WorldWideScience

Sample records for polite verbal communication

  1. [The role in verbal communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roberta; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The content of the thought is expressed by words articulated correctly according to grammar and syntax. The meanings are conveyed through words but also through the way they are used, the manner of communication. The real reason of communication is the intention, the purpose, often implicit, which determines the source of a speech. It is possible to identify a direct aim (the purpose of communicating) and an indirect objective (the role intention), understood as keeping a role between the speaker and the listener. The role is also indicated by the non-verbal or paraverbal component of the message, that is the tone of voice, the emphasis and the posture of the communicator. In the multitude of possible relationship (affective, social, business, political, religious), frequently bounded together, we can recognize three categories of relations: symmetrical, reciprocal and complementary.

  2. The mainstreaming of verbally aggressive online political behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchirillo, Vincent; Hmielowski, Jay; Hutchens, Myiah

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationship between verbal aggression and uncivil media attention on political flaming. More specifically, this paper examines whether the use of uncivil media programming is associated with the perceived acceptability and intention to engage in aggressive online discussions (i.e., online political flaming) and whether this relationship varies by verbal aggression. The results show that individuals less inclined to engage in aggressive communication tactics (i.e., low in verbal aggression) become more accepting of flaming and show greater intention to flame as their attention to uncivil media increases. By contrast, those with comparatively higher levels of verbal aggression show a decrease in acceptance and intention to flame as their attention to these same media increases.

  3. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  4. Verbal risk in communicating risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, J.C. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). School of Communication; Reno, H.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1993-03-01

    When persons in the waste management industry have a conversation concerning matters of the industry, thoughts being communicated are understood among those in the industry. However, when persons in waste management communicate with those outside the industry, communication may suffer simply because of poor practices such as the use of jargon, euphemisms, acronyms, abbreviations, language usage, not knowing audience, and public perception. This paper deals with ways the waste management industry can communicate risk to the public without obfuscating issues. The waste management industry should feel obligated to communicate certain meanings within specific contexts and, then, if the context changes, should not put forth a new, more appropriate meaning to the language already used. Communication of the waste management industry does not have to be provisional. The authors suggest verbal risks in communicating risk can be reduced significantly or eliminated by following a few basic communication principles. The authors make suggestions and give examples of ways to improve communication with the general public by avoiding or reducing jargon, euphemisms, and acronyms; knowing the audience; avoiding presumptive knowledge held by the audience; and understanding public perception of waste management issues.

  5. Science communication as political communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  6. Science communication as political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  7. Comparative Political Communication Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Kenski, K.; Jamieson, K.H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of comparative political communication research (CPCR). CPCR is a growing field since there is wide acknowledgement that many questions are not answered satisfactorily with single case studies. The chapter explains why political communication researchers should care

  8. Political communication research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts...... of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology......, certain strands of political science, and the effects-tradition of mass communication research. This dominant paradigm has contributed much to our understanding of some aspects of political communication. But it is struggling to make sense of many others, including questions concerning people’s experience...

  9. Political communication in referendums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Schuck, A.R.T.; Reinemann, C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews research on political communication in referendums that have become increasingly popular in democracies worldwide. The authors define key characteristics of referendums, touch upon participation in and popular support for referendums, and highlight the differences between them

  10. Language, Power, Multilingual and Non-Verbal Multicultural Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Zhuravleva, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to developments in internal migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity, multilingual and non-verbal multicultural communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and

  11. Political Communication Yearbook 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Keith R., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on current scholarship in the evolving field of political communication, this publication is organized in three sections. Part 1, "Current Perspectives on the Spiral of Silence," features essays by Charles T. Salmon and F. Gerald Kline, Klaus Merten, Carroll J. Glynn and Jack M. McLeod, and a response by the theory's original…

  12. [Non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara

    2008-09-01

    This review underlines the importance of non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease. A social psychological perspective of communication is privileged. Non-verbal behaviors such as looks, head nods, hand gestures, body posture or facial expression provide a lot of information about interpersonal attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional experiences. Therefore they play an important role in the regulation of interaction between individuals. Non-verbal communication is effective in Alzheimer's disease even in the late stages. Patients still produce non-verbal signals and are responsive to others. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the social factors influencing the non-verbal exchange. Misidentification and misinterpretation of behaviors may have negative consequences for the patients. Thus, improving the comprehension of and the response to non-verbal behavior would increase first the quality of the interaction, then the physical and psychological well-being of patients and that of caregivers. The role of non-verbal behavior in social interactions should be approached from an integrative and functional point of view.

  13. The role of interaction of verbal and non-verbal means of communication in different types of discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova M. А.

    2010-01-01

    Communication relies on verbal and non-verbal interaction. To be most effective, group members need to improve verbal and non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication fulfills functions within groups that are sometimes difficult to communicate verbally. But interpreting non-verbal messages requires a great deal of skill because multiple meanings abound in these messages.

  14. Verbal communication of semantic content in products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present research work is to explore how precise verbal communication can capture the semantic content of physical products. The paper presents an overview of the background and work done so far. Furthermore are ideas for future work discussed. The background includes the increa......The purpose of the present research work is to explore how precise verbal communication can capture the semantic content of physical products. The paper presents an overview of the background and work done so far. Furthermore are ideas for future work discussed. The background includes...... a number of the selected terms seem to have several interpretations causing ambiguous information. The work also suggests that more emphasis is needed in design education on training precise verbal communication concerning semantic contents in products....

  15. Theoretical Approaches to Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, James W.

    Political communication appears to be emerging as a theoretical and methodological academic area of research within both speech-communication and political science. Five complimentary approaches to political science (Machiavellian, iconic, ritualistic, confirmational, and dramatistic) may be viewed as a series of variations which emphasize the…

  16. Some Aspects of Verbal Politeness in Maghrebi Arabic Dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca D'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Positive politeness, on the other hand, seems to be frequently employed, without the occurrence of any FTA, in standardised and predictable ways, thus questioning Brown and Levinson’s theory to a certain extent. The two scholars, in facts, considered the necessity to redress a FTA as the primary reason for the existence of verbal politeness, leaving all the phenomena that contradicted this tenet to the vague domain of the speakers’ spontaneous verbal inventiveness. The expressions observed in Maghrebi dialects, on the contrary, are not spontaneous, but part of the competence of all mature native speakers, who are usually expected to perform them. This independent existence of verbal politeness, thus, represents one of the most interesting features of Maghrebi Arabic dialects and a field that still calls for further research and investigation.

  17. Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Włodarczak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence, short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  18. Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczak, Marcin; Heldner, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence), short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's) as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  19. Evaluating verbal and non-verbal communication skills, in an ethnogeriatric OSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren G; Schrimmer, Anne; Diamond, James; Burke, Janice

    2011-05-01

    Communication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Interviews from 19 medical students, residents, and fellows in an ethnogeriatric OSCE were analyzed. Each interview was videotaped and evaluated on a 14 item verbal and an 8 item non-verbal communication checklist. The relationship between verbal and non-verbal communication skills on interview evaluations by standardized patients were examined using correlational analyses. Maintaining adequate facial expression (FE), using affirmative gestures (AG), and limiting both unpurposive movements (UM) and hand gestures (HG) had a significant positive effect on perception of interview quality during this OSCE. Non-verbal communication skills played a role in perception of overall interview quality as well as perception of culturally competent communication. Incorporating formative and summative evaluation of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills may be a critical component of curricular innovations in ethnogeriatrics, such as the OSCE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Elite Cohesion in Political Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayerhöffer, Eva

    communication studies that allows us to view high-ranking journalists and editors as elites in their own right, entering into enduring relations with political elites. Based on the combination of these two otherwise separated disciplines, the dissertation develops an integrated and comprehensive model of elite......The dissertation presents the first comprehensive analysis of the political communication elite– high-ranking journalists, editors, politicians and their communication advisors – that shapes the content and form of political messages, news, debate and decisions in modern democracies. Although...... there is no shortage of research on the changing nature of politics due to the increasing influence of the media, the relations between the key elites in the age of ‘mediated politics’ have yet to be analyzed thoroughly. Theoretically, the dissertation provides a new bridge between elite theory and political...

  1. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  2. Interactive use of communication by verbal and non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Communication of autistic children. To assess the communication functionality of verbal and non-verbal children of the autistic spectrum and to identify possible associations amongst the groups. Subjects were 20 children of the autistic spectrum divided into two groups: V with 10 verbal children and NV with 10 non-verbal children with ages varying between 2y10m and 10y6m. All subjects were video recorded during 30 minutes of spontaneous interaction with their mothers. The samples were analyzed according to the functional communicative profile and comparisons within and between groups were conducted. Data referring to the occupation of communicative space suggest that there is an even balance between each child and his mother. The number of communicative acts per minute shows a clear difference between verbal and non-verbal children. Both verbal and non-verbal children use mostly the gestual communicative mean in their interactions. Data about the use of interpersonal communicative functions point out to the autistic children's great interactive impairment. The characterization of the functional communicative profile proposed in this study confirmed the autistic children's difficulties with interpersonal communication and that these difficulties do not depend on the preferred communicative mean.

  3. INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN POLITICS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Aurel GHIUŢĂ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study has practical applicability in politic al domain and theoretical involvement at politicalmarketing communication level. The type of the research is a qualitative one, using as survey methods scientificobservation and documentary search. The aim of the research is to prove the applicability of marketing communicationconcept integrated in political marketing and global marketing communication. There are also exceptions, justanalyzing the industry – politics, in which integrated communication can’t be considered global communication.The subject of integrated marketing communication is relatively a new one in marketing (two decades, but itsapplicability in political domain and the specifications that assumes this application represents o new vision atEuropean and worldwide level. This study clearly presents the differences between the integrated marketingcommunication and global marketing communication.In documentary research, the author used studies belonging to Anglo – Saxons theoreticians and practitioners(Americans, Canadians, British but also Europeans (French, Belgians, Romanians. The main reason is the fact that inmarketing domain on extremely narrow scientific sections the visions belonging to these two main orientations aren’talways equable. Also, in scientific observation, t he research analyses political events from United States of America,France and Romania. Due to this reason, we can affirm that the current study has not only a regional applicability butalso a global one.

  4. Interactive communication and political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikula Mykola Mykolayovych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of the new communication technologies’ influence on the political consciousness formation. According to the author, today the Internet has become a kind of environment where people spend a lot of time and where the huge flow of information streams, unlimited with national borders and language barriers. This gives the Internet communication a mediating role in the display of the real world in people's minds. Such forms of interactive communication like social networks, blogs, forums and chats have a particularly important role in development of the society political consciousness.

  5. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  6. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  7. Guidelines for Teaching Non-Verbal Communications Through Visual Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Mahima Ranjan

    1976-01-01

    There is a natural unique relationship between non-verbal communication and visual media such as television and film. Visual media will have to be used extensively--almost exclusively--in teaching non-verbal communications, as well as other methods requiring special teaching skills. (Author/ER)

  8. A Review of Verbal and Non-Verbal Human-Robot Interactive Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of human-robot interactive communication is presented, covering verbal as well as non-verbal aspects of human-robot interaction. Following a historical introduction, and motivation towards fluid human-robot communication, ten desiderata are proposed, which provide an organizational axis both of recent as well as of future research on human-robot communication. Then, the ten desiderata are examined in detail, culminating to a unifying discussion, and a forward-lookin...

  9. Gender Aspects of Political Communication in Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Борисовна Максимова

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of gender asymmetry in the content of political blog posts and communication strategies in political blogosphere. The author comes to the conclusion that political communication in cyberspace is increasingly gaining in influence and importance which may be accompanied by the enhancement of women's participation in politics as well as communication strategies diversification in political communication.

  10. An executable model of the interaction between verbal and non-verbal communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic

  11. An Executable Model of the Interaction between Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.; Dignum, F.; Greaves, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic

  12. Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Missaoui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers. The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

  13. VERBAL REPRESENTATION OF THE CONCEPT OF POLITENESS AND ITS SPECIFICS IN RUSSIAN AND MODERN HEBREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchalnikova Vera Anatolyevna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors compare the content of the universal ethic notion of politeness in Russian and Modern Hebrew on the basis of structural research of word's lexical meaning. Politeness is investigated as a basic ethic value that is included into the nucleus of ethnic culture and has certain influence on the content of ethnic worldview. The verbal representation of politeness as an ethic category differs significantly revealing the different structure and specific correlation of semantic components. The authors emphasize that national and cultural specifics of communicative behavior are defined by the different content of the concept of politeness in the communicative consciousness of the representatives of different linguocultures. In the process of communication the members of an ethnos act according to different operational understanding of the politeness assimilated during the social adaptation process. The authors underline that the notions (concepts described by the same word often differ in psychological meaning within the conceptual spheres of different nations. These different parts of ethnosspecific concepts contain significant information and national specifics of communicative behavior, and that is why they are pragmatically relevant. The research of the specifics of politeness concept meaning is a theoretical and pragmatic topic of current importance. The authors describe the first stage of politeness concept modelling based on lexicographic data. By comparing the components of concepts' meaning, that are denominated by comparable words in Russian and Jewish linguocultures, the authors prove the stability of concept's structure as a specific mental unit. The structural and semantic models of ъебйга and вежливость contain discreet components of meaning that are opposed gradually. The authors believe that this could be the indication of certain universal types of relations between word's meaning components.

  14. From SOLER to SURETY for effective non-verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    This paper critiques the model for non-verbal communication referred to as SOLER (which stands for: "Sit squarely"; "Open posture"; "Lean towards the other"; "Eye contact; "Relax"). It has been approximately thirty years since Egan (1975) introduced his acronym SOLER as an aid for teaching and learning about non-verbal communication. There is evidence that the SOLER framework has been widely used in nurse education with little published critical appraisal. A new acronym that might be appropriate for non-verbal communication skills training and education is proposed and this is SURETY (which stands for "Sit at an angle"; "Uncross legs and arms"; "Relax"; "Eye contact"; "Touch"; "Your intuition"). The proposed model advances the SOLER model by including the use of touch and the importance of individual intuition is emphasised. The model encourages student nurse educators to also think about therapeutic space when they teach skills of non-verbal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  16. Political Communication and Women: A Course Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Judith S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a course proposal for an undergraduate course entitled "Political Communication and Women." Includes six units with instructional objectives, bibliographies, and student activities. The course is designed to identify the special needs of women in elective politics. (JMF)

  17. Non-verbal Persuasion and Communication in an Affective Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, Elisabeth; Bevacqua, Elisabetta; Heylen, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    the critical role of non-verbal behaviour during face-to-face communication. In this chapter we restrict the discussion to body language. We also consider embodied virtual agents. As is the case with humans, there are a number of fundamental factors to be considered when constructing persuasive agents......This chapter deals with the communication of persuasion. Only a small percentage of communication involves words: as the old saying goes, “it’s not what you say, it’s how you say it”. While this likely underestimates the importance of good verbal persuasion techniques, it is accurate in underlining...

  18. Emotional Verbalization and Identification of Facial Expressions in Teenagers’ Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Ivanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the need for studying the subjective effectiveness criteria of interpersonal communication and importance of effective communication for personality development in adolescence. The problemof undeveloped representation of positive emotions in communication process is discussed. Both the identification and verbalization of emotions are regarded by the author as the basic communication skills. The experimental data regarding the longitude and age levels are described, the gender differences in identification and verbalization of emotions considered. The outcomes of experimental study demonstrate that the accuracy of facial emotional expressions of teenage boys and girls changes at different rates. The prospects of defining the age norms for identification and verbalization of emotions are analyzed.

  19. Non-verbal Persuasion and Communication in an Affective Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, Elisabeth; Bevacqua, Elisabetta; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Niewiadomski, Radoslaw; Pelachaud, Catherine; Peters, Christopher; Poggi, Isabella; Rehm, Matthias; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the communication of persuasion. Only a small percentage of communication involves words: as the old saying goes, “it’s not what you say, it’s how you say it‿. While this likely underestimates the importance of good verbal persuasion techniques, it is accurate in underlining

  20. Non-verbal behaviour in nurse-elderly patient communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris-Verhallen, W.M.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the occurence of non-verbal communication in nurse-elderly patient interaction in two different care settings: home nursing and a home for the elderly. In a sample of 181 nursing encounters involving 47 nurses a study was made of videotaped nurse-patient communication. Six

  1. Political Communication Research in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadow, Robert G.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses eight books, including a textbook for undergraduates, that represent the type of research being conducted in the political communication field. Identifies major problems of current research. (PD)

  2. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  3. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  4. Linguistic analysis of verbal and non-verbal communication in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison; Butt, David; Ellis-Clarke, Jodie; Cartmill, John

    2010-12-01

    Surgery can be a triumph of co-operation, the procedure evolving as a result of joint action between multiple participants. The communication that mediates the joint action of surgery is conveyed by verbal but particularly by non-verbal signals. Competing priorities superimposed by surgical learning must also be negotiated within this context and this paper draws on techniques of systemic functional linguistics to observe and analyse the flow of information during such a phase of surgery. © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. The Bursts and Lulls of Multimodal Interaction: Temporal Distributions of Behavior Reveal Differences Between Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Drew H; Dale, Rick; Louwerse, Max M; Kello, Christopher T

    2018-04-06

    Recent studies of naturalistic face-to-face communication have demonstrated coordination patterns such as the temporal matching of verbal and non-verbal behavior, which provides evidence for the proposal that verbal and non-verbal communicative control derives from one system. In this study, we argue that the observed relationship between verbal and non-verbal behaviors depends on the level of analysis. In a reanalysis of a corpus of naturalistic multimodal communication (Louwerse, Dale, Bard, & Jeuniaux, ), we focus on measuring the temporal patterns of specific communicative behaviors in terms of their burstiness. We examined burstiness estimates across different roles of the speaker and different communicative modalities. We observed more burstiness for verbal versus non-verbal channels, and for more versus less informative language subchannels. Using this new method for analyzing temporal patterns in communicative behaviors, we show that there is a complex relationship between verbal and non-verbal channels. We propose a "temporal heterogeneity" hypothesis to explain how the language system adapts to the demands of dialog. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Inoculation in Political Campaign Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Burgoon, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Posits a strategy of resistance to the influence of attack messages in political campaigns. Finds that political campaign messages can be designed to inoculate supporters of candidates against subsequent attack messages of opposing candidates. (MS)

  7. Training Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Interview Skills to Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Abbie; Panorska, Anna; Gillam, Sandra Laing

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents' verbal and nonverbal communication skills were compared before and after training in a workforce readiness training program, Language for Scholars (LFS), and a study skills program, Ideal Student Workshop (ISW). A cross-over design was used, ensuring that 44 adolescents received both programs and acted as their own control. The LFS…

  8. The Relationships between Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Therapeutic Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proefrock, David W.; Bloom, Robert

    The relationship between a therapist's verbal and nonverbal communication of therapeutic effectiveness was investigated. In a design intended to eliminate many of the methodological problems which exist in this area of research, subjects (N=102) were asked to rate videotaped segments showing combinations of three different levels of both verbal…

  9. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  10. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  11. VERBAL HYGIENE AND ETHNIC POLITICS IN NIGERIA: A STUDY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    in modern history. Nigerian media have recorded numerous cases of verbally .... words, face is “the emotional and social sense of self that everyone has and expects ..... mouth speaks”, for this statement to have emanated from the mind of.

  12. Communicating spatial information from verbal descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Communication between people is difficult. A well-known example of this premise stems from asking directions in an unknown city. This can result in elaborate stories in which the narrator gives detailed and correct information concerning turns that need to be taken and landmarks that will be

  13. Network Approach in Political Communication Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нина Васильевна Опанасенко

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to issues of network approach application in political communication studies. The author considers communication in online and offline areas and gives the definition of rhizome, its characteristics, identifies links between rhizome and network approach. The author also analyses conditions and possibilities of the network approach in modern political communication. Both positive and negative features of the network approach are emphasized.

  14. The Roles of Politeness and Humor in the Asymmetry of Affect in Verbal Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jacqueline K.; Hancock, Jeffrey T.; Dunham, Phillip J.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess the roles of politeness and humor in the asymmetry of affect observed in verbal irony production. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants rated different replies (ironic, literal, or "no response") made to hypothetical scenarios for their politeness and humor, respectively. Participants in Experiment 3 were…

  15. Non-verbal communication through sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairych, Andreas; Xu, Daniel; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-04-01

    When we communicate face to face, we subconsciously engage our whole body to convey our message. In telecommunication, e.g. during phone calls, this powerful information channel cannot be used. Capturing nonverbal information from body motion and transmitting it to the receiver parallel to speech would make these conversations feel much more natural. This requires a sensing device that is capable of capturing different types of movements, such as the flexion and extension of joints, and the rotation of limbs. In a first embodiment, we developed a sensing glove that is used to control a computer game. Capacitive dielectric elastomer (DE) sensors measure finger positions, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) detects hand roll. These two sensor technologies complement each other, with the IMU allowing the player to move an avatar through a three-dimensional maze, and the DE sensors detecting finger flexion to fire weapons or open doors. After demonstrating the potential of sensor fusion in human-computer interaction, we take this concept to the next level and apply it in nonverbal communication between humans. The current fingerspelling glove prototype uses capacitive DE sensors to detect finger gestures performed by the sending person. These gestures are mapped to corresponding messages and transmitted wirelessly to another person. A concept for integrating an IMU into this system is presented. The fusion of the DE sensor and the IMU combines the strengths of both sensor types, and therefore enables very comprehensive body motion sensing, which makes a large repertoire of gestures available to nonverbal communication over distances.

  16. New media in political communication: general approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekunova Marina A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in transformation of the realm of political communication, a more important part is given to the so-called «new social media». Previously, political communication was seen as a process of production, dissemination and perception of political information for the purpose of achieving a consent regarding one or another political action. Additionally, communication appeared as a mechanism of one-way information exchange. Under new conditions, political communication becomes a tool of ensuring the process of preparation, making and implementing political decisions. In a modern understanding, an informational message is built by means of specific cooperation between communicants. In this regard, information sources appear as a specific base for state actions. This paper deals with old (traditional and new social media and lists several characteristics that help distinguish these media. It also shows how authorities and representatives of political opposition can use social media to achieve their political purposes. This article analyses not only benefits but also drawbacks in the application of new information technologies in politics, considering a problem of manipulation as a main disadvantage. It also compares the use of social networks by authorities in Russia and abroad. Because of differences in political culture, social networks are not popular with Russian authorities. However, the number of social networking users among Russian politicians is increasing year by year. Moreover, the most popular network with them is Twitter. A conclusion can be drawn that new media play an important role in creating a system of rules of conduct on the Internet and in establishing a specific culture of electronic communication between representatives of authority and society.

  17. Drama to promote non-verbal communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Martina; Nixon, Lara; Broadfoot, Kirsten; Hofmeister, Marianna; Dornan, Tim

    2018-05-23

    Non-verbal communication skills (NVCS) help physicians to deliver relationship-centred care, and the effective use of NVCS is associated with improved patient satisfaction, better use of health services and high-quality clinical care. In contrast to verbal communication skills, NVCS training is under developed in communication curricula for the health care professions. One of the challenges teaching NVCS is their tacit nature. In this study, we evaluated drama exercises to raise awareness of NVCS by making familiar activities 'strange'. Workshops based on drama exercises were designed to heighten an awareness of sight, hearing, touch and proxemics in non-verbal communication. These were conducted at eight medical education conferences, held between 2014 and 2016, and were open to all conference participants. Workshops were evaluated by recording narrative data generated during the workshops and an open-ended questionnaire following the workshop. Data were analysed qualitatively, using thematic analysis. Non-verbal communication skills help doctors to deliver relationship-centred care RESULTS: One hundred and twelve participants attended workshops, 73 (65%) of whom completed an evaluation form: 56 physicians, nine medical students and eight non-physician faculty staff. Two themes were described: an increased awareness of NVCS and the importance of NVCS in relationship building. Drama exercises enabled participants to experience NVCS, such as sight, sound, proxemics and touch, in novel ways. Participants reflected on how NCVS contribute to developing trust and building relationships in clinical practice. Drama-based exercises elucidate the tacit nature of NVCS and require further evaluation in formal educational settings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  18. Getting the Message Across; Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jack

    This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…

  19. Cross-cultural Differences of Stereotypes about Non-verbal Communication of Russian and Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with peculiarities of non-verbal communication as a factor of cross-cultural intercourse and adaptation of representatives of different cultures. The possibility of studying of ethnic stereotypes concerning non-verbal communication is considered. The results of empiric research of stereotypes about non-verbal communication of Russian and Chinese students are presented.

  20. Analyzing the Communication Dynamics of Political Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Sally

    2007-01-01

    It is widely agreed that college students do not fully participate in the political process. The most commonly cited reasons are apathy, indifference, and ignorance. This article presents an activity that aims to help students learn about communication dynamics in the context of political campaigns and develop an appreciation and confidence about…

  1. THE USE OF RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL RITUALS IN CONTEMPORARY COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN MARTIAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the main characteristics and trends inthe development of media power in the context of increasing its connection with the otherpowers in the society, especially with the political and ecclesiastic power. The developmentof communication technologies, especially during the last half of a century, has led to theimprovement and increase of the efficiency of communication functions at all levels,regardless of the distances between those who manage communication and the targetpublic. The sacerdotal and political powers of our days have taken over the results ofmass–media development in order to use them intensively in the attainment of their ownmission and strategies, seeking to be as successful as possible. An essential way forfulfilling the goals of political and ecclesiastic power is the intentional use of specificceremonies and rituals in the communication exchanges with the public. The “directors”and “screenwriters” involved in the organization of such spectacles and their mediacoverage all over the planet have so perfected this art that the powers receiving extensivemedia coverage have become seductive celebrities, increasingly capable of manipulation, foran increasingly wider public. The author taps into a comprehensive historical,philosophical, sociological and practical documentation in order to demonstrate theincrease in the functions of audiovisual, verbal and nonverbal communication in our days,and some perverse effects of this evolution.

  2. The dynamics of political communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    The art of communication between the energy industry and the public was described in the the context of changing views towards environmental degradation and customer/government scrutiny of industry performance. The massive and rapid transformation of communication through computers and communications technology in the world in general, and the gas industry's adaptation to were also examined. Specific examples of initiatives and activities undertaken by the gas distribution industry were cited. The importance of honest, and courteous communication was stressed

  3. Communication & Society: A Critical Political Economy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Holzer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the English translations of one of Horst Holzer’s works on communication and society. Holzer elaborates foundations of a critical sociology of communication(s that studies the relationship of communication and society based on the approach of critical political economy. He shows that such an approach relates communication and production, communication and capitalism; communication, ideology and fetishism; and situates communication in the context of social struggles for alternatives to capitalist social forms. The paper is followed by a postface in which Christian Fuchs contemplates why Holzer’s approach has been largely “forgotten” in the German social sciences and media and communication studies, in turn stressing the continued relevance of Holzer’s theory today.

  4. A PROPÓSITO DE LA COMUNICACIÓN VERBAL On Verbal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Amparo Fajardo Uribe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es el resultado de un estudio de la comunicación verbal teniendo en cuenta la visión propuesta por el modelo inferencial. El objetivo del texto es ofrecer una descripción detallada de cada uno de los elementos que intervienen en él, a fin de brindar herramientas para que todos aquellos estudiantes, que se inician en los estudios del lenguaje, estén en capacidad de diferenciar los modelos que describen la comunicación como un proceso de descodificación, de aquellos que se basan en procesos inferenciales y que por lo tanto se ocupan no sólo de lo que se dice y cómo se dice, sino a demás de lo que se quiere decir.This paper is the result of a study made on verbal communication based on an inferential model. The main objective of this text is to provide a detailed description of each one of the elements that make part of it, in order to offer tools to the beginners, who are specially interested in language studies, to be able to differentiate models that describe communication as a decoding process from an inferential one that keeps in mind not only what is said and how it is said, but also what a speaker wants to mean.

  5. Revisiting the Political Economy of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Garnham

    2014-02-01

    The task of the paper and the seminar was to revisit some of Nicholas Garnham’s ideas, writings and contributions to the study of the Political Economy of Communication and to reflect on the concepts, history, current status and perspectives of this field and the broader study of political economy today. The topics covered include Raymond Williams’ cultural materialism, Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology of culture, the debate between Political Economy and Cultural Studies, information society theory, Karl Marx’s theory and the critique of capitalism.

  6. Improving emotive communication: verbal, prosodic and kinesic conflictavoidance techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horst Arndt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Industrial language programme developers who wish to improve emotive communication and reduce supervisor-worker conflicts can profit from recent research by interactional psychologists, social psychologists and investigators of nonverbal communication. Three emotive aspects of speech are central to conflict-avoidance: levels of assertiveness, interpersonal involvement and emotional intensity. In face-to-face speech these are signalled by various verbal, vocal and kinesic activities. Conflict-avoidance is largely a matter of impression management. A supervisor who wishes to avoid unnecessary conflicts actively maintains a supportive communicative environment. When delivering positive messages he is assertive, interpersonally involved, and more emotional than usual. When delivering negative messages he is relatively nonassertive, impersonal and unemotional. Multimodal techniques for avoiding conflicts in various industrial settings are discussed in the paper. Die samestellers van industriele taalprogramme wat daarna mik om emotiewe kommunikasie te verbeter en om opsiener/werker-konflik te verminder, sal baat vind by resente navorsing deur interaksie-psigoloe, sosiale psigoloe en ondersoekers na nie-verbale kommunikasie. Drie emotiewe aspekte van spraak staan sentraal in die vermyding van konflik: vlakke van selfgelding, interpersoonlike betrokkenheid en emosionele intensiteit. In gesprekke van aangesig tot aangesig word hierdie aspekte oorgedra deur verskeie verbale, vokale en kinestetiese aktiwiteite. Om konflik te vermy hang in 'n groot mate saam met die skep van 'n positiewe indruk. 'n Opsiener wat graag onnodige konflik wil vermy, skep op aktiewe wyse 'n ondersteunende kommunikatiewe omgewing. Wanneer hy positiewe boodskappe oordra, doen hy dit met gesag, hy is interpersoonlik betrokke en meer emosioneel as gewoonlilc Met die oordra van negatiewe boodskappe is hy relatief onaanmatigend, onpersoonlik en onemosioneel. Multi-modale tegnieke vir

  7. Communication, Consumption and Peripheral Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÍZIA VILLAÇA

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses central/peripheral dynamics and its new semantics in the big scenario of globalization. The processes of hybridization between the local and the global spaces are discussed focusing the strategies of inclusion and exclusion through some examples from media and cultural industry. The methodology helps to reflect about the theme using elements of epistemology communication, consumer society and cultural studies.

  8. The Fourth Age of Political Communication: Democratic decay or the rise of phronetic political communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aagaard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The ‘fourth age’ of political communication is emerging. In the fourth age the logics of media and digitization shapes the public sphere, because algorithms and polarized drama increasingly determine what we become aware of in digital and mass media. The result may very well be a less informed public sphere. The emerging class of policy professionals has the opportunity to mix the logics of mediatization and digitization. While such a mix may very well lead to democratic decay, based on elitism, it may also hold fruitful potentials for a more democratic and ethical type of political communication, called phronetic political communication.

  9. The Political Communication of Strategic Nuclear Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Carl; Martin, Janet

    A study of the different perceptual frameworks of the major parties involved in strategic nuclear policy was conducted by examining the interaction between the Executive Branch, Congress, and the informed public. Public political communication data were gathered from public documents generated by Congress and the Executive branch, and by examining…

  10. Linguistic intergroup bias in political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolli, Luigi; Zurloni, Valentino; Riva, Giuseppe

    2006-07-01

    The Linguistic Intergroup Bias (LIB) illustrates the disposition to communicate positive in-group and negative out-group behaviors more abstractly than negative in-group and positive out-group behaviors. The present research examined the function of language in reinforcing this bias in political communication. To illustrate the LIB, the Linguistic Category Model (LCM) was used, including a nouns category. Because social stereotypes are usually conveyed by nominal terms, the aim was to observe the relationship between stereotypes and language in political communication. Moreover, we were interested in analyzing the psychological processes that drive the LIB. Therefore, we verified whether the LIB is more related to language abstractness than to agent-patient causality. Several political debates and interviews, which took place before the latest Italian provincial elections, were analyzed. Results suggested that the language politicians use in communicating about political groups are conceptualized as stereotypes rather than as trait-based categories. Moreover, it seems that the LIB could not be explained only at a lexical level. Social implications of the present findings in interpersonal relations and causal attribution were discussed.

  11. Verbal and non-verbal behaviour and patient perception of communication in primary care: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Gashi, Shkelzen; Bikker, Annemieke; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have assessed the importance of a broad range of verbal and non-verbal consultation behaviours. To explore the relationship of observer ratings of behaviours of videotaped consultations with patients' perceptions. Observational study in general practices close to Southampton, Southern England. Verbal and non-verbal behaviour was rated by independent observers blind to outcome. Patients competed the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS; primary outcome) and questionnaires addressing other communication domains. In total, 275/360 consultations from 25 GPs had useable videotapes. Higher MISS scores were associated with slight forward lean (an 0.02 increase for each degree of lean, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.002 to 0.03), the number of gestures (0.08, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.15), 'back-channelling' (for example, saying 'mmm') (0.11, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.2), and social talk (0.29, 95% CI = 0.4 to 0.54). Starting the consultation with professional coolness ('aloof') was helpful and optimism unhelpful. Finishing with non-verbal 'cut-offs' (for example, looking away), being professionally cool ('aloof'), or patronising, ('infantilising') resulted in poorer ratings. Physical contact was also important, but not traditional verbal communication. These exploratory results require confirmation, but suggest that patients may be responding to several non-verbal behaviours and non-specific verbal behaviours, such as social talk and back-channelling, more than traditional verbal behaviours. A changing consultation dynamic may also help, from professional 'coolness' at the beginning of the consultation to becoming warmer and avoiding non-verbal cut-offs at the end. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  12. Non-Verbal Communication Training: An Avenue for University Professionalizing Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazaille, Mariane

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…

  13. The impact of the teachers? non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    OpenAIRE

    BAMBAEEROO, FATEMEH; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and ...

  14. Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoski, Ann P; Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication in two distinct community-based samples of African American and Latino heterosexual couples at increased risk for HIV. Based on 122 in-depth interviews, 80% of women and 74% of men reported ever using a condom with their primary partner. Of those who reported ever using a condom with their current partner, the majority indicated that condom use was initiated jointly by men and women. In addition, about one-third of the participants reported that the female partner took the lead and let her male partner know she wanted to use a condom. A sixth of the sample reported that men initiated use. Although over half of the respondents used bilateral verbal strategies (reminding, asking and persuading) to initiate condom use, one-fourth used unilateral verbal strategies (commanding and threatening to withhold sex). A smaller number reported using non-verbal strategies involving condoms themselves (e.g. putting a condom on or getting condoms). The results suggest that interventions designed to improve condom use may need to include both members of a sexual dyad and focus on improving verbal and non-verbal communication skills of individuals and couples.

  15. Interpretative Communities in Conflict: A Master Syllabus for Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig Allen

    1992-01-01

    Advocates the interpretive communities approach to teaching political communication. Discusses philosophical issues in the teaching of political communication courses, and pedagogical techniques (including concepts versus cases, clustering examples, C-SPAN video examples, and simulations and games). (SR)

  16. Experts in Political Communication - the Construal of Communication Expertise in Prime Time Television News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2010-01-01

    A central journalistic counterstrategy to the communicative ‘professionalization' of politics consists in a use of political communication experts who comment on political moves and analyse the strategies behind them. This study investigates how the media uses political communication experts...... on the amount of political communication experts and their professional background. The study situates the analysis within a public sphere perspective on the power relations between politics and media, and discusses implications of the findings for a well functioning public sphere....

  17. Multiply Controlled Verbal Operants: An Analysis and Extension to the Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A.; Tincani, M.; Frost, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior as a framework for understanding language acquisition in children with autism. We describe Skinner's analysis of pure and impure verbal operants and illustrate how this analysis may be applied to the design of communication training programs. The picture exchange communication system…

  18. Preface (to: Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and Enactment: The Procesing Issues)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Anna; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vicsi, Klára; Pelachaud, Catherine; Nijholt, Antinus

    2011-01-01

    This volume brings together the advanced research results obtained by the European COST Action 2102 “Cross Modal Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication,‿ primarily discussed at the PINK SSPnet-COST 2102 International Conference on “Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and

  19. Cross-cultural features of gestures in non-verbal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebotariova N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available this article is devoted to analysis of the concept of non-verbal communication and ways of expressing it. Gesticulation is studied in detail as it is the main element of non-verbal communication and has different characteristics in various countries of the world.

  20. Feminism and Critical Political Economy of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Pajnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of feminist analysis in the field of political economy of communication. We discuss feminisms that flirt with Marxism, socialist and radical feminism, in the light of the importance of studies in the field of communication. We highlight the relevance of the feminist critique of Marxism, drawing attention to the engendered class and addressing the inequalities of capitalist society, not only in the sphere of production but also with relation to the reproductive labor. We introduce notions of “capitalist patriarchy” and “sex class” in order to emphasize the dialectical relationship between the class stratification and hierarchical structuring of capitalist society. We problematize the decline of the materialist perspectives in feminist critique as a turn to discourse and ideology while marginalizing class as an analytical category. In this article, we introduce an intersectional understanding of gender that contributes to gender de-essencialization and de-homogenization. Attention is also paid to prospects for the feminist political economy of communication today, to how it is constituted and what types of analyses it brings and why it is important for the understanding of contemporary society and the processes of communication.

  1. Verbal working memory-related neural network communication in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustermann, Thomas; Popov, Tzvetan; Miller, Gregory A; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2018-04-19

    Impaired working memory (WM) in schizophrenia is associated with reduced hemodynamic and electromagnetic activity and altered network connectivity within and between memory-associated neural networks. The present study sought to determine whether schizophrenia involves disruption of a frontal-parietal network normally supporting WM and/or involvement of another brain network. Nineteen schizophrenia patients (SZ) and 19 healthy comparison subjects (HC) participated in a cued visual-verbal Sternberg task while dense-array EEG was recorded. A pair of item arrays each consisting of 2-4 consonants was presented bilaterally for 200 ms with a prior cue signaling the hemifield of the task-relevant WM set. A central probe letter 2,000 ms later prompted a choice reaction time decision about match/mismatch with the target WM set. Group and WM load effects on time domain and time-frequency domain 11-15 Hz alpha power were assessed for the cue-to-probe time window, and posterior 11-15 Hz alpha power and frontal 4-8 Hz theta power were assessed during the retention period. Directional connectivity was estimated via Granger causality, evaluating group differences in communication. SZ showed slower responding, lower accuracy, smaller overall time-domain alpha power increase, and less load-dependent alpha power increase. Midline frontal theta power increases did not vary by group or load. Network communication in SZ was characterized by temporal-to-posterior information flow, in contrast to bidirectional temporal-posterior communication in HC. Results indicate aberrant WM network activity supporting WM in SZ that might facilitate normal load-dependent and only marginally less accurate task performance, despite generally slower responding. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Shaltout, Hossam A

    2011-12-20

    Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P non-tactile LKM. It is possible to test the

  3. Political Conversation in Everyday Communicative Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at forms of interaction and communicative exchanges in discussion groups composed of beneficiaries of a Brazilian income transfer program (Bolsa-Família Program and at how these forms contribute to the deliberative process. Discussion groups are used as a method for showing how everyday conversation and political discussion are interrelated. Our interest is not to analyze this program, but rather represents an attempt to capture and research moments in which group participants establish their own position relative to one another. At such moments, conversations on everyday subjects and personal dramas shift towards attitudes that include taking the risk of expressing dissonant opinions, explaining background assumptions, and producing counter-narratives. Eight discussion groups were established in two Brazilian cities in the Southeastern region: four in Belo Horizonte (MG and four in Campinas (SP. Keywords: everyday conversation; political discussion; deliberative process; discussion groups; poor women.

  4. Parents and Physiotherapists Recognition of Non-Verbal Communication of Pain in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Inmaculada; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; Montoya, Pedro

    2017-08-29

    Pain assessment is difficult in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This is of particular relevance in children with communication difficulties, when non-verbal pain behaviors could be essential for appropriate pain recognition. Parents are considered good proxies in the recognition of pain in their children; however, health professionals also need a good understanding of their patients' pain experience. This study aims at analyzing the agreement between parents' and physiotherapists' assessments of verbal and non-verbal pain behaviors in individuals with CP. A written survey about pain characteristics and non-verbal pain expression of 96 persons with CP (45 classified as communicative, and 51 as non-communicative individuals) was performed. Parents and physiotherapists displayed a high agreement in their estimations of the presence of chronic pain, healthcare seeking, pain intensity and pain interference, as well as in non-verbal pain behaviors. Physiotherapists and parents can recognize pain behaviors in individuals with CP regardless of communication disabilities.

  5. MODELO DE COMUNICACIÓN NO VERBAL EN DEPORTE Y BALLET NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION MODELS IN SPORTS AND BALLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Vallejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza el modelo de comunicación que se genera en los entrenadores de fútbol y de gimnasia artística a nivel profesional, y en los instructores de ballet en modalidad folklórica, tomando como referente el lenguaje corporal dinámico propio de la comunicación especializada de deportistas y bailarines, en la que se evidencia lenguaje no verbal. Este último se estudió tanto en prácticas psicomotrices como sociomotrices, para identificar y caracterizar relaciones entre diferentes conceptos y su correspondiente representación gestual. Los resultados indican que el lenguaje no verbal de los entrenadores e instructores toma ocasionalmente el lugar del lenguaje verbal, cuando este último resulta insuficiente o inapropiado para describir una acción motriz de gran precisión, debido a las condiciones de distancia o de interferencias acústicas. En los instructores de ballet se encontró una forma generalizada de dirigir los ensayos utilizando conteos rítmicos con las palmas o los pies. De igual forma, se destacan los componentes paralingüísticos de los diversos actos de habla, especialmente, en lo que se refiere a entonación, duración e intensidad.This study analyzes the communication model generated among professional soccer trainers, artistic gymnastics trainers, and folkloric ballet instructors, on the basis of the dynamic body language typical of specialized communication among sportspeople and dancers, which includes a high percentage of non-verbal language. Non-verbal language was observed in both psychomotor and sociomotor practices in order to identify and characterize relations between different concepts and their corresponding gestural representation. This made it possible to generate a communication model that takes into account the non-verbal aspects of specialized communicative contexts. The results indicate that the non-verbal language of trainers and instructors occasionally replaces verbal language when the

  6. Strategic Silence as a Tool of Political Communication: A Reflection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Politics is said to be a game of intrigues and part of that is the use of silence as a means of communication. This may sound strange as communication itself connotes the art of expression. However in politics, a political actor may chose to remain silent as a means of passing a message across to the public in a trouble ...

  7. Verbal play as a discourse resource in the social interactions of older and younger communication pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shune, Samantha; Duff, Melissa Collins

    2014-01-01

    Verbal play, or the playful manipulation of elements of language, is a pervasive component of social interaction, serving important interpersonal functions. We analyzed verbal play in the interactional discourse of ten healthy younger pairs and ten healthy older pairs as they completed a collaborative referencing task. A total of 1,893 verbal play episodes were coded. While there were no group differences in verbal play frequency, age-related differences in the quality and function of these episodes emerged. While older participants engaged in more complex, extended, and reciprocal episodes that supported the social nature of communicative interactions (e.g., teasing), younger participants were more likely to engage in verbal play episodes for the purpose of successful task completion. Despite these age-related variations in the deployment of verbal play, verbal play is a robust interactional discourse resource in healthy aging, highlighting an element of human cognition that does not appear to decline with age.

  8. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  9. Toward Theory-Based Research in Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Adam F.; Iyengar, Shanto

    1996-01-01

    Praises the theoretical and methodological potential of the field of political communication. Calls for greater interaction and cross fertilization among the fields of political science, sociology, economics, and psychology. Briefly discusses relevant research methodologies. (MJP)

  10. Political Science and Speech Communication--A Team Approach to Teaching Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Stephen J.; Fogel, Norman

    This paper proposes making speech communication more interdisciplinary and, in particular, combining political science and speech in a team-taught course in election campaigning. The goals, materials, activities, and plan of such a course are discussed. The goals include: (1) gaining new insights into the process of contemporary campaigns and…

  11. [Non-verbal communication of patients submitted to heart surgery: from awaking after anesthesia to extubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlang, Sueli da Cruz; Azzolin, Karina; Moraes, Maria Antonieta; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Preoperative orientation is an essential tool for patient's communication after surgery. This study had the objective of evaluating non-verbal communication of patients submitted to cardiac surgery from the time of awaking from anesthesia until extubation, after having received preoperative orientation by nurses. A quantitative cross-sectional study was developed in a reference hospital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from March to July 2006. Data were collected in the pre and post operative periods. A questionnaire to evaluate non-verbal communication on awaking from sedation was applied to a sample of 100 patients. Statistical analysis included Student, Wilcoxon, and Mann Whittney tests. Most of the patients responded satisfactorily to non-verbal communication strategies as instructed on the preoperative orientation. Thus, non-verbal communication based on preoperative orientation was helpful during the awaking period.

  12. Trauma team leaders' non-verbal communication: video registration during trauma team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härgestam, Maria; Hultin, Magnus; Brulin, Christine; Jacobsson, Maritha

    2016-03-25

    There is widespread consensus on the importance of safe and secure communication in healthcare, especially in trauma care where time is a limiting factor. Although non-verbal communication has an impact on communication between individuals, there is only limited knowledge of how trauma team leaders communicate. The purpose of this study was to investigate how trauma team members are positioned in the emergency room, and how leaders communicate in terms of gaze direction, vocal nuances, and gestures during trauma team training. Eighteen trauma teams were audio and video recorded during trauma team training in the emergency department of a hospital in northern Sweden. Quantitative content analysis was used to categorize the team members' positions and the leaders' non-verbal communication: gaze direction, vocal nuances, and gestures. The quantitative data were interpreted in relation to the specific context. Time sequences of the leaders' gaze direction, speech time, and gestures were identified separately and registered as time (seconds) and proportions (%) of the total training time. The team leaders who gained control over the most important area in the emergency room, the "inner circle", positioned themselves as heads over the team, using gaze direction, gestures, vocal nuances, and verbal commands that solidified their verbal message. Changes in position required both attention and collaboration. Leaders who spoke in a hesitant voice, or were silent, expressed ambiguity in their non-verbal communication: and other team members took over the leader's tasks. In teams where the leader had control over the inner circle, the members seemed to have an awareness of each other's roles and tasks, knowing when in time and where in space these tasks needed to be executed. Deviations in the leaders' communication increased the ambiguity in the communication, which had consequences for the teamwork. Communication cannot be taken for granted; it needs to be practiced

  13. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAMBAEEROO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Methods: Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. Results: The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students’ academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students’ learning and academic success. The teachers’ attention to the students’ non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students’ mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. Conclusion: It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students’ mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message

  14. The impact of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambaeeroo, Fatemeh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2017-04-01

    Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers' use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students' academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students' learning and academic success. The teachers' attention to the students' non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students' mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students' mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message and ask him to pay more attention to non-verbal than verbal messages because non-verbal

  15. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAMBAEEROO, FATEMEH; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Methods: Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. Results: The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students’ academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students’ learning and academic success. The teachers’ attention to the students’ non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students’ mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. Conclusion: It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students’ mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message and ask him to pay

  16. Clients' psychosocial communication and midwives' verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Linda; Gitsels-van der Wal, Janneke T; Pereboom, Monique T R; Spelten, Evelien R; Hutton, Eileen K; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on facilitation of clients' psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives' psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling duration. During 184 videotaped prenatal counseling consultations with 20 Dutch midwives, verbal psychosocial and affective behavior was measured by the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). We rated the duration of client-directed gaze. We performed multilevel analyses to assess the relation between clients' psychosocial communication and midwives' psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling duration. Clients' psychosocial communication was higher if midwives' asked more psychosocial questions and showed more affective behavior (β=0.90; CI: 0.45-1.35; pcommunication was not related to midwives" client-directed gaze. Additionally, psychosocial communication by clients was directly, positively related to the counseling duration (β=0.59; CI: 0.20-099; p=0.004). In contrast with our expectations, midwives' client-directed gaze was not related with psychosocial communication of clients. In addition to asking psychosocial questions, our study shows that midwives' affective behavior and counseling duration is likely to encourage client's psychosocial communication, known to be especially important for facilitating decision-making. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The power of likes: Social media logic and political communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kalsnes, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Political communication on social media is the topic of this dissertation. The Internet and social media platforms have provided participants in the public sphere with new ways to connect, communicate and distribute information. This study examines how and why the three main actor groups within political communicationpolitical actors, media actors and citizens – connect and interact on social media during the electoral process in Norway in 2013. This hybrid media landscape is characterized...

  18. Direct observation of mother-child communication in pediatric cancer: assessment of verbal and non-verbal behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Madeleine J; Rodriguez, Erin M; Miller, Kimberly S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Saylor, Megan; Scheule, C Melanie; Compas, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To examine the acceptability and feasibility of coding observed verbal and nonverbal behavioral and emotional components of mother-child communication among families of children with cancer. Mother-child dyads (N=33, children ages 5-17 years) were asked to engage in a videotaped 15-min conversation about the child's cancer. Coding was done using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS). Acceptability and feasibility of direct observation in this population were partially supported: 58% consented and 81% of those (47% of all eligible dyads) completed the task; trained raters achieved 78% agreement in ratings across codes. The construct validity of the IFIRS was demonstrated by expected associations within and between positive and negative behavioral/emotional code ratings and between mothers' and children's corresponding code ratings. Direct observation of mother-child communication about childhood cancer has the potential to be an acceptable and feasible method of assessing verbal and nonverbal behavior and emotion in this population.

  19. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Paiva, Simone; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César

    2010-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mothers infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers strong attachment to their children after birth.

  20. Multiply controlled verbal operants: An analysis and extension to the picture exchange communication system

    OpenAIRE

    Bondy, Andy; Tincani, Matt; Frost, Lori

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior as a framework for understanding language acquisition in children with autism. We describe Skinner's analysis of pure and impure verbal operants and illustrate how this analysis may be applied to the design of communication training programs. The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a training program influenced by Skinner's framework. We describe the training sequence associated with PECS and illustrate how this sequ...

  1. A Study of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Second Life--The ARCHI21 Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional synthetic worlds introduce possibilities for nonverbal communication in computer-mediated language learning. This paper presents an original methodological framework for the study of multimodal communication in such worlds. It offers a classification of verbal and nonverbal communication acts in the synthetic world "Second…

  2. Phenomenology of non-verbal communication as a representation of sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Karpets

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The priority of language professional activity in sports is such non-verbal communication as body language. Purpose: to delete the main aspects of non-verbal communication as a representation of sports activities. Material & Methods: in the study participated members of sports teams, individual athletes, in particular, for such sports: basketball, handball, volleyball, football, hockey, bodybuilding. Results: in the process of research it was revealed that in sports activities such nonverbal communication as gestures, facial expressions, physique, etc., are lapped, and, as a consequence, the position "everything is language" (Lyotard is embodied. Conclusions: non-verbal communication is one of the most significant forms of communication in sports. Additional means of communication through the "language" of the body help the athletes to realize themselves and self-determination.

  3. The Role of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in a Two-Person, Cooperative Manipulation Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarangi P. Parikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the differences between human and robot teams, we investigated the role of verbal communication between human teammates as they work together to move a large object to a series of target locations. Only one member of the group was told the target sequence by the experimenters, while the second teammate had no target knowledge. The two experimental conditions we compared were haptic-verbal (teammates are allowed to talk and haptic only (no talking allowed. The team’s trajectory was recorded and evaluated. In addition, participants completed a NASA TLX-style postexperimental survey which gauges workload along 6 different dimensions. In our initial experiment we found no significant difference in performance when verbal communication was added. In a follow-up experiment, using a different manipulation task, we did find that the addition of verbal communication significantly improved performance and reduced the perceived workload. In both experiments, for the haptic-only condition, we found that a remarkable number of groups independently improvised common haptic communication protocols (CHIPs. We speculate that such protocols can be substituted for verbal communication and that the performance difference between verbal and nonverbal communication may be related to how easy it is to distinguish the CHIPs from motions required for task completion.

  4. [Verbal and gestural communication in interpersonal interaction with Alzheimer's disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara; Di Pastena, Angela; Askevis-Leherpeux, Françoise; Clément, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    Communication can be defined as a verbal and non verbal exchange of thoughts and emotions. While verbal communication deficit in Alzheimer's disease is well documented, very little is known about gestural communication, especially in interpersonal situations. This study examines the production of gestures and its relations with verbal aspects of communication. Three patients suffering from moderately severe Alzheimer's disease were compared to three healthy adults. Each one were given a series of pictures and asked to explain which one she preferred and why. The interpersonal interaction was video recorded. Analyses concerned verbal production (quantity and quality) and gestures. Gestures were either non representational (i.e., gestures of small amplitude punctuating speech or accentuating some parts of utterance) or representational (i.e., referring to the object of the speech). Representational gestures were coded as iconic (depicting of concrete aspects), metaphoric (depicting of abstract meaning) or deictic (pointing toward an object). In comparison with healthy participants, patients revealed a decrease in quantity and quality of speech. Nevertheless, their production of gestures was always present. This pattern is in line with the conception that gestures and speech depend on different communicational systems and look inconsistent with the assumption of a parallel dissolution of gesture and speech. Moreover, analyzing the articulation between verbal and gestural dimensions suggests that representational gestures may compensate for speech deficits. It underlines the importance for the role of gestures in maintaining interpersonal communication.

  5. Politeness Principle in Cross-Culture Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongliang

    2008-01-01

    As we all know, different people hold different views about politeness. To be polite, Leech thinks you should follow "Politeness Principle" while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' "Face Wants". Sometimes what the Chinese people considered to be polite may not be true according to western culture. In order to…

  6. Sources of history for "a psychology of verbal communication".

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine

    2011-02-01

    There is a standard version of the history of modern mainstream psycholinguistics that emphasizes an extraordinary explosion of research in mid twentieth century under the guidance and leadership of George A. Miller and Noam Chomsky. The narrative is cast as a dramatic shift away from behavioristic principles and toward mentalistic principles based largely on transformational linguistics. A closer view of the literature diminishes the historical importance of behaviorism, shows a prevailing "written language bias" (Linell in The written language bias in linguistics: Its nature, origins and transformations, Routledge, London, 2005, p. 4) in psycholinguistic research, and elevates some theoretical and empirical thinking of the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries on language and language use to a far more important role than has heretofore been acknowledged. In keeping with the theoretical and methodological perspective of the present article, it is particularly appropriate that the German philologist Philipp Wegener be "given his due in the annals of linguistic sciences" (Koerner 1991, p. VI*). In his (1885/1991) Untersuchungen über die Grundfragen des Sprachlebens (Investigations regarding the fundamental questions of the life of language; our translation), he began his philological research with the investigation of actual speaking in everyday settings rather than with analyses of purely formal structure. Moreover, he emphasized understanding language and localized this function in the listener. Compatible with Wegener's own investigations is another aspect of speaking that has been most seriously neglected throughout the history of research on the psychology of verbal communication. For him, as well as for Esper (In C. Murchison [Ed.], A handbook of social psychology, Clark University Press, Worchester, MA, 1935), the basic and primary genre of dialogical discourse was not ongoing conversation, but the occasional use of speech in association with

  7. The Fourth Age of Political Communication: Democratic decay or the rise of phronetic political communication?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    The ‘fourth age’ of political communication is emerging. In the fourth age the logics of media and digitization shapes the public sphere, because algorithms and polarized drama increasingly determine what we become aware of in digital and mass media. The result may very well be a less informed public sphere. The emerging class of policy professionals has the opportunity to mix the logics of mediatization and digitization. While such a mix may very well lead to democratic decay, based on eliti...

  8. Analysis of verbal communication during teaching in the operating room and the potentials for surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, E M; Verdaasdonk, E G G; Stassen, L P S; Stassen, H G; Wieringa, P A; Dankelman, J

    2007-09-01

    Verbal communication in the operating room during surgical procedures affects team performance, reflects individual skills, and is related to the complexity of the operation process. During the procedural training of surgeons (residents), feedback and guidance is given through verbal communication. A classification method based on structural analysis of the contents was developed to analyze verbal communication. This study aimed to evaluate whether a classification method for the contents of verbal communication in the operating room could provide insight into the teaching processes. Eight laparoscopic cholecystectomies were videotaped. Two entire cholecystectomies and the dissection phase of six additional procedures were analyzed by categorization of the communication in terms of type (4 categories: commanding, explaining, questioning, and miscellaneous) and content (9 categories: operation method, location, direction, instrument handling, visualization, anatomy and pathology, general, private, undefinable). The operation was divided into six phases: start, dissection, clipping, separating, control, closing. Classification of the communication during two entire procedures showed that each phase of the operation was dominated by different kinds of communication. A high percentage of explaining anatomy and pathology was found throughout the whole procedure except for the control and closing phases. In the dissection phases, 60% of verbal communication concerned explaining. These explaining communication events were divided as follows: 27% operation method, 19% anatomy and pathology, 25% location (positioning of the instrument-tissue interaction), 15% direction (direction of tissue manipulation), 11% instrument handling, and 3% other nonclassified instructions. The proposed classification method is feasible for analyzing verbal communication during surgical procedures. Communication content objectively reflects the interaction between surgeon and resident. This

  9. The Political Economy of Global Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. McChesney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note McChesney’s contribution was first published as an introductory chapter in the edited volume entitled Capitalism and the Information Age. In this volume, authors (also those basing their research in areas other than critical communication studies provided, amongst other things, a critique of the celebratory ideas about the revolutionary potentials of the Internet, the new information and, communication technologies, and of the information society, which supposedly brought about a complete discontinuity with the past. The volume presented an original and sorely needed critical insight into these debates, which often hailed new technologies and social changes. It is worth pointing out that this volume also features two chapters by Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman. In these they rethink the role of propaganda in society and their own “propaganda model”, which was aggressively (but often baselessly criticized. Herman’s chapter is dedicated in its entirety to providing a weighty answer to these critiques. McChesney’s contribution, on the other hand, gives an insight into the history of the approach of political economy of communication, embeds the approach in the context of global capitalism (when the full realization about its role in the world context only started to emerge, while also touching upon the key dilemmas of its time that remain relevant to this day (e.g., market liberalization and the corporate ownership of media industries, growth of monopolization, digitalization and the Internet. This is a timely contribution that also demonstrates McChesney’s activist approach and shows how difficult it is for social scientists to forecast what exactly the future will bring.

  10. The Changing Context of Interpersonal Communication in Political Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Garrett J.

    Critiques and studies have found the traditional two-step flow model of social influence inadequate to describe and explain relationships between interpersonal and mass communications during political campaigns. A study was undertaken to incorporate a wider range of variables pertinent to both kinds of political communication behaviors to redefine…

  11. Political Communication: Contributions to the Study of Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacks, Don W.

    Political communication has influenced greatly the study of modern public relations. The development of modern public relations can be traced back to the Ancients of Greece. The definition of "political communication" when applied to public relations is typically corporate in nature. That is, public relations defines the role of…

  12. Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg

    2012-09-01

    Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity

  13. Communication skills of heads of departments: verbal, listening, and feedback skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Yadollah; Barati, Majid

    2011-11-04

    Managers' communication skills are one of the most important topics in educational sector of universities of medical sciences and may have considerable effect on faculty members and employees. This study was per-formed to determine the level of communication skills (verbal, listening, feed-back) of the heads of department of faculties and its relation with some demo-graphic variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2009 to January 2010. We enrolled all of the heads of departments (N=60) in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, western Iran. The participants received a self-administered 24-item questionnaire in Likert format (six general items and 18 items related to communication skills). Data were analyzed with SPSS software using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. The average scores of verbal, listening and feedback communication were 22.5, 16.1 and 21.1, respectively. Accordingly, 78.3% of participants in verbal communication, 16.7% in listening communication and 73.3% in feedback communication had high status. There were significant differences between the average score of listening skills and age (P=0.013) as well as gender (P=0.042). In addition, there was a significant statistical difference between verbal skills and gender (P=0.021). The overall communication skills of more than half of the heads of departments were moderate. This needs designing some programs for improving department managers' communication skills.

  14. Context, culture and (non-verbal) communication affect handover quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Richard M; Flanagan, Mindy; Ebright, Patricia; Bergman, Alicia; O'Brien, Colleen M; Franks, Zamal; Allen, Andrew; Harris, Angela; Saleem, Jason J

    2012-12-01

    Transfers of care, also known as handovers, remain a substantial patient safety risk. Although research on handovers has been done since the 1980s, the science is incomplete. Surprisingly few interventions have been rigorously evaluated and, of those that have, few have resulted in long-term positive change. Researchers, both in medicine and other high reliability industries, agree that face-to-face handovers are the most reliable. It is not clear, however, what the term face-to-face means in actual practice. We studied the use of non-verbal behaviours, including gesture, posture, bodily orientation, facial expression, eye contact and physical distance, in the delivery of information during face-to-face handovers. To address this question and study the role of non-verbal behaviour on the quality and accuracy of handovers, we videotaped 52 nursing, medicine and surgery handovers covering 238 patients. Videotapes were analysed using immersion/crystallisation methods of qualitative data analysis. A team of six researchers met weekly for 18 months to view videos together using a consensus-building approach. Consensus was achieved on verbal, non-verbal, and physical themes and patterns observed in the data. We observed four patterns of non-verbal behaviour (NVB) during handovers: (1) joint focus of attention; (2) 'the poker hand'; (3) parallel play and (4) kerbside consultation. In terms of safety, joint focus of attention was deemed to have the best potential for high quality and reliability; however, it occurred infrequently, creating opportunities for education and improvement. Attention to patterns of NVB in face-to-face handovers coupled with education and practice can improve quality and reliability.

  15. Political communication research: New media, new challenges, and new opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Kleis Nielsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008. In this article, I argue that parts of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology, certain strands of political science, and the effects-tradition of mass communication research. This dominant paradigm has contributed much to our understanding of some aspects of political communication. But it is struggling to make sense of many others, including questions concerning people’s experience of political communication processes and questions concerning the symbolic, institutional, and technological nature of these processes—especially during a time of often rapid change. To overcome this problem, I argue that the field of political communication research should re-engage with the rest of media and communication studies and embrace a broader and more diverse agenda. I discuss audience research and journalism studies as examples of adjacent fields that use a more diverse range of theoretical and methodological tools that might help political communication research engage with new media and the new challenges and new opportunities for research that they represent.

  16. Maria Montessori (1870-1952): Women's emancipation, pedagogy and extra verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascella, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Maria Montessori is one of the most well-known women in Italian history. Although she was the first woman who graduated in medicine in Italy, she is mostly known as an educator. Her teaching method--the Montessori Method- is still used worldwide--Because she could not speak English during the imprisonment in India, there was a big obstacle for her communication with children. However, the need to adopt a non-verbal communication, led her to a sensational discovery: children use an innate and universal language. This language, made of gestures and mimic, is called extra verbal communication.

  17. Atypical Verbal Communication Pattern According to Others' Attention in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Kosuke; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka; Okada, Masako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Children with Williams syndrome (WS) have been reported to often face problems in daily communication and to have deficits in their pragmatic language abilities. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether children with WS could modify their verbal communication according to others' attention in order to share what they did. The children with WS…

  18. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Students with Severe and Profound Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacaru, Cristina Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The article aims to study ways of achieving human rights by offering everyone a voice, a communicational tool which will allow accessibility and access to quality education for all, regardless of the degree of disability. The main objective of the present study was to describe the profile of communication and study the use of verbal and nonverbal…

  19. Journalism and Mass Communication Textbook Representations of Verbal Media Skills: Implications for Students with Speech Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Elia M.; Haller, Beth

    2017-01-01

    This study examines representation of disabilities by conducting a qualitative content analysis of how 41 journalism/mass communication textbooks frame the ideal standards of verbal communication for media professionals. Textbooks are integral to students' understanding of professional norms and may influence career decisions. Results show that…

  20. Non-verbal communication in meetings of psychiatrists and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, M; Dimic, S; Wildgrube, C; McCabe, R; Priebe, S

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence found that patients with schizophrenia display non-verbal behaviour designed to avoid social engagement during the opening moments of their meetings with psychiatrists. This study aimed to replicate, and build on, this finding, assessing the non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists during meetings, exploring changes over time and its association with patients' symptoms and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. 40-videotaped routine out-patient consultations, involving patients with schizophrenia, were analysed. Non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists was assessed during three fixed, 2-min intervals using a modified Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptoms, satisfaction with communication and the quality of the therapeutic relationship were also measured. Over time, patients' non-verbal behaviour remained stable, whilst psychiatrists' flight behaviour decreased. Patients formed two groups based on their non-verbal profiles, one group (n = 25) displaying pro-social behaviour, inviting interaction and a second (n = 15) displaying flight behaviour, avoiding interaction. Psychiatrists interacting with pro-social patients displayed more pro-social behaviours (P communication (P non-verbal behaviour during routine psychiatric consultations remains unchanged, and is linked to both their psychiatrist's non-verbal behaviour and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Heterosexual assumptions in verbal and non-verbal communication in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röndahl, Gerd; Innala, Sune; Carlsson, Marianne

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports a study of what lesbian women and gay men had to say, as patients and as partners, about their experiences of nursing in hospital care, and what they regarded as important to communicate about homosexuality and nursing. The social life of heterosexual cultures is based on the assumption that all people are heterosexual, thereby making homosexuality socially invisible. Nurses may assume that all patients and significant others are heterosexual, and these heteronormative assumptions may lead to poor communication that affects nursing quality by leading nurses to ask the wrong questions and make incorrect judgements. A qualitative interview study was carried out in the spring of 2004. Seventeen women and 10 men ranging in age from 23 to 65 years from different parts of Sweden participated. They described 46 experiences as patients and 31 as partners. Heteronormativity was communicated in waiting rooms, in patient documents and when registering for admission, and nursing staff sometimes showed perplexity when an informant deviated from this heteronormative assumption. Informants had often met nursing staff who showed fear of behaving incorrectly, which could lead to a sense of insecurity, thereby impeding further communication. As partners of gay patients, informants felt that they had to deal with heterosexual assumptions more than they did when they were patients, and the consequences were feelings of not being accepted as a 'true' relative, of exclusion and neglect. Almost all participants offered recommendations about how nursing staff could facilitate communication. Heterosexual norms communicated unconsciously by nursing staff contribute to ambivalent attitudes and feelings of insecurity that prevent communication and easily lead to misconceptions. Educational and management interventions, as well as increased communication, could make gay people more visible and thereby encourage openness and awareness by hospital staff of the norms that they

  2. Nakama : A companion for non-verbal affective communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, C.J.A.M.; Munters, G.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Heylen, D.K.J.

    2015-01-01

    We present "Nakama": A communication device that supports affective communication between a child and its - geographically separated - parent. Nakama consists of a control unit at the parent's end and an actuated teddy bear for the child. The bear contains several communication channels, including

  3. Nakama: a companion for non-verbal affective communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Christian Jacob Arendt Maria; Munters, Gerald M.; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    2015-01-01

    We present "Nakama": A communication device that supports affective communication between a child and its - geographically separated - parent. Nakama consists of a control unit at the parent's end and an actuated teddy bear for the child. The bear contains several communication channels, including

  4. Contributions of Print Journalism to the Study of Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Bruce

    Print journalism and journalism research have contributed many concepts, principles, and communication techniques to the field of political communication. An examination of the indexes of "Public Opinion Quarterly,""Journalism Quarterly," and the "Journal of Communication" through the mid-1960s indicates the evolution of the study of print media…

  5. Practising verbal maritime communication with computer dialogue systems using automatic speech recognition (My Practice session)

    OpenAIRE

    John, Peter; Wellmann, J.; Appell, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This My Practice session presents a novel online tool for practising verbal communication in a maritime setting. It is based on low-fi ChatBot simulation exercises which employ computer-based dialogue systems. The ChatBot exercises are equipped with an automatic speech recognition engine specifically designed for maritime communication. The speech input and output functionality enables learners to communicate with the computer freely and spontaneously. The exercises replicate real communicati...

  6. New digital communication strategies: the effects of personalized and interactive political communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kruikemeier, S.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    In communication research, it has been claimed that two important characteristics of online political communication, personalized and interactive two-way communication, can mobilize citizens to become more politically involved. In a survey-embedded experiment, we examine whether levels of

  7. [Non-verbal communication and executive function impairment after traumatic brain injury: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainson, C

    2007-05-01

    Following post-traumatic impairment in executive function, failure to adjust to communication situations often creates major obstacles to social and professional reintegration. The analysis of pathological verbal communication has been based on clinical scales since the 1980s, but that of nonverbal elements has been neglected, although their importance should be acknowledged. The aim of this research was to study non-verbal aspects of communication in a case of executive-function impairment after traumatic brain injury. During the patient's conversation with an interlocutor, all nonverbal parameters - coverbal gestures, gaze, posture, proxemics and facial expressions - were studied in as much an ecological way as possible, to closely approximate natural conversation conditions. Such an approach highlights the difficulties such patients experience in communicating, difficulties of a pragmatic kind, that have so far been overlooked by traditional investigations, which mainly take into account the formal linguistic aspects of language. The analysis of the patient's conversation revealed non-verbal dysfunctions, not only on a pragmatic and interactional level but also in terms of enunciation. Moreover, interactional adjustment phenomena were noted in the interlocutor's behaviour. The two inseparable aspects of communication - verbal and nonverbal - should be equally assessed in patients with communication difficulties; highlighting distortions in each area might bring about an improvement in the rehabilitation of such people.

  8. Patients' perceptions of GP non-verbal communication: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowicz, Ludmila; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Godlewski, Cezary

    2010-02-01

    During doctor-patient interactions, many messages are transmitted without words, through non-verbal communication. To elucidate the types of non-verbal behaviours perceived by patients interacting with family GPs and to determine which cues are perceived most frequently. In-depth interviews with patients of family GPs. Nine family practices in different regions of Poland. At each practice site, interviews were performed with four patients who were scheduled consecutively to see their family doctor. Twenty-four of 36 studied patients spontaneously perceived non-verbal behaviours of the family GP during patient-doctor encounters. They reported a total of 48 non-verbal cues. The most frequent features were tone of voice, eye contact, and facial expressions. Less frequent were examination room characteristics, touch, interpersonal distance, GP clothing, gestures, and posture. Non-verbal communication is an important factor by which patients spontaneously describe and evaluate their interactions with a GP. Family GPs should be trained to better understand and monitor their own non-verbal behaviours towards patients.

  9. Getting the message across: perceived effectiveness of political campaign communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spanje, J.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Elenbaas, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Azrout, R.; Schuck, A.R.T.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Do political actors communicate effectively during electoral campaigns? We introduce a novel concept in electoral research, the "perceived effectiveness of political parties' election campaigns." This evaluation concentrates on the extent to which a party is seen as getting its message across to the

  10. Targeting Political Communications: A Problem in Market Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwart, Richard I.

    Political campaigns are major, high-budget marketing efforts, but because they are usually managed by people with little training in either marketing or communications, they fail to persuade voters to vote in the desired way. Political targeting can be treated as a segmentation problem, one of identifying and responding to the specific qualities…

  11. Movies as Political Communication: A Theory of Popular Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, James

    To understand film as a form of political communication, movies must be regarded as an art form made both with commercial and aesthetic considerations and with cultural, industrial, and artistic traditions in mind. Filmmaking must also be viewed as a process or as a temporal activity of a culture. Through political mediation, or the process of…

  12. Communication practices and political engagement with climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Anabela; Wessel, van Margit; Maeseele, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we call for a refocusing of research on citizens’ political engagement with climate change. In doing so, we argue that communication practices not only help create the conditions for political engagement but they also comprise the modes of such engagement. Our argument proceeds in

  13. Maternal verbal responses to communication of infants at low and heightened risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leezenbaum, Nina B; Campbell, Susan B; Butler, Derrecka; Iverson, Jana M

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates mothers' responses to infant communication among infants at heightened genetic risk (high risk) of autism spectrum disorder compared to infants with no such risk (low risk). A total of 26 infants, 12 of whom had an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder, were observed during naturalistic in-home interaction and semistructured play with their mothers at 13 and 18 months of age. Results indicate that overall, mothers of low-risk and high-risk infants were highly and similarly responsive to their infants' communicative behaviors. However, examination of infant vocal and gestural communication development together with maternal verbal responses and translations (i.e. verbally labeling a gesture referent) suggests that delays in early communication development observed among high-risk infants may alter the input that these infants receive; this in turn may have cascading effects on the subsequent development of communication and language. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. The language of uncertainty in genetic risk communication: framing and verbal versus numerical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welkenhuysen, M; Evers-Kiebooms, G; d'Ydewalle, G

    2001-05-01

    Within a group of 300 medical students, two characteristics of risk communication in the context of a decision regarding prenatal diagnosis for cystic fibrosis are manipulated: verbal versus numerical probabilities and the negative versus positive framing of the problem (having a child with versus without cystic fibrosis). Independently of the manipulations, most students were in favor of prenatal diagnosis. The effect of framing was only significant in the conditions with verbal information: negative framing produced a stronger choice in favor of prenatal diagnosis than positive framing. The framing effect in the verbal conditions and its absence in the numerical conditions are explained by the dominance of the problem-occurrence orientation in health matters as well as a recoding process which is more likely to occur in the numerical (the probability "1-P" switches to its counterpart "P") than in the verbal conditions. The implications for the practice of genetic counseling are discussed.

  15. Comparative study of "politeness"in multicultural communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清莹

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, everyone has to communicate with the medium of language. How to communicate effectively is a question bothering each of us through our lifetime. This thesis analyzes the situations of communication between Chinese people and foreigners from the perceptive of Levinson's face theory and Gu Yueguo's theory about politeness in Chinese culture in order to further find out the different cultural characteristics of communication in China and the West.

  16. Using Decision Trees to Characterize Verbal Communication During Change and Stuck Episodes in the Therapeutic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo eMasías

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods are needed for creating models to characterize verbal communication between therapists and their patients that are suitable for teaching purposes without losing analytical potential. A technique meeting these twin requirements is proposed that uses decision trees to identify both change and stuck episodes in therapist-patient communication. Three decision tree algorithms (C4.5, NBtree, and REPtree are applied to the problem of characterizing verbal responses into change and stuck episodes in the therapeutic process. The data for the problem is derived from a corpus of 8 successful individual therapy sessions with 1,760 speaking turns in a psychodynamic context. The decision tree model that performed best was generated by the C4.5 algorithm. It delivered 15 rules characterizing the verbal communication in the two types of episodes. Decision trees are a promising technique for analyzing verbal communication during significant therapy events and have much potential for use in teaching practice on changes in therapeutic communication. The development of pedagogical methods using decision trees can support the transmission of academic knowledge to therapeutic practice.

  17. Using decision trees to characterize verbal communication during change and stuck episodes in the therapeutic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masías, Víctor H; Krause, Mariane; Valdés, Nelson; Pérez, J C; Laengle, Sigifredo

    2015-01-01

    Methods are needed for creating models to characterize verbal communication between therapists and their patients that are suitable for teaching purposes without losing analytical potential. A technique meeting these twin requirements is proposed that uses decision trees to identify both change and stuck episodes in therapist-patient communication. Three decision tree algorithms (C4.5, NBTree, and REPTree) are applied to the problem of characterizing verbal responses into change and stuck episodes in the therapeutic process. The data for the problem is derived from a corpus of 8 successful individual therapy sessions with 1760 speaking turns in a psychodynamic context. The decision tree model that performed best was generated by the C4.5 algorithm. It delivered 15 rules characterizing the verbal communication in the two types of episodes. Decision trees are a promising technique for analyzing verbal communication during significant therapy events and have much potential for use in teaching practice on changes in therapeutic communication. The development of pedagogical methods using decision trees can support the transmission of academic knowledge to therapeutic practice.

  18. Non-verbal communication between primary care physicians and older patients: how does race matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Zhang, Qian; Wieland, Darryl; Eleazer, G Paul; Stewart, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important aspect of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, especially with older patients. It is unknown how non-verbal communication varies with physician and patient race. To examine the joint influence of physician race and patient race on non-verbal communication displayed by primary care physicians during medical interviews with patients 65 years or older. Video-recordings of visits of 209 patients 65 years old or older to 30 primary care physicians at three clinics located in the Midwest and Southwest. Duration of physicians' open body position, eye contact, smile, and non-task touch, coded using an adaption of the Nonverbal Communication in Doctor-Elderly Patient Transactions form. African American physicians with African American patients used more open body position, smile, and touch, compared to the average across other dyads (adjusted mean difference for open body position = 16.55, p non-verbal communication with older patients. Its influence is best understood when physician race and patient race are considered jointly.

  19. Verbal Communication in the APR1400 Advanced Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Shin, Young Cheol

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics of communication in advanced main controlghd rooms (MCRs) and some observations from a case study performed for APR1400 MCR. In advanced MCRs, operators need not maintain the same communication patterns as they do in conventional ones. For example, a senior reactor operator (SRO) does not have to rely on board operators for information acquisition and can get any information from his/her own workstation. This situation may also bring about new problems in MCRs such as lack of shared situation awareness and collaboration between MCR operators. To cope with these problems, the APR1400 MCR adapts several approaches in design and training for encouraging operators to communicate with each other. This paper introduces the possible changes of communication patterns and the countermeasures in design and training. Some findings from an integrated system validation for Shin Kori Units 3 and 4 are also presented

  20. Political Communication in Disasters: A Question of Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish McLean

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Politicians are both a help and hindrance in the provision of information to the public before, during and after disasters. For example, in Australia, the Premier of the State of Queensland, Anna Bligh, was lauded for her leadership and public communication skills during major floods that occurred late in 2010 and in early 2011 (de Bussy, Martin and Paterson 2012. Similarly, New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani was praised for his leadership following 9/11. This is in contrast to the poor performance of political leaders during Hurricane Katrina (Cole and Fellows 2008, Olson and Gawronski 2010. Political actors' lack of credibility and their poor situational awareness contributed to the problems. The involvement of political leaders in disaster communications is also problematic from the perspective of emergency agencies. For example, politicians who move their communication position from supportive to tactical can take over the role of providing official disaster information, such as evacuation warnings, without sufficient expertise, credibility or situational knowledge. This paper builds on the expanding body of research into the politics of disasters by exploring relationships with political actors from the perspective of emergency managers. Drawing on interviews with emergency agencies in Australia, Germany, Norway and the UK, we firstly examine when and what a politician should communicate during disasters and secondly, offer six principles toward a roadmap of involving political actors in the disaster communication process when life and property is at stake.

  1. Communication by impact” and other forms of non-verbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to review the importance, place and especially the emotional impact of non-verbal communication in psychiatry. The paper argues that while biological psychiatry is in the ascendency with increasing discoveries being made about the functioning of the brain and psycho-pharmacology, it is important to try ...

  2. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  3. Patient anxiety in the medical encounter: a study of verbal and nonverbal communication in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.M.; Verheul, W.; Dulmen, A.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Many patients feel anxious when entering the consultation room, but seldom verbalize their emotions explicitly in the medical encounter. The authors designed a study to analyse the visibility of patient pre-consultation (state) anxiety in their communication during the consultation. In an

  4. The Introduction of Non-Verbal Communication in Greek Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…

  5. The effect of visual information on verbal communication process in remote conversation

    OpenAIRE

    國田, 祥子; 中條, 和光

    2005-01-01

    This article examined how visual information affects verbal communication process in remote communication. In the experiment twenty pairs of subjects performed a collaborative task remotely via video and audio links or audio link only. During the task used in this experiment one of a pair (an instruction-giver) gave direction with a map to the other of the pair (an instruction-receiver). We recorded and analyzed contents of utterances. Consequently, the existence of visual information did not...

  6. Reconciling Verbal and Nonverbal Models of Dyadic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Ira J.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines two distinct theoretical descriptions of dyadic communication, the distance-equilibrium and reciprocity formulations, and shows that they carry divergent implications for changes that can occur in interpersonal relations. Presented at the Western Psychological Association meeting, April 1975. (Author)

  7. POLITICAL COMMUNICATION DURING THE 2014 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN: ONLINE MEDIA COVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cîrtiţă-Buzoianu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The election campaign has lately become a real challenge where all the political actors display their skills, the communication ones, but also those related to the electoral marketing and public relations which play a vital role in creating the image of a particular candidate. The interest that the public manifest towards the presidential debates, as well as towards all the means of political communication used by the actors involved represents a reference point in the construction of an election campaign. Our paper aims to achieve a quantitative analysis of the communicational messages sent during the 2014 presidential campaign in the online media. In this respect, we are going to conduct a media monitoring on two central newspapers, namely “Evenimentul Zilei” (“Daily Event” and “Jurnalul Național” (“National Journal”, to track the online media visibility of the political communication starting from several indicators predefined in order to measure the efficiency of the political communication. Thus, our approach considers the influence of political communication in the election campaign as it appears in the online press in Romania.

  8. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-12-01

    Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20minutes. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of one minute immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which nonverbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7 to 11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of visual and verbal means of communication across psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Elinor; Wakslak, Cheryl; Trope, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of distance on medium preferences in interpersonal communication. Five experiments showed that people's preference for using pictures (vs. words) is increasingly higher when communicating with temporally, socially, or geographically proximal (vs. distal) others. In contrast, preference for words is increasingly higher when communicating with those who were distal. A sixth experiment showed that communication's medium influences distance preferences, such that people's preference for communicating a message to a distant (vs. proximal) target is greater for verbal compared with pictorial communications. A seventh experiment showed that recipients are more likely to heed a sender's suggestions when the medium and distance are congruent. These findings reflect the suitability of pictures for communication with proximal others and words with distal others. Implications of these findings for construal-level theory, perspective taking, embodied cognition, the development of language, and social skills with children are discussed.

  10. The Impact of Cultural Differences on Verbal Communication at Lexical Level between Chinese and Americans%The Impact of Cultural Differences on Verbal Communication at Lexical Level between Chinese and Americans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蕾

    2011-01-01

    In the present world, as modern science and technology are experiencing explosive development, intercultural communication becomes more and more extensive. But we all know that different nations have different history, religion, tradition, custom, etc. In this essay, the author makes an analysis of the impact of cultural difference on verbal communication at lexical level. For us, learning something about the cultural differences is very helpful to our verbal communication between Chinese and Americans.

  11. Economic, Political and Communicative power in the neoliberal societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bergés-Saura, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the relations between the economic, political and communicative powers in the socioeconomic model of neoliberal capitalism. Firstly, it examines the transformations in the economic power, to analyse later the various mechanisms linking this changing economic power to the media performance. Among these mechanisms, the article analyses the control of ownership and other external financial sources; the origin of commercial income; and business management techniques, while simultaneously investigating the relations between these variables and the transformations in the economic sphere. Following the political economy tradition, the article addresses the implications that the concentration of economic, political and communicative power have on democracy and freedom, taking into account the evolution of the socioeconomic and political system in the last decades.

  12. Verbal communication among Alzheimer's disease patients, their caregivers, and primary care physicians during primary care office visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karen L; Lingler, Jennifer H; Schulz, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Primary care visits of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often involve communication among patients, family caregivers, and primary care physicians (PCPs). The objective of this study was to understand the nature of each individual's verbal participation in these triadic interactions. To define the verbal communication dynamics of AD care triads, we compared verbal participation (percent of total visit speech) by each participant in patient/caregiver/PCP triads. Twenty-three triads were audio taped during a routine primary care visit. Rates of verbal participation were described and effects of patient cognitive status (MMSE score, verbal fluency) on verbal participation were assessed. PCP verbal participation was highest at 53% of total visit speech, followed by caregivers (31%) and patients (16%). Patient cognitive measures were related to patient and caregiver verbal participation, but not to PCP participation. Caregiver satisfaction with interpersonal treatment by PCP was positively related to caregiver's own verbal participation. Caregivers of AD patients and PCPs maintain active, coordinated verbal participation in primary care visits while patients participate less. Encouraging verbal participation by AD patients and their caregivers may increase the AD patient's active role and caregiver satisfaction with primary care visits.

  13. Verbal Communication among Alzheimer’s Disease Patients, their Caregivers, and Primary Care Physicians during Primary Care Office Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karen L.; Lingler, Jennifer H.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Objective Primary care visits of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) often involve communication among patients, family caregivers, and primary care physicians (PCPs). The objective of this study was to understand the nature of each individual’s verbal participation in these triadic interactions. Methods To define the verbal communication dynamics of AD care triads, we compared verbal participation (percent of total visit speech) by each participant in patient/caregiver/PCP triads. Twenty three triads were audio taped during a routine primary care visit. Rates of verbal participation were described and effects of patient cognitive status (MMSE score, verbal fluency) on verbal participation were assessed. Results PCP verbal participation was highest at 53% of total visit speech, followed by caregivers (31%) and patients (16%). Patient cognitive measures were related to patient and caregiver verbal participation, but not to PCP participation. Caregiver satisfaction with interpersonal treatment by PCP was positively related to caregiver’s own verbal participation. Conclusion Caregivers of AD patients and PCPs maintain active, coordinated verbal participation in primary care visits while patients participate less. Practice Implications Encouraging verbal participation by AD patients and their caregivers may increase the AD patient’s active role and caregiver satisfaction with primary care visits. PMID:19395224

  14. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-verbal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.

  15. Verbal Communication Quality Analysis of Human Operators in Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hwan; Park, Jin kyun

    2012-01-01

    Verbal communication problems have been one of the major human factors causing serious problems in many industries. The results of existing researches have revealed that keeping good communication quality is essential to ensure the safety of a large-sized and highly advanced industrial process system. Communication Quality is ensured only when both parties involved in a communication process understand and comprehend each other correctly, and it can be decided based on the correctness of the messages communicated between them. In this paper, we suggested a method to measure the quality of communication during off-normal situation in main control room of nuclear power plants. It evaluates the cosine similarity that is a measure of sentence similarity between two operators by finding the cosine of the angle between them

  16. Exploring Children’s Peer Relationships through Verbal and Non-verbal Communication: A Qualitative Action Research Focused on Waldorf Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Milena Montenegro Mantilla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationships that children around seven and eight years old establish in a classroom. It shows that peer relationships have a positive dimension with features such as the development of children’s creativity to communicate and modify norms. These features were found through an analysis of children’s verbal and non-verbal communication and an interdisciplinary view of children’s learning process from Rudolf Steiner, founder of Waldorf Pedagogy, and Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, specialists in children’s cognitive and social dimensions. This research is an invitation to recognize children’s capacity to construct their own rules in peer relationships.

  17. Effects of checklist interface on non-verbal crew communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Leon D.

    1994-01-01

    The investigation looked at the effects of the spatial layout and functionality of cockpit displays and controls on crew communication. Specifically, the study focused on the intra-cockpit crew interaction, and subsequent task performance, of airline pilots flying different configurations of a new electronic checklist, designed and tested in a high-fidelity simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. The first part of this proposal establishes the theoretical background for the assumptions underlying the research, suggesting that in the context of the interaction between a multi-operator crew and a machine, the design and configuration of the interface will affect interactions between individual operators and the machine, and subsequently, the interaction between operators. In view of the latest trends in cockpit interface design and flight-deck technology, in particular, the centralization of displays and controls, the introduction identifies certain problems associated with these modern designs and suggests specific design issues to which the expected results could be applied. A detailed research program and methodology is outlined and the results are described and discussed. Overall, differences in cockpit design were shown to impact the activity within the cockpit, including interactions between pilots and aircraft and the cooperative interactions between pilots.

  18. Automated Video Analysis of Non-verbal Communication in a Medical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Yuval; Czerniak, Efrat; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Mayo, Avraham E; Ziv, Amitai; Biegon, Anat; Citron, Atay; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication plays a significant role in establishing good rapport between physicians and patients and may influence aspects of patient health outcomes. It is therefore important to analyze non-verbal communication in medical settings. Current approaches to measure non-verbal interactions in medicine employ coding by human raters. Such tools are labor intensive and hence limit the scale of possible studies. Here, we present an automated video analysis tool for non-verbal interactions in a medical setting. We test the tool using videos of subjects that interact with an actor portraying a doctor. The actor interviews the subjects performing one of two scripted scenarios of interviewing the subjects: in one scenario the actor showed minimal engagement with the subject. The second scenario included active listening by the doctor and attentiveness to the subject. We analyze the cross correlation in total kinetic energy of the two people in the dyad, and also characterize the frequency spectrum of their motion. We find large differences in interpersonal motion synchrony and entrainment between the two performance scenarios. The active listening scenario shows more synchrony and more symmetric followership than the other scenario. Moreover, the active listening scenario shows more high-frequency motion termed jitter that has been recently suggested to be a marker of followership. The present approach may be useful for analyzing physician-patient interactions in terms of synchrony and dominance in a range of medical settings.

  19. Mobility and verbal communication patients undergoing awake craniotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Sapountzis

    2017-03-01

    : The craniotomy on the patient alert is a reliable method of ensuring the total ablation volume in traffic areas, while speech integrity of neurological patients. This is a special and critical intraoperative procedure because of the particular communication and cooperation both between the surgical team, and between the surgical team and the patient.

  20. Verbal Communication of Story Facilitators in Multi-player Role-Playing Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Brolund, Thea; Hitchens, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study, the ver......Multi-player role-playing games form one of the key examples of interactive, emergent and collaborative storytelling systems available. These games and the collaborative stories that they create, are commonly facilitated by a specialized participant, the game master. In the current study......, the verbal communication of game masters in a series of role-playing game sessions is categorized and analyzed depending on form and content, using protocol analysis, establishing a model for the verbal communication of game masters....

  1. PoliticAPP: Towards a Categorization of Mobile Apps in Political Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo VÁZQUEZ SANDE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analyze of all mobile apps that are available in the field of Spanish political communication, with the aim to develop a pioneering categorization of these platforms according to various criteria as promoters, aims pursued or areas of performance. It includes also a critical review from which it is concluded that these app reproduce classic communication patterns with the voters. That means that the implementation of these channels seems to have been due more to political marketing than to boost democratic participation or to introduce an horizontal outline of a new relationship between politicians and citizens.

  2. Mapping the online communication patterns of political conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Benito, R. M.; Losada, J. C.

    2014-11-01

    The structure of the social networks in which individuals are embedded influences their political choices and therefore their voting behavior. Nowadays, social media represent a new channel for individuals to communicate, what together with the availability of the data, makes it possible to analyze the online social network resulting from political conversations. Here, by taking advantage of the recently developed techniques to analyze complex systems, we map the communication patterns resulting from Spanish political conversations. We identify the different existing communities, building networks of communities, and finding that users cluster themselves in politically homogeneous networks. We found that while most of the collective attention was monopolized by politicians, traditional media accounts were still the preferred sources from which to propagate information. Finally, we propose methods to analyze the use of different languages, finding a clear trend from sympathizers of several political parties to overuse or infra-use each language. We conclude that, on the light of a social media analysis perspective, the political conversation is constrained by both ideology and language.

  3. The Politics of Multilingual Communication: Case Studies and Research Agendas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Craze, S.; Lempp, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to globalisation, and different forms of migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity and multilingual communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and institutional

  4. The Net Generation, the Internet, and Political Communication and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicki, Damir; Dumancic, Mario; Topolovcan, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    The Net Generation, a generation which grew up with digital media, differs from older generations which entered the world of digital media and the Internet afterwards. The Internet itself opened new possibilities of communication and participation in the sphere of politics as well. Research was conducted among students at the Faculty of Teacher…

  5. Which theory of communication is “political correctness”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nnamdi Konye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on ‟political correctness”, which has become a late 20th century catch-phrase in Western European and North American liberal democracies but also has found currency in the political climate of the Asian and Eastern countries. A historical and multi-cultural review is intended as an introduction to a broader philosophical analysis of the Marxist backgrounds of political correctness and its neo-Marxist theoretical correctives in Jürgen Habermas’s theory of communicative action. My aim is to draw out both the educational and cultural implications of laying out the ethos of contemporary discourse on the foundations of the evolving dynamics of the rhetoric of political correctness.

  6. Improving construction site safety through leader-based verbal safety communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kines, Pete; Andersen, Lars P S; Spangenberg, Soren; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Dyreborg, Johnny; Zohar, Dov

    2010-10-01

    The construction industry is one of the most injury-prone industries, in which production is usually prioritized over safety in daily on-site communication. Workers have an informal and oral culture of risk, in which safety is rarely openly expressed. This paper tests the effect of increasing leader-based on-site verbal safety communication on the level of safety and safety climate at construction sites. A pre-post intervention-control design with five construction work gangs is carried out. Foremen in two intervention groups are coached and given bi-weekly feedback about their daily verbal safety communications with their workers. Foremen-worker verbal safety exchanges (experience sampling method, n=1,693 interviews), construction site safety level (correct vs. incorrect, n=22,077 single observations), and safety climate (seven dimensions, n=105 questionnaires) are measured over a period of up to 42 weeks. Baseline measurements in the two intervention and three control groups reveal that foremen speak with their workers several times a day. Workers perceive safety as part of their verbal communication with their foremen in only 6-16% of exchanges, and the levels of safety at the sites range from 70-87% (correct observations). Measurements from baseline to follow-up in the two intervention groups reveal that safety communication between foremen and workers increases significantly in one of the groups (factor 7.1 increase), and a significant yet smaller increase is found when the two intervention groups are combined (factor 4.6). Significant increases in the level of safety are seen in both intervention groups (7% and 12% increases, respectively), particularly in regards to 'access ways' and 'railings and coverings' (39% and 84% increases, respectively). Increases in safety climate are seen in only one of the intervention groups with respect to their 'attention to safety.' No significant trend changes are seen in the three control groups on any of the three measures

  7. Verbal markers of epistemic modality and their role in the development of communicative competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pihler Ciglič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Modality in language, one of the characteristic phenomena of the process of communication, has to do with, in the broad sense, the mindset that the speaker indicates in his words while describing, questioning, or wanting to draw attention to what he is saying. Traditionally there is a tendency to gather, under the broad label of linguistic modality, a variety of different forms: verbal mode, auxiliary verbs, certain adverbs and particles, intonation, etc. The aim of this study is to analyze the Spanish verbal markers and their possibilities to express epistemic modality, which is defined as the linguistic expression of the degree of commitment that the speaker assumes about the factuality of his statement (Lyons 1977, Palmer 1986. The study focuses, first, on modal verbal periphrases and some of the tenses which can indicate the epistemic modality and/or evidentiality in certain contexts through the so-called »quotative« or »polyphonic« uses. The second part of this study consists of an analysis of the systematization of these resources in six selected manuals of Spanish as a Second Language (SSL; levels B1, B2 and C1 according to CEFR, with special attention to its contribution to the development of communicative competences (linguistic, sociolinguistic and pragmatic competence, again according to CEFR. We believe that the explicit study of epistemic modality in the SSL classroom effectively contributes to a good command of Spanish, and therefore deserves more attention.

  8. Clients’ psychosocial communication and midwives’ verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Dulmen, S. van

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study focuses on facilitation of clients’ psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives’ psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling

  9. The dilemma of ethical political communication in South African elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Fourie

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In view of South Africa’s diversity, its unresolved issues of race and complex social legacy, election campaigns are highly sensitive. From a Reformed Christian perspective, a critical question is: To what extent is the political culture infused by the Biblical imperatives of brotherly love, respect and compassion? Given the growing use of adversarial political advertising the following two questions arise and are specifically addressed: • Could it realistically be expected of Christian political communicators in a secular country such as South Africa to communicate with full respect to people at all times, or should they be excused if they try to win at all costs? and • How do political theorists view the issue? In answering these questions, social responsibility and the need for social harmony as precondition for free and fair political activities, as well as a Biblical perspective on communication are addressed. In view of these theoretical points of departure the role of emotional messages is discussed and evaluated. It is argued that all advertising, but specifically political advertising in an emotionally charged atmosphere such as an election campaign, could have a direct negative impact on social harmony and is therefore Biblically unacceptable. Examples from previous South African general elections are discussed and evaluated from a Biblical viewpoint. It is argued that parties should not merely campaign with the aim of winning an election, but rather with the intention of respecting voters while campaigning. Simultaneously they could promote democracy within a fragile social context. Any victory outside of these parameters will not stand the test of a Biblical critique. However, it would seem extremely difficult, if not impossible, to prescribe in any detail which types of negative advertisements are acceptable and which are not.

  10. Non-verbal Communication in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Video Audit Using Non-verbal Immediacy Scale (NIS-O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Somashekhar Marutirao; Raval, Himalaya; Bansal, Satvik Chaitanya; Pandya, Utkarsh; Pathak, Ajay

    2018-05-03

    Effective communication with parents is a very important skill for pediatricians especially in a neonatal setup. The authors analyzed non-verbal communication of medical caregivers during counseling sessions. Recorded videos of counseling sessions from the months of March-April 2016 were audited. Counseling episodes were scored using Non-verbal Immediacy Scale Observer Report (NIS-O). A total of 150 videos of counseling sessions were audited. The mean (SD) total score on (NIS-O) was 78.96(7.07). Female counseled sessions had significantly higher proportion of low scores (p communication skills in a neonatal unit. This study lays down a template on which other Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) can carry out gap defining audits.

  11. Verbal hygiene and ethnic politics in Nigeria: a study of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... It tries to establish a connection between verbal hygiene and persistent ... ethnic groups, this constitutes serious threat to inter-ethnic relation and cohesion.

  12. Non-verbal communication between nurses and people with an intellectual disability: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; O'Connor-Fenelon, Maureen; Lyons, Rosemary

    2010-12-01

    This article critically synthesizes current literature regarding communication between nurses and people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. The unique context of communication between the intellectual disability nurse and people with intellectual disability and the review aims and strategies are outlined. Communication as a concept is explored in depth. Communication between the intellectual disability nurse and the person with an intellectual disability is then comprehensively examined in light of existing literature. Issues including knowledge of the person with intellectual disability, mismatch of communication ability, and knowledge of communication arose as predominant themes. A critical review of the importance of communication in nursing practice follows. The paucity of literature relating to intellectual disability nursing and non-verbal communication clearly indicates a need for research.

  13. Descriptions of verbal communication errors between staff. An analysis of 84 root cause analysis-reports from Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Andersen, Mette Lehmann; Østergaard, Doris

    2011-01-01

    incidents. The objective of this study is to review RCA reports (RCAR) for characteristics of verbal communication errors between hospital staff in an organisational perspective. Method Two independent raters analysed 84 RCARs, conducted in six Danish hospitals between 2004 and 2006, for descriptions......Introduction Poor teamwork and communication between healthcare staff are correlated to patient safety incidents. However, the organisational factors responsible for these issues are unexplored. Root cause analyses (RCA) use human factors thinking to analyse the systems behind severe patient safety...... and characteristics of verbal communication errors such as handover errors and error during teamwork. Results Raters found description of verbal communication errors in 44 reports (52%). These included handover errors (35 (86%)), communication errors between different staff groups (19 (43%)), misunderstandings (13...

  14. A new era of fieldwork in political communication research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis; David, Karpf; Daniel, Kreiss

    their analytical and empirical contributions—to the exclusion of other ways of investigating social phenomena may have contributed to the problems confronting the field today. In this paper, we sketch out the history of an older tradition of interdisciplinary and mixed-methods research on political communication......Since the publication of W. Lance Bennett and Shanto Iyengar’s 2008 critique of the state of the field, more and more political communication researchers have called for a move beyond the testing and extending of existing theories and towards theory-building aimed at improving our understanding...... in the United States from the 1930s to the 1960s and chart the rise of the currently dominant methodological consensus from the 1970s onwards. We do so to highlight key examples of how this older mixed-methods tradition used field research as an integral part of both empirical work and theory-building during...

  15. The Digital Political Communication of South Korean Politicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Hermanns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet and social media have been credited with the potential to reinvigorate democracy by offering new avenues of political participation and communication between citi-zens and politicians. The results of empirical studies, however, call for caution, as many politi-cians refrain from fully exploring the interactive potential of new media. This case study focus-es on the web presence of Korean parliamentarians, using basic statistical analyses to explore the use of ICT as a means of political communication. It finds that Korean parliamentarians are less active online, treating ICT mainly as another channel for information distribution. It is thus concluded that ICT is not revolutionizing politics but reinforcing existing patterns of communi-cation that leave a gap between citizens and representatives. This paper was previously submit-ted to CeDem Asia 2016. The literature review and the methodology section have been expand-ed, and additional statistical data as well as further findings on Twitter were added.

  16. Communication growth in minimally verbal children with ASD: The importance of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Charlotte; Shih, Wendy; Kaiser, Ann; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about language development in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) who remain minimally verbal past age 5. While there is evidence that children can develop language after age 5, we lack detailed information. Studies of this population generally focus on discrete language skills without addressing broader social-communication abilities. As communication and social deficits are both inherent to ASD, an examination of not only what language skills are acquired, but how those skills are used in interactions is relevant. Research in typical development has examined how communication interchanges (unbroken back-and-forth exchanges around a unified purpose) develop, which can be used as a framework for studying minimally verbal children. This study examined the interchange use by 55 children with ASD over the course of a 6-month play and engagement-based communication intervention. Half of the children received intervention sessions that also incorporated a speech-generating device (SGD). Interchanges were coded by: frequency, length, function, and initiator (child or adult). Results indicated that children initiated a large proportion of interchanges and this proportion increased over time. The average length and number of interchanges increased over time, with children in the SGD group showing even greater growth. Finally, children's total number of interchanges at baseline was positively associated with their spoken language gains over the course of intervention. This study supports the crucial relationship between social engagement and expressive language development, and highlights the need to include sustained communication interchanges as a target for intervention with this population. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1093-1102. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Psychiatrist-patient verbal and nonverbal communications during split-treatment appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mario; Roter, Debra; Cruz, Robyn Flaum; Wieland, Melissa; Cooper, Lisa A; Larson, Susan; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2011-11-01

    This study characterized psychiatrist and patient communication behaviors and affective voice tones during pharmacotherapy appointments with depressed patients at four community-based mental health clinics where psychiatrists provided medication management and other mental health professionals provided therapy ("split treatment"). Audiorecordings of 84 unique pairs of psychiatrists and patients with a depressive disorder were analyzed with the Roter Interaction Analysis System, which identifies 41 discrete speech categories that can be grouped into composites representing broad conceptual communication domains. Cluster analysis identified psychiatrist communication patterns. T test and chi square analyses compared the clusters for verbal dominance, affective voice tone, and characteristics of psychiatrist and patients. On average, 53% of psychiatrist talk was devoted to partnering and relationship building, and 67% of patient talk was about biomedical subjects, such as depression symptoms, and psychosocial information giving. Psychiatrist communication patterns were characterized by two clusters, a biomedical-centered cluster that emphasized biomedical questions (η²=.22, df=82, prelationship building while maintaining a focus on symptoms or psychosocial issues. However, patient behaviors did not reflect a similar level of partnering. Future studies should identify psychiatrist communication behaviors that activate collaborative patient communications or improve treatment outcomes.

  18. Political Communication in Malaysia: A study on the Use of New Media in Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Pooi Yin Leong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To gain and retain political power, politicians use the media to persuade the masses to vote and support them, especially during elections. Barisan Nasional (BN has successfully used the media to maintain its power for the past 57 years, making it the longest-serving elected government in the world still currently in office. However, the emergence of the Internet has challenged the status quo. The purpose of the research was to investigate how new media has influenced the political process and communication strategies in Malaysia and its impact on the political landscape. The researcher interviewed 19 respondents: politicians, bloggers and media consultants from both sides of the political divide. The findings showed that new media, especially Web 2.0, has expanded the public sphere and enabled more Malaysians to participate in the democratic process, through information dissemination, mobilisation or crowd-sourcing. However, the cyber-war between BN and the opposition Pakatan Rakyat (PR has caused confusion and disinformation, affecting the quality of democratic decision-making. Nevertheless, new media has enabled more voices to emerge and challenge the political hegemony.

  19. Innovations In Greek Political Communication And Consequences: Significant changes from 1981-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Deligiaouri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new communicative ethics in politics has imposed new procedures and values in politics. The close inter-relation of media and politics has many facets and effects on the way politics is exercised and on how it is perceived by the citizens. This article investigates how new methods of political communication have been internalized into Greek media democracy, dividing the period from 1981 to the present into five periods of media democracy based on significant events that signaled the transition towards new communicative and political ethics. A study of articles from two newspapers provides useful insights into the role of the media, especially during electoral campaigns and in politics in general. Our research also reflects how the specific socio-political context of the country interferes and affects the adoption of "imported" methods in political communication and how these methods affect citizens’ political behavior.

  20. The analysis of verbal interaction sequences in dyadic clinical communication: a review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Martin; Fletcher, Ian; Salmon, Peter

    2009-05-01

    To identify methods available for sequential analysis of dyadic verbal clinical communication and to review their methodological and conceptual differences. Critical review, based on literature describing sequential analyses of clinical and other relevant social interaction. Dominant approaches are based on analysis of communication according to its precise position in the series of utterances that constitute event-coded dialogue. For practical reasons, methods focus on very short-term processes, typically the influence of one party's speech on what the other says next. Studies of longer-term influences are rare. Some analyses have statistical limitations, particularly in disregarding heterogeneity between consultations, patients or practitioners. Additional techniques, including ones that can use information about timing and duration of speech from interval-coding are becoming available. There is a danger that constraints of commonly used methods shape research questions and divert researchers from potentially important communication processes including ones that operate over a longer-term than one or two speech turns. Given that no one method can model the complexity of clinical communication, multiple methods, both quantitative and qualitative, are necessary. Broadening the range of methods will allow the current emphasis on exploratory studies to be balanced by tests of hypotheses about clinically important communication processes.

  1. THE PUBLIC SPHERE OF POLITICS: THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL DIMENSION IN CONTEMPORARY COMMUNICATIVE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Tretyak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to Jürgen Habermas, a contradiction between the system and the life-world signifies a need for a concept that would describe the projective space of a relaxed and undistorted human communicative activity. Communicative action as a societal basis of the public sphere links this concept to the pragmatic principles of human existence in modern society. The public sphere is important in the age of the cyber revolution and the rule of networking technologies and it gets an anthropological dimension in its definition of the modern individual. Reviewed from the view of the interdisciplinary scientific community the public sphere as a dimension of human identity that is manifested in standardized terms of communicative interactions. The paper suggests that the public sphere has lost its conflict mode in respect to power and the tech-savvy social system. Purpose. The paper aims to establish the specifics of the anthropological interpretation of the public sphere in the contemporary philosophical tradition. Methodology. General scientific and special methods of philosophical research are used for conducting this study. The author has used the descriptive method to define the subject area of the anthropic measurement of the public sphere of politics. The method of logical synthesis allows to combine the abstract and specific content of the anthropological dimension of publicity. A retrospective analysis allows to determine the temporal peculiarities of the anthropic meaning of the public sphere. The comparative method gives an opportunity to compare the empirical manifestations of social and political publicity and compare anthropological effects of the media and interpersonal communication activities of modern people. Theoretical basis and results. The article examines the anthropological content of the public sphere of politics as one of the key concepts of communicative theory paying attention to the modification of the nature

  2. WEBLOGS AS A SUBGENRE OF POLITICAL COMMUNICATION / MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Pinar Sanz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the characteristics of weblogs (usually shortened to blog, but occasionally spelled web log, the latest genre of internet communication that has attained widespread popularity (Herring et al. 2005. I will focus my attention on those weblogs which contain any kind of political message during election campaigns. The paper situates blogs with respect to the dominant forms of digital communication and as a powerful tool for developing future election campaigns in light of their low cost and the speed with which news can be published. The generic variables will be studied in detail, taking into account Swales' general theory of genre (1990 and genre theories applied to electronic communication (Yates and Orlikowski, 1992. Register variables (Halliday, 1989; Martin, 2001 will also be thoroughly studied. The results of this study show the characteristics of weblogs with regards to vocabulary, syntactic structures and the use of pronouns among others. The findings are based on an investigation of 20 politically-oriented weblogs, randomly selected during the 2004 American and 2005 British elections.

  3. Language, literacy, and communication regarding medication in an anticoagulation clinic: a comparison of verbal vs. visual assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Dean; Machtinger, Edward L; Wang, Frances; Palacios, Jorge; Rodriguez, Maytrella; Bindman, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Despite the importance of clinician-patient communication, little is known about rates and predictors of medication miscommunication. Measuring rates of miscommunication, as well as differences between verbal and visual modes of assessment, can inform efforts to more effectively communicate about medications. We studied 220 diverse patients in an anticoagulation clinic to assess concordance between patient and clinician reports of warfarin regimens. Bilingual research assistants asked patients to (1) verbalize their prescribed weekly warfarin regimen and (2) identify this regimen from a digitized color menu of warfarin pills. We obtained clinician reports of patient regimens from chart review. Patients were categorized as having regimen concordance if there were no patient-clinician discrepancies in total weekly dosage. We then examined whether verbal and visual concordance rates varied with patient's language and health literacy. Fifty percent of patients achieved verbal concordance and 66% achieved visual concordance with clinicians regarding the weekly warfarin regimen (P visual discordance. Shifting from verbal to visual modes was associated with greater patient-provider concordance across all patient subgroups, but especially for those with communication barriers.Clinician-patient discordance regarding patients' warfarin regimen was common but occurred less frequently when patients used a visual aid. Visual aids may improve the accuracy of medication assessment, especially for patients with communication barriers.

  4. The use of virtual characters to assess and train non-verbal communication in high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-01-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of "transformed social interactions." This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA.

  5. Non-verbal emotion communication training induces specific changes in brain function and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifelts, Benjamin; Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Ethofer, Thomas; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotional cues from voice and face is essential for social interaction. However, this process is altered in various psychiatric conditions along with impaired social functioning. Emotion communication trainings have been demonstrated to improve social interaction in healthy individuals and to reduce emotional communication deficits in psychiatric patients. Here, we investigated the impact of a non-verbal emotion communication training (NECT) on cerebral activation and brain structure in a controlled and combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry study. NECT-specific reductions in brain activity occurred in a distributed set of brain regions including face and voice processing regions as well as emotion processing- and motor-related regions presumably reflecting training-induced familiarization with the evaluation of face/voice stimuli. Training-induced changes in non-verbal emotion sensitivity at the behavioral level and the respective cerebral activation patterns were correlated in the face-selective cortical areas in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus for valence ratings and in the temporal pole, lateral prefrontal cortex and midbrain/thalamus for the response times. A NECT-induced increase in gray matter (GM) volume was observed in the fusiform face area. Thus, NECT induces both functional and structural plasticity in the face processing system as well as functional plasticity in the emotion perception and evaluation system. We propose that functional alterations are presumably related to changes in sensory tuning in the decoding of emotional expressions. Taken together, these findings highlight that the present experimental design may serve as a valuable tool to investigate the altered behavioral and neuronal processing of emotional cues in psychiatric disorders as well as the impact of therapeutic interventions on brain function and structure.

  6. Communicating Politics: Using Active Learning to Demonstrate the Value of the Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In the context of higher tuition fees, the Government's employability agenda and growing concern for defined career development strategies among young people, there is a need more effectively for Politics programmes to foster the capacity to communicate politics. Without communicating the implications and relevance of politics the subject and the…

  7. Expert versus proxy rating of verbal communicative ability of people with aphasia after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong-Hagelstein, Marjolein; Kros, Lieke; Lingsma, Hester F; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; Visch-Brink, Evy G

    2012-11-01

    In randomized clinical trials of aphasia treatment, a functional outcome measure like the Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT), administered by speech-language therapists, is often used. However, the agreement between this expert rating and the judgment of the proxy about the quality of the daily life communication of the person with aphasia is largely unknown. We examined the association between ANELT scores by speech-language therapists and proxy judgments on the Partner Communication Questionnaire both at 3 and 6 months in 39 people with aphasia after stroke. We also determined which factors affected the level of agreement between expert and proxy judgment of the communicative ability at 6 months in 53 people with aphasia. We found moderate agreement (at 3 months r = .662; p = aphasia, measured with the Aphasia Severity Rating Scale, was associated with better agreement. In conclusion, although proxies were slightly more positive than experts, we found moderate agreement between expert and proxy rating of verbal communicative ability of people with aphasia after stroke, especially in milder cases.

  8. Education to promote verbal communication by caregivers in geriatric care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Yasuko; Koyama, Sachiyo; Kimura, Yusuke; Kitamura, Takanori

    2009-12-01

    Our previous study divided the verbal communication between caregivers and elderly residents at geriatric care facilities into Type I communication (to elicit activities of daily living) and Type II communication (conversation that occurs in normal social life) and found that Type II communication promotes utterances by elderly residents. This study conducted an education intervention to promote Type II talking by caregivers and evaluated the results. At three geriatric care facilities, 243 caregivers who might care for 36 elderly residents experienced training involving lectures and group discussion to understand the importance of Type II talking and how to apply it to their daily work. A statistical comparison was applied to the changes in Type II talking duration from before the intervention, 1 week after the intervention, and 3 months after the intervention to evaluate the effect of the educational intervention. At two facilities, the Type II talking duration increased significantly from before the educational intervention to 1 week after the intervention and remained higher after 3 months. However, the educational intervention's effect was not clear at one facility. There was no significant difference in the elderly persons' total utterance duration, but it increased from before the intervention to 1 week after the intervention. After the educational intervention, the amount of Type II talking by the caregivers increased significantly 1 week after the intervention for two facilities, but although the amount of Type II talking was higher at 3 months than before the intervention, it was not as high as 1 week after the intervention.

  9. Non-verbal communication of the residents living in homes for the older people in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Sustersic, Olga; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel

    2010-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing problem in all developed societies. The older people need more health and social services, and their life quality in there is getting more and more important. The study aimed at determining the characteristics of non-verbal communication of the older people living in old people's homes (OPH). The sample consisted of 267 residents of the OPH, aged 65-96 years, and 267 caregivers from randomly selected twenty-seven OPH. Three types of non-verbal communication were observed and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In face expressions and head movements about 75% older people looked at the eyes of their caregivers, and about 60% were looking around, while laughing or pressing the lips together was rarely noticed. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among different age groups was observed in dropping the eyes (p = 0.004) and smiling (0.008). In hand gestures and trunk movements, majority of older people most often moved forwards and clenched fingers, while most rarely they stroked and caressed their caregivers. The differences between genders were statistically significant in leaning on the table (p = 0.001), and changing the position on the chair (0.013). Statistically significant differences among age groups were registered in leaning forwards (p = 0.006) and pointing to the others (p = 0.036). In different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs almost 75% older people spoke normally, about 70% kept silent, while they rarely quarrelled. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among age groups was observed in persuasive speaking (p = 0.007). The present study showed that older people in OPH in Slovenia communicated significantly less frequently with hand gestures and trunk movements than with face expressions and head movements or different modes of speaking

  10. The Geography of Political Communication: Effects of Regional Variations in Campaign Advertising on Citizen Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaeho

    2011-01-01

    This study explores whether and how campaign-induced changes in local information environments influence citizens' everyday communication activities. The empirical analysis in this study centers on a comparison of two New Jersey media markets that showed idiosyncratic differences in the amount of political advertising during the 2000 presidential…

  11. APPROPRIATIZING POLITENESS THEORY FOR INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN ELT

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    Rahmat Yusny

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The theory of politeness suggests strategies in social interaction by which a person can use to save the hearer’s face upon the effect of face-threatening acts or FTAs. Face threatening acts are described by Brown and Levinson as the acts that infringe the hearer’s need of maintaining his/her self-esteem and be respected. Brown and Levinson accepted that the notion of face is respected as universal norms or values subscribed to by the members of the society. In that regard, this article provides a discussion about various viewpoints on the debate of universality of politeness theory and criticisms addressed by eastern-pragmaticists that this theory should not be seen as universally applicable. Cultural differences, as suggested by non-western pragmaticists, accord what is accepted in the context of face in western culture to be not accepted in other cultures. Therefeore, although we accept that Brown & Levinson’s theory has made a significant breakthrough in elaborating politeness, appropriation of this theory should be accounted in intercultural communication instead to accept it as universal.

  12. An Analysis of Malaysian Political Communication and Its Role in Electoral Process

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    Saabar Suhaimee Saahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to discuss political communication in Malaysia especially after the 12th General Elections (GE12. The purpose of this study is to analyse the political efficacy or sense making process which involve analysing the techniques and creative execution that had been used by political parties and its effects on Malaysian voters. The results of GE 12 had fashioned a political tsunami that influenced many important aspects in the Malaysian political landscape, be it national and economic policies, social unity or campaign strategies. Therefore, the main focus of this paper is to discuss the elements and importance of political communication research in Malaysian political communication campaign by focusing on the aspects of creative execution, political information efficacy and sense making process and its impact on the choice of communication tools amongst Malaysian voters.

  13. Getting closer: the effects of personalized and interactive online political communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruikemeier, S.; van Noort, G.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Political parties and politicians increasingly use the possibilities of the Internet to communicate interactively with citizens and vice versa. The Internet also offers opportunities for individual politicians to profile themselves. These developments are often said to bring politics closer to

  14. Effects of acaoustic adaptation of classrooms on the quality of verbal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Mikulski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voice organ disorders among teachers are caused by excessive voice strain. One of the measures to reduce this strain is to decrease background noise when teaching. Increasing the acoustic absorption of the room is a technical measure for achieving this aim. The absorption level also improves speech intelligibility rated by the following parameters: room reverberation time and speech transmission index (STI. This article presents the effects of acoustic adaptation of classrooms on the quality of verbal communication, aimed at getting the speech intelligibility at the good or excellent level. Material and Methods: The article lists the criteria for evaluating classrooms in terms of the quality of verbal communication. The parameters were defined, using the measurement methods according to PN-EN ISO 3382-2:2010 and PN-EN 60268-16:2011. Acoustic adaptations were completed in two classrooms. Results: After completing acoustic adaptations the reverberation time for the frequency of 1 kHz was reduced: in room no. 1 from 1.45 s to 0.44 s and in room no. 2 from 1.03 s to 0.37 s (maximum 0.65 s. At the same time, the speech transmission index increased: in room no. 1 from 0.55 (satisfactory speech intelligibility to 0.75 (speech intelligibility close to excellent; in room no. 2 from 0.63 (good speech intelligibility to 0.80 (excellent speech intelligibility. Therefore, it can be stated that prior to completing acoustic adaptations room no. 1 did not comply and room no. 2 barely complied with the criterion (speech transmission index of 0.62. After completing acoustic adaptations both rooms meet the requirements. Med Pr 2013;64(2:207–215

  15. CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO VERBAL COMMUNICATION A STUDY IN BUSINESS PROCESS OUTSOURCING EMPLOYEES

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    Divya .P

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular changes to daily activity and stressors have been proposed as a mechanism for promoting the progression of atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases. Hence, purpose of the study with objective is to assess the cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure and rating of perceived exertion responses to verbal communication in Business process outsourcing (BPO employees. Method: A cross sectional survey design, selected 150 healthy subjects between age group of 25 to 35 years from BPO industry, Bangalore. Subjects who fulfilled inclusion criteria were included into the study. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded before and after shift. The Borg rating of perceived exertion scale was also administered to find the difference of amount of exertion, which was felt by subjects before and after shift. Results: The analysis of measured variable shown that before shift the means Heart rate was 81.76 beats, the mean systolic blood pressure is 117.82 the mean diastolic blood pressure is 80.69 and the mean rate of perceive d exertion is 7.19. After shift the means of Heart rate was 83.02 beats, the mean systolic blood pressure is 120.32 the mean diastolic blood pressure is 83.26 and the mean rate of perceive d exertion is 10.65. When analysed using paired t test there is a statistically significant difference in before and after shift means of heart rate, blood pressure and rate of perceived exertion. Conclusion: It was concluded that in BPO employees in response to their verbal communication there was significant increase in cardiovascular responses including Heart Rate, Systolic Blood Pressure and Diastolic Blood Pressure. There was also a significant increase in Borg rating of perceived exertion before and after shift

  16. Key Features of Political Advertising as an Independent Type of Advertising Communication

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    Svetlana Anatolyevna Chubay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To obtain the most complete understanding of the features of political advertising, the author characterizes its specific features allocated by modern researchers. The problem of defining the notion of political advertising is studied in detail. The analysis of definitions available in professional literature has allowed the author to identify a number of key features that characterize political advertising as an independent type of promotional activity. These features include belonging to the forms of mass communication, implemented through different communication channels; the presence of characteristics typical of any advertising as a form of mass communication (strategies and concepts promoting the program, ideas; an integrated approach to the selection of communication channels, means and the methods of informing the addressers that focus on the audience; the formation of psychological attitude to voting; the image nature; the manipulative potential. It is shown that the influence is the primary function of political advertising – it determines the key characteristics common to this type of advertising. Political advertising, reflecting the essence of the political platform of certain political forces, setting up voters for their support, forming and introducing into the mass consciousness a definite idea of the character of these political forces, creates the desired psychological attitude to the voting. The analysis of definitions available in professional literature has allowed the author to formulate an operational definition of political advertising, which allowed to include the features that distinguish political advertising from other forms of political communication such as political PR which is traditionally mixed with political advertising.

  17. Nonverbal Communication in Politics: A Review of Research Developments, 2005-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu, Delia

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews research contributions in political science and communication to the topic of nonverbal communication and politics from 2005 to 2015. The review opens with research on the content of nonverbal communication, then considers studies examining what moderates the impact of nonverbal aspects of political messages on attitudes and behavior and the mechanisms that underpin these effects. Over the period reviewed here, research shows that the nonverbal channel is rich in politica...

  18. Perceived Instructor Argumentativeness, Verbal Aggressiveness, and Classroom Communication Climate in Relation to Student State Motivation and Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Durbin, James M.; Rancer, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how student perceptions of math/statistics instructors' argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness are related to student perceptions of classroom communication climate, student state motivation, and student math anxiety. A total of 216 completed questionnaires were returned by the student participants (96 males and 120…

  19. "Here Comes the Sausage:" An Empirical Study of Children's Verbal Communication during a Collaborative Music-Making Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstedt, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the verbal communication that three 7-year-old children are engaged in when given the task of composing music together. The data consist of a video-observation of the activities that unfold when they try to manage a composition task using a keyboard and two novel technologies called "MirorImpro"…

  20. The Efficiency of Peer Teaching of Developing Non Verbal Communication to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshurman, Wael; Alsreaa, Ihsani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the efficiency of peer teaching of developing non-verbal communication to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study was carried out on a sample of (10) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), diagnosed according to basics and criteria adopted at Al-taif qualification center at (2013) in The…

  1. Observation of Communication by Physical Education Teachers: Detecting Patterns in Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fariña, Abraham; Jiménez-Jiménez, F; Anguera, M Teresa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the verbal behavior of primary school physical education teachers in a natural classroom setting in order to investigate patterns in social constructivist communication strategies before and after participation in a training program designed to familiarize teachers with these strategies. The participants were three experienced physical education teachers interacting separately with 65 students over a series of classes. Written informed consent was obtained from all the students' parents or legal guardians. An indirect observation tool (ADDEF) was designed specifically for the study within the theoretical framework, and consisted of a combined field format, with three dimensions, and category systems. Each dimension formed the basis for building a subsequent system of exhaustive and mutually exclusive categories. Twenty-nine sessions, grouped into two separate modules, were coded using the Atlas.ti 7 program, and a total of 1991 units (messages containing constructivist discursive strategies) were recorded. Analysis of intraobserver reliability showed almost perfect agreement. Lag sequential analysis, which is a powerful statistical technique based on the calculation of conditional and unconditional probabilities in prospective and retrospective lags, was performed in GSEQ5 software to search for verbal behavior patterns before and after the training program. At both time points, we detected a pattern formed by requests for information combined with the incorporation of students' contributions into the teachers' discourse and re-elaborations of answers. In the post-training phase, we detected new and stronger patterns in certain sessions, indicating that programs combining theoretical and practical knowledge can effectively increase teachers' repertoire of discursive strategies and ultimately promote active engagement in learning. This has important implications for the evaluation and development of teacher effectiveness in

  2. Executive function predicts theory of mind but not social verbal communication in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouklari, Evangelia-Chrysanthi; Tsermentseli, Stella; Auyeung, Bonnie

    2018-05-01

    The association between Executive Function (EF) and Theory of Mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been mainly investigated using false belief tasks, whilst less is known about the EF effect on other ToM facets. Furthermore, the role EF plays in social communication in ASD is mainly assessed using parent-report EF ratings rather than direct assessment. The aim of this study was to shed more light on the effect of performance-based EF measures on ToM and social communication in middle childhood in ASD relative to neurotypical controls. Cross-sectional data were collected from 64 matched, school-aged children with and without ASD (8-12 years old), tested on measures of EF (inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility), ToM mental state/emotion recognition and social verbal communication. Significant group differences were observed only in selective EF skills (inhibition &cognitive flexibility) and social verbal communication. EF working memory contributed to the explained variance of ToM but not social verbal communication in middle childhood. These findings suggest that EF and ToM are still associated in middle childhood and EF may be a crucial predictor of ToM across childhood in ASD. Implications are discussed regarding the social-cognitive impairment relationship in ASD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Use of Virtual Characters to Assess and Train Non-Verbal Communication in High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-01-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of “transformed social interactions.” This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA. PMID:25360098

  4. Team Teaching Political Communication: The 2000 Campus U.S. Presidential Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeman, Keith T.; Jefferson, Kurt W.

    The closeness of the 2000 presidential election clearly demonstrated that the country was divided philosophically and politically. The authors of this paper, a speech communication professor and a political science professor at Westminster College in Missouri, capitalized on that division based upon their diametrically opposed political views by…

  5. A brain-computer interface for potential non-verbal facial communication based on EEG signals related to specific emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial expressions, emotional prediction for neutral faces necessitates advanced judgment. The process that underlies brain neuronal responses to neutral faces and causes emotional changes remains unknown. To address this problem, therefore, this study attempted to decode conditioned emotional reactions to neutral face stimuli. This direction was motivated by the assumption that if electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used to detect patients' emotional responses to specific inexpressive faces, the results could be incorporated into the design and development of BMI/BCI-based non-verbal communication tools. To these ends, this study investigated how a neutral face associated with a negative emotion modulates rapid central responses in face processing and then identified cortical activities. The conditioned neutral face-triggered event-related potentials that originated from the posterior temporal lobe statistically significantly changed during late face processing (600-700 ms) after stimulus, rather than in early face processing activities, such as P1 and N170 responses. Source localization revealed that the conditioned neutral faces increased activity in the right fusiform gyrus (FG). This study also developed an efficient method for detecting implicit negative emotional responses to specific faces by using EEG signals. A classification method based on a support vector machine enables the easy classification of neutral faces that trigger specific individual emotions. In

  6. Picture Exchange Communication System and Pals: A Peer-Mediated Augmentative and Alternative Communication Intervention for Minimally Verbal Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann-Bourque, Kathy; Brady, Nancy; McGuff, Sara; Strump, Keenan; Naylor, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a social intervention that integrates peer-mediated approaches and the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Method: Effects were evaluated using a series of A-B designs replicated across 4 children with severe autism and limited verbal skills. Seven peers without…

  7. Verbal Communication Culture and Local Wisdom: The Value Civilization of Indonesia Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kartika

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a nation with cultural diversity and area. This caused a lot of the uniqueness of culture in everyday life. This uniqueness was generally a positive value to maintain the harmony of human beings and nature. The discussion of this article was the verbal communication, the study of the wisdom of the nation speech-language Indonesia, and local wisdom in civilization. The words expressed in the local wisdom among others are fearless (need fear only God Almighty, self-sacrificing or spirit of nationalism (patriotism, orderly, loyal, affectionate, hardworking, consensus, mutual help, and creative. Positive values here needed to be crystallized in people’s lives; it would be the identifier of the Indonesian people. This research was conducted in five districts of Pagaralam, South Sumatra. The method used was qualitative. Data collection techniques included participant observer/observation, observation without participation, in-depth interviews, and documentation. This article finds that if local wisdom actually exists in everyday life, the nation of Indonesia has carved beauty behave in civilization itself. The local wisdom of the nation begins values, the rule in the family, and then developed in the community. A positive value of local wisdom is the identifier of civilized society and the need to preserve Indonesia. 

  8. Secondary Science Student Teachers' Use of Verbal Discourse to Communicate Scientific Ideas in Their Field Placement Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cian, Heidi; Cook, Michelle

    2018-06-01

    Student teachers struggle to identify themselves as teachers in their field placement during their student teaching year, and some of the difficulty can be attributed to the change they encounter when they must communicate scientific ideas to students in a language that differs from how they recently learned science at the university level. Using developmental levels of student teaching (Drafall and Grant in Music Educators Journal, 81(1), 35-38, 1995), we explore how three cases differ in their use of verbal classroom discourse over the course of their student teaching year. We use data from six observations, post-observation debriefs, reflections associated with the observations, and responses to assignments from the student teachers' teaching classes as data to demonstrate how the cases differ in the proficiency of their verbal communication in their classroom placement. We find that when student teachers have difficulty communicating science to their students, they struggle to use lectures effectively or engage students in meaningful conversation or questioning. This work suggests a need for more study as to the causes of different communication proficiencies and how methods instructors can help teachers develop awareness of the value of their verbal discourse interactions with students.

  9. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-Verbal Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes...

  10. Randomised controlled trial of a brief intervention targeting predominantly non-verbal communication in general practice consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    The impact of changing non-verbal consultation behaviours is unknown. To assess brief physician training on improving predominantly non-verbal communication. Cluster randomised parallel group trial among adults aged ≥16 years attending general practices close to the study coordinating centres in Southampton. Sixteen GPs were randomised to no training, or training consisting of a brief presentation of behaviours identified from a prior study (acronym KEPe Warm: demonstrating Knowledge of the patient; Encouraging [back-channelling by saying 'hmm', for example]; Physically engaging [touch, gestures, slight lean]; Warm-up: cool/professional initially, warming up, avoiding distancing or non-verbal cut-offs at the end of the consultation); and encouragement to reflect on videos of their consultation. Outcomes were the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS) mean item score (1-7) and patients' perceptions of other domains of communication. Intervention participants scored higher MISS overall (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06 to 0.41), with the largest changes in the distress-relief and perceived relationship subscales. Significant improvement occurred in perceived communication/partnership (0.29, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.49) and health promotion (0.26, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.46). Non-significant improvements occurred in perceptions of a personal relationship, a positive approach, and understanding the effects of the illness on life. Brief training of GPs in predominantly non-verbal communication in the consultation and reflection on consultation videotapes improves patients' perceptions of satisfaction, distress, a partnership approach, and health promotion. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  11. The Softening of Journalistic Political Communication: A Comprehensive Framework Model of Sensationalism, Soft News, Infotainment, and Tabloidization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, L.; Glogger, I.; Boukes, M.

    Despite the scholarly popularity of important developments of political communication, concepts like soft news or infotainment lack conceptual clarity. This article tackles that problem and introduces a multilevel framework model of softening of journalistic political communication, which shows that

  12. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms predict delay in non-verbal communication in 14-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Emiko; Takagai, Shu; Takei, Nori; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the potential relationship between maternal depressive symptoms during the postpartum period and non-verbal communication skills of infants at 14 months of age in a birth cohort study of 951 infants and assessed what factors may influence this association. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and non-verbal communication skills were measured using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, which include Early Gestures and Later Gestures domains. Infants whose mothers had a high level of depressive symptoms (13+ points) during both the first month postpartum and at 10 weeks were approximately 0.5 standard deviations below normal in Early Gestures scores and 0.5-0.7 standard deviations below normal in Later Gestures scores. These associations were independent of potential explanations, such as maternal depression/anxiety prior to birth, breastfeeding practices, and recent depressive symptoms among mothers. These findings indicate that infants whose mothers have postpartum depressive symptoms may be at increased risk of experiencing delay in non-verbal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Scientific risk communication about controversial issues influences public perceptions of scientists' political orientations and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraga, Emily; Myers, Teresa; Kotcher, John; Beall, Lindsey; Maibach, Ed

    2018-02-01

    Many scientists communicate with the public about risks associated with scientific issues, but such communication may have unintended consequences for how the public views the political orientations and the credibility of the communicating scientist. We explore this possibility using an experiment with a nationally representative sample of Americans in the fall of 2015. We find that risk communication on controversial scientific issues sometimes influences perceptions of the political orientations and credibility of the communicating scientist when the scientist addresses the risks of issues associated with conservative or liberal groups. This relationship is moderated by participant political ideology, with liberals adjusting their perceptions of the scientists' political beliefs more substantially when the scientist addressed the risks of marijuana use when compared with other issues. Conservatives' political perceptions were less impacted by the issue context of the scientific risk communication but indirectly influenced credibility perceptions. Our results support a contextual model of audience interpretation of scientific risk communication. Scientists should be cognizant that audience members may make inferences about the communicating scientist's political orientations and credibility when they engage in risk communication efforts about controversial issues.

  14. Does Direct Radiologist-Patient Verbal Communication Affect Follow-Up Compliance of Probably Benign Assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Melissa S; Neal, Colleen H; Klein, Katherine A; Noroozian, Mitra; Patterson, Stephanie K; Helvie, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether direct verbal communication of results by a radiologist affected follow-up compliance rates for probably benign breast imaging findings. This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. A retrospective search identified all patients from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 who had breast findings newly assessed as probably benign (BI-RADS category 3). Patients were categorized by whether the radiologist or the technologist verbally communicated the result and follow-up recommendation. Patient adherence to 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up imaging recommendations was recorded. Compliance data were available for 770 of 819 patients in the study. Overall compliance was 83.0% (639 of 770) for 6-month examinations, 68.1% (524 of 770) for 6- and 12-month examinations, and 57.4% (442 of 770) for 6-, 12-, and 24-month examinations. For patients who initially underwent diagnostic mammography alone, there was no significant difference in compliance between those who had and those who did not have radiologist-patient communication (6 months, 81.9% vs 80.8% [P = .83]; 6 and 12 months, 70.8% vs 67.3% [P = .58]; 6, 12, and 24 months, 54.2% vs 58.4% [P = .53]). For patients who initially underwent diagnostic mammography alone versus ultrasound with or without diagnostic mammography, there was no significant difference in compliance (6 months, 81.1% vs 84.3% [P = .24]; 6 and 12 months, 68.1% vs 68.0% [P = .96]; 6, 12, and 24 months, 57.4% vs 57.4% [P = .00]). High initial compliance was achieved by radiologist or technologist verbal communication of findings and recommendations. Direct communication by the radiologist did not increase compliance compared with communication by a technologist. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Peculiarities of Stereotypes about Non-Verbal Communication and their Role in Cross-Cultural Interaction between Russian and Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the peculiarities of the stereotypes about non-verbal communication, formed in Russian and Chinese cultures. The results of the experimental research of the role of ethnic auto- and heterostereotypes about non-verbal communication in cross-cultural interaction between Russian and Chinese students of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia are presented.

  16. Specifics of horizontal and vertical relations in Ukrainian political communication on the background of the party building’s process, political science theory and requirements to Ukrainian political context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Odarchenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The specifics of horizontal and vertical relations in Ukrainian political communication on the background of the party building’s process has been analysed. Aims of this article are: 1 determination of the subjectivity of political communication; 2 disclosure of the main features of internal politics and communications; 3 setting the essential features of the political parties’ status after peaceful protests in Ukraine 2013-2014 year; 4 explanation of the actual gap that has horizontal and party political communication in Ukraine. Political modernization, capacity of Ukrainian political parties has been characterized. It has been shown that Maidan didn’t influenced tools of creating political parties and their typology greatly. Maidan as a political component was weak and did not respond to the challenges, which Ukrainian political system faced to. The weakness was in the fact that leaders of the oppositional political camp would rather keep old then implement real political change of the political system , which was adapted by the old oliharcial clan. Public sector was not able to identify their environment with new political leaders, nor with a mass movement, based on the creation of new organized political force. It has been found that in a democratic society communication is effective only if it is not only technically modern, interactive, two-way, but if it is consistent to other democratic demands, such as legal and moral control of society over the media, maintenance of basic pluralism, direct contact between senders and recipients of information, feeds decentralization, respect of freedom of expression and privat opinion. Summary of the political communication in Ukraine has to move away from thinking of policy and bureaucratic political consciousness. Otherwise, the simulation is effective and efficient for countries and regions where political communication can become a daily political farce communication in public space.

  17. Political Communication Research and the Uses and Gratifications Model: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the limited value of research based on the uses and gratifications approach, particularly in the area of political communication. The limitations arise from the approach's commitment to the variable analytic method. (JMF)

  18. The Internet, Political Communications Research and the Search for a New Information Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, William Franklin

    2013-01-01

    The Internet, as a digital record of human discourse, provides an opportunity to directly analyze political communicative behavior. The rapid emergence of social online networks augurs a transformation in the quality and quantity of information people have to evaluate their political system. Digital formats instantiate new categories of actors and…

  19. Political communication in a high-choice media environment: a challenge for democracy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aelst, P.; Strömbäck, J.; Aalberg, T.; Esser, F.; de Vreese, C.; Matthes, J.; Hopmann, D.; Salgado, S.; Hubé, N.; Stępińska, A.; Papathanassopoulos, S.; Berganza, R.; Legnante, G.; Reinemann, C.; Sheafer, T.; Stanyer, J.

    2017-01-01

    During the last decennia media environments and political communication systems have changed fundamentally. These changes have major ramifications for the political information environments and the extent to which they aid people in becoming informed citizens. Against this background, the purpose of

  20. TV programming in times of changing political communication: a longitudinal analysis of the political information environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, R.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2013-01-01

    Debate about the quantity of political information often tends to evaluate television negatively since it became a widely used mass medium. Systematic data on the supply and proportion of political information on television, however, are scarce. This research fills this gap by presenting a

  1. Environmental and social communication and the politics feasibility of the electric sector enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Ribeiro, V. de

    1993-01-01

    This paper updates and presents the conceptual bases of socio-environmental communication and some theoretical aspects relating with political feasibility of enterprises of electric sector, using itself of knowledge produced about the theme and the present experiences of the some sector companies. The following aspects are also included: historical of works about the subject; the present position of electric sector; detailed conceptual bases of political feasibility and socio-environmental communication; existing generation and that one planned in decennial plan of expansion 1993/2002 demonstrating the necessity of socio-environmental communication; conditions and challenges to the use of socio-environmental communications. (C.M.)

  2. Minimally Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism: Communication, Academic Engagement and Classroom Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Kathryne Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Minimally verbal school aged children with autism (MVSACwA) receive the bulk of their behavioral and academic support in schools yet we know little about the environments to which they are exposed. This population of children has often been excluded from studies and thus, underrepresented in current data on autism. As increasing numbers of…

  3. Getting connected: The effects of online political communication on citizens’ political involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruikemeier, S.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines to what extent the Internet influences citizens’ involvement in politics, by using different research methods - longitudinal survey research, content analyses and experimental studies. Three main conclusions can be drawn from this research. First, this dissertation shows

  4. New discursive strategies within Political Communication. Case study: Parliamentary Parties in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ariton-Gelan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of new technologies, implicitely that of Internet contributed to the reconfiguration of the political communication field. In this respect, politicians report themselves to an electorate that is more detached from institutionalized politics and political ideologies, electorate that has the possibility to participate to debating alternative forms of the political, through some social movements and through online forums. Generally, new media created the possibility that journalists and media production agencies imagine more dynamic media formats from the point of view of interaction with citizens and visual strategies. Within the new context coming from the relation between politician, media and electorate, the Internet, through its functions, generates a special kind of „political communication management”.

  5. Towards a European public sphere? Vertical and horizontal dimensions of Europeanised political communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.; Erbe, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we address the alleged communication or public sphere deficit of the EU. We develop a systematic approach to the Europeanization of public spheres, which distinguishes three forms of Europeanized political communication: supranational, vertical and horizontal. We propose that the

  6. The Chinese Politics of Communication Technology: Utility, State Building and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an examination into the formulation and construction of information and communication technology policy in China. It traces the rise of information technology and the "informatization" drive in China's political rhetoric, and identifies the changes and trajectory of information and communication technology in China's…

  7. Comunicação verbal e não verbal de mãe cega e com limitação motora durante alimentação da criança Comunicación verbal y no verbal de madre ciega y con limitación motora durante la alimentación delniño Verbal and nonverbal communication of a blind mother with limited dexterity during infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselly Oseni Laurentino Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a comunicação verbal e não verbal, de mãe cega e com limitação motora com o filho e enfermeira durante alimentação da criança. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, tipo estudo de caso, com abordagem quantitativa realizado no ano de 2009. As entrevistas foram gravadas, filmadas e analisadas por três avaliadores. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da comunicação verbal mostraram a predominância da mãe como destinatária e a utilização da função emotiva nas verbalizações com a criança, e a comunicação não verbal mostrou a prevalência da distância íntima entre mãe/filho, da pessoal entre mãe/enfermeira e da postura sentada. Houve pouco contato face a face e sobressaíram-se os contatos físicos com a criança. CONCLUSÃO: A mãe não sofreu prejuízos verbais no estabelecimento de seu processo comunicativo. A distância facilitou a interação mãe com o bebê e com a profissional.OBJETIVO: Analizar la comunicación verbal y no verbal, de madre ciega y con limitación motora con el hijo y la enfermera durante la alimentación del niño. MÉTODOS: Estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, tipo estudio de caso, con abordaje cuantitativo realizado en el año 2009. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas, filmadas y analizadas por tres evaluadores. RESULTADOS: Los resultados de la comunicación verbal mostraron el predominio de la madre como destinataria y la utilización de la función emotiva en las verbalizaciones con el niño, y la comunicación no verbal mostró la prevalencia de la distancia íntima entre madre/hijo, de la personal entre madre/enfermera y de la postura sentada. Hubo poco contacto cara a cara y sobresalieron los contactos físicos con el niño. CONCLUSIÓN: La madre no sufrió prejuicios verbales en el establecimiento de su proceso comunicativo. La distancia facilitó la interacción de la madre con el bebé y con la profesional.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the verbal and nonverbal communication, of the

  8. Republished error management: Descriptions of verbal communication errors between staff. An analysis of 84 root cause analysis-reports from Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Andersen, Mette Lehmann; Østergaard, Doris

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Poor teamwork and communication between healthcare staff are correlated to patient safety incidents. However, the organisational factors responsible for these issues are unexplored. Root cause analyses (RCA) use human factors thinking to analyse the systems behind severe patient safety...... and characteristics of verbal communication errors such as handover errors and error during teamwork. Results Raters found description of verbal communication errors in 44 reports (52%). These included handover errors (35 (86%)), communication errors between different staff groups (19 (43%)), misunderstandings (13...... (30%)), communication errors between junior and senior staff members (11 (25%)), hesitance in speaking up (10 (23%)) and communication errors during teamwork (8 (18%)). The kappa values were 0.44-0.78. Unproceduralized communication and information exchange via telephone, related to transfer between...

  9. Interaction between MAOA and FOXP2 in association with autism and verbal communication in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, YoungJoon; Won, SeongSik; Nam, Min; Chung, Joo-Ho; Kwack, KyuBum

    2014-12-01

    Expression levels of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), the enzyme that related to monoamine neurotransmitters metabolism such as serotonin, are related to schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2), a transcription factor, is associated with abnormal language development and is expressed in several areas of the central nervous system in response to serotonin. For this reason, we undertook interaction analysis between MAOA and FOXP2 in autism spectrum disorder, including testing the verbal communication score of the childhood autism rating scale. In interaction analysis, the FOXP2-TCGC (rs12531289-rs1350135-rs10230087-rs2061183) diplotype and MAOA-TCG (rs6323-rs1801291-rs3027407) haplotype were significantly associated with autism spectrum disorder in males. However, when the interaction term was omitted, neither MAOA nor FOXP2 was associated with autism spectrum disorder or verbal communication. These results indicate that language and speech ability is affected by an interaction between FOXP2 and MAOA, but not by either gene separately. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Selection of words for implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS in non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carine; Bevilacqua, Monica; Ishihara, Mariana; Fiori, Aline; Armonia, Aline; Perissinoto, Jacy; Tamanaha, Ana Carina

    2017-03-09

    It is known that some autistic individuals are considered non-verbal, since they are unable to use verbal language and barely use gestures to compensate for the absence of speech. Therefore, these individuals' ability to communicate may benefit from the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS. The objective of this study was to verify the most frequently used words in the implementation of PECS in autistic children, and on a complementary basis, to analyze the correlation between the frequency of these words and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample was composed of 31 autistic children, twenty-five boys and six girls, aged between 5 and 10 years old. To identify the most frequently used words in the initial period of implementation of PECS, the Vocabulary Selection Worksheet was used. And to measure the rate of maladaptive behaviors, we applied the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). There was a significant prevalence of items in the category "food", followed by "activities" and "beverages". There was no correlation between the total amount of items identified by the families and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. The categories of words most mentioned by the families could be identified, and it was confirmed that the level of maladaptive behaviors did not interfere directly in the preparation of the vocabulary selection worksheet for the children studied.

  11. Experts' Encounters in Antenatal Diabetes Care: A Descriptive Study of Verbal Communication in Midwife-Led Consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Furskog Risa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We regard consultations as cocreated communicatively by the parties involved. In this paper on verbal communication in midwife-led consultations, we consequently focus on the actual conversation taking place between the midwife and the pregnant woman with diabetes, especially on those sequences where the pregnant woman initiated a topic of concern in the conversation. Methods. This paper was undertaken in four hospital outpatient clinics in Norway. Ten antenatal consultations between midwives and pregnant women were audiotaped, transcribed to text, and analyzed using theme-oriented discourse analysis. Two communicative patterns were revealed: an expert's frame and a shared experts' frame. Within each frame, different communicative variations are presented. The topics women initiated in the conversations were (i delivery, time and mode; (ii previous birth experience; (iii labor pain; and (iv breast feeding, diabetes management, and fetal weight. Conclusion. Different ways of communicating seem to create different opportunities for the parties to share each other's perspectives. Adequate responses and a listening attitude as well as an ambiguous way of talking seem to open up for the pregnant women's perspectives. Further studies are needed to investigate the obstacles to, and premises for, providing midwifery care in a specialist outpatient setting.

  12. Taking the Politics Out of Satellite and Space-Based Communications Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2006-01-01

    After many years of studies, experimentation, and deployment, large amounts of misinformation and misconceptions remain regarding applicability of various communications protocols for use in satellite and space-based networks. This paper attempts to remove much of the politics, misconceptions, and misinformation that have plagued spacebased communications protocol development and deployment. This paper provides a common vocabulary for communications; a general discussion of the requirements for various communication environments; an evaluation of tradeoffs between circuit and packet-switching technologies, and the pros and cons of various link, network, transport, application, and security protocols. Included is the applicability of protocol enhancing proxies to NASA, Department of Defense (DOD), and commercial space communication systems.

  13. INFORMAL INTERPERSONAL VERBAL COMMUNICATION CONCEPTUALIZATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Florin Lucian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature reviewing of Word-of-Mouth Communication shows a few deficiencies in conceptualization of this informal communication form. The paper synthesizes some of the views that authors identified in the literature and explores the relationship between customer satisfaction and this particular form of communicative behavior.

  14. Social Movements and Political Agency in the Digital Age: A Communication Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Kavada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital media pose a dual challenge to conventional understandings of political agency. First, digital media destabilize long-held assumptions about the nature of collective action, about social movements and their capacity to effect change. This is because digital media are thought to facilitate more decentralized, dispersed, temporary and individualized forms of political action that subvert the notion of the collective as singular, unified, homogeneous, coherent, and mass. One way of resolving this challenge is to view the collective in looser terms, as a process rather than as a finished product, a conceptualization that can be influence our understanding not only of social movements, but also of other political actors and of society as a whole. Second, digital media highlight the need to take communication seriously in how we conceptualize both collective action and political agency. Placing communication at the centre allows us to develop this looser and more processual understanding of the collective by studying it as a process that is constituted in and through communication. Inspired by organizational communication and particularly the work of Taylor and van Every (2000, this essay proposes a conception of collective action as emerging in conversations and solidified in texts. This conceptualization allows for a more multiplex and variegated view of political agency that takes into account the specific context where agency is exercised and the power that different actors can exert in a communicative process of negotiation, persuasion and claim-making.

  15. Expanded pharmacy technician roles: Accepting verbal prescriptions and communicating prescription transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Timothy P; Adams, Alex J

    2017-11-01

    As the role of the clinical pharmacist continues to develop and advance, it is critical to ensure pharmacists can operate in a practice environment and workflow that supports the full deployment of their clinical skills. When pharmacy technician roles are optimized, patient safety can be enhanced and pharmacists may dedicate more time to advanced clinical services. Currently, 17 states allow technicians to accept verbal prescriptions called in by a prescriber or prescriber's agent, or transfer a prescription order from one pharmacy to another. States that allow these activities generally put few legal limitations on them, and instead defer to the professional judgment of the supervising pharmacist whether to delegate these tasks or not. These activities were more likely to be seen in states that require technicians to be registered and certified, and in states that have accountability mechanisms (e.g., discipline authority) in place for technicians. There is little evidence to suggest these tasks cannot be performed safely and accurately by appropriately trained technicians, and the track record of success with these tasks spans four decades in some states. Pharmacists can adopt strong practice policies and procedures to mitigate the risk of harm from verbal orders, such as instituting read-back/spell-back techniques, or requiring the indication for each phoned-in medication, among other strategies. Pharmacists may also exercise discretion in deciding to whom to delegate these tasks. As the legal environment becomes more permissive, we foresee investment in more robust education and training of technicians to cover these activities. Thus, with the adoption of robust practice policies and procedures, delegation of verbal orders and prescription transfers can be safe and effective, remove undue stress on pharmacists, and potentially free up pharmacist time for higher-order clinical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Political Communication, Citizen Journalism and Cyber-Societies: A Faster Way towards Democracy?

    OpenAIRE

    GEÇER, Ekmel

    2017-01-01

    Having a quick look at the literaturereview, it is possible to state that political communication, citizenjournalism, and democracy concepts have usually been used in collaboration witheach other especially after the long and sometimes complex new media theoriestake the core place in the debates. While some scholars, within the context ofcitizen journalism and political relation, highlights the role of social mediaand other new media courses in democratisation and more active politicalpartici...

  17. Information and Communication Technologies in Creating Political Media Reality in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Yu. Pavlyutenkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores intended use of infocomms in creation of political media reality, acting as a virtual environment, effectively replacing reality. A noteworthy detail is that mainstreaming of information and communication technologies into political sphere substantially increases the authoritative potential for the media discourse. Those forces that assert their own media versions of events and media images for their participants have been winning in the competitive struggle amidst media discourses today. Furthermore, all available communication channels (television, media, Internet resources, mobile telecommunications are used to set up a political pseudo-environment for their information consumers, replacing political reality. The article shows what way new media resources, initially aimed at manipulating the mass consciousness in the pre-election race are being incorporated today. In particular, impressive manipulative media effects are demonstrated when a fake discourse is included in the media space. In addition, computer attacks, hacking, and the prime of independent cyber organizations fighting against the “world evil” are in effect as an instrument in the political struggle, in obtaining compromising material and interstate opposition. The work records the inclusion of graphic elements, emoji, clips in the media discourse. In general, symbols, encroaching into the politics space, become a part of the political mainstream, change the style of political demonstrations, discussions, chats that unite adherents to influence the actions of the authorities. It follows that the political media reality design, supported by the latest information and communication technologies tools, directly affects the perception of what is happening on a global scale, quickly formatting the mass consciousness.

  18. THE BARRIERS IN THE NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TEACHER - STUDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norka Arellano

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available From the research “Communication in the Conflict Prevention in High Schools and Professional Educational Institutions”; the objective worked in this article was: To identify the existing barriers in the nonverbal communication between teachers and students of the educative institutions which are the object of study. Research of descriptive type, based on the theories of: Bounds and Woods, Ghio and Hechim, Gordon and Garagorri, Gibson among others. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, emphasizing the existence of nonverbal communicational barriers, which interfere with an effective communication between teachers and students, becoming necessary the development of a training program for high school headmasters and teachers, in communication and to impel educative projects that form for the coexistence, the assertive communication, the participation, solidarity and the commitment, creating bases for a culture of pace.

  19. VALIDATION OF A NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL FOR NURSING CONSULTATIONS WITH BLIND PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Brasil de Almeida Rebouças

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue validar el modelo de comunicación no verbal para la atención de enfermería a pacientes ciegos a través del marco teórico de Hall. La investigación fue desarrollada en el Laboratorio de Comunicación en Salud, del Departamento de Enfermería, de la Universidad Federal del Ceará, entre octubre/2007 y junio/2008. El estudio es metodológico, pues validó un protocolo de comunicación no verbal. El Protocolo fue construido y sometido a tres especialistas en comunicación para análisis y validación de contenido. Para probar la validez del protocolo con los sujetos, estos fueron divididos en dos grupos con 15 enfermeros y 15 pacientes ciegos en cada. El protocolo fue desarrollado por los autores, basado en la revisión de la literatura acerca del tema. La consulta de enfermería fue dividida en cuatro etapas, llamadas de etapas de atención. La investigación concluyó que el protocolo es válido para la aplicación en la práctica de enfermería.

  20. TOOLS OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN POLITICS AND THE ECONOMY, DEPENDING ON THE LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana L. Shklyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates how much can be similar absolutely different areas as politics and economy.Analyzing the approaches to marketing in these areas, you can gather a lot of valuable and useful. The authors discuss the tools of marketing communications, depending on the life cycle of goods and drawa parallel between business and politics. Note that thetools of marketing communications are very numerousand diverse but is most effective at a particular time. Provides specific recommendations on the relevance of tools, aimed at promotion of the goods in the certaintime intervals life cycle.

  1. Brief Report: Caregiver Strategy Implementation--Advancing Spoken Communication in Children Who Are Minimally Verbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Shih, Wendy; Kasari, Connie

    2018-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that caregivers' use of intervention strategies can support their children's social engagement and communication. However, it is not clear to what degree caregivers must master the strategies to effectively support gains in social communication, specifically, core challenges such as joint attention language (comments).…

  2. Past-focused temporal communication overcomes conservatives' resistance to liberal political ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Joris; Baldwin, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Nine studies and a meta-analysis test the role of past-focused temporal communication in reducing conservatives' disagreement with liberal political ideas. We propose that conservatives are more prone to warm, affectionate, and nostalgic feelings for past society. Therefore, they are more likely to support political ideas-including those expressing liberal values-that can be linked to a desirable past state (past focus), rather than a desirable future state (future focus) of society. Study 1 supports our prediction that political conservatives are more nostalgic for the past than liberals. Building on this association, we demonstrate that communicating liberal ideas with a past focus increases conservatives' support for leniency in criminal justice (Studies 2a and 2b), gun control (Study 3), immigration (Study 4), social diversity (Study 5), and social justice (Study 6). Communicating messages with a past focus reduced political disagreement (compared with a future focus) between liberals and conservatives by between 30 and 100% across studies. Studies 5 and 6 identify the mediating role of state and trait nostalgia, respectively. Study 7 shows that the temporal communication effect only occurs under peripheral (and not central) information processing. Study 8 shows that the effect is asymmetric; a future focus did not increase liberals' support for conservative ideas. A mixed-effects meta-analysis across all studies confirms that appealing to conservatives' nostalgia with a past-focused temporal focus increases support for liberal political messages (Study 9). A large portion of the political disagreement between conservatives and liberals appears to be disagreement over style, and not content of political issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. New perspectives and evidence on political communication and campaign effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, S; Simon, A F

    2000-01-01

    We review recent empirical evidence that shows political campaigns are more potent than widely believed, focusing on the conceptual and methodological advances that have produced these findings. Conceptually, a broader definition of effects--that includes learning and agenda-control, as well as vote choice--characterizes contemporary research. This research also features two kinds of interactive models that are more complex than the traditional hypodermic (message-based) approach. The resonance model considers the relationship between message content and receivers' predispositions, while the strategic model highlights the interactions between competing messages. Finally, we attribute the emergence of stronger evidence in favor of campaign effects to the use of new methodologies including experimentation and content analysis, as well as the more sophisticated use of sample surveys.

  4. Digital Communication and Politics in Aragon. A two-way communication formula for the interaction between politicians and citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ruiz-Carreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents blogs as an innovative and rich tool for political communication. Blogs can facilitate two-way communication and true interaction between citizens and politicians. The article analyses in depth the content, uses, and characteristics of five weblogs written by Aragonese politicians. Although the study detects some weaknesses in the current political use of blogs, it encourages political parties to use blogs and other online resources, not only during electoral campaigns to improve the reputation of political leaders but also continuously and particularly in situations of special interest for the citizenship. The study shows that the use of blogs by Aragonese politicians is no longer just a transitory phenomenon and has become a reality. The article also demonstrates that politicians use blogs mostly as a pre-electoral tooland to a much lesser extent as an element of communication to promote democracy. It has been observed that politicians’ blogs are used as a tool to overcome situations of crisis and to compensate negative opinions caused by questionable acts.

  5. THE ROLE OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS WITHIN THE MANAGEMENT ACTIONS IN THE POLITICAL AND BUSINESS WORLD

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    Katerina Veljanovska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The model of communication aims to improve the internal perception of the employees about their working institutions, and improve the external perception of the institution in the eyes of co-workers and the general population. The analysis of the model of communication in the political world and the business world has its common aspects and some differences. Namely, it is a process that is the basis of creating good relationships and accomplishment in the institution of the working process at a high level. Any gap in communication directly reflects the quality of decision making and creating inappropriate image of the institution. Political institutions are exposed to further analysis by government institutions and the media, based on that, the flow of information it is required to be at a high level and made the basis of preset parameters of successful communication. Business world, on the other hand, is also necessary to take care of selecting the appropriate model of communication because it is subject to regular monitoring by the target groups according to their interest. The success of communication indicates the successful realization of the mission and vision of the institutions (political and business.

  6. "Are you done?" Child care providers' verbal communication at mealtimes that reinforce or hinder children's internal cues of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A; Branen, Laurel J; Fletcher, Janice; Price, Elizabeth; Johnson, Susan L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    To explore the verbal communication of child care providers regarding preschool children's internal and non-internal hunger and satiation cues. Video observation transcripts of Head Start staff (n=29) at licensed child care centers in Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada were analyzed for common themes. Adults' verbal communication with children at mealtimes emphasized non-internal cues: (1) cueing children to amounts without referencing children's internal cues; (2) meal termination time; (3) asking children if they wanted more without referencing their internal cues; (4) asking children if they were done without referencing their internal cues; (5) telling children to take, try, eat, or finish food; (6) praising children for eating; and (7) telling children about food being good for you. Adults demonstrated an overriding effort to get children to eat. Training needs to be developed that gives specifics on verbally cueing young children to their internal hunger and satiation cues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Politics, Society and Communication in the Constitution of Modern Society: Early Modern England

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    Devrim ÖZKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inception of Modern England comprises a hundred and fifty years between sixteenth and mid eighteenth centuries. The structural qualities of modern societies of this day occur in this era. The political and economic changes and transformations that England experienced in this period of time are in enormous scale. In this period all social structure and institutions experienced structural change in terms of cultural, economic and political processes. In addition to this in this period the framework of the international system regarding economy and politics is established too. Important qualities of current modern societies are the speed of communication and interaction between its elements, its transformational capacity and the extent of its scope. In this, it is possible to apprehend the basic cornerstones of today’s information and communication age by analyzing the early modern period of England

  8. Communication Media, Memory, and Social-Political Change in Eric Havelock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronbeck, Bruce E.

    2000-01-01

    Seeks to rehearse E. Havelock's arguments about relationships among communication modes or media, memory, and social-political change to specify his primary contributions to the so-called orality-literacy theorems, or to what is now beginning to be called theories of media ecology. Describes Havelock's evolutionary journey from the late 1950s to…

  9. The professionalization of political communication? a longitudinal analysis of Dutch election campaign posters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of Dutch election posters in the period from 1946 to 2006. Based on the literature on the professionalization of political communication, several hypotheses are formulated regarding changes in textual and visual elements of those posters. These hypotheses focus on

  10. A Critique of Contemporary Approaches to the Study of Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Keith R.

    The twentieth century history of the academic study of political communication can be divided into three parts: the period between the World Wars, the period 1940-1965, and the period from 1965 to the present. In the first period, social scientists were greatly concerned that the democratic process might be subverted by propaganda; they were…

  11. Construction of the Reality in the Media and Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Macháček, Roman

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we will focus on the concept of the influence of mass media and the Internet on human society, due to the development of the media from the first half of the twentieth century to the present time. The aim of the thesis is to use this research method to introduce options, which media dispose in order to influence the public opinion, spread an ideology, construct a distorted reality and enforce specific interests through effective media and marketing communication. The thesis the...

  12. Visualization of political communication space: peculiarities and tendencies

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    O. O. Zaslavska

    2016-06-01

    Internet grows to everyday practice of objective reality of average Ukrainians. Internet actively builds up its social influence on society and turns to be such a social environment which like barometer reflects social and political situation in the country and determines integration processes in Ukrainian society. Ukrainians consider Internet at present time as potential resource to realize social and civil activity, the resource which makes it possible to impact on power structures and to control power by citizens. Still the social and civil practices in Internet have not become the everyday practice of average Ukrainians. This outcome is caused because of Ukrainians assess their ability too low as regards the impact on power as well as objective reasons of internet technologies development in modern society. The Internet democracy development has still young history of its emerge and social development. E-government, provision of e-services by e-governments, e-interaction of different social objects today, all of those things have just begun to grow and to win out their rights for existing in full value in the society. Undoubtedly, all of those peculiarities affect the special features of citizens’ participation in Internet in modern word. Such development needs the formation of public culture how to utilize the net and certain experience and skills to implement such interaction.

  13. Predicted risk of cobalt deficiency in grazing sheep from a geochemical survey; communicating uncertainty with the IPCC verbal scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Ander, E. L.; Cave, M. R.; Knights, K. V.; Glennon, M. M.; Scanlon, R. P.

    2014-05-01

    Deficiency or excess of certain trace elements in the soil causes problems for agriculture, including disorders of grazing ruminants. Farmers and their advisors in Ireland use index values for the concentration of total soil cobalt and manganese to identify where grazing sheep are at risk of cobalt deficiency. We used cokriging with topsoil data from a regional geochemical survey across six counties of Ireland to form local cokriging predictions of cobalt and manganese concentrations with an attendant distribution which reflects the joint uncertainty of these predictions. From this distribution we then computed conditional probabilities for different combinations of cobalt and manganese index values, and so for the corresponding inferred risk to sheep of cobalt deficiency and the appropriateness of different management interventions. The challenge is to communicate these results effectively to an audience comprising, inter alia, farmers, agronomists and veterinarians. Numerical probabilities are not generally well-understood by non-specialists. For this reason we presented our results as maps using a verbal scale to communicate the probability that a deficiency is indicated by local soil conditions, or that a particular intervention is indicated. In the light of recent research on the effectiveness of the verbal scale used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to communicate probabilistic information we reported the geostatistical predictions as follows. First, we use the basic IPCC scale with intensifiers, but we also indicate the corresponding probabilities (as percentages) as recommended by Budescu et al. (2009). Second, we make it clear that the source of uncertainty in these predictions is the spatial variability of soil Co and Mn. The outcome under consideration is therefore that a particular soil management scenario would be indicated if the soil properties were known without error, possible uncertainty about the implications of particular soil

  14. "Are You Done?" Child Care Providers' Verbal Communication at Mealtimes that Reinforce or Hinder Children's Internal Cues of Hunger and Satiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A.; Branen, Laurel J.; Fletcher, Janice; Price, Elizabeth; Johnson, Susan L.; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the verbal communication of child care providers regarding preschool children's internal and non-internal hunger and satiation cues. Methods: Video observation transcripts of Head Start staff (n=29) at licensed child care centers in Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada were analyzed for common themes. Results: Adults' verbal…

  15. Student-Teachers' Verbal Communication Patterns during Their Teaching Practice in "Studies for the Environment" Subject in Early Greek Primary Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrakis, George; Karagianni, Aggeliki; Pani, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the quality of student-teachers' (STs') verbal communication during their teaching practice on the "Studies for the Environment" subject, and identifies potential factors affecting it. Forty-one teaching sessions were analysed revealing that STs dominate classroom talking by having almost an equal number of utterances…

  16. Interaction Of Verbal Communication Of The Teacher From The Philippines In The Teaching Activity For Nursery II Students At The Singapore International School Medan

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    Tetti Nauli Panjaitan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The title of the research was Interaction of Verbal Communication of the Teacher from thePhilippines in the Teaching Activity for Nursery II Students at the Singapore International School Medan. The objective of the research was to find out the verbal Interaction communicationin the teaching activity of the teacher from the Philippines in Nursery II Class at the Singapore International School Medan. The school is one of the international schools with foreign teachers. It uses English as the teaching medium in the teaching-learning process. The teacher in this class comes from the Philippines and the students are from 3 to 4 years old.The result of the research showed that the teaching activity in the Nursery II class at the Singapore International School Medan was done in two ways between teacher and students the teacher used more verbal communication while non-verbal communication was used as a supporting method. The learning process was done through singing telling stories games and using teaching tools like television pictures and toys in the communication process in order to make the students easier to understand what had been conveyed by the teacher.

  17. Interactive uncertainty reduction strategies and verbal affection in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; Schouten, A.P.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the language-based strategies that computer-mediated communication (CMC) users employ to reduce uncertainty in the absence of nonverbal cues. Specifically, this study investigated the prevalence of three interactive uncertainty reduction strategies (i.e.,

  18. 3-Year-Old Children Make Relevance Inferences in Indirect Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Cornelia; Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated 3-year-old children's ability to determine a speaker's communicative intent when the speaker's overt utterance related to that intent only indirectly. Studies 1 and 2 examined children's comprehension of indirectly stated requests (e.g., "I find Xs good" can imply, in context, a request for…

  19. Analyzing the Training and Internship Needs Assessment of Verbal Communication Skills amongst Hotel Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Suzana Ab.; Tazijan, Farina

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to expose the learners in the hospitality industry to real workplace requirement in terms of communication skills. In view of its importance, human resource managers, researchers and educators in the field of hospitality management or the hotel practitioners have to pay more serious attention to it. Thus, it is pertinent that both…

  20. How physician electronic health record screen sharing affects patient and doctor non-verbal communication in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur; Young, Henry N; Chewning, Betty; Montague, Enid

    2015-03-01

    Use of electronic health records (EHRs) in primary-care exam rooms changes the dynamics of patient-physician interaction. This study examines and compares doctor-patient non-verbal communication (eye-gaze patterns) during primary care encounters for three different screen/information sharing groups: (1) active information sharing, (2) passive information sharing, and (3) technology withdrawal. Researchers video recorded 100 primary-care visits and coded the direction and duration of doctor and patient gaze. Descriptive statistics compared the length of gaze patterns as a percentage of visit length. Lag sequential analysis determined whether physician eye-gaze influenced patient eye gaze, and vice versa, and examined variations across groups. Significant differences were found in duration of gaze across groups. Lag sequential analysis found significant associations between several gaze patterns. Some, such as DGP-PGD ("doctor gaze patient" followed by "patient gaze doctor") were significant for all groups. Others, such DGT-PGU ("doctor gaze technology" followed by "patient gaze unknown") were unique to one group. Some technology use styles (active information sharing) seem to create more patient engagement, while others (passive information sharing) lead to patient disengagement. Doctors can engage patients in communication by using EHRs in the visits. EHR training and design should facilitate this. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Point Is to Change It! Introduction to Critical Political Interventions in Media and Communication Studies

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    Sašo Slaček Brlek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to provide a historical overview and an introduction to the interviews with Bodgan Osolnik, Breda Pavlič, Cees Hamelink, Daya K. Thussu, Peter Golding and Dan Hind presented in this special section. Following Marx, we entitled the section The Point Is to Change It! Critical Political Interventions in Media and Communication Studies. We discuss the need for critical theory to bridge the divide between theory and practice because this notion is central to all of the interviews in one way or another. We also provide a historical contextualization of important theoretical as well as political developments in the 1970s and 1980s. This period may be seen as a watershed era for the critical political economy of communication and for the political articulation of demands for a widespread transformation and democratization in the form of the New World Information and Communication Order initiative. We believe that many contemporary issues have a long history, with their roots firmly based in this era. The historical perspective therefore cannot be seen as nostalgia, but as an attempt to understand the historical relations of power and how they have changed and shifted. In our view, the historical perspective is crucial not only for understanding long-lasting historical trends, but also to remind ourselves that the world is malleable, and to keep alive the promises of the progressive struggles of the past.

  2. Análise da comunicação verbal e não-verbal de crianças com deficiencia visual durante interação com a mãe Analysis of the verbal and non-verbal communication of children with visual impairment during interaction with their mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáima Pinheiro de Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    blind children, with low vision capacity and children with normal vision and, therefore, to analyze the particularities of the maternal communication during the interaction within free and planned contexts. Six children participated in the study: two blind; two with low vision capacity and; two with normal vision, who were selected from specific criteria. Two recordings of each were carried out in the familiar environment: free and planned situations. The analysis was performed by means of functional characterization of the verbal and non-verbal communication of the children with their mothers. The data showed that the verbal communicative resources were predominant in both free and planned situations. Overall, the results of this study indicate that although there were particularities during its use, the language of the visual impairment children does not present deficit in relation to the one of those with normal vision. Moreover, the mothers of the blind children and with low vision capacity used strategies such as descriptions of the environment, indications and localization of objects during their interactions that favored their performance.

  3. The potential for political leadership in HIV/AIDS communication campaigns in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Abraar; Hartford, Emily; Coates, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has become a point of important political concern for governments especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical and public health interventions to curb the epidemic can be greatly enhanced with the strategic support of political leaders. We analyzed the role of national political leadership in large-scale HIV/AIDS communications campaigns in 14 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. We primarily reviewed grey and white literature published from 2005-2014. We further triangulated data from in-person and phone interviews with key public health figures. A number of themes emerged supporting political leaders' efforts toward HIV/AIDS program improvement, including direct involvement of public officials in campaign spearheading, the acknowledgment of personal relationship to the HIV epidemic, and public testing and disclosure of HIV status. Areas for future improvement were also identified, including the need for more directed messaging, increased transparency both nationally and internationally and the reduction of stigmatizing messaging from leaders. The political system has a large role to play within the healthcare system, particularly for HIV/AIDS. This partnership between politics and the health must continue to strengthen and be leveraged to effect major change in behaviors and attitudes across Sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Verbal communication about sex in marriage: patterns of language use and its connection with relational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jon A; Coffelt, Tina A

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the vocabulary husbands and wives use for talking to each other about sex, and connections between language use and relational qualities. Married people (n = 293) responded to a questionnaire about their use of common sex-related terms and about several characteristics of their marriage: sexual communication satisfaction, relational satisfaction, and relational closeness. Cluster analysis based on reported use revealed that sexual terms fell into clusters characterized as clinical terms, slang, or standard English. Results showed an association between use of sexual terms, particularly slang terms, and both satisfaction and closeness. This connection was stronger for women than for men. The findings offer insight into sexual talk and marital relationships.

  5. The Functional Role of Neural Oscillations in Non-Verbal Emotional Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Ashley E; El-Deredy, Wael; Schwartze, Michael; Kotz, Sonja A

    2016-01-01

    Effective interpersonal communication depends on the ability to perceive and interpret nonverbal emotional expressions from multiple sensory modalities. Current theoretical models propose that visual and auditory emotion perception involves a network of brain regions including the primary sensory cortices, the superior temporal sulcus (STS), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). However, relatively little is known about how the dynamic interplay between these regions gives rise to the perception of emotions. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of neural oscillations in mediating neural communication within and between functional neural networks. Here we review studies investigating changes in oscillatory activity during the perception of visual, auditory, and audiovisual emotional expressions, and aim to characterize the functional role of neural oscillations in nonverbal emotion perception. Findings from the reviewed literature suggest that theta band oscillations most consistently differentiate between emotional and neutral expressions. While early theta synchronization appears to reflect the initial encoding of emotionally salient sensory information, later fronto-central theta synchronization may reflect the further integration of sensory information with internal representations. Additionally, gamma synchronization reflects facilitated sensory binding of emotional expressions within regions such as the OFC, STS, and, potentially, the amygdala. However, the evidence is more ambiguous when it comes to the role of oscillations within the alpha and beta frequencies, which vary as a function of modality (or modalities), presence or absence of predictive information, and attentional or task demands. Thus, the synchronization of neural oscillations within specific frequency bands mediates the rapid detection, integration, and evaluation of emotional expressions. Moreover, the functional coupling of oscillatory activity across multiples

  6. Landsat as a Political Entity: Meaningful Communication for a National Asset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the health of our planet on a global scale is essential to the world’s populace. Earth-observing satellites have long been collecting data that enable a robust comprehension of Earth’s complex and interconnected systems. Despite these important contributions, the fleet of U.S. Earth-observing satellites is aging and operational status for most onboard sensors has not materialized. These satellites are imperative objective viewers of our changing planet as we try to monitor and deal with natural disasters, carbon budgeting, water consumption, and food production. But the satellite building and launching process needed to sustain an operational observatory is extremely political. Landsat, the oldest civilian land-observing satellite, has a long and checkered political past, and it is only because of a handful of political champions that the program has endured. This begs the question: are policymakers aware of the contributions of satellites to our national wellbeing? And if not, can the science community better communicate with the general public at large and policy makers in particular? Here Landsat is examined as a political entity and the six pillars of effective science communication (context, trust, dialogue, clarity, respect, nuance) are used to develop, refine, and analyze a fact sheet and case study that explain the importance of Landsat Earth-observation to our society.

  7. WHEN THE PRESENT GETS US ... GLOBALIZATION: NEW TECHNOLOGIES, STRATEGY AND POLITICAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Martín Fragachán

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The current phase of the capitalist world development receives the name of globalization and has brought a series of consequences: a few positive and great very denials, some of which will try to be analyzed by me in the lines that continue later, insisting, very specially, in those who say to the development of new technologies of communication, to the called “social networks” and to the consequences that the same ones have had both for the communication and for the development of new modalities of political strategy.

  8. Golkar Party's Political Communications the New Paradigm Bakrie Leadership 2009-2013

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    Khoiruddin Muchtar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study base on the efforts of the Golkar Party's to the process of interpretation, socialization, and implementation of the new paradigm, the paradigm guide to reformations Golkar Party's become to democratic, independent, solid, strong, foundamental, and responsive. How Golkar party's political communication about socialization and implementation of a new paradigm of Golkar Party's leadership Aburizal Bakrie-year period from 2009 to 2012.The aim of this research is to study and overview of the process of socialization and implementation new paradigm Golkar Party's of the Aburizal Bakrie’s leadership. This contect described to using constructivist paradigm through the theory of Performance of Communication and Structuration. Research using the case study method. Data obtained by participation observer, unstructured interviews, and documentary study. The data also collected from informants. The results of this research show: 1 The Golkar Party's has a very significant infrastructure, so the making easier to socialization new paradigm to internal party, but Golkar Party's can not erase stigma society as the New Order party. Socializing new paradigm Golkar Party's to be done in integrated, systematic and continuous addressed to all cadres of various levels from the center to the village. 2 the new paradigm Golkar Party's ideals as the basis and foundation values stand for the Golkar Party's, the implementation is faced with the reality of the condition of the various political considerations and the interests of power, so it can not shown the Golkar Party's political communication with the direction of the reality, Golkar Party's must be have to political communication with the role of multi faces.

  9. Mapping hospice patients' perception and verbal communication of end-of-life needs: an exploratory mixed methods inquiry

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    Arnold Bruce L

    2011-01-01

    verbal encoding that constitute patients' narratives. Communication is a key currency for delivering optimal palliative care. Therefore understanding the domains of needs that emerge from patient-based vocabularies indicate potential for: (1 developing more comprehensive clinical-patient needs assessment tools; (2 improved patient-clinician communication; and (3 moving toward a theoretical model of human needs that can emerge at the end of life.

  10. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment Comunicación no verbal madre/hijo em la existencia del HIV materna en ambiente experimental Comunicação não-verbal mãe/filho na vigência do HIV materno em ambiente experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Sousa Paiva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mother’s infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers’ strong attachment to their children after birth.La comunicación no verbal es predominante en la relación entre madre/hijo. Se tuvo por objetivo verificar la comunicación no verbal madre/hijo en la existencia del HIV materno. En ambiente experimental, fueron evaluadas cinco madres HIV+, que cuidaban de sus hijos de hasta seis meses de vida. Las filmaciones de los cuidados fueron analizadas por peritos, siendo observados los aspectos de la comunicación no verbal, como: paralenguaje, cinestésica, proximidad, contacto visual, tono de voz y comportamiento táctil materno e infantil. Se obtuvo 344 escenas que, después de un análisis estadístico, posibilitó inferir que la comunicación no verbal es utilizada por la madre para demonstrar su apego íntimo a los hijos y para percibir posibles anormalidades. Se sugiere que la infección materna puede ser un factor determinante para la formación del fuerte apego de la madre por su bebé después el nacimiento.A comunicação não-verbal é predominante na relação entre mãe/filho. Objetivou-se verificar a comunicação não-verbal mãe/filho na vigência do HIV

  11. A influência da comunicação não verbal no cuidado de enfermagem La influencia de la comunicación no verbal en la atención de enfermería The influence of non-verbal communication in nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Viana Santos

    2005-08-01

    Nursing School Alfredo Pinto UNIRIO, and it started during the development of a monograph. The object of the study is the meaning of non-verbal communication under the optics of the nursing course undergraduates. The study presents the following objectives: to determine how non-verbal communication is comprehended among college students in nursing and to analyze in what way that comprehension influences nursing care. The methodological approach was qualitative, while the dynamics of sensitivity were applied as strategy for data collection. It was observed that undergraduate students identify the relevance and influence of non-verbal communication along nursing care, however there is a need in amplifying the knowledge of non-verbal communication process prior the implementation of nursing care.

  12. Destructiveness in Political Discourse

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    Яна Александровна Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Destructiveness is among the fundamental discourse categories that play a significant role in the organization of communicative interaction and define the pragmatics of discourse; its study helps to understand some mechanisms and principles of communication, identify strategies and tactics used by a destructive communicative personality. The relevance of this study is determined by the increasing aggressiveness in various types of discourse, and, accordingly, by the need to extend the knowledge of destructive behavior of a communicative personality. The study is based on the theory of discourse-analysis and theory of destructiveness (Z. Harris, T. van Dijk, A. Buss, E. Fromm, D. Ponton, K. Hacker, R. Wodak. N. Arutyunova, V. Karasik, M. Makarov, E. Sheigal et al. Developing the theory of destructiveness and relying on Erich Fromm’s research (1973, we specify the concept of “destructiveness” in relation to the political discourse and compare it with the related concept of aggressiveness. The paper analyses the category of destructiveness in modern US political discourse, using excerpts from the speeches of the candidates for presidency of 2016. Particular attention is paid to the dominant destructive intention - to harm the reputation of the opponent and reduce his political chances, as well as to the functions of verbal aggression: on the one hand - to discredit the opponent, bring accusations, on the other hand - to poison the audience mind against him/her and arouse the feeling of danger posed by a political opponent. The analysis of verbal and nonverbal means of destructiveness in the US political discourse is carried out. The article concludes that abusive remarks of politicians do not result from spontaneous emotional outburst, but from an elaborated destructive strategy where the agonistic nature of political discourse stipulates the use of instrumental aggression (Buss, 1971 for the sake of the conquest of power, lowering the

  13. The story of the Australian Youth Forum — the political and social realities behind online technological solutions in youth political communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pillay, Prashanth

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the difficulties in using online media as a tool to solve youth political engagement problems. It argues that online media has complicated the relationship between the government and young Australians, highlighting the practical difficulties of operationalising effective political communication practices. The Australian Youth Forum (AYF), Australia’s main online government project to raise low youth public engagement levels, is used as a case study. Originally inten...

  14. Communicable disease policy development in response to changing European political frontiers in Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, Brita Kaltenbrunner

    2008-11-01

    The European Union (EU) enlargement of 2004 brings both opportunities and challenges for public health. It is believed that further integration will bring direct health benefits, mainly through improved socioeconomic conditions, but there are also risks associated with the EU expansion, in particular cross-border health risks, such as the impact of the internal EU market policy of free movement and migration on communicable disease patterns. Against this background, this article examines communicable disease policy development in Finland, Norway and Sweden in response to changing European political frontiers, in particular the EU accession of the Baltic States. The emphasis is on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. The study is based on a qualitative and quantitative approach, using two complementary methods: documentary analysis and stakeholder analysis. The article identifies a distinct pattern in communicable disease policy development between 1990 and 2005. The turn of the new millennium saw a sharp increase in national attention and the priority assigned to communicable diseases in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The article argues that this development is likely to be related to the rising national, regional and European awareness of the public health challenges associated with communicable diseases in today's borderless Europe. It also shows that the Baltic health situation is a particular concern for Finland. Although there is increasing national and regional activity within the communicable disease area, there is a need for a more effective European approach to tackle the future communicable disease challenges that may follow in an increasingly interdependent and integrated Europe.

  15. Social media in political communication and the use of twitter in the 2011 general elections in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktutan, Günseli; Binark, Mutlu; Çomu, Tuğrul; Doğu, Burak; İslamoğlu, Gözde; Telli Aydemir, Aslı

    2012-01-01

    This study is a part of a comprehensive research supported by TÜBİTAK SOBAG (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey - Social Sciences and Humanities Research Grant Group), which investigates with quantitative and qualitative methods the practices involved in the usage of the social media by political parties and political party leaders as a channel/area for political communication. The aim for this study is to demonstrate, within the framework of the developing citizenshi...

  16. Folinic acid improves verbal communication in children with autism and language impairment: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, R E; Slattery, J; Delhey, L; Furgerson, B; Strickland, T; Tippett, M; Sailey, A; Wynne, R; Rose, S; Melnyk, S; Jill James, S; Sequeira, J M; Quadros, E V

    2018-02-01

    We sought to determine whether high-dose folinic acid improves verbal communication in children with non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and language impairment in a double-blind placebo control setting. Forty-eight children (mean age 7 years 4  months; 82% male) with ASD and language impairment were randomized to receive 12 weeks of high-dose folinic acid (2 mg kg -1 per day, maximum 50 mg per day; n=23) or placebo (n=25). Children were subtyped by glutathione and folate receptor-α autoantibody (FRAA) status. Improvement in verbal communication, as measured by a ability-appropriate standardized instrument, was significantly greater in participants receiving folinic acid as compared with those receiving placebo, resulting in an effect of 5.7 (1.0,10.4) standardized points with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d=0.70). FRAA status was predictive of response to treatment. For FRAA-positive participants, improvement in verbal communication was significantly greater in those receiving folinic acid as compared with those receiving placebo, resulting in an effect of 7.3 (1.4,13.2) standardized points with a large effect size (Cohen's d=0.91), indicating that folinic acid treatment may be more efficacious in children with ASD who are FRAA positive. Improvements in subscales of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, the Autism Symptom Questionnaire and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children were significantly greater in the folinic acid group as compared with the placebo group. There was no significant difference in adverse effects between treatment groups. Thus, in this small trial of children with non-syndromic ASD and language impairment, treatment with high-dose folinic acid for 12 weeks resulted in improvement in verbal communication as compared with placebo, particularly in those participants who were positive for FRAAs.

  17. Communication as a human right: Citizenship, politics and the role of the speech-language pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan; Lyons, Rena; Carroll, Clare; Caulfield, Mari; De Paor, Gráinne

    2018-02-01

    According to Article 19 of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers." The purpose of this paper is to elucidate communication as a human right in the life of a young man called Declan who has Down syndrome. This commentary paper is co-written by Declan, his sister who is a speech-language pathologist (SLP) with an advocacy role, his SLP, and academics. Declan discusses, in his own words, what makes communication hard, what helps communication, his experiences of speech-language pathology, and what he knows about human rights. He also discusses his passion for politics, his right to be an active citizen and participate in the political process. This paper also focuses on the role of speech-language pathology in supporting and partnering with people with communication disabilities to have their voices heard and exercise their human rights.

  18. Information Communication Technology and Politics: A Synthesized Analysis of the Impacts of Information Technology on Voter Participation in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuma, Clive Katiba

    2011-01-01

    The availability of political information throughout society made possible by the evolution of contemporary information communication technology has precipitated conflicting debate regarding the effects of technology use on real life political participation. Proponents of technology argue that the use of new information technology stimulates…

  19. Does Studying Political Science Affect Civic Attitudes?: A Panel Comparison of Students of Politics, Law, and Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaiasson, Peter; Persson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    The article evaluates the civic implications of studying political science. Previous research has argued that learning rational choice models of political behavior could be detrimental to civic outcomes. However, results from our two panel surveys of students at Swedish universities show the opposite: studying political science has positive…

  20. Tweeting From Left to Right: Is Online Political Communication More Than an Echo Chamber?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, Pablo; Jost, John T; Nagler, Jonathan; Tucker, Joshua A; Bonneau, Richard

    2015-10-01

    We estimated ideological preferences of 3.8 million Twitter users and, using a data set of nearly 150 million tweets concerning 12 political and nonpolitical issues, explored whether online communication resembles an "echo chamber" (as a result of selective exposure and ideological segregation) or a "national conversation." We observed that information was exchanged primarily among individuals with similar ideological preferences in the case of political issues (e.g., 2012 presidential election, 2013 government shutdown) but not many other current events (e.g., 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, 2014 Super Bowl). Discussion of the Newtown shootings in 2012 reflected a dynamic process, beginning as a national conversation before transforming into a polarized exchange. With respect to both political and nonpolitical issues, liberals were more likely than conservatives to engage in cross-ideological dissemination; this is an important asymmetry with respect to the structure of communication that is consistent with psychological theory and research bearing on ideological differences in epistemic, existential, and relational motivation. Overall, we conclude that previous work may have overestimated the degree of ideological segregation in social-media usage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. The neural basis of non-verbal communication-enhanced processing of perceived give-me gestures in 9-month-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marta; Kaduk, Katharina; Elsner, Claudia; Juvrud, Joshua; Gustaf Gredebäck

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the neural basis of non-verbal communication. Event-related potentials were recorded while 29 nine-month-old infants were presented with a give-me gesture (experimental condition) and the same hand shape but rotated 90°, resulting in a non-communicative hand configuration (control condition). We found different responses in amplitude between the two conditions, captured in the P400 ERP component. Moreover, the size of this effect was modulated by participants' sex, with girls generally demonstrating a larger relative difference between the two conditions than boys.

  2. Phatic Communication Politness of Greating Arek Culture on Account Instagram: Pragmatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Sofiananda Armaza Faraba

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Language politeness is the starting point of acceptance in speech events (Sumarlam., 2017:181. There are good intentions are meant or delivered in unfavorable or impolite ways, both in terms of word choice and external factors (intonation, mimic, pantomimic, etc. will be interpreted differently. The data in this research is oral speech in the form of caption or writing contains cultural greetings Arek. It can be seen from the classification of data posting in account instagram @aslisuroboyo. Phatic communication of the Arek culture society consists of rek, arek, ndasmu, koen, cok, ndeng, a, gaes, lur, jembuk, bez. It uses the scale of language politeness from Brown and Levinson skala the speaker and hearer relative power (the scale of social status ratings between speakers and speech partners or commonly referred to as the rank scale of power or power rating and the philanthropic scope of Robin Lakoff is the politeness scale of equality or kesekawanan refers to a friendly attitude and always maintain friendship between one person to another in order to be polite.

  3. The politics of non-communicable diseases in the global South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, David; Herrick, Clare; Brown, Tim

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we explore the emergence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as an object of political concern in and for countries of the global South. While epidemiologists and public health practitioners and scholars have long expressed concern with the changing global distribution of the burden of NCDs, it is only in more recent years that the aetiology, politics and consequences of these shifts have become an object of critical social scientific enquiry. These shifts mark the starting point for this special issue on 'The Politics of NCDs in the Global South' and act as the basis for new, critical interventions in how we understand NCDs. In this paper, we aim not only to introduce and contextualise the six contributions that form this special issue, but also to identify and explore three themes - problematisation, care and culture - that index the main areas of analytical and empirical concern that have motivated analyses of NCDs in the global South and are central to critical engagement with their political contours. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Politeness strategies in written communications: the issue of Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimkhanlooei Giti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The approximation of the pragmatic knowledge of English language learners to native speakers has been a realm of concern for the scholars and researchers in applied linguistics. Thus, this research was an endeavor to figure out the association between the proficiency level and politeness strategies and external/internal modifications in written communication skills in the speech act of requests in Iranian English language learners. To this end, a written Discourse Completion Test (DCT, adapted from Rose (1994, including 8 situations was administered to elicit data from Iran Language Institute120 female and male EFL learners, 60 upper-intermediate and 60 intermediate. The data were sorted out using Brown and Levinson’s politeness strategies taxonomy (Brown and Levinson 1987 and external/internal modifications developed by Faerch and Kasper (1989. The written request utterances provided by each participant were analyzed in terms of frequency and types of politeness strategies, namely, positive, negative, bald on record, and off-record as well as external/internal modifications utilized in requests. The Pearson Chi-Square test results revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between upper-intermediate and intermediate learners’ type of politeness strategies and external/internal modifications.

  5. Achieving visibility? Use of non-verbal communication in interactions between patients and pharmacists who do not share a common language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Fiona

    2014-06-01

    Despite the seemingly insatiable interest in healthcare professional-patient communication, less attention has been paid to the use of non-verbal communication in medical consultations. This article considers pharmacists' and patients' use of non-verbal communication to interact directly in consultations in which they do not share a common language. In total, 12 video-recorded, interpreted pharmacy consultations concerned with a newly prescribed medication or a change in medication were analysed in detail. The analysis focused on instances of direct communication initiated by either the patient or the pharmacist, despite the presence of a multilingual pharmacy assistant acting as an interpreter. Direct communication was shown to occur through (i) the demonstration of a medical device, (ii) the indication of relevant body parts and (iii) the use of limited English. These connections worked to make patients and pharmacists visible to each other and thus to maintain a sense of mutual involvement in consultations within which patients and pharmacists could enact professionally and socially appropriate roles. In a multicultural society this work is important in understanding the dynamics involved in consultations in situations in which language is not shared and thus in considering the development of future research and policy. © 2014 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL (SHIL).

  6. Non-verbal communication between Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability and people with an intellectual disability: an exploratory study of the nurse's experiences. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne-Marie; Connor-Fenelon, Maureen O'; Lyons, Rosemary

    2012-03-01

    This is the first of two articles presenting the findings of a qualitative study which explored the experiences of Registered Nurses Intellectual Disability (RNIDs) of communicating with people with an intellectual disability who communicate non-verbally. The article reports and critically discusses the findings in the context of the policy and service delivery discourses of person-centredness, inclusion, choice and independence. Arguably, RNIDs are the profession who most frequently encounter people with an intellectual disability and communication impairment. The results suggest that the communication studied is both complicated and multifaceted. An overarching category of 'familiarity/knowing the person' encompasses discrete but related themes and subthemes that explain the process: the RNID knowing the service-user; the RNID/service-user relationship; and the value of experience. People with an intellectual disability, their families and disability services are facing a time of great change, and RNIDs will have a crucial role in supporting this transition.

  7. Political priority in the global fight against non–communicable diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Anthony; Sridhar, Devi

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of non–communicable diseases (NCDs) – such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic respiratory diseases – is surging globally. Yet despite the availability of cost–effective interventions, NCDs receive less than 3% of annual development assistance for health to low and middle income countries. The top donors in global health – including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the US Government, and the World Bank – together commit less than 2% of their budgets to the prevention and control of NCDs. Why is there such meagre funding on the table for the prevention and control of NCDs? Why has a global plan of action aimed at halting the spread of NCDs been so difficult to achieve? Methods This paper aims to tackle these two interrelated questions by analysing NCDs through the lens of Jeremy Shiffman’s 2009 political priority framework. We define global political priority as ‘the degree to which international and national political leaders actively give attention to an issue, and back up that attention with the provision of financial, technical, and human resources that are commensurate with the severity of the issue’. Grounded in social constructionism, this framework critically examines the relationship between agenda setting and ‘objective’ factors in global health, such as the existence of cost–effective interventions and a high mortality burden. From a methodological perspective, this paper fits within the category of discipline configurative case study. Results We support Shiffman’s claim that strategic communication – or ideas in the form of issue portrayals – ought to be a core activity of global health policy communities. But issue portrayals must be the products of a robust and inclusive debate. To this end, we also consider it essential to recognise that issue portrayals reach political leaders through a vast array of channels. Raising the political priority of NCDs means engaging with

  8. Political priority in the global fight against non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Anthony; Sridhar, Devi

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic respiratory diseases - is surging globally. Yet despite the availability of cost-effective interventions, NCDs receive less than 3% of annual development assistance for health to low and middle income countries. The top donors in global health - including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the US Government, and the World Bank - together commit less than 2% of their budgets to the prevention and control of NCDs. Why is there such meagre funding on the table for the prevention and control of NCDs? Why has a global plan of action aimed at halting the spread of NCDs been so difficult to achieve? This paper aims to tackle these two interrelated questions by analysing NCDs through the lens of Jeremy Shiffman's 2009 political priority framework. We define global political priority as 'the degree to which international and national political leaders actively give attention to an issue, and back up that attention with the provision of financial, technical, and human resources that are commensurate with the severity of the issue'. Grounded in social constructionism, this framework critically examines the relationship between agenda setting and 'objective' factors in global health, such as the existence of cost-effective interventions and a high mortality burden. From a methodological perspective, this paper fits within the category of discipline configurative case study. We support Shiffman's claim that strategic communication - or ideas in the form of issue portrayals - ought to be a core activity of global health policy communities. But issue portrayals must be the products of a robust and inclusive debate. To this end, we also consider it essential to recognise that issue portrayals reach political leaders through a vast array of channels. Raising the political priority of NCDs means engaging with the diverse ways in which actors express concern for the

  9. Portable Video Media Versus Standard Verbal Communication in Surgical Information Delivery to Nurses: A Prospective Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jonathan; Ainsworth, Hannah; Handmer, Marcus; Louie-Johnsun, Mark; Winter, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Continuing education of health professionals is important for delivery of quality health care. Surgical nurses are often required to understand surgical procedures. Nurses need to be aware of the expected outcomes and recognize potential complications of such procedures during their daily work. Traditional educational methods, such as conferences and tutorials or informal education at the bedside, have many drawbacks for delivery of this information in a universal, standardized, and timely manner. The rapid uptake of portable media devices makes portable video media (PVM) a potential alternative to current educational methods. To compare PVM to standard verbal communication (SVC) for surgical information delivery and educational training for nurses and evaluate its impact on knowledge acquisition and participant satisfaction. Prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled crossover trial. Two hospitals: Gosford District Hospital and Wyong Hospital. Seventy-two nursing staff (36 at each site). Information delivery via PVM--7-minute video compared to information delivered via SVC. Knowledge acquisition was measured by a 32-point questionnaire, and satisfaction with the method of education delivery was measured using the validated Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8). Knowledge acquisition was higher via PVM compared to SVC 25.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.2-26.6) versus 24.3 (95% CI 23.5-25.1), p = .004. Participant satisfaction was higher with PVM 29.5 (95% CI 28.3-30.7) versus 26.5 (95% CI 25.1-27.9), p = .003. Following information delivery via SVC, participants had a 6% increase in knowledge scores, 24.3 (95% CI 23.5-25.1) versus 25.7 (95% CI 24.9-26.5) p = .001, and a 13% increase in satisfaction scores, 26.5 (95% CI 25.1-27.9) versus 29.9 (95% CI 28.8-31.0) p < .001, when they crossed-over to information delivery via PVM. PVM provides a novel method for providing education to nurses that improves knowledge retention and satisfaction with the

  10. Political Advertising: A Roadblock in Teaching Social Studies Students the Importance of Truthful Political Communication to a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The author contends that too much political advertising is a form of public relations "spin" in which the truth is sacrificed and the political process damaged as a result. The goal of much of this advertising too frequently focuses on transmitting "disinformation" that, while perhaps not technically a lie, is intended not to inform the public but…

  11. Non-verbal communication: aspects observed during nursing consultations with blind patients Comunicación no-verbal: aspectos observados durante la consulta de Enfermería con el paciente ciego Comunicação não-verbal: aspectos observados durante a consulta de Enfermagem com o paciente cego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Brasil de Almeida Rebouças

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory-descriptive study on non-verbal communication among nurses and blind patients during nursing consultations to diabetes patients, based on Hall's theoretical reference framework. Data were collected by recording the consultations. The recordings were analyzed every fifteen seconds, totaling 1,131 non-verbal communication moments. The analysis shows intimate distance (91.0% and seated position (98.3%; no contact occurred in 83.3% of the interactions. Emblematic gestures were present, including hand movements (67.4%; looks deviated from the interlocutor (52.8%, and centered on the interlocutor (44.4%. In all recordings, considerable interference occurred at the moment of nurse-patient interaction. Nurses need to know about and deepen non-verbal communication studies and adequate its use to the type of patients attended during the consultations.Estudio exploratorio y descriptivo sobre comunicación no-verbal entre el enfermero y el paciente ciego durante la consulta de enfermería al diabético, desde el referencial teórico de Hall. Colecta de datos con filmación de la consulta, analizadas a cada quince segundos, totalizando 1.131 momentos de comunicación no-verbal. El análisis muestra alejamiento íntimo (91,0% y postura sentada (98,3%, en 83,3% de las intervenciones no hubo contacto. Estubo presente el gesto emblemático mover las manos (67,4%; el mirar desviado del interlocutor (52,8% y al mirar centrado en el interlocutor (44,4%. En todas las filmaciones, hubieron interferencias considerables en el momento de la interacción enfermero y paciente. Concluyese que el enfermero precisa conocer y profundizar los estudios en comunicación no-verbal y adecuar su utilización al tipo de pacientes asistidos durante las consultas.Estudo exploratório-descritivo sobre comunicação não-verbal entre o enfermeiro e o cego durante a consulta de enfermagem ao diabético, a partir do referencial teórico de Hall. Coleta de dados com filmagem da

  12. On Verbal Competence

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    Zhongxin Dai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored a new concept, verbal competence, to present a challenge to Chomsky’s linguistic competence and Hymes’ communicative competence. It is generally acknowledged that Chomsky concerned himself only with the syntactic/grammatical structures, and viewed the speaker’s generation and transformation of syntactic structures as the production of language. Hymes challenged Chomsky’s conception of linguistic competence and argued for an ethnographic or sociolinguistic concept, communicative competence, but his concept is too broad to be adequately grasped and followed in such fields as linguistics and second language acquisition. Communicative competence can include abilities to communicate with nonverbal behaviors, e.g. gestures, postures or even silence. The concept of verbal competence concerns itself with the mental and psychological processes of verbal production in communication. These processes originate from the speaker’s personal experience, in a certain situation of human communication, and with the sudden appearance of the intentional notion, shape up as the meaning images and end up in the verbal expression.

  13. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  14. Bilinguisme, interculturalité et communication politique Bilingualism, Interculturalism and Political Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Krebs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans un monde de plus en plus interconnecté, où les personnes sont de plus en plus mobiles, la communication interpersonnelle et la maitrise de plusieurs langues prennent une importance grandissante1. C’est la raison pour laquelle, depuis quelques années, un nombre croissant d’études scientifiques ont été effectuées en avec le bi- et le multilinguisme2. Ces études montrent clairement que l’éducation bilingue est un bon moyen permettant de transmettre à l’enfant de multiples langues et qu’elle a un impact positif sur le développement cognitif de l’enfant3.Globalement, même si le multilinguisme est essentiel pour la communication moderne, il n’existe que relativement peu de programmes de bilinguisme scolaire au sein d’écoles publiques. Cela est particulièrement frappant dans des régions où différentes communautés linguistiques se côtoient. Contrairement à ce que l’on pourrait imaginer, ces communautés ne se mélangent souvent pas de façon harmonieuse. Dans de nombreux cas, des luttes de pouvoir se développent entre les communautés, créant ainsi des situations où il n’est guère facile de mettre en œuvre des programmes de bilinguisme scolaire.Dans le présent article, nous considérerons les arguments avancés dans le contexte de deux référendums et votations populaires. Dans deux régions très différentes, la Californie (États-Unis et Fribourg (Suisse, ces votes populaires ont mené à une interdiction de programmes de bilinguisme scolaire. Dans les deux cas, les arguments utilisés dans la presse écrite et dans le cadre de témoignages personnels ont clairement montré que le degré de résistance au bilinguisme est directement lié à la perception de l’autre langue. En effet, celle-ci a une incidence importante sur le succès ou non de programmes de bilinguisme scolaire. Nous avons également analysé le rôle spécifique qu’a l’anglais dans les deux cas, le comparant à d

  15. A randomized trial comparison of the effects of verbal and pictorial naturalistic communication strategies on spoken language for young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibman, Laura; Stahmer, Aubyn C

    2014-05-01

    Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the acquisition of spoken language by young (2-4 years), nonverbal or minimally verbal (≤9 words) children with autism. Thirty-nine children were randomly assigned to either the PRT or PECS condition. Participants received on average 247 h of intervention across 23 weeks. Dependent measures included overall communication, expressive vocabulary, pictorial communication and parent satisfaction. Children in both intervention groups demonstrated increases in spoken language skills, with no significant difference between the two conditions. Seventy-eight percent of all children exited the program with more than 10 functional words. Parents were very satisfied with both programs but indicated PECS was more difficult to implement.

  16. The Institutional Anchoring of Social Media Venues as Arenas for Local Political Communication. Perceptions by Voters and Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Segaard, Signe Bock

    2017-01-01

    The article explores social media as institutions for political communication between voters and politicians. While observers have focused on the political use of social media when exploring their democratic potential, little is known about the users’ perceptions of these media. But as institutions are more than just behavior – they are also about formal as well as informal rules, norms and understandings – these perceptions could well be important to understanding the institutional anchoring...

  17. Motivations for Social Media Use and Impact on Political Participation in China: A Cognitive and Communication Mediation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Chan, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Integrating uses and gratifications theory and the cognitive/communication mediation model: this study examines Chinese students' use of social media and subsequent impact on political participation. An integrative framework is proposed where media use, political expression, and political cognitions (efficacy and knowledge) play important mediating roles between audience motivations and participation. Structural equation analyses showed support for the integrated model. Guidance and social utility motivations exhibited different indirect effects on online and offline participation through social media news, discussion, and political efficacy. Entertainment motivations exhibited no direct or indirect effects. Contrary to expectations and previous literature, surveillance motivations exhibited negative direct and indirect effects on offline participation, which may be attributed to the particular Chinese social and political context. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Rules of political communication in the pre-war Soviet countryside

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    S Merl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author aims to debunk the Soviet official myth of local administration as being weak and not functioning effectively. The Soviet regime could not function in the way it pretended to, and the official picture of the economy was far from the reality though played a central role in the political discourse for the aims of legitimacy. The command economy actually functioned as a symbiosis of commands and threats ‘from above’ and corrupt practices of the majority of people including officials. However, this symbiosis worked quite successfully in industry ensuring impressive rates of growth, but not in agriculture and rural areas. Certainly, the kolkhoz system also combined severe control and treats with tolerance to corrupt practices condemned in the official slogans so as to save people from starvation. However, in the countryside the myth that rural administration was weak and wrongdoing proved to be the strongest basis of the regime for it corresponded to the firm conviction of rural people and traditional expectations that Stalin would pursue the paternalist rule as a “good tsar” by punishing local officials (as scapegoats and by removing them from office (after blaming them for regime’s shortcomings as incompetent managers. To keep people from protests und rebellions the rural officials’ task was not only to use force and intimidation during the campaigns, but also to look away allowing the kolkhozniki from time to time to betray the state as compensation. Thus, the Soviet rural administration fulfilled its functions set by the regime, such as ensuring political communication for the aims of the faith in the legitimacy of the political rule. The author also considers a vertical channel of communication between the people and the regime - petitions to the ruler. Soviet people were encouraged to write letters including complaints to “bargain” personal dissatisfaction. Soviet peasants considered such a communication as a

  19. Donald Trump as a Cultural Revolt Against Perceived Communication Restriction: Priming Political Correctness Norms Causes More Trump Support

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    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Donald Trump has consistently performed better politically than his negative polling indicators suggested he would. Although there is a tendency to think of Trump support as reflecting ideological conservatism, we argue that part of his support during the election came from a non-ideological source: The preponderant salience of norms restricting communication (Political Correctness – or PC – norms. This perspective suggests that these norms, while successfully reducing the amount of negative communication in the short term, may produce more support for negative communication in the long term. In this framework, support for Donald Trump was in part the result of over-exposure to PC norms. Consistent with this, on a sample of largely politically moderate Americans taken during the General Election in the Fall of 2016, we show that temporarily priming PC norms significantly increased support for Donald Trump (but not Hillary Clinton. We further show that chronic emotional reactance towards restrictive communication norms positively predicted support for Trump (but not Clinton, and that this effect remains significant even when controlling for political ideology. In total, this work provides evidence that norms that are designed to increase the overall amount of positive communication can actually backfire by increasing support for a politician who uses extremely negative language that explicitly violates the norm.

  20. Modeling time-series count data: the unique challenges facing political communication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Brian J; Monogan, James E

    2014-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of proper model specification when analyzing time-series count data in political communication studies. It is common for scholars of media and politics to investigate counts of coverage of an issue as it evolves over time. Many scholars rightly consider the issues of time dependence and dynamic causality to be the most important when crafting a model. However, to ignore the count features of the outcome variable overlooks an important feature of the data. This is particularly the case when modeling data with a low number of counts. In this paper, we argue that the Poisson autoregressive model (Brandt and Williams, 2001) accurately meets the needs of many media studies. We replicate the analyses of Flemming et al. (1997), Peake and Eshbaugh-Soha (2008), and Ura (2009) and demonstrate that models missing some of the assumptions of the Poisson autoregressive model often yield invalid inferences. We also demonstrate that the effect of any of these models can be illustrated dynamically with estimates of uncertainty through a simulation procedure. The paper concludes with implications of these findings for the practical researcher. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SRP meeting: social and political implications of communicating radiation risk, Daresbury, Warrington, 20 June 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Karen

    2001-12-01

    The SRP held a very interesting meeting in June at the Daresbury Laboratory in Warrington on the social and political implications of communicating radiation risk. In today's risk-aware society, effective communication is just as important as the control measures introduced to prevent or restrict exposure. In relation to radiation protection, risk communicators had a hard job because of: Public dread Likelihood of risk intensification Perceived inequitable distribution of risks. The higher the uncertainty, the more wary people were likely to be. Julie cited the International Nuclear Events Scale (INES) as a possible tool for promoting a consistent message across all publics. This was because it aimed to put events into proper perspective and provide a common understanding amongst the nuclear community, the media and the public. Julie summed up by saying that the risk communication was not just any form of communication and the issue of communicating radiation risks involved special consideration. Further research established that the more information given to the local population, the more likely that they would deny that there was a problem. Denial could moderate beliefs or emotional reactions to a situation. This then affected their dose as they were more likely to adopt risky behaviour by eating contaminated food and entering contaminated areas. Avoiding the need to undertake safe behaviour reduced stress levels. Furthermore, people adopted beliefs to suit their situation. For example, some inhabitants of the affected areas became adapted to the radiation and actually felt worse outside the contaminated area. There was strong pressure for the maintenance of a situation which actually prevented appropriate precautions being taken. Peter concluded that there was often confusion over the details of technical information that sometimes might not help to prevent a course of action being taken. However on a positive note the research did find credence and

  2. Analysis of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero’s nonverbal communication

    OpenAIRE

    Imelda Rodríguez-Escanciano, Ph.D.; María Hernández-Herrarte, Ph.D

    2010-01-01

    Aware of television’s high level of persuasion and impact, politicians have progressively adapted their messages to the guidelines of the audiovisual media in order to strongly persuade TV viewers, which are seen as potential voters. Currently, the communication, marketing and telegenicity teams of most political parties do not only train their politicians to effectively use verbal communication, but they also try to reinforce their non-verbal communications skills, because they understand th...

  3. The Representation of Women in Publication: An Analysis of "Political Communication" and the "International Journal of Press/Politics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Heather K.; Bucy, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    Scholarly publication in peer-reviewed journals is widely regarded as the road to scholarly success. However, in a diversity of fields such as sociology, economics, and political science, it has been shown that the rate of publication is much lower for women than for men. The question of whether a systematic relationship exists between gender and…

  4. Politeness Accommodation in E-Mail Requests among Iranian Postgraduate Students of EFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Parviz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer-mediated communication (CMC offers us a chance to understand how social relationships are built and maintained in an environment in which interlocutors not only lack the paralinguistic features that are vital to face-to- face conversation, but are participating in a medium which has had little time to develop rules of conduct. The present study was an attempt to determine politeness accommodation in e-mail messages among Iranian postgraduate students of EFL. One hundred EFL learners, aged 22-26, participated in this study. Four different message types were constructed and sent to the participants, i.e. messages with verbal politeness markers; messages with structural politeness elements (e. g., salutation and closing remarks; messages with both verbal and structural politeness indicators; finally messages with neither verbal nor structural politeness indicators. Further, the messages varied in their degree of politeness; however, their content was the same. Results showed that the participants accommodated significantly to verbal politeness indicators in the body of a message, and to structural politeness indicators of greeting/salutation. When such indicators were included in messages, the participants responded with significantly more polite messages (greeting and body than when the indicators were absent. The results boost our understanding of CMC with reference to politeness markers, and how they are used by Iranian EFL learners.

  5. The cases of observance and violation of politeness maxims by communicants in the ego-state of natural Child

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    Гульнара Фанзиловна Гизатова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the study of human communication is of great importance in linguistics and psychology. In order to achieve smooth and conflict-free interaction it is necessary not only to respect the rules of politeness, but also to take into account the position of the speaker and the addressee. This explains the need to study many psychological factors in communication. This paper studies the ego-state of Natural Child in speech communication. Investigating the behavior of communicants in the ego-state of Natural Child, we rely on the theory of transactional analysis (E. Bern 1961 . According to this theory, the behavior of the speaker and the addressee in the ego-states of Natural Child varies from curious, inspiring, dreamy, and natural to the selfish, spiteful, shameless and impatient. The material for investigation is the dialogs from British and American fiction of XIX-XXI centuries. The dialogs contain the speaker and addressee’s replicas, meeting the essential requirements of the Principle of Politeness (G. Leech 1983 and the theory of transactional analysis. In our work we have applied hypothetical-deductive method, and methods of definitional and contextual analysis. The anylisis of our material demonstrates that communicants in the ego-state of Natural Child observe the maxims of generosity, tact and agreement, and violate the maxims of approbation, modesty and tact. Thus, the implementation of politeness maxims by communicants in ego-state of Natural Child depends entirely on their behavior.

  6. Politeness Strategies in Healthcare Communication at "Difficult Times": A Pragmatic Analysis of the "Manga" Discourse in "Nurse Aoi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Poole, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which healthcare professionals interact with patients' family members, and/or colleagues. The data are from healthcare discourses at difficult times found in the manga series entitled Nurse AOI. As the first step, we selected several communication scenes for analysis in terms of politeness strategies. From these…

  7. A randomized control trial comparing the visual and verbal communication methods for reducing fear and anxiety during tooth extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazal, Giath; Tola, Ahmed W; Fareed, Wamiq M; Alnazzawi, Ahmad A; Zafar, Muhammad S

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the value of using the visual information for reducing the level of dental fear and anxiety in patients undergoing teeth extraction under LA. A total of 64 patients were indiscriminately allotted to solitary of the study groups following reading the information sheet and signing the formal consent. If patient was in the control group, only verbal information and routine warnings were provided. If patient was in the study group, tooth extraction video was showed. The level of dental fear and anxiety was detailed by the patients on customary 100 mm visual analog scales (VAS), with "no dental fear and anxiety" (0 mm) and "severe dental distress and unease" (100 mm). Evaluation of dental apprehension and fretfulness was made pre-operatively, following visual/verbal information and post-extraction. There was a substantial variance among the mean dental fear and anxiety scores for both groups post-extraction (p-value < 0.05). Patients in tooth extraction video group were more comfortable after dental extraction than verbal information and routine warning group. For tooth extraction video group there were major decreases in dental distress and anxiety scores between the pre-operative and either post video information scores or postoperative scores (p-values < 0.05). Younger patients recorded higher dental fear and anxiety scores than older ones (P < 0.05). Dental fear and anxiety associated with dental extractions under local anesthesia can be reduced by showing a tooth extraction video to the patients preoperatively.

  8. The Importance of Valence-Framing in the Process of Political Communication: Effects on the Formation of Political Attitudes among Viewers of Television News in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Hurtíková

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the meaning of valence-framing theory in political communication. It examines the influence of valence frames on the formation of political attitudes among the public. The valence-framing effect is derived from the information context value (positive, negative and applies if people’s attitudes towards a certain subject match the context value of the information received. The article presents a case study of reports during the crisis of Mirek Topolánek’s government in the Czech Republic in 2009. It examines to what extent the context of the statements on the Czech news concerning the parliamentary parties Civic Democratic Party (ODS, leader Mirek Topolánek and the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD, leader Jiří Paroubek related to the existing political attitudes of their prospective audiences. The article argues that the valence-framing effect was more evident in the public broadcasting programme Události ČT than the commercial programme Televizní noviny, a paradox which can be explained by the unique link between the attributes of the Czech media environment and the political opinions of their viewers.

  9. The Role of the Internet in Political Communication and Encouraging Political Civic Engagement in Croatia: The 2007 Election Campaign on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Bebić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Undertaking a content analysis and analyzing the literature corresponding both to the role of the Internet in modern election campaigns (cyber campaigning, as well as that which assesses the crisis of public communication and the democratic potential of the Internet, this article explores: a how and to what extent did Croatian political parties utilize the marketing potential of the Internet during the 2007 parliamentary elections; and b how and to what extent did they use the Internet to encourage citizens(on or offline to participate in the political sphere. The results indicate that during the 2007 Croatian Parliamentary elections, political parties only partially utilized the potential advantages of Internet marketing. An analysis of the elements of interactivity revealed that campaigning parties generally did not use the Internet as a means to engage voters. The results in this study, however, confirm a number of trends found in other countries. The use of the Internet as an instrument to engage citizens online and increase political participation has not confirmed the optimistic predictions surrounding this issue.

  10. FROM CONVENIENT HIBERNATION TO CIRCUMSTANTIAL DESPERATION: HATE SPEECH, PARTY POLITICAL COMMUNICATION AND THE NIGERIA’S 2015 GENERAL ELECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Omilusi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Until a few months to the 2015 general elections, many political parties that have conveniently hibernated for a better part of their existence, perhaps owing to lack of proper organizational structure or support base, uncoordinated programmes or were registered because of pecuniary gains or admittance of anticipated poor electoral outing, suddenly began to jostle for political space. The main opposition party and the ruling party were either perfecting a merger processes or engulfed in internal wrangling such that communication with the electorate on fundamental issues became inconsequential. In fact, the two dominant parties, the Peoples Democratic Party and All Progressive Congress only produced their presidential candidates less than five months to the election; and the electoral campaign assumed desperate contestation in a climate of prejudice and intolerance. Hate speeches and violence were the hallmarks of their electoral campaigns. The 2015 general elections therefore, offer a unique context to interrogate the place of party political communication in an emerging democracy and specifically how hate campaigns among political gladiators/contending parties could generate violence, and if not tamed, derail democratic consolidation. This essay affirms that hate speech is not only inspired by some social circumstances but also part of a general democratic process. It attests to the fact that Nigerian politicians have become more desperate and daring in taking and retaining political power; and more intolerant of opposition, criticism and efforts at replacing them. Relying extensively on secondary sources with the aid of descriptive and narrative tools, this essay concludes that the political culture of a country determines the behavior and attitude of the population towards the political system and that democratic transition from one administration to another, particularly in emerging democracies, has often been accompanied by violence

  11. Les querelles de mots dans le discours politique : modèle d’analyse et étude de cas à partir d’une polémique sur le mot « rigueur » Verbal Disputes in Political Discourse: A Model of Analysis and a Case Study of a Controversy over the Word “Rigueur”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Micheli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cet article est de contribuer à la description d’un type particulier d’affrontement qui met régulièrement aux prises les acteurs politiques dans l’espace médiatique contemporain : la querelle de mots. Dans ce genre de cas, un mot particulier est érigé en objet du désaccord, sous l’effet d’un travail de cadrage médiatique opéré par les journalistes : les acteurs politiques sont amenés à prendre position quant à son usage et à justifier leur prise de position au moyen d’arguments. On esquisse un modèle d’analyse de ces querelles de mots et l’on teste ce modèle sur un corpus de discours constitué à partir d’une polémique ayant opposé plusieurs acteurs politiques français autour du mot « rigueur » entre mai et juillet 2010. Sur le plan méthodologique, la démarche se situe à la croisée de la linguistique, des théories de l’argumentation et des sciences de la communication et des médias : elle articule l’étude des formes du métalangage ordinaire à celle du fonctionnement argumentatif des discours et des enjeux contemporains de la médiatisation du politique.This paper aims to contribute to the description of a particular type of confrontation, often taking place between political actors in contemporary media, namely verbal disputes. In such confrontations, a particular word becomes the very object of disagreement. Under the effect of a framing process led by journalists, political actors are invited to take a stand as to whether the word should or should not be used and to justify their position by means of arguments. I propose a model of analysis for verbal disputes, and I test it using a data set composed of a controversy involving several French political actors over the use of the word “rigueur” between May and July, 2010. Methodologically, this paper is influenced by linguistics, argumentation theory and media studies. The paper is focused on describing forms of

  12. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…

  13. Beyond the political model of reporting: nonspecific symptoms in media communication about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, W A

    1987-01-01

    Mass media have functioned well in transmitting much of the basic information about the AIDS epidemic; however, media coverage of AIDS has been flawed. In many ways these flaws have resulted from the limitations and conventions of traditional journalism, especially the need to appeal to a large mainstream audience and a reliance on authorities as sources and validators of information. News stories typically rely on a single articulate authority, and articles that involve conspiracy or controversy or have a high entertainment value are favored. Although coverage of politics and social issues is not distorted by these journalistic conventions, coverage of science suffers. Analysis of news coverage of AIDS shows that mass media often respond to sensationalism rather than to important scientific developments. In addition, scientific disagreements are better adjudicated by evidence than by appeals to authority. As a result, media coverage often obscures the process of scientific deliberation. Public health officials need to consider setting up a special channel of communications to clarify information about AIDS.

  14. Threats to Mutual Trust: Czech Local Politicians and Local Journalists in the Era of Professional Political Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hájek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses changes in the relationship between local journalists and local politicians in the Czech Republic as a consequence of the professionalization of political communications at national as well as local levels following the so-called Velvet Revolution of 1989. This phenomenon has been studied widely in Western democracies but is relatively new in the Czech Republic. Politicians’ improved communication skills and the employment of communication professionals in politics influence trust – a key component in the relationship – between politicians and journalists. The article is based on semi-structured interviews with 10 journalists and 11 politicians from different Czech localities, which aim to explore how these actors understand and maintain levels of mutual trust. First we describe key components of trust and explain why in the era of professionalized political communication trust is perceived as more threatened than in the 1990s and we conclude by exploring the three most important threats to trust as identified by our interviewees.

  15. Beyond the "Cultural Turn": The Politics of Recognition versus the Politics of Redistribution in the Field of Intercultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotzmann, Karin; Hernández-Zamora, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s the field of language teaching and learning has emphasised the interplay between language, culture and identity and promotes both communicative and intercultural competencies. This mirrors a general trend in the social sciences after the so-called "cultural turn" which brought about a concentration on culture, identity…

  16. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  17. Place and Role of Mass Media Institution in the Context of the Political Communication System in the XXth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia S. Yufereva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the analysis of classical approaches of foreign scientists (U. Lippman, G. Laswell, etc. and Russian scientists (N.Biryukov, V.Borev, etc.. The purpose is to determine the role of the of mass media institution in context of the political communication system. In order to achieve this aim the information was gathered from books, monographs, scientific articles, etc. In this research the corresponding method was used to get reliable results. The method of historical analyses was implied to study the crucial stages of understanding the phenomenon of mass media in the context of the political communication system. In particular the author studies both foreign and national approaches to conduct an extensive analysis of this topic. The article describes as well the basic principles and areas of analysis, which allow to identify several areas in the understanding of the problem.

  18. Relative Effects of Visualized and Verbal Presentation Methods in Communicating Environmental Information among Stakeholders: Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakadu, Olekae T.; Irani, Tracy; Telg, Ricky

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the relative effectiveness of 2 public instructional communication methods in improving selected predictors of knowledge-sharing behaviors among communities in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. A total of 120 subjects took part in a quasiexperimental study, with 2 experimental treatments: (a) visualized PowerPoint…

  19. Cultural and communicative memories: contrasting Argentina's 1976 coup d'état and the 2001 economic-political-social crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Felipe; Bermejo, Federico; Hirst, William

    2018-08-01

    Studies on collective memory have recently addressed the distinction between cultural and communicative memory as a way to understand how the source of a memory affects its structure or form. When a groups' memory is mediated by memorials, documentaries or any other cultural artifacts, collective memory is shaped by cultural memory. When it is based mostly in communication with other people, its source is communicative memory. We address this distinction by studying two recent events in Argentinean history: the 2001 economic-political-social crisis (communicative memory) and the 1976 coup (cultural memory). We also examine the political ideology and the type of memory involved in collective memory. The memory of the studied events may occur during the lifetime of the rememberer (Lived Memory) or refer to distant events (Distant Memory). 100 participants responded to a Free Recall task about the events of 2001 in Argentina. Narrative analysis allowed comparing these recalls with our 1976 study. Results show: 1) Cultural memories are more contextualised, more impersonal and less affective. 2) Communicative memories are more personal and affective. Study shows how collective memory form changes when it has a different prevalent source.

  20. Communication outcomes for groups of children using cochlear implants enrolled in auditory-verbal, aural-oral, and bilingual-bicultural early intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettman, Shani; Wall, Elizabeth; Constantinescu, Gabriella; Dowell, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The relative impact of early intervention approach on speech perception and language skills was examined in these 3 well-matched groups of children using cochlear implants. Eight children from an auditory verbal intervention program were identified. From a pediatric database, researchers blind to the outcome data, identified 23 children from auditory oral programs and 8 children from bilingual-bicultural programs with the same inclusion criteria and equivalent demographic factors. All child participants were male, had congenital profound hearing loss (pure tone average >80 dBHL), no additional disabilities, were within the normal IQ range, were monolingual English speakers, had no unusual findings on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, and received hearing aids and cochlear implants at a similar age and before 4 years of age. Open-set speech perception (consonant-nucleus-consonant [CNC] words and Bamford-Kowal-Bench [BKB] sentences) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) were administered. The mean age at cochlear implant was 1.7 years (range, 0.8-3.9; SD, 0.7), mean test age was 5.4 years (range, 2.5-10.1; SD, 1.7), and mean device experience was 3.7 years (range, 0.7-7.9; SD, 1.8). Results indicate mean CNC scores of 60%, 43%, and 24% and BKB scores of 77%, 77%, and 56% for the auditory-verbal (AV), aural-oral (AO), and bilingual-bicultural (BB) groups, respectively. The mean PPVT delay was 13, 19, and 26 months for AV, AO, and BB groups, respectively. Despite equivalent child demographic characteristics at the outset of this study, by 3 years postimplant, there were significant differences in AV, AO, and BB groups. Results support consistent emphasis on oral/aural input to achieve optimum spoken communication outcomes for children using cochlear implants.

  1. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  2. Beyond “Political” Communicative Spaces : Talking Politics on the Wife Swap Discussion Forum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Net-based public sphere researchers have examined online deliberation in numerous ways. However, most studies have focused exclusively on political discussion forums. This article moves beyond such spaces by analyzing political talk from an online forum dedicated to reality television. The purpose

  3. Communicating war in Mali, 2012 : On-offline networked political agency in times of conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Pelckmans, L.; Sangare, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Arab Spring raised high expectations for political freedom, especially for situations in which the rapid development of ICT intersects with political oppression and rebellion, as was the case in Mali, West Africa. In 2012 the country’s northern part fell into the hands of ‘rebels’ and jihadists

  4. Convincing similar and dissimilar others: the power of language abstraction in political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegatti, Michela; Rubini, Monica

    2013-05-01

    Three studies examined the production of political messages and their persuasive impact on recipients as a function of speaker-audience similarity. The first two studies found support for the hypothesis that political leaders (Study 1) and party activists (Study 2) formulate more abstract messages when the audience is politically similar to them than when the audience is dissimilar or heterogeneous. The third study examined the persuasive impact of message abstractness versus concreteness. We predicted and found that abstract messages are more effective in convincing an audience whose political positions are similar to the speaker's and concrete messages are more effective in convincing an audience whose political positions differ from the speaker's or are heterogeneous. Implications of these findings for the relation between language and social cognition are discussed.

  5. Comunicação não-verbal: uma contribuição para o aconselhamento em amamentação Comunicación no verbal: una contribución para la consejería en lactancia materna Non verbal communication: a contribution to breastfeeding counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Moraes Leite

    2004-04-01

    . Los autores percibieron que las habilidades del curso están centradas en técnicas solamente orientadas hacia las actitudes de los profesionales. Es fundamental estar atento a las señales no verbales de la mujer, pues estas retratan sus emociones. Tales señales pueden ser los indicadores de las dificultades que la mujer enfrenta, de las interpretaciones a cerca de elementos interactivos en su contexto, y muchas veces, son los indicativos del curso que podrán imprimir al proceso de lactancia.The "Course on Breastfeeding Counseling", elaborated and implemented by the United Nation's Children's Emergency Fund - UNICEF in partnership with the World Health Organization - WHO, represents one of the most important initiatives towards the valorization of women as breastfeeding agents. With a view to understanding and facilitating the application of the nonverbal communication skills this course intends to develop among professionals, this study aims to organize the theoretical frameworks that will support the teaching of Listening and Learning Skills -1 - "Use of non verbal communication", considering the concepts of human communication found in different authors. We found out that the skills of the course are centered in techniques only directed at the professional's attitudes. However, it is necessary to pay attention to women's nonverbal signs, as they reflect their emotions. These signs can indicate the difficulties women are facing, their interpretations regarding the interaction elements in their context and, often, they are indicative of how they will direct the breastfeeding process.

  6. Populist political communication in Europe: Ireland. The rise of populism on the Left and among Independents

    OpenAIRE

    Suiter, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the state of scholarship on political populism in Ireland, examines relevant research that explores definitional issues, and identifies Irish populist political actors. Although little research exists on populism and the role of the media or its impact on voters, the chapter takes a quick look at the increasing coverage of populism in the media, which was especially pronounced following the economic crisis in 2008. In the Irish literature, Fianna Fáil, the...

  7. Democracy in the Digital Communication Environment: A Typology Proposal of Political Monitoring Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Ramón A.; Casero Ripollés, Andreu

    2014-01-01

    The digital environment creates new opportunities for citizen political participation. Among these, the monitoring of political and economic power centers stands out. This includes public scrutiny of the management of public funds and the activities of the public and economic systems, thus denouncing dysfunctional features. This article aims to describe, differentiate, and classify the various forms that monitoring can take in current democracies. The results indicate that three major monitor...

  8. Political communication in Malaysia: a study on the use of new media

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Pauline Pooi Yin

    2017-01-01

    To gain and retain political power, politicians utilise the mass media to persuade the polity to support them, especially during elections. The Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition has successfully manipulated the mass media in Malaysia to maintain power for the past 57 years, making it one of the longest serving government in the world. The emergence of new media, however, has challenged this status quo. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how new media has influenced the political proc...

  9. Emerging chronic non-communicable diseases in rural communities of Northern Ethiopia: evidence using population-based verbal autopsy method in Kilite Awlaelo surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldearegawi, Berhe; Ashebir, Yemane; Gebeye, Ejigu; Gebregziabiher, Tesfay; Yohannes, Mekonnen; Mussa, Seid; Berhe, Haftu; Abebe, Zerihun

    2013-12-01

    In countries where most deaths are outside health institutions and medical certification of death is absent, verbal autopsy (VA) method is used to estimate population level causes of death. VA data were collected by trained lay interviewers for 409 deaths in the surveillance site. Two physicians independently assigned cause of death using the International Classification of Diseases manual. In general, infectious and parasitic diseases accounted for 35.9% of death, external causes 15.9%, diseases of the circulatory system 13.4% and perinatal causes 12.5% of total deaths. Mortalities attributed to maternal causes and malnutrition were low, 0.2 and 1.5%, respectively. Causes of death varied by age category. About 22.1, 12.6 and 8.4% of all deaths of under 5-year-old children were due to bacterial sepsis of the newborn, acute lower respiratory infections such as neonatal pneumonia and prematurity including respiratory distress, respectively. For 5-15-year-old children, accidental drowning and submersion, accounting for 34.4% of all deaths in this age category, and accidental fall, accounting for 18.8%, were leading causes of death. Among 15-49-year-old adults, HIV/AIDS (16.3%) and tuberculosis (12.8%) were commonest causes of death, whereas tuberculosis and cerebrovascular diseases were major killers of those aged 50 years and above. In the rural district, mortality due to chronic non-communicable diseases was very high. The observed magnitude of death from chronic non-communicable disease is unlikely to be unique to this district. Thus, formulation of chronic disease prevention and control strategies is recommended.

  10. Development and pilot testing of an educational intervention for parents, caregivers and teachers of children with verbal communication disabilities in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada-Toro, Irene; Gómez-Quiroz, Rosa M; Treviño-Siller, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement and test an educational intervention aimed at training parents/caregivers and teachers in strategies to support children with verbal communication disabilities (VCDs). We carried out a descriptive observational research conducted in two phases during 2013-2014: a mixed-method diagnosis and intervention development. We used convenience sampling to select the parents/caregivers and teachers of first-to-third graders with VCDs across four public elementary schools in a suburban community in central Mexico. Diagnosis was based on questionnaires conducted with parents/caregivers (n = 38) and teachers (n = 16). The instruments focused not only on the respondents' socioeconomic characteristics and general knowledge about VCDs but also included open questions (24/42) about their common practices and support for children with VCDs. The intervention was built on data collected through the questionnaires, and was designed according to the Integral Intervention Model framework based on the ecosystemic approach. Participants were parents/caregivers and teachers of children with VCDs. Main results showed that the participants were trained in various support techniques, they gained knowledge about VCDs and changed their perception of their own ability to help children with language impairments. As an important upshot of the intervention, communication and networking among parents/caregivers and teachers increased. The main strengths of this research reside in its solid theoretical foundation and the fact that intervention design was based on the specific needs of the target group. In as much as the public health problem of VCDs in Mexico has barely been studied and has received minimal official support, it is essential to engage additional social actors, stakeholders and decision-makers in the implementation of permanent actions. Our study emphasises the importance of recognising this form of health impairment as a social

  11. PRAGMATICS OF GRAMMATICAL FORMS: MORPHOLOGICAL AND SYNTACTIC MEANS IN THE SERVICE OF EXPRESSING POLITENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Matešić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Politeness can be expressed verbally, non-verbally or by merging the verbal and nonverbal means through various strategies in both written and oral (direct and indirect communication. The foundations of the theory of politeness in linguistic terms were laid in the works of Robin T. Lakoff in the 1970’s and those of Penelope Brown and Steven Levinson in the 1980’s. The phenomenon of verbal, or linguistic, politeness is related to the idea of pragmalinguistic competence as one of the basic elements of communicative competence concerning the choice of adequate means of expression in various linguistic situations. As a pragmalinguistic phenomenon, politeness is achieved through various functions and social meanings of linguistic structures. That is why the theory of (linguistic politeness is concerned, in addition to other issues, with the typology of linguistic means used for the expression of politeness in different languages and in various communicative situations. The paper analyses the means and methods used to express politeness in the Croatian language on the morphological and the syntactic level. Certain mechanisms for the implementation of politeness strategies are detected, such as the choice between different verb forms (i.e. for the purpose of statement de-imperativization, the choice of morphological means (i.e. the use of personal and reflexive pronouns, especially in pseudo paremiological units, or the use of diminutive, the choice between the syntactic transformations (i.e. the use of interrogatives, and syntactic structures in general, especially with respect to the difference between the syntax of a sentence and that of an utterance. In addition to contributing to the development of the politeness theory, the analysis of morphological and syntactic means also contributes to a more complete description of certain grammatical categories in language manuals.

  12. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  13. A associação entre a suspeita inicial de perda auditiva e a ausência de comunicação verbal em crianças com transtornos do espectro autístico The association between an initial suspicion of hearing loss and the absence of verbal communication in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Colombo Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Averiguar a associação entre a suspeita inicial de deficiência auditiva e a ausência de comunicação verbal em crianças com diagnóstico de transtornos do espectro autístico. MÉTODOS: Por meio de estudo retrospectivo, analisamos 54 anamneses de indivíduos com diagnóstico de transtornos do espectro autístico. Inicialmente, obtivemos o registro da suspeita inicial de perda auditiva, mencionada pela família. O grau de associação entre a presença de suspeita inicial de perda auditiva e o tipo de desempenho comunicativo (não verbal e verbal foi verificado. Posteriormente, as avaliações audiológicas foram rastreadas para confirmarmos a pertinência da queixa auditiva mencionada. Para tratamento estatístico dos resultados utilizamos os Testes Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher. Estabeleceu-se nível de significância de 0,05. RESULTADOS: Verificamos que 62,96% dos pais de crianças autistas (verbais ou não apresentaram a suspeita inicial de perda auditiva como primeira etiologia. A avaliação audiológica mostrou que somente 11,11% dos indivíduos com comunicação não verbal e nenhum com comunicação verbal apresentaram algum tipo de deficiência auditiva. CONCLUSÕES: O número de crianças com suspeita inicial de perda auditiva mostrou-se significativo, independente destas serem verbais ou não. Na análise da associação entre desempenho comunicativo e suspeita de prejuízos na audição, os resultados foram estatisticamente significante maiores em crianças não verbais. Esses dados nos fazem refletir sobre a importância da sensibilização dos profissionais que atuam em clínica infantil quanto à busca pelo diagnóstico diferencial entre a deficiência auditiva e os transtornos do espectro autístico.PURPOSE: To determine the association between the initial suspicion of hearing loss and the absence of verbal communication in children with diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. METHODS: A retrospective study was

  14. The Long-Term Impact of High School Civics Curricula on Political Knowledge, Democratic Attitudes and Civic Behaviors: A Multi-Level Model of Direct and Mediated Effects through Communication. CIRCLE Working Paper #65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Myiah J.; Eveland, William P., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the effects of exposure to various elements of a civics curriculum on civic participation, two forms of political knowledge, internal political efficacy, political cynicism, news elaboration, discussion elaboration and various forms of interpersonal and mediated political communication behaviors. The data are based on a…

  15. Party website – instrument of political communication. Case study: www.psd.ro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pătruţ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Romanian political parties’ websites have developed especially after 2000 and have been used to disseminate information about candidates, campaigns and political agendas. Combining the quantitative content analysis with well-known models I will quantify the degree in which the Romanian Social Democratic Party website contributes to informing, connecting, involving, and mobilizing visitors. Another objective of the analysis is to pinpoint the place that websites occupy on the trajectory web 1.0 – web 2.0. The findings show that the political website is used more to inform and less to involve or mobilize visitors and that the SDP website is far from the web 2.0. taking account the virtual practices performed.

  16. The museum in the cross-border communication: a political project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan BRATOSIN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study highlights the political stakes in the exposition organized to the Museum of the « Down Danube » in Călăraşi (Romania and to the Museum of History in Silistra (Bulgaria within the framework of the European project « Cultural – Historical Inheritance Without Boundaries ». It puts in evidence the role of the museum as cultural organization in the process of transborder cooperation by examining three essential questions : a the political sense of the cultural objectives of the project, b the local, national and European dimensions of the political stakes and c the incidences of the instrumentation of the local museum of culture and history.

  17. When the Dog Must Talk to the Cat: Communicating Science to Politicians - or - Science and Politics: Thoughts about a Complex Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Claus

    From a communication view, political lobbying for Science means targeted communication about a long established, well-tested, fact-based and logically robust system of inquiry to a highly dynamic environment in which decision-taking is influenced by many non-scientific factors and with norms that differ widely from the tenets of science. The paper discusses some of the communication issues that arise when these very different worlds meet.

  18. Gendered Communication in Iranian University Classrooms: The Relationship between Politeness and Silence in Persian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Shafiee Nahrkhalaji

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined naturally-occurring university classroominteractions at Iranian universities and provided an analysis ofsilence patterns as politeness strategies used by male andfemale students. Since empirical studies of silence inclassroom settings are scarce, this paper aimed to explainsuch phenomena using participant interviews, classroomobservation and detailed discourse analysis of classroominteraction. Silence patterns and their interpretations werescrutinized in these observations and were discussed inrelation to specific conceptualization of politeness anddevices employed to exercise it. The study found that femalesseem to be the most silent in the cross-sex classrooms, whilethe distribution of silence is more nearly equal in the same sexclassrooms. Based on the comments from follow-upinterviews, reasons for intentional silence as a politenessstrategy were categorized into four groups: silence as a face savingstrategy, silence as a ‘don’t do the FTA’ strategy,silence as a power strategy, and silence as an off-recordstrategy.

  19. Social media, cyber-dissent, and constraints on online political communication in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Bowe, Brian; Freedman, Eric; Blom, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Recent world events have demonstrated that the Internet-and social media tools in particular-are increasingly useful for political organizing, not merely frivolous virtual spaces for youthful publics to connect socially. Rather, social media is touted as "the crucible in which repressed civil societies can revive and develop." For the people of Central Asia-where free expression is curtailed and news outlets are under official or non-state, non-official government censorship-information and c...

  20. The significance of communication means of the internet in contemporary politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Арам Грачиаевич Восканян

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article on the basis of comparative analysis is studied the dual nature of the widespread approaches to influence of media sphere upon political processes by the example of actual events in western countries and Arab world. The authors investigate mobilization, integration, democratization and intervention capabilities of the modern media sphere. The practices of application of the new media means by the leading countries as specific tools of soft power strategies at national and international levels have been thoroughly analyzed in the article. The authors come to conclusion that in the modern world the functional apparatus of the Internet despite it architectural openness and infinite socio-political potential is limited by the activities of media elites that hinder true civil participation. Untimely proclaimed democratic character of media sphere is weaken by commercialization and consumerism of media space. The category of “feedback” as an important mobilization tool has situational character and has the short-term impact upon political views and perceptions.

  1. Social media - a political journalist’s friend or foe? - Political journalists’ opinions on how social media influence their job and possibilities to communicate with politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenback, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Developing technologies and social media platforms offer new ways of producing and receiving political content. The political elites need to follow, and update social media on a regular basis, and political messages are being blended into the world of entertainment and show business. At the same time, journalists have incorporated social media in their daily job and use social media platforms as working tools. This affects the interconnections between journalists and politicians, making their...

  2. The Use Of Information And Communication Technology And Social Networking Sites In Political Governance Of East African Legislative Assembly Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainebyona Robert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research project was carried out to ascertain the use of Information and Communication Technologies and Social Networking Sites in political governance of East African Legislative Assembly Parliament. The research project was based on the conviction that in this era of globalization use of ICTs and SNSs are fundamentally important and will have tremendous impact on governance leadership and legislation now and in the near future. The specific objective of this study was intended a To evaluate the use of Social Networking Sites in enhancing the political governance of East African Legislative assembly Parliament. The findings from the research showed that that all the respondents 100 were subscribed to social networking sites and used them from time to time. Additionally the EALA parliamentarians had a disparity when it came to use of SNSs to interact with constituents 73.3 of the respondents indicated that they have used SNSs to interact with constituents on matters affecting the community from time to time however 26.7 showed that they did not use Social Networking sites to interact with constituents. Lastly the use of ICTs and SNSs by EALA has also made it possible for citizens to view Assembly proceedings in real time and hence where able to view their representatives in the course of carrying out their duties in the political arena.Lastly the world is changing in a dynamic fashion SNSs are among the tools leading the transformation and it is about time Parliamentarians in Africa embrace SNSs as major tools in changing how leaders interact and remain accountable to their constituents a practice thats been a myth in Africa.

  3. A Path Model of Political Cognitions and Attitudes, Communication, and Voting Behavior in a Congressional Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsey, William D.; Atwood, L. Erwin

    A path model was developed to assess the effects of early campaign cognitions and attitudes on media use and interpersonal communication, subsequent cognitions, attitudes, and vote. Two interpretations of possible outcomes were postulated: agenda setting, and uses and gratifications. It was argued that an agenda-setting interpretation would be…

  4. The use of portable video media vs standard verbal communication in the urological consent process: a multicentre, randomised controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Matthew; Kam, Jonathan; Nalavenkata, Sunny; Hardy, Ellen; Handmer, Marcus; Ainsworth, Hannah; Lee, Wai Gin; Louie-Johnsun, Mark

    2016-11-01

    To determine if portable video media (PVM) improves patient's knowledge and satisfaction acquired during the consent process for cystoscopy and insertion of a ureteric stent compared to standard verbal communication (SVC), as informed consent is a crucial component of patient care and PVM is an emerging technology that may help improve the consent process. In this multi-centre randomised controlled crossover trial, patients requiring cystoscopy and stent insertion were recruited from two major teaching hospitals in Australia over a 15-month period (July 2014-December 2015). Patient information delivery was via PVM and SVC. The PVM consisted of an audio-visual presentation with cartoon animation presented on an iPad. Patient satisfaction was assessed using the validated Client Satisfaction Questionnaire 8 (CSQ-8; maximum score 32) and knowledge was tested using a true/false questionnaire (maximum score 28). Questionnaires were completed after first intervention and after crossover. Scores were analysed using the independent samples t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test for the crossover analysis. In all, 88 patients were recruited. A significant 3.1 point (15.5%) increase in understanding was demonstrable favouring the use of PVM (P < 0.001). There was no difference in patient satisfaction between the groups as judged by the CSQ-8. A significant 3.6 point (17.8%) increase in knowledge score was seen when the SVC group were crossed over to the PVM arm. A total of 80.7% of patients preferred PVM and 19.3% preferred SVC. Limitations include the lack of a validated questionnaire to test knowledge acquired from the interventions. This study demonstrates patients' preference towards PVM in the urological consent process of cystoscopy and ureteric stent insertion. PVM improves patient's understanding compared with SVC and is a more effective means of content delivery to patients in terms of overall preference and knowledge gained during the consent process. © 2016 The

  5. Sentiment analysis of political communication: combining a dictionary approach with crowdcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselmayer, Martin; Jenny, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment is important in studies of news values, public opinion, negative campaigning or political polarization and an explosive expansion of digital textual data and fast progress in automated text analysis provide vast opportunities for innovative social science research. Unfortunately, tools currently available for automated sentiment analysis are mostly restricted to English texts and require considerable contextual adaption to produce valid results. We present a procedure for collecting fine-grained sentiment scores through crowdcoding to build a negative sentiment dictionary in a language and for a domain of choice. The dictionary enables the analysis of large text corpora that resource-intensive hand-coding struggles to cope with. We calculate the tonality of sentences from dictionary words and we validate these estimates with results from manual coding. The results show that the crowdbased dictionary provides efficient and valid measurement of sentiment. Empirical examples illustrate its use by analyzing the tonality of party statements and media reports.

  6. Meaner on Mobile: Incivility and Impoliteness in Communicating Contentious Politics on Sociotechnical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Groshek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the nature of how mobile social media may potentially be sharpening the tenor of communicating online. Specifically, randomized representative Twitter data were collected for several controversial issues, and then examined to determine the extent to which mobile or web-based content tends more toward greater incivility and impoliteness. Additional analyses further model how certain dialogic features, such as explicitly mentioning other users and retweeting others’ posts, positively relate to hostility in the discourse. Building on the basis of technological affordances and user negotiation in digitally mediated environments, this study contributes to a better understanding of how individuals express themselves on mobile devices as these are rapidly becoming normalized modes for communicating with one another online.

  7. Social Media & the Arab Spring: How communication technology shapes socio-political change

    OpenAIRE

    Hanska Ahy, Maximillian

    2016-01-01

    Although social media was not insignificant, we need to take a wider view examining the interac- tion between interpersonal communication, social media, and satellite TV to understand how the Arab Spring was documented and witnessed by local and global audiences, and how the protests were mobilised. Social media was a clearly important catalyst for the uprisings, but it may also ex- plain why the Arab Spring failed in the medium-term: Multimedia and multi-platform communica- tion environments...

  8. Professor Janet Wasko: An Interview with the President of the IAMCR and one of the Key Representatives of the Political Economy of Communication Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Amon Prodnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interview with Janet Wasko. She is a Professor and Knight Chair in Communication Research at the University of Oregon’s School of Journalism and Communication and widely considered as one of the key authors working in the tradition of the political economy of communication. Currently she is serving as the President of the International Association for Media and Communication Research (IAMCR, one of the key international associations in the field of media and communication studies. She previously held several other positions in the IAMCR and served as the head of the Political Economy-section, which she also helped to establish. Professor Wasko published several influential books on the film industry, especially on Hollywood and the Disney Corporation. We talked especially about the influences on her approach, about her position in the IAMCR, her understanding of how the cultural and media industries work, the political economy approach in media and communication studies, and issues related to the film industry, which she mostly tackles in her own research.

  9. Toward a digitally mediated, transgenerational negotiation of verbal and non-verbal concepts in daycare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    an adult researcher’s research problem and her/his conceptual knowledge of the child-adult-digital media interaction are able to do justice to what the children actually intend to communicate about their experiences and actions, both verbally and non-verbally, by and large remains little explored...

  10. Model for research of the style of political leadership in Serbia at the crossing of the millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlićević Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article indicated a model for a scientific description of styles of political leadership in Serbia from 1990 to the present, more precisely, pointed the basic elements of concept developed by the author in the study “The style of political leaders in Serbia in the period 1990-2006” (2010. For the evaluation the author uses analytical tools that include the aforementioned concept, simultaneously indicating correlative theoretical approaches the aforementioned study did not examine, and may be of importance for the research of political elites in Serbia. This contributes the epistemological part of the method, which is registered in the definition of the style of political leadership as a term and the category apparatus that follows - understood from the aspect of the political style: the style in building political power, the style of political communication, the style of building one’s legitimacy, the ideological style, the styles of political language, symbolism and rituals, non-verbal communication and style in expressing patriotism. Starting from the fact that political styles are related to characteristics of political cultures and that it is necessary to make a concept of ideal typical models of styles focused on political subjects, this article marked the styles of political leadership typology related to the specific acting of political leaders in Serbia: authoritarian, republican, realistic, populist, conformist, revolutionary and style of a politician-rebel.

  11. Assessment of higher level cognitive-communication functions in adolescents with ABI: Standardization of the student version of the functional assessment of verbal reasoning and executive strategies (S-FAVRES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Childhood acquired brain injuries can disrupt communication functions needed for success in school, work and social interaction. Cognitive-communication difficulties may not be apparent until adolescence, when academic, environmental and social-emotional demands increase. The Functional Assessment of Verbal Reasoning and Executive Strategies for Students (S-FAVRES) is a new activity-level measure of cognitive-communication skills in complex, contextual and integrative tasks that simulate real world communication challenges. It is hypothesized that S-FAVRES performance would differentiate adolescents with and without acquired brain injury (ABI) on scores for Accuracy, Rationale, Reasoning Subskills and Time. S-FAVRES was administered to 182 typically-developing (TD) and 57 adolescents with mild-to-severe ABI aged 12-19. Group differences, internal consistency, sensitivity, specificity, reliability and contributing factors to performance (age, gender, brain injury) were examined statistically. Those with ABI attained statistically lower Accuracy, Rationale and Reasoning sub-skills scores than their TD peers. Time scores were not significantly different. Performance trends were consistent across tasks, administrations, gender and age groups. Inter-rater reliability for scoring was acceptable. The S-FAVRES provides a reliable, functional and quantifiable measure of subtle cognitive-communication difficulties in adolescents that can assist speech-language pathologists in planning treatment and integration to school and real world communication.

  12. Political priority in the global fight against non–communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Maher

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of non–communicable diseases (NCDs – such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic respiratory diseases – is surging globally. Yet despite the availability of cost–effective interventions, NCDs receive less than 3% of annual development assistance for health to low and middle income countries. The top donors in global health – including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the US Government, and the World Bank – together commit less than 2% of their budgets to the prevention and control of NCDs. Why is there such meagre funding on the table for the prevention and control of NCDs? Why has a global plan of action aimed at halting the spread of NCDs been so difficult to achieve?

  13. Analyse des formes et modes traditionnels de communication en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyse des formes et modes traditionnels de communication en milieu rural ... se situe aussi bien au niveau de la forme verbale que non verbale du langage. ... In fact, expressions of message take place in verbal and no verbal language.

  14. Gender Biases and Linguistic Sexism in Political Communication: A Comparison of Press News About Men and Women Italian Ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Sensales

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research on press communication uses a synchronic perspective concerning eighteen ministers, balanced by gender, in the Renzi government (in 2014, as well as a diachronic perspective concerning women ministers from five governments (from 2006-2014. The governments in 2014 and of 2013 were predominantly center-left, with the participation of center and center-right parties, whereas the previous governments had technical-professional rather than political ministers (in 2011, center-right (in 2008, and center-left (in 2006 ministers. In the synchronic analysis we explored the different ways in which the ministers are named, the relative presence of sexist/non-sexist, agentive/non-agentive, and abstract/concrete language in which they were presented. The first analysis comprised 332 headlines and the second comprised 1,356 headlines; we conducted a numerical and lexicographical analysis on the headlines. The results showed: more coverage for men than for women; gender biases in naming ministers involving a greater number of citations of women with both first and last name, whereas there were a greater number of citations of men with their first name only; the prevalence of sexist language that uses the generic masculine rather than the specific feminine (that is, the grammatical feminization of a typically masculine form in representing women; an increment of the specific feminine in representing women in the last three governments over the previous two; no gender differences in the use of “I” and “We” as markers of agency; more quotations of direct discourse for women than for men; language slightly more abstract than concrete, for both men and women; more positive adjectives for women, and more negative adjectives for men. The results are discussed in relation to the international literature and to the Italian cultural-political context.

  15. NEGOSIASI PENERJEMAHAN VERBAL - VISUAL DESAIN GRAFIS

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    Moeljadi Pranata

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Design is commonly regarded as an act of individual creation to which both verbalization and logical analysis are only peripherally relevant. This article reviews a research study about talking design by Tomes et al (1998 which involving graphic designers and their clients. The conclusion is that talking design -- verbal and visual -- is the design itself. Comments from a design-major student give more light to the research s outputs. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Desain umumnya dipandang sebagai karya ekspresi diri. Analisis logis dan penerjemahan verbal hanya dianggap relevan di permukaan saja. Artikel ini mereview kajian riset Tomes dkk. (1998 mengenai bahasan desain yang melibatkan tim desainer grafis dan kliennya. Simpulannya%2C bahasan desain ¾ verbal dan visual ¾ adalah desain itu sendiri. Artikel ini dilengkapi tanggapan mahasiswa desain terhadap hasil riset tersebut. graphic design%2C design process%2C verbal/visual communication

  16. Remember Gerhard Richter in the Thunderstorm of Beethoven: The Influence of Cross-Sensory Coupling on Memory, Intercultural Communication, and the Verbalization of Paintings and Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Emilie

    2014-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study focuses on the perception and verbalization of messages conveyed through instrumental music, soundscapes, and contemporary paintings. International young-adult university students learning German participated in a series of experiments conducted at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena, Germany. To incorporate globalization and cultural difference into this analysis, the author compared the reactions of Western and Asian participants to auditory and visual stimuli...

  17. Verbal Reports as Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K. Anders; Simon, Herbert A.

    1980-01-01

    Accounting for verbal reports requires explication of the mechanisms by which the reports are generated and influenced by experimental factors. We discuss different cognitive processes underlying verbalization and present a model of how subjects, when asked to think aloud, verbalize information from their short-term memory. (Author/GDC)

  18. Verbal lie detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrij, Aldert; Taylor, Paul J.; Picornell, Isabel; Oxburgh, Gavin; Myklebust, Trond; Grant, Tim; Milne, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss verbal lie detection and will argue that speech content can be revealing about deception. Starting with a section discussing the, in our view, myth that non-verbal behaviour would be more revealing about deception than speech, we then provide an overview of verbal lie

  19. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  20. Ross-Cultural Aspects of Metaphorical Framing in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Andryukhina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines cross-cultural aspects of metaphorical framing in political discourse. The author notes the importance of conceptual metaphor in framing the conceptual domain of politics, political discourse as a whole, its perception as well as political reality itself. The author shares an opinion that the metaphorical structure of basic concepts of a nation always correlates with its fundamental cultural values. However, the examination of political discourse from the cross-cultural perspective reveals the cases of metaphor uses that don't meet the requirements of cultural coherence and may lead to negative cognitive and communicative consequences. Along with admitting a wide discrepancy between metaphorical models in western and oriental political discourse, the author gives some examples of metaphorical coherence as well as its violation in a number of basic metaphors in American, British and Russian political discourse. To illustrate how cross-cultural factors determine the specific character of metaphorical framing, the article analyses the dynamic character of metaphorical models that can realize diverse scenarios in different national varieties of political discourse. An observation is made about the dependence of metaphoric scenarios in different national varieties of political discourse on the cultural, historical, social and political components of the national cultural cognitive map. The latter is heterogeneous as it is structured by the objectified individual, group, and national verbal and nonverbal experience. This explains, for instance, why there are examples of similarity as well as discrepancy between metaphorical framing in ideologically different party varieties of political discourse within the national political discourse as well as in the rhetoric of politicians belonging to different generations. The observations are illustrated by cross-linguistic data proving the dynamic character of metaphorical models, their

  1. Political ecology and environmental justice analysis of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wang-Jin

    There has been rapid growth in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development during the last decades. Worldwide PC numbers will rise to 2 billion by 2015, with more than 1 billion in use by the end of 2008. Over 4 billion subscribers use mobile cellular telephones, translating into a worldwide penetration rate of 61 percent by the end of 2008. Analyses have shown evidence that ICT has significantly contributed to capitalist growth economy. Regarding the environmental impacts of ICT, optimists hail a rosy future of a weightless knowledge economy, critics, however, point out that ICT also threatens environment through reinforcing capitalist growth economy and accelerating commodification of nature. Although some case studies have shown the potential environmental benefits through ICT application, these approaches need to be balanced against a range of countervailing effects, including negative direct impacts of ICT manufacture, use, and disposal, effects of incomplete substitution of ICT for existing services, and rebound effects. In addition, the migration of ICT, which includes not only manufacturing facilities of ICT devices, but electronic wastes, coincides with the distribution of environmental and social problems of high technology. Examples of how ICT reinforces economic growth, and at the same time, results in environmental problems are evident in a Korean context. Since the middle of the 1990s, the ICT industry has been a new growth driver in the Korean economy, and has played a critical role in restoring economic activity after the financial crisis in 1997. Due to the rapid diffusion of ICT products and a market trend that makes the life span of the products become shorter, the amount of e-waste has drastically increased in Korea. However, society's concern over environmental problems caused by ICT is at a rudimentary stage in Korea. Although Korea has established the EPR program to manage the e-waste problem, limited scope of e-waste items for

  2. Republished error management: Descriptions of verbal communication errors between staff. An analysis of 84 root cause analysis-reports from Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Andersen, Mette Lehmann; Østergaard, Doris

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Poor teamwork and communication between healthcare staff are correlated to patient safety incidents. However, the organisational factors responsible for these issues are unexplored. Root cause analyses (RCA) use human factors thinking to analyse the systems behind severe patient safety...... (30%)), communication errors between junior and senior staff members (11 (25%)), hesitance in speaking up (10 (23%)) and communication errors during teamwork (8 (18%)). The kappa values were 0.44-0.78. Unproceduralized communication and information exchange via telephone, related to transfer between...... incidents. The RCARs rich descriptions of the incidents revealed the organisational factors and needs related to these errors....

  3. Two Sun over One Firmament Culture: A Political-Communication Analysis on the Contestation of Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur over “Indonesian Malay Communities”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Evie Ariadne Shinta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to extent a personal experience on an interesting discussion concerning the communication issues in Medan, North Sumatra. There is the inclination of the North Sumatrans to the news broadcasted by Kuala Lumpur and Medan’s tends to identify with its cultural similarities. For Jakarta is officially the center of political authority over the ‘Indonesian Malay Communities’, this dual cultural loyalty creates an imaginary phenomenon: ‘Two Suns’ in term of authoritative news resources that applies upon ‘One Firmament Culture’. This means that there is a divided news orientation among the Indonesian Malay Communities’ that put Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur in a tacit contestation. While until today this kind of contestation is still going on, the same features have brought me to the phenomenon of hierarchical communication structure. This vividly seen when we realize how lopsided is in nature the communication relations between the global authorities who have controlled the strategic means of communications as well as their contents with the rest of the world. For, in exception to technological matters, the Kuala Lumpurinclined of ‘the Indonesian Malay Communities’ in communication practices is based more on cultural aspects than their technical and political necessities words.

  4. COMMUNICATION - ORGANIZATIONS’ WORK DEVICE

    OpenAIRE

    LAVINIA HULEA

    2010-01-01

    Communication represents a complex process of transmitting messages, owing to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel towards a receiver that will decode it. Owing to communication, organizations transmit to their customers the fact that they are capable of meeting one of their needs, of settling a problem or of offering a profit. Non-verbal and para-verbal communications usually accompany verbal communication. The importance of assimilating the forms ...

  5. Political Crowdfunding as concept of political technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria GOLKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.

  6. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together with the more pervasive "live" coverage of politics and politicians, this expands media coverage to both the backstage of political processes and the private and personal backstage of politicians, changing the form of democracy and public debate.

  7. What Does the Camera Communicate? An Inquiry into the Politics and Possibilities of Video Research on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossoughi, Shirin; Escudé, Meg

    2016-01-01

    This piece explores the politics and possibilities of video research on learning in educational settings. The authors (a research-practice team) argue that changing the stance of inquiry from "surveillance" to "relationship" is an ongoing and contingent practice that involves pedagogical, political, and ethical choices on the…

  8. Habilidades de praxia verbal e não-verbal em indivíduos gagos Verbal and non-verbal praxic abilities in stutterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Casagrande Brabo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar as habilidades de praxias verbal e não-verbal em indivíduos gagos. MÉTODOS: participaram do estudo 40 indivíduos, com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, do sexo masculino e feminino: 20 gagos adultos e 20 sem queixas de comunicação. Para a avaliação das praxias verbal e não-verbal, os indivíduos foram submetidos à aplicação do Protocolo de Avaliação da Apraxia Verbal e Não-verbal (Martins e Ortiz, 2004. RESULTADOS: com relação às habilidades de praxia verbal houve diferença estatisticamente significante no número de disfluências típicas e atípicas apresentadas pelos grupos estudados. Quanto à tipologia das disfluências observou-se que nas típicas houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos estudados apenas na repetição de frase, e nas atípicas, houve diferença estatisticamente significante, tanto no bloqueio quanto na repetição de sílaba e no prolongamento. Com relação às habilidades de praxia não-verbal, não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os indivíduos estudados na realização dos movimentos de lábios, língua e mandíbula, isolados e em sequência. CONCLUSÃO: com relação às habilidades de praxia verbal, os gagos apresentaram frequência maior de rupturas da fala, tanto de disfluências típicas quanto de atípicas, quando comparado ao grupo controle. Já na realização de movimentos práxicos isolados e em sequência, ou seja, nas habilidades de praxia não-verbal, os indivíduos gagos não se diferenciaram dos fluentes não confirmando a hipótese de que o início precoce da gagueira poderia comprometer as habilidades de praxia não-verbal.PURPOSE: to characterize the verbal and non-verbal praxic abilities in adult stutterers. METHODS: for this research, 40 over 18-year old men and women were selected: 20 stuttering adults and 20 without communication complaints. For the praxis evaluation, they were submitted to

  9. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together...

  10. Yeni İletişim Teknolojileri, Siyasal Katılım, Demokrasi(New Communication Technologies, Political Participation, Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman KARAÇOR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments in communication technology have increased the possibility of world's culture and identity intersection in everyday. In the past it took weeks even months to spread any events occured in any place to the rest of the world so the effects level of these events were limited. However in or times this stitution has been changed reversely any explanation in anywhere have been realized in all of the world for a few hours. The pace of cultural scientific political and social interaction in the world has increased and became inevitable. Because people have the ability of follow the all news in the word due to new communication tools and communication networks.

  11. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON VERBAL LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF VERBAL LEARNING. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1960 TO 1965. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE CONDITIONING, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, PROBLEM SOLVING, SEMANTIC SATIATION, STIMULUS DURATION, AND VERBAL…

  12. Visualizing the Verbal and Verbalizing the Visual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Roberts A.

    This paper explores relationships of visual images to verbal elements, beginning with a discussion of visible language as represented by words printed on the page. The visual flexibility inherent in typography is discussed in terms of the appearance of the letters and the denotative and connotative meanings represented by type, typographical…

  13. The Subversive Role of Verbal Aggression in the Sarcastic Language of Njuz.net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka Kalaba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, Serbia has witnessed coming into being of various media forms that all provide social, political and cultural criticism through acrid comedy, parody and satire. The paper centers on sarcasm as one of the key aggressive rhetorical devices used in the language of popular satirical portal Njuz.net, with an overview of the structural and functional characteristics of sarcasm in contemporary communication. The paper explores how language aggressiveness manages to create an affirmative context in which the domineering structures of the official discourse are undermined by marginalized alternative discourses, as well as how such content, disseminated mainly through social networks and blogs and charged with verbal aggression and intertextual allusiveness stemming from deeper political, historical and social issues, succeeds in providing a narrative of kinship among those who often see it as the last recourse to sanity.Keywords: sarcasm, violence, language, popular culture, Njuz.net

  14. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  15. The Art of Verbal and Non-verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukola, Paivi

    A researcher who does not master the art of speech, who does not know how to write about results in the most outstanding and efficient manner is less likely to be able to persue investors to fund experiments, to receive support from other researchers, and is less likely to be able to publish the results. In many universities it is common to only focus in the particular subject matter. Less emphasis is set on learning to manage innovations, to understand the big picture, to study basics of corporate finance or strategic management, patent rights. Scientific writing and debate, teaching 'tutorials' is one of the keys of education in New England Liberal Arts Colleges, Harvard and MIT, Oxford and Cambridge in the UK, however, tutorials are not commonly used elsewhere. Hands on education -is another key that is similarily often overseen either due to lack of resources or simply due to lack of teaching skills. The discussion is based on past teaching and lectures as visiting professor at Williams College (2008-2009) and Howard University / NASA Marshall Space Center Lunar Base project (2009-2010). The discussion compares also teaching at MIT aero-astro, Aalto University /Helsinki University of Technology-School of Art and Design-School of Economics, Strate College in Paris, and Vienna University of Technology and Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst. u

  16. Bridging Innovation and Outreach to Overcome Global Gaps in Radiation Oncology Through Information and Communication Tools, Trainee Advancement, Engaging Industry, Attention to Ethical Challenges, and Political Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dad, Luqman; Royce, Trevor J; Morris, Zachary; Moran, Meena; Pawlicki, Todd; Khuntia, Deepak; Hardenbergh, Patricia; Cummings, Bernard; Mayr, Nina; Hu, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    An evolving paradigm in global outreach in radiation oncology has been the implementation of a more region-specific, needs-based approach to help close the gap in radiation services to low- and middle-income countries through the use of innovative tools in information and communication technology. This report highlights 4 information and communication technology tools in action today: (1) the NCCN Framework for Resource Stratification of NCCN guidelines, (2) ASTRO e-Contouring, (3) i.treatsafely.org, and (4) ChartRounds.com. We also render special consideration to matters related to global outreach that we believe require distinct attention to help us meet the goals established by the 2011 United Nations׳ Declaration on noncommunicable diseases: (1) trainee advancement toward careers in global health, (2) ethical challenges of international outreach, (3) critical importance of political advocacy, and (4) collaboration with Industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Communications, Immunization, and Polio Vaccines: Lessons From a Global Perspective on Generating Political Will, Informing Decision-Making and Planning, and Engaging Local Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Lisa; Garg, Gaurav; Pokharel, Deepa; Thrush, Elizabeth; Farrell, Margaret; Kodio, Frederic Kunjbe; Veira, Chantal Laroche; Wanyoike, Sarah; Malik, Suleman; Patel, Manish; Rosenbauer, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    The requirements under objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018-to introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV); withdraw oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), starting with the type 2 component; and strengthen routine immunization programs-set an ambitious series of targets for countries. Effective implementation of IPV introduction and the switch from trivalent OPV (containing types 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus) to bivalent OPV (containing types 1 and 3 poliovirus) called for intense global communications and coordination on an unprecedented scale from 2014 to 2016, involving global public health technical agencies and donors, vaccine manufacturers, World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund regional offices, and national governments. At the outset, the new program requirements were perceived as challenging to communicate, difficult to understand, unrealistic in terms of timelines, and potentially infeasible for logistical implementation. In this context, a number of core areas of work for communications were established: (1) generating awareness and political commitment via global communications and advocacy; (2) informing national decision-making, planning, and implementation; and (3) in-country program communications and capacity building, to ensure acceptance of IPV and continued uptake of OPV. Central to the communications function in driving progress for objective 2 was its ability to generate a meaningful policy dialogue about polio vaccines and routine immunization at multiple levels. This included efforts to facilitate stakeholder engagement and ownership, strengthen coordination at all levels, and ensure an iterative process of feedback and learning. This article provides an overview of the global efforts and challenges in successfully implementing the communications activities to support objective 2. Lessons from the achievements by countries and partners will likely be drawn upon when

  18. Specific components of face perception in the human fusiform gyrus studied by tomographic estimates of magnetoencephalographic signals: a tool for the evaluation of non-verbal communication in psychosomatic paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannides Andreas A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to determine the specific spatiotemporal activation patterns of face perception in the fusiform gyrus (FG. The FG is a key area in the specialized brain system that makes possible the recognition of face with ease and speed in our daily life. Characterization of FG response provides a quantitative method for evaluating the fundamental functions that contribute to non-verbal communication in various psychosomatic paradigms. Methods The MEG signal was recorded during passive visual stimulus presentation with three stimulus types – Faces, Hands and Shoes. The stimuli were presented separately to the central and peripheral visual fields. We performed statistical parametric mapping (SPM analysis of tomographic estimates of activity to compare activity between a pre- and post-stimulus period in the same object (baseline test, and activity between objects (active test. The time course of regional activation curves was analyzed for each stimulus condition. Results The SPM baseline test revealed a response to each stimulus type, which was very compact at the initial segment of main MFG170. For hands and shoes the area of significant change remains compact. For faces the area expanded widely within a few milliseconds and its boundaries engulfed the other object areas. The active test demonstrated that activity for faces was significantly larger than the activity for hands. The same face specific compact area as in the baseline test was identified, and then again expanded widely. For each stimulus type and presentation in each one of the visual fields locations, the analysis of the time course of FG activity identified three components in the FG: MFG100, MFG170, and MFG200 – all showed preference for faces. Conclusion Early compact face-specific activity in the FG expands widely along the occipito-ventral brain within a few milliseconds. The significant difference between faces and the other object stimuli in MFG

  19. Machine Learning-Based Content Analysis: Automating the analysis of frames and agendas in political communication research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burscher, B.

    2016-01-01

    We used machine learning to study policy issues and frames in political messages. With regard to frames, we investigated the automation of two content-analytical tasks: frame coding and frame identification. We found that both tasks can be successfully automated by means of machine learning

  20. Reflexes sobre a economia poltica da comunicao e da cultura no sculo XXI Reflections about the Communications political and cultural economy on 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Marchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reunindo textos de autores referenciais de diferentes escolas da economia poltica da comunicao e da cultura (EPCC, esta coletnea apresenta um conjunto de reflexes que visa projetar a EPCC no sculo XXI. Tratando de temas como o conceito de indstrias criativas e dos dilogos tericos e metodolgicos entre a economia poltica e os estudos culturais. Busca-se desenvolver uma renovada agenda poltico-tecnolgica que d conta dos novos desafios para a produo, distribuio e consumo de informao e de bens culturais no capitalismo contemporneo.By gathering texts from referential authors of different schools of political economy of Communication and culture (PECC, this collection presents a set of ideas aimed at projecting the PECC into the 21th century. Addressing issues such as the concept of creative industries, theoretical and methodological dialogue between political economy and cultural studies, the book seeks to develop a renewed political and technological agenda that takes into account the new challenges for the production, circulation and consumption of information and cultural goods in contemporary capitalism.

  1. Die Versprachlichung des Sakralen: The Transformation of the Authority of the Sacred into Secular Political Deliberation in Habermas’ Theory of Communicative Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øjvind Larsen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available bermas claims in connection with his development of the theory of communicative action that the sacred is transformed in a positive way and can take the form of free deliberation in society, the so called Versprachlichung des Sakralen. The thesis is that the authority which could be found in religion and which is of fundamental significance for the integration of pre-modern societies is taken over by modern societies in forms of deliberation. Habermas develops his thesis in a discussion of Durkheim’s religious-sociological considerations. Habermas presents his thesis about the linguistic transformation of the sacred as a harmonious theory of secularization. However, if we follow Weber in his religious-sociological considerations of modernity, we reach a tragic theory of secularization which poses the real problem that modernity’s connection to the sacred has been dissolved. Cornelius Castoriadis’ theory of the imaginary institution and Claude Lefort’s theory of the empty place of the political as a new insecure moral ground for modern society are presented together as an alternative theory of secularization which can serve as a new framework for Habermas’ theory of communicative ethics and deliberative politics in modern society.

  2. Stereotyped perceptions and their influence on interaction and communication of groups involved in the political planning of big technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhardt, G.; Krebsbach, C.

    1978-01-01

    The experiences with communication problems in planning processes show that the participating groups (politicians, experts, citizens/'non-experts') do not communicate in terms of carrying out a real dialogue but tend to talk past one another. The research hypothesis of the study is that the failure of communication resp. its 'disturbance' can be attributed to a considerable degree to the auto- and hetero-assessments (stereotyped perceptions/labelings) of the participating groups. The empirical data collected in this study show clearly: that stereotyped perceptions/labelings indeed exist and that these are both central and stable, that these perceptions continue troughout the communication process, and that this process is 'disturbed' because of the non-observance of basic characteristics of communication. Consequences for problemsolving are discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Comparing Political Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn...... Comparing Political Journalism offers an unparalleled scope in assessing the implications for the ongoing transformation of Western media systems, and addresses core concepts of central importance to students and scholars of political communication world-wide....... from newspapers, television news, and news websites from 16 countries, to assess what kinds of media systems are most conducive to producing quality journalism. Underpinned by key conceptual themes, such as the role that the media are expected to play in democracies and quality of coverage...

  4. Positioning as a Part of Political Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Liutko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The political subject is defined as the consumer of goods in the form of political power, political ideas, political leaders, and parties. Political marketing is understood as the identification of political relations and processes with different forms of market exchange and the process of electoral choice as a specific market (the act of purchase and sale. The concept of political positioning appeared as the result of relevant categories of commercial research in the political sphere. Political positioning should be considered as the process of political communication aimed at acquiring by political actor his position in political marketing. It is the most difficult type of political and communication strategic campaigns. This approach allows the candidate (party to compare his image with electorate’s views of desired (acceptable candidate, political party; compare his image with the image of an opponent; explore the pros and cons of alternative positions; and choose those the most advantageous position for a candidate (party.

  5. ICTs and Political Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbin, Alice; Courtright, Christina; Davis, Leah

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to information and communications technologies (ICTs): (1) theories of ICTs and how they frame political life; (2) normative democratic theory and concepts; (3) e-political life; and (4) research on e-government, e-governance, and e-democracy; (Contains 276 references.) (MES)

  6. Political Culture, Indigenous Participation, and Communication Networks during the Colonial Crisis. The Case of the Peruvian Viceroyalty, 1809-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Glave

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available When the juntista movement bursted out in the Viceroyalty of Peru, the society had already been living in constant agitation for several decades. The oligarchical aristocracies rearranged after the 1780 crisis kept up an open struggle for power. Racial, cultural, and political divisions became more visible. Among the Indians, defeat had left a void that was being filled up by local chieftainships  and a collective  sensibility  returning to  myths and building an ongoing memory  of resistance. The Church and local authorities came to fulfill the role of guardians of collective rights,  and an almost  underwater current of legal and political resistance could be felt in the towns  and villas of every region. This  work  seeks these  new  actors,  rescued  from  oblivion, for they offer a new face for the rebellious  towns  and allow a bet­ ter understanding of the cultural  and political processes  in the Americas.

  7. A Study on the Influence of Teacher's Verbal Guidance on Pupil's Emotional Functions

    OpenAIRE

    後藤, 靖宏

    2006-01-01

    How do the pupils accept teachers' words of guidance? The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of teachers' verbal guidance on pupil's consciousness ( of emotions and enthusiasm). Although speech (language) is the fastest method of communication between people, it is not the only means of communication. We usually have two means of communication in human interaction, that is verbal communication and nonverbal communication. This is the same with pupil or student guidance. Nonverbal...

  8. Evolution in the enunciative structure of the political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jereczek-Lipińska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is based upon discursive and logometric analysis of the political speeches delivered by the candidates during the campaign and pre-campaign phases of the 2012 presidential elections in France, taking into account the results of previous studies related to the 2007 presidential elections. The present paper aims at tracing the different representations of the speaker within his own speeches and at analyzing the way he verbalizes himself in his campaign by observing the use, the distribution, the role and the possible impact of “I” and of the other personal pronouns within the frame of political communication. The analysis of statistical data tends to emphasize syntactic as well as morphological, stylistic, lexical, and gramatical distinctive features of the speeches delivered by the candidates to the presidential elections, especially in relation with the new possibilities conveyed by internet.

  9. A qualitative study on non-verbal sensitivity in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-07-01

    To explore nursing students' perception of the meanings and roles of non-verbal communication and sensitivity. It also attempts to understand how different factors influence their non-verbal communication style. The importance of non-verbal communication in the health arena lies in the need for good communication for efficient healthcare delivery. Understanding nursing students' non-verbal communication with patients and the influential factors is essential to prepare them for field work in the future. Qualitative approach based on 16 in-depth interviews. Sixteen nursing students from the Master of Nursing and the Year 3 Bachelor of Nursing program were interviewed. Major points in the recorded interviews were marked down for content analysis. Three main themes were developed: (1) understanding students' non-verbal communication, which shows how nursing students value and experience non-verbal communication in the nursing context; (2) factors that influence the expression of non-verbal cues, which reveals the effect of patients' demographic background (gender, age, social status and educational level) and participants' characteristics (character, age, voice and appearance); and (3) metaphors of non-verbal communication, which is further divided into four subthemes: providing assistance, individualisation, dropping hints and promoting interaction. Learning about students' non-verbal communication experiences in the clinical setting allowed us to understand their use of non-verbal communication and sensitivity, as well as to understand areas that may need further improvement. The experiences and perceptions revealed by the nursing students could provoke nurses to reconsider the effects of the different factors suggested in this study. The results might also help students and nurses to learn and ponder their missing gap, leading them to rethink, train and pay more attention to their non-verbal communication style and sensitivity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION WITHIN PRE-UNIVERSITARY EDUCATION- MAIN COMPONENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL POLITICS - A CASE STUDY ON "MARIA TEIULEANU" ECONOMIC COLLEGE IN PITESTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia, MIELCESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is structured in three parts. "Managerial communication and its strategies at organisational level" makes reference to Managerial Communication as a subject. The communication strategies at the organisational level are determined and some of them are also defined: control strategy, dynamic strategy, acceptance strategy, egalitarian strategy, structural strategy or avoidance strategy. The paper continues with "Communication within schools", on the example of "Maria Teiuleanu" Economic College in Pitesti, tackling the idea: "Valuable education- education for values". There follows the SWOT analysis of the activity within this institution. The managerial vision, the mission and the values promoted within the school are highlighted as well as some of the strategic priorities which will guide the whole activity, the didactic and educational activity for the current school year. The next perspectives which open in what regards the training of teachers within the field of education are tackled: 1. The development of some real collaboration relations between the experts who teach didactics and psycho pedagogy. 2. The training of some teachers who should be able to use the textbook in an optimum way under the conditions of the modern curriculum. 3. The reform of the promoting system on the grounds of the revision of the didactic personnel status and of the official introduction of some standards of didactic profession. The paper ends with some "Perspectives" which can improve communication within the school in the present situation and also within the existent institutions in what regards: A. Communication in the relations between school/teachers and students. B. Communication between the teachers, respectively teachers and the school managers. C. Communication between school and community (parents including. All things considered, it can be said that, according to the new requirements of the educational politics, the capable managers

  11. Comunicação verbal de uma equipe médica: percepções e necessidades de visitantes de uma UTI - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2233 Physician team verbal communication: perceptions and needs of visitors at an adult intensive care unit - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2233

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria dos Santos Saalfeld

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo contou com 27 sujeitos e investigou o conteúdo e as formas como a comunicação se processa entre a equipe médica e os visitantes de uma UTI-adulto. Os dados foram coletados por intermédio de entrevista estruturada, após consentimento por escrito. Dentre os resultados, 8 não compreenderam todas as informações, 24 não receberam informações por escrito, 25 não foram solicitados para fazer feedback e 12 não receberam estímulos para fazer perguntas. Sobre o que foram informados, mencionaram: a respeito da doença (22, resultados de exames e tratamento (8 respectivamente. 14 referiram que gostariam de receber informações sobre o estado geral do cliente e 8 apontaram o prognóstico. As sugestões mais citadas para melhoria foram: mais detalhes a respeito do estado geral, abertura para fazer perguntas e receber informações por escrito. Observou-se que o processo de comunicação entre os dois grupos necessita ser otimizada. Sugere-se, para tanto, a perspectiva da interdisciplinaridade.The present study, consisted by 27 subjects, investigated the content and the forms of verbal communication between physician team and visitors of an Adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Data were collected through a structured interview after written consent. The results showed that 8 subjects did not understand all information given, 24 did not receive written information, 25 were not requested to do feedback and 12 did not feel free to make questions. Regarding to what was informed to the visitors, they mentioned topics concerning: the disease (22; exams results and treatment (8 respectively. Some visitors (14 affirmed that they would like to receive information about the client general condition and 8 referred to the prognostic. The most mentioned suggestions for improvement were: receiving more details regarding to the client general condition, an overture to make questions and written information. In conclusion, the communication

  12. Common Sense or Gun Control? Political Communication and News Media Framing of Firearm Sale Background Checks after Newtown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Wolfson, Julia A; Sell, Tara Kirk; Webster, Daniel W

    2016-02-01

    Gun violence is a critical public health problem in the United States, but it is rarely at the top of the public policy agenda. The 2012 mass shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, opened a rare window of opportunity to strengthen firearm policies in the United States. In this study, we examine the American public's exposure to competing arguments for and against federal- and state-level universal background check laws, which would require a background check prior to every firearm sale, in a large sample of national and regional news stories (n = 486) published in the year following the Newtown shooting. Competing messages about background check laws could influence the outcome of policy debates by shifting support and political engagement among key constituencies such as gun owners and conservatives. We found that news media messages in support of universal background checks were fact-based and used rational arguments, and opposing messages often used rights-based frames designed to activate the core values of politically engaged gun owners. Reframing supportive messages about background check policies to align with gun owners' and conservatives' core values could be a promising strategy to increase these groups' willingness to vocalize their support for expanding background checks for firearm sales. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  13. Incongruence between Verbal and Non-Verbal Information Enhances the Late Positive Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Shu; Osumi, Michihiro; Shiotani, Mayu; Nobusako, Satoshi; Maeoka, Hiroshi; Okada, Yohei; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Matsuo, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP). Combinations of verbal information [positive/negative] and facial expressions [smile/angry] expressions were presented randomly on a computer screen to 17 healthy volunteers. The value of trustworthiness of the presented facial expression was evaluated by the amount of donation offered by the observer to the person depicted on the computer screen. In addition, the time required to judge the value of trustworthiness was recorded for each trial. Using electroencephalography, ERP were obtained by averaging the wave patterns recorded while the participants judged the value of trustworthiness. The amount of donation offered was significantly lower when the verbal information and facial expression were incongruent, particularly for [negative × smile]. The amplitude of the early posterior negativity (EPN) at the temporal lobe showed no significant difference between all conditions. However, the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) at the parietal electrodes for the incongruent condition [negative × smile] was higher than that for the congruent condition [positive × smile]. These results suggest that the LPP amplitude observed from the parietal cortex is involved in the processing of incongruence between verbal information and facial expression.

  14. Prosody Predicts Contest Outcome in Non-Verbal Dialogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Chatelain, Philippe G; Roulin, Alexandre; Richner, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication has important implications for inter-individual relationships and negotiation success. However, to what extent humans can spontaneously use rhythm and prosody as a sole communication tool is largely unknown. We analysed human ability to resolve a conflict without verbal dialogs, independently of semantics. We invited pairs of subjects to communicate non-verbally using whistle sounds. Along with the production of more whistles, participants unwittingly used a subtle prosodic feature to compete over a resource (ice-cream scoops). Winners can be identified by their propensity to accentuate the first whistles blown when replying to their partner, compared to the following whistles. Naive listeners correctly identified this prosodic feature as a key determinant of which whistler won the interaction. These results suggest that in the absence of other communication channels, individuals spontaneously use a subtle variation of sound accentuation (prosody), instead of merely producing exuberant sounds, to impose themselves in a conflict of interest. We discuss the biological and cultural bases of this ability and their link with verbal communication. Our results highlight the human ability to use non-verbal communication in a negotiation process.

  15. Union for International Cancer Control International Session: healthcare economics: the significance of the UN Summit non-communicable diseases political declaration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Kawahara, Norie; Masui, Tohru; Takeyama, Kunihiko; Nogimori, Masafumi; Roh, Jae Kyung

    2013-06-01

    The Japan National Committee for the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and UICC-Asia Regional Office (ARO) organized an international session as part of the official program of the 71st Annual Meeting of the Japanese Cancer Association to discuss the topic "Healthcare Economics: The Significance of the UN Summit non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Political Declaration in Asia." The presenters and participants discussed the growing cost of cancer in the Asian region and the challenges that are faced by the countries of Asia, all of which face budgetary and other systemic constraints in tackling and controlling cancer in the region. The session benefited from the participation of various stakeholders, including cancer researchers and representatives of the pharmaceutical industry. They discussed the significance of the UN Political Declaration on the prevention and control of NCDs (2011) as a means of boosting awareness of cancer in the Asian region and also addressed the ways in which stakeholders can cooperate to improve cancer control and treatment. Other issues that were covered included challenges relating to pharmaceutical trials in Asia and how to link knowledge and research outcomes. The session concluded with the recognition that with the onset of a super-aged society in most countries in Asia and an increasing focus on quality of life rather than quantity of life, it is more important than ever for all stakeholders to continue to share information and promote policy dialogue on cancer control and treatment. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. MANIFESTATION OF MANIPULATION IN POLITICAL TALK-SHOWS: COGNITIVE AND MULTIMODAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Anna Aleksandrovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of the manipulation manifestation in political television talk-shows. The suggestive processes of interaction in the analyzed genre of the media political discourse are studied in two aspects: а monomodal – as speech manipulation by verbal means at the level of emotional suggestion; b multimodal – as counter-suggestion, that restricts the effect of suggestion with visual and kinetic resources. The foundation of the cognitive analysis is a modeling method with a linguistic model which contains components of the cognitive and emotional processing of meaning, conclusions and reasoning. According to this three-component model, the speech manipulation consists in activation of dominant scripts of an addressee and is assured by the verbal resources of suggestion which associate with these scripts. The foundation of the multimodal research of the situations with counter-suggestion in the mass-media discourse is an ethnomethodological method with a reconstruction device. With this scientific attitude the authors have divided the resources of protection from the activating manipulation into two groups: 1 passive interactive communication of a suggestee in a verbal pause 2 active interactive communication of a suggestee aimed at changing the status and role domination. The empiric study of two isolated modalities and their correlations in specific situations of political talk shows allowed to develop the hypothesis on the existence of the fourth visual and kinetic component which represents space and corporal constellations with other models (or modalities of communication and their configurations. This study emphasizes the need to extend the research frames for the complex interactive processes of communication through their study in the multimodal aspect.

  17. Verbal Aggressiveness Among Physicians and Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jenny Lynn; Hosseini, Motahar; Kamangar, Farin; Levien, David H; Rowland, Pamela A; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    To better understand verbal aggressiveness among physicians and trainees, including specialty-specific differences. The Infante Verbal Aggressiveness Scale (IVAS) was administered as part of a survey to 48 medical students, 24 residents, and 257 attending physicians. The 72 trainees received the IVAS and demographic questions, whereas the attending physicians received additional questions regarding type of practice, career satisfaction, litigation, and personality type. The IVAS scores showed high reliability (Cronbach α = 0.83). Among all trainees, 56% were female with mean age 28 years, whereas among attending physicians, 63% were male with mean age 50 years. Average scores of trainees were higher than attending physicians with corresponding averages of 1.88 and 1.68, respectively. Among trainees, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, non-US birthplace, choice of surgery, and a history of bullying. Among attending physicians, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, younger age, self-reported low-quality of patient-physician relationships, and low enjoyment talking to patients. General surgery and general internal medicine physicians were significantly associated with higher IVAS scores than other specialties. General practitioners (surgeons and medical physicians) had higher IVAS scores than the specialists in their corresponding fields. No significant correlation was found between IVAS scores and threats of legal action against attending physicians, or most personality traits. Additional findings regarding bullying in medical school, physician-patient interactions, and having a method to deal with inappropriate behavior at work were observed. Individuals choosing general specialties display more aggressive verbal communication styles, general surgeons displaying the highest. The IVAS scoring system may identify subgroups of physicians with overly aggressive (problematic) communication skills and may provide a

  18. When customers exhibit verbal aggression, employees pay cognitive costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaeli, Anat; Erez, Amir; Ravid, Shy; Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Treister, Dorit Efrat; Scheyer, Ravit

    2012-09-01

    In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability to take another's perspective attenuated the negative effects of customer verbal aggression on participants' cognitive performance. Study 4 linked customer verbal aggression to quality of task performance, showing a particularly negative influence of aggressive requests delivered by high-status customers. Together, these studies suggest that the effects of even minor aggression from customers can strongly affect the immediate cognitive performance of customer service employees and reduce their task performance. The implications for research on aggression and for the practice of customer service are discussed.

  19. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...

  20. The Roots of Research in (political) Persuasion: Ethos, Pathos, Logos and the Yale Studies of Persuasive Communications

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRDÖĞEN, Ülkü D.

    2010-01-01

    In ancient Greece, Aristotle claimed in his Rhetoric that the function of rhetoric was not to persuade, but to discover the means of persuasion in each case. It is remarkable how the empirical approach towards persuasion embedded in ‘ethos, pathos, logos’ of Aristotle seems to be revisited by the Yale study group in 1950s, with the aim of discovering the laws of persuasive communications in laboratory settings. The contemporary quest carried out by the Yale research program on persuasion ref...

  1. TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATIONAL POLITICS: CHALLENGES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF TECHNOLOGIES OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS FROM ITAPERUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria Oscar Teixeira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of technology in schools made its mark at the end of the XX century and mainly expands in the XXI century. With the advance of globalization, technology has become indispensable presence in daily life and at this juncture has been adding new forms of social mediation, revolutionizing the communicability, bringing in evidence different ways of communication and interaction among people. This work discusses about the importance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in the educational context, considering the public policies, responsible for their integration in schools, as well as the vision that educators have about them and obstacles they face in the practical use of ICT. The literature review about the theme gave support to data constructed from interviews with three teachers of state schools in Itaperuna. The interviews were based on the issue of how teachers have seen the advent of Information and Communication Technology in the school environment and what they have done to incorporate it for the benefit of education. Through interviews and literature review it was found that with the help of the ICT, the school can teach what it means to live immersed in a shared knowledge community. The school can also educate for citizenship exercise, qualification for work and social practices, as described in the LDB. However, despite the contributions in social spects and learning enabled to the students, we also observed substantial obstacles that clutter the scope of success in the use of ICT in school. The deficit teacher training and infrastructural aspects of the institutions are some of the obstacles.

  2. School of Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Voskresensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.

  3. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Political, Academic and Media Communications: Which Articulations between these Various Registers in the Presentation of Statistical Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASSILDE Stéphanie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While the statistical results of the project about empty housing in Wallonia (Belgium are mainly communicated from a scientific point of view, the media give their autonomy to these results, offering them to the civil society. It appears that this mediatized treatment of the statistical results occurred following parliamentary questions at the Walloon Parliament about the empty housing issue, notably in relation to a public policy waiting for its execution order. On the basis of an exhaustive corpus (from the media and the parliamentary questions, we analyse the influence of this autonomy on the extended Phase of the research, precisely financed in relation to the implementation of the above mentioned public policy.

  5. Diagnostic causal reasoning with verbal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meder, Björn; Mayrhofer, Ralf

    2017-08-01

    In diagnostic causal reasoning, the goal is to infer the probability of causes from one or multiple observed effects. Typically, studies investigating such tasks provide subjects with precise quantitative information regarding the strength of the relations between causes and effects or sample data from which the relevant quantities can be learned. By contrast, we sought to examine people's inferences when causal information is communicated through qualitative, rather vague verbal expressions (e.g., "X occasionally causes A"). We conducted three experiments using a sequential diagnostic inference task, where multiple pieces of evidence were obtained one after the other. Quantitative predictions of different probabilistic models were derived using the numerical equivalents of the verbal terms, taken from an unrelated study with different subjects. We present a novel Bayesian model that allows for incorporating the temporal weighting of information in sequential diagnostic reasoning, which can be used to model both primacy and recency effects. On the basis of 19,848 judgments from 292 subjects, we found a remarkably close correspondence between the diagnostic inferences made by subjects who received only verbal information and those of a matched control group to whom information was presented numerically. Whether information was conveyed through verbal terms or numerical estimates, diagnostic judgments closely resembled the posterior probabilities entailed by the causes' prior probabilities and the effects' likelihoods. We observed interindividual differences regarding the temporal weighting of evidence in sequential diagnostic reasoning. Our work provides pathways for investigating judgment and decision making with verbal information within a computational modeling framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-cultural analysis of the verbal conflict behavior of the graduate mining engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pevneva Inna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the crucial issue of the interpersonal communication skills of engineering graduates and studies the verbal behavior of the graduates majoring in mining engineering in conflict professional communication considered in a cross-cultural aspect. The research is based on the needs that future mining engineers have for conducting successful communication, work in teams and run an effective discourse both verbally and in writing. Verbal communication involves a strategic process by which a speaker defines the language resources for its implementation. By choosing a strategy which should contribute to the goals and objectives of the interaction a speaker makes the process of communication either successful or leading to a communicative failure. The scientific importance of this work is in multidiscipline approach and cross-cultural study of ethnic and cultural influences, gender and other characteristics of the verbal behavior of Russian and American engineering graduates.

  7. Interview with Jonathan Hill, Political Secretary to John Major: “A Journey into Political Communication” Entretien avec Jonathan Hill, Secrétaire politique de John Major : « Itinéraire de la communication politique »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Hill

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This interview aims at assessing the internal organisation of the Conservative Party and how policy making, election campaigning and communication strategy are worked out. Its purpose is also to suggest the political advisers’ role and influence in these three domains.David Haigron: There are two issues I would like to broach with you. My first question is about your role as a member of the Policy Unit and as John Major’s Political Secretary. And the second aspect I would like to talk about w...

  8. Network structure underlying resolution of conflicting non-verbal and verbal social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Takao, Hidemasa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Gonoi, Wataru; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-06-01

    Social judgments often require resolution of incongruity in communication contents. Although previous studies revealed that such conflict resolution recruits brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG), functional relationships and networks among these regions remain unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the functional dissociation and networks by measuring human brain activity during resolving incongruity between verbal and non-verbal emotional contents. First, we found that the conflict resolutions biased by the non-verbal contents activated the posterior dorsal mPFC (post-dmPFC), bilateral anterior insula (AI) and right dorsal pIFG, whereas the resolutions biased by the verbal contents activated the bilateral ventral pIFG. In contrast, the anterior dmPFC (ant-dmPFC), bilateral superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus were commonly involved in both of the resolutions. Second, we found that the post-dmPFC and right ventral pIFG were hub regions in networks underlying the non-verbal- and verbal-content-biased resolutions, respectively. Finally, we revealed that these resolution-type-specific networks were bridged by the ant-dmPFC, which was recruited for the conflict resolutions earlier than the two hub regions. These findings suggest that, in social conflict resolutions, the ant-dmPFC selectively recruits one of the resolution-type-specific networks through its interaction with resolution-type-specific hub regions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Communication in organization

    OpenAIRE

    Zajíc, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Communication is one of the most discussed themes of today and its significance is ever growing. Most often, communication is divided in verbal and nonverbal. It depends if the content of the communicated message is put across in words or not. Every person uses his or her communication style in the contact with others which is different in each situation. The art of communication is the ground not only in everyday life but also in employment. Every organization is a place where communication ...

  10. First a hero of science and now a martyr to science: the James Watson Affair - political correctness crushes free scientific communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 James D. Watson, perhaps the most famous living scientist, was forced to retire from his position and retreat from public life in the face of international mass media condemnation following remarks concerning genetically-caused racial differences in intelligence. Watson was punished for stating forthright views on topics that elite opinion has determined should be discussed only with elaborate caution, frequent disclaimers, and solemn deference to the currently-prevailing pieties. James Watson has always struck many people as brash; however this blunt, truth-telling quality was intrinsic to his role in one of the greatest scientific discoveries. Much more importantly than 'good manners', Watson has consistently exemplified the cardinal scientific virtue: he speaks what he understands to be the truth without regard for the opinion of others. The most chilling aspect of the Watson Affair was the way in which so many influential members of the scientific research community joined the media condemnation directed against Watson. Perhaps the most egregious betrayal of science was an article by editorialists of the premier UK scientific journal Nature. Instead of defending the freedom of discourse in pursuit of scientific truth, Nature instead blamed Watson for being 'crass' and lacking 'sensitivity' in discussing human genetic differences. But if asked to choose between the 'sensitive' editors of Nature or the 'crass' genius of James D. Watson, all serious scientists must take the side of Watson. Because when a premier researcher such as Watson is hounded from office by a vicious, arbitrary and untruthful mob; all lesser scientists are made vulnerable to analogous treatment at the whim of the media. A zealous and coercive brand of 'political correctness' is now making the biological truth of human genetic differences intolerably difficult to discover and discuss in US and UK. This needs to change. My hope is that truth will prevail over political correctness and

  11. Verbal Ability and Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Michael D.; Cobb, Casey D.; Giampietro, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Critics of traditional teacher education programs have suggested that verbal ability along with subject knowledge is sufficient for measuring good teaching. A small group of research studies is called upon to support this contention. This article reviews these studies, analyzes the role of verbal ability in teaching, and presents research…

  12. The political debate as public patrimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. José Cisneros Espinosa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article establishes a critique to the prevalent conception of political communication by focusing on the concept of collective democracy, which is drawn from English political theory. This approach, proposed by David Mena PhD., a researcher from Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, in Mexico, is applied here to contrast the concept of political marketing with the notion of communication as a model for political participation through collective decision-making. Finally, in the conclusive section, the author emphasizes two ideas pointed out by Mena: first, the design of political campaigns as education promotion, and second, the notion of the political debate as a public good.

  13. How acquainting shows verbally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    A central tenet of the integrational view of language and communication is an anchoring in the acting and integrating behaviour of the communicants themselves. In this way the integrational approach has a certain phenomenological slant. What happens when this approach is combined with a ¿psycholo...... to some of William James' classical psychological observations. 16...... of linguistic exertion¿ based upon the descriptions of the  stream of thought, and of conception (>acquainting) by William James? Text-examples taken from an internet site for dieters illustrate the combined James'ian & integrational approach in practice. Some of the examples are also specifically related......A central tenet of the integrational view of language and communication is an anchoring in the acting and integrating behaviour of the communicants themselves. In this way the integrational approach has a certain phenomenological slant. What happens when this approach is combined with a ¿psychology...

  14. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  15. Moral politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  16. Office Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  17. Analysis of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero’s nonverbal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Rodríguez-Escanciano, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aware of television’s high level of persuasion and impact, politicians have progressively adapted their messages to the guidelines of the audiovisual media in order to strongly persuade TV viewers, which are seen as potential voters. Currently, the communication, marketing and telegenicity teams of most political parties do not only train their politicians to effectively use verbal communication, but they also try to reinforce their non-verbal communications skills, because they understand that a really effective message is only created through the correct combination of both dimensions. This article presents an in-depth study of the nonverbal communication displayed by the Prime Minister of Spain, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, during the first quarter of 2010 when a political topic predominated in the agenda: the financial crisis. Through content analysis, and a self-developed methodology, the study aims to decipher the strategic meaning of this political leader’s kinesic behaviour in the second edition of Telediario, the news programme broadcast by Spain’s Public TV Network (Televisión Española, aka, TVE.

  18. Oncologists’ non-verbal behavior and analog patients’ recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, M.A.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; van Tienhoven, G.; van Laarhoven, H.W.M.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Vermeulen, D.M.; Smets, E.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist’s non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors,

  19. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, Marij A.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors,

  20. Understanding Instructor Nonverbal Immediacy, Verbal Immediacy, and Student Motivation at a Small Liberal Arts University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Instructor communication behaviors and student motivation to learn relationships were studied at a small liberal arts university. Specifically, relationships between instructor nonverbal immediacy, verbal immediacy behaviors and student motivation to learn were measured. Only instructor verbal immediacy behaviors had a significant linear…

  1. LA COMUNICACIÓN NO VERBAL-EXPRESIVO CORPORAL EN UN CONTEXTO ESCOLAR INTERCULTURAL EN EL NORTE DE ÁFRICA: ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO ENTRE NIÑOS EUROPEOS VS AMAZIGH NONVERBAL -CORPORAL EXPRESSIVE (COMMUNICATION IN AN INTERCULTURAL SCHOOL CONTEXT IN NORTH AFRICA: COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN EUROPEAN VS AMAZIGH CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremades Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este artículo se ha llevado a cabo un estudio comparativo acerca de los diferentes tipos de comportamiento relacionados con la comunicación no verbal y la expresión corporal que se dan entre niños de edad escolar con pertenencia a dos grupos étnicos diferentes (europeo y amazigh. El estudio se ha desarrollado en la ciudad de Melilla (España, población situada en el norte occidental de África y caracterizada por una gran diversidad social y cultural de sus habitantes (europeos, imazighen5, judíos sefardíes e hindúes. Para ello, han participado 100 alumnos (57 niños y 43 niñas, siendo el 50% de origen cultural europeo y el 50% de origen cultural amazigh, a los que se evaluó a través de diferentes pruebas de carácter observacional. Los resultados obtenidos revelan que los niños europeos usan más la comunicación no verbal que los de la cultura amazigh.Abstract:This article has conducted a comparative study about different kinds of behaviour related to non verbal communication and the corporal expression that happen among school-age children who belong to two different ethnic groups (European and Amazigh. The study has been developed in the city of Melilla (Spain, located in western North Africa. This city is characterized by social and cultural diversity of its citizens (Europeans, Berbers, Sephardic Jews and Indians. Some 100 students participated (57 boys and 43 gilrs, of which 50% were of European cultural origin and 50% of Amazigh cultural origin, which was evaluated through different observational tests. Results show that European children use nonverbal communication more than those of the Amazigh culture.

  2. Verbal Modeling Behavior in Mother-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Thomas M.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses an alternate method of examining the verbal interaction of mothers and their children in dyadic communication. The behavior of both mothers and children differed significantly according to the ages of the children involved. Acta Symbolica, 807 Jefferson Avenue, Memphis, Tennessee 38105. Subscription Rates: annually, $12.00 individuals,…

  3. Attendance Policies, Student Attendance, and Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…

  4. Space, politics, and the political

    OpenAIRE

    dikec , mustafa

    1987-01-01

    International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...

  5. Performing Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. E. Paddock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  6. WORD OF MOUTH – FROM VERBALLY COMMUNICATION TO COMMUNICATION ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raluca CHIOSA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become essential in linking the brand with consumers. This enables them to share their opinions, preferences or experiences with others. The paper seeks to provide the concept of word-of-mouth, starting from the definition, characteristics, to manifestation in the online environment and the effects on consumer behavior, creating opportunities for word-of-mouth marketing. Social Media become important in building a brand, as consumer reactions can be decisive in enhancing or destroying it. For effective use of social media tools, brands need to identify the influential people among consumers, to capture the recommendations received from the users and measure their impact.

  7. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  8. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  9. Communication Games: Participant's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Karen R.

    Using a series of communicational games, the author leads the participant through self-awareness, verbal and nonverbal communication, decision-making, problem-solving, and skills in perception, listening, and small group, organizational, and cultural communications. The thesis behind the book is that model-making, role-playing, or other forms of…

  10. Communication in conversation in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Marc; Daveluy, Walter; Kozlowski, Odile

    2010-07-01

    In stroke patients, it has been suggested that communication disorders could result from lexical and syntactic disorders in left hemisphere lesions and from pragmatics problems in right lesions. However, we have little information on patient behaviour in dyadic communication, especially in conversation. Here, we analyzed the various processes participating in communication difficulties at the rehabilitation phase (1-6 months) post-stroke, in order to define the main mechanisms of verbal and non-verbal communication (VC, NVC) disorders and their relationship with aphasic disorders. Sixty-three patients were recruited, who belonged to six groups, with left or right cortico-sub-cortical (L-CSC, R-CSC) or sub-cortical (L-SC, R-SC), frontal (Fro) or posterior fossa (PF) lesions. They were compared with an equivalent control group (gender, age, education level). We used the Lille Communication Test, which comprises three parts: participation to communication (greeting, attention, engagement), verbal communication (verbal comprehension, speech outflow, intelligibility, word production, syntax, verbal pragmatics and verbal feedback) and non-verbal communication (understanding gestures, affective expressivity, producing gestures, pragmatics and feedback). We also used the Functional Communication Profile and the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE). Decrease in participation was found in L-CSC, R-CSC and Fro patients. Verbal communication was essentially disrupted in L-SCS and L-SC groups, including by verbal pragmatic disorders, and to a lesser degree in frontal patients. Nonverbal communication was mainly affected in R-CSC patients, especially by pragmatic difficulties. L-CSC patients showed an increase in gesture production, compensating for aphasia. In conclusion, communication disorders were relatively complex and could not be summarised by syntactical and lexical difficulties in left stroke and pragmatic problems in right stroke. The former also showed severe

  11. Online politics: a cross-national explanatory analysis of political websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kruikemeier, S.; Aparaschivei, A.; Boomgaarden, H.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a systematic investigation of party and candidate websites in five European countries: Germany, Romania, Hungary, The Netherlands and Great Britain. It examines three features of online political communication that are presented on political websites (interactivity,

  12. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  13. Pirate political parties: New democracy or political utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanović Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is changing under the influence of IT technologies, more and more we talk about 'digital revolution', and political and economic developments are shaped by computer networks. Undeniably, the Internet has opened new possibilities for socio-political expansion, networking and mobilization. Besides the political establishment, many social movements found their chance in cyberspace recognizing the IT technology as a platform for the development and improvement of their internal and external communication. In this article we will focus on the Pirate Party, movement that has been seriously growing on the European political stage for last several years. Following the example of German Pirate Party we will try to explain the characteristics of the movement, its goals and communication strategies, and political dilemmas which it brings.

  14. Visual Metaphors in Communication: Intertextual Semiosis and Déjà Vu in Print Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evripides Zantides

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor, as a concept in which a signified is applied to a signifier that is not literally applicable, does not only refer to speech or verbal language, but also to a wide use of practical applications in visual communication, particularly in advertising design and communication. The metaphorical rhetoric in advertisements is a common practice often used to attract the viewers’ attention, as well as enhance the persuasiveness of messages. From a cognitive perspective, semiosis in the process of visual metaphors in communication, is a complex subject with often a variety of subjective interpretations on behalf of the viewers. Intertextuality, as another form of metaphoric communication that depends on pre-existing texts (verbal or non-verbal, produces meanings that often deal with parody, sarcasm or irony. Additionally, they are also frequently characterised as anarchistic and provocative, because of the anti-advertising or anti-consumerism/social statements they make. The current study aims to present a literature review on how visual metaphors are defined in printa dvertising, and build on this to examine the notion of intertextuality as a form of déjà vu-metaphor that is popular in advertising and graphic communication. Semiotic analysis as a methodology is used on a purposive sample of print advertisements—including examples of logotypes as well—in order to categorize thematically the major typological references, in respect of intertextual advertising, as well as extract ideological conclusions. The results show that intertextuality in advertising draws its sources of meaning mainly from the Film industry, Art, Monuments and places, Literary texts and Graphic and Advertising itself, whilst, as far as logos is concerned, the source of meaning is purely linguistic. The study also shows that Intertextual visual metaphor semiosis has a variety of popular verbal or non-verbal references and depends on the socio-political context of the

  15. Visceral States Call for Visceral Measures: Verbal Overshadowing of Hunger Ratings Across Assessment Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Kasey G; Sayette, Michael A; Schooler, Jonathan W; Wright, Aidan G C; Pacilio, Laura E

    2018-03-01

    We introduce a nonverbal "visceral" measure of hunger (i.e., squeezing a handheld dynamometer) and provide the first evidence of verbal overshadowing effects in this visceral domain. We presented 106 participants with popcorn and recorded their hunger levels in one of three conditions: (1) first report hunger using a traditional self-report rating scale (i.e., verbal measure) and then indicate hunger by squeezing a dynamometer (i.e., nonverbal measure), (2) first indicate hunger nonverbally and then indicate hunger verbally, or (3) indicate hunger only nonverbally. As hypothesized, nonverbal measures of hunger predicted subsequent eating behavior when they were uncontaminated by verbal measures-either because they preceded verbal measures of hunger or because they were the sole measure of hunger. Moreover, nonverbal measures of hunger were a better predictor of eating behavior than verbal measures. Implications of the study for communicating embodied experiences in a way that escapes the confines of symbolic representations are discussed.

  16. A pilot study to test an intervention for dealing with verbal aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Sue; Bonner, Gwen; Mboche, Catherine; Fairlie, Trish

    Verbal aggression has been defined as communication with an intention to harm an individual through words, tone or manner, regardless of whether harm occurs. It includes verbal threat to harm, ridicule, openly hostile remarks, unjust persistent criticism, shouting or yelling insults, as well as more covert actions such as spreading hurtful rumours (Cox, 1987; Farrell et al, 2006). Receiving verbal aggression from a patient has been closely associated with psychological distress which may negatively affect work performance. A verbal aggression work book was developed to help nursing staff to deal with verbal aggression from patients in clinical practice. This was piloted over a six-week period with 18 nurses working on one acute psychiatric inpatient ward. Findings revealed that the intervention had some promising effects. However, much more attention needs to be paid to changing attitudes towards verbal aggression.

  17. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  18. Improve your communication skills

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Excellent communication skills are vital in today's workplace. Whether keeping the interest of a large audience, impressing a potential employer or simply winning the argument at an important meeting, sounding the part is key. This fourth edition of Improve Your Communication Skills is full of practical advice on all aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication. It gives vital tips on improving conversations and building rapport with colleagues, learning the skills of persuasion, and writing effective emails, letters and reports. This editionincludes new information focusing on communicating across borders and virtual teams and a new chapter on managing difficult conversations."

  19. Can verbal working memory training improve reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether poor verbal working memory is associated with poor word reading accuracy because the former causes the latter, or the latter causes the former. To this end, we tested whether (a) verbal working memory training improves poor verbal working memory or poor word reading accuracy, and whether (b) reading training improves poor reading accuracy or verbal working memory in a case series of four children with poor word reading accuracy and verbal working memory. Each child completed 8 weeks of verbal working memory training and 8 weeks of reading training. Verbal working memory training improved verbal working memory in two of the four children, but did not improve their reading accuracy. Similarly, reading training improved word reading accuracy in all children, but did not improve their verbal working memory. These results suggest that the causal links between verbal working memory and reading accuracy may not be as direct as has been assumed.

  20. Communication in Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Časar

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In their paper the authors point to the importance of communication in adult education, seeing man as a relational creature. They stress the importance verbal as well as non-verbal communication, which discloses the speaker's attitude to both what is being said and the students. The authors detail the components of non-verbal communication, which the group leaders can use as guide­ lines in their educational work. They define constructive and destructive, content-related and relationship-related types of communication, concluding that communication is at its best when it is relaxed and involves all members of the group as well as the tutor-organiser. Only then can feedback be generated, resulting in a closer connectedness and enhanced quality of the process of education.

  1. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  3. Redes alternativas de comunicación, framing y la construcción del poder político (Alternative communication networks, framing and construction of political power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Martínez Avidad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar el papel de las redes alternativas de comunicación en la construcción del poder político a través del proceso de framing o enmarcado. En los últimos años, la capacidad del público para producir (nuestros propios mensajes que potencialmente desafíen los encuadres fijados por la elite política se ha expandido enormemente con la llegada de Internet y las comunicaciones móviles. En este sentido, las redes virtuales son importantes porque pueden aumentar la capacidad de las masas para comunicarse entre sí transformando los marcos de referencia individuales en marcos interpretativos de carácter colectivo.The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of alternative communication networks in the construction of political power through the process of framing. In recent years, the ability of the public to produce (our own messages that potentially challenge those frames established by political elites has been importantly expanded by the advent of Internet and mobile communications. In this sense, virtual networks are important because they can influence the capacity of masses to communicate with each other transforming individual frames of reference into collective interpretative frames.

  4. A Comparing and Contrasting Analysis of Cooperation and Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菁; 黄大鹏

    2014-01-01

    <正>Language is the basic tool of communication between human beings and the society.In communication or social interaction,people should follow some principles such as Cooperation and Politeness,in order to achieve the goal of successful communication.As two of the communicative principles,Cooperation and Politeness have been widely accepted by people,especially

  5. Cross-cultural Context and Politeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芬

    2012-01-01

    In social interaction,politeness is a universal phenomenon existing in all languages.However,for social,ethnographic and even historical reasons,politeness strategies in a specific cultural context may vary from one to another.And for most time it is not language itself but different politeness strategies that lead to cross-cultural communicative failure.Knowing about these differences will help to overcome pragmatic failure in cross-cultural communication.

  6. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  7. The political spectacle phenomenon on the political scene of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić Vuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine the phenomenon of political spectacle in BiH. Our goal is to recognize the structure of political spectacle in BiH political scene and point out the functions and objectives of this relatively new term in the media and the political sphere. In this regard, we have observed a political spectacle as a method of political communication of the rulers to the ruled. A very important element of the political spectacle is the media. With the media promotion of this method of political communication achieves its full capacity. The final outcome of the political spectacle is reflected in manipulating the public. In this way the politicians try to remain in power as long as they can.

  8. Verbal Thinking and Inner Speech Use in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M; Peng, Cynthia; Wallace, Gregory L

    2016-12-01

    The extent to which cognition is verbally mediated in neurotypical individuals is the subject of debate in cognitive neuropsychology, as well as philosophy and psychology. Studying "verbal thinking" in developmental/neuropsychological disorders provides a valuable opportunity to inform theory building, as well as clinical practice. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive, critical review of such studies among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD involves severe social-communication deficits and limitations in cognitive/behavioural flexibility. The prevailing view in the field is that neither cognition nor behaviour is mediated verbally in ASD, and that this contributes to diagnostic features. However, our review suggests that, on the contrary, most studies to date actually find that among people with ASD cognitive task performance is either a) mediated verbally in a typical fashion, or b) not mediated verbally, but at no obvious cost to overall task performance. Overall though, these studies have methodological limitations and thus clear-cut conclusions are not possible at this stage. The aim of the review is to take stock of existing empirical findings, as well as to help develop the directions for future research that will resolve the many outstanding issues in this field.

  9. Political News and Political Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  10. The Technologies of the Information and the Communications (TICs and their influence in the political and ideological work: a proposal in the university teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario R. Casa-Guerrero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work has as objective to demonstrate the implementation of the TICs in the political and ideological work, in the university teaching. They offer theoretical and methodological recommendations for the treatment of the selected materials, from the educational process, in the political preparation of the new generations and our educational ones. The main result of the work is to offer to educational and students, materials that contribute to the reflection in such a current topic as the use of the TICs in the ideological political preparation and how the enemy to influence in our social project can use it. In the work topics related with the subversion are approached that is not only the activity related with the actions of the historical opponent of the Cuban Revolution, USA.  

  11. To Watch or to Read? The Respective Influence of Televised Political Debates and Media Debate Coverage on Citizen Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunde, Meg

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Media and Politics, Political Communication, Political Rhetoric, Media Effects. Objective: By taking part in a classroom activity, students will explore how cognitive frames and media frames play a role in learning from political debates.

  12. Verbal behavior: The other reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Terry J.

    1992-01-01

    The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary PMID:22477049

  13. Political Candidate Campaign Advertising: A Selected Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Susan A.

    This paper provides a selected review of political candidate campaign advertising studies from the political science, mass communication, advertising, and political communication literature. The paper examines the literature in terms of research pertaining to (1) candidate advertising content (commercials for male versus female candidates and for…

  14. The Anglo-Germanic and Latin concept of politeness and time in cross-atlantic business communication: from cultural misunderstanding to management success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Bond and Hofstede (1989) have demonstrated that culture has a large impact on international business success. In Western cultures it would relate to individualism and in Oriental cultures to Confucian dynamism. Their conception of politeness as a leading principle in human relations and their use of

  15. Spiritual Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Rambeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.

  16. Use of Spatial Communication in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Cocks, Naomi; Dipper, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Spatial communication consists of both verbal spatial language and gesture. There has been minimal research investigating the use of spatial communication, and even less focussing on people with aphasia.

  17. Socio-Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James David

    The focus of this work is the introduction and description of a quasi-new concept called socio-communication. In chapter 1 the term "socio communication" is defined as "human interaction, among and between different classes of people, by means of verbal and nonverbal expression in day-to-day social situations." In chapter 2 social communication…

  18. Verbal Autopsies in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality rates in rural Tanzania are high. In preparation for the introduction of an intervention to reduce maternal deaths by distribution of misoprostol and erythromycin to women living in rural Rorya District, Mara Region, Tanzania, we conducted a limited verbal autopsy by surveying family members of women ...

  19. Logic, reasoning, and verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, Dudley J.; Johnston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes the traditional concepts of logic and reasoning from the perspective of radical behaviorism and in the terms of Skinner's treatment of verbal behavior. The topics covered in this analysis include the proposition, premises and conclusions, logicality and rules, and deductive and inductive reasoning.

  20. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  1. Kreative metoder i verbal supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2013-01-01

    , bevægelser i rummet, etc.) og 4) der primært kommunikeres via verbal-sproglige udvekslinger. Efter en diskussion af forholdet mellem kreativitet og kreative metoder, fokuseres der på relevansen af og måder til adgang til ubevidste manifestationer. Sproget non- og paraverbale betydning inddrages. Et centralt...

  2. BLOGS ARE THE ELEMENTS OF POLITICAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Игоревна Нестеренок

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of blogosphere on the political process. The author studies political mechanisms of public policy-making through the activity of political blogs. The article also grounds the choice of the research tools and shows that the Internet is becoming, in contrast to the other media platforms, the territory of free self-expression.The article analyses and summarizes different communication theories and defines blogs’ role in a modern political and communication space.The application of modern Internet technologies and the development of other mass media encourage the formation of different representational images of political events.During the study different types of communicative interaction in different types of democracy are represented in the article, and as well the increase of Internet community role’s influence on the modern political process.Democratic reforms are inevitably linked with the increase of public political activity, where one of the forms of expression of one’s opinion is political blogging.In a modern political space one can note a new generation of consumers of media goods with skills, talents, interest and enthusiasm to use the opened opportunities of creating and transforming the continent. In the summary we point out that modern political process differs the appearance of new determinants of mass media development as well as the development of other communication facilities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-44

  3. Communication, aesthetics and politics: the sensible sharing promoted by dissensus, resistance and community Comunicao, esttica e poltica: a partilha do sensvel promovida pelo dissenso, pela resistncia e pela comunidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ngela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This papers objective is to elaborate some approaches among communication, aesthetics and politics through the investigation of the notions of distribution of the sensible, dissensus, resistance and community. The concept of distribution of the sensible shows the existing gaps in the common of a community and it fragments the idea of the great social body protected by shared certainties, widely joined by equalitarian principles previously settled and almost never tested. The approaches proposed by Parret, Habermas and Rancire helped me to show that the intersections among communication, aesthetics and politics emerge in the field of placed contact with the other, in the dissensus related to the attempt of establishing links between broken universes and in the constant resistance to the permanence of these bonds.Este artigo busca traar algumas vias de aproximao entre a comunicao, a esttica e a poltica, por meio da explorao das noes de partilha do sensvel, dissenso, resistncia e comunidade. O conceito de partilha do sensvel mostra as fissuras existentes no comum de uma comunidade e fragmenta a ideia do grande corpo social protegido por certezas partilhadas e amplamente unido por princpios igualitrios previamente acordados e quase nunca colocados prova. As abordagens propostas, sobretudo por Parret, Habermas e Rancire me auxiliam a mostrar que as intersees entre a comunicao, a esttica e a poltica emergem no contato situado com o outro, no dissenso relacionado tentativa de estabelecer ligaes entre universos fraturados e na constante resistncia permanncia desses vnculos.

  4. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  5. VERBAL IN FINE ARTS: USE OF QUOTES, WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS IN MODERN ART MEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapanzha, O.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of verbal art memes as a phenomenon of modern network communication. Based on the typology of art memes (visual, animation, verbal and synthetic we provide the characteristics of the tools used in the construction of verbal art memes. The main method of creating art memes is the method of appropriation. The main device that creates new meanings of artistic images in verbal art memes is the inclusion of speech elements in the work of art. Unlike visual art memes, using professional art of the XX century, a verbal art meme is mass scale by its origin and understandable to a wide audience of network users and consumers of mass art content.

  6. The Communication Styles Inventory (CSI): a six-dimensional behavioral model of communication styles and its relation with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.E.; Bakker-Pieper, A.; Konings, F.E.; Schouten, B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a six-dimensional model of communication styles is proposed and operationalized using the Communication Styles Inventory (CSI). The CSI distinguishes between six domain-level communicative behavior scales, Expressiveness, Preciseness, Verbal Aggressiveness, Questioningness,

  7. Education and Political Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massialas, Byron G.

    1977-01-01

    Considers how education is related to politics with the focus on political socialization, political recruitment, i.e., the selection and training of political elites, and political integration or nation building of groups of people. (Author/RK)

  8. Contingent Imitation Increases Verbal Interaction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Yuka; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that contingent adult imitation increase nonverbal communication, such as attention and proximity to adults, in children with autism spectrum disorders. However, few studies have shown the effect of contingent imitation on verbal communication. This study examined whether children with autism were able to promote…

  9. Cross-Cultural Communication Patterns in Computer Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panina, Daria; Kroumova, Maya

    2015-01-01

    There are important cultural differences in attitudes towards and use of electronic text communication. Consistent with Hall's high-context/low-context conceptualization of culture, electronic inter-cultural communication, just as verbal inter-cultural communication, is affected by the culturally-specific assumptions and preferences of message…

  10. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  11. Political priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers....

  12. Predator Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Louisa Cappelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire and Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer urges readers to see coyotes as crucial members of the natural community whose predation is essential for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecological stability. Their cultural production provides a human story of ecocritical engagement for understanding the cascading effects of removing top predators from their ecosystems. By envisioning biocentric possibilities within place-based and scientific contexts, Edward Abbey and Barbara Kingsolver share a common theme of political ecology: political processes shape ecological conditions. A close reading of Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire and Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer provides a literary entryway to connect research, arguments, and discourse across disciplines tasking readers to engage in political discussions of environmental sustainability and to consider viable solutions to preserve the ecological diversity of our predator populations and ecosystems.

  13. Expectations about Expectations of the Public. Political Elections and the Segmentation of the Political Public

    OpenAIRE

    Kusche, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that expectations about particularistic expectations of the political public play in the relationship between political actors and voters. It questions the systems-theoretical assumption that political elections and public communication about politics create an unknown public and that parties therefore can attract voters only with the help of relatively universalistic programs. Beyond the universalism induced by the mass media parties and politicians utilize opp...

  14. MAPPING CHILDREN'S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL FORMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne

    2012-03-01

    This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children's geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively "always already" positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or "rational" speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children's political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children's politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau's notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin's concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children's representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and formation, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10-13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, mapped, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their formation as political actors.

  15. Review of 'Populist Political Communication in Europe' by T. Aalberg, F. Esser, C. Reinemann, J. Strömbäck & C. de Vreese (eds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Durach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This edited volume explores a topic that is generally under-investigated inside the broader field of research on populism, namely its communicative aspects. The book originates from a research project funded by the European Cooperation in Scientific and Technology (COST, and includes examinations of 24 European countries, by focusing on three thematic areas: populist actors as communicators, the media and populism, and citizens and populism.

  16. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  17. Recipient Design in Tacit Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Norlund, Sarah E.; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Volman, Inge A. C.; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The ability to design tailored messages for specific listeners is an important aspect of human communication. The present study investigates whether a mere belief about an addressee's identity influences the generation and production of a communicative message in a novel, non-verbal communication task. Participants were made to believe they were…

  18. Recipient design in tacit communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman-Norlund, Sarah E.; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Volman, Inge A.C.; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    The ability to design tailored messages for specific listeners is an important aspect of human communication. The present study investigates whether a mere belief about an addressee’s identity influences the generation and production of a communicative message in a novel, non-verbal communication

  19. Communicative Effectiveness of Pantomime Gesture in People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Miranda L.; Mok, Zaneta; Sekine, Kazuki

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human communication occurs through both verbal and visual/motoric modalities. Simultaneous conversational speech and gesture occurs across all cultures and age groups. When verbal communication is compromised, more of the communicative load can be transferred to the gesture modality. Although people with aphasia produce meaning-laden…

  20. Listening for Noise in Political Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Buchan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic dimension of political philosophy has rarely attracted serious attention, in part because scholars have tended to assume that political theories, ideas, and concepts, exist as abstract entities that are often noiselessly communicated in written texts. And yet, the noisy communication of political ideas whether in the form of Socratic dialogues, Churchillian orations, or in the hushed tones of focus group conversations treasured by deliberative democrats today, has a rich political history and a continuing relevance. This paper will focus on five performative modes for the communication of political ideas: the monologue, the dialogue, the oration, the interjection, and the noisy crowd. While this list may not be exhaustive, it will be used here as a starting point for further exploration. I will contend that in each of these performative modes, the communication of political ideas is framed by the noise of actual, or textually imagined kinds of political speech designed to underscore the validity of the ideas conveyed. One of the most important reasons for traversing this variable performative and acoustic terrain today is to enable us to hear and to listen to political speech amid the potentially polluting hum of political white noise.

  1. Vicente Fox presidential campaing and the model of propaganda in political communication La campaña presidencial de Vicente Fox y el modelo propagandista de comunicación política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana BORJAS BENAVENTE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of political communication identified by Dominque Wolton can be used to analyse the electoral process of 1988 in Mexico, as public opinion and opinion began to emerge through the exchange between legitimate political actors. The main features of this exchange emerged and were consolidated during the 2000 presidential election campaign, coinciding with the typology developed by Gilles Achache regarding a model of propaganda. The objectives of the paper are to examine the electoral campaign of Vicente Fox of the PAN for the presidency in 2000, and to identify the differences that set it apart from the campaign of other candidates and from the traditional electoral behaviour of previous electoral processes, in order to demonstrate that through the use of techniques of political marketing in the public space, the Fox campaign introduced a new model of propaganda in political communication in Mexico.: Con base en las características atribuidas por Dominique Wolton a la comunicación política, es posible situar el surgimiento pleno de esta última en México durante el proceso electoral de 1988, cuando los discursos de la opinión pública a través de los sondeos comenzaron a introducirse en el espacio público. A partir de entonces, al producirse el intercambio de mensajes entre los actores con legitimidad, empezó a configurarse un modelo de comunicación política, cuyos rasgos esenciales surgieron o se reafirmaron durante la campaña para las elecciones presidenciales de julio de 2000 y que, en tanto coinciden con la tipología establecida por Gilles Achache, corresponden al modelo propagandista. Dar cuenta de la campaña electoral de Vicente Fox, candidato del Partido Acción Nacional a la Presidencia de la República mexicana en el año 2000, establecer las diferencias que representó respecto a las campañas de otros candidatos, así como en relación al comportamiento tradicionalmente observado por los distintos actores

  2. Marketing campaigns and politics – british experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halida Sarajlić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available By gaining political power, individuals and political par¬ties at the same time gain the power to shape not only political but also public life. An accelerated growth of mass media communication has led to the development of various means and techniques of political marketing. This in turn requires certain adjustments to political campaigns and programs, out of which only those adapted to the new communication environment may succeed. Marketing in terms of politics and especially negative comparative advertising, which is becoming increasingly more present and intense in political campaigning, opens a series of ethical questions. Among others, these include whether such advertising in politics is effective, to what extent and what its consequences are. The goal of this paper is to present the main characteristics of political marketing, the effectiveness of the methods and techniques used in the course of elect¬ion campaigning, their consequences and basic differences between political marketing and products and services marketing. A special emphasis will be placed on the presentation of political marketing of Great Britain, which has a long tradition in utilizing marketing methods and techniques in the political arena. Moreover, political moves made by politicians and political parties in Great Britain certainly make a good starting point for shaping an optimal political strategy in other countries, while at the same time taking into account the particulars of a specific political and social environment. Content analysis methodology was used in the preparation of this paper and all the data were gathered from secondary sources.

  3. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  4. Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelweit, Hilde T.

    1983-01-01

    Described are two longitudinal studies, one British, the other American, which examined the influences of varied socializing agents--e.g., family, school, peer groups--on voting behavior. The studies emphasized the hitherto unappreciated importance of the political, social, and economic climate of society and its changes on socialization. (CS)

  5. Politics 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  6. Implementation Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    level are supplemented or even replaced by national priorities. The chapter concludes that in order to capture the domestic politics associated with CFP implementation in Denmark, it is important to understand the policy process as a synergistic interaction between dominant interests, policy alliances...

  7. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 37: The impact of political control on technical communications: A comparative study of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Until the recent dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party exerted a strict control of access to and dissemination of scientific and technical information (STI). This article presents models of the Soviet-style information society and the Western-style information society and discusses the effects of centralized governmental control of information on Russian technical communication practices. The effects of political control on technical communication are then used to interpret the results of a survey of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists concerning the time devoted to technical communication, their collaborative writing practices and their attitudes toward collaboration, the kinds of technical documents they produce and use, and their use of computer technology, and their use of and the importance to them of libraries and technical information centers. The data are discussed in terms of tentative conclusions drawn from the literature. Finally, we conclude with four questions concerning government policy, collaboration, and the flow of STI between Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  9. [Political broadcasting, the media and citizens on the Internet: towards a new communication milestone for the day of reflection in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Domínguez, Eva; Valera Ordaz, Lidia; López García, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    Electoral campaigns in Spain are governed by Organic Law 5/1985 on the general election system, which does not include any specific measures on cybercampaigns. This legal vacuum has led the media to come up with their own interpretion of the regulations when engaging in Internet communications during this period. In order to explore whether the new speed and style of communicating by Internet is matched by a new communication space, this article analyzes the messages that politicians, journalists and citizens exchanged during the day of reflection in Spain's last general election (2011), showing how what has, until now, been seen as a day of silent reflection takes on a new meaning with the Internet.

  10. Training Paraprofessionals to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Glenn Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Based on Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957), the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was designed to teach children with autism functional verbal behavior. Much research has demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of PECS in building verbal behavior. However, because PECS training is typically presented in a group format and later…

  11. دراسة أفعال اللغة الإنجليزية في اتصال الخطابات السياسية والدينية A Study of English Verbs of Communication in the Political and Religious Speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Lihadh Abdul Ameer Mubarak لحاظ عبدالامير مبارك

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication is the main core of language as language is widely defined as a means of communication. Verbs of communication can help achieving communication by their own. The current study focuses on the verbs of communication showing its semantic features and types. It tries to find out the role of the verbs of communication in achieving communication in two linguistic discourses namely the political and the religious speeches. It also tries to find the similarities and differences between these two types of speeches in regard to the use of verbs of communication finding out whether both types of speeches use such verbs. Finally, if verbs of communication are used, the study tries to find out which types of verbs of communication are used in both political and religious speeches. The aim of the study is to describe the verbs of communication in English as used in political and religious speeches. There by, it is possible to make a comparison between these two different discourses in regard to the use of verbs of communication and to contrast them so as to find out the syntactic and semantic differences and similarities between the two discourses. To achieve aims of the study, the following procedures are followed: 1. Presenting a theoretical background about the notion of communication in general concentrating on the role of verbs of communication. 2. Finding out the role of verbs of communication in achieving communication and showing the syntactic and semantic features of verbs of communication in English. 3. Analyzing samples of political and religious speeches to correlate the syntactic and semantic features of verbs of communication used in these two discourses.

  12. The ‘Realness’ Discourse of a Political Leader: A Komunikasi Berasa Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG SUKMA WIJAYA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the communication style of the former Governor of Jakarta and presidential candidate during the 2014 Indonesian election, Joko Widodo (known as Jokowi, both as a discourse and communication model that affects trustworthiness and meaningfulness of the audiences toward the conveyed messages.This communication model is called Komunikasi Berasa [‘sensed-communication’ or ‘experientially-meaningful communication’], which synergises the delivery and verification of a message through audiences’ experience towards the meaning of the message. Using discursive and descriptive survey approaches, the author found out that Jokowi’s sensed-communication is not perceived solely on blusukan [impromptu visits], but also on the verbal messages of his political campaigns. Media texts display more sensed-rational and sensed-sensorial discourse, whilst people see sensed-relevance and sensed-beneficial as the prominent factors in the sensed-message that Jokowi sent. The results of this research could be used as a reference in implementing a strategy to get audiences’ trust through Komunikasi Berasa or sensed-communication .

  13. Consistency between verbal and non-verbal affective cues: a clue to speaker credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Randall L; Nilsen, Elizabeth S

    2017-06-01

    Listeners are exposed to inconsistencies in communication; for example, when speakers' words (i.e. verbal) are discrepant with their demonstrated emotions (i.e. non-verbal). Such inconsistencies introduce ambiguity, which may render a speaker to be a less credible source of information. Two experiments examined whether children make credibility discriminations based on the consistency of speakers' affect cues. In Experiment 1, school-age children (7- to 8-year-olds) preferred to solicit information from consistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with negative affect), over novel speakers, to a greater extent than they preferred to solicit information from inconsistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with positive affect) over novel speakers. Preschoolers (4- to 5-year-olds) did not demonstrate this preference. Experiment 2 showed that school-age children's ratings of speakers were influenced by speakers' affect consistency when the attribute being judged was related to information acquisition (speakers' believability, "weird" speech), but not general characteristics (speakers' friendliness, likeability). Together, findings suggest that school-age children are sensitive to, and use, the congruency of affect cues to determine whether individuals are credible sources of information.

  14. ``Political'' Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  15. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender ... First, researchers will explore women's political leadership and the extent to ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  16. Developing the musical brain to boost early pre-verbal, communication and listening skills: The implications for musicality development pre- and post-cochlear implantation. It is not just about Nursery Rhymes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Christine

    2015-09-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that musical activities can enhance the listening brain and develop higher cognitive functions, including linguistic abilities. The BabyBeats™ early intervention resource, a musical habilitation resource, was designed to improve early parent interaction, early listening behaviour, early communication skills, and social and emotional development, pre- and post-implantation. A feasibility study was conducted on families from the UK. There were two groups: seven babies 12 months old. Audit data were collected based on a simple parental and professional feedback questionnaire, completed at the end of an 8-month trial. Parental feedback was positive and ideas from the resource were carried over into the family's everyday routines. Parents and professionals observed increased vocalisation, attention, and anticipation of the activities in their babies. Parents also reported increased confidence in singing, moving, and playing with their baby. These preliminary outcomes suggest that this type of intervention may lead to earlier development of communication and listening skills when used in combination with appropriate amplification. The next steps will be to include more infants, match the groups regarding age and developmental stage, to observe the infants for a longer period and to compare outcomes over time.

  17. Reorienting Deliberation: Identity Politics in Multicultural Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mason

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many political theorists argue that cross-cultural communication within multicultural democracies is not best served by a commitment to identity politics. In response, I argue that identity politics only interfere with democratic participation according to an erroneous interpretation of the relationship between identity and reasoning. I argue that recognizing the importance of identity to the intelligibility of reasons offered in the context of civic deliberation is the first step towards the kind of dialogue that democratic participation requires.

  18. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  19. Comunicação, vigilância e infraestrutura: tecnopolíticas do espectro eletromagnético | Communication, surveillance and infrastructure: techno-politics of the electromagnetic spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Belisário

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho analisa algumas dinâmicas técnicas e políticas em torno dos usos e aplicações do espectro eletromagnético. Argumentando que a vigilância é parte intrínseca do desenvolvimento de certo modelo e arquitetura tecnológica em um nível infraestrutural, exploramos conceitos e práticas que buscam novas perspectivas de entendimento e ação dentro dessa camada essencial para os processos de comunicação que é o espectro. Iniciamos apresentando o espectro radioelétrico e seu gerenciamento para em seguida debater a noção de “espectro aberto” e seus usos mais recentes. Ao final, apresentamos exemplos que ilustram concepções alternativas técnicas e políticas por meio da noção de “espectro livre”. Palavras-Chave: Vigilância; Comunicação; Rádio; Espectro Eletromagnético; Tecnologia. ABSTRACT This paper examines technical and political dynamics around the uses and applications of the electromagnetic spectrum. Arguing that surveillance is an intrinsic part of the development of a certain technological model and architecture at an infrastructural level, we explore concepts and practices that seek new prospects for understanding and acting in this essential layer for communication processes that is the spectrum. We begin presenting the radio spectrum and its management to then discuss the notion of 'open spectrum' and its most recent uses. At the end, we present examples that illustrate alternative technical and political conceptions by means of the notion of a "free spectrum". Keywords: Surveillance; Communication; Radio, Electromagnetic Spectrum; Technology.

  20. Political Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified? This dissertat......? This dissertation argues that we can identify multiple epistemic preferences in the institutional and political settings that govern the production and distribution of knowledge....