cronyist behaviors in practice that produced inefficiency and growth-inhibiting...build a developmental state. The bifurcated economic strategy pursued by Suharto was neo-liberal in philosophy , yet it contained nepotism, corruption...and moral life. This educational achievement is a dedication to them. Lastly, I hope this thesis one day provides policymakers with an avenue for a

  9. The Economics of "Private Politics": Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Brøns-Petersen

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, private corporations engage in “private politics”, or “corporate social responsibility” (CSR). In some cases, such as the infamous Enron affair, huge discrepancies between stated and actual policies have been revealed, while in others corporations seem to have been taken hostage by interest groups, even if stated and actual polices matched. The paper attempts to model the “private politics” of CSR in economic terms. On the one hand, it is assumed that corporations can generate e...

  10. The cost of nuclear electricity: economic values and political calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (monetary inflation; US-style rate-base formula; cost escalation); electricity generation costs (rate-base calculation formula; regulatory versus economic costs; inflationary case; cost-of-service rates versus inflation; first year electricity costs); rate shock (A. comparison with oil; B. nuclear case; C. comparison with coal/nuclear system; vintaged electricity costs versus growth and inflation); conclusions. (U.K.)

  11. Socio-economic-political-cultural aspects in malaria control programme implementation in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S K; Patil, Rajan R; Tiwari, S N

    2012-01-01

    Objective. A Socio-economic-political-cultural (SEPC) study was undertaken under the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative to understand the process of programme implementation and how far in the changing malaria context, the broader environment has been understood and programme components have undergone changes. Material and Methods. Two studies were carried out; first in four villages under the primary health unit (PHU) Banavaralu in Tiptur Taluka in September 2002 and the second one in April 2003 in four villages in Chitradurga district, namely, Kappagere, Kellodu in Hosadurga Taluka, and Vani Vilas Puram and Kathrikenhally in Hiriyur Taluka. Focus group discussion and key interviews were adopted to collect the qualitative data. Results. Gender discrimination and lack of empowerment of women came out strongly in social analysis. In the rural elected bodies called Panchayats, the concept of health committees was not known. Health committees as one of the important statutory committees under every Panchayat were nonexistent in reality in these villages. Financial difficulties at Grama Panchayat level and also meager budget allocation for health have led to indifferent attitude of Panchayat members towards health. It was observed that there were generally no specific cultural practices in relation to malaria cure. Cultural and traditional practices in malaria-related issues were not predominant in the community except for some sporadic instances. Conclusion and Recommendation. SEPC study is an important indicator in malaria control programme. It is ultimately the community that takes the major decision directly or indirectly and the health authority must guide them in right direction.

  12. Woodland restoration in Scotland: ecology, history, culture, economics, politics and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Richard

    2009-07-01

    In the latter half of the 20th century, native pine woodlands in Scotland were restricted to small remnant areas within which there was little regeneration. These woodlands are important from a conservation perspective and are habitat for numerous species of conservation concern. Recent developments have seen a large increase in interest in woodland restoration and a dramatic increase in regeneration and woodland spread. The proximate factor enabling this regeneration is a reduction in grazing pressure from sheep and, particularly, deer. However, this has only been possible as a result of a complex interplay between ecological, political and socio-economic factors. We are currently seeing the decline of land management practices instituted 150-200 years ago, changes in land ownership patterns, cultural revival, and changes in societal perceptions of the Scottish landscape. These all feed into the current move to return large areas of the Scottish Highlands to tree cover. I emphasize the need to consider restoration in a multidisciplinary framework which accounts not just for the ecology involved but also the historical and cultural context.

  13. INFORMATION THREATS IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD: ECONOMICS, POLITICS, SOCIETY (EXPERIENCE OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Holovka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific article deals with both integral vision of the contemporary informative risks in the globalized world and their classification. The essence of the informative security is exposed, which is one of main factors of steady development of the modern informative society. In consideration of the foreign practice, the experience of Ukraine is also analyzed in counteraction to the contemporary informative threats. The effective policy of safety and counteraction to the informative threats is one of the basic constituents of the state national safety system and at the same time testifies to the correct character of connections between the public organs and the society. Under the conditions of unrestrained progress of information technologies and general informatization in all sectors of people’s life (politics, economy, defense, energy etc., providing of control and defense of informative space of the country becomes much more difficult task. Modern Ukrainian realities certify convincingly, that Ukraine is in an extremely difficult political situation that influences all spheres of Ukrainians’ life. The key reason of such situation is a military-informative aggression against Ukraine from Russia, which is the fact of waging a «hybrid war». As it is known, this type of war combines the application of both classic soldiery instruments (military technique, firearms, regular troops and methods of informative influence (cyber-attack, informative diversions, aggressive propaganda, impact on public opinion. This factor encourages such research. The object of the study is the phenomenon of information risks in the modern world. Subject of research – is the impact of modern information threats to the state and society, namely the economic, political and social spheres. For a holistic analysis of the subject of research was used appropriate methodology – systematic approach, method of comparative analysis, general scientific methods

  14. PERSPECTIVES OF INFLATION TARGETING, IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COROIU SORINA IOANA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of economic crisis, monetary policy makers are facing a number of challenges, including the selection and implementation of the best monetary policy. In this paper, we want to see if inflation targeting is or is not a solution to exit the economic crisis. If the answer is positive, then what would be the optimal level of inflation? Many central banks target an inflation rate of 2%. In this paper we intend to show that, in certain circumstances, a very low level of inflation can significantly reduce the stabilizing effects of monetary policy. A slightly higher value of inflation targeting would reduce the constraints on monetary policy, caused by the appearance of liquidity trap. The risk for the interest rates of monetary policy to achieve zero level is related to the central banks’ choise of the appropriate inflation target. We believe that an increase in the inflation target of 2% to 4% would ease monetary policy constraints arising from the liquidity trap problem. If inflation targeting is not a solution to exit the crisis, then are there other strategies that would be a better alternative? Following this analysis, no obvious alternatives were identified, so far, there is no clear reason for that to abandon inflation targeting.

  15. Water Governance in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of Institutional and Political Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngai Weng Chan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water crises are often crises of governance. To address interrelated issues of securing access to sustainable sources of safe water for the world’s populations, scholar and practitioners have suggested fostering improved modes of water governance that support the implementation of integrated water resource management (IWRM. Recently, implementation of an IWRM approach was announced as a target for achieving Goal 6 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. This study employs an analytical hierarchy process with a SWOT analysis to assess the current institutional and political context of water governance in Bangladesh and evaluate IWRM as a means to achieve the SDGs.

  16. Slurry pipelines: economic and political issues. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-11-30

    In the controversy surrounding the proposal to grant Federal eminent domain to coal-slurry pipelines, the fundamental issue is whether, on balance, such a grant is in the national interest. The principal subissues (peripheral issues) of economics, water supply and disposal, energy consumption and conservation, employment, safety, and environmental impact are analyzed. It is found that, as compared with unit trains, which are the only immediate alternative for movement of large quantities of Western coal, the pipelines are not against the national interest, except in the case of employment. It is concluded that, on balance, the pipelines are in the national interest and should be granted the power of Federal eminent domain.

  17. Economic, social and political consequences in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1997-01-01

    There have been and remain tremendous psychosocial and economic effects effects of the accident. In particular in the western parts of the former Soviet Union, against the background of disintegrating structures, have been a distrust of inefficient and corrupt administrators, poor medical services and food supplies, destabilization and serious economic problems of large population groups, losses of agricultural areas, and problems caused by large-scale evacuation and resettlement programs. A large number of psychosomatic and neurological disorders including alcoholism, loss of hair, impotence, even laziness and traffic accidents, have been attributed to radiation effects and strange new deseases such as ''chronic radiation sickness'' or ''radiation AIDS'' have been claimed. Most radiobiologists would, however, consider such claims as nonsense, even if some highly indirect relationships may perhaps be established. Unfortunately, many of such problems attributed by some to the Chernobyl accident can also be observed in other parts of the former Soviet Union which have not been affected by fallout. Many people, in particular children, cannot be classified as ''healthy'' according to the WHO definition, and life expectancy has dropped substantially in many parts of the former Soviet Union in the past decade

  18. Political Ideonomy of Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mozafarinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The conditions of success and reasons for failure of development strategies and plans, are among the most important “development studies” issues. This has been explained in different ways: for example, there is a strong relationship between the efficiency of development strategies and plans and development theories. Based on paradigmatic-implicative theory, which explains the relationship between development theories and political thought and considers the development theory as one of the practical implications of political thought, a condition for the success of development strategies and development plans can be found to be rooted in the political thought foundation. Therefore, in the present article we explore the political thought supporting Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth theory, as one of the oldest and most important development theories which in the 1960s resulted in understanding development as “growth”. We use qualitative content analysis method to show that the political foundation of Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth theory is based on the principle of “the most utility for the most people” in accordance with Bentham’s utilitarian political thought.

  19. The Politics and Economics of Body Image and Sexuality in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body image is internal and external. It is seen by ourselves and by others. Social body image constructs seem to be built on what is deemed to be beautiful within our cultural contexts, which in turn is perceived as valuable and in turn has higher social standing because everyone else looks up to it. The politics of body image ...

  20. Does political and economic freedom matter for inbound tourism? A cross-national panel data estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Shrabani; Su, Jen-Je; Campbell, Neil

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of political and economic freedom on inbound tourism for over 110 countries during 1995-2012. Panel country fixed-effects techniques are utilized to examine the relationship after controlling for other factors that contribute to inbound tourism. The results show that civil liberties and economic freedom (among several other freedom measures) are positively and significantly associated with inbound tourism. Examination of the moderation effect revea...

  1. Nuclear power debate: moral, economic, technical, and political issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, D. III.

    1977-01-01

    The pace at which nuclear power will develop is clouded with uncertainties. At the end of 1976 in the United States, 61 nuclear reactors were operating, representing slightly more than 9 percent of the country's total generating capacity. Another 168 reactors were either planned, under construction, or on order. Outside the United States, commitments to nuclear power grew by 17 percent in 1975 over 1974. Indonesia, Turkey, and Poland ordered nuclear plants, bringing to 41 the number of countries committed to nuclear energy. In 1976, 112 nuclear reactors were operating in 18 countries; an additional 342 plants were planned, on order, or under construction. The speed at which nuclear power will continue to grow is dependent on a number of factors: the rate at which demand for energy increases, the changing economics of alternative methods of energy production, the processes by which decisions affecting nuclear power development are made, and the degree to which they satisfy public concerns about the safety of nuclear energy. This book addresses itself to these factors as follows: Economic issues: At what rate will demand for energy increase, and how can that demand be met. (Chapter 2.) How cost-competitive are the major alternative methods of producing electricity that now exist--nuclear power and coal. (Chapter 3.) Decision making issues: Are the processes by which decisions to proceed with development of nuclear power, both in government and in industry, adequate to protect the interests of the public and of investors. (Chapters 4 and 5.) Safety issues: Are nuclear power plants themselves safe. (Chapters 6 and 7.) Can adequate safeguards be established to ensure protection against misuse of the products or by-products of those plants and to ensure the permanent safe storage of radioactive wastes

  2. How Do Acquired Political Identities Influence Our Neural Processing toward Others within the Context of a Trust Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Te; Fan, Yang-Teng; Du, Ye-Rong; Yang, Tien-Tun; Liu, Ho-Ling; Yen, Nai-Shing; Chen, Shu-Heng; Hsung, Ray-May

    2018-01-01

    Trust is essential for mutually beneficial human interactions in economic exchange and politics and people's social identities notably have dramatic effects on trust behaviors toward others. Previous literature concerning social identities generally suggests that people tend to show in-group favoritism toward members who share the same identity. However, how our brains process signals of identity while facing uncertain situations in interpersonal interactions remains largely unclear. To address this issue, we performed an fMRI experiment with 54 healthy adults who belonged to two identity groups of opposing political orientations. The identity information of participants was extracted from a large-scale social survey on the 2012 Taiwan presidential election. Accordingly, participants were categorized as either the Kuomintang (KMT) or the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) supporters. During the experiment, participants played trust games with computer agents with labels of the same or the opposing political identity. Interestingly, our results suggest that the behaviors of the two groups cannot be equally attributed to in-group favoritism. Behaviorally, only the DPP supporter group showed a significant trust preference toward in-group members, which did not hold for the KMT supporter group. Consistently, neurophysiological findings further revealed that only the DPP supporter group showed neuronal responses to both unexpected negative feedback from in-group members in anterior insula, temporoparietal junction, and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, as well as to unexpected rewards from out-group members in caudate. These findings therefore suggest that acquired identities play a more complex role in modulating people's social expectation in interpersonal trust behaviors under identity-relevant contexts.

  3. How Do Acquired Political Identities Influence Our Neural Processing toward Others within the Context of a Trust Game?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Te Wu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Trust is essential for mutually beneficial human interactions in economic exchange and politics and people’s social identities notably have dramatic effects on trust behaviors toward others. Previous literature concerning social identities generally suggests that people tend to show in-group favoritism toward members who share the same identity. However, how our brains process signals of identity while facing uncertain situations in interpersonal interactions remains largely unclear. To address this issue, we performed an fMRI experiment with 54 healthy adults who belonged to two identity groups of opposing political orientations. The identity information of participants was extracted from a large-scale social survey on the 2012 Taiwan presidential election. Accordingly, participants were categorized as either the Kuomintang (KMT or the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP supporters. During the experiment, participants played trust games with computer agents with labels of the same or the opposing political identity. Interestingly, our results suggest that the behaviors of the two groups cannot be equally attributed to in-group favoritism. Behaviorally, only the DPP supporter group showed a significant trust preference toward in-group members, which did not hold for the KMT supporter group. Consistently, neurophysiological findings further revealed that only the DPP supporter group showed neuronal responses to both unexpected negative feedback from in-group members in anterior insula, temporoparietal junction, and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, as well as to unexpected rewards from out-group members in caudate. These findings therefore suggest that acquired identities play a more complex role in modulating people’s social expectation in interpersonal trust behaviors under identity-relevant contexts.

  4. How Do Acquired Political Identities Influence Our Neural Processing toward Others within the Context of a Trust Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Te; Fan, Yang-Teng; Du, Ye-Rong; Yang, Tien-Tun; Liu, Ho-Ling; Yen, Nai-Shing; Chen, Shu-Heng; Hsung, Ray-May

    2018-01-01

    Trust is essential for mutually beneficial human interactions in economic exchange and politics and people’s social identities notably have dramatic effects on trust behaviors toward others. Previous literature concerning social identities generally suggests that people tend to show in-group favoritism toward members who share the same identity. However, how our brains process signals of identity while facing uncertain situations in interpersonal interactions remains largely unclear. To address this issue, we performed an fMRI experiment with 54 healthy adults who belonged to two identity groups of opposing political orientations. The identity information of participants was extracted from a large-scale social survey on the 2012 Taiwan presidential election. Accordingly, participants were categorized as either the Kuomintang (KMT) or the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) supporters. During the experiment, participants played trust games with computer agents with labels of the same or the opposing political identity. Interestingly, our results suggest that the behaviors of the two groups cannot be equally attributed to in-group favoritism. Behaviorally, only the DPP supporter group showed a significant trust preference toward in-group members, which did not hold for the KMT supporter group. Consistently, neurophysiological findings further revealed that only the DPP supporter group showed neuronal responses to both unexpected negative feedback from in-group members in anterior insula, temporoparietal junction, and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, as well as to unexpected rewards from out-group members in caudate. These findings therefore suggest that acquired identities play a more complex role in modulating people’s social expectation in interpersonal trust behaviors under identity-relevant contexts. PMID:29456496

  5. Political Expression on Facebook in a Context of Conflict: Dilemmas and Coping Strategies of Jewish-Israeli Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifat Mor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media, and Facebook in particular, embody a complex and challenging context for impression management, particularly when it comes to political expression. The Israeli case presents a unique context in which to examine these questions as Jewish-Israeli youth are embedded in a divided society involved in the protracted Israeli–Palestinian conflict. A thematic content analysis of 15 in-depth interviews with Israeli-Jewish students who are regular Facebook users revealed distinct dilemmas. Jewish-Israeli youth are highly motivated to discuss politics on Facebook, while also aware of social risks involved in such discussion. Thus, they adopt unique coping strategies in which political expression is an integral part in the delicate act of impression management. This research extends our understanding of Facebook as a platform for expressing political content in divided societies, characterized by considerable internal and external conflict as well as high levels of political involvement.

  6. The accusation of 'world disturbers' (Acts 17:6 in socio-political context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Punt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available �Acts 17:1�9 presents a narrative of the consequences of Paul�s engagements in Thessalonica�s synagogue. Following Paul and Silas� reported successful 3-week mission, some Jews hauled Paul and Silas� host, Jason, and a number of Jesus followers before the authorities. The threefold accusation was that Paul and Silas turned the world upside down, acted against Caesar�s decrees and claimed another king, Jesus. This incident is investigated from the perspective of Acts� presentation of competing missions, in the context of the intersectionality of religion and politics in the 1st century CE. The article challenges a narrow theological interpretation of Acts 17, insisting on the need for and value of a socio-political interpretive lens to make sense of the rhetoric of this chapter.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article challenges a narrow theological interpretation of Acts 17, insisting on the need for and value of a socio-political interpretive lens to make sense of the rhetoric of this chapter.

  7. Green industrial policy. Perspectives of economic and political scienc; Oekologische Industriepolitik. Wirtschafts- und politikwissenschaftliche Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Klaus [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The necessity and possibilities of, limits to and the specific instruments employed for green industrial policy are a topic of both scientific and political debate. Economists and politicians can draw on rich resources in dealing with these issues. The contributions contained in this volume are the outcome of a workshop held by the German Federal Environment Agency and the Federal Environment Ministry on the topic of ''Green industrial policy'' on 18 April 2008 in Berlin. Economists and politicians were invited to participate in an expert dialog to locate the topic of green industrial policy within the larger discourses of political economics, deliberate on theoretical motives and practical limits to the concept from an economic viewpoint and discuss possible instruments and fields of action. The workshop focussed on questions relating to the necessity of green industrial policy, the framing of political programmes and the implementation of adopted goals into specific measures.

  8. On the biopsychosocial model: the example of political economic causes of diabetes in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Palafox, N

    2001-10-01

    Biomedical reductionism, the unwritten theory underlying the practice of medicine, is being supplanted by the biopsychosocial model. The explanatory power of the biopsychosocial model, however, is hampered by an inadequate mechanism to account for the social production of disease. We examine diabetes in the Marshall Islands to explore a conceptual approach that incorporates ecology, history, and political economy into the biopsychosocial model. The use of the Marshall Islands by the United States as testing grounds for nuclear war has led to ecological destruction, population displacement, and economic dependency. The consequence at the biological level has been an epidemic of weight gain, altered metabolism, and diabetes. A political economic perspective reveals that such outcomes are the result of decisions made by those who do not live with these decisions. Such a perspective points the way for social engagement and political work toward justice and health.

  9. From Kundun to Mulan: A Political Economic Case Study of Disney and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines the Walt Disney Company’s foray in the Chinese market from a political economic perspective. It focuses on two film-related events: 1 the 'Kundun' incident in 1996 that displays the ideological confrontation between Disney and China in the post-Cold War era, and 2 the production of 'Mulan 'in 1998 as both a political compromise and a strategic marketing decision for Disney to regain the Chinese market. The conflicts and negotiations between Disney and China provide a telling example to study the local operation of global capitalism, especially in terms of its interaction with the state. While many believe that the advent of globalization will open more free markets for fair competition, this study reveals how government policy intervenes in the global entertainment industry, and sheds light on the political and economic struggles behind the silver screen.

  10. Social, economic, and political forces affecting the future of occupational health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M A

    1989-09-01

    1. By monitoring the major social, economic, and political forces affecting health care, one can predict how these forces may impact the role of occupational health nurses. 2. Nursing can and must chart its own course in the midst of these social, economic, and political changes. 3. Changes which have major implications for occupational health nurses are: health care needs, cost containment, multi-hospital chains, alternative approaches to health care, the workplace, ethical concerns, biomedical technology, nursing shortage, and oversupply of physicians. 4. Nursing implications can also be drawn in the areas of autonomy, political skills, and education. Active involvement and a desire to shape professional change and the future of nursing are keys.

  11. Society as a victim of bearers of economic and political power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the transition countries, politics and economics are so connected and interrelated that many individuals who take high governmental positions or who have economic power abuse their status in order to make huge profits and commit criminal acts without impunity. The aim of this paper is to indicate the basic characteristics of this kind of crime and its negative consequences to the society as a whole. The abuse of economic and political power results in increasing economic inequalities, decreasing chances of entering foreign direct investments, and falling economic growth. Besides, this contributes to creating fertile soil for populism and supporting political elites that are not committed to building rule of law, stable democratic society and fair market economy. As a result, citizens’ confidence in the state and its institutions weakens, while the normative system of values in the society is jeopardized. In this way, the society becomes the victim of irresponsible individuals, and of those who abuse their economic and social power.

  12. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  13. Governance and Women's Economic and Political Participation : Power Inequalities, Formal Constraints and Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Milazzo, Annamaria; Goldstein, Markus

    2017-01-01

    What role do institutional constraints and social norms play in determining persistent gender gapsin economic and political participation and have institutional reforms been successful in reducing these gaps? This paper argues that, at the roots of current gender inequalities, there are traditional patriarchal social structures in which power is unequally distributed, with men traditionall...

  14. The role of finance in economic development : Benefits, risks, and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Müller, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of the financial sector for economic growth, the causes and consequences of financial fragility, and the politics behind financial deepening and fragility. In doing so, it identifies the critical role of the financial sector within capitalist economies, a role with

  15. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  16. Size, Democracy, and the Economic Costs of Running the Political System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Houlberg, Kurt; Serritzlew, Søren

    2014-01-01

    , are amalgamated to harvest scale effects. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the argument on economies of scale in the economic costs of running political systems. Our testing ground is a recent Danish reform. It allows us to avoid endogeneity problems often facing researchers of size reforms. The reform...

  17. Do political or economic factors drive healthcare financing privatisations? Empirical evidence from OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiese, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This paper adds new empirical evidence to the political economy literature of economic reform. One of the main contributions of this paper is the development of a novel methodology to identify privatisations. The methodology is a combination of the Bai & Perron structural break filter, and

  18. Opinions of Illinois Secondary Business Teachers Concerning Political and Socio-Economic Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene Davidson

    1975-01-01

    The results of this study point to a need for business teachers to find ways of discussing political and socio-economic issues in their classrooms and that business teacher education institutions should be certain that graduates are prepared to include these issues in the courses they teach. (Author)

  19. Earth stewardship on rangelands: Coping with ecological, economic, and political marginality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands encompass 30-40 percent of Earth's land surface and support 1-2 billion people. Their predominant use is extensive livestock production by pastoralists and ranchers. But rangelands are characterized by ecological, economic, and political marginality, and higher-value, more intensive land ...

  20. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  1. How Do Business and Government Interact? Combining Perspectives from Economics, Political Science, Public Administration, and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.; Harsell, Dana Michael

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe the theoretical preparation provided to students in advance of a limited-duration experiential learning experience in Washington DC in a Master's level course for students in Business or Public Administration. The students consider theoretical perspectives from economics, political science, and public administration with…

  2. Neo-Pluralist Political Science, Economic Sociology and the Conceptual Foundations of the Comparative Capitalisms Literatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruff, Ian; Hartmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    the strengths of neo-pluralism and economic sociology – their attention to detail in considering the huge range of ‘types’ of capitalism that exist across the world – come at a high price. Put briefly, the redefinition of ‘capitalism’ as ‘the economy’ concentrates research agendas on the specific political...

  3. Climato-economic livability predicts societal collectivism and political autocracy better than parasitic stress does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Postmes, T.

    A 121-nation study of societal collectivism and a 174-nation study of political autocracy show that parasitic stress does not account for any variation in these components of culture once the interactive impacts of climatic demands and income resources have been accounted for. Climato-economic

  4. Climato-economic livability predicts societal collectivism and political autocracy better than parasitic stress does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Postmes, Tom

    2012-04-01

    A 121-nation study of societal collectivism and a 174-nation study of political autocracy show that parasitic stress does not account for any variation in these components of culture once the interactive impacts of climatic demands and income resources have been accounted for. Climato-economic livability is a viable rival explanation for the reported effects of parasitic stress on culture.

  5. The Impact of Education on Rural Women's Participation in Political and Economic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishaw, Alemayehu

    2014-01-01

    This study endeavored to investigate the impact of education on rural women's participation in political and economic activities. Six hundred rural women and 12 gender Activists were selected for this study from three Zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia using multi-stage random sampling technique and purposeful sampling techniques respectively.…

  6. Political and socio-economic instability: does it have a role in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings showed that instability in socio-economic and political aspects in these nations was responsible for creating a suitable environment for the spread of HIV/AIDS infection. This paper concludes by using the theories of collective action/responsibility and social cohesion to hypothesise that the breakdown of social ...

  7. Chlorofluorocarbons and the environment: scientific, economic, social and political issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badr, O; Probert, S D; O' Callaghan, P W [Cranfield Inst. of Technology, Bedford (GB). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1990-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons have been among the most useful chemical compounds ever developed. However, after more than forty years of a continuously increasing rate of worldwide use in the industrial and domestic sectors, unequivocal evidence has indicated that, if released into Earth's atmosphere, they are amongst the most devastating of pollutants that could threaten the quality of life for future generations. Thus it is not surprising that, for nearly two decades, this dichotomy of interests has been a prominent issue. This report presents the scientific evidence available concerning the impacts of chlorofluorocarbons on the ambient environment. Regional, national and international policies adopted to try to curb their emissions into the atmosphere are summarised. Economic and social consequences of these policies are discussed, together with some of the available and recommended technological solutions to the environmental problem. It is believed that agreements reached internationally to date are insufficient to ensure the adequate protection of the environment. Even an immediate total ban on the production and use of such chemical compounds would not lead to a reversal of the environmental degradation for at least a century, due to the chlorofluorocarbons already in the atmosphere. (author).

  8. Individual differences in relational motives interact with the political context to produce terrorism and terrorism-support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Obaidi, Milan; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer; Kteily, Nour; Sidanius, Jim

    2014-08-01

    The psychology of suicide terrorism involves more than simply the psychology of suicide. Individual differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) interact with the socio-structural, political context to produce support for group-based dominance among members of both dominant and subordinate groups. This may help explain why, in one specific context, some people commit and endorse terrorism, whereas others do not.

  9. [Political ecology, ecological economics, and public health: interfaces for the sustainability of development and health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Martinez-Alier, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes to focus contributions from political ecology and ecological economics to the field of collective health with a view towards integrating the discussions around health promotion, socio-environmental sustainability, and development. Ecological economics is a recent interdisciplinary field that combines economists and other professionals from the social, human, and life sciences. The field has developed new concepts and methodologies that seek to grasp the relationship between the economy and ecological and social processes such as social metabolism and metabolic profile, thereby interrelating economic, material, and energy flows and producing indicators and indexes for (un)sustainability. Meanwhile, political ecology approaches ecological issues and socio-environmental conflicts based on the economic and power dynamics characterizing modern societies. Collective health and the discussions on health promotion can expand our understanding of territory, communities, and the role of science and institutions based on the contributions of political ecology and ecological economics in analyzing development models and the distributive and socio-environmental conflicts generated by them.

  10. Do Better Political Relations with the USA Improve A Country's Economic Outlook?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Aridi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations of countries with the USA could be considered as helpful in their quest for enhanced economic performance. Does an improvement or deterioration in relations with the USA bring significant economic and financial benefits or costs, in areas such as, trade, capital flows, remittances, aid, military expenditures, and education? The results based on an event study are very preliminary. Nevertheless, this line of research could be fruitful and may enhance our appreciation of international political-economic relations and the ability to build more comprehensive theories of trade, capital flows and the like.

  11. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region: Beyond the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung-Joon Ahn

    1995-01-01

    Linked inexorably by geopolitics and geo-economics, Asia and North America are facing a number of common challenges in the aftermath of the Cold War. The prospects of a North Korea armed with nuclear weapons and medium-range ballistic missiles, and of China becoming another superpower, are impelling both Asia and America, and the US, Japan, and South Korea in particular, to strengthen their partnership for security, interdependence, and democracy. Politics and economics in the Asia-Pacific region are at a crossroads, facing a new era of post-Cold War uncertainty. This chapter addresses the major trends emerging in the region in terms of changing national and international perspectives. It is important to examine what these changes imply for a new security and economic framework in Asia and the Pacific. The gravity of the world's political economy is shifting to this region

  12. The economic context for the development of "blind flight".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Leonard A; Rupert, Angus

    2003-07-01

    On 24 September 1929, at Mitchel Field, Long Island, NY, Jimmy Doolittle performed the first so-called "blind flight." He executed a flight plan and landed using only cockpit instruments, a feat that culminated a research program supported by the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics. Contemporary aviation medicine, with its understanding of the challenges of spatial (dis)orientation, has a special understanding and appreciation of the complex human performance, medical and technical problems that had to be overcome to make instrument flight possible. It is likely that the problems would not have been solved unless a socioeconomic context provoked a sufficient motivation to address them. This paper outlines some of the economic factors that motivated the research and development necessary for instrument flight. These factors were the direct consequence of the sudden, huge explosion of the aviation industry caused by World War I, and with the Armistice, the equally sudden loss of the industry's primary customer, the military. Finding a civilian role for aviation awaited the development of air mail, which, in turn, depended on the ability to fly according to a reliable schedule. The need to reliably adhere to a schedule forced the scientific and technological research needed to develop all-weather, blind flight.

  13. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  14. The political economy of trans-Pakistan gas pipeline project: assessing the political and economic risks for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandian, S.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing realisation among Indian policy makers to consider the import of natural gas to address India's growing energy demand. Among many policy options to import natural gas, Indo-Iran overland pipeline option is considered to be effective and economical in addressing India's long-term energy demands. Such a pipeline would have to traverse Pakistani territory thereby necessitating a role for Pakistan in the pipeline project. Though security guarantees have been offered, India refuses to entertain the role of Pakistan in the project for a fear of its energy supply being disrupted in case of a military conflict with Pakistan. This paper argues that gas pipeline project is not only aimed at addressing India's energy concerns but also to further its strategic objectives. This paper contends that India, Iran and Pakistan do not have shared objective to make the overland project a political and commercial reality. India's stakes in the overland pipeline project are high as India's economic interests in the pipeline project are not in congruence with the politico-economic and strategic objectives of Iran and Pakistan. (author)

  15. THE EFFECTS OF ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWS AND POLICIES ON POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC STABILITY OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merim Kasumović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of a civil society and social systems for protection of different groups is directly related to well functioning political and economic systems. If the level of economic development or political stability is not continuous the implementation of antidiscrimination laws would most likely be at a very low level. In this case development of social rights along with implementation of antidiscrimination rights may be marginalized due to three factors: lack of cooperation among political and economic spheres, lack of knowledge about antidiscrimination laws and absence of political will for adoption and implementation of antidiscrimination laws. Therefore, we focus on the examination of specific issues concerning the three aforementioned factors primarily focusing on EU and divergence in the level of political and economic development among the member states.We will argue that antidiscrimination laws are not welcome in new member states, especially since they increase political and economic costs for the governments of respective countries. Level of political development has much to do with the acceptance and inclusion of AD laws in the decision making process. Economic development has much to do with social and living standards within a country which is directly related to the general perception of the population on AD laws. Therefore, one could say that implementation of AD laws heavily depends on the preparedness of people, economic and political system and their will to cope with costs and benefits of implementing those laws.

  16. Tracking Sustainable Development in Politically Violent Zones: Need for Framework and Cognizance-Kashmir in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aabid Mohmad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As a conceptual framework, Sustainable Development (SD intends to improve current Well-Being, while preserving or maintaining the basis for future Well-Being (Solow, 1991. In order to measure Sustainable Development various indicators were chosen, among which health has been considered as an important indicator. As a result, we see a huge focus on health in Sustainable Development frameworks. But, the emphasis of frameworks has been only on the physical and epidemiological factors affecting the health. In contrary, in context of a highly political turmoil zone, it is the psychological well-being that is severely affected. This component of health i.e., psychological well-being is neglected to find a significant place in Sustainable Development frameworks. Since, these frameworks are crucial for national level policy making and it is likely that policies formulated on such frameworks may not replicate the same successful results in every context (such as in Armed Conflict. With such understanding in the background, this paper will show the need to focus on mental health in armed conflict situations in Sustainable Development frameworks. This paper will attempt to show how ignoring mental health in armed conflict situations impede development. The need to develop a holistic framework which focuses on mental health in Armed Conflict situations will be highlighted in context of Kashmir.

  17. Iceland’s External Affairs from 1400 to the Reformation: Anglo-German Economic and Societal Shelter in a Danish Political Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldur Þórhallsson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper applies the assumption that small states/entities need economic and political shelter in order to prosper, to the case of Iceland in the period from 1400 to the Reformation in the mid-16th century. Also, it applies the findings from the first paper in this ‘hexalogy’ (a six-paper series on Iceland’s external relations in a historical context, i.e. that Iceland enjoyed societal shelter in the Middle Ages, to this period. The aim is both to analyse whether or not Icelanders enjoyed economic, political and societal cover from their engagements with the Danes, English and Germans and to evaluate the validity of the ‘shelter theory’. The paper argues that Iceland enjoyed considerable economic and societal shelter from its encounters with English and German merchants and fishermen in a period in which Danish political cover was formally in place but was not effective in practice. Moreover, the paper claims that the shelter theory, and small-state studies in general, need to take notice of the importance of social communication with the outside world for a small entity/state. Also, the Danish political vacuum in our late Medieval Period provided the islanders with economic opportunities and social engagements with the wider world. This was at the cost of continued domestic clashes between the islanders themselves, on the one hand, and between them and ‘outsiders’ on the other. Our findings indicate that in the case of Iceland there might be a trade-off between the benefits of strict political cover by a single external actor, and the economic and societal opportunities accompanied by a lack of political affiliations.

  18. Socio-Economic-Political-Cultural Aspects in Malaria Control Programme Implementation in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A Socio-economic-political-cultural (SEPC study was undertaken under the Roll Back Malaria (RBM initiative to understand the process of programme implementation and how far in the changing malaria context, the broader environment has been understood and programme components have undergone changes. Material and Methods. Two studies were carried out; first in four villages under the primary health unit (PHU Banavaralu in Tiptur Taluka in September 2002 and the second one in April 2003 in four villages in Chitradurga district, namely, Kappagere, Kellodu in Hosadurga Taluka, and Vani Vilas Puram and Kathrikenhally in Hiriyur Taluka. Focus group discussion and key interviews were adopted to collect the qualitative data. Results. Gender discrimination and lack of empowerment of women came out strongly in social analysis. In the rural elected bodies called Panchayats, the concept of health committees was not known. Health committees as one of the important statutory committees under every Panchayat were nonexistent in reality in these villages. Financial difficulties at Grama Panchayat level and also meager budget allocation for health have led to indifferent attitude of Panchayat members towards health. It was observed that there were generally no specific cultural practices in relation to malaria cure. Cultural and traditional practices in malaria-related issues were not predominant in the community except for some sporadic instances. Conclusion and Recommendation. SEPC study is an important indicator in malaria control programme. It is ultimately the community that takes the major decision directly or indirectly and the health authority must guide them in right direction.

  19. The Constantinian «Dies Solis» Law in its Political and Legislative Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban MORENO RESANO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The so-called «Dies Solis» Law, enacted by Constantine in 321, established the Day of the Sun as a public feast (dies festus in the Roman official calendar. This law can be studied in the political and legislative context between the first (314-315 and the second (324 civil war between Constantine and Licinius. This study reveals that its main purposes were the reinforcement of the imperial authority with administrative effects and the adoption, with propagandistic regards, of a religious policy on heathen cults different from the one developed by Licinius. The Dies Solis law is inscribed, in fact, in a joint of Constantinian norms that aim to make the imperial legislation an efficient instrument of government. Moreover, while Licinius promoted the hellenistic syncretic heathen cults, Constantine presented himself as a defender of the Roman religious traditions.

  20. Social, economic, institutional and political impact of the Chernobyl accident in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Petrica

    1997-01-01

    Romania is among the countries which was socially, economically, institutionally and politically affected by the Chernobyl accident. The entire Romanian society had been profoundly impressed by the Chernobyl accident because of the values of radioactive contamination on the territory of Romania which exceeded considerably the local radioactive background, due to the inherent proximity of accident place and to elliptical and over-estimated official statements broadcast through radio and TV. At institutional level, changes have occurred constantly after 1989 regarding both legislation and administration. All the platforms of the relevant political parties have provisions that are favorable to nuclear field. There are stated diverse preoccupations and objectives for the protection and the safety of the industrial installations that have associated risk of accident. Radiation protection issues and nuclear safety culture have reached a satisfactory level in our society and thereby the political speeches do not annoy anyone when they are proposing poll taxes for activities of decommissioning and transport of radioactive waste. (author)

  1. Politicization in the Name of the Majority: The Role of Cultural, Economic, and Political Grievances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Simon

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reports two experiments that examined politicization in the name of the majority population and intergroup polarization as a function of perceived grievances of the majority population. To manipulate perceived majority grievances, we used three different injustice frames (cultural, economic, political, each of which targeted an important arena of societal participation and thus a typical breeding ground for societal injustices and psychological grievances. In addition, both experiments included a (no frame control condition. The samples recruited for the two experiments differed from each other in (left–right political orientation and consequently in their perceptions of and reactions to potential majority grievances. The most striking differential influences were observed for the cultural grievance symbolized by the political correctness norm. However, both experiments provided evidence that majority politicization mediates the effect of majority grievances on intergroup polarization and that, in contrast to the divisive role of majority politicization, majority solidarity likely fosters social inclusion.

  2. [Debating disease: the risk factor concept in political economic and scientific consideration, 1968 to 1986].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarász, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The risk factor concept was developed in American epidemiological studies ongoing since the 1940s researching the causes of chronic cardiovascular diseases. By looking at the depiction of this model in a variety of media in Germany between 1968 and 1986 we can put its close interaction with contemporary socio-political debates under scrutiny. Thereby, a strong connection between the various agents' political and economic interests on the one hand and the incorporation of the risk factor concept into their specific agendas will become apparent. The risk factor concept was not fundamentally changed in the process but it was adapted to contemporary conditions and political constellations. Thereby, so it will be argued, the medical uses of the model, especially regarding the prevention of chronic cardiovascular disease, were forced into the background of public debates.

  3. China's Political-Economic Approach toward FTAs with East Asian Nations and Its Implications for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-jun Cho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a political-economic perspective, this article examines on the background and objectives of China's approach toward FTAs with East Asian nations. It appears that China's strategy to regional economic integration recently has transformed from a passive direction to active initiative, pushing forward its winning strategies - economic liberalization and its resolve to become a regional leader - while spearheading projects to create a regional free trade zone. China has a tendency to take a serious view on the significance of non-economic factors or international politics and security in regard to pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries. Behind China's ASEAN+1 plan, the implication of security is deeply rooted; and through its pursuit of economic integration within the region, China seems to be seeking change in the regional security order. China has also been bringing security discussions into the mechanism of regional economic cooperation among Korea, China and Japan. China also appears to have a few types of ideological mentality when pursuing FTAs. It seems that China's "great-power mentality"(daguo xintai is somewhat robust. This mentality is prone to be extended to hegemonic contention within the region. If China combines the "great-power mentality" with nationalism in the process of pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries, then this might entail exclusive regionalism. Both Japan and China are basically in rivalry over regional hegemony, and competing for leadership in intra-regional FTA initiatives. In pursuing FTAs with South Korea, China and Japan seem to have quite a contradictory approach. Japan, which wants to control the rise of China, seems to be ruling out the China-Japan-Korea FTA plan and actively pursuing a Japan-Korea FTA. On the contrary, Beijing is expected to actively propose to pursue China-Korea FTA in order to hold back rapid progress in Japan-Korea FTA negotiations, which have already commenced. On the

  4. Asynchrony of political culture in the context of modernization of the contemporary Russian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konovalov Valery Nikolaevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Russia is a country in which political culture takes in different stages of development. In the social and cultural life are combined two basic forms - the traditional type of political culture and modern political culture. There is asynchrony in the political culture, which creates a serious problem of managing Russian society.

  5. Barriers to knowledge production, knowledge translation, and urban health policy change: ideological, economic, and political considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Murphy, Kelly; Ng, Edwin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we consider social forces that affect the processes of both knowledge production and knowledge translation in relation to urban health research. First, we briefly review our conceptual model, derived from a social-conflict framework, to outline how unequal power relations and health inequalities are causally linked. Second, we critically discuss ideological, political, and economic barriers that exist within academia that affect knowledge production related to urban health and health inequalities. Third, we broaden the scope of our analysis to examine how the ideological, political, and economic environment beyond the academy creates barriers to health equity policy making. We conclude with some key questions about the role that knowledge translation can possibly play in light of these constraints on research and policy for urban health.

  6. Social traditionalism and economic conservatism: two conservative political ideologies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S D; Tamney, J B

    2001-04-01

    The authors surveyed by telephone a random sample of voters in the 1996 presidential election from the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area of Muncie, IN ("Middletown"; R. Lynd & H. Lynd, 1929) to test a model describing the nature of 2 conservative political ideologies--social traditionalism and economic conservatism. The model, based on functions of attitudes theory, predicted (a) that the 2 political ideologies would appeal to 2 rather distinct constituency groups--the former, to conservative Protestants; the latter, to people of higher incomes--and (b) that social traditionalists would be more dogmatic and economic conservatives would be more open-minded in their respective views. The findings were consistent with those predictions.

  7. Political Culture, Values and Economic Utility: A Different Perspective on Norwegian Party-based Euroscepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. Skinner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a content analysis of party manifestos and a survey of Norwegian MPs, this article examines the nuances in, and the causality of, the different Norwegian parties’ Euroscepticism. The study of the comparative party politics of Euroscepticism, which focuses on ideology and strategy, falls short of accounting for the Norwegian case, where, unlike other European countries, the parties’ Euroscepticism is exceptionally stable and appears across the political spectrum. Therefore, the article tests an alternative set of theories, drawn from the literature on opinion formation on European integration, to find a more suitable framework for analysing and explaining the motivation of Norwegian Euroscepticism. The analysis shows that Norwegian party-based Euroscepticism can be divided into three types when it comes to its strength and policy opposition, with the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party on the ‘hardest’ end of the Euroscepticism scale, followed by the Christian Democratic Party and the Liberal Party, and finally, the Labour Party and the Progress Party. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that Norwegian Eurosceptic party stances on Europe are primarily driven by political values and political culture concerns, except for the Progress Party, which base its Eurosceptic motivation on economic utilitarianism and political culture.

  8. Technological, political and economic changes and their implications for the evolution of broadcasting services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis is changes in the market for broadcasting services as a result of technological, political, and economic drivers. Broadcasting services can be categorised as a part of the ICT-based information and knowledge intensive services that have gone through radical changes...... and demand sites, scarcity of transmission resources, and the historical aspects that make the development of the broadcasting service market different from other information and knowledge intensive services....

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 9, September 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-10

    of its implementation, was an important factor the elite had to take into account. In the 1970’s this alternative became only a theoretical concept... philanthropy in international economics, and although America’s monopolist rivals have always relied on the stimulating role of the "Amer- ican...34scandal" among the elite . The entry of politics by novices, insufficiently investigated and "illuminated" by the mass media or by contacts with long

  10. Do political or economic factors drive healthcare financing privatisations? Empirical evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This paper adds new empirical evidence to the political economy literature of economic reform. One of the main contributions of this paper is the development of a novel methodology to identify privatisations. The methodology is a combination of the Bai & Perron structural break filter, and validation of the breaks identified by this filter using de jure evidence of reforms. 21 de facto healthcare financing privatisations are identified in a sample of 23 OECD countries. It is analysed which fa...

  11. Why has Latin America sped up ahead of the Philippines in economic and political reform?

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso i Terme, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares trends in key economic, political and social development outcomes in the Philippines with those of Latin America, particularly since the 1990s. To do so, it uses standard indicators of development, including measures of institutional quality and good governance. The paper finds that Latin America is not only at a higher level of development, but has also made faster progress in most areas than the Philippines. This is especially the case as regards GDP per capita, poverty,...

  12. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J Matthews

    Full Text Available Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country's democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale.

  13. Shared Cultural History as a Predictor of Political and Economic Changes among Nation States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J; Passmore, Sam; Richard, Paul M; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2016-01-01

    Political and economic risks arise from social phenomena that spread within and across countries. Regime changes, protest movements, and stock market and default shocks can have ramifications across the globe. Quantitative models have made great strides at predicting these events in recent decades but incorporate few explicitly measured cultural variables. However, in recent years cultural evolutionary theory has emerged as a major paradigm to understand the inheritance and diffusion of human cultural variation. Here, we combine these two strands of research by proposing that measures of socio-linguistic affiliation derived from language phylogenies track variation in cultural norms that influence how political and economic changes diffuse across the globe. First, we show that changes over time in a country's democratic or autocratic character correlate with simultaneous changes among their socio-linguistic affiliations more than with changes of spatially proximate countries. Second, we find that models of changes in sovereign default status favor including socio-linguistic affiliations in addition to spatial data. These findings suggest that better measurement of cultural networks could be profoundly useful to policy makers who wish to diversify commercial, social, and other forms of investment across political and economic risks on an international scale.

  14. Tales of two cities: political capitals and economic centres in the world city network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Taylor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of major cities in the world city network are capital cities. Between primacy and political specialization there are examples of countries where the capital city and a second city remain as major rival cities in contemporary globalization. In this paper we focus upon situations where the capital city is less important in global economic capacity: Rome and Milan, Berlin and Frankfurt, Abu Dhabi and Dubai, Delhi and Mumbai, Islamabad and Karachi. This is an exercise in double comparisons: between cities in each pairing and between the pairings. Despite the massive differences – economic, cultural and political – amongst our chosen pairs of cities we have found communalities relating to the specific circumstance we are investigating. First, there is some evidence that economic centres are more global and less local than their capital cities. Second, more particularly, we have shown that in terms of global economic connections there is a very consistent pattern: economic centres have a much more coherent and telling integration into the world city network.

  15. The genetic and environmental foundations of political, psychological, social, and economic behaviors: a panel study of twins and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Smith, Kevin; Alford, John R; Martin, Nicholas G; Hibbing, John R

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the extant literature: Machiavellianism and Baron-Cohen's Empathizing Quotient.

  16. Cash flow in the context of economic equation of continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez Villarraga

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic scheme, known as economic equation of continuity, is established for the balance of economic resources. In order to apply this equation it is necessary to determine an economic volume of control. The patrimonial equation is also proposed as a speed equationfor this volurne. The integral equation of economic continuity is applied to the «cash» system along with the integral patrimonial equation and so it gets expressions that correspond to model to elaborate cashflow statement with the particularities of the direct and indirect method. This model generales a useful definition for the calculation of this basic financial statement classified by operating, investing and financing activities.

  17. Chinese State-Owned Enterprise Investment in Mekong Hydropower: Political and Economic Drivers and Their Implications across the Water, Energy, Food Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanial Matthews

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, Chinese State-Owned Enterprises have emerged as among the most active investors in Mekong Basin hydropower development. This paper uses a political economy analysis to examine the forces that drive Chinese State-Owned Enterprises to invest in hydropower in the Mekong Basin. We focus our analysis on the Lancang (Upper Mekong River in China and in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS, with an emphasis on Cambodia. The analysis reveals how powerful political and economic forces from within China and the GMS influence the pace, location and scale of investments in hydropower. These forces include foreign exchange reserves, trade packages and foreign direct investment, and political alliances. Combining the political economy and nexus approaches, we conclude that although policies from China recognize interconnections across the nexus, political and economic forces craft narratives that downplay or disregard these nexus interconnections and trade-offs. This in turn, influences how trade-offs and interconnections in hydropower development are managed and recognized in both local and transboundary contexts, thereby, creating potentially significant negative impacts on livelihoods, food security and the environment.

  18. The Context and Values Inherent in Human Capital as Core Principles for New Economic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2018-05-01

    for human decision-making and its economic effects. The paper summarizes the main points here, then seeks to clarify the value institutional context viewed from a global and comprehensive perspective. It provides a map of these values and institutions to guide inquiry. It ties these values to the values reflected in the UN Charter and International Bill of Rights. This clarification is an important challenge for understanding the impact of technology, consciousness, and the fundamental values upon which international public order is based. The paper concludes with an outline of value frameworks that should guide New Economic Theory based on human capital, and which could serve as a basis for the evolving New Economic Theory to enhance the public order. Human capital is the central principle of both theory and method for the advancement of New Economic Theory, founded on the problems of contextual reality, the ubiquity of value analysis, and the responsible management of political economy at the global level.

  19. The Family Economic Environment as a Context for Children's Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Dale Clark; Margolis, Lewis H.

    1987-01-01

    Longitudinally examines how the complexities of the family economic environment may affect children's health, behavior, and ideas about the world of work. Family economic factors considered include father's/mother's work status (especially parental unemployment); per-capita income; health insurance; father's job security; and satisfaction with…

  20. How Strategic Entrepreneurship and the Institutional Context Drive Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2013-01-01

    The economics of growth has shown that countries grow by better allocating whatever resources are at their disposal and by introducing productivity-enhancing innovations. Strategic entrepreneurship plays a key role in this process by searching for, combining, trying out, etc., new resource......, and the Fraser Institute's economic freedom data. Copyright © 2013 Strategic Management Society....

  1. ECONOMIC CONCENTRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE WORLD ECONOMY GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berinde Mihai

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as main objective to emphasize the importance of a permanent control activity on the economic concentration operations. In order to assure an appropriate choice as concern the economic concentration to be submitted at the assessment procedure each country has its competence to establish its turnover ceilings opening the procedure in accordance with the priorities of its own economic policy. As a final conclusion, we stress that economic concentration assessment and competition policy as a whole are very dynamic activities asking permanent legal and procedural adjustments in order to take appropriately into account economic interests of the country as well as the evolutions registered on regional and global level. This approach is the most valid in the case of Romania taking into account its recent accession to the European Union and its more and more important involvement in the regional and global cooperation.

  2. The Budget Policy in the Context of Economic Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnik Vladimir A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at disclosing the essence and role of budget policy in the system of socio-economic development of country, defining the institutional approach in the process of its formation and implementation, based on changes in the public environment. The socio-economic development of society at this stage requires the use of budgetary policy as an effective instrument for the State regulation of economic and social relations. It is important to determine the priorities of the budget policy, including the medium-term perspective, based on the basic principles of the socio-economic development of country, improvement of the State regulation in the sphere of generation of budget income, the planning and usage of budget expenditures, the inter-budget relations, which will increase the efficiency of functioning of the economic and budget system as a whole.

  3. Linking learning contexts: The relationship between students’ civic and political experiences and their self-regulation in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eMalafaia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the relationship between self-regulation strategies and youth civic and political experiences, assuming that out-of-school learning can foster metacognition. The study is based on a sample of 732 Portuguese students from grades 8 and 11. Results show that the quality of civic and political participation experiences, together with academic self-efficacy, are significant predictors of young people’s self-regulation, particularly regarding cognitive and metacognitive strategies (elaboration and critical thinking. Such effects surpass even the weight of family cultural and school variables, such as the sense of school belonging. There-fore, we argue that the pedagogical value of non-formal civic and political experiences is re-lated to learning in formal pedagogical contexts. This is because civic and political participa-tion with high developmental quality can stimulate higher-order cognitive engagement and, thus, contribute to the development of learning strategies that promote academic success.

  4. Linking Learning Contexts: The Relationship between Students’ Civic and Political Experiences and Their Self-Regulation in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Carla; Teixeira, Pedro M.; Neves, Tiago; Menezes, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between self-regulation strategies and youth civic and political experiences, assuming that out-of-school learning can foster metacognition. The study is based on a sample of 732 Portuguese students from grades 8 and 11. Results show that the quality of civic and political participation experiences, together with academic self-efficacy, are significant predictors of young people’s self-regulation, particularly regarding cognitive and metacognitive strategies (elaboration and critical thinking). Such effects surpass even the weight of family cultural and school variables, such as the sense of school belonging. Therefore, we argue that the pedagogical value of non-formal civic and political experiences is related to learning in formal pedagogical contexts. This is because civic and political participation with high developmental quality can stimulate higher-order cognitive engagement and, thus, contribute to the development of learning strategies that promote academic success. PMID:27199812

  5. How right-wing versus cosmopolitan political actors mobilize and translate images of immigrants in transnational contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article examines visual posters and symbols constructed and circulated transnationally by various political actors to mobilize contentious politics on the issues of immigration and citizenship. Following right-wing mobilizations focusing on the Syrian refugee crisis, immigration has become one...... of the most contentious political issues in Western Europe. Right-wing populist political parties have used provocative visual posters depicting immigrants or refugees as ‘criminal foreigners’ or a ‘threat to the nation’, in some countries and contexts conflating the image of the immigrant...... with that of the Islamist terrorist. This article explores the transnational dynamics of visual mobilization by comparing the translation of right-wing nationalist with left-wing, cosmopolitan visual campaigns on the issue of immigration in Western Europe. The author first traces the crosscultural translation and sharing...

  6. Linking Learning Contexts: The Relationship between Students' Civic and Political Experiences and Their Self-Regulation in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Carla; Teixeira, Pedro M; Neves, Tiago; Menezes, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between self-regulation strategies and youth civic and political experiences, assuming that out-of-school learning can foster metacognition. The study is based on a sample of 732 Portuguese students from grades 8 and 11. Results show that the quality of civic and political participation experiences, together with academic self-efficacy, are significant predictors of young people's self-regulation, particularly regarding cognitive and metacognitive strategies (elaboration and critical thinking). Such effects surpass even the weight of family cultural and school variables, such as the sense of school belonging. Therefore, we argue that the pedagogical value of non-formal civic and political experiences is related to learning in formal pedagogical contexts. This is because civic and political participation with high developmental quality can stimulate higher-order cognitive engagement and, thus, contribute to the development of learning strategies that promote academic success.

  7. Without blinders: Public values scholarship in Political Science, Economics, and Law—content and contribution to Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Gjalt; van der Wal, Z.

    2017-01-01

    How and why are public values studied within public administration’s cognate disciplines? This question is addressed through a qualitative analysis of 50 public values (PVs) publications in political science, economics, and law published between 1969 and 2014. The findings show that political

  8. The Impact of Political Context on the Questions Asked and Answered: The Evolution of Education Research on Racial Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Roda, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines how the larger political context and policies enacted at different points in American history have affected the questions education researchers asked and answered. The authors argue that while education researchers are often quick to consider how their research should shape policy, they are less likely to contemplate the…

  9. Civic Engagement in a Challenging Political Context: The Neighborhood Initiative at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myntti, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This essay uses the experience of one community engagement program at the American University of Beirut (AUB), a prominent private university in Lebanon, to reflect on the value and challenges of civic engagement in a non-Western context. It describes the Lebanese sectarian political system, provides an overview of the AUB Neighborhood Initiative,…

  10. Theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks determining in different countries of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashina Nadezhda, I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the problems of the theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks in different countries with relative indicators of the socio-economic development level, as well as the size and condition of the public debt. Developed by the authors the methodology of determining the risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world revealed close relationship between socio-economic situation of the countries and their public debt. Within the framework of this methodology two groups of factors characterizing the socio-political and economic processes in the country are being developed. After that each exponent and indicator are being processed, using expert procedures. Maximum statutory values for tentatively referenced countries with effective and ineffective government policies are identified. Then standardization (specification and definition of integral (generalized indexes of socio-political and economic processes in the country are taking place. After that the ranking of countries by aggregated standardized ratio is arranged, taking into account the significance of the developed indicators. The final phase of implementation methodology is identifying risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world. This is the ranking of countries by ratio of stability in public policy (stability of economic and socio-political processes in the country. As the result of implementation methodology the following output was received: what really makes a difference is not the amount of the country's debt, but how effectively it manages this debt, whether it has a goal to improve social and economic indicators. Practical testing methodology has proven that studied indicators fully characterize the development of the countries, their political, social and economic situation on the world stage.

  11. ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF GENDER EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatuna BERISHVILI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Term “gender” means socially constructed roles of man and woman, which are ascribed to them according to gender marker. Thus, gender roles depend on concrete socio-economic, political and culturological context and experience influence of various factors according to race, ethnic origin, class, sexual orientation and age. Gender roles widely differ within each culture and cultures. Unlike the individual’s biological gender, the gender role can be changed. This concept implies the views, conditioned by culture, about the intellectual potentials of man and woman, their personal features and behavior. Gender, as a construct, is formed by the society, as a social model of man and woman, which determines their role and position in all the spheres of the public life. To measure gender, like other hard-to-measure events, is of importance, in order to compare the countries, to identify the problems and to try their correction. It may be said that it enables us to disclose focus of the problems and in case of existence of proper will to positively act on it. Gender is multi-component and hard to measure. Research of the gender equality problems is important for the global business. Gender is a cultural construct, within which our different cultures attach different values, roles and responsibilities to men and women. It should be mentioned that the problems of women’s rights along with other barriers impeding achievement of the gender equality, have long been significant for the leading countries of Europe and America. However, one problem still remains – barriers of the so-called “Glass Ceiling”, which impede carrier advance of the female representatives. At the same time, in the countries, being on the lower level, a woman is still considered to be a being of secondary importance, which has no right to work and, compared with a man, no equal conditions to be educated. To this are added the religious laws of Islamic countries, which

  12. [Economics, politics, and public health in Porfirian Mexico (1876-1910)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Ana María

    2002-01-01

    The article examines the scientific, political, and economic elements that permitted the birth of modern public health in Mexico under the Porfirio Díaz administration (1876-1910). Firstly, a portion of Mexican physicians were open to the discoveries of microbiology, immunology, and epidemiology. Secondly, the State's growing concentration of power in public health matters ran parallel to its concentration of disciplinary political power and enabled this new knowledge to be placed at the service of collective health problem prevention. Lastly, both imperialism and the Porfirian elite needed to protect their business interests. The article evaluates public health achievements and limitations during the Porfirian period, abruptly interrupted by the revolution begun in 1910.

  13. Role and Place of the Oil Industry in the Economic and Political Development in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Pashkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider economic and political aspects of restoration and development of the oil industry in Iraq and make a brief historical analysis of it. It’s emphasized the role of political factors in the history of the development of the oil sector in the country. The article deals with the current situation in the oil industry of Iraq, and also the prospects and forecasts of development of it. It’s emphasized the idea that the oil export is one of the most important directions of Iraq's oil policy, which has a high degree of flexibility. It is noted that currently, the speedy recovery of Iraq and its oil industry depends on international companies. However, it is emphasized that there are established a lot of state-owned oil companies in recent decades in Iraq, which are working successfully in the global market. Authors consider the activity of one of them, a marketing company SOMO.

  14. AHP 21: Tibetans and Muslims in Northwest China: Economic and Political Aspects of a Complex Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Horlemann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past and today, Tibetan-Muslim relations in Qinghai and Gansu are often associated with violent conflicts sparked by religious differences or 'interethnic hatred'. A more nuanced study of the history of Tibetan-Muslim relations, however, reveals complexity as well as considerable local difference with regard to how and when contacts were established, maintained, and broken off. Tibetan Muslim encounters were manifold and varied, including interethnic marriages, close business relations, political alliances, and armed conflicts. To illustrate this wide range of encounters, examples chosen for this paper, i.e., the relations between Amdo Tibetans and the Muslim Baoan nationality, the Muslim Ma warlords, and the Chinese xiejia institution, span different eras and localities. This study suggests that Tibetan-Muslim relations were predominantly shaped by socio-economic and political factors rather than by religious differences or 'interethnic hatred' as is often assumed.

  15. The models of the future, climatic change and economical scenari: scientifical and political stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan Dalmedico, A.

    2007-01-01

    The years 1960-1970 are the opening of a debate, launching by the Club of Rome, on the growth and the limits of the earth resources. This report is at the origin of an intellectual topic based on mathematical simulation, about the today sustainable development. At the end of the years 80, arrives the global warming. After the Rio convention in 1992, a global governmental process is implementing especially with the Kyoto protocol. The hybridization grows up between scientists and politicians. This report presents the different aspects of the problem, scientifical, epidemiological, economical and political. It presents the prospective simulation tools and their political use. It analyzes the implementing of the climatic regime since 1988 and precises the bonds between scientifical expertise and global governance. (A.L.B.)

  16. The influence of the political, economic and main force risk factors on the power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbu, C.; Ruxanda, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with the economic aspects of the Romanian power development policy in the context of European Union integration. There are presented the gradual steps of regional interconnection which are currently undertaken under PHARE program. Special attention is given to the legislation, power production technology, costs, and environmental protection problems. (C.M.) 1 fig

  17. Immigration to the Great Plains, 1865-1914: War, Politics, Technology, and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The advent and vast extent of immigration to the Great Plains states during the years 1865 to 1914 is perhaps best understood in light of the new international context that emerged during the 1860s in the aftermath of six large wars whose consequences included the enlargement of civil liberties, an acceleration of economic growth and technological…

  18. Annual meeting of the nuclear forum Switzerland 2013. The 2050 energy strategy in the context of economic reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    At this year's annual meeting of the Nuclear Forum Switzerland (Nuklearforums Schweiz) once again the 2050 Energy Strategy of the Swiss Federal Council (Schweizer Bundesrat) was the main topic. President Corina Eichenberger warned against political arbitrariness and reckless endangerment of the Swiss electricity supply. Instead she called for a more logical, a more rational and more a pragmatic discussion. Accordingly, Eichenberger dismissed clearly politically motivated operation restrictions for Swiss nuclear power plants. The guest speakers Prof. Peter Egger of the Economic Institute of the ETH Zurich and Christoph Mader, President of scienceindustries, discussed consequences of the 2050 energy strategy for economy and industry. About 130 guests from the nuclear industry, politicians and industry took part in the Annual Meeting of the Nuclear Forum to the Hotel Bellevue in Bern Switzerland. Again, the event 'The 2050 energy strategy in the context of economic reality' was of main interest due to the recent energy policy discussions. Corinna Eichenberger, President of the association, stated, that the audience received an deep view into the economic consequences of the 2050 energy strategy from the perspective of science and industry. (orig.)

  19. Romanian Health Care Reform in the Context of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gheonea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of financial crisis are strongly felt in Romania, which already face with asignificant slowdown in economic growth or even economic recession. The current and internationalsituation remains still difficult, and requires high budget constraints. Under these conditions, thehealth system in Romania has become one of the most inefficient in Europe, mainly characterized bylack of transparency in the allocation of funds and inefficiency in resource use. The lack of clear andcoherent criteria to evaluate the performance of health institutions results in a difficultimplementation of efficient managerial systems to reward the efficient manager.

  20. Undergraduate Students' Quantitative Reasoning in Economic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhatshwa, Thembinkosi Peter; Doerr, Helen M.

    2018-01-01

    Contributing to a growing body of research on undergraduate students' quantitative reasoning, the study reported in this article used task-based interviews to investigate business calculus students' quantitative reasoning when solving two optimization tasks situated in the context of revenue and profit maximization. Analysis of verbal responses…

  1. Environmental, political, and economic determinants of water quality monitoring in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Lucas; Bernauer, Thomas; Kalbhenn, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Effective monitoring is essential for effective pollution control in national and international water systems. To what extent are countries' monitoring choices driven by environmental criteria, as they should be? And to what extent are they also influenced by other factors, such as political and economic conditions? To address these questions, we describe and explain the evolution of one of the most important international environmental monitoring networks in Europe, the one for water quality, in the time period 1965-2004. We develop a geographic information system that contains information on the location of several thousand active monitoring stations in Europe. Using multivariate statistics, we then examine whether and to what extent the spatial and temporal clustering of monitoring intensity is driven by environmental, political, and economic factors. The results show that monitoring intensity is higher in river basins exposed to greater environmental pressure. However, political and economic factors also play a strong role in monitoring decisions: democracy, income, and peer pressure are conducive to monitoring intensity, and monitoring intensity generally increases over time. Moreover, even though monitoring is more intense in international upstream-downstream settings, we observe only a weak bias toward more monitoring downstream of international borders. In contrast, negative effects of European Union (EU) membership and runup to the EU's Water Framework Directive are potential reasons for concern. Our results strongly suggest that international coordination and standardization of water quality monitoring should be intensified. It will be interesting to apply our analytical approach also to other national and international monitoring networks, for instance, the U.S. National Water-Quality Assessment Program or the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program for air pollution.

  2. Techno economic systems and excessive consumption: a political economy of 'pathological' gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Gerda

    2013-12-01

    This article argues that gambling is a paradigmatic form of consumption that captures the intensified logic at the heart of late modern capitalist societies. As well as a site of intensified consumption, it claims that gambling has also become the location of what has been described as a new form of 'social pathology' related to excess play. Drawing on Castells' (1996) notion of techno-economic systems, it explores the ways that intersections between technology, capital and states have generated the conditions for this situation, and critiques the unequal distribution of gambling environments that result. It argues that, while the products of these systems are consumed on a global scale, the risks associated with them tend to be articulated in bio-psychological discourses of 'pathology' which are typical of certain types of knowledge that have salience in neo-liberal societies, and which work to conceal wider structural relationships. We argue that a deeper understanding of the political and cultural economy of gambling environments is necessary, and provide a synoptic overview of the conditions upon which gambling expansion is based. This perspective highlights parallels with the wider global economy of finance capital, as well as the significance of intensified consumption, of which gambling is an exemplary instance. It also reveals the existence of a geo-political dispersal of 'harms', conceived as deteriorations of financial, temporal and social relationships, which disproportionately affect vulnerable social groups. From this, we urge an understanding of commercial gambling based on a critique of the wider social body of gambling environments within techno economic systems, rather than the (flawed) individual bodies within them. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  3. The Price Evolution in the Context of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Andreea Rămescu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is a negative macroeconomic phenomenon with consequences both at European Union level and worldwide. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the variation of price levels in Romania, during the economic crisis until the end of 2015, compared with the Member States of the European Union and the countries of the European Free Trade Association. For this research, information provided by EUROSTAT was used, such as price level indices for actual individual consumption per capita, and for different goods and services, calculated based on purchasing power parity. The aim is to identify solutions to rising living standards, compared with more developed countries of the European Union. This paper presents possible solutions for avoiding a future economic crisis, caused by overconsumption. The paper is divided into four sections: introduction, part two which presents aspects of the economic crisis in Romania and in the European Union, the third part presents price level indices for different products and services in 2015, and the last part, the conclusions of the research.

  4. Models of Economic Growth and Development in the Context of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The better-known models of economic growth such as the Lewis, Rostow,. Harrod-Domar ... produce highly educated populaces usually reap the benefits of such in terms of high per capita ..... The Russian revolution of 1917 led by Lenin proposed in theory a .... This was about government intervention into the economy to ...

  5. Trends and Issues: Social and Economic Context. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Chris, Comp.

    This document presents an outline of a number of social, economic, and demographic trends that influence the effectiveness of instruction and the social development of youth across the country. It contains numbers and statistics, recommendations, and implications, along with 30 references. The document covers trends in the following areas: (1)…

  6. The political and economic impacts of writing across the curriculum in chemistry at the University of Missouri-St. Louis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William Dixon

    Writing Across the Curriculum at most institutions is a web of local knowledges and techniques "situated" within the historical and immediate contexts of academic departments, disciplines, and disciplinary cultures. Because of political and economic tensions existing within colleges and universities, and within academic disciplines themselves, WAC can become a "contact zone," where individuals and institutional structures struggle for power, influence, and in some cases, survival. This dissertation uses the work of Anthony Giddens and Pierre Bourdieu to examine such a struggle as it occurred at the University of Missouri-St. Louis in the early 1980s. A WAC program was initiated there, but eventually failed as a result of political and economic influences. In the time since that failure, a growing emphasis on teaching and learning has helped create new potential for WAC at UMSL. Yet, to make it viable, WAC proponents there must recognize existing realities, attitudes, and conventions within each discipline or department, and develop new methods and approaches to writing and teaching that are relevant to that discipline or department. This examination then focuses on writing in chemistry to discover the realities, attitudes, and conventions used in teaching and learning writing at the undergraduate level. Standards for content acquisition are gathered from ACS accreditation requirements, and from a study of educators and practitioners from a variety of professions. A study of Chemistry students in an NSF-funded educational program suggests that science students may learn as much or more about disciplinary discourse from sources other than the traditional writing course. Interaction with the literature and with graduate students, professors, and professionals may teach students more about disciplinary discourse conventions than a composition-trained specialist might accomplish in a writing course. Still, the writing course can be useful. These findings suggest that

  7. Modern standardization case studies at the crossroads of technology, economics, and politics

    CERN Document Server

    Schneiderman, R

    2015-01-01

    Modern Standardization -- Case Studies at the Crossroads of Technology, Economics, and Politics covers the development of new technical standards, how these standards are typically triggered, and how they are submitted to standards development organizations (SDOs) for review and evaluation. It fills the gap in the shortage of reference material in the development of real-world standards. The increasing pace of innovation in technology has accelerated the competitive nature of standardization, particularly in emerging markets. Modern Standardization addresses these and other issues through a series of case studies in a format designed for academics and their engineering, business, and law school students.

  8. Overcoming political, social and economic barriers to promote solar photovoltaic technology in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesooriya, P.; Hande, H.; Gunaratne, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper narrates the experiences of a private sector commercial company and that of a private developers (non-profit organization) in their efforts to promote solar PV in a developing country. The country chosen is Sri Lanka, in which a considerable PV effort has already been witnessed. However, substantial political, economic and social barriers exist which have hindered PV promotion in that country. The authors point that similar constraints may impede promotional efforts in many developing countries and recommend that a global paradigm to promote the technology must assign an important role to the issue of obstacles

  9. Community health centers' impact on the political and economic environment: the Massachusetts example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James W

    2005-01-01

    Since their inception in 1965, community health centers have thrived against tough odds, including patchwork funding, an unpredictable public policy environment, and a volatile healthcare marketplace. Much of this long-term success has been attributed to the centers' ability to affect their economic and political environment. Massachusetts provides an excellent example of this outward orientation. It was here that the centers first took hold, grew rapidly as a result of grassroots activity, and came together as a group for advocacy and mutual assistance. This article examines the Massachusetts experience in light of the health centers' ability to survive and grow.

  10. A Translocal Perspective: Mustang Images in the Cultural, Economic and Political Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalke, Karen

    2010-12-14

    Translocal spaces are created out of the process of globalization whereby interventions such as electronic media and migration radically change social relations and breakdown the isomorphism of space, place, and culture [1]. This approach is useful in examining the controversy surrounding the mustang. This paper explores how different social constructions influence the management of mustangs as they move between the local and national level. At each cultural level, political, economic, and environmental issues converge encouraging the emphasis of some cultural constructions over others. These socially constructed images give insight into what the mustang means to a post-industrial culture and it may simultaneously contribute to the animal's eventual demise.

  11. Social, Behavioral and Economic Research in the Federal Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    programs do not meaningfully address the problem of wage discrepancy along gender lines. II. Federal Context In the D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance...students’ transition to higher education and/or the workplace . More recently, the Early Childhood Lon- gitudinal Studies have provided invaluable...sciences. Some of the topics cov- ered by recent annual ISSP modules include work ori- entation, religion, social inequality , the environment, social

  12. ENTREPRENEUR OR EMPLOYEE IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CISMARIU (ZEPA Liliana

    2014-07-01

    The present work aims at identifying options for the residents of the Western region of the country, under the effect of the economic crisis, for entrepreneurship as an opportunity or for maintaining the employee status from the perspective of their personality or their values, bearing in mind at the same time the reduced experience, of less than 25 years, that our country’s residents have on the business market.

  13. The economic, political and social issues, hindering the adoption of bioenergy in Pakistan: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Umair [UCH, Moonoo Chowk, Lahore (Pakistan)], e-mail: Umair@uch.com.pk

    2012-11-01

    The paper will inform the audience about the energy crisis that has crippled Pakistan's economic growth since the last 6 years, and the role that Bioenergy can play in resolving the issue. In order to help ease Pakistan in its effort to curb this crisis and to get useful insights into the role that Bioenergy can play in solving Pakistan's problems, Business planning for a Small or Medium sized enterprise was attempted. The results were not encouraging and shed light onto the financial and technical hindrances involved in creating and running Small or Medium bioenergy businesses in Pakistan. These issues themselves were linked to the more general Social, Economic and Political barriers for the adoption of Bioenergy in the country. The paper concludes by providing suggestions and recommendations, as to what the government, private sector as well as the international community can do in order to overcome the crisis.

  14. Political economic origins of Sekondi-Takoradi, West Africa’s new oil city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins, growth and trajectory of Sekondi-Takoradi, West Africa’s newest oil city, are considered by using an “institutional-analytical” method of economic history. Particular attention is given to the role of ports, harbours and railways, and how they evolved and interacted with political economic institutions in the last 100 years. This omnibus historical analysis suggests that West Africa’s newest oil city has come full circle. Its contemporary stature in national and international circles has a historical parallel in the 1920s when, as now, it captured national, regional and international attention. The evidence suggests that contemporary narratives that strike a determinist relationship between resource boom and social doom need to be reconsidered.

  15. Political-economic values and the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Ariel; Miller, Dale T

    2007-02-01

    Values concerning the distribution of wealth are an important aspect of identity for many Americans, and such values may therefore influence how Americans experience their own socioeconomic status (SES). Based on this proposition, the present research examines political-economic values as a moderator of the relationship between SES and self-esteem. Results supported the hypothesis that there is a stronger relationship between SES and self-esteem among individuals who report relatively inegalitarian values than among individuals who report relatively egalitarian values. This result was replicated using both objective and subjective measures of SES. Implications of the present findings for the study of values and well-being, psychological conflict, and the influence of economic factors on self-esteem are discussed.

  16. The Impact of Economic and Political Factors on the 2010 Turkish Referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun YÜKSEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The referendum held on September 12, 2010 included fundamental changes in Turkish constitution related with the social, judicial and economic aspects. We are of the opinion that the referendum offered a general view on the reflections of government policies, since the incumbent party, Justice and Development Party (AKP, officially supported the proposed changes and the main opposition parties, Republican People’s Party (CHP and Nationalist Action Party (MHP, were opposed. We tested the effects of political tendencies on the referendum results using provincial data. The results show that the “yes” votes are higher in the provinces where AKP has a stronger base, and lower in the provinces where the opposition parties, especially CHP, have stronger bases. Moreover, our analyses imply that referendum votes are higher where economic conditions are getting relatively better in the last year. However, we could not find a positive effect of public spending on the patterns of voting.

  17. The socio-political context of the application of fair selection models in the usa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Huysamen

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier article, the psychometrics of various fair selection models that had been proposed in the United States of America in the late 1960s, early 1970s were presented. The purpose of the present article is to discuss the subsequent history of the application of these models in personnel selection in that country and to view its implications for the South African situation. Because the question of fair selection models ties in with the issue of affirmative action, a brief history of this issue as it pertains to personnel selection is also given. Key decisions of the American Supreme Court that have a bearing on this matter are also reviewed. The failure to widely apply these fair selection models may be attributed to the prevalent socio-political context which favours the preferential treatment of certain groups but is hesitant to specify the particulars and limits of such treatment. Opsomming 'n Vorige artikel het die psigometi-ika onderliggend aan verskeie billike keuringsmodelle wat in die laat sestigerjare, vroee sewentigerjare in die Verenigde State van Amerika voorgestel is, behandel. Die doel met die onderhawige artikel is om 'n oorsig te verskaf van die daaropvolgende geskiedenis van die toepassing van daardie modelle in personeelkeuring in daardie land, en om die implikasies daarvan vir die Suid-Afrikaanse situasie te belig. Omdat die aangeleentheid van billike keuringsmodelle verband hou met die kwessie van regstellende aksie, word 'n bondige geskiedenis van hierdie kwessie soos dit op personeelkeuring van toepassing is, ook verskaf. Sleutel-uitsprake van die Amerikaanse Hooggeregshof wat betrekking het op hierdie aangeleentheid word ook beskou. Die beperkte toepassing van hierdie billike keuringsmodelle kan toegeskryf word aan die heersende sosio-politieke konteks wat die voorkeurbehandeling van bepaalde groepe voorstaan, maar wat huiwerig is om die besonderhede en perke van sodanige behandeling te spesifiseer.

  18. National IQs: A Review of Their Educational, Cognitive, Economic, Political, Demographic, Sociological, Epidemiological, Geographic and Climatic Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…

  19. The Globalization of Economics and How It's Changing Domestic Politics, International Relations, and Our Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Teaching economics at the preK-12 level has always been one of the most difficult aspects of social studies education notes C. Frederick Risinger, yet, throughout his teaching career economic issues and events were the drivers of most historical, political, and sociological trends and topics and even human slavery was driven and maintained by…

  20. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at

  1. ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIOCULTURAL CONDITIONS OF FORMATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the ambiguous contextual manifestations that accompany the process of formation of Russian entrepreneurial community. The work presents the research results of the specifics of these manifestations derived based on the analysis of various materials from Russian official, scientific and sociopolitical as well as international sources. "Attitude towards entrepreneurship" is regarded as the most important sociocultural component of the development of the entrepreneurship as a social practice. The identified economic and political as well as sociocultural trends that accompany the formation of the modern Russian entrepreneurship reflect the incompleteness stage of the market reforms in Russia. The creation of the modern ethical basis of the development of the entrepreneurship and its interaction with the society is assumed as one of the ways to accelerate these reforms. The outcome of the present interdisciplinary work - which is in its own way “a view from the outside” - in the author’s opinion, indicates the equivalence of sociocultural and economic and political range of problems for the modern stage of development of the entrepreneurship in Russia.

  2. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions.

  3. Economic, Financial, and Political Crisis and Well-Being in the PIGS-Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Halvorsen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research question in this article is threefold: To which degree is the financial crisis of 2008 and the subsequent recession associated with reduced well-being among people in the four hardest affected EURO countries? Are individual factors associated with reduced well-being the same in these countries? and Are lower socioeconomic groups more severely hit than the better off?. Data before the crisis are compared with data in 2013/2014 (EU-SILC [European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions] survey 2013 for Greece, Portugal, Ireland, and Spain. Finland is used as a reference category. Before control of individual characteristics, regressions demonstrate a small and mostly significant fall in average satisfaction with life in these countries, Portugal being an exception. According to the theory of capability and actual economic and political development, it was hypothesized that Greece—being the worst case in terms of economic development—may experience the greatest fall in life satisfaction. This hypothesis is not supported by the data. In fact, the strongest decline was found in Ireland. In particular, lack of political trust stands in Greece out as having an impact, while poor health is related to Ireland and unemployment to Portugal and Spain. Greatest socioeconomic inequality in life satisfaction was found in Portugal.

  4. Negotiating EU CO2/energy taxation. Political economic driving forces and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob

    2001-11-01

    The primary objective of this project is to identify the main political economic driving forces behind and barriers against the creation of an EU agreement on CO 2 /energy taxation. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework for understanding European integration and on detailed historical investigations into a process of EU negotiations concerning CO 2 /energy taxation that took place from the 1980s to 1994. Following the historical analysis of political economic driving forces and barriers, some overall perspectives on possible future developments within the field of EU CO 2 /energy taxation are finally advanced. The secondary objective of the project is to consider the possible effects on the EU negotiation process of Danish efforts to push the CO 2 /energy tax proposal from the late 1980s to 994. This analysis is based on the preceding historical analysis of the EU negotiation process, as well as further investigations into the national Danish development within the field of CO 2 /energy taxation, including accounts of Denmark's particular relations with the EU during the period in question. Finally, based on the likely future developments in the field EU CO 2 /energy taxation. Denmark's strategic opportunities are outlined. (BA)

  5. THE IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC NEWS ON THE EURO/RON EXCHANGE RATE: A GARCH APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Niţoi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this study we try to capture the impact of political news and economic news from euro area on the exchange rate between Romanian currency and euro. In order to do this we used a GARCH model. As we observed, both variables influence the exchange rate, this fact implying national currency depreciation and a volatility growth. The political news and the economic news positively affect the euro/ron exchange rate volatility. The two factors conjugation, as it has happened in the recent period is to be avoided because it can have financial and economic consequences with a very high cost for Romania.

  6. Placing perceptions of politics in the context of the feedback environment, employee attitudes, and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Christopher C; Levy, Paul E; Hall, Rosalie J

    2006-01-01

    The authors proposed a model suggesting that organizational environments supporting high levels of informal supervisor and coworker feedback are associated with lower employee perceptions of organizational politics. Furthermore, these lowered perceptions of politics were proposed to result in higher employee morale (as reflected in job satisfaction and affective commitment) and, through morale, to higher levels of task performance and organizational citizenship. The proposed mediational model was supported with empirical results from 150 subordinate-supervisor dyads sampled across a variety of organizations. Higher quality feedback environments were associated with lower perceptions of organizational politics, and morale mediated the relationships between organizational politics and various aspects of work performance. These findings suggest that when employees have greater access to information regarding behaviors that are acceptable and desired at work, perceptions of politics are reduced and work outcomes are enhanced. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Place and Role of Mass Media Institution in the Context of the Political Communication System in the XXth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia S. Yufereva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the analysis of classical approaches of foreign scientists (U. Lippman, G. Laswell, etc. and Russian scientists (N.Biryukov, V.Borev, etc.. The purpose is to determine the role of the of mass media institution in context of the political communication system. In order to achieve this aim the information was gathered from books, monographs, scientific articles, etc. In this research the corresponding method was used to get reliable results. The method of historical analyses was implied to study the crucial stages of understanding the phenomenon of mass media in the context of the political communication system. In particular the author studies both foreign and national approaches to conduct an extensive analysis of this topic. The article describes as well the basic principles and areas of analysis, which allow to identify several areas in the understanding of the problem.

  8. Culture, agency and power: Theoretical reflections on informal economic networks and political process

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Do network theory really offer a suitable concept for the theorization of informal processes of economic regulation and institutional change? This working paper challenges both essentialist and skeptical attitudes to networks through an examination of the positive and negative effects of network governance in contemporary societies in a range of regional contexts. The analysis focuses on three broad principles of non-state organization - culture, agency and power - and their role in shaping p...

  9. Flexicurity in the Current Economic and Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The flexicurity concept - an abbreviation between flexibility and security - appeared in the early 90s, being used for the first time by the Danish Prime Minister Poul Nyrum Rasmussen. The concept refers to a social state model that promotes a pro-active policy in the labour domain and the access to employment. Flexicurity can be defined as a strategy integrated by the simultaneous consolidation of flexibility and security on the labour market. According to the definition given by the European Commission, which establishes the guidelines and “paths” typical for the Member States in order to develop their own strategies in the field, flexicurity is an integrated strategy of simultaneous strengthening of flexibility and security on labour market. This concept arose as a result of socio-economic changes registered in the last decades in Europe: globalization and European integration, development of new technologies, the demographic aging of European society, the segmented development of labour markets.

  10. DISCLOSURE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yakovlevna Litau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Idea of entrepreneurship was transformed throughout several centuries, and today it is widely accepted that this concept can be disclosed through the personality of entrepreneur who is a driving force of development of small enterprises as a whole.Purpose: disclosure of psychological aspects of a person of entrepreneur as one of the main factors influencing the process of small enterprises development.Results:Primary importance of the personality of entrepreneur as the subject predetermining an orientation and intensity of small enterprises development is conceptualized.Need of use of a subject and methods of psychology, economic psychology for an explanation of a phenomenon of small enterprises development is disclosed.Practical implications: the research results can be used for improvement of the effectiveness of small enterprises activity.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-46

  11. Connection between sport and economics within the European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihai Jitaru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sport, in its capacity as a social and economic phenomenon, contributes to achieving the strategic objectives of solidarity and prosperity of the European Union. The sport is based on the notion that peace, tolerance, mutual understanding and education, which correspond to the European ideal. The sport is currently experiencing new phenomena, such as commercial pressure, trafficking in human beings, doping, racism, violence, corruption and money laundering. It has a huge social force. It can also be “a factor to promote integration, fair play and public health", said Wolfganag Schauble, federal Minister of the Interior of Germany, in the informal meeting of the Ministers of Sport in the European Union.

  12. Political Bildung in the Context of Discipline, Instruction, and Moral Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rucker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841 is considered the founding father of the science of education. In this article, I will try to show that Herbart sees the promotion of political Bildung as the task of discipline, instruction, and moral guidance, and that his work presents important components of a theory of political Bildung within an educational setting. According to Herbart, the political relationship to self and the world relates to issues that not only affect the lives of some but of a majority of people. But it is not people’s collective life as such that is the point of orientation for the political relationship to self and the world, but only the collective life where problems have arisen. According to Herbart, politics results from a conflict about the question as to how to regulate people’s collective life. While discipline, by providing the basic preconditions for instruction and moral guidance, makes merely an indirect contribution to political Bildung, the two latter forms of education – instruction and moral guidance – serve as the actual means by which political Bildung is achieved.

  13. Natural gas reserve/production ratio in Russia, Iran, Qatar and Turkmenistan: A political and economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esen, Vedat; Oral, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    In this study, changes in natural gas reserve/production ratio (R/P) of the four countries having the highest natural gas reserves (Russia, Iran, Qatar, Turkmenistan), the importance of which increases in the world market each day due to developing technology and the demand for clean energy, has been analyzed depending on the economic and political developments in national and international fields. Change of R/P ratio depending on years has been displayed on graphics from different sources and these alterations have been tried to be associated with such issues as natural gas agreements in history, handover of political authority, economic crises etc. Therefore; it has been put forward whether or not political and economic changes of the countries are factors on the amount of natural gas production and the discovery of new reserve fields with the addition aim of providing a general overview on natural gas market. - Highlights: •Russia, Iran, Qatar and Turkmenistan are the top four countries with the highest natural gas reserves. •R/P ratios of Russia, Iran, Qatar and Turkmenistan are presented in this study. •Change of R/P ratio has been associated with the political and economic events of the countries are being analyzed. •The effect of political and economic changes on the ratio of natural gas R/P has been proposed.

  14. Political-economic transition in Georgia and its implications for tourism in Svaneti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voll Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Private tourism entrepreneurship relies on special knowledge of the service sector with a strong focus on individual action and a general service mentality. The organization and regulation of tourism in post-socialist European countries experienced a shift from being state-driven to being determined by individual entrepreneurs. Yet in some cases, the adoption of the new entrepreneurial business principles is contested by different cultural understandings of how tourism should be 'produced'. With examples from the Caucasus Mountains in Georgia (Svaneti we will demonstrate that these different understandings can play a major role in creating barriers for developing community-based tourism. Shortly after the transition to the market economy, a number of different small-scale, community-based tourism projects emerged, with individual entrepreneurship contesting the traditional values of hospitality in these regions (predominantly based on religious and 'tribal' values and norms rather than purely on entrepreneurial values. The methods used for this preliminary study of post-socialist tourism development included a short-term, mobile ethnography consisting of semi-structured interviews of tourism producers in the region, participant observation, as well as mapping occupancy of buildings according to unoccupied, agriculture and agritourism and second homes categories based on the condition of the gardens. Further changes in the political-economic framework have now shifted the focus towards larger-scale tourism developments supported by public-private partnerships. This paper analyses the impacts of these political-economic changes on the development of community-based tourism in Svaneti and explores in particular the friction between collective traditions and individual entrepreneurship in the experience economy of transition countries and its relationship with regional economic growth and rural depopulation.

  15. Politics in the context of the “Opera question” in the national theatre before the first world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Part of the history of the National Theatre in Belgrade in the decade before the First World War relates to processes of discontinuity in the professionalization and modernization of the musical section in this institution and its repertoire. It had to do with abrupt changes reflected in three short-lived phases: improvements in musical ensemble and opera performances (1906-1909, the annulment of these efforts and results with a return to the old repertoire, and then again a new beginning once more with a fresh attempt to establish the Opera (1913-14. These dynamics were affected by the social and political context. It was dependent on frequent changes of the Theatre’s management staff whose main representatives had mutually conflicting views on important questions concerning the functioning of their institution. Relations between them were strongly marked by contested political motives. Theatre managers were appointed by ministers of education who could also be relieved of their posts, and members of the management staff were always active in political parties. These facts acted as a decisive factor in their communication which was similar to the behaviour and customs of public political life where an opponent is seen as an enemy, not as a partner in solving common problems. Critical and polemical discourses on important aspects of organization and programme strategy of the Theatre were burdened by political rivalry which also found its place in discussions on the cultivation of music. Questions relating to music were considered in a declarative way, so that music was instrumentalized as a means of political empowerment. The facts about music in the National Theatre raise many issues related to aspects of modernization, national identification, transfers of „high“ and popular musical cultures as well as to other problems of social, historical and cultural contexts that were intertwined in the operation of the Theatre. The context of

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC ACTORS IN THE WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT SYSTEM: LEGAL OR POLITICAL ISSUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Soeparna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic actors are the main trade player in the World Trade Organization, although, the relation between WTO and economic actor is built by trade regulation that is negotiated among the WTO Members. Nothing in the WTO regulates economic actors to involve directly in the WTO, especially in the WTO dispute settlement system. Nevertheless, the debate amongst experts regarding the involvement of economic actors in the WTO dispute settlement system is unavoidable. This article therefore discusses the possibility of the involvement of economic actors in the WTO dispute settlement system, whether there is legal and political point of views

  17. Technological innovations and public politics: social environmental analyses in the context of sugar-ethanol industrial activities in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Maria C. de Ávila Plaza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at discussing the importance of the technological innovations as propellers of the economic development of the nations as well as the role of the public politics directed toward the socioeconomics and institutional agents who are a part of the productive and innovative chain of the country. We try to analyze the sugar-ethanol sector and its consequences concerning the environmental aspects, being emphasized the State of Goiás and the “Cerrado” bioma. In the social aspects, we demonstrate the necessity to conciliate economic development with social-environmental sustainability, to propitiate a healthy environment and improvement of the working conditions and life for the citizens who perform the functions of sugar cane cutters of this sector. It is important to emphasize that the article does not intend to underestimate the economic practices of the sugar-ethanol companies, but to analyze certain aspects concerning the environment and the social factor, so that consistent politics is implemented in order to promote sustainability, balanced with enterprise and governmental responsibilities and commitments allied to the tripod: economy, environment and society. Key-words: Technological innovation; Public Politics; Sustainable Development; Sugar-ethanol Sector; Biofuels

  18. RISK MANAGEMENT IN LENDING INSTITUTIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGHEAN FLORIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian companies are nowadays facing process of extinction of decisions based on risk and uncertainty, as a consequence of the permanent transforming process of the economy and because of the privatization, restructuring and globalization activities. The main forms of risk are can be grouped in eight categories: economical risks, financial risks, commercial risks, manufacturing risks, political risks, social risks, juridical risks, natural risks. Through its nature the decision is referring to the future, mainly being provisional. In any decisional process developed at the company level, there are involved in the same time some economical, techniques, juridical, human and managerial variables. The economic recession generated by the chaos affecting financial systems has profoundly distressed the public, business circles and political leaders. The crisis has inexorably had negative effects on global economic growth and will have political, strategic and social consequences as well. The contents of this paper encompasses theoretical and practical aspects, quantitative and qualitative analyses, all aimed at identifying, analysing and controlling bank risks and, last but not least, at managing these risks.

  19. CHALLENGES OF THE ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Laura Văleanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic and financial crisis which has affected the world economy since 2008 raised a question mark regarding the viability of the Economic and Monetary Union and the future of the euro. Themain objective of this paper is to identify the amplitude of the effects of the economic crisis on the functioning and stability of EMU. Following the main objective, the study is meant to analyze the theoretic fundamentals which were at the basis of the creation of EMU and an analysis of the financial policies and instruments meant to render stability and sustainable economic growth in the countries of the Eurozone.

  20. Conceptualizing an economically, legally, and politically viable active debris removal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelli, M.; Federico, G.; Loughman, J.; Prasad, D.; Chow, T.; Rathnasabapathy, M.

    2014-11-01

    It has become increasingly clear in recent years that the issue of space debris, particularly in low-Earth orbit, can no longer be ignored or simply mitigated. Orbital debris currently threatens safe space flight for both satellites and humans aboard the International Space Station. Additionally, orbital debris might impact Earth upon re-entry, endangering human lives and damaging the environment with toxic materials. In summary, orbital debris seriously jeopardizes the future not only of human presence in space, but also of human safety on Earth. While international efforts to mitigate the current situation and limit the creation of new debris are useful, recent studies predicting debris evolution have indicated that these will not be enough to ensure humanity's access to and use of the near-Earth environment in the long-term. Rather, active debris removal (ADR) must be pursued if we are to continue benefiting from and conducting space activities. While the concept of ADR is not new, it has not yet been implemented. This is not just because of the technical feasibility of such a scheme, but also because of the host of economic, legal/regulatory, and political issues associated with debris remediation. The costs of ADR are not insignificant and, in today's restrictive fiscal climate, are unlikely/to be covered by any single actor. Similarly, ADR concepts bring up many unresolved questions about liability, the protection of proprietary information, safety, and standards. In addition, because of the dual use nature of ADR technologies, any venture will necessarily require political considerations. Despite the many unanswered questions surrounding ADR, it is an endeavor worth pursuing if we are to continue relying on space activities for a variety of critical daily needs and services. Moreover, we cannot ignore the environmental implications that an unsustainable use of space will imply for life on Earth in the long run. This paper aims to explore some of these

  1. The Political Response of Spanish Youth to the Socio-Economic Crisis: Some Implications for Citizenship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Jover

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the effects of the current socio-economic crisis on Spanish youth and their political response to it. It does so in three consecutive stages. In the first, it analyses the repercussion of the crisis on young people using information from certain social indicators (employment, mobility and education. It then outlines the subjective perception of the crisis, i.e., how they are experiencing it and what their hopes are regarding the economy and politics. The third part focuses on how young citizens have responded to the situation politically. The article finishes by considering what implications may be drawn from that response in terms of citizenship education.

  2. Economics vis-à-vis Politics of Venezuela under the Chavez Regime 1998-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world most of the countries are following the market rule to determine their economic determinants with some to follow the mixed role of the government. There are a very few countries or states that are following the socialistic nature of development. One such country is Venezuela which has a long history of socialism and the degree of socialism got magnified under the regime of Hugo Chavez. The last election result in favour of Chavez has put some questions before the economists and politicians regarding its grounds. The present study has been framed in line with examining whether the role of economic factors have done the trick for Chavez to regain the presidential power. The study for the period of 1998-2010 has observed that the country has suffered in major economic factors compared to two Latin heroes Brazil and Argentina, albeit he has won the election. The study further observed that there are certain political grounds that played role for the favourable verdict.

  3. Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials: Scientific, Economic and Political Realia of the New Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current state and problems of nanotechnology development in the Russian Federation in modern economic, political and scientific conditions are presented. Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials have already been used in all developed countries of the world in the most significant areas of human activity industry, defense, information sphere, radio electronics, energy drinks, transport, biotechnology, medicine. The Government of the Russian Federation formulated the main objectives of scientific and economic community for the development of nanotechnologies in the conditions of the demanded import substitution. In the developed countries the comprehension of the key role of nanotechnologies led to the elaboration of large-scale programs for their development on the basis of state support. Similar programs are adopted more than in thirty countries around the world, including the Russian Federation. The author of the present article studies the current state of nanotech industry in Russia and classifies nanotechnologies according to the intrinsic principle. As a result, four main directions in the field of nanotechnologies are allocated: 1 nanomaterials; 2 photonics, spintronics, nanoelectronics (devices based on the nanoprinciples; 3 nanometrology, nanomanipulators and modeling; 4 nanosensors and nanodetectors. Some perspective scientific and technological projects of nanotech industry development in Russia are also considered. The author points to economic, social, ecological, and scientific and technical opportunities of nanotechnologies development in Russia, as well as their threats.

  4. Social participation within a context of political violence: implications for the promotion and exercise of the right to health in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Walter; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Funchal, Denise Phe

    2009-01-01

    Social participation has been understood in many different ways, and there are even typologies classifying participation by the degree of a population's control in decision making. Participation can vary from a symbolic act, which does not involve decision making, to processes in which it constitutes the principal tool for redistributing power within a population. This article argues that analyzing social participation from a perspective of power relations requires knowledge of the historical, social, and economic processes that have characterized the social relations in a specific context. Applying such an analysis to Guatemala reveals asymmetrical power relations characterized by a long history of repression and political violence. The armed conflict during the second half of the 20th century had devastating consequences for a large portion of the population as well as the country's social leadership. The ongoing violence resulted in negative psychosocial effects among the population, including mistrust toward institutions and low levels of social and political participation. Although Guatemala made progress in creating spaces for social participation in public policy after signing the Peace Accords in 1996, the country still faces after-effects of the conflict. One important task for the organizations that work in the field of health and the right to health is to help regenerate the social fabric and to rebuild trust between the state and its citizens. Such regeneration involves helping the population gain the skills, knowledge, and information needed in order to participate in and affect formal political processes that are decided and promoted by various public entities, such as the legislative and executive branches, municipal governments, and political parties. This process also applies to other groups that build citizenship through participation, such as neighborhood organizations and school and health committees.

  5. Migrant female domestic workers: debating the economic, social and political impacts in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, B S; Huang, S; Gonzalez, J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of migrant female domestic workers on the socioeconomic and political context in Singapore. Although Singapore state policy opposes long-term immigration, there is a labor shortage which permits a transient work force of low-skilled foreign workers. In the late 1990s, Singapore had over 100,000 foreign maids, of whom 75% were from the Philippines, 20% were from Indonesia, and the rest were from Sri Lanka. Legislation ensures their short-term migrant status, restricts their numbers, and governs their employment. Migrant workers are also regulated through a stringent allocation system based on household income of employers and the need for caregivers for children. Work permits are conditioned on non-marriage to citizens of Singapore or pregnancy. Terms and conditions of migrant employment are not specified, which permits long hours of work and potential for inhumane treatment. Migrant women fulfill jobs not desired by natives and accept these jobs at lower wages. There is disagreement about the motivation for the maid levy and its need, fairness, and effectiveness in reducing demand for foreign maids. Most public discussion focuses on social values and morality of foreign maids. Politically, tensions arise over the legality of migration, which results from tourist worker migration to Singapore and circumvents Filipino labor controls. Most of the adjustment cases that come to the attention of OWWA are tourist workers. Policies should be gender sensitive.

  6. Fossil fuels: technical, economical and political challenges for 2030-2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This panorama takes stock on the international energy actuality in 2003 and discusses the instability of the geo-political context of the energy and the part of the fossil fuels for the future years 2030-2050. The following topics were presented: activities and market for the exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, the world gas trade situation, the petroleum supply and demand, the Iraq, the diesel in the USA, the investments and the depletion, long-dated evolutions of motors and fuels, implementing of the european directive concerning the market of tradable permits of CO 2 , the carbon sequestration, hydrogen the energy of the future and the biofuels in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  7. Economic and political power relationships and price formation in strategic materials markets. The example of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, M.

    1998-01-01

    The more and more generalized substitution of coordination trading mechanisms by administrated regulation forms on the world petroleum scene has led some authors to sustain the idea that oil prices can be durably fixed on a competitive market, like any ordinary good. By analysing the limits of the Hotellinian optimization approach, this work tries to demonstrate that: conformably to a theoretical trend initiated by the works of P.H. Frankel, integration and concentration are two elements indispensable to the proper operation of the petroleum domain. A non-organized market leads to a prices fight and to the reinforcement of the main actors. It demonstrates also that the interdependence between economy and politics has always been an important factor in prices making. The history of petroleum political economics has been and remains largely connected to the power relations established between governments for the share of profits. This work stresses on the necessity of the implementation by the main actors of a back-to-integration and cooperation strategy to stabilize the market and the prices and to make possible the implementation of energy mastery and environment protection policies. On the other hand, the examination of the present day situation, characterized by a very unequal share of profits and by an upstream weakness of prices and investments, reveals the existence of tension factors susceptible to start up a new oil crisis in the coming years. (J.S.)

  8. Logics and Contradictions of Transalpine Transport within the Context of Political and Social Relations in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Perlik

    2009-03-01

    intérêt des régions concernées, des solutions plus radicales en terme de régime accumulatif revisité ou de régime régulateur, doivent être considérées et validées sur le long terme.In the Alpine regions, two conflicting interests exist: One part complains about a lack of accessibility. The other part is connected to international roads and is mainly affected by the impacts of transalpine traffic. These regions frequently argue that a great deal of such transports are superfluous or needless. This article is based on a study which discusses the following questions: 1 - Is there any needless transport that could be removed without substitution? 2 - Are strategies of changing modal split or market solutions as road pricing sufficient to reduce transport and its impact? 3 - Under what conditions may transport be reduced in a more comprehensive manner? Answers are given by analysing three fields relevant for traffic growth in their internal coherence: the political logic, the economic logic, and the logic of spatial development. They are interpreted within a regulationist approach. But there are contradictions within different primary societal/political goals as well as between these goals and economic ones, especially the contradiction between competitiveness and equal living conditions in different regions. Such contradictions can be explained by the process of European unification, by the different interests of the most important stakeholders, and by the change of values in the last 30 years that may be characterised as a regime change. The three logics are man-made rapports and therefore subject to change by the stakeholders in the long run. According to the concept of sustainable development on a global level and in the interest of the regions concerned, more radical solutions within the meaning of a revisited regime of accumulation and regulation respectively, should be considered, which may be valid in the long run.

  9. A Translocal Perspective: Mustang Images in the Cultural, Economic and Political Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Dalke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Translocal spaces are created out of the process of globalization whereby interventions such as electronic media and migration radically change social relations and breakdown the isomorphism of space, place, and culture [1]. This approach is useful in examining the controversy surrounding the mustang. This paper explores how different social constructions influence the management of mustangs as they move between the local and national level. At each cultural level, political, economic, and environmental issues converge encouraging the emphasis of some cultural constructions over others. These socially constructed images give insight into what the mustang means to a post-industrial culture and it may simultaneously contribute to the animal’s eventual demise.

  10. The political mobilization of corporate directors: socio-economic correlates of affiliation to European pressure groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Matthew; Glouharova, Siana; Harrigan, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Business has played a central role in the debate over Britain's place in the European Union. This paper examines the socio-economic characteristics of directors of Britain's largest corporations who affiliated either to Business for Sterling or Britain in Europe. It reports associations between directors' social backgrounds and their probabilities of affiliation. Elite university education, club membership, wealth and multiple directorships were all associated with higher propensities to affiliate. The associations are consistent with the idea that directors' social resources allow them to overcome collective action problems as well as supplying them with the motivations to affiliate. They also indicated that directors form a privileged group in that they have a number of very powerful actors who can take unilateral political actions.

  11. Iceland’s Financial Crisis In 2008. Political, Economic and Social Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legutko Agnieszka Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the successful strategy of overcoming financial breakdown in the case study of Iceland. The aim of the article is to verify a hypothesis that the Icelandic model could become a panacea for future crises? A document analysis method is applied to present essential indicators such as GDP and trade balance. With the use of a source analysis method, the collapse of the financial sector is determined as the main cause of the slump. The systematization of crisis events is introduced and deepened by the social and political situation. Changes in the state’s condition after the crash are provided and future forecasts about economic development are discussed. As a summing up, the author disapproves of the hypothesis that the Icelandic model of overcoming the financial breakdown as a panacea for future crises, pointing out that it is only applicable for specific cases and cannot be seen as a magical remedy for every kind of crisis.

  12. The political economics of the permanent war and the political economics of the nuclear war. Strategic approaches for Latin America; La economia politica de la guerra permanente y la economia politica de la guerra nuclear. Aproximaciones estrategicas para America Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez L, I.I

    2005-07-01

    This work treats on the hypothesis that the American imperialism uses its nuclear arsenal for reforming geographical spaces that allow him to impel its economic development in the context of the progressive exhaustion of the natural resources of the planet and of the ferocious dispute for market niches and investment destinations, and like the political and military decisions crawl to the different scenarios of economic competition. In the chapter 1 it is insinuated like has been reproduced the Warlike-industrial Complex (CBI) American from the second world postwar period until the present time in the idea of explaining like it is that it is valorized to the capital in scale enlarged starting from the denominated sector producing of destruction means and understanding that the system specifically capitalist is a system where continually the is destroyed previously taken place to manufacture a new merchandise in a luck of creative destruction. In the chapter 2, the topic of the specific contradictions of the CBI is approached that disable him to be the tip of lance of the world imperialism. The chapter 3 try on the productive linkages in the production of nuclear bombs, as well as in the production of the vectors of nuclear transportation and on the implications derived for the world security of the different industries associated to the nuclear energy (as the petroleum, the electricity, the natural gas) and to the transportation vectors of these locating which you/they are the different States where the world supremacy is disputed and that they have like one of its so many negotiation-confrontation letters its nuclear strategic arsenals. What is looked for in a thermonuclear war is the enemy's total elimination, from their offensive capacity, their defensive capacity, until their supplies, their reservations, etc., with the result that the chapters 4 and 5 of this thesis are presented to offer a better understanding that they mean the nuclear arsenals in the

  13. Developing drugs for the developing world: an economic, legal, moral, and political dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, D B

    2001-05-01

    This paper discusses the economic, legal, moral, and political difficulties in developing drugs for the developing world. It argues that large, global pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the developing world, and that they may exercise these responsibilities by investing in research and development related to diseases that affect developing nations, offering discounts on drug prices, and initiating drug giveaways. However, these social responsibilities are not absolute requirements and may be balanced against other obligations and commitments in light of economic, social, legal, political, and other conditions. How a company decides to exercise its social responsibilities to the developing world depends on (1) the prospects for a reasonable profit and (2) the prospects for a productive business environment. Developing nations can either help or hinder the pharmaceutical industry's efforts to exercise social responsibility through various policies and practices. To insure that companies can make a reasonable profit, developing nations should honor pharmaceutical product patents and adhere to international intellectual property treaties, such as the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. To insure the companies have a good business environment, developing nations should try to promote the rule of law, ethical business practices, stable currencies, reliable banking systems, free and open markets, democracy, and other conditions conducive to business. Overall, this paper advocates for reciprocity and cooperation between pharmaceutical companies and developing nations to address the problem of developing drugs for the developing world. In pursuing this cooperative approach, developing nations may use a variety of other techniques to encourage pharmaceutical companies to act responsibly, such as subsidizing pharmaceutical research, helping to design and implement research protocols, providing a guaranteed market, and

  14. THE IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC NEWS ON THE EURO/RON EXCHANGE RATE: A GARCH APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Cristi Spulbar; Mihai Nitoi

    2012-01-01

    Within this study we try to capture the impact of political news and economic news from euro area on the exchange rate between Romanian currency and euro. In order to do this we used a GARCH model. As we observed, both variables influence the exchange rate, this fact implying national currency depreciation and a volatility growth. The political news and the economic news positively affect the euro/ron exchange rate volatility. The two factors conjugation, as it has happened in the recent peri...

  15. Cold fusion in the context of a scientific revolution in physics: History and economic ramifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Scientific revolutions have occurred in an approximately 80 year periodicity since 1500. Economic depressions have occurred at an approximately 40-50 year periodicity since 1790, and the economic depressions are a result of the scientific revolutions. The field of cold fusion is a part of a scientific revolution in physics. Understanding cold fusion phenomena in the broader historical context is helpful for understanding the development of the field and the significance of the phenomena technologically and economically. This paper includes a short history of science and of the recent scientific revolution, and includes predictions about the economic consequences of the development of the paradigm. (author)

  16. Religion, politics and gender in the context of nation-state formation: the case of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezgić, Rada

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that nationalism has connected religion with secular politics in Serbia but that their rapprochement has been a gradual process. In order to demonstrate the transition from a limited influence of religion on politics to a much tighter relationship between the two, this article discusses the abortion legislation reform and the introduction of religious education in public schools, respectively. It argues that, while illustrative of different types of connection between religion and politics, these two issues had similar implications for gender equality-they produced discourses that recreated and justified patriarchal social norms. After religion gained access to public institutions, its (patriarchal) discourses on gender were considerably empowered. The article points to some tangible evidence of a re-traditionalisation and re-patriarchalisation of gender roles within the domestic realm in Serbia.

  17. The effects of economic and political integration on power plants’ carbon emissions in the post-soviet transition nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don; Sie, Amanda; Giedraitis, Vincentas

    2017-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels for electricity generation, which accounts for a significant share of the world’s CO2 emissions, varies by macro-regional context. Here we use multilevel regression modeling techniques to analyze CO2 emissions levels in the year 2009 for 1360 fossil-fuel power plants in the 25 post-Soviet transition nations in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia. We find that various facility-level factors are positively associated with plant-level emissions, including plant size, age, heat rate, capacity utilization rate, and coal as the primary fuel source. Results further indicate that plant-level emissions are lower, on average, in the transition nations that joined the European Union (EU), whose market reforms and environmental directives are relevant for emissions reductions. These negative associations between plant-level emissions and EU accession are larger for the nations that joined the EU in 2004 relative to those that joined in 2007. The findings also suggest that export-oriented development is positively associated with plant-level CO2 emissions in the transition nations. Our results highlight the importance in macro-regional assessments of the conjoint effects of political and economic integration for facility-level emissions.

  18. Learning activities in a political context - development of the working environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledskov, Annette

    2002-01-01

    are identified – ‘the politically actors’ and ‘the translator’. When facilitating learning activities in the management of work environment it is necessary to be aware of this political nature of the actions .In understanding learning in the management of work environment it is beneficial to look at the concept......This paper addresses a learning approach as a method for developing new strategies for managing work environment. On the basis of interviews in two companies an analysis of how actors involved in the management of work environment act concerning their task and role is conducted. Two roles...

  19. Political control on the Internet in the context of a hybrid regime. Venezuela 2007-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iria Puyosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study on control policies on the field of the internet and the social web, developed by the Venezuelan government, between 2007 and 2015. The case study includes examination of key documents of public policy for internet by Venezuelan State, industry statistics and data provided by previous research, as well as systematization of empirical events that reflect the characteristics of the practices of political control on the web that were implemented by the Venezuelan State. The study examines whether the data substantiate the hypotheses of the "dictator's dilemma" (Kerr, 2014 in a hybrid political regime as Venezuela.

  20. Towards a Global Comprehensive Context-driven and Decision-focused Theory and Method for a New Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is currently significant dissatisfaction with conventional economic theory. The unreliability of conventional theory as a predictor of future economic possibilities of catastrophes emphasizes the need for a new paradigm of political economy. This paper provides a capsule of some of the important limitations and consequences of the “old” paradigm. It proposes the necessary elements of a new paradigm and it seeks to locate the new paradigm of political economy in terms of its global reach. This requires a richer contextual approach, with the tools of contextual mapping. It has as well a focus on the global process of effective power and the emerging rule of law based constitutive processes. This is a key to the role of decision and the architecture of decision-making in political economy. We conclude with the global to local implications of the Vicos Experiment in Peru. Finally, we stress the wider lens of focus to identify the real and not the illusory generation of value. The implications here facilitate real global democratization.

  1. Dezvoltare economică, dezvoltare social-politică sau dezvoltare umană? O retrospectivă asupra gândirii consacrate despre dezvoltare (Development Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia TODEREAN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last half a century, development was one of the keywords of the international economic and political discourse. The variety of contexts in which one can find the idea of development can pinpoint in fact to a lack of a unique definition and, therefore, a lack of a common understanding of the term. This is why the present article attempts to build a very broad overview of the development thinking, as it has emerged as a special field of huge (international interest, beginning with post-war keyneasian thinking about development, that could only be economic development, picking up on the theory of modernization, then on dependency school, in order to evaluate the discourse of the Washington consensus and its heritage on current development communities and visions. The usefulness of the inquiry is better understood in the Romanian context, where I believe there is no genuine public debate (nor is there any academic one about what development could mean for Romania, what it brings to the society and what the society could bring to the practice and research of this process. This article is a first theoretical step into understading how development thinking has evolved in time, under the influence of academic, political and eocnomic environments and what it means nowadaya, when Romanian society is yet again in its history attempting to follow a path towards development and modernity.

  2. Putin's and Russian-led Eurasian Economic Union: A hybrid half-economics and half-political “Janus Bifrons”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Sergi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian Economic Union is an institution formalized in January 2015 for the purpose of regional economic integration; it includes five countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia, and Kyrgyzstan, and may include Mongolia and Tajikistan in the future. With a GDP of $1.59 trillion in 2015, an industrial production of $1.3 trillion in 2014, and population of almost 200 million as of 2016, the EEAU could represent a geopolitical success that supports both Putin's ambitious political agenda and the Union's economic prospects. Although the efforts of this Union are ongoing and long-term success is not certain, the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union can be considered a hybrid half-economics and half-political “Janus Bifrons” that serves as a powerful illustration of what Putin envisions for the post-Soviet space. Despite promising steps so far, more should be done toward the achievement of economic development and balanced opportunity for all Eurasian countries. Russia's longstanding role within the Union, as well as its power and political motivations, are all considerations that must be accounted for.

  3. Political Education in Croatian Secondary Schools: An Emergency Reaction to a Chaotic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Karin; Domazet, Mladen

    2007-01-01

    The article draws on an analysis exploring how the content and aims of secondary school political education have been framed in official Croatian policy documents following the country's war for independence, with particular focus on the underlying conception of citizenship promoted in such a post-conflict setting. The article also addresses how…

  4. Quality Assurance in the Political Context: In the Midst of Different Expectations and Conflicting Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerkens, Maarja

    2015-01-01

    Higher education quality assurance systems develop within a complex political environment where national level goals and priorities interact with European and global developments. Furthermore, quality assurance is influenced by broader processes in the public sector that set expectations with respect to accountability, legitimacy and regulatory…

  5. Political "Bildung" in the Context of Discipline, Instruction, and Moral Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) is considered the founding father of the science of education. In this article, I will try to show that Herbart sees the promotion of political "Bildung" as the task of discipline, instruction, and moral guidance, and that his work presents important components of a theory of political…

  6. Antinomies of Ideologies and Situationality of Education Language Politics in Multilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odugu, Desmond Ikenna

    2015-01-01

    Widespread scholarly and political attention to language-related inequities in the 20th century precipitated a spate of orientations to language planning in multilingual societies. While various orientations indicate a shift from earlier deficit to affirmative views of multilingualism, vigorous debates persist about the logical and pragmatic…

  7. The Schenectady Virtual Community: Exploring the Ecology of Political Discourse in a Local Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andrea B.

    2010-01-01

    From Facebook to Twitter, ordinary citizens' use of social media to discuss, organize, and participate in the political process continues to grow in popularity (Davis, 2005; Rainie, 2005; Kohut, Keeter, Doherty, & Dimock, 2008). Researchers interested in this area have explored the demographics, patterns of behavior and motives of participants…

  8. Blood, politics, and social science. Richard Titmuss and the Institute of Economic Affairs, 1957-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Philippe

    2002-09-01

    Long before his last book, The Gift Relationship: From Human Blood to Social Policy, was published in early 1971, Richard M. Titmuss (1907-1973), a professor of social administration at the London School of Economics, had been a major figure in the debates over the welfare state. The Gift Relationship was the culmination of an eventful relationship with the Institute of Economic Affairs, a think tank that advocated the extension of rational pricing to social services. By arguing that the British system of blood procurement and distribution, based on free giving within the National Health Service, was more efficient than the partly commercialized American system, Titmuss intended to signal the dangers of the increasing commercialization of society. What made for the impact of his book, however, was not merely its argument that transfusion-transmitted infections were much more common with paid than with voluntary donors, but also its reflections on what it is that holds a society together. And here Titmuss argued that a "socialist" social policy, by encouraging the sense of community, played a central role. The eclecticism of Titmuss's work, together with its strong ethical and political flavor, makes it a rich and original account of the "social" at a time when heated debated over social policy, both in Britain and in the United States, raised the question of the division of labor among the social sciences.

  9. Technology for whom: too dear to work. [Political, economic, and social problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, F

    1978-01-01

    In spite of growth in per capita gross national product, less-developed countries (LDCs) continue to have large numbers of people who are unemployed and living in extreme poverty. The failure of advanced technology to create adequate jobs has led to a strong movement for more appropriate technology. Advanced technology is inappropriate because the capital costs per employee are too high to equip enough workers, plants are built on too large a scale for the market, and the combination creates an economic enclave which ignores the rest of the population. Appropriate technology gives priority to the basic needs of the poor and includes raising their income level by expanding productive employment. This requires inexpensive, small-scale technology that needs few skills and uses local materials. More technological research and development is needed in the LDCs as well as changes in the way income and investment resources are distributed, but this will entail changing the decision making process to include political and socio-economic considerations.

  10. Change or continuity: an interpretation of the economic politics of Lula’s government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André MOREIRA CUNHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first year of government, the administration of Lula implanted a macroeconomic politics characterized by a strong fiscal and monetary restriction and for structural reformations (tributary and of the Social Security before criticized by the Party of the Workers and for its bases of social support in the last two decades. Keeping in mind these facts and the international expectation generated by the election of a government of left in Brazil in front of the crisis of the neoliberal pattern in Latin America, this article has for objective to analyses: (i the economic circumstances of the government’s principle Lula that conditioned the adoption of a transition strategy; (ii the results of this strategy; and (iii the aspects of continuity and change in the new government. Empiric evidences that sustain that the margin of manoeuvre of the new administration was sensibly narrow as to promote deep changes in the economic politics’s conduction, are presented. However, to part of those restrictions, inherited of the deregulated adjustment of the nineties, the government of Lula opted for the adoption of a group of politicians that will be able to generate a new trap of low growth with macroeconomic uncertainty, in the terms of that experienced in last decade.

  11. The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boezeman, Daan; Leroy, Pieter; Maas, Rob; Kruitwagen, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

  12. Emotional insecurity about the community: A dynamic, within-person mediator of child adjustment in contexts of political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine; Taylor, Laura K; Goeke-Morey, Marcie; Shirlow, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Over 1 billion children worldwide are exposed to political violence and armed conflict. The current conclusions are qualified by limited longitudinal research testing sophisticated process-oriented explanatory models for child adjustment outcomes. In this study, consistent with a developmental psychopathology perspective emphasizing the value of process-oriented longitudinal study of child adjustment in developmental and social-ecological contexts, we tested emotional insecurity about the community as a dynamic, within-person mediating process for relations between sectarian community violence and child adjustment. Specifically, this study explored children's emotional insecurity at a person-oriented level of analysis assessed over 5 consecutive years, with child gender examined as a moderator of indirect effects between sectarian community violence and child adjustment. In the context of a five-wave longitudinal research design, participants included 928 mother-child dyads in Belfast (453 boys, 475 girls) drawn from socially deprived, ethnically homogenous areas that had experienced political violence. Youth ranged in age from 10 to 20 years and were 13.24 (SD = 1.83) years old on average at the initial time point. Greater insecurity about the community measured over multiple time points mediated relations between sectarian community violence and youth's total adjustment problems. The pathway from sectarian community violence to emotional insecurity about the community was moderated by child gender, with relations to emotional insecurity about the community stronger for girls than for boys. The results suggest that ameliorating children's insecurity about community in contexts of political violence is an important goal toward improving adolescents' well-being and adjustment. These results are discussed in terms of their translational research implications, consistent with a developmental psychopathology model for the interface between basic and intervention

  13. Affectivity in educational context and in the teacher’s formation: mobilization, social participation and ethical-politics suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Melo de Mendonça

    Full Text Available It was intended to draw reflections on the subject and affectivity constitution within the theoretical and methodological approach of the socio-historical psychology, having as a field of analysis the question of ethical-political suffering in educational context and teacher’s formation. It was concluded that the challenge for education and formation of undergraduates and teachers is to propose alternatives that enable educational institutions to rethink their social practices with adolescents and youth to produce spaces of rights and respect for differences.

  14. Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…

  15. Climatic change as an argument in the chase for tax money and market intervention. Political economics and scientific uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedictus, A.

    2006-01-01

    Based on a political-economical analysis of the stakeholders in the debate on climatic change the author states that the people involved use their arguments on climatic change and its consequences for their own interest and purposes. The precautionary principle is the democratic alibi for politicians and other interest groups to use those interests over the heads of the misguided public [nl

  16. Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors Influencing Access and Success of Women in Political Leadership in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluyu, Veronicah

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, women and leadership have been a global topical issue, especially with countries trying to interpret and implement the millennium development goals, and with increased awareness of human rights. In Africa, political leadership among women has had its own challenges that range from social, cultural and even economic factors. In…

  17. The political economy of dignity: monitoring the advancement of socio-economic human rights in a globalized economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermans, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dichotomy between political and socio-economic rights has been subject to criticism ever since the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, almost sixty years ago. The declaration itself leaves little doubt regarding the interconnectedness between both types of human rights.

  18. Theorizing Women's Political Leadership: Cross-National Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Minjeoung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Since women obtained the right to vote in 1893 for the first time in New Zealand, they have tried to participate actively into politics but still the world has a few women in political leadership. The article asks which factors might influence the appearance of women leadership in politics. The article investigates two factors such as political context, personal factors. Countries where economic development is stable and political democracy is consolidated have a tendency of appearance of wom...

  19. Relation entre l’environnement politique et économique et la production architecturale dans la ville de Dubrovnik aux XVIIème et XVIIIème siècles / The relationship between the political and economic context and the architecture in Dubrovnik during the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ruso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Durant les debuts dé la période moderne, Dubrovnik (Ragusa en latine, une ville entre l'Orient et l'Occident, fonda sa richesse sur le commerce. Malgré sa position géographique favorable, la ville se situe dans une zone sismique complexe. Le grand séisme qui ravagea Raguse en 1667 tua environ 2000 de ses habitants et détruisit un grand nombre de bâtiments. Cet article porte sur les relations entre la production artistique et l’environnement économique dans la ville de Dubrovnik après le grand séisme qui fournit l’occasion de procéder à une rénovation architecturale de grand envergure. Jusqu'à présent, la vaste bibliographie pourtant sur ce sujet n’a pas encore mis l'accent sur ce rapport. La question se pose de savoir combien et comment furent payés les architectes qu’y vénèrent à l’instigation d'ambassadeurs et d'agents commerciaux ragusain. En outre l’article cherche à éclairer la situation économique de Dubrovnik à partir du milieu du 17ème jusqu'au début du 18ème siècle.   During the Early Modern period, Dubrovnik (Latin Ragusa managed to benefit from its geographical position between the East and the West, making trade the base of its wealth.  Unfortunately, the city was also in the zone subject to seismic activity, and the strong earthquake that struck the city in 1667 killed around 2000 people and physically damaged most of its architecture. Therefore, this article discusses the relationship between artistic production and the economic environment in the city of Dubrovnik after 1667. The consequences of the so called “Great Earthquake” have been partially investigated in terms of importation of architectural projects and architects, but there is no scholarly work on the economy of rebuilding of the city on the periphery of catholic Europe. The article includes a list of repaired and rebuilt architecture as well as information about the payments for it and the general economic situation in

  20. Internet cigarette sales and Native American sovereignty: political and public health contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Kari A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Williams, Rebecca S

    2012-05-01

    Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) advertise low prices for tobacco products, subverting public health policy efforts to curtail smoking by raising prices. Many online retailers in the United States claim affiliation with Native American tribes and share in tribal tax-free status. Sales of discounted cigarettes from both online vendors and brick-and-mortar stores have angered non-Native retailers and triggered enforcement actions by state and federal governments in the United States concerned over lost cigarette excise tax revenue. Examination of the history and politics of cigarette sales on reservations and attempts to regulate Internet cigarette sales highlights the potential role for greater use of negotiated intergovernmental agreements to address reservation-based tobacco sales. Our review notes global parallels and explicates history and politics of such regulation in the United States, and offers background for collaborative efforts to regulate tobacco sales and decrease tobacco use.

  1. Economics, funding and the influence of politics on the Wismut Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mager, D.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the interactions among legal aspects, financial aspects, political reorganization of East Germany, and political issues in reference to remedial action on the Wismut Uranium mine program in Germany

  2. Local power production at the end consumer - legal, political and economical external conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinden, Bjoern; Hunnes, Arngrim; Naesje, Paal; Wangensteen, Ivar; Morch, Andrei Z.

    2002-12-01

    The report deals with the external conditions for local power production, suggested as a production close to or at the end consumer. The political, legal and economical frame conditions for such production including rating are discussed. The report shall together with a technical report regarding appropriate technologies for such production (A5712), serve as a basis for case studies and monitors later in the project. Through the case studies it will be uncovered how the external conditions are functioning which will make foundations for recommendations concerning possible alterations in the conditions in order to make the local power production more profitable. In the discussion on the political and legal external conditions the system of today is studied. From the political area the general development is described and a short analysis is made of what to expect from case handling procedures, and some challenges are pointed out At present there is a simplified handling of cases of minor and smaller power plants. In order to obtain a more realistic construction of such plants the requirements of license handling may need sharpening. The tariffing of energy deliverance is studied. The regulations for tariffing and income regulation in the distribution network is mainly designed with the consumer and the central power production in mind. A study is made of how the regulations work, to what extent precessions and additional rules are needed and to what extent alterations in the regulations are needed in order to incorporate the local power production in a rational way. While a local power producer at best, will want a price for power which is sold at the power market of the size of 20 oere/kWh, the power will increase in value further down in the voltage level. At the 230 V level the power price will be of the size of 60 oere/kWh all expenses included and the network rent (during normal precipitation conditions). Therefore the production for own consumption will be met

  3. The politics of service delivery in South Africa: The local government sphere in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purshottama S. Reddy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-1994 democratic developmental South African state opted for a strong local government system which has been constitutionalised, in terms of Chapter 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 108 of 1996. The politicisation of the local bureaucracy was inevitable as the ruling party sought to ensure that the executive leadership of municipalities shared the same political ideology and vision to facilitate local development. This raises the question, where does politicisation commence and end, and what is the ideal local political interface for efficient and effective service delivery and, more importantly, to ensure good governance? These questions have to take cognisance of the fact that South Africa is a ‘struggle democracy’ and development has to take place in historically disadvantaged areas, where services have been poor or non-existent. The historically advantaged areas have to also be maintained and upgraded, as they are key to financial sustainability of the municipalities. The increasing service delivery protests is a matter for concern, if one has to take cognisance of the popular adage highlighted in official literature, ‘if local government fails, South Arica fails’. Given that the struggles for a democratic South Africa were fought at the grassroots level, this has to translate to an improved quality of life for local communities. Consequently, sound political management is key to enhanced municipal service delivery and ultimately good local governance. This paper reviews political trends and developments up to 2016, but excludes any discussion on the recent local government elections.

  4. The Islamic State" in the Context of Political Changes in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "The Islamic State phenomenon in the framework of the political changes in the Middle East" is dedicated to the "Islamic State", one of the most powerful and dangerous extremist organizations. Author realizes in this article: research of the genesis and causes of appearance of the movement "Islamic State"; analysis of the sociopolitical and geopolitical situation of the Iraqi Sunni community after the American invasion of 2003; bringing to the light factors of the high scale propagation of the Islamic extremism in Syria and Iraq; research of the military and political potential of the "Islamic State" and factors which could impede its expansion. Author considers "Islamic State" as an emergent phenomenon giving huge impact on the political situation in the Middle East. It provoked repartition of the old frontiers existed since the Sykes-Pico treaty of 1916. To the author's opinion oppression of the Iraqi Sunni community by the government of Nuri al-Maliki was the main cause of the Sunni revolt in Summer of 2014. Sunni tribes of Northern Iraq and former Baath party members were the driving forces of the revolt but then Jihadi extremists hijacked this revolt. To the author's mind elimination of the "Islamic State" is impossible without reconciliation between various religious communities in Syria and Iraq.

  5. Economic crisis, institutional confidence and political leadership in Spain / Crisis económica, confianza institucional y liderazgos políticos en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Jiménez Díaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of the economic crisis in main political Spanish leaders in an exploratory way. For understanding the politics of the recent years is necessary to know the consequences of this crisis on leaders and political institutions that they manage. In representative democracies, political leaders have to maintain confidence with their followers to justify the political actions of the formers. Therefore, and according to theoretical interpretations and data presented in this paper, institutional confidence becomes a key factor to understand the effects of the economic crisis on the political leadership. Thus, the decline of institutional confidence is related with the increasing delegitimization of main political leaders and with the profound crisis of political legitimacy.

  6. Shadow Economy in the Context of Economic Crisis: Circumstance Analysis and the Forecasting of Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sergeyevich Naidenov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of estimating dynamic of shadow economy in the context of socio-economic crisis negative influence. Factors and threats supporting the increase of shadow economy during the economic crisis were studied. Current situation in the Ural Federal District with regard to shadow economic activity for the period from 2006 to 2012 was represented. The results of forecasting shadow activity were given in the article on the example of Ural Federal District regions. Data obtained was used for developing target program activities, aimed at minimization of negative influence of shadow economy during the economic crisis. Special attention was given to the problem of improving the effectiveness of international cooperation concerning counteraction of shadow economic activity

  7. National Contexts Influencing Principals' Time Use and Allocation: Economic Development, Societal Culture, and Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional…

  8. The Services Identity and Their Management in the Actual Economic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bărăgan Laura Georgeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an introduction to the unique characteristics of services and to their overall management within a dynamic context. The article highlights the economic and social significance of services, the differences between services and goods and the importance of management services.

  9. The political-economic transition and the building of the welfare state in Spain (1975-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Muñoz de Bustillo Llorente

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic policy in Spain during the govern- ments of the Spanish political transition from 1975 to 1986. It considers the different areas of economic policy with special emphasis on the development of welfare state issues in this period. Taking into account the difficult economic and political situation in 1975, there were some important advances in social policy and progressive taxation during the period. The transition to democracy in Spain changed the role and size of the public sector above all from 1975 to 1986. The social demands over the political system were possible improvements in the progressive and redistributive policies in education, health, and social programs. Spain’s transition to democracy and the first period of welfare state show a mutually reinforcing and its consequences were the modernization of the Spanish economy. However, from 1986 the economic develop- ment and the progress of welfare state have had a different growth.Key words: Welfare state, Economic transition, Spain.

  10. From welfare states to welfare sectors: Explaining sectoral differences in occupational pensions with economic and political power of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiß, Tobias

    2015-12-01

    Studies analysing welfare have previously focused on countries as units. In the course of pension cuts and the increasing importance of occupational welfare, our traditional understanding of a homogeneous welfare state is being challenged. In this article, I distinguish between both economic individual power (employee skills) and political collective power (trade unions), and their relation with different occupational pensions. A combined analysis by both factors is not common, where employee skills and power resources are traditionally treated as separate, rival explanations of public welfare. Combining the 'method of difference' with the 'method of agreement', the article first presents the within-country variety of occupational pensions in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Denmark. Occupational pensions in the same economic sectors across countries are then used as the units of analysis in order to illustrate the plausible determinants of economic individual power and political collective power.

  11. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W.; Krzywicka, Adrianna E.; Cohen, Dora B.; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L.; Stevenson, Natalie A.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  12. Development of international organizations in the context of evolution of global political system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Kaverin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses general regularities of development of international organizations. Dynamics of international organizations is described with the equation of biological populations’ growth and is related to the evolution of international multilateral law and world development parameters. As the result of the research, the evolution of global political system is represented with the system of international governance based on the multilateral mechanisms and the model of social structures’ types. The transformations in the system of international organizations partially confirm the hypothesis of emerging World-organism.

  13. Seismic microzonation in Latin America and the Caribbean: social, cultural, economic and political aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murria, J.

    2009-04-01

    The lack of success, not to say failure, of seismic microzonation projects in the Latin America and Caribbean nations-and for that matter elsewhere in the world-should not be attributed to the lack of technical and scientific expertise of our engineers and scientists as there exists in our continent sufficient knowledge and information about the techniques and procedures that have been successfully used elsewhere in the world in the implementation of seismic microzonation projects. The main constrains to the implementation of seismic microzonation projects in Latin America and the Caribbean are of an economic, social, political, and cultural aspects rather than the purely scientific and engineering aspects. Another very important factor contributing to this lack of success has been the apparent failure of the scientific and technical community to convince decision makers (both official and private) that the sound implementation of seismic microzonation projects are a valid instrument to mitigate the negative effects that earthquakes have on the population, on the physical infrastructure and on the environment. An attempt will be made in this paper to analyze these "non technical" aspects and try to arrive at some conclusions as well as to some possible lines of action for the successful implementation of seismic microzonation projects in the seismic risk prone Latin American and Caribbean nations.

  14. The Power of Economic Ideas: A Constructivist Political Economy of EU Trade Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Siles-Brügge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s (EU’s 2006 Global Europe communication established an offensive Free Trade Agreement (FTA agenda premised on serving the interests of the EU’s upmarket exporters at the expense of the EU’s remaining “pockets of protection”. This has remained in place with the advent of the 2010 Trade, Growth and World Affairs strategy. Such a development defies both rationalist International Political Economy (IPE explanations – which emphasise the protectionist bias of societal mobilisation – and accounts stressing the institutional insulation of policy-makers from societal pressures because the recent economic crisis and the increased politicisation of EU trade policy by the European Parliament have coexisted without leading to greater protectionism. Adopting a constructivist approach, we show that this turn of events can be explained by the neoliberal ideas internalised by policy-makers in the European Commission’s Directorate-General (DG for Trade. We then deploy a novel heuristic to illustrate how DG Trade acted upon these ideas to strategically construct a powerful discursive imperative for liberalisation.

  15. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María, E-mail: amplata@ugr.es; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis, E-mail: jlzafra@ugr.es; Pérez-López, Gemma, E-mail: gemmapl@ugr.es; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel, E-mail: alopezh@ugr.es

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services.

  16. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis; Pérez-López, Gemma; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services

  17. Post-2012 climate change agreement - Fitting commitments by cities. Political, economic, technical and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, B.; Wemaere, M.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the crucial role that urban territories must and can play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, along with a growing power of a lobby dedicated to supporting the voices of urban territories vis-a-vis national states. The local level of organization and policy is relevant for two main reasons: density and spatial organization are key factors that influence energy consumption in transport and building; some of the major potentials for emission abatement need local coordination to overcome transaction costs. 'Engage, Empower and Resource': this formula, forged during the C40 Seoul Summit (May 2009), calls for clear and quantified commitments with a timetable for delivery; additional power and competencies for cities to increase their capacity to act; and substantial financial resources. Road-Map: This paper identifies key elements that need to be taken into account when developing a road-map that seeks empowerment of local governments in the UN post-2012 framework. It explores political, economic, technical and legal aspects, along with respective main issues to be addressed. (authors)

  18. Social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice across the political spectrum, but social issues are most divisive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Chambers, John R; Motyl, Matt

    2017-03-01

    Liberals and conservatives both express prejudice toward ideologically dissimilar others (Brandt et al., 2014). Previous work on ideological prejudice did not take advantage of evidence showing that ideology is multidimensional, with social and economic ideologies representing related but separable belief systems. In 5 studies (total N = 4912), we test 3 competing hypotheses of a multidimensional account of ideological prejudice. The dimension-specific symmetry hypothesis predicts that social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice against targets who are perceived to vary on the social and economic political dimensions, respectively. The social primacy hypothesis predicts that such ideological worldview conflict is experienced more strongly along the social than economic dimension. The social-specific asymmetry hypothesis predicts that social conservatives will be more prejudiced than social liberals, with no specific hypotheses for the economic dimension. Using multiple target groups, multiple prejudice measures (e.g., global evaluations, behavior), and multiple social and economic ideology measures (self-placement, issue positions), we found relatively consistent support for the dimension-specific symmetry and social primacy hypotheses, and no support for the social-specific asymmetry hypothesis. These results suggest that worldview conflict and negative intergroup attitudes and behaviors are dimension-specific, but that the social dimension appears to inspire more political conflict than the economic dimension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Conceptual Approaches to the Development of Economic Systems in the Context of Globalization and Regionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of the national and the global in economic transformations occurring in open economic systems are substantiated. Conceptual approaches to the development of economic systems in the globalization and regionalization context are summed up. It is shown that globalization is a logical consequence of mutual influences and interactions of multiple local transformations in socio-economic systems of various levels, which planetary self-organization generates the new quality of the global economic development. It is concluded that globalization has controversial impact on the transformation capacities of national economic systems that have to operate in the unfavorable condition of the growing instability of the global economic system and rapid integration in the structures with already established economic relations. The heuristic and experimental nature of economic and institutional transformations in these countries is added by splits of national economic systems and disruptions of established production links; the outstripping liberalization of foreign economic relations, creating rather external than internal pressures on national manufacturers and making them less capable to adapt to the competitive environment; the accelerated liberalization of monetary and financial systems, opening up ways to reallocation of capital from the sluggish real sector to the more flexible sector of transactions with currencies and securities; the shrinking regulatory authorities of national governments with respect of trade, competition, tax policies or social welfare; the growing domination of TNC and outflow of productive resources from national economies, important for their self-development, thus making their economic systems structurally primitive; the sharp property differentiation within societies and the increasing shares of population with low incomes.

  20. Economic solvency in the context of violence against women: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Heidi; Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this concept analysis is to define economic solvency in the context of violence against women. Poverty, or lack of resources, is often discussed as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. The concept of economic solvency, which may be a protective factor for women, is less often discussed and not well defined. Databases searched for the analysis included EBSCOhost, CINAHL, PubMed and Gender Watch. The Rodgers evolutionary method was used to perform the concept analysis. A total of 134 articles were retrieved, using the specified search terms 'economic solvency and women', 'economic self-reliance and women' and 'economic self-sufficiency and women'. Articles were included if they were peer reviewed, contained the keywords with sufficient context to determine the author's intended meaning, and focused on women only or contrasted men to women. Thirty-five articles were used in the concept analysis. The definition of economic solvency drawn from the concept analysis is: a long-term state that occurs when there is societal structure that supports gender equity and external resources are available and can be used by a woman who has necessary human capital, sustainable employment and independence. Just as poverty and violence are cyclical, so are economic solvency and empowerment of women. To decrease women's risk of intimate partner violence around the world and further improve the status of women, we recommend continued research on economic solvency, including the individual, family, community and societal resources required to obtain economic solvency and the human capital characteristics needed for sustainability. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE INSTITUTIONAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Dudchenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of socio-economic reform in Ukraine is the modernization of the structure of the national economy and its growth. An effective structure of the economy, which will correspond to a socially oriented model of economic growth and will be based on the use of both the country’s competitive advantages in the global division of labour and the economic benefits of cooperation, will guarantee the independence of any country and will be the key to its dynamic development. The development of economic theory is due to the emergence of fundamentally new ideas, sustainable accumulation of knowledge, intellectual and meaningful updating of established concepts and theories, the formation of new scientific schools. A new paradigm of economic theory should explain the real processes in real economies, which operate on the principles of complex systems of synergistic nature and the theory of nonlinear dynamics. There is a process of theoretical polystructuredness both of mainstream and heterodoxy. An important task is to form an interdisciplinary dialogue between economists and scientists, which stipulates the relevance of the research topic. The subject of the study is the theoretical and methodological foundations and approaches to state management of economic development in the context of the institutional theory. The purpose of the study is to determine the role and influence of public administration of the development of the economy in the context of institutional theory and to develop strategic goals of the state’s innovation policy. Methodology. Directions of correlation of the system of economic development of the country and the potential of the state development with the historical preconditions for the emergence and development of the institutional doctrine of economic theory are investigated. Based on the revealed interrelations, the necessity of using instruments of institutionalism for studying the economic development

  2. Paradigm change in automotive powertrain engineering. A techno-economic analysis taking into account environment-political instruments; Paradigmawandel automobiler Antriebstechnologien. Eine techno-oekonomische Analyse unter Beruecksichtigung umweltpolitischer Instrumente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangner, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The automobile industry is faced with the challenge to introduce concepts for sustainable mobility in terms of low pollutant and CO2 emissions. The author discusses the preconditions and procedures of technological change in the powertrain markets. The effects of techno-economic trends and environment-political instruments are discussed in an international context and illustrated by the example of the market success of diesel engines in Europe. Using innovation-economic theories, he draws conclusions as to the future electrification of powertrains resp. the introduction of electromobility. Not least because of its highly topical content with regard to economic and environmental policy, this publication has high relevance for decision makers in science, industry and politics. By outlining options and chances of future developments, it will help to reduce present concerns about the future. (orig.)

  3. Foreign Language Learning Motivation in the Japanese Context: Social and Political Influences on Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita McEown, Maya; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Harada, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    The study focuses on the role of different theories when considered together in a foreign language other than English (LOTE) context. Specifically, the study examines (a) to what extent influential second language (L2) motivational theories, when integrated, explain motivation to learn LOTEs, and (b) how the powerful status of English in Japan…

  4. Professional Development Policy and Politics across International Contexts: From Mutuality to Measurability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ian; Ronnerman, Karin; Furu, Eli Moksnes; Salo, Petri; Forsman, Liselott

    2010-01-01

    This article reveals how educational policies and policy contexts in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Australia establish the circumstances which enable and constrain individual and collective teacher professional development as praxis. We provide insights into existing partnerships between universities and schools, and, municipalities and the state as…

  5. Getting beyond the context of French revolution in post-modern age: Striking off the partitioning of the political field on the left and right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetićanin Neven

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay is dealing with the new post-modern political context that will softly get beyond, nowadays old context set by the French Revolution with all its opposites (revolution/restauration, the left/the right, republic/monarchy, red/black etc.. This new post-modern context will, instead of opposites of revolution and restoration i.e. opposites of classic left and classic right, mark opposites of extreme margin and central synthesis i.e. opposites of margin and centre, becoming the point of rotation of the political field nowadays. These new developments in political philosophy and political sociology will come on scene with series of philosophers, sociologists, politiciologies and lawthinkers who will resist to any alignment on the left, the right or the centre in its classical meaning, and the most distinctive among them will be Georges Sorel and Robert Michels, as well as, lately god deal mentioned Carl Schmitt, wherefore in this essay the attention is applied to their contribution in getting beyond the old context of French Revolution. Their opus is witnessing on how much has the era got 'beyond Left and Right' in its classical meaning, as for beyond revolution and restauration. That is also visible from some segments of the political practice after The World War II, wherefore the essay suggests model from French modern politics which got beyond the opposite of classic Left and classic Right. At the very end of the essay, controversy with tendencies of Norberto Bobbio is taken over, trying to stand up the point of view that is considering the Left and the Right essential invariables of the political life and political speech generally, that way, the final conclusion of getting beyond this classical partition of political field, is made.

  6. Autonomy, Degrowth and Prefigurative Politics: Voices of Solidarity Economy Activists amid Economic Crisis in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Zaimakis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon in-depth interviews with key informants of grassroots alternative organisations in anti-austerity Greece, the study sheds light on the structures of meanings of invisible voices, revealing the motives, worldviews and value-systems that lay behind their actions. Using critical discourse analysis, the text offers a thorough understanding of the meaning and experience of building social and economic experiments with transformative potential within the solidarity economy alternative, in the context of the Greek economic crisis. The narratives of solidarity economy informants reveal militant investigations, ro-mantic humanism, egalitarian goals and an ethos of collectivism that call into question the prevalent capi-talist imaginary. Participants employ utopian thinking, imagining a future that departs significantly from what we know. They call on us to re-assess hegemonic values and norms in the light of alternative realities which embody forms of workers' cooperativism, participatory actions and ways of being, which prefigure the future vision of another form of social life.

  7. Global and Domestic Politics in the Wake of the Financial and Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Pontusson, Harry Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The December 2012 issue of SPSR featured a collection of short essays that explored the domestic politics of the financial crisis, the ensuing international recession and the ongoing difficulties of managing the debt problems and trade imbalances of the Eurozone. The contributors to the first installment of our debate on crisis politics engaged in historical and comparative discussions of government responses to the crisis of 2007-10 and the political repercussions of the crisis. For this, th...

  8. Political Instability: Its Effects on Financial Development, Its Roots in the Severity of Economic Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mark J.; Siegel, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Political instability impedes financial development and is a primary determinant of differences in financial development around the world. Four conventional measures of national political instability — Alesina and Perotti’s (1996) well-known index of instability, a subsequent index derived from Banks’ (2005) work, and two indices of managerial perceptions of nation-by-nation political instability — persistently predict a wide range of national financial development outcomes for recent decades...

  9. Reception of the Warsaw Autumn Festival in Lithuania: Cultural Discourse and Political Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanevičiūtė Rūta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to offer a broader understanding of the Lithuanian reception of the Warsaw Autumn festival in relation to the modernisation of national music in Lithuania since the late 1950s – early 1960s. Based on a micro-historical and comparative approach to the network of individuals and events, it is intended to explore the shifts of reception through analysis of musical criticism, composers’ work and discourse, and artistic exchange between the Lithuanian and Polish new music scenes. The author discusses the cultural and political factors which affected the changing role of the Warsaw Autumn festival and its impact on the modernisation processes in Lithuanian music. In addition, the asymmetries of mutual understanding and interests between the Polish and Lithuanian music cultures have been highlighted both during the Cold War and the post-communist transformation periods.

  10. Political and economic conjuncture in Brazil (1950-1964: a fertile land for the 1964 coup d'État

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABIANO FARIAS DE SOUZA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The years preceding the 1964 coup d’état in Brazil were marked by turbulent political moments that contributed to the accomplishment of joints and conspiracies that were plotting the overthrow of President João Goulart, seen as a solution to the end of the economic, political and social crises taking place successively in the country. In this period, society was divided between the proposals of the left and right of the political debate in effect at that time. Thus, we analyze the circumstances that forged an enabling environment for identified civil and military that communed common interest in replacing the ruling power by taking control of the Brazilian State.

  11. Interrogating Recuperative Masculinity Politics in Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Mills, Martin; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the continuing impact of recuperative masculinity politics in the schooling of economically advantaged boys (elite and middle class); yet, it also indicates resistance to this politics. An understanding that the gender order is unstable and that variants of hegemonic masculinity continue to morph in the context of…

  12. Religious institutions and the politics of access to basic services in displacement contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterbach, Karen

    This paper provides a study of religious institutions as service providers in contexts of crises and displacement. Religious institutions, as well as other non-state institutions, provide access to a vast range of resources and services (such as food, housing, clothes, counseling, money, and access...... to networks). In contexts of displacement access to basic services is formally regulated by one’s status (e.g. as refugee or national citizen) and by physical location (e.g. in settlements/camps or urban areas). The paper discusses what role religious institutions play when access to services provided...... by the state or the international humanitarian system is limited or non-existent and what kind of relations of exchange that is at stake. Empirically the project deals with Congolese churches in Kampala, Uganda of which many pastors and members have refugee status. The paper analyses the range and categories...

  13. The catholic thought in the context of political clashes of 1930s in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Christine de Souza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of this article results from studies realized in the scope of a research of scientific initiation which the object is the Catholic Thought in Brazil in the context of the clashes with the so-called “Pioneers of New Education” that preceded the elaboration of the Constitution of 1934. It is a bibliographic research that prioritized the study, on the one hand, of the fundamentals of Catholic Thought in ecclesiastic documents and, on the other hand, of its manifestation in Brazil through “A Ordem” magazine, its mainly public expression. It is concluded that the Catholic Thought constitute an important ideological ingredient in the context in question and develops in accord with the class struggle in Europe and the fractions of the dominant class in Brazil, expressing the resistance of the Catholic Church to the republican model of school and to the ideal, also republican, of State secularism.

  14. "Soviet" Higher Education in a Changing Political, Social, and Economic Context: A Scenario for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkuriev, Stanislav

    1991-01-01

    Describes the changes in Soviet/Russian higher education since 1986. Reviews the development of higher education since 1918 and the bureaucratic structures that stifled progress and focused on vocational preparation. Argues that decentralization of authority will lead to improved general education essential for a free society. (CFR)

  15. Leadership in a post-merger context: the importance of people skills over politics

    OpenAIRE

    Heijltjes, M.G.; Velde ter, H.

    2005-01-01

    Drawing on the merger and CEO succession literature as well as on findings from research on organizational change, this study examines what leadership issues drive success in a post-merger context. Our data from 45 recently merged units within a cooperative bank in Europe indicate that the people skills of the newly appointed top manager matter most. Specifically, his/her integration ability followed by the ability to positively influence the internal working environment are significantly cor...

  16. Labour market reforms in the context of political power theory: The case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Redek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The rigidity of labour market has several important negative economic consequences: it stifles job creation, increases discrimination of those that it is actually aimed at protecting (young, women and the low-skilled, hurts the unemployed, slows down economic restructuring and damages its global competitiveness. But reforms are slow and often marked with disputes among partners in the collective bargaining process. Afraid of social security loss, unions usually oppose the reform, while governments usually give in to the union pressures and negative image of reform consequences created by unions and assisted by media. The characteristics of the labour market and labour market reform with respect to bargaining among power groups are examined both theoretically and empirically in the case of Slovenia.

  17. Politics and economics of ethanol and biodiesel production and consumption in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giersdorf, Jens

    2013-07-01

    The main assumption for the present study is that the patterns of biofuel production and utilisation in Brazil are a result of a specific institutional framework and the actions of specific groups and that these factors also change over the years To avoid of misleading generalisation, this dissertation intends to describe and analyse the current ethanol and biodiesel policies in Brazil; to explain these public policies as a result of the interactions and resources of various actors involved into the formulation and implementation of these policies and to analyse selected economic impacts of these policies. The decision-making process will be analysed with the methodological toolbox of the advocacy coalition approach by Sabatier (1993). This approach is appropriate for analysing the Brazilian biofuel policies since it enables to analyse the structure as well as the actors and the coalitions that dominate in this policy field. It will be presented briefly in chapter 2.1.2. The data on which this analysis will be based comprises primary sources like laws, regulations, official programmes and statements as well as secondary sources like scientific studies about Brazilian decision-making, political system and certain actors. In addition to that, several qualitative (semi-structured) interviews were conducted during field research in Brazil between January and September 2007. The design of the outline for the interviews as well as the realisation and interpretation of the expert interviews followed the methodological recommendations of Bogner, Littig and Menz (2005) and Laudel and Gläser (2004). The methodology will be explained briefly in chapter 2.2. The main policies that shape Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel sector shall be analysed in chapter 3 and the production, distribution and consumption of biofuels in chapter 4. Based on these assessments, the analysis of the advocacy coalitions can be realised in chapter 5.

  18. Politics and economics of ethanol and biodiesel production and consumption in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giersdorf, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The main assumption for the present study is that the patterns of biofuel production and utilisation in Brazil are a result of a specific institutional framework and the actions of specific groups and that these factors also change over the years To avoid of misleading generalisation, this dissertation intends to describe and analyse the current ethanol and biodiesel policies in Brazil; to explain these public policies as a result of the interactions and resources of various actors involved into the formulation and implementation of these policies and to analyse selected economic impacts of these policies. The decision-making process will be analysed with the methodological toolbox of the advocacy coalition approach by Sabatier (1993). This approach is appropriate for analysing the Brazilian biofuel policies since it enables to analyse the structure as well as the actors and the coalitions that dominate in this policy field. It will be presented briefly in chapter 2.1.2. The data on which this analysis will be based comprises primary sources like laws, regulations, official programmes and statements as well as secondary sources like scientific studies about Brazilian decision-making, political system and certain actors. In addition to that, several qualitative (semi-structured) interviews were conducted during field research in Brazil between January and September 2007. The design of the outline for the interviews as well as the realisation and interpretation of the expert interviews followed the methodological recommendations of Bogner, Littig and Menz (2005) and Laudel and Gläser (2004). The methodology will be explained briefly in chapter 2.2. The main policies that shape Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel sector shall be analysed in chapter 3 and the production, distribution and consumption of biofuels in chapter 4. Based on these assessments, the analysis of the advocacy coalitions can be realised in chapter 5.

  19. A unified world oil market: Regions in physical, economic, geographic, and political space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Banerjee, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus that the market is unified, here we quantify the factors that create regions by analyzing the price relation between 33 crude oils. ADF statistics indicate that 447 of the 528 crude oil pairings cointegrate; 81 do not. The presence/absence of cointegration is analyzed using a logit model. The likelihood that the prices for two crude oils cointegrate depends on their physical characteristics (density and sulfur content), economic factors (country risk for the nation of origin), their geographic location (distance between supply ports), and political factors (OPEC membership). Over the sample period, the technology to refine heavy crude oils penetrates the market, and this reduces the price difference between heavy and light crude oils. The effect of country risk implies that crude oils from high risk nations are not perfect substitutes for crude oils of similar quality from low risk nations. Finally, crude oils from widely separated suppliers are more likely to cointegrate than crude oils from near-by nations, which suggests consumers diversify supply across transportation chokepoints. For this sample, these sources of regionalization add $0.20 per barrel to the $2.86 average price difference between crude oils in the same market. Together, these factors have important implications for the efficacy of policy aimed at reducing dependence on unreliable suppliers and the spill-over effects of holding inventories. - Highlights: • The world oil market is not completely unified. • Regions are defined by differences in API gravity and sulfur content. • Country risk regionalizes the world oil market. • Shipping chokepoints regionalize the world oil market. • Regionalization adds $0.20 to $2.86 price difference between oils in same market

  20. The potential of medical device industry in technological and economical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresova, Petra; Penhaker, Marek; Selamat, Ali; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    The high quality of public health improves not only healthy life expectancy, but also the productivity of labor. The most important part of the health care sector is the medical technology industry. The aim of this study is to analyze the current situation in the medical device industry in Europe, its potential strengths and weaknesses in the context of topical economic and demographic development. The contribution specifies an analysis of the economic state of the medical device industry in the context of demographic development of European Union's macroeconomic indicators and views of experts in the field of medical device development, concerning the opportunities for entities involved in the medical device market. There is fierce competition on the European market. The innovative activity is stable and well regulated by responsible authorities. Worldwide, the medical device market is expected to grow.

  1. Who ‘marries' whom? The influence of societal connectedness, economic and political homogeneity, and population size on jurisdictional consolidations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2011-01-01

    . In this article, the unique case of the Danish structural reform is utilised to overcome endogeneity due to migration-related sorting by studying patterns of municipal amalgamations. In the recent Danish reform, 239 of 271 municipal entities were forced to amalgamate simultaneously, while who actually amalgamated...... on the likelihood of amalgamation. Societal connectedness, population size and geography are important predictors of amalgamation patterns, while political and economic homogeneity between municipalities does not appear to matter much...

  2. Social, economic and political aspects of Chernobyl in Bulgaria - One characteristic feature of the development of the radiation situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokonski, I.I.; Bosevski, V.; Bontchev, Tz.; Marinov, V.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown a characteristic feature of the progress of radiation situation in Bulgaria after the failure in Chernobyl, as this was discussed untraditionally. The raised radiation risk for population during one year after the incident is interpreted as function from the inadequate radiation protection policy of the Government at that time. Preconditions for some social, economical and political results after the accident for Bulgarian country are described

  3. Economic and political foundations of local tax structures: an empirical investigation of the tax mix of Flemish municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Benny Geys; Federico Revelli

    2011-01-01

    This is the authors’ final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article Building on the revenue structure theory developed by Hettich and Winer (1984, 1988, 1999), this paper is the first to investigate the economic and political determinants of local tax mix choices. We thereby use panel data on 289 municipalities in the Flemish region of Belgium (period 1995-2002), where local governments enjoy extensive fiscal autonomy and have a wide choice of available tax instruments. Estimating ...

  4. The Politics of Gender Asylum in the U. S.: Protection of Women Asylum Seekers in the Context of Global Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Matešić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the changes towards more gender-sensitive interpretations of refugee status in international and national asylum laws and policies within the context of contemporary and historical global power relations. It also analyzes the changes in the language that can be found in the international UNHCR guidelines for the protection of women asylum seekers, U.S. national guidelines for assessing gender-related asylum claims, and recent U.S. court decisions assessing the gendered claims of women. Among the analyzed court cases, the focus is on the 2005 Mohammed case due to its problematic court decision and legal interpretations. Finding the Western countries’ instrumentalization of the international refugee protection system crucial for understanding the contemporary asylum system and women asylum seekers, the argument connects the historical conditions with the way in which the protection of women refugees from “cultural” gendered violence has been articulated in asylum politics in the U.S. The author’s overall findings are that international law, governmental organizations, and liberal women’s human rights NGOs have shaped the international and national legal protection of (women asylum seekers in such a way that it reproduces global inequalities in its representation of “Third World” women and their culture, uses women asylum seekers fleeing from violence for the purpose of exercising Western cultural superiority, and covers up the restrictive and racist Western asylum politics towards immigrants and asylum seekers.

  5. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the Ameri...

  6. Techno-political and sectorial culture in a semi-peripheral context: nuclear development in Argentina (1945-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Considering Argentina as a semi-peripheral country, the present article analyzes the establishment of a nuclear culture and a nuclear technopolitical regime -aimed at seeking technological autonomy and regional leadership as well as the promotion of a national nuclear industry- that have the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission as institutional epicenter and kept some of their main traits and orientation until the beginnings of the 1990s. The article focuses mainly on three aspects: the development of nuclear research reactors; the processes of decision-making about the purchase and construction of the country's two power nuclear plants; and the way the various political regimes that Argentina went through -democratic, semi-democratic and dictatorial periods- and regimes of accumulation -sustitutive industrialization and, since the last military dictatorship, economic deregulation- impacted and left their mark on the evolution of the nuclear technopolitical regime. Within this last point, international pressures are assumed as a crucial component. (authors) [es

  7. Political motivations for intra-European migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygnes, Susanne; Flipo, Aurore

    2017-08-01

    Motivations for migrating within the European Union have mainly been attributed to economic, career and lifestyle choices. This article suggests that political dissatisfaction is also an important motivator of recent intra-European migration. In our analysis of in-depth interviews with Romanian migrants in Spain and with Spanish migrants in Norway, we found a common emphasis on the political dimensions of their decision to migrate. In the interviews, the economic component of migration was often related to bad governance and negative perceptions of the state. The similarities of Spanish and Romanian migration narratives are especially striking because Spain and Romania represent substantially different migratory, political and economic contexts. However, migration is more obviously intertwined with conventional acts of political protest in the Spanish case. We suggest that differences in democratic contexts are pivotal in people's reactions to and framing of their deep dissatisfaction with domestic politics, as found in many European countries today.

  8. Imagined in Policy, Inscribed on Bodies: Defending an Ethic of Compassion in a Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    In response to the International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) editorial, this commentary adds to the debate about ethical dimensions of compassionate care in UK service provision. It acknowledges the importance of the original paper, and attempts to explore some of the issues that are raised in the context of nursing practice, research and education. It is argued that each of these fields of the profession are enacted in an escalating culture of corporatism, be that National Health Service (NHS) or university campus, and global neoliberalism. Post-structuralist ideas, notably those of Foucault, are borrowed to interrogate healthcare as discursive practice and disciplinary knowledge; where an understanding of the ways in which power and language operate is prominent. Historical and contemporary evidence of institutional and ideological degradation of sections of humanity, a ‘history of the present,’ serve as reminders of the import, and fragility, of ethical codes. PMID:26673179

  9. Generational Patterns in Mexican Americans' Academic Performance in an Unwelcoming Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Danyel A. V.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that immigrant students often do better academically than their U.S.-born peers from the same ethnic group but it is unclear whether this pattern holds for Mexican Americans. We examined the academic performance of four generations of Mexican American students from fifth to 10th grade looking for generation differences and explanations for them. Using data from 749 families, we tested a model with fifth grade variables that differed by generation as potential mediators linking student generation to 10th grade academic performance. Results showed that immigrants were academically behind at fifth grade but caught up by seventh. Only economic hardship mediated the long term relationship between student generation and 10th grade academic performance; maternal educational expectations and child language hassles, English usage, discrimination, and mainstream values helped explained the early academic deficit of immigrant children. The results identified potential targets for interventions to improve Mexican American students' academic performance. PMID:24578588

  10. The Anglo-Saxon model of employment in the current economic context. The case of United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ionela ACELEANU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Anglo-Saxon model of employment has certain features that derive from the specificity of the political and economic system of Great Britain. The labour market policies in the United Kingdom were different depending on the historical and political period; however, the Anglo-Saxon model is characterized mainly by high flexibility but low security. This paper presents the main features of the Anglo-Saxon model of employment, compared to the Nordic and the Mediterranean model and shows Britain's economic situation before and after the crisis.

  11. Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Stuart D

    2007-01-01

    .... Federal forces have suppressed large-scale military resistance in Chechnya and in 2006 succeeded in killing most of the remaining top Chechen rebel military and political leaders, although sporadic violence continues...

  12. Political Instability: Effects on Financial Development, Roots in the Severity of Economic Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Mark J.; Siegel, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    We here bring forward strong evidence that political instability impedes financial development, with its variation a primary determinant of differences in financial development around the world. As such, it needs to be added to the short list of major determinants of financial development. First, structural conditions first postulated by Engerman and Sokoloff (2002) as generating long-term inequality are shown here empirically to be exogenous determinants of political instability. Second, tha...

  13. Socio-Economic Development of Territorial Communities in the Context of Financial Decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The deep socio-political crisis in almost all areas of development of modern Ukraine have determined the importance and necessity of implementing the decentralization reform as an effective factor to stabilize the current socioeconomic situation, overcome the financial crisis, regulate the contradictions between power structures at different levels on the principles of efficient allocation of powers and resources, comprehensive responsibility, provision of citizens with all social benefits and improvement of the efficiency of using budgetary funds at all levels of government. Implementing the financial decentralization on the basis of the administrative-territorial reform and a new ideology of public administration in Ukraine creates opportunities for providing comfortable operating conditions and self-development of a selfsufficient community, establishing principles of sustainable socio-economic development, using modern infrastructure, obtaining the necessary highquality services and ensuring a high level of well-being of its own people.

  14. Specifics of horizontal and vertical relations in Ukrainian political communication on the background of the party building’s process, political science theory and requirements to Ukrainian political context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Odarchenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The specifics of horizontal and vertical relations in Ukrainian political communication on the background of the party building’s process has been analysed. Aims of this article are: 1 determination of the subjectivity of political communication; 2 disclosure of the main features of internal politics and communications; 3 setting the essential features of the political parties’ status after peaceful protests in Ukraine 2013-2014 year; 4 explanation of the actual gap that has horizontal and party political communication in Ukraine. Political modernization, capacity of Ukrainian political parties has been characterized. It has been shown that Maidan didn’t influenced tools of creating political parties and their typology greatly. Maidan as a political component was weak and did not respond to the challenges, which Ukrainian political system faced to. The weakness was in the fact that leaders of the oppositional political camp would rather keep old then implement real political change of the political system , which was adapted by the old oliharcial clan. Public sector was not able to identify their environment with new political leaders, nor with a mass movement, based on the creation of new organized political force. It has been found that in a democratic society communication is effective only if it is not only technically modern, interactive, two-way, but if it is consistent to other democratic demands, such as legal and moral control of society over the media, maintenance of basic pluralism, direct contact between senders and recipients of information, feeds decentralization, respect of freedom of expression and privat opinion. Summary of the political communication in Ukraine has to move away from thinking of policy and bureaucratic political consciousness. Otherwise, the simulation is effective and efficient for countries and regions where political communication can become a daily political farce communication in public space.

  15. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart Kößler

    2015-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp.

  16. MIGRATION PROCESSES "EAST-WEST" IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article refl ects the infl uence of the migration processes to the economic security of European Union. The article underlines most common economical risks in case if there is an increase of the volume of migration and describes the ways how to reduce those risks.The main conclusions obtained from the results of the study, can be structured as follows: trends and consequences of the migration crisis in the European Union are defi ned by the set of reasons that are due on the one hand the policy of transparency being implemented by individual countries, making the whole European Union is the center of attraction of immigrants (primarily from the MENA countries and other hand, the intense and growing fl ow of migrants creates regional threats, including the European Union's economic security; the problem of ensuring the economic security of the European Union in the context of the impact of the migration crisis is most actual issue at the moment and the main reason is that the accumulation of the fl ow of migrants to the strongest European economy – Germany. In this case, not only Germany, but also France (and until recently UK had to improve the economic and social consequences of migration and also to implement measures aimed to recover from fi nancial crisis of the last few years, the consequences of which to date are shown in the many social and economic areas of the European Union; addressing the problem with migration crisis in the European Union seems to use a special system of measures, in which on the one hand realized containment of migration fl ows and on the other hand held solutions aimed at the assimilation of migrants in multicultural environment with full adoption of the latest socio-economic, democratic and moral values specifi c to European societies.

  17. The potential of medical device industry in technological and economical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maresova P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Petra Maresova,1 Marek Penhaker,1,2 Ali Selamat,1,3 Kamil Kuca1,41Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic; 2Department of Cybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Technical University of Ostrava, Poruba, Czech Republic; 3Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia; 4Center for Biomedical Research, University Hospital Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech RepublicAbstract: The high quality of public health improves not only healthy life expectancy, but also the productivity of labor. The most important part of the health care sector is the medical technology industry. The aim of this study is to analyze the current situation in the medical device industry in Europe, its potential strengths and weaknesses in the context of topical economic and demographic development. The contribution specifies an analysis of the economic state of the medical device industry in the context of demographic development of European Union’s macroeconomic indicators and views of experts in the field of medical device development, concerning the opportunities for entities involved in the medical device market. There is fierce competition on the European market. The innovative activity is stable and well regulated by responsible authorities. Worldwide, the medical device market is expected to grow.Keywords: technology context, medical device, Europe, expenditure, review

  18. Review: Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart Kößler; Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut

    2015-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press, 2013, ISBN 9783869562483, 300 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Joseph Patrick Ganahl, Corruption, Good Governance, and the African State: A Critical Analysis of the Political-Economic Foundations of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa, Potsdam: Potsdam University Press...

  19. Liberia: local politics, state building and reintegration of populations

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Munive

    2013-01-01

    Interventions aiming to assist IDPs and refugees returning homein fragile states would do well to take note of the local political and economic contexts in the aftermath of war, because these deeplyaffect the reintegration of war-affected populations.

  20. The Gift and the Theft: an Economic-Political Interpretation of Rwandan Missionary Diaries of White Fathers (1900-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristofori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an economic/political interpretation of two missionary Diaries drafted in Rwanda in the first decade of the last century. The events recorded in these documents aid the reader in understanding how the missions were, in that period, centers of power that interacted with the local environment in a manner which was relatively independent of a colonial administration that was still weak. As a result, while the missionaries learned and incorporated certain Rwandan socio-political logics, they also introduced embryonic forms of capitalism. From this paper the reader can understand how, thogether with these elements of capitalism in the daily life of mission, a policy of ethnicization and feudalization of rwandan society started to take shape. A policy, with was to be fully realized twenty years later under Belgian colonial rule.

  1. The ancestral logic of politics: upper-body strength regulates men's assertion of self-interest over economic redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Sznycer, Daniel; Sell, Aaron; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2013-07-01

    Over human evolutionary history, upper-body strength has been a major component of fighting ability. Evolutionary models of animal conflict predict that actors with greater fighting ability will more actively attempt to acquire or defend resources than less formidable contestants will. Here, we applied these models to political decision making about redistribution of income and wealth among modern humans. In studies conducted in Argentina, Denmark, and the United States, men with greater upper-body strength more strongly endorsed the self-beneficial position: Among men of lower socioeconomic status (SES), strength predicted increased support for redistribution; among men of higher SES, strength predicted increased opposition to redistribution. Because personal upper-body strength is irrelevant to payoffs from economic policies in modern mass democracies, the continuing role of strength suggests that modern political decision making is shaped by an evolved psychology designed for small-scale groups.

  2. Renovating Charity Hospital or building a new hospital in post-Katrina New Orleans: economic rationale versus political will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleu, Hervé; Moises, James; Valdmanis, Vivian Grace

    2013-02-01

    Since September 2005, Charity Hospital of New Orleans has been closed due to Hurricane Katrina. A debate following the closing arose about whether this public hospital should be renovated or a new medical center affiliated with the Louisiana State University should be built. Using academic literature, government statistics, and popular press reports, we describe the economic implications that support the view that Charity Hospital should have been renovated. We also address why this policy was not pursued by demonstrating the influence politics and individual stakeholders (specifically, Louisiana State University) had on the eventual policy pursued. In this commentary we also note the political identity movement away from public-sector provision of services to private-sector interests.

  3. Reframing the Tower of Babel narrative for economic justice within the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rathbone

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tower of Babel narrative is profoundly connected to the history of South Africa and its interpretation in the Dutch Reformed Church document entitled Human Relations and the South African Scene in the Light of Scripture (1976, which was used to justify apartheid. In this article, it is argued that this understanding of the narrative is due to racist framing that morally justified the larger apartheid narrative. The Tower of Babel narrative was later reframed for liberation and reconciliation by Desmond Tutu. However, apartheid had an impact not only on the sociopolitical dynamics of South Africa. Submissions to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission by business and labour highlight the impact of apartheid on the economy and specifically black labour. These revelations are responsible for new questions regarding the economics of the narrative that arise and may enrich the understanding of the Tower of Babel narrative. This focus on the economic aspect of the narrative is also supported by historical research on the Tower of Babel narrative that reveals that the dispersion of the people on the plain of Shinar may refer to the demise of the Sumerian empire, which was among other influences brought about by a labour revolt. In this regard, the narrative is a theological reflection on the demise of an unjust economic system that exploited workers. The purpose of this article is to critically explore this economic justice aspect embedded in the narrative in order to determine whether this reframing of the narrative is plausible. This is particularly important within the post-apartheid context and the increase of economic problems such as unemployment, poverty and economic inequality.

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE INSOLVENCY OF ROMANIAN COMPANIES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela CIOTINA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches an important topic in the field of insolvency, a present field, considering that bankruptcy threatens the development in good conditions of the activity of companies. Our approach concerns the analysis of the insolvency of Romanian trading companies in the context of the economic-financial crisis. Considering the current economic crisis, the problem of insolvency is very present. From an economic and financial perspective, insolvency is a reality of entrepreneurship, with a negative impact: it is conditioned and triggers inopportune and inappropriate management of the patrimony of economic units. Our aim is to perform a comparative analysis in time and space of the evaluation of the insolvency of trading companies, in order to grasp the common and specific elements in defining and presenting insolvency. In the practical part of the paper, for processing the data collected from the financial statements, we will use the SPSS software - Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. The database includes 30 insolvent companies in Romania, analyzed over a 5-year period. For a rigorous structure of the database, we will select the companies that perform their activity in several activity branches. The results of the research show the crisis that affects the analyzed Romanian companies.

  5. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Kaufmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the American Dream, which holds that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it, women entered the workforce, income was transferred from saving to consumption, the US economy changed from a net creditor to a net debtor, and debt held by families and the Federal government increased. Despite efforts to hide the income effects, the end of cheap oil also is responsible for increasing income inequality. In the FSU, the end of abundant energy supplies meant that allocating the energy surplus among the domestic economy, subsidized exports to Eastern Europe, and hard currency sales to the West became a zero sum game. This contributed to the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA alliance and the FSU. If the US is able to extricate itself from personal and governmental debt, solving the social and political concerns about inequality is the next formidable challenge posed by the end of cheap oil.

  6. GLOBALIZATION AND MASS-MEDIA IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtic Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a reality that we cannot deny or run away from. The economic, political or social issues, even if they have a starting point, spread very quickly, covering large areas in a very short time. Modern communication systems enable crisis transfer. They also bring us information about the actions that have been taken in order to overcome those critical circumstances. Does recession have positive aspects, too? If it has, what are these positive aspects and how can they be used to produce highest benefits? We will try to describe the concepts we maintain by means of some notorious works written by authors with a vast experience, some of them being Noble Prize winners. The idea that we propose is to bring hope out of this situation generated by crisis and globalization. The economic crisis has created a huge opportunity to the mass-media system: it brings the required information to citizens from different nations. Taking this into account, mass-media has played and still plays an important part in making the people involved find solutions and communicate whenever the decision makers are trying to hide facts. With the help of innovation and transformation, let’s look for solutions to develop our abilities, relationships, products, markets and results. We should never forget that the greatest and most impressive changes are often born in times of crisis.

  7. Old and New Criteria for the Governance of Political and Economic Structures on the Basis of the Bible and the Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Norbert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a sociological analysis of the Holy Books of two world religions (the Bible and the Quran since, according to prognoses and risk analyses, a political, economic, cultural, and religious confrontation between the world religions will be unavoidable. Special economic and political aspects also contribute to the up-to-datedness of the topic in the democratic world; in fact: the economic crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, the difficulties of managing the crisis with traditional micro- and macroeconomic tools as well as the Europe-wide issue of migration processes. These challenges have directed our attention to alternative economic solutions and policy options, including theories on ethical basis. Modern academic discourse has recently started to direct research at leadership skills as acknowledged forms of talent. The priority of moral talent is never disputed in the Bible and the Quran, more so by certain leaders holding political or economic positions.

  8. Wireless Competition in Canada: Damn the Torpedoes! The Triumph of Politics over Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Church

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Last year featured a high stakes battle between two mighty protagonists. On one side, allegedly representing the interests of all Canadians, the federal government. On the other side, Bell, Rogers, and Telus. The issue at stake: What institutions should govern the allocation of resources in the provision of wireless services? Should the outcomes — prices, quality, availability, and other terms of service — be determined by the market? Or should the government intervene? The answer to these questions should depend on the extent of competition and the ability of wireless providers to exercise inefficient market power — raise prices above their long run average cost of providing services. Do Bell, Rogers, and Telus exercise substantial inefficient market power? The accumulated wisdom of market economies is that state intervention inevitably is very costly, given asymmetries of information, uncertainty, and political pressure. At the very least the onus on those demanding and proposing government action is to provide robust evidence of the substantial exercise of inefficient market power. This paper is a contribution to the ongoing debate regarding the existence and extent of market power in the provision of wireless services in Canada. The conventional wisdom that competition in wireless services was insufficient was challenged by our earlier School of Public Policy paper.†† In that study we demonstrated that the Canadian wireless sector was sufficiently competitive. The evidentiary record we developed was not consistent with a robust finding of a substantial exercise of inefficient market power; policy efforts to create and sustain more competition were unlikely to be successful without ongoing subsidization; and to the extent those efforts were successful, they would likely to lead to an inefficient allocation of scarce resources, with the benefits of additional competition less than its costs. The federal government’s standard bearer

  9. Introduction to “the social theories of classical political economy and modern economic policy”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carl Menger; E. Dekker (Erwin); S. Kolev (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis is the first-ever English translation of an 1891 essay by Carl Menger published in the most important newspaper of the Habsburg Empire, the Neue Freie Presse. Menger writes the piece as a defense of classical political economy in general and of Adam Smith in particular,

  10. The social theories of classical political economy and modern economic policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, C. (Carl); E. Dekker (Erwin); S. Kolev (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first-ever English translation of an 1891 essay by Carl Menger published in the most important newspaper of the Habsburg Empire, the Neue Freie Presse. Menger writes the piece as a defense of classical political economy in general and of Adam Smith in particular, focusing on

  11. German Economic Expansion under the Conditions of the European Debt Crisis and Military-Political Conflict in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Михайлович Кухтин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The German economic expansion in the EU is examined in the article. Berlin is using the European debt crisis and the political instability in Ukraine to strengthen its positions in the world. Interests of weak countries of the Eurozone are being ignored. Chancellor A. Merkel is striving for a gradual revision of European legislation in Germany’s favor. Today’s Berlin is supporting Ukrainian nationalists, hoping to hinder the growth of Russian influence in Eastern Europe with their help. The aggravation of international competition does not allow Germany to pursue a different European policy.

  12. An Interpretation of the Revolutionary Proyect of Cornelius Castoriadis against the Economic Crisis: Autonomy, Politics and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tapia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis that began in 2008 has shown a deep social crisis that reflects the progressive unembeddednes of individual from society, promoting the emergence of social alternatives that sacrifice freedom in exchange for security. This article presents an interpretation of the revolutionary project of Cornelius Castoriadis as an alternative to the current liberal democracy, able to face social crisis by placing society itself as a central element in their own construction. The emergence of a lucid and thoughtful individual able to develop a conscious political action drives towards individual and social autonomy, building a democratic regime that involves the combination of freedom and equality.

  13. Social, economic, and political processes that create built environment inequities: perspectives from urban African Americans in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Yanique; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Yoshihama, Mieko; Wang, Caroline C; Kreuter, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the built environment features found in many high-poverty urban areas contribute to negative health outcomes. Both built environment hazards and negative health outcomes disproportionately affect poor people of color. We used community-based participatory research and Photovoice in inner-city Atlanta to elicit African Americans' perspectives on their health priorities. The built environment emerged as a critical factor, impacting physical and mental health outcomes. We offer a conceptual model, informed by residents' perspectives, linking social, economic, and political processes to built environment and health inequities. Research, practice, and policy implications are discussed within an environmental justice framework.

  14. A psychological look at economic growth : an omni-political manifesto

    OpenAIRE

    Elle, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis is an attempt to synthesize the psychological theory of self-esteem, as formulated by Nathaniel Branden, with economic thought in order to provide an innovative way of analyzing historical economic data. The nations of examination are The United States of America and the Kingdom of Bhutan. Initially there will be an exploration of why this type of analysis may be useful at this time in the procession of economic and psychological history. Branden's six pill...

  15. Technology, Political Economy, and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    Comparing the pace and extent of economic development across the developing regions yields that Arab countries have displaced a weak economic performance over the past 20 years, despite their favorable geo-strategic location and a high density of national and international structural adjustment...... efforts. Using cross-country regressions, this paper identifies two binding constraints to economic development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): 1) Most countries are not able to apply or adopt existing technologies efficiently and 2) The economically inefficient...

  16. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  17. To Green or Not to Green: A Political, Economic and Social Analysis for the Past Failure of Green Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Klumpp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of green logistics has thus far failed. For example, the share of greenhouse gas emissions by the transportation and logistics sector in Europe rose from 16.6% in 1990 to 24.3% in 2012. This article analyzes the reasons behind this failure by drawing on political, economic and business as well as social motivations and examples. At the core of this analysis are the established theorems of the Jevons paradox and the median voter (Black, Downs in combination with time-distorted preferences of voters and consumers. Adding to the hurdles of green logistics are the problems of short-term political programs and decisions versus long-term business investments in transportation and logistics. Two cases from Germany are outlined regarding this political “meddling through” with a recent 2015 truck toll decision and the support for electric trucks and vehicles. Finally, the article proposes two ways forward: public control and restriction of carbon raw materials (coal, oil, as well as public investment in low-emission transport infrastructure or biofuels as the more feasible and likely alternative.

  18. The effects of political and economic transitions on health and safety in Estonia: an Estonian-Swedish comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasik, T; Andersson, R; Hörte, L G

    1998-11-01

    A general and dramatic deterioration of health in Estonia during the transition period 1990-1994 was analysed using Sweden as a comparative example. Though there were diverging trends between Estonia and Sweden in the leading cause of death, cardiovascular diseases, the gap in mortality from injury had increased most rapidly. While the injury mortality rate slightly decreased in Sweden from 1990 to 1994, it almost doubled in Estonia. In 1994, the total injury death rate for men was about 6 times higher in Estonia than in Sweden. The death rates for some types of injuries, such as alcohol intoxication and homicide, were many tenfolds higher in Estonia than in Sweden. Injury contributed the most to the widening health gap between the countries, especially in males. The mechanisms of this sudden health deterioration remain to be fully explained. It could be hypothesised that behind the traditional behavioural risk factors, the influence of socio-political factors related to economic and political reconstruction is present. A widespread risk-taking and unhealthy behaviour among Estonians can likely be partly explained as a way of coping with the distress created by the new demands of transition society. An important challenge on the way to improvement is creating the political will among policy-makers to confront the tremendous problems of controlling the factors in society that affect the population's health in Estonia.

  19. AGRICULTURE AND CRISIS IN MEXICO: THIRTY YEARS OF NEOLIBERAL ECONOMIC POLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ortega Hernández

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Mexican agriculture crisis was realized, and empirical evidence was presented in order to prove the relationship between the application of neoliberal politics and the current crisis in the agricultural sector. Our theoretic position states that between the agriculture and industrial sectors has been establish a new relation, as a market economy product, which took place in the application of certain politics in the macroeconomic and agricultural level. The effects brought about by the implementation of that kind of policies have been, among others, increased imports of staple foods, reduced plantings and the yields and in general an overall decrease of national agricultural products; this situation arises in a state of food dependency. It concludes that while such kind of policies remains the agricultural production will not be increased, and Mexico won´t have ensured food security.

  20. A fractionally cointegrated VAR analysis of economic voting and political support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Maggie E. C.; Ørregård Nielsen, Morten; Popiel, Michael Ksawery

    We use a fractionally cointegrated vector autoregressive model to examine the relationship between Canadian political support and macroeconomic conditions. This model is well suited for the analysis because it allows multiple fractional time series and admits simple asymptotic inference for the m......We use a fractionally cointegrated vector autoregressive model to examine the relationship between Canadian political support and macroeconomic conditions. This model is well suited for the analysis because it allows multiple fractional time series and admits simple asymptotic inference...... for the model parameters and tests of the hypotheses of interest. In the long-run equilibrium, we find that support for the Progressive Conservative Party was higher during periods of high interest rates and low unemployment, while support for the Liberal Party was higher during periods of low interest rates...