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Sample records for polishing cmp processes

  1. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  2. Models of nanoparticles movement, collision, and friction in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilie, Filip, E-mail: filip@meca.omtr.pub.ro [Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Department of Machine Elements and Tribology (Romania)

    2012-03-15

    Nanoparticles have been widely used in polishing slurry such as chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. The movement of nanoparticles in polishing slurry and the interaction between nanoparticles and solid surface are very important to obtain an atomic smooth surface in CMP process. Polishing slurry contains abrasive nanoparticles (with the size range of about 10-100 nm) and chemical reagents. Abrasive nanoparticles and hydrodynamic pressure are considered to cause the polishing effect. Nanoparticles behavior in the slurry with power-law viscosity shows great effect on the wafer surface in polishing process. CMP is now a standard process of integrated circuit manufacturing at nanoscale. Various models can dynamically predict the evolution of surface topography for any time point during CMP. To research, using a combination of individual nanoscale friction measurements for CMP of SiO{sub 2}, in an analytical model, to sum these effects, and the results scale CMP experiments, can guide the research and validate the model. CMP endpoint measurements, such as those from motor current traces, enable verification of model predictions, relating to friction and wear in CMP and surface topography evolution for different types of CMP processes and patterned chips. In this article, we explore models of the microscopic frictional force based on the surface topography and present both experimental and theoretical studies on the movement of nanoparticles in polishing slurry and collision between nanoparticles, as well as between the particles and solid surfaces in time of process CMP. Experimental results have proved that the nanoparticle size and slurry properties have great effects on the polishing results. The effects of the nanoparticle size and the slurry film thickness are also discussed.

  3. Evaluation of environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) for sustainable manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Seop; Park, Sun Joon; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Reducing energy consumption has become a critical issue in manufacturing. The semiconductor industry in particular is confronted with environmental regulations on pollution associated with electric energy, chemical, and ultrapure water (UPW) consumptions. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), a key process for planarization of dielectrics and metal films in ultra-large-scale integrated circuits. The steps in the CMP process are idling, conditioning, wetting, wafer loading/unloading, head dropping, polishing, and rinsing. The electric energy, CMP slurry, and UPW consumptions associated with the process and their impacts on global warming are evaluated from an environmental standpoint. The estimates of electric energy, slurry, and UPW consumptions as well as the associated greenhouse gas emissions presented in this paper will provide a technical aid for reducing the environmental burden associated with electricity consumption during the CMP process.

  4. Model analysis and experimental investigation of the friction torque during the CMP process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dongming; Xu Chi; Kang Renke; Jin Zhuji

    2011-01-01

    A model for calculating friction torque during the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process is presented, and the friction force and torque detection experiments during the CMP process are carried out to verify the model. The results show that the model can well describe the feature of friction torque during CMP processing. The research results provide a theoretical foundation for the CMP endpoint detection method based on the change of the torque of the polishing head rotational spindle. (semiconductor technology)

  5. Characterization of shallow trench isolation CMP process and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Helen; Zhang, ChunLei; Liu, JinBing; Liu, ZhengFang; Chen, Kuang Han; Gbondo-Tugbawa, Tamba; Ding, Hua; Li, Flora; Lee, Brian; Gower-Hall, Aaron; Chiu, Yang-Chih

    2016-03-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been a critical enabling technology in shallow trench isolation (STI), which is used in current integrated circuit fabrication process to accomplish device isolation. Excessive dishing and erosion in STI CMP processes, however, create device yield concerns. This paper proposes characterization and modeling techniques to address a variety of concerns in STI CMP. In the past, majority of CMP publications have been addressed on interconnect layers in backend- of-line (BEOL) process. However, the number of CMP steps in front-end-of-line (FEOL) has been increasing in more advanced process techniques like 3D-FinFET and replacement metal gate, as a results incoming topography induced by FEOL CMP steps can no longer be ignored as the topography accumulates and stacks up across multiple CMP steps and eventually propagating to BEOL layers. In this paper, we first discuss how to characterize and model STI CMP process. Once STI CMP model is developed, it can be used for screening design and detect possible manufacturing weak spots. We also work with process engineering team to establish hotspot criteria in terms of oxide dishing and nitride loss. As process technologies move from planar transistor to 3D transistor like FinFet and multi-gate, it is important to accurately predict topography in FEOL CMP processes. These incoming topographies when stacked up can have huge impact in BEOL copper processes, where copper pooling becomes catastrophic yield loss. A calibration methodology to characterize STI CMP step is developed as shown in Figure 1; moreover, this STI CMP model is validated from silicon data collected from product chips not used in calibration stage. Additionally, wafer experimental setup and metrology plan are instrumental to an accurate model with high predictive power. After a model is generated, spec limits and threshold to establish hotspots criteria can be defined. Such definition requires working closely with foundry

  6. Characterization of chemical interactions during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Mahn

    2003-10-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has received much attention as an unique technique to provide a wafer level planarization in semiconductor manufacturing. However, despite the extensive use of CMP, it still remains one of the least understood areas in semiconductor processing. The lack of the fundamental understanding is a significant barrier to further advancements in CMP technology. One critical aspect of metal CMP is the formation of a thin surface layer on the metal surface. The formation and removal of this layer controls all the aspects of the CMP process, including removal rate, surface finish, etc. In this dissertation, we focus on the characterization of the formation and removal of the thin surface layer on the copper surface. The formation dynamics was investigated using static and dynamic electrochemical techniques, including potentiodynamic scans and chronoamperometry. The results were validated using XPS measurements. The mechanical properties of the surface layer were investigated using nanoindentation measurements. The electrochemical investigation showed that the thickness of the surface layer is controlled by the chemicals such as an oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide), a corrosion inhibitor (benzotriazole), a complexing agent (citric acid), and their concentrations. The dynamic electrochemical measurements indicated that the initial layer formation kinetics is unaffected by the corrosion inhibitors. The passivation due to the corrosion inhibitor becomes important only on large time scales (>200 millisecond). The porosity and the density of the chemically modified surface layer can be affected by additives of other chemicals such as citric acid. An optimum density of the surface layer is required for high polishing rate while at the same time maintaining a high degree of surface finish. Nanoindentation measurements indicated that the mechanical properties of the surface layer are strongly dependent on the chemical additives in the slurry. The CMP

  7. XPS, UV–vis spectroscopy and AFM studies on removal mechanisms of Si-face SiC wafer chemical mechanical polishing (CMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yan; Pan, Guoshun; Shi, Xiaolei; Xu, Li; Zou, Chunli; Gong, Hua; Luo, Guihai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CMP removal mechanism of Si-face SiC wafer is investigated through XPS analysis. • UV–vis spectroscopy is used to study CMP removal mechanisms. • CMP removal model of Si-face SiC wafer is proposed. • The variations of atomic step morphology on ultra-smooth surface via AFM is studied. - Abstract: Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) removal mechanisms of on-axis Si-face SiC wafer have been investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS results indicate that silicon oxide is formed on Si-face surface polished by the slurry including oxidant H 2 O 2 , but not that after immersing in H 2 O 2 solution. UV–vis spectroscopy curves prove that • OH hydroxyl radical could be generated only under CMP polishing by the slurry including H 2 O 2 and abrasive, so as to promote oxidation of Si-face to realize the effective removal; meanwhile, alkali KOH during CMP could induce the production of more radicals to improve the removal. On the other side, ultra-smooth polished surface with atomic step structure morphology and extremely low Ra of about 0.06 nm (through AFM) is obtained using the developed slurry with silica nanoparticle abrasive. Through investigating the variations of the atomic step morphology on the surface polished by different slurries, it's reveals that CMP removal mechanism involves a simultaneous process of surface chemical reaction and nanoparticle atomic scale abrasion

  8. Optimization of a Cu CMP process modeling parameters of nanometer integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Wenbiao; Chen Lan; Ma Tianyu; Fang Jingjing; Zhang He; Ye Tianchun

    2012-01-01

    A copper chemical mechanical polishing (Cu CMP) process is reviewed and analyzed from the view of chemical physics. Three steps Cu CMP process modeling is set up based on the actual process of manufacturing and pattern-density-step-height (PDSH) modeling from MIT. To catch the pattern dependency, a 65 nm testing chip is designed and processed in the foundry. Following the model parameter extraction procedure, the model parameters are extracted and verified by testing data from the 65 nm testing chip. A comparison of results between the model predictions and test data show that the former has the same trend as the latter and the largest deviation is less than 5 nm. Third party testing data gives further evidence to support the great performance of model parameter optimization. Since precise CMP process modeling is used for the design of manufacturability (DFM) checks, critical hotspots are displayed and eliminated, which will assure good yield and production capacity of IC. (semiconductor technology)

  9. Mechanistic, kinetic, and processing aspects of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David

    This dissertation presents an investigation into tungsten chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). CMP is the industrially predominant unit operation that removes excess tungsten after non-selective chemical vapor deposition (CVD) during sub-micron integrated circuit (IC) manufacture. This work explores the CMP process from process engineering and fundamental mechanistic perspectives. The process engineering study optimized an existing CMP process to address issues of polish pad and wafer carrier life. Polish rates, post-CMP metrology of patterned wafers, electrical test data, and synergy with a thermal endpoint technique were used to determine the optimal process. The oxidation rate of tungsten during CMP is significantly lower than the removal rate under identical conditions. Tungsten polished without inhibition during cathodic potentiostatic control. Hertzian indenter model calculations preclude colloids of the size used in tungsten CMP slurries from indenting the tungsten surface. AFM surface topography maps and TEM images of post-CMP tungsten do not show evidence of plow marks or intergranular fracture. Polish rate is dependent on potassium iodate concentration; process temperature is not. The colloid species significantly affects the polish rate and process temperature. Process temperature is not a predictor of polish rate. A process energy balance indicates that the process temperature is predominantly due to shaft work, and that any heat of reaction evolved during the CMP process is negligible. Friction and adhesion between alumina and tungsten were studied using modified AFM techniques. Friction was constant with potassium iodate concentration, but varied with applied pressure. This corroborates the results from the energy balance. Adhesion between the alumina and the tungsten was proportional to the potassium iodate concentration. A heuristic mechanism, which captures the relationship between polish rate, pressure, velocity, and slurry chemistry, is presented

  10. Atomistic scale nanoscratching behavior of monocrystalline Cu influenced by water film in CMP process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junqin; Chen, Juan; Fang, Liang; Sun, Kun; Sun, Jiapeng; Han, Jing

    2018-03-01

    The effect of water film on the nanoscratching behavior of monocrystalline Cu was studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results indicate that the friction force acting on abrasive particle increases due to the resistance of water film accumulating ahead of particle, but the water film with lubrication decreases friction force acting on Cu surface. The accumulation of water molecules around particle causes the anisotropy of ridge and the surface damage around the groove, and the water molecules remaining in the groove lead to the non-regular groove structure. The dislocation evolution displays the re-organization of the dislocation network in the nanoscratching process. The evaluation of removal efficiency shows the number of removed Cu atoms decreases with water film thickness. It is considered that an appropriate rather than a high removal efficiency should be adopted to evaluate the polishing process in real (chemical mechanical polishing) CMP. These results are helpful to reveal the polishing mechanism under the effect of water film from physical perspective, which benefits the development of ultra-precision manufacture and miniaturized components, as well as the innovation of CMP technology.

  11. Nd{sup 3+}-doped colloidal SiO{sub 2} composite abrasives: Synthesis and the effects on chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) performances of sapphire wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tingting; Lei, Hong, E-mail: hong_lei2005@aliyun.com

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • The novel Nd{sup 3+}-doped colloidal SiO{sub 2} abrasives were synthesized by seed-introduced method. • The Nd{sup 3+}-doped colloidal SiO{sub 2} abrasives exhibited lower Ra and higher MRR on sapphire during CMP. • The cores SiO{sub 2} were coated by the shells (SiO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Nd(OH){sub 3}) via chemical bonds and hydrogen bonds. • XPS analysis revealed the solid-state chemical reaction between Nd{sup 3+}-doped colloidal SiO{sub 2} abrasives and sapphire during CMP. - Abstract: Abrasive is one of the most important factors in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). In order to improve the polishing qualities of sapphire substrates, the novel Nd{sup 3+}-doped colloidal SiO{sub 2} composite abrasives were prepared by seed-induced growth method. In this work, there were a series of condensation reactions during the synthesis process of Nd{sup 3+}-doped colloidal SiO{sub 2} composite abrasives and the silica cores were coated by shells (which contains SiO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Nd(OH){sub 3}) via chemical bonds and hydrogen bonds in the Nd{sup 3+}-doped colloidal SiO{sub 2} composite abrasives, which made the composite abrasives’ core-shell structure more sTable Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that Nd{sup 3+}-doped colloidal SiO{sub 2} composite abrasives were spherical and uniform in size. And the acting mechanisms of Nd{sup 3+}-doped colloidal SiO{sub 2} composite abrasives on sapphire in CMP were investigated. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrated that the solid-state chemical reactions between the shells (which contained SiO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Nd(OH){sub 3}) of Nd{sup 3+}-doped colloidal SiO{sub 2} composite abrasives and the sapphire occurred during the CMP process. Furthermore, Nd{sup 3+}-doped colloidal SiO{sub 2} composite abrasives exhibited lower surface roughness and

  12. Chemical mechanical polisher technology for 300mm/0.18-0.13{mu}m semiconductor devices; 300mm/0.18-0.-0.13{mu}m sedai no CMP gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Kobayashi, F. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are problems involved in, and development points and measures for chemical mechanical polisher (CMP) technology for the generation of 300mm/0.18 to 0.13{mu}m semiconductor devices. Ebara has developed a CMP system for 300mm devices for I300I and Selete (semiconductor high-technologies). The polishing process conditions are set for the time being based on those for the 200mm devices, and the driver and machine structures are set at 2.25 times larger than those for the 200mm devices. Its space requirement is compacter at 1.3 times increase. The company has adopted a concept of `dry-in and dry-out,` which is not common for a CMP. This needs integration of the washer with the polisher, and aerodynamic designs for dust-free conditions. These are already developed for the 200mm devices, and applicable to the 300mm devices without causing any problem. The special chamber for the conventional CMP can be dispensed with, reducing cost. Expendables, such as slurry pad, are being developed to double their service lives and halve their consumption. 8 figs.

  13. Wafer size effect on material removal rate in copper CMP process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, Minjong; Jang, Soocheon; Park, Inho; Jeong, Haedo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The semiconductor industry has employed the Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) to enable surface topography control. Copper has been used to build interconnects because of its low-resistivity and high-electromigration. In this study, the effect of wafer size on the Material removal rate (MRR) in copper CMP process was investigated. CMP experiments were conducted using copper blanket wafers with diameter of 100, 150, 200 and 300 mm, while temperature and friction force were measured by infrared and piezoelectric sen-sors. The MRR increases with an increase in wafer size under the same process conditions. The wafer size increased the sliding distance of pad, resulting in an increase in the process temperature. This increased the process temperature, accelerating the chemical etching rate and the dynamic etch rate. The sliding distance of the pad was proportional to the square of the wafer radius; it may be used to predict CMP results and design a CMP machine.

  14. The study on the effect of pattern density distribution on the STI CMP process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sub, Yoon Myung; Hian, Bernard Yap Tzen; Fong, Lee It; Anak, Philip Menit; Minhar, Ariffin Bin; Wui, Tan Kim; Kim, Melvin Phua Twang; Jin, Looi Hui; Min, Foo Thai

    2017-08-01

    The effects of pattern density on CMP characteristics were investigated using specially designed wafer for the characterization of pattern-dependencies in STI CMP [1]. The purpose of this study is to investigate the planarization behavior based on a direct STI CMP used in cerium (CeO2) based slurry system in terms of pattern density variation. The minimal design rule (DR) of 180nm generation technology node was adopted for the mask layout. The mask was successfully applied for evaluation of a cerium (CeO2) abrasive based direct STI CMP process. In this study, we described a planarization behavior of the loading-effects of pattern density variation which were characterized with layout pattern density and pitch variations using masks mentioned above. Furthermore, the characterizing pattern dependent on the variations of the dimensions and spacing features, in thickness remaining after CMP, were analyzed and evaluated. The goal was to establish a concept of library method which will be used to generate design rules reducing the probability of CMP-related failures. Details of the characterization were measured in various layouts showing different pattern density ranges and the effects of pattern density on STI CMP has been discussed in this paper.

  15. Influence of the Molecular Adhesion Force on the Indentation Depth of a Particle into the Wafer Surface in the CMP Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By theoretical calculation, the external force on the particle conveyed by pad asperities and the molecular adhesion force between particle and wafer are compared and analyzed quantitatively. It is confirmed that the molecular adhesion force between particle and wafer has a great influence on the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP material removal process. Considering the molecular adhesion force between particle and wafer, a more precise model for the indentation of a particle into the wafer surface is developed in this paper, and the new model is compared with the former model which neglected the molecular adhesion force. Through theoretical analyses, an approach and corresponding critical values are applied to estimate whether the molecular adhesion force in CMP can be neglected. These methods can improve the precision of the material removal model of CMP.

  16. SEM analysis of particle size during conventional treatment of CMP process wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Gary A.; Neu-Baker, Nicole M.; Brenner, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently employed by many industries and have different physical and chemical properties from their bulk counterparts that may confer different toxicity. Nanoparticles used or generated in semiconductor manufacturing have the potential to enter the municipal waste stream via wastewater and their ultimate fate in the ecosystem is currently unknown. This study investigates the fate of ENMs used in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a polishing process repeatedly utilized in semiconductor manufacturing. Wastewater sampling was conducted throughout the wastewater treatment (WWT) process at the fabrication plant's on-site wastewater treatment facility. The goal of this study was to assess whether the WWT processes resulted in size-dependent filtration of particles in the nanoscale regime by analyzing samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant differences in particle size between sampling points, indicating low or no selectivity of WWT methods for nanoparticles based on size. All nanoparticles appeared to be of similar morphology (near-spherical), with a high variability in particle size. EDX verified nanoparticles composition of silicon- and/or aluminum-oxide. Nanoparticle sizing data compared between sampling points, including the final sampling point before discharge from the facility, suggested that nanoparticles could be released to the municipal waste stream from industrial sources. - Highlights: • The discrete treatments of a semiconductor wastewater treatment system were examined. • A sampling scheme and method for analyzing nanoparticles in wastewater was devised. • The wastewater treatment process studied is not size-selective for nanoparticles

  17. Study on the CMP characteristics of a copper passivity layer formed by dipping in an oxidizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youn-Ok; Lee, Woo-Sun; Choi, Gwon-Woo; Lee, Kang-Yeon; Kim, Nam-Oh

    2011-01-01

    Copper has been the material for ultra-large-scale integrated circuits owing to its excellent electromigration resistance and low electrical resistance. The polishing mechanism of metal chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been reported to be a repeated process of passive oxide layer formation through the use of on oxidizer and then the abrasion action of the slurry. However, because copper is softer and more sensitive to corrosion than tungsten, the slurry composition and the polishing mechanism during the copper CMP process may be more complicated. In a general Cu-CMP process, a mixture of an alumina-based slurry and an oxidizer in proper proportion is used in order to form a passive oxide layer such as CuO and CuO 2 . However, a conventional CMP process consumes an unnecessary amount of slurry to formed the passive layer. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a new method. The copper samples were oxidized by dipping in an oxidizer for an appropriate time to minimize the consumption of slurry before the CMP process. Then, we performed the CMP process. In order to compare the polishing characteristics of the copper thin film, we discuss the CMP removal rate and non-uniformity, as well as the microstructure of the surface and a layer cross-section based on a scanning.

  18. Effect of conditioner load on the polishing pad surface during chemical mechanical planarization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Cheol Min; Qin, Hong Yi; Hong, Seok Jun; Jeon, Sang Hyuk; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Tae Sun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    During the Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), the pad conditioning process can affect the pad surface characteristics. Among many CMP process parameters, the improper applied load on the conditioner arm may have adverse effects on the polyurethane pad. In this work, we evaluated the pad surface properties under the various conditioner arm applied during pad conditioning process. The conditioning pads were evaluated for surface topography, surface roughness parameters such as Rt and Rvk and Material removal rate (MRR) and within-wafer non-uniformity after wafer polishing. We observed that, the pad asperities were collapsed in the direction of conditioner rotation and blocks the pad pores applied conditioner load. The Rvk value and MRR were founded to be in relation with 4 > 1 > 7 kgF conditioner load. Hence, this study shows that, 4 kgF applied load by conditioner is most suitable for the pad conditioning during CMP.

  19. Prediction of Tungsten CMP Pad Life Using Blanket Removal Rate Data and Endpoint Data Obtained from Process Temperature and Carrier Motor Current Measurments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, Dale L.; Stein, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Several techniques to predict pad failure during tungsten CMP were investigated for a specific consumable set. These techniques include blanket polish rate measurements and metrics derived from two endpoint detection schemes. Blanket polish rate decreased significantly near pad failure. Metrics from the thermal endpoint technique included change in peak temperature, change in the time to reach peak temperature, and the change in the slope of the temperature trace just prior to peak temperature all as a function of pad life. Average carrier motor current before endpoint was also investigated. Changes in these metrics were observed however these changes, excluding time to peak process temperature, were either not consistent between pads or too noisy to be reliable predictors of pad failure

  20. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.

    2013-06-14

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  1. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.; Karagoz, A.; Ozdemir, Z.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chen, Long

    2013-01-01

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  2. Fabrication of ruthenium thin film and characterization of its chemical mechanical polishing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yi-Sin; Yen, Shi-Chern; Jeng, King-Tsai

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of Ru thin film is conducted on titanium (Ti)-based rotating disk electrodes (RDE) by electrodeposition and characteristics of its chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) are investigated to be employed for copper diffusion layer applications in various semiconductor-device interconnects. The electrodeposits obtained under different electrodeposition conditions are characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Experimental results indicate that the Ru electrodeposition exhibits a Tafel behavior with a 2e metal ion reduction process. Both exchange current density and cathodic transfer coefficient are determined. A quasi Koutecky–Levich analysis is proposed to analyze the electrodeposition processes under different applied current density conditions and the activation overpotentials together with electrodeposition rate constants are obtained. For Ru CMP operations, slurries containing metal-free 2wt% ammonium persulfate and 2wt% silica abrasive at various pH values are employed. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that the corrosion current density varies in the presence of ammonia while the static etch rate remains low. Both chemical and mechanical effects are investigated and analyzed, and the CMP efficacy factors are obtained. - Highlights: • Ru electrodeposition is a 2e metal ion reduction process with Tafel behavior. • Ru electrodeposition on Ti RDE fits a quasi Koutecky–Levich equation. • Metal-free slurry is employed for CMP operation to avoid contamination. • The Ru CMP process is affected by the surface condition and the pH of slurry. • The CMP efficacy factor should be high in order to obtain a smooth surface

  3. Fabrication of ruthenium thin film and characterization of its chemical mechanical polishing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yi-Sin [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yen, Shi-Chern, E-mail: scyen@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Jeng, King-Tsai [Research Division I, TIER, 7F, No. 16-8, Dehuei St., Taipei 10461, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The fabrication of Ru thin film is conducted on titanium (Ti)-based rotating disk electrodes (RDE) by electrodeposition and characteristics of its chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) are investigated to be employed for copper diffusion layer applications in various semiconductor-device interconnects. The electrodeposits obtained under different electrodeposition conditions are characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Experimental results indicate that the Ru electrodeposition exhibits a Tafel behavior with a 2e metal ion reduction process. Both exchange current density and cathodic transfer coefficient are determined. A quasi Koutecky–Levich analysis is proposed to analyze the electrodeposition processes under different applied current density conditions and the activation overpotentials together with electrodeposition rate constants are obtained. For Ru CMP operations, slurries containing metal-free 2wt% ammonium persulfate and 2wt% silica abrasive at various pH values are employed. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that the corrosion current density varies in the presence of ammonia while the static etch rate remains low. Both chemical and mechanical effects are investigated and analyzed, and the CMP efficacy factors are obtained. - Highlights: • Ru electrodeposition is a 2e metal ion reduction process with Tafel behavior. • Ru electrodeposition on Ti RDE fits a quasi Koutecky–Levich equation. • Metal-free slurry is employed for CMP operation to avoid contamination. • The Ru CMP process is affected by the surface condition and the pH of slurry. • The CMP efficacy factor should be high in order to obtain a smooth surface.

  4. Investigation of aluminum gate CMP in a novel alkaline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cuiyue; Liu Yuling; Sun Ming; Zhang Wenqian; Zhang Jin; Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Beyond 45 nm, due to the superior CMP performance requirements with the metal gate of aluminum in the advanced CMOS process, a novel alkaline slurry for an aluminum gate CMP with poly-amine alkali slurry is investigated. The aluminum gate CMP under alkaline conditions has two steps: stock polishing and fine polishing. A controllable removal rate, the uniformity of aluminum gate and low corrosion are the key challenges for the alkaline polishing slurry of the aluminum gate CMP. This work utilizes the complexation-soluble function of FA/O II and the preference adsorption mechanism of FA/O I nonionic surfactant to improve the uniformity of the surface chemistry function with the electrochemical corrosion research, such as OCP-TIME curves, Tafel curves and AC impedance. The result is that the stock polishing slurry (with SiO 2 abrasive) contains 1 wt.% H 2 O 2 ,0.5 wt.% FA/O II and 1.0 wt.% FA/O I nonionic surfactant. For a fine polishing process, 1.5 wt.% H 2 O 2 , 0.4 wt.% FA/O II and 2.0 wt.% FA/O I nonionic surfactant are added. The polishing experiments show that the removal rates are 3000 ± 50 Å/min and 1600 ± 60 Å/min, respectively. The surface roughnesses are 2.05 ± 0.128 nm and 1.59 ± 0.081 nm, respectively. A combination of the functions of FA/O II and FA/O I nonionic surfactant obtains a controllable removal rate and a better surface roughness in alkaline solution. (paper)

  5. A new cleaning process for the metallic contaminants on a post-CMP wafer's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Baohong; Liu Yuling; Wang Chenwei; Wang Shengli; Zhou Qiang; Tan Baimei; Zhu Yadong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new cleaning process using boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anode electrochemical oxidation for metallic contaminants on polished silicon wafer surfaces. The BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can efficiently prepare pyrophosphate peroxide, pyrophosphate peroxide can oxidize organic contaminants, and pyrophosphate peroxide is deoxidized into pyrophosphate. Pyrophosphate, a good complexing agent, can form a metal complex, which is a structure consisting of a copper ion, bonded to a surrounding array of two pyrophosphate anions. Three polished wafers were immersed in the 0.01 mol/L CuSO 4 solution for 2 h in order to make comparative experiments. The first one was cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide, the second by RCA (Radio Corporation of America) cleaning, and the third by deionized (DI) water. The XPS measurement result shows that the metallic contaminants on wafers cleaned by the RCA method and by pyrophosphate peroxide is less than the XPS detection limits of 1 ppm. And the wafer's surface cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide is more efficient in removing organic carbon residues than RCA cleaning. Therefore, BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can be used for microelectronics cleaning, and it can effectively remove organic contaminants and metallic contaminants in one step. It also achieves energy saving and environmental protection. (semiconductor technology)

  6. Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesar, A.; Fuchs, B.

    1992-08-01

    Zerodur is a glass-ceramic composite importance in applications where temperature instabilities influence optical and mechanical performance, such as in earthbound and spaceborne telescope mirror substrates. Polished Zerodur surfaces of high quality have been required for laser gyro mirrors. Polished surface quality of substrates affects performance of high reflection coatings. Thus, the interest in improving Zerodur polished surface quality has become more general. Beyond eliminating subsurface damage, high quality surfaces are produced by reducing the amount of hydrated material redeposited on the surface during polishing. With the proper control of polishing parameters, such surfaces exhibit roughnesses of < l Angstrom rms. Zerodur polishing was studied to recommend a high surface quality polishing process which could be easily adapted to standard planetary continuous polishing machines and spindles. This summary contains information on a polishing process developed at LLNL which reproducibly provides high quality polished Zerodur surfaces at very high polishing efficiencies

  7. Convergent Polishing: A Simple, Rapid, Full Aperture Polishing Process of High Quality Optical Flats & Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; Geraghty, Paul; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher. PMID:25489745

  8. Material removal mechanisms in electrochemical-mechanical polishing of tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Liang, H.

    2009-01-01

    Material removal mechanisms in tantalum chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) and electrochemical-mechanical polishing (ECMP) were investigated using the single frequency electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Through measuring the impedance of the tantalum surface, the single frequency EIS scan made it possible to observe the CMP and ECMP processes in situ. The impedance results presented competing mechanisms of removal and formation of a surface oxide layer of tantalum. Analysis indicated that the thickness of the oxide layer formed during polishing was related to the mechanical power correlated to the friction force and the rotating speed. Furthermore, the rate of growth and removal of the oxide film was a function of the mechanical power. This understanding is beneficial for optimization of CMP and ECMP processes.

  9. Tribochemical interaction between nanoparticles and surfaces of selective layer during chemical mechanical polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been widely used in polish slurries such as those in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. For understanding the mechanisms of CMP, an atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to characterize polished surfaces of selective layers, after a set of polishing experiments. To optimize the CMP polishing process, one needs to get information on the interaction between the nano-abrasive slurry nanoparticles and the surface of selective layer being polished. The slurry used in CMP process of the solid surfaces is slurry with large nanoparticle size colloidal silica sol nano-abrasives. Silica sol nano-abrasives with large nanoparticle are prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, particles colloidal size, and Zeta potential in this paper. The movement of nanoparticles in liquid and the interaction between nanoparticles and solid surfaces coating with selective layer are very important to obtain an atomic alloy smooth surface in the CMP process. We investigate the nanoparticle adhesion and removal processes during CMP and post-CMP cleaning. The mechanical interaction between nanoparticles and the wafer surface was studied using a microcontact wear model. This model considers the nanoparticle effects between the polishing interfaces during load balancing. Experimental results on polishing and cleaning are compared with numerical analysis. This paper suggests that during post-CMP cleaning, a combined effort in chemical and mechanical interaction (tribochemical interactions) would be effective in removal of small nanoparticles during cleaning. For large nanoparticles, more mechanical forces would be more effective. CMP results show that the removal rate has been improved to 367 nm/min and root mean square (RMS) of roughness has been reduced from 4.4 to 0.80 nm. Also, the results show that the silica sol nano-abrasives about 100 nm are of higher stability (Zeta potential is −65 mV) and narrow distribution of nanoparticle

  10. Post-CMP cleaning for metallic contaminant removal by using a remote plasma and UV/ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong Min; Jeon, Bu Yong; Lee, Chong Mu

    2000-01-01

    For the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process to be successful, it is important to establish a good post-CMP cleaning process that will remove not only slurry and particles but also metallic impurities from the polished surface. The common metallic contaminants found after oxide CMP and Cu CMP include Cu, K, and Fe. Scrubbing, a popular method for post-CMP cleaning, is effective in removing particles, but removal of metallic contaminants using this method is not so effective. In this study, the removal of Fe metallic contaminants like Fe, which are commonly found on the wafer surface after CMP processes, was investigated using remote-hydrogen-plasma and UV/O 3 cleaning techniques. Our results show that metal contaminants, including Fe, can be effectively removed by using a hydrogen-plasma or UV/O 3 cleaning technique performed under optimal process conditions. In remote plasma H 2 cleaning, contaminant removal is enhanced with decreasing plasma exposure time and increasing rf-power. The optimal process condition for the removal of the Fe impurities existing on the wafer surface is an rf-power of 100 W. Plasma cleaning for 5 min or less is effective in removing Fe contaminants, but a plasma exposure time of 1 min is more appropriate than 5 min in view of the process time, The surface roughness decreased by 30∼50 % after remote-H 2 -plasma cleaning. On the other hand, the highest efficiency of Fe-impurity removal was achieved for an UV exposure time of 30 s. The removal mechanism for the Fe contaminants in the remote-H 2 -plasma and the UV/O 3 cleaning processes is considered to be the liftoff of Fe atoms when the SiO is removed by evaporation after the chemical or native SiO 2 formed underneath the metal atoms reacts with H + and e - to form SiO

  11. Resistance to the nucleotide analogue cidofovir in HPV(+) cells: a multifactorial process involving UMP/CMP kinase 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topalis, D.; Nogueira, T. C.; De Schutter, T.; El Amri, C.; Krečmerová, Marcela; Naesens, L.; Balzarini, J.; Andrei, G.; Snoeck, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2016), s. 10386-10401 ISSN 1949-2553 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00522S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : human papillomavirus * cervical carcinoma * UMP-CMP kinase * cidofovir * NTP metabolism Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.168, year: 2016

  12. Study on chemical mechanical polishing of silicon wafer with megasonic vibration assisted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ke; He, Qing; Li, Liang; Ren, Yi

    2017-09-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is the primary method to realize the global planarization of silicon wafer. In order to improve this process, a novel method which combined megasonic vibration to assist chemical mechanical polishing (MA-CMP) is developed in this paper. A matching layer structure of polishing head was calculated and designed. Silicon wafers are polished by megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing and traditional chemical mechanical polishing respectively, both coarse polishing and precision polishing experiments were carried out. With the use of megasonic vibration, the surface roughness values Ra reduced from 22.260nm to 17.835nm in coarse polishing, and the material removal rate increased by approximately 15-25% for megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing relative to traditional chemical mechanical polishing. Average Surface roughness values Ra reduced from 0.509nm to 0.387nm in precision polishing. The results show that megasonic assisted chemical mechanical polishing is a feasible method to improve polishing efficiency and surface quality. The material removal and finishing mechanisms of megasonic vibration assisted polishing are investigated too. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical mechanical polishing of BTO thin film for vertical sidewall patterning of high-density memory capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam-Hoon; Ko, Pil-Ju; Seo, Yong-Jin; Lee, Woo-Sun

    2006-01-01

    Most high-k materials cannot to be etched easily. Problems such as low etch rate, poor sidewall angle, plasma damage, and process complexity have emerged in high-density DRAM fabrication. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) by the damascene process has been used to pattern high-k materials for high-density capacitor. Barium titanate (BTO) thin film, a typical high-k material, was polished with three types of silica slurry having different pH values. Sufficient removal rate with adequate selectivity to realize the pattern mask of tetra-ethyl ortho-silicate (TEOS) film for the vertical sidewall angle was obtained. The changes of X-ray diffraction pattern and dielectric constant by CMP process were negligible. Planarization was also achieved for the subsequent multilevel processes. Our new CMP approach will provide a guideline for effective patterning of high-k materials by CMP

  14. Design of an ultraprecision computerized numerical control chemical mechanical polishing machine and its implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chupeng; Zhao, Huiying; Zhu, Xueliang; Zhao, Shijie; Jiang, Chunye

    2018-01-01

    The chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a key process during the machining route of plane optics. To improve the polishing efficiency and accuracy, a CMP model and machine tool were developed. Based on the Preston equation and the axial run-out error measurement results of the m circles on the tin plate, a CMP model that could simulate the material removal at any point on the workpiece was presented. An analysis of the model indicated that lower axial run-out error led to lower material removal but better polishing efficiency and accuracy. Based on this conclusion, the CMP machine was designed, and the ultraprecision gas hydrostatic guideway and rotary table as well as the Siemens 840Dsl numerical control system were incorporated in the CMP machine. To verify the design principles of machine, a series of detection and machining experiments were conducted. The LK-G5000 laser sensor was employed for detecting the straightness error of the gas hydrostatic guideway and the axial run-out error of the gas hydrostatic rotary table. A 300-mm-diameter optic was chosen for the surface profile machining experiments performed to determine the CMP efficiency and accuracy.

  15. Development of hybrid fluid jet/float polishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucamp, Anthony T. H.; Namba, Yoshiharu; Freeman, Richard R.

    2013-09-01

    On one hand, the "float polishing" process consists of a tin lap having many concentric grooves, cut from a flat by single point diamond turning. This lap is rotated above a hydrostatic bearing spindle of high rigidity, damping and rotational accuracy. The optical surface thus floats above a thin layer of abrasive particles. But whilst surface texture can be smoothed to ~0.1nm rms (as measured by atomic force microscopy), this process can only be used on flat surfaces. On the other hand, the CNC "fluid jet polishing" process consists of pumping a mixture of water and abrasive particles to a converging nozzle, thus generating a polishing spot that can be moved along a tool path with tight track spacing. But whilst tool path feed can be moderated to ultra-precisely correct form error on freeform optical surfaces, surface finish improvement is generally limited to ~1.5nm rms (with fine abrasives). This paper reports on the development of a novel finishing method, that combines the advantages of "fluid jet polishing" (i.e. freeform corrective capability) with "float polishing" (i.e. super-smooth surface finish of 0.1nm rms or less). To come up with this new "hybrid" method, computational fluid dynamic modeling of both processes in COMSOL is being used to characterize abrasion conditions and adapt the process parameters of experimental fluid jet polishing equipment, including: (1) geometrical shape of nozzle, (2) position relative to the surface, (3) control of inlet pressure. This new process is aimed at finishing of next generation X-Ray / Gamma Ray focusing optics.

  16. Development of Formulations for a-SiC and Manganese CMP and Post-CMP Cleaning of Cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagudu, Uma Rames Krishna

    We have investigated the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of amorphous SiC (a-SiC) and Mn and Post CMP cleaning of cobalt for various device applications. During the manufacture of copper interconnects using the damascene process the polishing of copper is followed by the polishing of the barrier material (Co, Mn, Ru and their alloys) and its post CMP cleaning. This is followed by the a-SiC hard mask CMP. Silicon carbide thin films, though of widespread use in microelectronic engineering, are difficult to process by CMP because of their hardness and chemical inertness. The earlier part of the SiC work discusses the development of slurries based on silica abrasives that resulted in high a-SiC removal rates (RRs). The ionic strength of the silica dispersion was found to play a significant role in enhancing material removal rate, while also providing very good post-polish surface-smoothness. For example, the addition of 50 mM potassium nitrate to a pH 8 aqueous slurry consisting of 10 wt % of silica abrasives and 1.47 M hydrogen peroxide increased the RR from about 150 nm/h to about 2100 nm/h. The role of ionic strength in obtaining such high RRs was investigated using surface zeta-potentials measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Evidently, hydrogen peroxide promoted the oxidation of Si and C to form weakly adhered species that were subsequently removed by the abrasive action of the silica particles. The effect of potassium nitrate in increasing material removal is attributed to the reduction in the electrostatic repulsion between the abrasive particles and the SiC surface because of screening of surface charges by the added electrolyte. We also show that transition metal compounds when used as additives to silica dispersions enhance a-SiC removal rates (RRs). Silica slurries containing potassium permanganate gave RRs as high as 2000 nm/h at pH 4. Addition of copper sulfate to this slurry further enhanced the RRs to ˜3500 nm/h at pH 6

  17. Consolidation Processes: Raiders & Targets in Polish Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Poteraj, Jarosław

    2004-01-01

    The work consists of five chapters, an annex and an appendix. In the first chapter the author describes the point of consolidation processes, presents: the meaning of consolidation processes, active and institutional aspects of merger execution, gives a classification of the consolidation processes and considers conditions of execution of consolidations processes in the Polish law, The next chapter concerns reasons of consolidation processes. The author describes there in turn: motives of the...

  18. Surface qualities after chemical-mechanical polishing on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Wei-En; Lin, Tzeng-Yow; Chen, Meng-Ke; Chen, Chao-Chang A.

    2009-01-01

    Demands for substrate and film surface planarizations significantly increase as the feature sizes of Integrated Circuit (IC) components continue to shrink. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP), incorporating chemical and mechanical interactions to planarize chemically modified surface layers, has been one of the major manufacturing processes to provide global and local surface planarizations in IC fabrications. Not only is the material removal rate a concern, the qualities of the CMP produced surface are critical as well, such as surface finish, defects and surface stresses. This paper is to examine the CMP produced surface roughness on tungsten or W thin films based on the CMP process conditions. The W thin films with thickness below 1000 nm on silicon wafer were chemical-mechanical polished at different down pressures and platen speeds to produce different surface roughness. The surface roughness measurements were performed by an atomic force microscope (DI D3100). Results show that the quality of surface finish (R a value) is determined by the combined effects of down pressures and platen speeds. An optimal polishing condition is, then, possible for selecting the down pressures and platen speeds.

  19. Study on combined polishing process of aspherical aluminum mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jinqiu; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Hao; Ge, Kunpeng

    2017-10-01

    The aluminum mirrors are widely used as important optical components in some vital fields such as astronomical instruments or military installations due to the unique advantages of aluminum alloy. In order to simplify the structure of optical system and improve the performance at the same time, it's a tendency that the optics will be designed to aspherical or other freeform shapes. However, the traditional techniques are falling to have adequate abilities to deal with the increasing demands of aluminum optics. For example, the tool marks leaved on the surface from single point diamond turning (SPDT) has obvious adverse effects to optical system. The deterministic and sub-aperture polishing process has showed the potential to fabricate complex shapes over the few years. But it's still recognized as a problem to polish bare aluminum directly because of its soft surface and active chemical characteristics. Therefore, a combination of magnetorheological finishing (MRF) and small tool polishing (STP) is applied to obtain high performance aluminum optics in this paper. A paraboloid aluminum mirror was polished with this proposed method, and the results showed that the surface texture of the sample is restrained from rms 0.409λ (λ=632.8nm) to rms 0.025λ, and the surface roughness is improved from average Ra 6 7nm to Ra 3 4nm.

  20. The study of optimization on process parameters of high-accuracy computerized numerical control polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Ren; Huang, Shih-Pu; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Yu, Zong-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-09-01

    Spherical lenses lead to forming spherical aberration and reduced optical performance. Consequently, in practice optical system shall apply a combination of spherical lenses for aberration correction. Thus, the volume of the optical system increased. In modern optical systems, aspherical lenses have been widely used because of their high optical performance with less optical components. However, aspherical surfaces cannot be fabricated by traditional full aperture polishing process due to their varying curvature. Sub-aperture computer numerical control (CNC) polishing is adopted for aspherical surface fabrication in recent years. By using CNC polishing process, mid-spatial frequency (MSF) error is normally accompanied during this process. And the MSF surface texture of optics decreases the optical performance for high precision optical system, especially for short-wavelength applications. Based on a bonnet polishing CNC machine, this study focuses on the relationship between MSF surface texture and CNC polishing parameters, which include feed rate, head speed, track spacing and path direction. The power spectral density (PSD) analysis is used to judge the MSF level caused by those polishing parameters. The test results show that controlling the removal depth of single polishing path, through the feed rate, and without same direction polishing path for higher total removal depth can efficiently reduce the MSF error. To verify the optical polishing parameters, we divided a correction polishing process to several polishing runs with different direction polishing paths. Compare to one shot polishing run, multi-direction path polishing plan could produce better surface quality on the optics.

  1. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Hard X-Ray Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran Sayeed; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The presentation includes grazing incidence X-ray optics, motivation and challenges, mid spatial frequency generation in cylindrical polishing, design considerations for polishing lap, simulation studies and experimental results, future scope, and summary. Topics include current status of replication optics technology, cylindrical polishing process using large size polishing lap, non-conformance of polishin lap to the optics, development of software and polishing machine, deterministic prediction of polishing, polishing experiment under optimum conditions, and polishing experiment based on known error profile. Future plans include determination of non-uniformity in the polishing lap compliance, development of a polishing sequence based on a known error profile of the specimen, software for generating a mandrel polishing sequence, design an development of a flexible polishing lap, and computer controlled localized polishing process.

  2. Acoustic emission-based in-process monitoring of surface generation in robot-assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring of surface generation in the robot-assisted polishing (RAP) was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate...... automatic detection of optimal process endpoint allow intelligent process control, creating fundamental elements in development of robust fully automated RAP process for its widespread industrial application....... removal of the part from the machine tool. In this study, stabilisation of surface roughness during polishing rotational symmetric surfaces by the RAP process was monitored by AE measurements. An AE sensor was placed on a polishing arm in direct contact with a bonded abrasive polishing tool...

  3. Role of crystal orientation on chemical mechanical polishing of single crystal copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Aibin, E-mail: abzhu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; He, Dayong; Luo, Wencheng; Liu, Yangyang

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The role of crystal orientation in cooper CMP by quasi-continuum was studied. • The atom displacement diagrams were obtained and analyzed. • The stress distribution diagrams and load-displacement curves were analyzed. • This research is helpful to revealing the material removal mechanism of CMP. - Abstract: The material removal mechanism of single crystal copper in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has not been intensively investigated. And the role of crystal orientation in CMP of single crystal cooper is not quite clear yet. Quasi-continuum method was adopted in this paper to simulate the process of nano-particles grinding on single crystal copper in CMP process. Three different crystal orientations, i.e. x[100]y[001], x[001]y[110] and x[–211]y[111], were chosen for analysis. The atom displacement diagrams, stress distribution diagrams and load-displacement curves were obtained. After analyzing the deformation mechanism, residual stress of the work piece material and cutting force, results showed that, the crystal orientation of work piece has great influence on the deformation characteristics and surface quality of work piece during polishing. In the A(001)[100] orientation, the residual stress distribution after polishing is deeper, and the stress is larger than that in the B(110)[001] and C(111)[–211] orientations. And the average tangential cutting force in the A(001)[100] orientation is much larger than those in the other two crystal orientation. This research is helpful to revealing the material removal mechanism of CMP process.

  4. Synthesis of 5'-CMP and 5'-dCMP in aqueous solution induced by low energy ions implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huaibin; Shao Chunlin; Wang Xiangqin; Yu Zengliang

    2001-01-01

    Low energy N + ions produced by N 2 are accelerated and then introduced into aqueous solution to induce chemical reactions. This process avoids the need of a vacuum chamber and makes it possible to investigate the actions of low energy ions in aqueous solution. In order to explore prebiotic synthesis of nucleotide via reaction between low energy ions and aqueous solution under the primitive earth conditions, low energy N + is implanted into aqueous solution containing cytosine, D-ribose, D-2-deoxyribose and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 . It is confirmed that 5'-CMP and 5'-dCMP are produced by HPLC and 1 H-NMR analyses. The relation between yields of 5'-CMP and 5'-dCMP and irradiation time has been obtained

  5. Development of on the machine process monitoring and control strategy in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) can be used to polish rotational symmetric and free form components achieving surface roughness down to Sa 10 nm. With the aim to enable unmanned robust and cost efficient application of RAP, this paper presents the development of a monitoring and control strategy....... The multisensory approach was experimentally validated in polishing with bonded abrasives demonstrating its suitability for process control in RAP....

  6. Development of a multisensory arm for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    A multisensory polishing arm with integrated three component force sensor, a miniature acoustic emission (AE) sensor and an accelerometer was developed for process monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process. The arm design was optimized for integration of a force and an AE sensor. The f...

  7. Abrasive Particle Trajectories and Material Removal Non-Uniformity during CMP and Filtration Characteristics of CMP Slurries - A Simulation and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, Vahid

    Nanoscale finishing and planarization are integral process steps in multilevel metallization designs for integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing since it is necessary to ensure local and global surface planarization at each metal layer before depositing the next layer. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has been widely recognized as the most promising technology to eliminate topographic variation and has allowed the construction of multilevel interconnection structures with a more regularly stacked sequence, resulting in better device performance [1]. Understanding fundamental of the CMP mechanisms can offer guidance to the control and optimization of the polishing processes. CMP kinematics based on slurry distribution and particle trajectories have a significant impact on MRR profiles. In this work a mathematical model to describe particle trajectories during chemical mechanical polishing was developed and extended to account for the effect of larger particles, particle location changes due to slurry dispensing and in-situ conditioning. Material removal rate (MRR) and within wafer non-uniformity (WIWNU) were determined based on the calculated particle trajectory densities. Rotary dynamics and reciprocating motion were optimized to obtain best MRR uniformity. Edge-fast MRR profile was discussed based on mechanical aspect of CMP. Using the model, we also investigated the effect of variable rotational speeds of wafer and pad, and of large particles on WIWNU and scratch growth. It was shown that the presence of even a small portion of large particles can deteriorate the WIWNU significantly and also lead to more scratches. Furthermore, it was shown that the in-situ conditioning improves the uniformity of the polished wafers. Furthermore, a combined experimental and computational study of fibrous filters for removal of larger abrasive particles from aqueous dispersions, essential to minimize defects during chemical mechanical polishing, was performed. Dilute aqueous

  8. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Large X-Ray Mirror Mandrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We are developing high-energy grazing incidence shell optics for hard-x-ray telescopes. The resolution of a mirror shells depends on the quality of cylindrical mandrel from which they are being replicated. Mid-spatial-frequency axial figure error is a dominant contributor in the error budget of the mandrel. This paper presents our efforts to develop a deterministic cylindrical polishing process in order to keep the mid-spatial-frequency axial figure errors to a minimum. Simulation software is developed to model the residual surface figure errors of a mandrel due to the polishing process parameters and the tools used, as well as to compute the optical performance of the optics. The study carried out using the developed software was focused on establishing a relationship between the polishing process parameters and the mid-spatial-frequency error generation. The process parameters modeled are the speeds of the lap and the mandrel, the tool s influence function, the contour path (dwell) of the tools, their shape and the distribution of the tools on the polishing lap. Using the inputs from the mathematical model, a mandrel having conical approximated Wolter-1 geometry, has been polished on a newly developed computer-controlled cylindrical polishing machine. The preliminary results of a series of polishing experiments demonstrate a qualitative agreement with the developed model. We report our first experimental results and discuss plans for further improvements in the polishing process. The ability to simulate the polishing process is critical to optimize the polishing process, improve the mandrel quality and significantly reduce the cost of mandrel production

  9. Chemical-mechanical polishing of metal and dielectric films for microelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Sharath

    The demand for smaller, faster devices has led the integrated circuit (IC) industry to continually increase the device density on a chip while simultaneously reducing feature dimensions. Copper interconnects and multilevel metallization (MLM) schemes were introduced to meet some of these challenges. With the employment of MLM in the ultra-large-scale-integrated (ULSI) circuit fabrication technology, repeated planarization of different surface layers with tolerance of a few nanometers is required. Presently, chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) is the only technique that can meet this requirement. Damascene and shallow trench isolation processes are currently used in conjunction with CMP in the fabrication of multilevel copper interconnects and isolation of devices, respectively, for advanced logic and memory devices. These processes, at some stage, require simultaneous polishing of two different materials using a single slurry that offers high polish rates, high polish selectivity to one material over the other and good post-polish surface finish. Slurries containing one kind of abrasive particles do not meet most of these demands due mainly to the unique physical and chemical properties of each abrasive. However, if a composite particle is formed that takes the advantages of different abrasives while mitigating their disadvantages, the CMP performance of resulting abrasives would be compelling. It is demonstrated that electrostatic interactions between ceria and silica particles at pH 4 can be used to produce composite particles with enhanced functionality. Zeta potential measurement and TEM images used for particle characterization show the presence of such composite particles with smaller shell particles attached onto larger core particles. Slurries containing ceria (core)/silica (shell) and silica (core)/ceria (shell) composite particles when used to polish metal and dielectric films, respectively, yield both enhanced metal and dielectric film removal rates

  10. Chemical Mechanical Polishing Optimization for 4H-SiC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neslen, Craig

    2000-01-01

    .... Preliminary chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) studies of 1 3/8" 4H-SiC wafers were performed in an attempt to identify the polishing parameter values that result in a maximum material removal rate and thus reduce substrate polishing time...

  11. Process optimization for ultrasonic vibration assisted polishing of micro-structured surfaces on super hard material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Guo, Bing; Rao, Zhimin; Zhao, Qingliang

    2014-08-01

    In consideration of the excellent property of SiC, the ground micro-structured surface quality is hard to meet the requirement - consequently the ultrasonic vibration assisted polishing (UVAP) of micro-structures of molds is proposed in this paper. Through the orthogonal experiment, the parameters of UVAP of micro-structures were optimized. The experimental results show that, abrasive polishing process, the effect of the workpiece feed rate on the surface roughness (Ra), groove tip radius (R) and material removal rate (MRR) of micro-structures is significant. While, the UVAP, the most significant effect factor for Ra, R and MRR is the ultrasonic amplitude of the ultrasonic vibration. In addition, within the scope of the polishing process parameters selected by preliminary experiments, ultrasonic amplitude of 2.5μm, polishing force of 0.5N, workpiece feed rate of 5 mm·min-1, polishing wheel rotational speed of 50rpm, polishing time of 35min, abrasive size of 100nm and the polishing liquid concentration of 15% is the best technology of UVAP of micro-structures. Under the optimal parameters, the ground traces on the micro-structured surface were removed efficiently and the integrity of the edges of the micro-structure after grinding was maintained efficiently.

  12. Novel cavitation fluid jet polishing process based on negative pressure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengjun; Wang, Hui; Tang, Yu; Yin, Shaohui; Huang, Shuai; Zhang, Guanghua

    2018-04-01

    Traditional abrasive fluid jet polishing (FJP) is limited by its high-pressure equipment, unstable material removal rate, and applicability to ultra-smooth surfaces because of the evident air turbulence, fluid expansion, and a large polishing spot in high-pressure FJP. This paper presents a novel cavitation fluid jet polishing (CFJP) method and process based on FJP technology. It can implement high-efficiency polishing on small-scale surfaces in a low-pressure environment. CFJP uses the purposely designed polishing equipment with a sealed chamber, which can generate a cavitation effect in negative pressure environment. Moreover, the collapse of cavitation bubbles can spray out a high-energy microjet and shock wave to enhance the material removal. Its feasibility is verified through researching the flow behavior and the cavitation results of the negative pressure cavitation machining of pure water in reversing suction flow. The mechanism is analyzed through a computational fluid dynamics simulation. Thus, its cavitation and surface removal mechanisms in the vertical CFJP and inclined CFJP are studied. A series of polishing experiments on different materials and polishing parameters are conducted to validate its polishing performance compared with FJP. The maximum removal depth increases, and surface roughness gradually decreases with increasing negative outlet pressures. The surface becomes smooth with the increase of polishing time. The experimental results confirm that the CFJP process can realize a high material removal rate and smooth surface with low energy consumption in the low-pressure environment, together with compatible surface roughness to FJP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The way to zeros: The future of semiconductor device and chemical mechanical polishing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Manabu

    2016-06-01

    For the last 60 years, the development of cutting-edge semiconductor devices has strongly emphasized scaling; the effort to scale down current CMOS devices may well achieve the target of 5 nm nodes by 2020. Planarization by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), is one technology essential for supporting scaling. This paper summarizes the history of CMP transitions in the planarization process as well as the changing degree of planarity required, and, finally, introduces innovative technologies to meet the requirements. The use of CMP was triggered by the replacement of local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) as the element isolation technology by shallow trench isolation (STI) in the 1980s. Then, CMP’s use expanded to improving embedability of aluminum wiring, tungsten (W) contacts, Cu wiring, and, more recently, to its adoption in high-k metal gate (HKMG) and FinFET (FF) processes. Initially, the required degree of planarity was 50 nm, but now 0 nm is required. Further, zero defects on a post-CMP wafer is now the goal, and it is possible that zero psi CMP loading pressure will be required going forward. Soon, it seems, everything will have to be “zero” and perfect. Although the process is also chemical in nature, the CMP process is actually mechanical with a load added using slurry particles several tens of nm in diameter. Zero load in the loading process, zero nm planarity with no trace of processing, and zero residual foreign material, including the very slurry particles used in the process, are all required. This article will provide an overview of how to achieve these new requirements and what technologies should be employed.

  14. Modeling the effects of cohesive energy for single particle on the material removal in chemical mechanical polishing at atomic scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongguang; Zhao Yongwu; An Wei; Wang Jun

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel mathematical model for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) based on interface solid physical and chemical theory in addition to energy equilibrium knowledge. And the effects of oxidation concentration and particle size on the material removal in CMP are investigated. It is shown that the mechanical energy and removal cohesive energy couple with the particle size, and being a cause of the non-linear size-removal rate relation. Furthermore, it also shows a nonlinear dependence of removal rate on removal cohesive energy. The model predictions are in good qualitative agreement with the published experimental data. The current study provides an important starting point for delineating the micro-removal mechanism in the CMP process at atomic scale

  15. Acoustic Emission Based In-process Monitoring in Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring in the Robot Assisted Polishing (RAP) process was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate removal...... improving the efficiency of the process. It also allows for intelligent process control and generally enhances the robustness and reliability of the automated RAP system in industrial applications....... of the part from the machine tool. In this study, development of surface roughness during polishing rotational symmetric surfaces by the RAP process was inferred from AE measurements. An AE sensor was placed on a polishing tool, and a cylindrical rod of Vanadis 4E steel having an initial turned surface...

  16. Consumable Process Development for Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Bit Patterned Media for Magnetic Storage Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonivel, Joseph T., Jr.

    2010-09-01

    As the superparamagnetic limit is reached, the magnetic storage industry looks to circumvent the barrier by implementing patterned media (PM) as a viable means to store and access data. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a semiconductor fabrication technique used to planarize surfaces and is investigated as a method to ensure that the PM is polished to surface roughness parameters that allow the magnetic read/write head to move seamlessly across the PM. Results from this research have implications in feasibility studies of utilizing CMP as the main planarization technique for PM fabrication. Benchmark data on the output parameters of the CMP process, for bit patterned media (BPM), based on the machine process parameters, pad properties, and slurry characteristics are optimized. The research was conducted in a systematic manner in which the optimized parameters for each phase are utilized in future phases. The optimum results from each of the phases provide an overall optimum characterization for BPM CMP. Results on the CMP machine input parameters indicate that for optimal surface roughness and material removal, low polish pressures and high velocities should be used on the BPM. Pad characteristics were monitored by non destructive technique and results indicate much faster deterioration of all padcharacteristics versus polish time of BPM when compared to IC CMP. The optimum pad for PM polishing was the IC 1400 dual layer Suba V pad with a shore hardness of 57, and a k-groove pattern. The final phase of polishing evaluated the slurry polishing properties and novel nanodiamond (ND) slurry was created and benchmarked on BPM. The resulting CMP output parameters were monitored and neither the ND slurry nor the thermally responsive polymer slurry performed better than the commercially available Cabot iCue slurry for MRR or surface roughness. Research results indicate CMP is a feasible planarization technique for PM fabrication, but successful implementation of CMP

  17. Recovery of rare earths from used polishes by chemical vapor transport process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Machida, K.; Adachi, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Rare earth oxide polishes are widely used in the glass industry because of its mechanical and chemical polishing action. The Japanese glass industry use 2000 tons per year of the polishes, and a large portion of them are thrown away after their polishing lifetime. A dry recovery processes for rare earths from the used polishes have been investigated by using a chemical vapor transport method via the formation of vapor complexes RAl n Cl 3+3n (R = rare earths). A flow type reactor with various temperature gradients was employed for the process. The used polishes were mixed with active carbon, and chlorinated with N 2 + Cl 2 mixture at 1273 K. Aluminium oxide were also chlorinated at lower temperature and the resulting AlCl 3 were introduced to the reactor. The rare earth chlorides and AlCl 3 were converted to the vapor complexes. These were driven along the temperature gradient, decomposed according to the reverse reaction, and regenerated RCl 3 . About 90 % of the used polish were chlorinated after 2 hours. Rare earth chlorides, AlCl 3 , and FeCl 3 were fully transported after 82 hours. The rare earth chlorides were mainly condensed over the temperature range 1263-903 K. On the other hand, AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 were deposited at the temperature range below 413 K. CaCl 2 and SrCl 2 were hardly transported and remained in the residue. When the temperature gradient with the smaller slope was used, mutual separation efficiencies among the rare earths was improved. The highest CeCl 3 purity of 80% was obtained in the process

  18. Manufacture of functional surfaces through combined application of tool manufacturing processes and Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer; Arentoft, Mogens; Grønbæk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tool surface topography is often a key parameter in the tribological performance of modern metal forming tools. A new generation of multifunctional surfaces is achieved by combination of conventional tool manufacturing processes with a novel Robot Assisted Polishing process. This novel surface...

  19. Advisory Functions of Selected Polish Business Institutions in the Innovation Process in Enterprises – Research Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna KUROWSKA-PYSZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains an analysis of innovation processes in enterprises, from the perspective of demand for knowledge, which companies increasingly obtain from business environment. This requires a discernment of valuable partners in the environment, who will provide professional transfer of knowledge to the company. Therefore, knowledge has become a product, and Polish universities and specialized, commercial knowledge providers are competing for the customer on the knowledge market. While knowledge transfer to companies is a secondary activity for Polish universities, specialized, commercial knowledge suppliers are making an effort of acquiring as much orders as possible. Therefore a natural competition between these two types of entities arises. In this paper the Author examines possibilities of supporting innovation-oriented enterprises by Polish universities and commercial providers of knowledge and formulates terms and conditions which will make cooperation between these two groups of entities possible, so as to transform the competition into cooperation, beneficial for both sides, and support innovative processes in enterprises.

  20. Influence of Wafer Edge Geometry on Removal Rate Profile in Chemical Mechanical Polishing: Wafer Edge Roll-Off and Notch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Akira; Fukuda, Tetsuo; Fukunaga, Akira; Tsujimura, Manabu

    2012-05-01

    In the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, uniform polishing up to near the wafer edge is essential to reduce edge exclusion and improve yield. In this study, we examine the influences of inherent wafer edge geometries, i.e., wafer edge roll-off and notch, on the CMP removal rate profile. We clarify the areas in which the removal rate profile is affected by the wafer edge roll-off and the notch, as well as the intensity of their effects on the removal rate profile. In addition, we propose the use of a small notch to reduce the influence of the wafer notch and present the results of an examination by finite element method (FEM) analysis.

  1. Contact pressure distribution during the polishing process of ceramic tiles: A laboratory investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, A S A; Hamedon, Z; Azhari, A; Sousa, F J P

    2016-01-01

    During the polishing process of porcelain tiles the difference in scratching speed between innermost and peripheral abrasives leads to pressure gradients linearly distributed along the radial direction of the abrasive tool. The aim of this paper is to investigate such pressure gradient in laboratory scale. For this purpose polishing tests were performed on ceramic tiles according to the industrial practices using a custom-made CNC tribometer. Gradual wear on both abrasives and machined surface of the floor tile were measured. The experimental results suggested that the pressure gradient tends to cause an inclination of the abraded surfaces, which becomes stable after a given polishing period. In addition to the wear depth of the machined surface, the highest value of gloss and finest surface finish were observed at the lowest point of the worn out surface of the ceramic floor tile corresponding to the point of highest pressure and lowest scratching speed. (paper)

  2. Understanding the creation of & reducing surface microroughness during polishing & post-processing of glass optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratwala, Tayyab [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    In the follow study, we have developed a detailed understanding of the chemical and mechanical microscopic interactions that occur during polishing affecting the resulting surface microroughness of the workpiece. Through targeted experiments and modeling, the quantitative relationships of many important polishing parameters & characteristics affecting surface microroughness have been determined. These behaviors and phenomena have been described by a number of models including: (a) the Ensemble Hertzian Multi Gap (EHMG) model used to predict the removal rate and roughness at atomic force microscope (AFM) scale lengths as a function of various polishing parameters, (b) the Island Distribution Gap (IDG) model used to predict the roughness at larger scale lengths, (c) the Deraguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek (DLVO) 3-body electrostatic colloidal model used to predict the interaction of slurry particles at the interface and roughness behavior as a function of pH, and (d) a diffusion/chemical reaction rate model of the incorporation of impurities species into the polishing surface layer (called the Bielby layer). Based on this improved understanding, novel strategies to polish the workpiece have been developed simultaneously leading to both ultrasmooth surfaces and high material removal rates. Some of these strategies include: (a) use of narrow PSD slurries, (b) a novel diamond conditioning recipe of the lap to increase the active contact area between the workpiece and lap without destroying its surface figure, (c) proper control of pH for a given glass type to allow for a uniform distribution of slurry particles at the interface, and (d) increase in applied load just up to the transition between molecular to plastic removal regime for a single slurry particle. These techniques have been incorporated into a previously developed finishing process called Convergent Polishing leading to not just economical finishing process with improved surface figure control, but also

  3. STS-112 final main engine is installed after welding/polishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The last engine is installed in orbiter Atlantis after a welding and polishing process was undertaken on flow liners where cracks were detected. All engines were removed for inspection of flow liners. Atlantis will next fly on mission STS-112, scheduled for launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  4. cmpXLatt: Westinghouse automated testing tool for nodal cross section models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Petri Forslund; Rönnberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    The procedure for evaluating the merits of different nodal cross section representation models is normally both cumbersome and time consuming, and includes many manual steps when preparing appropriate benchmark problems. Therefore, a computer tool called cmpXLatt has been developed at Westinghouse in order to facilitate the process of performing comparisons between nodal diffusion theory results and corresponding transport theory results on a single node basis. Due to the large number of state points that can be evaluated by cmpXLatt, a systematic and comprehensive way of performing verification and validation of nodal cross section models is provided. This paper presents the main features of cmpXLatt and demonstrates the benefits of using cmpXLatt in a real life application. (author)

  5. Food additives used in meat processing according to the Polish and European Union legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uradziński, J; Weiner, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the legal regulations related to the use of food additives in meat production in Poland and the European Union. The Polish legal definition of food additives is given as well as the classification of permitted food additives added to food and stimulants by their technological function. In addition, a definition of processing aids in the food industry is included. It shows that Polish legislation includes food additives used to ensure or improve food nutritional value, whereas in the EU legislation, these substances are not included in the list of food additives. Moreover, the Council Directives include food additive specific purity criteria, whereas the Polish regulations do not mention the legal regulations of this issue in practice. The European Union use mechanisms and procedures for the introduction of new food additives into internal markets as well as controlling the circulation of additives. The Polish legislation in practice, however, does not determine approval or methods for the introduction of new food additives to the market. Legal regulations on the monitoring of food additives no exist.

  6. Combined Ultrasonic Elliptical Vibration and Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Monocrystalline Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Defu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasonic elliptical vibration assisted chemical mechanical polishing(UEV-CMP is employed to achieve high material removal rate and high surface quality in the finishing of hard and brittle materials such as monocrystalline silicon, which combines the functions of conventional CMP and ultrasonic machining. In theultrasonic elliptical vibration aided chemical mechanical polishingexperimental setup developed by ourselves, the workpiece attached at the end of horn can vibrate simultaneously in both horizontal and vertical directions. Polishing experiments are carried out involving monocrystalline silicon to confirm the performance of the proposed UEV-CMP. The experimental results reveal that the ultrasonic elliptical vibration can increase significantly the material removal rate and reduce dramatically the surface roughness of monocrystalline silicon. It is found that the removal rate of monocrystalline silicon polished by UEV-CMP is increased by approximately 110% relative to that of conventional CMP because a passive layer on the monocrystalline silicon surface, formed by the chemical action of the polishing slurry, will be removed not only by the mechanical action of CMP but also by ultrasonic vibration action. It indicates that the high efficiency and high quality CMP of monocrystalline silicon can be performed with the proposed UEV-CMP technique.

  7. Digital Signal Processing Applied to the Modernization Of Polish Navy Sonars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marszal Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the equipment and digital signal processing methods used for modernizing the Polish Navy’s sonars. With the rapid advancement of electronic technologies and digital signal processing methods, electronic systems, including sonars, become obsolete very quickly. In the late 1990s a team of researchers of the Department of Marine Electronics Systems, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, began work on modernizing existing sonar systems for the Polish Navy. As part of the effort, a methodology of sonar modernization was implemented involving a complete replacement of existing electronic components with newly designed ones by using bespoke systems and methods of digital signal processing. Large and expensive systems of ultrasound transducers and their dipping and stabilisation systems underwent necessary repairs but were otherwise left unchanged. As a result, between 2001 and 2014 the Gdansk University of Technology helped to modernize 30 sonars of different types.

  8. Colloidal and electrochemical aspects of copper-CMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuxia

    Copper based interconnects with low dielectric constant layers are currently used to increase interconnect densities and reduce interconnect time delays in integrated circuits. The technology used to develop copper interconnects involves Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) of copper films deposited on low-k layers (silica or silica based films), which is carried out using slurries containing abrasive particles. One issue using such a structure is copper contamination over dielectric layers (SiO2 film), if not reduced, this contamination will cause current leakage. In this study, the conditions conducive to copper contamination onto SiO2 films during Cu-CMP process were studied, and a post-CMP cleaning technique was discussed based on experimental results. It was found that the adsorption of copper onto a silica surface is kinetically fast (electrocoagulation was investigated to remove both copper and abrasive slurry particles simultaneously. For effluent containing ˜40 ppm dissolved copper, it was found that ˜90% dissolved copper was removed from the waste streams through electroplating and in-situ chemical precipitation. The amount of copper removed through plating is impacted by membrane surface charge, type/amount of complexing agents, and solid content in the slurry suspension. The slurry particles can be removed ˜90% within 2 hours of EC through multiple mechanisms.

  9. Characterization of the waste from porcelain polish submitted to the hydrocycloning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caetano, A.L.A.; Barbosa Neto, M.C.; Fulgencio, E.B.Gr.; Macedo, D.A.; Ferreira, H.S.; Dutra, R.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    The residue generated in porcelain tile polishing has caused great social and environmental worry, due to the release of its solid effluents in inadequate places. This study aims to characterize the residue came from porcelain tile polishing, in order to reuse it in own ceramic industry. For this, was used a laboratory hydrocyclone, equipment used for separation of particles by size. The use of this type of process in the treatment of natural materials can represent quite an efficient tool and cost affordable for the purification of these, since allows to there are separation between the fractions. The different samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, particle size analysis and thermal analysis. The results indicate that the resulting material from this process showed different characteristics of the material that was not hydrocycloned, especially as the intensity of the mineralogical phases and the particle size distribution. (author)

  10. Study on the Effects of Corrosion Inhibitor According to the Functional Groups for Cu Chemical Mechanical Polishing in Neutral Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Jae Jeong [Institute of Chemical Process, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    As the aluminum (Al) metallization process was replaced with copper (Cu), the damascene process was introduced, which required the planarization step to eliminate over-deposited Cu with Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) process. In this study, the verification of the corrosion inhibitors, one of the Cu CMP slurry components, was conducted to find out the tendency regarding the carboxyl and amino functional group in neutral environment. Through the results of etch rate, removal rate, and chemical ability of corrosion inhibitors based on 1H-1,2,4-triazole as the base corrosion inhibitor, while the amine functional group presents high Cu etching ability, carboxyl functional group shows lower Cu etching ability than base-corrosion inhibitor which means that it increases passivation effect by making strong passivation layer. It implies that the corrosion inhibitor with amine functional group was proper to apply for 1st Cu CMP slurry owing to the high etch rate and with carboxyl functional group was favorable for the 2nd Cu CMP slurry due to the high Cu removal rate/dissolution rate ratio.

  11. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood ... de sangre: panel metabólico ampliado What Is a Blood Test? A blood test is when a sample of ...

  12. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  13. Chemical mechanical polishing characteristics of ITO thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang-Yeon; Choi, Gwon-Woo; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Youn-Ok; Kim, Nam-Oh

    2012-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films have attracted intensive interest because of their unique properties of good conductivity, high optical transmittance over the visible region and easy patterning ability. ITO thin films have found many applications in anti-static coatings, thermal heaters, solar cells, flat panel displays (FPDs), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), electroluminescent devices, sensors and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). ITO thin films are generally fabricated by using various methods, such as spraying, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), evaporation, electron gun deposition, direct current electroplating, high frequency sputtering, and reactive sputtering. In this research, ITO films were grown on glass substrates by using a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. In order to achieve a high transmittance and a low resistivity, we examined the various film deposition conditions, such as substrate temperature, working pressure, annealing temperature, and deposition time. Next, in order to improve the surface quality of the ITO thin films, we performed a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) with different process parameters and compared the electrical and the optical properties of the polished ITO thin films. The best CMP conditions with a high removal rate, low nonuniformity, low resistivity and high transmittance were as follows: platen speed, head speed, polishing time, and slurry flow rate of 30 rpm, 30 rpm, 60 sec, and 60 ml/min, respectively.

  14. Effects of catalyst concentration and ultraviolet intensity on chemical mechanical polishing of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Tongqing; Pan, Guoshun; Lu, Xinchun

    2016-08-01

    Effects of catalyst concentration and ultraviolet intensity on chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of GaN were deeply investigated in this paper. Working as an ideal homogeneous substrate material in LED industry, GaN ought to be equipped with a smooth and flat surface. Taking the strong chemical stability of GaN into account, photocatalytic oxidation technology was adopted in GaN CMP process to realize efficient removal. It was found that, because of the improved reaction rate of photocatalytic oxidation, GaN material removal rate (MRR) increases by a certain extent with catalyst concentration increasing. Cross single line analysis on the surface after polishing by Phase Shift MicroXAM-3D was carried out to prove the better removal effect with higher catalyst concentration. Ultraviolet intensity field in H2O2-SiO2-based polishing system was established and simulated, revealing the variation trend of ultraviolet intensity around the outlet of the slurry. It could be concluded that, owing to the higher planarization efficiency and lower energy damage, the UV lamp of 125 W is the most appropriate lamp in this system. Based on the analysis, defects removal model of this work was proposed to describe the effects of higher catalyst concentration and higher power of UV lamp.

  15. Dynamic NMR Study of Model CMP Slurry Containing Silica Particles as Abrasives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, F.; Al-Bawab, A.; Li, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) should provide a good surface planarity with minimal surface defectivity. Since CMP slurries are multi-component systems, it is very important to understand the various processes and interactions taking place in such slurries. Several techniques have been employed for such task, however, most of them lack the molecular recognition to investigate molecular interactions without adding probes which in turn increase complexity and might alter the microenvironment of the slurry. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique that can be employed in such study. The longitudinal relaxation times (T1) of the different components of CMP slurries were measured using Spin Echo-NMR (SE-NMR) at a constant temperature. The fact that NMR is non-invasive and gives information on the molecular level gives more advantage to the technique. The model CMP slurry was prepared in D2O to enable monitoring of T1 for the various components' protons. SE-NMR provide a very powerful tool to study the various interactions and adsorption processes that take place in a model CMP silica based slurry which contains BTA and/or glycine and/or Cu+2 ions. It was found that BTA is very competitive towards complexation with Cu+2 ions and BTA-Cu complex adsorbs on silica surface.

  16. Fate of 1-(1′,4′-cyclohexadienyl)-2-methylaminopropane (CMP) in soil: Route-specific by-product in the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Raktim; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kirkbride, K. Paul; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the fate of 1-(1′,4′-cyclohexadienyl)-2-methylaminopropane (CMP) in soil. CMP is the major route-specific byproduct in the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine (MAP) by the use of excess alkali metal (e.g., lithium) in liquid ammonia, which is commonly referred to as the “Nazi method”. This is one of the most common methods used in many countries for the illicit production of MAP. Knowledge on the fate of CMP in the terrestrial environment is essential to combat potential threats arising from illegal dumping of clandestine laboratory wastes. We report on the sorption–desorption, degradation, and metabolism patterns of CMP in three South Australian soils investigated in laboratory scale. CMP sorption in the test soils followed a Freundlich isotherm in the concentration range of 5 to 100 μg mL −1 . Degradation studies showed that CMP was fairly unstable in both non-sterile and sterile soils, with half-life values typically less than one week. The role of biotic and abiotic soil processes in the degradation of CMP also varied significantly between the different soils, and with the length of the incubation period. Interestingly, but not surprisingly, the results showed that the CMP was not actually degraded to any simpler compounds but transformed to more persistent MAP. Thus, the main concern with Nazi method is the potential hazard from MAP rather than CMP if wastes are disposed of into the environment. - Highlights: ► This study investigated the fate of 1-(1′,4′-cyclohexadienyl)-2-methylaminopropane (CMP) in soils. ► CMP was fairly unstable in both non-sterile and sterile soils, with half-life values less than a week. ► CMP transforms to more persistent methylamphetamine (MAP) in soils which is a major environmental concern.

  17. Fate of 1-(1 Prime ,4 Prime -cyclohexadienyl)-2-methylaminopropane (CMP) in soil: Route-specific by-product in the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Raktim [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia-5095 and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of South Australia (Australia); Megharaj, Mallavarapu, E-mail: Megharaj.Mallavarapu@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia-5095 and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of South Australia (Australia); Kirkbride, K. Paul [Australian Federal Police Forensic and Data Centres, Canberra (Australia); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia-5095 and CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, University of South Australia (Australia)

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the fate of 1-(1 Prime ,4 Prime -cyclohexadienyl)-2-methylaminopropane (CMP) in soil. CMP is the major route-specific byproduct in the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine (MAP) by the use of excess alkali metal (e.g., lithium) in liquid ammonia, which is commonly referred to as the 'Nazi method'. This is one of the most common methods used in many countries for the illicit production of MAP. Knowledge on the fate of CMP in the terrestrial environment is essential to combat potential threats arising from illegal dumping of clandestine laboratory wastes. We report on the sorption-desorption, degradation, and metabolism patterns of CMP in three South Australian soils investigated in laboratory scale. CMP sorption in the test soils followed a Freundlich isotherm in the concentration range of 5 to 100 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. Degradation studies showed that CMP was fairly unstable in both non-sterile and sterile soils, with half-life values typically less than one week. The role of biotic and abiotic soil processes in the degradation of CMP also varied significantly between the different soils, and with the length of the incubation period. Interestingly, but not surprisingly, the results showed that the CMP was not actually degraded to any simpler compounds but transformed to more persistent MAP. Thus, the main concern with Nazi method is the potential hazard from MAP rather than CMP if wastes are disposed of into the environment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study investigated the fate of 1-(1 Prime ,4 Prime -cyclohexadienyl)-2-methylaminopropane (CMP) in soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CMP was fairly unstable in both non-sterile and sterile soils, with half-life values less than a week. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CMP transforms to more persistent methylamphetamine (MAP) in soils which is a major environmental concern.

  18. The use of abrasive polishing and laser processing for developing polyurethane surfaces for controlling fibroblast cell behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, Michael; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; French, Paul W; Burton, David R; Dixon, Simon; Sharp, Martin C

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that surfaces having micro and nano-scale features can be used to control cell behaviours including; cell proliferation, migration and adhesion. The aim of this work was to compare the use of laser processing and abrasive polishing to develop micro/nano-patterned polyurethane substrates for controlling fibroblast cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Laser processing in a directional manner resulted in polyurethane surfaces having a ploughed field effect with micron-scale features. In contrast, abrasive polishing in a directional and random manner resulted in polyurethane surfaces having sub-micron scale features orientated in a linear or random manner. Results show that when compared with flat (non-patterned) polymer, both the laser processed and abrasive polished surface having randomly organised features, promoted significantly greater cell adhesion, while also enhancing cell proliferation after 72 h. In contrast, the abrasive polished surface having linear features did not enhance cell adhesion or proliferation when compared to the flat surface. For cell migration, the cells growing on the laser processed and abrasively polished random surface showed decreased levels of migration when compared to the flat surface. This study shows that both abrasive polishing and laser processing can be used to produce surfaces having features on the nano-scale and micron-scale, respectively. Surfaces produced using both techniques can be used to promote fibroblast cell adhesion and proliferation. Thus both methods offer a viable alternative to using lithographic techniques for developing patterned surfaces. In particular, abrasive polishing is an attractive method due to it being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method that can be used to produce surfaces having features on a comparable scale to more expensive, multi-step methods. - Highlights: • Abrasive polishing can generate nano-scratches on stainless steel to cast polymer films for cell

  19. The use of abrasive polishing and laser processing for developing polyurethane surfaces for controlling fibroblast cell behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, Michael; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; French, Paul W; Burton, David R [General Engineering Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dixon, Simon [Biomer Technology LTD, 10 Seymour Court, Tudor Road, Manor Park, Runcorn, Cheshire, WA7 1SY (United Kingdom); Sharp, Martin C [General Engineering Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-01

    Studies have shown that surfaces having micro and nano-scale features can be used to control cell behaviours including; cell proliferation, migration and adhesion. The aim of this work was to compare the use of laser processing and abrasive polishing to develop micro/nano-patterned polyurethane substrates for controlling fibroblast cell adhesion, migration and proliferation. Laser processing in a directional manner resulted in polyurethane surfaces having a ploughed field effect with micron-scale features. In contrast, abrasive polishing in a directional and random manner resulted in polyurethane surfaces having sub-micron scale features orientated in a linear or random manner. Results show that when compared with flat (non-patterned) polymer, both the laser processed and abrasive polished surface having randomly organised features, promoted significantly greater cell adhesion, while also enhancing cell proliferation after 72 h. In contrast, the abrasive polished surface having linear features did not enhance cell adhesion or proliferation when compared to the flat surface. For cell migration, the cells growing on the laser processed and abrasively polished random surface showed decreased levels of migration when compared to the flat surface. This study shows that both abrasive polishing and laser processing can be used to produce surfaces having features on the nano-scale and micron-scale, respectively. Surfaces produced using both techniques can be used to promote fibroblast cell adhesion and proliferation. Thus both methods offer a viable alternative to using lithographic techniques for developing patterned surfaces. In particular, abrasive polishing is an attractive method due to it being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method that can be used to produce surfaces having features on a comparable scale to more expensive, multi-step methods. - Highlights: • Abrasive polishing can generate nano-scratches on stainless steel to cast polymer films for cell

  20. Rapid ILs-polishing Processes Toward Flexible Nanostructured Paper with Dually High Transparency and Haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yanghao; Chen, Jinbo; Lu, Pengbo; Cheng, Fan; Lin, Meiyan; Su, Lingfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Detao

    2017-07-31

    Biodegradable highly nanostructured paper has received great interest in past years due to its excellent optical properties which facilitate its wide applications in green flexible electronics and devices. However, energy and/or time-consuming procedure during the process of fabricating most nanostructured transparent paper are presently the main obstacle to their scalable production. In this work, we demonstrated a novel nanostructured paper with dually high transparency (∼91%) and high haze (∼89%) that was directly fabricated from original paper with rapid ILs-polishing processes. The whole fabricating time only requires 10 min. Compared to the previously reported nanopaper made of the isolated cellulose nanofibers by pure mechanical and/or chemical approaches, this work presented herein is devoted to use green ILs to polish directly the micrometer-sized fibrous paper into the nanostructured paper. This new method brings a rapid fabrication of transparent nanostructured paper while also retaining dual intriguing properties both in optical transmittance and haze. This work is capable of fabricating next-generation flexible and highly transparent and haze paper by a high-speed roll-to-roll manufacturing process with a much lower cost.

  1. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Wei-Lung, E-mail: wlchou@sunrise.hk.edu.tw [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chih-Ta [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan Hsien 717, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, No. 34, Chung-Chie Road, Sha-Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L{sup -1}). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  2. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L -1 ). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K.

  3. Adsorption treatment of oxide chemical mechanical polishing wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Chang, Wen-Chun; Chang, Shih-Yu

    2010-08-15

    In this study, metal hydroxides generated during electrocoagulation (EC) were used to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxide chemical mechanical polishing (oxide-CMP) wastewater from a semiconductor manufacturing plant by EC. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system for various current densities and temperatures. The COD concentration in the oxide-CMP wastewater was effectively removed and decreased by more than 90%, resulting in a final wastewater COD concentration that was below the Taiwan discharge standard (100 mg L(-1)). Since the processed wastewater quality exceeded the direct discharge standard, the effluent could be considered for reuse. The adsorption kinetic studies showed that the EC process was best described using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model at the various current densities and temperatures. The experimental data were also tested against different adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm model predictions matched satisfactorily with the experimental observations. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the COD adsorption of oxide-CMP wastewater on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288-318 K. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and Analysis of Double-Faced Radial and Cluster-Arranged CMP Diamond Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In semiconductor manufacturing, diamond disks are indispensable for dressing chemical mechanical polishing (CMP pads. Recently, 450 mm (18 inch diameter wafers have been used to improve output and reduce wafer production cost. To polish 450 mm diameter wafers, the diameter of polishing pads must be increased to 1050 mm. In particular, because diamond disks are limited to 100 mm diameters, a much greater number of working crystals will be required for dressing a 1050 mm diameter pad. Consequently, new diamond disks must be developed. In this study, novel arrangements are made using a braze in diamond patterns, which are radial with a cluster arrangement of 3-4 grits per cluster. Furthermore, a double-faced combined diamond disk is developed. The polishing pad surface was characterized, and the effect of different diamond conditioners on wafer removal rate was studied. This research aims to develop a more suitable diamond disk for dressing 1050 mm diameter polishing pads.

  5. Smart city solutions in regard to urbanization processesPolish cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdulak Halina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the spectrum of problems associated with the growing importance of cities in the context of rapidly occurring processes of urbanization. Therefore the following issues are included: the concept of smart cities, which are a combination of the intelligent use of information systems allowing for active management of the various areas of urban activity with the potential of institutions, companies and the active involvement and creative people; transport problems and the use of new technologies. Particular attention will be given to both, the issue of transport congestion as the strongest factor affecting the quality of life of residents and to the role of social capital in the creation of sustainable development. To exemplify the result of the cooperation between southern Polish communities there will be presented a case of the introducing process of the Silesian Card of Public Services with a wide range of its functionality.

  6. Auditory temporal processing tests – Normative data for Polish-speaking adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Majak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several subjects exposed to neurotoxins in the workplace need to be assessed for central auditory deficit. Although central auditory processing tests are widely used in other countries, they have not been standardized for the Polish population. The aim of the study has been to evaluate the range of reference values for 3 temporal processing tests: the duration pattern test (DPT, the frequency pattern test (FPT and the gaps in noise test (GIN. Material and Methods: The study included 76 normal hearing individuals (38 women, 38 men at the age of 18 to 54 years old (mean ± standard deviation: 39.4±9.1. All study participants had no history of any chronic disease and underwent a standard ENT examination. Results: The reference range for the DPT was established at 55.3% or more of correct answers, while for the FPT it stood at 56.7% or more of correct answers. The mean threshold for both ears in the GIN test was defined as 6 ms. In this study there were no significant associations between the DPT, FPT and GIN results and age or gender. Symmetry between the ears in the case of the DPT, FPT and GIN was found. Conclusions: Reference ranges obtained in this study for the DPT and FPT in the Polish population are lower than reference ranges previously published for other nations while the GIN test results correspond to those published in the related literature. Further investigations are needed to explain the discrepancies between normative values in Poland and other countries and adapt tests for occupational medicine purposes. Med Pr 2015;66(2:145–152

  7. Interim Action Proposed Plan for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) is to describe the preferred interim remedial action for addressing the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  8. A multidimensional analysis and modelling of flotation process for selected Polish lithological copper ore types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedoba Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The flotation of copper ore is a complex technological process that depends on many parameters. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the complexity of this phenomenon by choosing a multidimensional data analysis. The paper presents the results of modelling and analysis of beneficiation process of sandstone copper ore. Considering the implementation of multidimensional statistical methods it was necessary to carry out a multi-level experiment, which included 4 parameters (size fraction, collector type and dosage, flotation time. The main aim of the paper was the preparation of flotation process models for the recovery and the content of the metal in products. A MANOVA was implemented to explore the relationship between dependent (β, ϑ, ε, η and independent (d, t, cd, ct variables. The design of models was based on linear and nonlinear regression. The results of the variation analysis indicated the high significance of all parameters for the process. The average degree of matching of linear models to experimental data was set at 49% and 33% for copper content in the concentrate and tailings and 47% for the recovery of copper minerals in the both. The results confirms the complexity and stochasticity of the Polish copper ore flotation.

  9. Fe-N{sub x}/C assisted chemical–mechanical polishing for improving the removal rate of sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li, E-mail: xl0522@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zou, Chunli; Shi, Xiaolei [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Pan, Guoshun, E-mail: pangs@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Luo, Guihai; Zhou, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel non-noble metal catalyst (Fe-N{sub x}/C) was prepared. • Fe-N{sub x}/C shows remarkable catalytic activity for improving the removal rate of sapphire in alkaline solution. • The optimum CMP removal by Fe-N{sub x}/C yielded a superior surface finish of 0.078 nm the average roughness. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, pyridinic N as well as pyrrolic N group possibly serving as the catalytic sites. • A soft hydration layer (boehmite, AlO(OH)) was generated on the surface of sapphire during CMP process. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel non-noble metal catalyst (Fe-N{sub x}/C) is used to improve the removal mass of sapphire as well as obtain atomically smooth sapphire wafer surfaces. The results indicate that Fe-N{sub x}/C shows good catalytic activity towards sapphire removal rate. And the material removal rates (MRRs) are found to vary with the catalyst content in the polishing fluid. Especially that when the polishing slurry mixes with 16 ppm Fe-N{sub x}/C shows the maximum MRR and its removal mass of sapphire is 38.43 nm/min, more than 15.44% larger than traditional CMP using the colloidal silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) without Fe-N{sub x}/C. Catalyst-assisted chemical–mechanical polishing of sapphire is studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is found that the formation of a soft hydration layer (boehmite, γ-AlOOH or γ-AlO(OH)) on sapphire surface facilitates the material removal and achieving fine surface finish on basal plane. Abrasives (colloid silica together with magnetite, ingredient of Fe-N{sub x}/C) with a hardness between boehmite and sapphire polish the c-plane of sapphire with good surface finish and efficient removal. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, pyridinic N as well as pyrrolic N group would be the catalytical active sites and accelerate this process. Surface quality is characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optimum CMP removal by Fe-N{sub x}/C also yields a superior

  10. KDP Aqueous Solution-in-Oil Microemulsion for Ultra-Precision Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of KDP Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Dong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel functional KH2PO4 (KDP aqueous solution-in-oil (KDP aq/O microemulsion system for KDP crystal ultra-precision chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP was prepared. The system, which consisted of decanol, Triton X-100, and KH2PO4 aqueous solution, was available at room temperature. The functional KDP aq/O microemulsion system was systematically studied and applied as polishing solution to KDP CMP technology. In this study, a controlled deliquescent mechanism was proposed for KDP polishing with the KDP aq/O microemulsion. KDP aqueous solution, the chemical etchant in the polishing process, was caged into the micelles in the microemulsion, leading to a limitation of the reaction between the KDP crystal and KDP aqueous solution only if the microemulsion was deformed under the effect of the external force. Based on the interface reaction dynamics, KDP aqueous solutions with different concentrations (cKDP were applied to replace water in the traditional water-in-oil (W/O microemulsion. The practicability of the controlled deliquescent mechanism was proved by the decreasing material removal rate (MRR with the increasing of the cKDP. As a result, the corrosion pits on the KDP surface were avoided to some degree. Moreover, the roughnesses of KDP with KDP aq/O microemulsion (cKDP was changed from 10 mM to 100 mM as polishing solutions were smaller than that with the W/O microemulsion. The smallest surface root-mean-square roughness of 1.5 nm was obtained at a 30 mmol/L KDP aq solution, because of the most appropriate deliquescent rate and MRR.

  11. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  12. Analysis the complex interaction among flexible nanoparticles and materials surface in the mechanical polishing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Xuesong, E-mail: hanxuesongphd@yahoo.com.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, 300072 (China); Gan, Yong X. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Mechanical polishing (MP), being the important technique of realizing the surface planarization, has already been widely applied in the area of microelectronic manufacturing and computer manufacturing technology. The surface planarization in the MP is mainly realized by mechanical process which depended on the microdynamic behavior of nanoparticle. The complex multibody interaction among nanoparticles and materials surface is different from interaction in the macroscopic multibody system which makes the traditional classical materials machining theory cannot accurately uncover the mystery of the surface generation in the MP. Large-scale classical molecular dynamic (MD) simulation of interaction among nanoparticles and solid surface has been carried out to investigate the physical essence of surface planarization. The particles with small impact angle can generate more uniform global planarization surface but the materials removal rate is lower. The shear interaction between particle and substrate may induce large friction torque and lead to the rotation of particle. The translation plus rotation makes the nanoparticle behaved like micro-milling tool. The results show that the nanoparticles may aggregrate together and form larger cluster thus deteriorate surface the quality. This MD simulation results illuminate that the f inal planarized surface can only be acquired by synergic behavior of all particles using various means such as cutting, impacting, scratching, indentation and so on.

  13. ITCA: Inter-Task Conflict-Aware CPU accounting for CMP

    OpenAIRE

    Luque, Carlos; Moreto Planas, Miquel; Cazorla Almeida, Francisco Javier; Gioiosa, Roberto; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    2010-01-01

    Chip-MultiProcessors (CMP) introduce complexities when accounting CPU utilization to processes because the progress done by a process during an interval of time highly depends on the activity of the other processes it is coscheduled with. We propose a new hardware CPU accounting mechanism to improve the accuracy when measuring the CPU utilization in CMPs and compare it with previous accounting mechanisms. Our results show that currently known mechanisms lead to a 16% average error when it com...

  14. Trend and current practices of palm oil mill effluent polishing: Application of advanced oxidation processes and their future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mustapha Mohammed; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil processing is a multi-stage operation which generates large amount of effluent. On average, palm oil mill effluent (POME) may contain up to 51, 000 mg/L COD, 25,000 mg/L BOD, 40,000 TS and 6000 mg/L oil and grease. Due to its potential to cause environmental pollution, palm oil mills are required to treat the effluent prior to discharge. Biological treatments using open ponding system are widely used for POME treatment. Although these processes are capable of reducing the pollutant concentrations, they require long hydraulic retention time and large space, with the effluent frequently failing to satisfy the discharge regulation. Due to more stringent environmental regulations, research interest has recently shifted to the development of polishing technologies for the biologically-treated POME. Various technologies such as advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, adsorption and coagulation have been investigated. Among these, advanced oxidation processes have shown potentials as polishing technologies for POME. This paper offers an overview on the POME polishing technologies, with particularly emphasis on advanced oxidation processes and their prospects for large scale applications. Although there are some challenges in large scale applications of these technologies, this review offers some perspectives that could help in overcoming these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Process monitoring for intelligent manufacturing processes - Methodology and application to Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas

    Process monitoring provides important information on the product, process and manufacturing system during part manufacturing. Such information can be used for process optimization and detection of undesired processing conditions to initiate timely actions for avoidance of defects, thereby improving...... quality assurance. This thesis is aimed at a systematic development of process monitoring solutions, constituting a key element of intelligent manufacturing systems towards zero defect manufacturing. A methodological approach of general applicability is presented in this concern.The approach consists...... of six consecutive steps for identification of product Vital Quality Characteristics (VQCs) and Key Process Variables (KPVs), selection and characterization of sensors, optimization of sensors placement, validation of the monitoring solutions, definition of the reference manufacturing performance...

  16. Processing Interrogative Sentence Mood at the Semantic-Syntactic Interface: An Electrophysiological Research in Chinese, German, and Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Shan; Dietrich, Rainer; Sommer, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Background Languages differ in the marking of the sentence mood of a polar interrogative (yes/no question). For instance, the interrogative mood is marked at the beginning of the surface structure in Polish, whereas the marker appears at the end in Chinese. In order to generate the corresponding sentence frame, the syntactic specification of the interrogative mood is early in Polish and late in Chinese. In this respect, German belongs to an interesting intermediate class. The yes/no question is expressed by a shift of the finite verb from its final position in the underlying structure into the utterance initial position, a move affecting, hence, both the sentence's final and the sentence's initial constituents. The present study aimed to investigate whether during generation of the semantic structure of a polar interrogative, i.e., the processing preceding the grammatical formulation, the interrogative mood is encoded according to its position in the syntactic structure at distinctive time points in Chinese, German, and Polish. Methodology/Principal Findings In a two-choice go/nogo experimental design, native speakers of the three languages responded to pictures by pressing buttons and producing utterances in their native language while their brain potentials were recorded. The emergence and latency of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) in nogo conditions, in which speakers asked a yes/no question, should indicate the time point of processing the interrogative mood. The results revealed that Chinese, German, and Polish native speakers did not differ from each other in the electrophysiological indicator. Conclusions/Significance The findings suggest that the semantic encoding of the interrogative mood is temporally consistent across languages despite its disparate syntactic specification. The consistent encoding may be ascribed to economic processing of interrogative moods at various sentential positions of the syntactic structures in languages or, more

  17. Effect of 1,2,4-triazole on galvanic corrosion between cobalt and copper in CMP based alkaline slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lei; Liu, Yuling; Wang, Chenwei; Han, Linan

    2018-04-01

    Cobalt has become a new type of barrier material with its unique advantages since the copper-interconnects in the great-large scale integrated circuits (GLSI) into 10 nm and below technical nodes, but cobalt and copper have severe galvanic corrosion during chemical–mechanical flattening. The effect of 1,2,4-triazole on Co/Cu galvanic corrosion in alkaline slurry and the control of rate selectivity of copper and cobalt were investigated in this work. The results of electrochemical experiments and polishing experiments had indicated that a certain concentration of 1,2,4-triazole could form a layer of insoluble and dense passive film on the surface of cobalt and copper, which reduced the corrosion potential difference between cobalt and copper. Meantime, the removal rate of cobalt and copper could be effectively controlled according to demand during the CMP process. When the study optimized slurry was composed of 0.5 wt% colloidal silica, 0.1 %vol. hydrogen peroxide, 0.05 wt% FA/O, 345 ppm 1,2,4-triazole, cobalt had higher corrosion potential than copper and the galvanic corrosion could be reduced effectively when the corrosion potential difference between them decreased to 1 mV and the galvanic corrosion current density reached 0.02 nA/cm2. Meanwhile, the removal rate of Co was 62.396 nm/min, the removal rate of Cu was 47.328 nm/min, so that the removal rate ratio of cobalt and copper was 1.32 : 1, which was a good amendment to the dishing pits. The contact potential corrosion of Co/Cu was very weak, which could be better for meeting the requirements of the barrier CMP. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2016ZX02301003-004-007), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (No. F2015202267), and the Outstanding Young Science and Technology Innovation Fund of Hebei University of Technology (No. 2015007).

  18. Novel ceria-polymer microcomposites for chemical mechanical polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mudhivarthi, Subrahmanya R.; Kumar, Ashok; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2008-01-01

    Abrasive particles are key components in slurries for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Since the particle characteristics determine surface quality of wafers during polishing, in this research, novel abrasive composite particles have been developed. These composite particles contain nanoparticles of ceria dispersed within cross-linked, polymeric microspheres such that the average mass fraction of ceria is approximately 50% in the particles. The microspheres are formed by co-polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPS) and contain interpenetrating (IP) chains of poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc). Infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the composite particles. Planarization of silicon dioxide wafers is studied on a bench-top CMP tester and the polished surfaces are characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force and optical microscopy. Slurries formed from the composite ceria-polymer particles lead to lower topographical variations and surface roughness than slurries of only ceria nanoparticles even though both slurries achieve similar removal rates of ∼100 nm/min for similar ceria content. Polishing with the novel composite particles gives surfaces devoid of scratches and particle deposition, which makes these particles suitable for the next generation slurries in CMP

  19. Novel ceria-polymer microcomposites for chemical mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, Cecil A. [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida (United States); Mudhivarthi, Subrahmanya R.; Kumar, Ashok [Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida (United States); Gupta, Vinay K. [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida (United States)], E-mail: vkgupta@eng.usf.edu

    2008-12-30

    Abrasive particles are key components in slurries for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Since the particle characteristics determine surface quality of wafers during polishing, in this research, novel abrasive composite particles have been developed. These composite particles contain nanoparticles of ceria dispersed within cross-linked, polymeric microspheres such that the average mass fraction of ceria is approximately 50% in the particles. The microspheres are formed by co-polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPS) and contain interpenetrating (IP) chains of poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc). Infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the composite particles. Planarization of silicon dioxide wafers is studied on a bench-top CMP tester and the polished surfaces are characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force and optical microscopy. Slurries formed from the composite ceria-polymer particles lead to lower topographical variations and surface roughness than slurries of only ceria nanoparticles even though both slurries achieve similar removal rates of {approx}100 nm/min for similar ceria content. Polishing with the novel composite particles gives surfaces devoid of scratches and particle deposition, which makes these particles suitable for the next generation slurries in CMP.

  20. Savannah River Site chemical, metal, and pesticide (CMP) waste vitrification treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as well as Department of Defense (DOD) and commercial facilities, have used earthen pits for disposal of chemicals, organic contaminants, and other waste materials. Although this was an acceptable means of disposal in the past, direct disposal into earthen pits without liners or barriers is no longer a standard practice. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately three million pounds of such material was removed from seven chemical, metal, and pesticide disposal pits. This material is known as the Chemical, Metal, and Pesticide (CMP) Pit waste and carries several different listed waste codes depending on the contaminants in the respective storage container. The waste is not classified as a mixed waste because it is believed to be non-radioactive; however, in order to treat the material in a non-radioactive facility, the waste would first have to be screened for radioactivity. The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Section of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the DOE-Savannah River (SR) office to determine the viability of vitrification of the CMP Pit wastes. Radioactive vitrification facilities exist which would be able to process this waste, so the material would not have to be analyzed for radioactive content. Bench-scale treatability studies were performed by the DWPT to determine whether a homogeneous and durable glass could be produced from the CMP Pit wastes. Homogeneous and durable glasses were produced from the six pits sampled. The optimum composition was determined to be 68.5 wt% CMP waste, 7.2 wt% Na 2 O, 9 wt% CaO, 7.2 wt% Li 2 O and 8.1 wt% Fe 2 O 3 . This glass melted at 1,150 C and represented a two fold volume reduction

  1. Improvements in the diagnosis of chrondromalacia patellae (CMP) by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, H.; Dinkelaker, F.; Wolf, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the MRI diagnosis of CMP, with special reference to the early stages and accurate staging. For this purpose, the retropatellar cartilage was examined by MRI while compression was carried out, using 21 patients and five normal controls. Changes in cartilage thickness and signal intensity were evaluated quantitatively during FLASH and FISP sequences. CMP stage I could be distinguished from normal cartilage by reduction in cartilage thickness and signal increase from the oedematous cartilage during compression. In CMP stages II/III, abnormal protein deposition of collagen type I could be demonstrated by its compressibility. In stages III and IV, the method does not add any significant additional information. (orig./GDG) [de

  2. Key Processes of Silicon-On-Glass MEMS Fabrication Technology for Gyroscope Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhibo; Wang, Yinan; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Han; Guo, Xuetao

    2018-04-17

    MEMS fabrication that is based on the silicon-on-glass (SOG) process requires many steps, including patterning, anodic bonding, deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). The effects of the process parameters of CMP and DRIE are investigated in this study. The process parameters of CMP, such as abrasive size, load pressure, and pH value of SF1 solution are examined to optimize the total thickness variation in the structure and the surface quality. The ratio of etching and passivation cycle time and the process pressure are also adjusted to achieve satisfactory performance during DRIE. The process is optimized to avoid neither the notching nor lag effects on the fabricated silicon structures. For demonstrating the capability of the modified CMP and DRIE processes, a z-axis micro gyroscope is fabricated that is based on the SOG process. Initial test results show that the average surface roughness of silicon is below 1.13 nm and the thickness of the silicon is measured to be 50 μm. All of the structures are well defined without the footing effect by the use of the modified DRIE process. The initial performance test results of the resonant frequency for the drive and sense modes are 4.048 and 4.076 kHz, respectively. The demands for this kind of SOG MEMS device can be fulfilled using the optimized process.

  3. Impact of chemical polishing on surface roughness and dimensional quality of electron beam melting process (EBM) parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolimont, Adrien; Rivière-Lorphèvre, Edouard; Ducobu, François; Backaert, Stéphane

    2018-05-01

    Additive manufacturing is growing faster and faster. This leads us to study the functionalization of the parts that are produced by these processes. Electron Beam melting (EBM) is one of these technologies. It is a powder based additive manufacturing (AM) method. With this process, it is possible to manufacture high-density metal parts with complex topology. One of the big problems with these technologies is the surface finish. To improve the quality of the surface, some finishing operations are needed. In this study, the focus is set on chemical polishing. The goal is to determine how the chemical etching impacts the dimensional accuracy and the surface roughness of EBM parts. To this end, an experimental campaign was carried out on the most widely used material in EBM, Ti6Al4V. Different exposure times were tested. The impact of these times on surface quality was evaluated. To help predicting the excess thickness to be provided, the dimensional impact of chemical polishing on EBM parts was estimated. 15 parts were measured before and after chemical machining. The improvement of surface quality was also evaluated after each treatment.

  4. CMP reflection imaging via interferometry of distributed subsurface sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Brown, L. D.; Quiros, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The theoretical foundations of recovering body wave energy via seismic interferometry are well established. However in practice, such recovery remains problematic. Here, synthetic seismograms computed for subsurface sources are used to evaluate the geometrical combinations of realistic ambient source and receiver distributions that result in useful recovery of virtual body waves. This study illustrates how surface receiver arrays that span a limited distribution suite of sources, can be processed to reproduce virtual shot gathers that result in CMP gathers which can be effectively stacked with traditional normal moveout corrections. To verify the feasibility of the approach in practice, seismic recordings of 50 aftershocks following the magnitude of 5.8 Virginia earthquake occurred in August, 2011 have been processed using seismic interferometry to produce seismic reflection images of the crustal structure above and beneath the aftershock cluster. Although monotonic noise proved to be problematic by significantly reducing the number of usable recordings, the edited dataset resulted in stacked seismic sections characterized by coherent reflections that resemble those seen on a nearby conventional reflection survey. In particular, "virtual" reflections at travel times of 3 to 4 seconds suggest reflector sat approximately 7 to 12 km depth that would seem to correspond to imbricate thrust structures formed during the Appalachian orogeny. The approach described here represents a promising new means of body wave imaging of 3D structure that can be applied to a wide array of geologic and energy problems. Unlike other imaging techniques using natural sources, this technique does not require precise source locations or times. It can thus exploit aftershocks too small for conventional analyses. This method can be applied to any type of microseismic cloud, whether tectonic, volcanic or man-made.

  5. Polish visit

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 6 October, Professor Michal Kleiber, Polish Minister of Science and Chairman of the State Committee for Scientific Research, visited CERN and met both the current and designated Director General, Luciano Maiani and Robert Aymar. Professor Kleiber visited the CMS and ATLAS detector assembly halls, the underground cavern for ATLAS, and the LHC superconducting magnet string test hall. Michal Kleiber (left), Polish minister of science and Jan Krolikowski, scientist at Warsaw University and working for CMS, who shows the prototypes of the Muon Trigger board of CMS.

  6. Benzotriazole removal on post-Cu CMP cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jiying; Liu Yuling; Sun Ming; Fan Shiyan; Li Yan

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates systematically the effect of FA/O II chelating agent and FA/O I surfactant in alkaline cleaning solutions on benzotriazole (BTA) removal during post-Cu CMP cleaning in GLSI under the condition of static etching. The best detergent formulation for BTA removal can be determined by optimization of the experiments of single factor and compound cleaning solution, which has been further confirmed experimentally by contact angle (CA) measurements. The resulting solution with the best formulation has been measured for the actual production line, and the results demonstrate that the obtained cleaning solution can effectively and efficiently remove BTA, CuO and abrasive SiO 2 without basically causing interfacial corrosion. This work demonstrates the possibility of developing a simple, low-cost and environmentally-friendly cleaning solution to effectively solve the issues of BTA removal on post-Cu CMP cleaning in a multi-layered copper wafer. (paper)

  7. CMP(O) tripodands: synthesis, potentiometric studies and extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinoso-Garcia, M.M.; Jaczewski, D.; Reinhoudt, D.N.; Verboom, W. [Twente Univ., Lab. of Supramolecular Chemistry and Technology, Mesa Research Institute for Nanotechnology, Enschede (Netherlands); Malinowska, E.; Pietrzak, M. [University of Technology, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw (Poland); Hill, C. [CEA Valrho Site de Marcoule, Dept. Radiochimie et Procedes, 30 (France); Baa, J.; Gruner, B. [Institut of Organic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Selucky, P. [Nuclear Research Institute REZ, CZ (Czech Republic); Gruttner, C. [Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Rostock (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    Ligand systems containing three carbamoyl-methyl-phosphonate (CMP) or -phosphine oxide (CMPO) moieties attached to a tripodal platform have been synthesized for metal complexation and subsequent extraction from HNO{sub 3} solutions. The incorporation into ion selective electrodes (ISE) and picrate extractions with Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ag{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} shows that CMPO tripodand 3 is very selective for Eu{sup 3+} and forms a very stable complex (log{beta}{sub ML} = 28.3). Liquid-liquid extractions performed with Eu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+} show reasonable extraction properties of the CMP(O) tripodands 3, 11 and 13 in 1,1,2,2-tetra-chloro-ethane, while in 1-octanol for all tripodands studied the distribution coefficients are low. Upon addition of the synergistic agent hexa-brominated cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anion (bromo-COSAN) the distribution coefficients for Am{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} extraction increase considerably for CMP(O) tripodands 3 and 4. Covalently linked COSAN only enhances the extraction of Am{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} at 0.001-0.01 M HNO{sub 3}. The functionalization of dendrimer coated magnetic silica particles with CMP(O) tripodands led to very effective particles (31 and 32) for Am{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} removal from 0.01 M HNO{sub 3} solutions. (authors)

  8. Chemical mechanical polishing of hard disk substrate with {alpha}-alumina-g-polystyrene sulfonic acid composite abrasive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Hong, E-mail: hong_lei2005@yahoo.com.c [Research Center of Nano-science and Nano-technology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Bu Naijing; Chen Ruling; Hao Ping [Research Center of Nano-science and Nano-technology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Neng Sima; Tu Xifu; Yuen Kwok [Shenzhen Kaifa Magnetic Recording Co., LTD, Shenzhen, 518035 (China)

    2010-05-03

    {alpha}-Alumina-g-polystyrene sulfonic acid ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-g-PSS) composite abrasive was prepared by surface activation, graft polymerization and sulfonation, successively. The composition, dispersibility and morphology of the product were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, laser particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) performances of the composite abrasive on hard disk substrate with nickel-phosphorous plating were investigated. The microscopy images of the polished surfaces show that {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-g-PSS composite abrasive results in improved CMP and post-CMP cleaning performances than pure {alpha}-alumina abrasive under the same testing conditions.

  9. CMP 2012: conference of moldavian physicists. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    This book includes abstracts on various aspects of: materials processing and characterization, crystal growth methods, solid-state and crystal technology, development of condensed matter theory and modeling of materials properties, solid-state device physics, nano science and nano technology, heterostructures, superlattices, quantum wells and wires, advanced quantum physics for nano systems, etc.

  10. CMP 2009: conference of moldavian physicists. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    This book includes 151 abstracts on various aspects of: materials processing and characterization, crystal growth methods, solid-state and crystal technology, development of condensed matter theory and modeling of materials properties, solid-state device physics, nano science and nano technology, heterostructures, superlattices, quantum wells and wires, advanced quantum physics for nano systems, etc.

  11. Influence of Si wafer thinning processes on (sub)surface defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Fumihiro, E-mail: fumihiro.inoue@imec.be [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jourdain, Anne; Peng, Lan; Phommahaxay, Alain; De Vos, Joeri; Rebibis, Kenneth June; Miller, Andy; Sleeckx, Erik; Beyne, Eric [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Uedono, Akira [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Mono-vacancy free Si-thinning can be accomplished by combining several thinning techniques. • The grinding damage needs to be removed prior to dry etching, otherwise vacancies remain in the Si at a depth around 0.5 to 2 μm after Si wafer thickness below 5 μm. • The surface of grinding + CMP + dry etching is equivalent mono vacancy level as that of grinding + CMP. - Abstract: Wafer-to-wafer three-dimensional (3D) integration with minimal Si thickness can produce interacting multiple devices with significantly scaled vertical interconnections. Realizing such a thin 3D structure, however, depends critically on the surface and subsurface of the remaining backside Si after the thinning processes. The Si (sub)surface after mechanical grinding has already been characterized fruitfully for a range of few dozen of μm. Here, we expand the characterization of Si (sub)surface to 5 μm thickness after thinning process on dielectric bonded wafers. The subsurface defects and damage layer were investigated after grinding, chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), wet etching and plasma dry etching. The (sub)surface defects were characterized using transmission microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and positron annihilation spectroscopy. Although grinding provides the fastest removal rate of Si, the surface roughness was not compatible with subsequent processing. Furthermore, mechanical damage such as dislocations and amorphous Si cannot be reduced regardless of Si thickness and thin wafer handling systems. The CMP after grinding showed excellent performance to remove this grinding damage, even though the removal amount is 1 μm. For the case of Si thinning towards 5 μm using grinding and CMP, the (sub)surface is atomic scale of roughness without vacancy. For the case of grinding + dry etch, vacancy defects were detected in subsurface around 0.5–2 μm. The finished surface after wet etch remains in the nm scale in the strain region. By inserting a CMP step in

  12. Comparison of Anti-Reflective Coated and Uncoated Surfaces Figured by Pitch-Polishing and Magneto-Rheological Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R.; Thomas, M.D.; Bickel, R.; Taylor, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    When completed, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will provide laser energies in the Mega-joule range. Successful pulse amplification to these extremely high levels requires that all small optics, found earlier in the beamline, have stringent surface and laser fluence requirements. In addition, they must operate reliably for 30 years constituting hundreds of thousands of shots. As part of the first four beamlines, spherical and aspherical lenses were required for the beam relaying telescopes. The magneto-rheological technique allows for faster and more accurate finishing of aspheres. The spherical and aspherical lenses were final figured using both conventional-pitch polishing processes for high quality laser optics and the magneto-rheological finishing process. The purpose of this paper is to compare the surface properties between these two finishing processes. Some lenses were set aside from production for evaluation. The surface roughness in the mid-frequency range was measured and the scatter was studied. Laser damage testing at 1064 nm (3-ns pulse width) was performed on surfaces in both the uncoated and coated condition.

  13. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Seop [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  14. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do; Lee, Hyun Seop

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  15. Dissolved air flotation of polishing wastewater from semiconductor manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J C; Lien, C Y

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of the dissolved air flotation (DAF) process in treating chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater was evaluated in this study. Wastewater from a local semiconductor manufacturer was sampled and characterised. Nano-sized silica (77.6 nm) with turbidity of 130 +/- 3 NTU was found in the slightly alkaline wastewater with traces of other pollutants. Experimental results indicated removal efficiency of particles, measured as suspended particle or turbidity, increased with increasing concentration of cationic collector cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). When CTAB concentration was 30 mg/L, pH of 6.5 +/- 0.1 and recycle ratio of 30%, very effective removal of particles (> 98%) was observed in saturation pressure range of 4 to 6 kg/cm2, and the reaction proceeded faster under higher pressure. Similarly, the reaction was faster under the higher recycle ratio, while final removal efficiency improved slightly as the recycle ratio increased from 20 to 40%. An insignificant effect of pH on treatment efficiency was found as pH varied from 4.5 to 8.5. The presence of activator, Al3+ and Fe3+, enhanced the system performance. It is proposed that CTAB adsorbs on silica particles in polishing wastewater through electrostatic interaction and makes particles more hydrophobic. The increase in hydrophobicity results in more effective bubble-particle collisions. In addition, flocculation of silica particles through bridging effect of collector was found; it is believed that flocculation of particles also contributed to flotation. Better attachment between gas bubble and solid, higher buoyancy and higher air to solid ratio all lead to effective flotation.

  16. Study types and reliability of Real World Evidence compared with experimental evidence used in Polish reimbursement decision-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, N; Wierzbicka, N; Skrzekowska-Baran, I; Moćko, P; Tomassy, J; Kloc, K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship and impact between Real World Evidence (RWE) and experimental evidence (EE) in Polish decision-making processes for the drugs from selected Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) groups. Descriptive study. A detailed analysis was performed for 58 processes from five ATC code groups in which RWE for effectiveness, or effectiveness and safety were cited in Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System's (AOTMiT) documents published between January 2012 and September 2015: Verification Analysis of AOTMiT, Statement of the Transparency Council of AOTMiT, and Recommendation of the President of AOTMiT. In 62% of the cases, RWE supported the EE and confirmed its main conclusions. The majority of studies in the EE group showed to be RCTs (97%), and the RWE group included mainly cohort studies (89%). There were more studies without a control group within RWE compared with the EE group (10% vs 1%). Our results showed that EE are more often assessed using Jadad, NICE or NOS scale by AOTMiT compared with RWE (93% vs 48%). When the best evidence within a given decision-making process is analysed, half of RWE and two-thirds of EE are considered high quality evidence. RWE plays an important role in the decision-making processes on public funding of drugs in Poland, contributing to nearly half (45%) of all the evidence considered. There exist such processes in which the proportion of RWE is dominant, with one process showing RWE as the only evidence presented. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel compound cleaning solution for benzotriazole removal after copper CMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhangbing; Liu Yuling; Gao Baohong; Wang Chenwei; Deng Haiwen

    2015-01-01

    After the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process, the copper surface is contaminated by a mass of particles (e.g. silica) and organic residues (e.g. benzotriazole), which could do great harm to the integrated circuit, so post-CMP cleaning is essential. In particular, benzotriazole (BTA) forms a layer of Cu-BTA film with copper on the surface, which leads to a hydrophobic surface of copper. So an effective cleaning solution is needed to remove BTA from the copper surface. In this work, a new compound cleaning solution is designed to solve two major problems caused by BTA: one is removing BTA and the other is copper surface corrosion that is caused by the cleaning solution. The cleaning solution is formed of alkaline chelating agent (FA/O II type), which is used to remove BTA, and a surfactant (FA/O I type), which is used as a corrosion inhibitor. BTA removal is characterized by contact angle measurements and electrochemical techniques. The inhibiting corrosion ability of the surfactant is also characterized by electrochemical techniques. The proposed compound cleaning solution shows advantages in removing BTA without corroding the copper surface. (paper)

  18. The safety culture change process performed in Polish research reactor MARIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golab, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    The Safety Culture Change Process Performed in research reactor MARIA is described in this paper. The essential issues fulfilled in realization of the Safety Culture Enhancement Programme are related to the attitude and behaviour of top management, co-operating groups, operational personnel, relations between the operating organization and the supervising and advising organizations. Realization of this programme is based on changing the employees understanding of safety, changing their attitudes and behaviours by means of adequate training, requalification process and performing the broad self-assessment programme. Also a high level Quality Assurance Programme helps in development of the Safety Culture. (author)

  19. Sensor-based monitoring and inspection of surface morphology in ultraprecision manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Prahalad Krishna

    This research proposes approaches for monitoring and inspection of surface morphology with respect to two ultraprecision/nanomanufacturing processes, namely, ultraprecision machining (UPM) and chemical mechanical planarization (CMP). The methods illustrated in this dissertation are motivated from the compelling need for in situ process monitoring in nanomanufacturing and invoke concepts from diverse scientific backgrounds, such as artificial neural networks, Bayesian learning, and algebraic graph theory. From an engineering perspective, this work has the following contributions: 1. A combined neural network and Bayesian learning approach for early detection of UPM process anomalies by integrating data from multiple heterogeneous in situ sensors (force, vibration, and acoustic emission) is developed. The approach captures process drifts in UPM of aluminum 6061 discs within 15 milliseconds of their inception and is therefore valuable for minimizing yield losses. 2. CMP process dynamics are mathematically represented using a deterministic multi-scale hierarchical nonlinear differential equation model. This process-machine inter-action (PMI) model is evocative of the various physio-mechanical aspects in CMP and closely emulates experimentally acquired vibration signal patterns, including complex nonlinear dynamics manifest in the process. By combining the PMI model predictions with features gathered from wirelessly acquired CMP vibration signal patterns, CMP process anomalies, such as pad wear, and drifts in polishing were identified in their nascent stage with high fidelity (R2 ~ 75%). 3. An algebraic graph theoretic approach for quantifying nano-surface morphology from optical micrograph images is developed. The approach enables a parsimonious representation of the topological relationships between heterogeneous nano-surface fea-tures, which are enshrined in graph theoretic entities, namely, the similarity, degree, and Laplacian matrices. Topological invariant

  20. Polishing of treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) from ponding system by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Mau Han, Tham; Jun Wei, Lim; Choon Aun, Ng; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2016-01-01

    As the ponding system used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) frequently fails to satisfy the discharge standard in Malaysia, the present study aimed to resolve this problem using an optimized electrocoagulation process. Thus, a central composite design (CCD) module in response surface methodology was employed to optimize the interactions of process variables, namely current density, contact time and initial pH targeted on maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour and turbidity with satisfactory pH of discharge POME. The batch study was initially designed by CCD and statistical models of responses were subsequently derived to indicate the significant terms of interactive process variables. All models were verified by analysis of variance showing model significances with Prob > F < 0.01. The optimum performance was obtained at the current density of 56 mA/cm(2), contact time of 65 min and initial pH of 4.5, rendering complete removal of colour and turbidity with COD removal of 75.4%. The pH of post-treated POME of 7.6 was achieved, which is suitable for direct discharge. These predicted outputs were subsequently confirmed by insignificant standard deviation readings between predicted and actual values. This optimum condition also permitted the simultaneous removal of NH3-N, and various metal ions, signifying the superiority of the electrocoagulation process optimized by CCD.

  1. Radiotracer investigations of the shaft processes in Polish zinc and lead metallurgy. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.S.; Bazaniak, Z.; Palige, J.

    1990-01-01

    The conditions and the physico-chemical processes occurring in the ISP furnace cause the possibility of partial reoxidation of vapourized zinc escaping from the furnace counter-current to the batch material. In order to determine the reoxidation degree and localize the active zone the radiotracer method was applied. The method of solving the convolution integral was used. The experimental part resulted indetermination of impulse characteristics of the zinc condenser; in the next step, the curves of zinc concentration distribution at the ISP furnace outlet were found by calculations. 65 Zn was used as tracer for the industrial experiments. About 25-30% of total amount of zinc obtained as a result of zinc oxides reduction processes undergoes reoxidation in the surface layer of the bath in the furnace shaft. The method of tracer preparation for investigating the behaviour of zinc occurring in the form of silicates and ferrates in the shaft has been proposed. (author)

  2. Improving co-running program’s performance on CMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Dawei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chip multi-processor (CMP has become the most common processor in the current cluster and desktop computer, and it is also the current development direction. On CMP, programs usually co-running with each other. However, programs commonly interfere with each other. Some time the interference takes big effect, which cause serious drop down of performance. In order to avoid the serious performance interference, programs should be scheduled reasonably to different socket to improve the program’s performance and system’s utilization. In this paper we propose a new scheduling method to realize a more reasonable scheduling. We do not only consider the LLC miss rate, but also consider the LLC reference of the programs. By the information of LLC reference and LLC miss rate, we schedule programs to different sockets, which realize a reasonable scheduling. The experiment result show that making use of the scheduling method proposed by our paper, program’s performance can improve 4%, because the performance improve is realized by on-chip resource, which is a big contribution.

  3. Surfactant mediated slurry formulations for Ge CMP applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. Bahar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, slurry formulations in the presence of self-assembled surfactant structures were investigated for Ge/SiO2 CMP applications in the absence and presence of oxidizers. Both anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate-SDS) and cationic (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-C12TAB) micelles were used in the slurry formulations as a function of pH and oxidizer concentration. CMP performances of Ge and SiO2 wafers were evaluated in terms of material removal rates, selectivity and surface quality. The material removal rate responses were also assessed through AFM wear rate tests to obtain a faster response for preliminary analyses. The surfactant adsorption characteristics were studied through surface wettability responses of the Ge and SiO2 wafers through contact angle measurements. It was observed that the self-assembled surfactant structures can help obtain selectivity on the silica/germanium system at low concentrations of the oxidizer in the slurry. © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  4. Benzotriazole removal on post-Cu CMP cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiying, Tang; Yuling, Liu; Ming, Sun; Shiyan, Fan; Yan, Li

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates systematically the effect of FA/O II chelating agent and FA/O I surfactant in alkaline cleaning solutions on benzotriazole (BTA) removal during post-Cu CMP cleaning in GLSI under the condition of static etching. The best detergent formulation for BTA removal can be determined by optimization of the experiments of single factor and compound cleaning solution, which has been further confirmed experimentally by contact angle (CA) measurements. The resulting solution with the best formulation has been measured for the actual production line, and the results demonstrate that the obtained cleaning solution can effectively and efficiently remove BTA, CuO and abrasive SiO2 without basically causing interfacial corrosion. This work demonstrates the possibility of developing a simple, low-cost and environmentally-friendly cleaning solution to effectively solve the issues of BTA removal on post-Cu CMP cleaning in a multi-layered copper wafer. Project supported by the Major National Science and Technology Special Projects (No. 2009ZX02308).

  5. Characterization of the waste from porcelain polish submitted to the hydrocycloning process; Caracterizacao do residuo provindo do polimento do porcelanato submetido ao processo de hidrociclonagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caetano, A.L.A.; Barbosa Neto, M.C.; Fulgencio, E.B.Gr.; Macedo, D.A.; Ferreira, H.S.; Dutra, R.P.S., E-mail: andre_araujo_jp@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    The residue generated in porcelain tile polishing has caused great social and environmental worry, due to the release of its solid effluents in inadequate places. This study aims to characterize the residue came from porcelain tile polishing, in order to reuse it in own ceramic industry. For this, was used a laboratory hydrocyclone, equipment used for separation of particles by size. The use of this type of process in the treatment of natural materials can represent quite an efficient tool and cost affordable for the purification of these, since allows to there are separation between the fractions. The different samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, particle size analysis and thermal analysis. The results indicate that the resulting material from this process showed different characteristics of the material that was not hydrocycloned, especially as the intensity of the mineralogical phases and the particle size distribution. (author)

  6. Working in the UK: Polish migrant worker routes into employment in the north east and north west construction and food processing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a TUC-funded project that sought to identify the main routes into employment for Polish migrant workers in the North East and North West construction and food processing sectors. Its findings show that the two sectors offer real opportunities and challenges for trade unions to organise those who most need help. Indeed many unions in the sectors have already taken up the challenge and have started to see real successes in organising groups traditionally see...

  7. APS 3D: a new benchmark in aspherical polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Daniel; Mikulic, Dalibor; Veit, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The APS 3D system performs polishing and form correction in one step in order to reduce overall process time, reduce the number of polishing steps required and eliminate the need for highly skilled operators while providing a repeatable polishing process. This new 3D Polishing system yields better surface quality, and a better slope error, automatically determining the optimum speeds, feed rates and polish pressures to achieve a deterministic process based on the required quality parameters input by the operator. The process flow is always the same to ensure consistent quality and target quality values are defined before polishing begins.

  8. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  9. An experimental and analytical investigation into the effects of process vibrations on material removal rates during polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, B.; Mainuddin, M.; Williams, W.; Keanini, R.

    2013-06-01

    Experimental testing, using both commercially available polishing machines and a specially built test platform, demonstrates that material removal rates (MRRs) observed during polishing of fused silica are strongly affected by nanometer-scale vibration amplitudes. Specifically, a nanometer level increase in system vibrations can produce MRRs approximately 150% higher than on an inherently smoother running machine. Moreover the higher spatial frequency surface roughness values are little-effected by the spectral content of the polishing machine. Polishing under controlled conditions, using the test platform, shows that for vibration amplitudes, A ≲ 1.6 μm, and over a fairly wide range of vibration frequencies, MRR increases almost linearly with increasing input power. By contrast, for A ≳ 10 μm, MRR exhibits a rapid decay with increasing A. Order of magnitude analyses and physical arguments are presented in order to explain the qualitatively distinct MRR trends observed. In the small-amplitude limit, A ≲ 1.6 μm, two arguments are presented which suggest that the total observed removal rate, MRRtot, reflects the superposed action of chemical-mechanical removal, MRRcm, and vibration-driven, flow-induced removal, MRRflow, i.e., MRRtot=MRRcm+MRRflow. The analyses further indicate that MRRflow primarily reflects cyclic viscous shears and pressure gradients extant within the thin, non-Newtonian slurry film that exists between the polishing tool and workpiece. Shears and pressure gradients, and corresponding flow-induced MRRs, are, in turn, found to scale as √A /do ω, where A is the vibration amplitude, do is the characteristic gap thickness between the tool and workpiece, and ω is the vibration frequency. In the large-amplitude limit, A ≳ 5 μm, experimental measurements and a simple scaling argument show that the polishing slurry film becomes thick enough that the workpiece and polishing tool lose direct contact. In this limit, observed MRRs thus reflect

  10. CMP [Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides] Pits: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.C.; Kolb, N.L.; Price, V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  11. Thinning of N-face GaN (0001) samples by inductively coupled plasma etching and chemomechanical polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzi, F.; Gu, E.; Dawson, M. D.; Watson, I. M.; Martin, R. W.; Kang, X. N.; Zhang, G. Y.

    2007-01-01

    The processing of N-polar GaN (0001) samples has been studied, motivated by applications in which extensive back side thinning of freestanding GaN (FS-GaN) substrates is required. Experiments were conducted on FS-GaN from two commercial sources, in addition to epitaxial GaN with the N-face exposed by a laser lift-off process. The different types of samples produced equivalent results. Surface morphologies were examined over relatively large areas, using scanning electron microscopy and stylus profiling. The main focus of this study was on inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch processes, employing Cl 2 /Ar or Cl 2 /BCl 3 Ar gas mixtures. Application of a standard etch recipe, optimized for feature etching of Ga-polar GaN (0001) surfaces, caused severe roughening of N-polar samples and confirmed the necessity for specific optimization of etch conditions for N-face material. A series of recipes with a reduced physical (sputter-based) contribution to etching allowed average surface roughness values to be consistently reduced to below 3 nm. Maximum N-face etch rates of 370-390 nm/min have been obtained in recipes examined to date. These are typically faster than etch rates obtained on Ga-face samples under the same conditions and adequate for the process flows of interest. Mechanistic aspects of the ICP etch process and possible factors contributing to residual surface roughness are discussed. This study also included work on chemomechanical polishing (CMP). The optimized CMP process had stock removal rates of ∼500 nm/h on the GaN N face. This was much slower than the ICP etching but showed the important capability of recovering smooth surfaces on samples roughened in previous processing. In one example, a surface roughened by nonoptimized ICP etching was smoothed to give an average surface roughness of ∼2 nm

  12. Polish Semantic Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  13. A Conway-Maxwell-Poisson (CMP) model to address data dispersion on positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Maria Filomena; Della Latta, Daniele; Scipioni, Michele; Positano, Vincenzo; Landini, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) in medicine exploits the properties of positron-emitting unstable nuclei. The pairs of γ- rays emitted after annihilation are revealed by coincidence detectors and stored as projections in a sinogram. It is well known that radioactive decay follows a Poisson distribution; however, deviation from Poisson statistics occurs on PET projection data prior to reconstruction due to physical effects, measurement errors, correction of deadtime, scatter, and random coincidences. A model that describes the statistical behavior of measured and corrected PET data can aid in understanding the statistical nature of the data: it is a prerequisite to develop efficient reconstruction and processing methods and to reduce noise. The deviation from Poisson statistics in PET data could be described by the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson (CMP) distribution model, which is characterized by the centring parameter λ and the dispersion parameter ν, the latter quantifying the deviation from a Poisson distribution model. In particular, the parameter ν allows quantifying over-dispersion (ν1) of data. A simple and efficient method for λ and ν parameters estimation is introduced and assessed using Monte Carlo simulation for a wide range of activity values. The application of the method to simulated and experimental PET phantom data demonstrated that the CMP distribution parameters could detect deviation from the Poisson distribution both in raw and corrected PET data. It may be usefully implemented in image reconstruction algorithms and quantitative PET data analysis, especially in low counting emission data, as in dynamic PET data, where the method demonstrated the best accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Ruthenium, Cobalt, and Black Diamond Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peethala, Brown Cornelius

    Ta/TaN bilayer serves as the diffusion barrier as well as the adhesion promoter between Cu and the dielectric in 32 nm technology devices. A key concern of future technology devices (layer (vs. a bilayer of Ta/TaN) to act as a barrier. During patterning, they need to be planarized using conventional chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to achieve a planar surface. However, CMP of these new barrier materials requires novel slurry compositions that provide adequate selectivity towards Cu and dielectric films, and minimize galvanic corrosion. Apart from the application as a barrier, Ru also has been proposed as a lower electrode material in metal-insulator-metal capacitors where high (> 50 nm/min) Ru removal rates (RRs) are required and as a stop layer in magnetic recording head fabrication where low (hydroxide (KOH). It was also determined that increased the ionic strength is not responsible for the observed increase in Ru removal rate. Benzotirazole (BTA) and ascorbic acid were added to the slurry to reduce the open circuit potential (Eoc) difference between Cu and Ru to ˜20 mV from about 550 mV in the absence of additives. A removal mechanism with KIO4 as the oxidizing agent is proposed based on the formation of several ruthenium oxides, some of which formed residues on the polishing pad below a pH of ˜7. Next, a colloidal silica-based slurry with hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2) as the oxidizer (1 wt%), and arginine (0.5 wt%) as the complexing agent was developed to polish Co at pH 10. The Eoc between Cu and Co at the above conditions was reduced to ˜20 mV compared to ˜250 mV in the absence of additives, suggestive of reduced galvanic corrosion during the Co polishing. The slurry also has the advantages of good post-polish surface quality at pH 10, and no dissolution rate. BTA at a concentration of 5mM in this slurry inhibited Cu dissolution rates and yielded a Cu/Co RR ratio of ˜0.8:1 while the open potential difference between Cu and Co was further reduced to ˜10

  15. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the work carried out in a project supported by the Danish Council for Technology and Innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC-machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost...... and time consumption can become prohibitive in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, calling for the object to be manually polished. During the polishing process, the operator...... needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...

  16. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science

  17. Polish-German bilingualism at school. A Polish perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulaczewska, Hanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the institutional frames for the acquisition of Polish literacy skills in Germany and the maintenance of Polish-German bilingualism after the repatriation of bilingual children to Poland. These processes are examined in the context of recent developments in the European domestic job market. While the European Union has placed proficiency in several languages among its educational objectives, and foreign languages have been made obligatory school subjects in all member countries, the potential advantages of internal European migrations for producing high-proficiency bilinguals are being ignored. Bilingualism resulting from migration and biculturalism enjoys little social prestige in the host countries. In Germany, there is significant regional variation in how school authorities react to challenges posed by the presence of minority languages. In many cases, the linguistic potential of many second-generation migrants and re-emigrants gets largely wasted because of lacking interest and incentives from German and Polish institutions alike.

  18. Distinct Signaling Roles of cIMP, cCMP, and cUMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Roland

    2016-10-04

    The cyclic purine nucleotide cIMP and the cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides cCMP and cUMP are emerging second messengers. These cNMPs show different biological effects, but the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this issue of Structure, Ng et al. (2016) provide structural evidence for distinct interactions of cIMP, cCMP, and cUMP with ion channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cancer morbidity among polishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, B; Thiringer, G; Axelson, O

    1982-01-01

    The mortality pattern among 86 men was determined to investigate the possible hazards of polishing steel. The men had polished steel with polishing paste for at least five years. The polishing pastes had contained tallow, beeswax, carnauba wax, alundum, carborundum, ferric oxide, and chalk. A total of 18 men had died compared with 13.3 expected. Four had died of stomach cancer compared with 0.44 expected (p less than 0.005). The mortality for other causes of death was not increased. The study does not permit any definite conclusion but indicates a possible cancer hazard among polishers. PMID:7066237

  20. Modeling surface topography of state-of-the-art x-ray mirrors as a result of stochastic polishing process: recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Centers, Gary; Tyurin, Yuri N.; Tyurina, Anastasia

    2016-09-01

    Recently, an original method for the statistical modeling of surface topography of state-of-the-art mirrors for usage in xray optical systems at light source facilities and for astronomical telescopes [Opt. Eng. 51(4), 046501, 2012; ibid. 53(8), 084102 (2014); and ibid. 55(7), 074106 (2016)] has been developed. In modeling, the mirror surface topography is considered to be a result of a stationary uniform stochastic polishing process and the best fit time-invariant linear filter (TILF) that optimally parameterizes, with limited number of parameters, the polishing process is determined. The TILF model allows the surface slope profile of an optic with a newly desired specification to be reliably forecast before fabrication. With the forecast data, representative numerical evaluations of expected performance of the prospective mirrors in optical systems under development become possible [Opt. Eng., 54(2), 025108 (2015)]. Here, we suggest and demonstrate an analytical approach for accounting the imperfections of the used metrology instruments, which are described by the instrumental point spread function, in the TILF modeling. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated with numerical simulations for correction of measurements performed with an autocollimator based surface slope profiler. Besides solving this major metrological problem, the results of the present work open an avenue for developing analytical and computational tools for stitching data in the statistical domain, obtained using multiple metrology instruments measuring significantly different bandwidths of spatial wavelengths.

  1. Fractal dimension determined through optical and scanning electron microscopy on FeCrAl alloy after polishing, erosion, and oxidizing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman-Castaneda, J.I.; Garcia-Borquez, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Arizabalo-Salas, R.D. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Optical and scanning electron microscopy (OM and SEM) are techniques that are normally used for 2D-analysis of surface features. By fractal dimension analysis of the gray-scale OM and SEM images, it is possible to get quantitative topographical measurements. In this work, three different surface topographies (polished, eroded, and oxidized) were analyzed on FeCrAl alloy by OM and SEM. Clear surface topographical changes can be qualitatively observed. In order to quantify such changes, two steps were followed: (i) a gray-scale digitalization from each image was used to reproduce topographical features on the analyzed surface, and (ii) from this information, the fractal dimension (D) was determined using fractal3e software. The fractal dimension determined in this form follows coherently the topographical changes produced on the FeCrAl alloy after polishing, erosion, and oxidizing processes. The variations of fractal dimension values against the temperature of the oxidizing processes reflect well the oxide growth changes. Moreover, a minimum D-value is registered at 750 C, which corresponds to the {delta}-{theta} alumina phase transition temperature as determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) on the same alloy. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Monitoring of Robot Assisted Polishing through parameters of acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Bilberg, Arne

    The polishing process is essential for the surface generation of machine tooling components in advanced manufacturing. While robot assisted polishing is faster and more consistent than manual polishing, it can still consume a significant part of ma- chining time and operator presence time...

  3. Microbial biofilms for the removal of Cu²⁺ from CMP wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Aaron P; Behnke, Jason; Jin, Eileen T; Cady, Nathaniel C

    2015-09-01

    The modern semiconductor industry relies heavily on a process known as chemical mechanical planarization, which uses physical and chemical processes to remove excess material from the surface of silicon wafers during microchip fabrication. This process results in large volumes of wastewater containing dissolved metals including copper (Cu(2+)), which must then be filtered and treated before release into municipal waste systems. We have investigated the potential use of bacterial and fungal biomass as an alternative to the currently used ion-exchange resins for the adsorption of dissolved Cu(2+) from high-throughput industrial waste streams. A library of candidate microorganisms, including Lactobacillus casei and Pichia pastoris, was screened for ability to bind Cu(2+) from solution and to form static biofilm communities within packed-bed adsorption columns. The binding efficiency of these biomass-based adsorption columns was assessed under various flow conditions and compared to that of industrially used ion-exchange resins. We demonstrated the potential to regenerate the biomass within the adsorption columns through the use of a hydrochloric acid wash, and subsequently reuse the columns for additional copper binding. While the binding efficiency and capacity of the developed L. casei/P. pastoris biomass filters was inferior to ion-exchange resin, the potential for repeated reuse of these filters, coupled with the advantages of a more sustainable "green" adsorption process, make this technique an attractive candidate for use in industrial-scale CMP wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Edges in CNC polishing: from mirror-segments towards semiconductors, paper 1: edges on processing the global surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Li, Hongyu; Messelink, Wilhelmus; Evans, Rob; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2012-08-27

    Segment-edges for extremely large telescopes are critical for observations requiring high contrast and SNR, e.g. detecting exo-planets. In parallel, industrial requirements for edge-control are emerging in several applications. This paper reports on a new approach, where edges are controlled throughout polishing of the entire surface of a part, which has been pre-machined to its final external dimensions. The method deploys compliant bonnets delivering influence functions of variable diameter, complemented by small pitch tools sized to accommodate aspheric mis-fit. We describe results on witness hexagons in preparation for full size prototype segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, and comment on wider applications of the technology.

  5. Graphite Composite Panel Polishing Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Strojny, Carl; Budinoff, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The use of high-strength, lightweight composites for the fixture is the novel feature of this innovation. The main advantage is the light weight and high stiffness-to-mass ratio relative to aluminum. Meter-class optics require support during the grinding/polishing process with large tools. The use of aluminum as a polishing fixture is standard, with pitch providing a compliant layer to allow support without deformation. Unfortunately, with meter-scale optics, a meter-scale fixture weighs over 120 lb (.55 kg) and may distort the optics being fabricated by loading the mirror and/or tool used in fabrication. The use of composite structures that are lightweight yet stiff allows standard techniques to be used while providing for a decrease in fixture weight by almost 70 percent. Mounts classically used to support large mirrors during fabrication are especially heavy and difficult to handle. The mount must be especially stiff to avoid deformation during the optical fabrication process, where a very large and heavy lap often can distort the mount and optic being fabricated. If the optic is placed on top of the lapping tool, the weight of the optic and the fixture can distort the lap. Fixtures to support the mirror during fabrication are often very large plates of aluminum, often 2 in. (.5 cm) or more in thickness and weight upwards of 150 lb (68 kg). With the addition of a backing material such as pitch and the mirror itself, the assembly can often weigh over 250 lb (.113 kg) for a meter-class optic. This innovation is the use of a lightweight graphite panel with an aluminum honeycomb core for use as the polishing fixture. These materials have been used in the aerospace industry as structural members due to their light weight and high stiffness. The grinding polishing fixture consists of the graphite composite panel, fittings, and fixtures to allow interface to the polishing machine, and introduction of pitch buttons to support the optic under fabrication. In its

  6. STUDY OF POLISHING AISI 316L WITH STRUCTURED ABRASIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François GOOSSENS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Finishing process like polishing is usually used to obtain high quality mechanical surface characteristics such as texture and roughness. These operations are mainly handmade and need highly trained operators thus limiting their repeatability and profitability. To optimize the industrialization of the polishing process, it is therefore necessary to modelize the process to built efficient parameter database. The aim of this study is to characterise the polishing of 316L stainless steel with structured abrasive belts. The geometric data of the belts are given, and we then propose a model to determine material removal. An experimental test bench is set up to test this model and characterise the polishing process in terms of forces. It produces samples for different polishing conditions. The different polished surfaces are then analyzed thanks to the roughness and the wettability. Using experimental designs, we are able to validate the proposed model and identify the parameters that influence a polishing operation.

  7. Eddy current measurement of the thickness of top Cu film of the multilayer interconnects in the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zilian; Meng, Yonggang; Zhao, Qian

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a new eddy current method, named equivalent unit method (EUM), for the thickness measurement of the top copper film of multilayer interconnects in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, which is an important step in the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing. The influence of the underneath circuit layers on the eddy current is modeled and treated as an equivalent film thickness. By subtracting this equivalent film component, the accuracy of the thickness measurement of the top copper layer with an eddy current sensor is improved and the absolute error is 3 nm for sampler measurement.

  8. Technological Advances of Robot Assisted Polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarev, Ruslan; Top, Søren; Grønbæk, Jens

    The efficient polishing of surfaces is very important in mould and die industry. Fine abrasive processes are widely used in industry for the first steps for the production of tools of high quality in terms of finishing accuracy, form and surface integrity. While manufacturing of most components....... In this study, the influence of polishing parameters and type of polishing media on fine abrasive surface finishing is investigated. Experimental study is covering 2D rotational surfaces that is widespread used in mould and dies industry. Application of it is essential for process intelligent control, condition...... monitoring and quality inspection....

  9. The Structure of a Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transport Protein, CmpA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-26

    Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, are the most abundant autotrophs in aquatic environments and form the base of the food chain by fixing carbon and nitrogen into cellular biomass. To compensate for the low selectivity of Rubisco for CO₂ over O₂, Cyanobacteria have developed highly efficient CO₂concentrating machinery of which the ABC transport system CmpABCD from Synechocystis PCC 6803 is one component. Here we describe the structure of the bicarbonate binding protein, CmpA, in the absence and presence of bicarbonate and carbonic acid. CmpA is highly homologous to the nitrate transport protein, NrtA. CmpA binds carbonic acid at the entrance to the ligand-binding pocket whereas bicarbonate binds in nearly an identical location compared to nitrate binding to NrtA. Unexpectedly, bicarbonate binding is accompanied by a metal ion, identified as Ca²⁺ via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The binding of bicarbonate and metal is highly cooperative and suggests that CmpA co-transports bicarbonate and calcium.

  10. Health Information in Polish (polski)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Polish (polski) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/polish.html Health Information in Polish (polski) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  11. Polish Cartographical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Cartographical Review (PCR journal has been published in English four times a year since 2015. The journal is in open access and it is published by De Gruyter Open. It is edited by Polish scientists in collaboration with international experts.

  12. Model of the material removal function and an experimental study on a magnetorheological finishing process using a small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingjun; Liu, Henan; Cheng, Jian; Yu, Bo; Fang, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    In order to achieve the deterministic finishing of optical components with concave surfaces of a curvature radius less than 10 mm, a novel magnetorheological finishing (MRF) process using a small ball-end permanent-magnet polishing head with a diameter of 4 mm is introduced. The characteristics of material removal in the proposed MRF process are studied. The model of the material removal function for the proposed MRF process is established based on the three-dimensional hydrodynamics analysis and Preston's equation. The shear stress on the workpiece surface is calculated by means of resolving the presented mathematical model using a numerical solution method. The analysis result reveals that the material removal in the proposed MRF process shows a positive dependence on shear stress. Experimental research is conducted to investigate the effect of processing parameters on the material removal rate and improve the surface accuracy of a typical rotational symmetrical optical component. The experimental results show that the surface accuracy of the finished component of K9 glass material has been improved to 0.14 μm (PV) from the initial 0.8 μm (PV), and the finished surface roughness Ra is 0.0024 μm. It indicates that the proposed MRF process can be used to achieve the deterministic removal of surface material and perform the nanofinishing of small curvature radius concave surfaces.

  13. Investigation on the surface characterization of Ga-faced GaN after chemical-mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Hua [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Pan, Guoshun, E-mail: pangs@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Zhou, Yan; Shi, Xiaolei; Zou, Chunli; Zhang, Suman [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro/nano Manufacturing, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Tiny-sized nanoparticles were introduced in GaN CMP to realize a good surface. • The relationship between surface characterization and abrasive size was conducted. • An atomic step-terrace structure was achieved on GaN surface after CMP. • Pt/C catalyst nanoparticles were used in GaN CMP to get a higher MRR. - Abstract: The relationship between the surface characterization after chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and the size of the silica (SiO{sub 2}) abrasive used for CMP of gallium nitride (GaN) substrates was investigated in detail. Atomic force microscope was used for measuring the surface morphology, pit feature, pit depth distribution, and atomic step-terrace structure. With the decrease of SiO{sub 2} abrasive size, the pit depth reduced and the atomic step-terrace structure became more whole with smaller damage area, resulting in smaller roughness. For tiny-sized SiO{sub 2} abrasive, an almost complete atomic step-terrace structure with 0.0523 nm roughness was achieved. On the other hand, in order to acquire higher removal, Pt/C nanoparticle was employed as a catalyst in CMP slurry. The result indicates that when Pt/C catalyst content was reached to 1.0 ppm, material removal rate was increased by 47.69% compared to that by none of the catalyst, and besides, the pit depth reduced and the surface atomic step-terrace structure was not destroyed. The Pt/C nanoparticle is proved to be the promising catalyst to the surface preparation of super-hard and inert materials with high efficiency and good surface.

  14. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine synergistic action with thymidine on leukemic cells and interaction of 5-aza-dCMP with dCMP deaminase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momparler, R.L.; Bartolucci, S.; Bouchard, J.; Momparler, L.F.; Raia, C.A.; Rossi, M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors observe a synergistic antineoplastic effect between 5-AZA-dCR and dTR on leukemia cells in culture. In order to understand the mechanism behind this interaction the authors investigate the effects of dTTP on the deamination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-5'-monophosphate (5-AZA-dCMP) by dCMP deaminase. The effects of 5-AZA-dCTP on this enzyme is also studied. The incorporation of tritium-5-AZA-Cdr into DNA of leukemic cells was performed. The amount of radioactivity incorproated into DNA was determined by trapping the cells on GF/C glass fiber filters and washing with cold TCA. It is shown that the modulation of the atieoplastic activity of deoxycytidine analogs by allosteric effectors such as dTTP may have the potential to increase the effectiveness of the chemotherapy for acute leukemia

  15. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  16. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  17. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  18. Polish energy-system modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy-system needs intensive investments in new technologies, which are energy efficient, clean and cost effective. Since the early 1990s, the Polish economy has had practically full access to modern technological devices, equipment and technologies. Introducing new technologies is a difficult task for project teams, constructors and investors. The author presents a set of principles for project teams useful in planning and energy modernisation. Several essential features are discussed: Energy-efficient appliances and systems; Choice of energy carriers, media and fuels; Optimal tariffs, maximum power and installed power; Intelligent, integrated, steering systems; Waste-energy recovery; Renewable-energy recovery. In practice there are several difficulties connected with planning and realising good technological and economic solutions. The author presents his own experiences of energy-system modernisation of industrial processes and building new objects. (Author)

  19. Polishing of silicon based advanced ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Fritz; Dambon, Olaf; Zunke, Richard; Waechter, D.

    2009-05-01

    Silicon based advanced ceramics show advantages in comparison to other materials due to their extreme hardness, wear and creep resistance, low density and low coefficient of thermal expansion. As a matter of course, machining requires high efforts. In order to reach demanded low roughness for optical or tribological applications a defect free surface is indispensable. In this paper, polishing of silicon nitride and silicon carbide is investigated. The objective is to elaborate scientific understanding of the process interactions. Based on this knowledge, the optimization of removal rate, surface quality and form accuracy can be realized. For this purpose, fundamental investigations of polishing silicon based ceramics are undertaken and evaluated. Former scientific publications discuss removal mechanisms and wear behavior, but the scientific insight is mainly based on investigations in grinding and lapping. The removal mechanisms in polishing are not fully understood due to complexity of interactions. The role of, e.g., process parameters, slurry and abrasives, and their influence on the output parameters is still uncertain. Extensive technological investigations demonstrate the influence of the polishing system and the machining parameters on the stability and the reproducibility. It is shown that the interactions between the advanced ceramics and the polishing systems is of great relevance. Depending on the kind of slurry and polishing agent the material removal mechanisms differ. The observed effects can be explained by dominating mechanical or chemo-mechanical removal mechanisms. Therefore, hypotheses to state adequate explanations are presented and validated by advanced metrology devices, such as SEM, AFM and TEM.

  20. Polish polar research (outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Ludwik Birkenmajer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes Polish research and discoveries in the Arctic and the Antarctic since the 19th century. The author is a geologist and since 1956 has been engaged in scientific field research on Spitsbergen, Greenland and Antarctica (23 expeditions. For many years chairman of the Committee on Polar Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, he is now its Honorary Chairman.

  1. Production of Copper as a Complex Mining and Metallurgical Processing System in Polish Copper Mines of the Legnica-Glogów Copper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Geological and technological conditions of Cu production in the Polish copper mines of the Legnica-Glogów Copper Belt are presented. Cu production is recognized as a technological fractal consisting of subsystems for mineral exploration, ore extraction and processing, and metallurgical treatment. Qualitative and quantitative models of these operations have been proposed, including estimation of their costs of process production. Numerical calculations of such a system have been performed, which allow optimize the system parameters according to economic criteria under variable Cu mineralization in the ore deposit. The main objective of the study is to develop forecasting tool for analysis of production efficiency in domestic copper mines based on available sources of information. Such analyses are primarily of social value, allowing for assessment of the efficiency of management of local mineral resources in the light of current technological and market constraints. At the same time, this is a concept of the system analysis method to manage deposit exploitation on operational and strategic level.

  2. The importance of middlings in the beneficiation technology of Polish copper ore and new possibilities of their processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupska Bozena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the middlings (tailings of I cleaner flotation were characterized, and new possibilities of their processing were presented. The advantages of introducing a separate circuit for middlings processing were emphasized. This circuit should be adapted to the properties of the processed middlings and characterized by relative simplicity. An important element of the separate processing of middlings is grinding. The paper presents the advantages of the grinding process in the magnetic mill (MM, which has not been used until now in the enrichment of mineral raw materials. The importance of introducing for the difficult to treat middlings a separate flotation in a flotation machine characterized by a high dynamics of the process was emphasized.

  3. The Analysis of Barriers in Succession Processes of Family Business with the Use of Grey Incidence Analysis (Polish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Więcek-Janka Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research on the identification and evaluation of barriers faced by successors in family businesses during the first process of succession. The analysis of empirical material used grey systems theory, which was considered as an equivalent for the analysis of small samples and qualitative research. While conducting the literature review and empirical study, the authors concentrated on (a the identification of barriers in the development of family firms and (b eliciting the perspective of the new generation of owners in family firms entering the succession process through an empirical analysis of the assessed level of risk in relationships with family and business.

  4. Potential impact of the implementation of multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) on the Polish pricing and reimbursement process of orphan drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Zwolinski, Krzysztof M; Kalo, Zoltan; Hermanowski, Tomasz

    2016-03-10

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential impact of the implementation of multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) on the Polish pricing and reimbursement (P&R) process with regard to orphan drugs. A four step approach was designed. Firstly, a systematic literature review was conducted to select the MCDA criteria. Secondly, a database of orphan drugs was established. Thirdly, health technology appraisals (HTA recommendations) were categorized and an MCDA appraisal was conducted. Finally, a comparison of HTA and MCDA outcomes was carried out. An MCDA outcome was considered positive if more than 50% of the maximum number of points was reached (base case). In the sensitivity analysis, 25% and 75% thresholds were tested as well. Out of 2242 publications, 23 full-text articles were included. The final MCDA tool consisted of ten criteria. In total, 27 distinctive drug-indication pairs regarding 21 drugs were used for the study. Six negative and 21 positive HTA recommendations were issued. In the base case, there were 19 positive MCDA outcomes. Of the 27 cases, there were 12 disagreements between the HTA and MCDA outcomes, the majority of which related to positive HTA guidance for negative MCDA outcomes. All drug-indication pairs with negative HTA recommendations were appraised positively in the MCDA framework. Economic details were available for 12 cases, of which there were 9 positive MCDA outcomes. Amongst the 12 drug-indication pairs, two were negatively appraised in the HTA process, with positive MCDA guidance, and two were appraised in the opposite direction. An MCDA approach may lead to different P&R outcomes compared to a standard HTA process. On the one hand, enrichment of the list of decision making criteria means further scrutiny of a given health technology and as such increases the odds of a negative P&R outcome. On the other hand, it may uncover additional values and as such increase the odds of positive P&R outcomes.

  5. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  6. Identification of key processes ruling environmental behaviour of naturally occurring radionuclides on example of Polish Observatory Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, Boguslaw [Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, Glowny Instytut Gornictwa, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    Developing a sufficient understanding of environmental processes and exposure pathways that permit observations to be explained and robust predictions to be made over spatial and temporal scales is a clear challenge that radioecology needs to address. This scientific challenge has been developed as a separate section of the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) a document produced by the STAR Network of Excellence in Radioecology that outlines a suggested prioritisation of research topics in radioecology. Reality is that in order to bring the SRA to fruition, besides considerable resources and time, an available proving ground is required. The sole sources of such data are areas affected by nuclear accidents but the conditions provided do not follow requirements for scientific experiment. On the other hand, it is hard to imagine anyone deliberately releasing substantial amount of radioactivity into environment in order to observe what would happen- Some of coal mines at Upper Silesia Coal Basin have discharged radium reach brines continuously for many years. The total amount of radium released to inland water is quite well known and varies with time or exploitation conditions. This phenomenon has been observed for more than 30 years and many contaminated sites being in different state were identified. Natural radionuclides (mainly radium isotopes) present in mine water after its release into the environment are subject to different chemical and/or physical processes influencing their final fate. The processes of concern are e.g. precipitation, sedimentation, adsorption, absorption, ion exchange, desorption, leaching, erosion, sequential decay etc. Based on physical and chemical rules, available data and real environmental conditions the key processes that govern radium and its progeny behaviour after discharge with mine water, associated transfers among environmental compartments and resulting exposures of both non-human and humans populations have been identified. The

  7. Polish Higher Education: Intersectoral Distinctiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes degrees of differences between the private and public sectors of Polish higher education. It finds them to be strong: Polish private institutions function very differently from Polish public institutions and these differences correspond with those found in the literature on higher education elsewhere in the world. Polish…

  8. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tian, Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Corcoran, Sean [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  9. New perspectives in hydrodynamic radial polishing techniques for optical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Elfego; Sohn, Erika; Luna, Esteban; Salas, Luis; Cordero, Alberto; González, Jorge; Núñez, Manuel; Salinas, Javier; Cruz-González, Irene; Valdés, Jorge; Cabrera, Victor; Martínez, Benjamín

    2004-09-01

    In order to overcome classic polishing techniques, a novel hydrodynamic radial polishing tool (HyDRa) is presented; it is useful for the corrective lapping and fine polishing of diverse materials by means of a low-cost abrasive flux and a hydrostatic suspension system that avoids contact of the tool with the working surface. This tool enables the work on flat or curved surfaces of currently up to two and a half meters in diameter. It has the advantage of avoiding fallen edges during the polishing process as well as reducing tool wear out and deformation. The functioning principle is based on the generation of a high-velocity, high-pressure, abrasive emulsion flux with radial geometry. The polishing process is repeatable by means of the control of the tool operational parameters, achieving high degrees of precision and accuracy on optical and semiconductor surfaces, with removal rates of up to 9 mm3/hour and promising excellent surface polishing qualities. An additional advantage of this new tool is the possibility to perform interferometric measurements during the polishing process without the need of dismounting the working surface. A series of advantages of this method, numerical simulations and experimental results are described.

  10. Transformation of the Polish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stefański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war period the banking system in Poland underwent two important system transitions: after 1946 and after 1989. The third transformation began after May 1, 2004, but it did not have a systemic character. The Polish banking sector started to operate on the Single European Market. The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the banks transformations after 1989 with a special focus on the quantitative development of banks in 19892008, and on subsequent privatisation and consolidation processes. The former intensified in 19891999, and the latter in 19992002. The consolidation process was very noticeable in the sector of cooperative banks after 1994. The second part of the paper includes an economic and financial analysis of the banks. A lot of attention was paid to the liquidity of the banking sector. It was assessed as good, which was confirmed by a short-term rating of Moodys and by the Financial Stability Report 2009, published by the National Bank of Poland in June 2009. The comparison of the net profit of the banking sector in 19972008 shows its dependence on the economic situation and policy. The number of banks with capital adequacy ratio well above the minimum required by the banking supervision is rising. The financial power ratings are not favorable for the domestic banks. The third part of the paper focuses on the development directions of the Polish banking sector. It may be concluded on the basis of the analysis that privatisation and consolidation processes will be continued. They will concentrate on the capital of foreign banks already operating in Poland. As compared with individual foreign banks, the potential of the Polish banking sector is week. The fourth part of the paper focuses on the presentation Polish banking sector in the context of European Union banking sector. The paper finishes with conclusions. Generally, Polish banks have to implement a strategy to enable them to compete on the Single

  11. Study of Profile Changes during Mechanical Polishing using Relocation Profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, S. Chidambara; Shunmugam, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    Mechanical polishing is a finishing process practiced conventionally to enhance quality of surface. Surface finish is improved by mechanical cutting action of abrasive particles on work surface. Polishing is complex in nature and research efforts have been focused on understanding the polishing mechanism. Study of changes in profile is a useful method of understanding behavior of the polishing process. Such a study requires tracing same profile at regular process intervals, which is a tedious job. An innovative relocation technique is followed in the present work to study profile changes during mechanical polishing of austenitic stainless steel specimen. Using special locating fixture, micro-indentation mark and cross-correlation technique, the same profile is traced at certain process intervals. Comparison of different parameters of profiles shows the manner in which metal removal takes place in the polishing process. Mass removal during process estimated by the same relocation technique is checked with that obtained using weight measurement. The proposed approach can be extended to other micro/nano finishing processes and favorable process conditions can be identified.

  12. Super Polishing of Aluminum 6061-T6 Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative 2D super-polishing process for Aluminum 6061-T6 planar mirrors which removes diamond point turning (DPT) grooves and attains rms surface finishes below...

  13. Utilizing CMP-Sialic Acid Analogs to Unravel Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance and Design Novel Therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Gulati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae deploys a novel immune evasion strategy wherein the lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT structure of lipooligosaccharide (LOS is capped by the bacterial sialyltransferase, using host cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP-activated forms of the nine-carbon nonulosonate (NulO sugar N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, a sialic acid (Sia abundant in humans. This allows evasion of complement-mediated killing by recruiting factor H (FH, an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, and by limiting classical pathway activation ("serum-resistance". We utilized CMP salts of six additional natural or synthetic NulOs, Neu5Gc, Neu5Gc8Me, Neu5Ac9Ac, Neu5Ac9Az, legionaminic acid (Leg5Ac7Ac and pseudaminic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac, to define structural requirements of Sia-mediated serum-resistance. While all NulOs except Pse5Ac7Ac were incorporated into the LNnT-LOS, only Neu5Gc incorporation yielded high-level serum-resistance and FH binding that was comparable to Neu5Ac, whereas Neu5Ac9Az and Leg5Ac7Ac incorporation left bacteria fully serum-sensitive and did not enhance FH binding. Neu5Ac9Ac and Neu5Gc8Me rendered bacteria resistant only to low serum concentrations. While serum-resistance mediated by Neu5Ac was associated with classical pathway inhibition (decreased IgG binding and C4 deposition, Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac9Az incorporation did not inhibit the classical pathway. Remarkably, CMP-Neu5Ac9Az and CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac each prevented serum-resistance despite a 100-fold molar excess of CMP-Neu5Ac in growth media. The concomitant presence of Leg5Ac7Ac and Neu5Ac on LOS resulted in uninhibited classical pathway activation. Surprisingly, despite near-maximal FH binding in this instance, the alternative pathway was not regulated and factor Bb remained associated with bacteria. Intravaginal administration of CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac to BALB/c mice infected with gonorrhea (including a multidrug-resistant isolate reduced clearance times and infection burden. Bacteria recovered

  14. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Lysenkoism in Poland was never an autonomous phenomenon. The whole array of reasons for which it appeared in Polish science would require a separate study--here it only needs to be pointed out that the major reasons included terror on the part of the security service, lawlessness, the ubiquitous atmosphere of intimidation and terror, censorship, the diminishing sphere of civil liberties, political show trials, propaganda and denunciations. An important role in facilitating the introduction of Lysenkoism was played also by the reorganization of science after World War Two, the isolation of Polish science from science in the West, as well as the damage it had suffered during the war. At first, Lysenkoism was promoted in Poland by a small group of enthusiastic and uncritical proponents. A overview of the events connected with the ten years of Lysenkoism in Poland (end of 1948--beginning of 1958) shows a two-tier picture of how the 'idea' was propagated. The first tier consisted in the activities of the Association of Marxist Naturalists [Koło Przyrodników-Marksistów], which it engaged in since the end of 1948. The Association was later transformed into a Union of Marxist Naturalists, and this in turn merged, in 1952, with the Copernican Society of Polish Naturalists [Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodników im. Kopernika]. It was that society which promoted Lysenkoism longest, until the end of 1956. The propaganda and training activities of the circle and the society prepared ground for analogous activities of the newly formed Polish Academy of Science (PAN), which--since its very establishment in 1952--engaged in promoting Lysenkoism through its Second Division. These activities were aimed at naturalists, initially at those who were prominent scientists (eg. the conference at Kuźnice, 1950/1951), and then at those who were only starting their academic career (including national courses in new biology at Dziwnów, 1952, or Kortowo, 1953 and 1955). The end to promoting

  15. Polish Americans. Second, Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Helen Znaniecka

    This book examines Polonia, the Polish ethnic community in America created by three giant waves of immigration between 1880 and 1990. The complicated history of this ethnic group is reflected in the lives of increasing numbers of Polish Americans, including recent immigrants brought by political and economic changes, as they achieve middle class…

  16. Polishing Sapphire Substrates by 355 nm Ultraviolet Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to investigate a novel polishing technology with high efficiency and nice surface quality for sapphire crystal that has high hardness, wear resistance, and chemical stability. A Q-switched 355 nm ultraviolet laser with nanosecond pulses was set up and used to polish sapphire substrate in different conditions in this paper. Surface roughness Ra of polished sapphire was measured with surface profiler, and the surface topography was observed with scanning electronic microscope. The effects of processing parameters as laser energy, pulse repetition rate, scanning speed, incident angle, scanning patterns, and initial surface conditions on surface roughness were analyzed.

  17. IDENTITY AND NEGOTIATION OF BOUNDARIES AMONG YOUNG POLISH JEWS

    OpenAIRE

    Cukras-Stelągowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, I would like to look at the processes of building the cultural identity of the young generation of Polish Jews, primarily including the models of constructing modern identifications with the Polish society, the Jewish people and the State of Israel. I will present the results of my own studies, and of those conducted by a few other young researchers dealing with these issues. My main theoretical sources are within the interpretive paradigm. The research methodology was based ...

  18. Strain-free polished channel-cut crystal monochromators: a new approach and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasman, Elina; Montgomery, Jonathan; Huang, XianRong; Lerch, Jason; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2017-08-01

    The use of channel-cut crystal monochromators has been traditionally limited to applications that can tolerate the rough surface quality from wet etching without polishing. We have previously presented and discussed the motivation for producing channel cut crystals with strain-free polished surfaces [1]. Afterwards, we have undertaken an effort to design and implement an automated machine for polishing channel-cut crystals. The initial effort led to inefficient results. Since then, we conceptualized, designed, and implemented a new version of the channel-cut polishing machine, now called C-CHiRP (Channel-Cut High Resolution Polisher), also known as CCPM V2.0. The new machine design no longer utilizes Figure-8 motion that mimics manual polishing. Instead, the polishing is achieved by a combination of rotary and linear functions of two coordinated motion systems. Here we present the new design of C-CHiRP, its capabilities and features. Multiple channel-cut crystals polished using the C-CHiRP have been deployed into several beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). We present the measurements of surface finish, flatness, as well as topography results obtained at 1-BM of APS, as compared with results typically achieved when polishing flat-surface monochromator crystals using conventional polishing processes. Limitations of the current machine design, capabilities and considerations for strain-free polishing of highly complex crystals are also discussed, together with an outlook for future developments and improvements.

  19. Polishing large NaCl windows on a continuous polisher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Helios and Antares CO 2 fusion laser systems incorporate numerous large sodium chloride windows. These must be refinished periodically, making necessary a consistent and predictable polishing capability. A continuous polisher (or annular lap) which might at Kirtland's Developmental Optical Facility. Large NaCl windows had not been polished on this type of machine. The machine has proven itself capable of producing lambda/16 figures at 633 nm (HeNe) with extremely smooth surfaces on glass. Since then, we have been working exclusively on NaCl optics. Due to different polishing parameters between NaCl and glass, and the slight solubility of the pitch in the slurry, this phase presents new problems. The work on glass will be reviewed. Results on NaCl to date will be reported. The potential of this type of machine relative to prisms, thin and irregularly shaped optics will be discussed

  20. Reactive Ion Etching as Cleaning Method Post Chemical Mechanical Polishing for Phase Change Memory Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Zhong; Zhi-Tang, Song; Bo, Liu; Song-Lin, Feng; Bomy, Chen

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve nano-scale phase change memory performance, a super-clean interface should be obtained after chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase change films. We use reactive ion etching (RIE) as the cleaning method. The cleaning effect is analysed by scanning electron microscopy and an energy dispersive spectrometer. The results show that particle residue on the surface has been removed. Meanwhile, Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 material stoichiometric content ratios are unchanged. After the top electrode is deposited, current-voltage characteristics test demonstrates that the set threshold voltage is reduced from 13 V to 2.7V and the threshold current from 0.1mA to 0.025mA. Furthermore, we analyse the RIE cleaning principle and compare it with the ultrasonic method

  1. Research on high-efficiency polishing technology of photomask substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijie; Xie, Ruiqing; Zhou, Lian; Liao, Defeng; Chen, Xianhua; Wang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    A method of photomask substrate fabrication is demonstrated ,that the surface figure and roughness of fused silica will converge to target precision rapidly with the full aperture polishing. Surface figure of optical flats in full aperture polishing processes is primarily dependent on the surface profile of polishing pad, therefor, a improved function of polishing mechanism was put forward based on two axis lapping machine and technology experience, and the pad testing based on displacement sensor and the active conditioning method of the pad is applied in this research. Moreover , the clamping deformation of the thin glass is solved by the new pitch dispensing method. The experimental results show that the surface figure of the 152mm×152mm×6.35mm optical glass is 0.25λ(λ=633nm) and the roughness is 0.32nm ,which has meet the requirements of mask substrate for 90 45nm nodes.

  2. Laser polishing of 3D printed mesoscale components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, Debajyoti; Penchev, Pavel; Batal, Afif; Dimov, Stefan; Soo, Sein Leung; Sten, Stella; Harrysson, Urban; Zhang, Zhenxue; Dong, Hanshan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Process optimisation for laser polishing novel 3D printed SS316L parts. • Evaluating the effects of key polishing parameters on SS316L surface roughness. • Detailed spectroscopic analysis of oxide layer formation due to laser polishing. • Comparative surface integrity analysis of SS parts polished in air and argon. • A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% achieved at optimised polishing settings. - Abstract: Laser polishing of various engineered materials such as glass, silica, steel, nickel and titanium alloys, has attracted considerable interest in the last 20 years due to its superior flexibility, operating speed and capability for localised surface treatment compared to conventional mechanical based methods. The paper initially reports results from process optimisation experiments aimed at investigating the influence of laser fluence and pulse overlap parameters on resulting workpiece surface roughness following laser polishing of planar 3D printed stainless steel (SS316L) specimens. A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% (from ∼3.8 to ∼0.2 μm S_a) was achieved at the optimised settings (fluence of 9 J/cm"2 and overlap factors of 95% and 88–91% along beam scanning and step-over directions respectively). Subsequent analysis using both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) confirmed the presence of surface oxide layers (predominantly consisting of Fe and Cr phases) up to a depth of ∼0.5 μm when laser polishing was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. Conversely, formation of oxide layers was negligible when operating in an inert argon gas environment. The microhardness of the polished specimens was primarily influenced by the input thermal energy, with greater sub-surface hardness (up to ∼60%) recorded in the samples processed with higher energy density. Additionally, all of the polished surfaces were free of the scratch marks, pits, holes, lumps

  3. Laser polishing of 3D printed mesoscale components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, Debajyoti, E-mail: debajyoti.bhaduri@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Penchev, Pavel; Batal, Afif; Dimov, Stefan; Soo, Sein Leung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Sten, Stella; Harrysson, Urban [Digital Metal, Höganäs AB, 263 83 Höganäs (Sweden); Zhang, Zhenxue; Dong, Hanshan [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Process optimisation for laser polishing novel 3D printed SS316L parts. • Evaluating the effects of key polishing parameters on SS316L surface roughness. • Detailed spectroscopic analysis of oxide layer formation due to laser polishing. • Comparative surface integrity analysis of SS parts polished in air and argon. • A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% achieved at optimised polishing settings. - Abstract: Laser polishing of various engineered materials such as glass, silica, steel, nickel and titanium alloys, has attracted considerable interest in the last 20 years due to its superior flexibility, operating speed and capability for localised surface treatment compared to conventional mechanical based methods. The paper initially reports results from process optimisation experiments aimed at investigating the influence of laser fluence and pulse overlap parameters on resulting workpiece surface roughness following laser polishing of planar 3D printed stainless steel (SS316L) specimens. A maximum reduction in roughness of over 94% (from ∼3.8 to ∼0.2 μm S{sub a}) was achieved at the optimised settings (fluence of 9 J/cm{sup 2} and overlap factors of 95% and 88–91% along beam scanning and step-over directions respectively). Subsequent analysis using both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) confirmed the presence of surface oxide layers (predominantly consisting of Fe and Cr phases) up to a depth of ∼0.5 μm when laser polishing was performed under normal atmospheric conditions. Conversely, formation of oxide layers was negligible when operating in an inert argon gas environment. The microhardness of the polished specimens was primarily influenced by the input thermal energy, with greater sub-surface hardness (up to ∼60%) recorded in the samples processed with higher energy density. Additionally, all of the polished surfaces were free of the scratch marks, pits, holes

  4. Detection of paint polishing defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Wagner, M.; Mazal, J.; Rosén, B.-G.; Dahlén, M.

    2018-06-01

    Surface finish plays a major role on perceived product quality, and is the first thing a potential buyer sees. Today end-of-line repairs of the body of cars and trucks are inevitably to secure required surface quality. Defects that occur in the paint shop, like dust particles, are eliminated by manual sanding/polishing which lead to other types of defects when the last polishing step is not performed correctly or not fully completed. One of those defects is known as ‘polishing roses’ or holograms, which are incredibly hard to detect in artificial light but are clearly visible in sunlight. This paper will present the first tests with a measurement set-up newly developed to measure and analyse polishing roses. The results showed good correlations to human visual evaluations where repaired panels were estimated based on the defects’ intensity, severity and viewing angle.

  5. Lysenko affair and Polish botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the slight impact of Lysenkoism upon Polish botany. I begin with an account of the development of plant genetics in Poland, as well as the attitude of scientists and the Polish intelligentsia toward Marxist philosophy prior to the World War II. Next I provide a short history of the introduction and demise of Lysenkoism in Polish science, with a focus on events in botany, in context with key events in Polish science from 1939 to 1958. The article outlines the little effects of Lysenkoism upon botanists and their research, as well as how botanists for the most part rejected what was often termed the "new biology." My paper shows that though Lysenko's theories received political support, and were actively promoted by a small circle of scientists and Communist party activists, they were never accepted by most botanists. Once the political climate in Poland altered after the events of 1956, Lysenko's theories were immediately abandoned.

  6. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision robots and computer numerically controlled ('CNC') polishing machines for optical fabrication. The objective was not to assess which is superior. Rather, it was to understand for the first time their complementary properties, leading us to operate them together as a unit, integrated in hardware and software. Three key areas are reported. First is the novel use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  7. A Study on the Effect of the Contact Point and the Contact Force of a Glass Fiber under End-Face Polishing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chien Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The offset between the center lines of the polished end-face and the fiber core has a significant effect on coupling efficiency. The initial contact point and the contact force are two of the most important parameters that induce the offset. This study proposes an image assistant method to find the initial contact point and a mathematical model to estimate the contact force when fabricating the double-variable-curvature end-face of single mode glass fiber. The repeatability of finding the initial contact point via the vision assistant program is 0.3 μm. Based on the assumption of a large deflection, a mathematical model is developed to study the relationship between the contact force and the displacement of the lapping film. In order to verify the feasibility of the mathematical model, experiments, as well as DEFORM simulations, are carried out. The results show that the contact forces are alomst linearly proportional to the feed amounts of the lapping film and the errors are less than 9%. By using the method developed in this study, the offset between the grinding end-face and the center line of the fiber core is within 0.15 to 0.35 μm.

  8. Analysis and optimization techniques for real-time streaming image processing software on general purpose systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westmijze, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Chip Multi-Processor (CMP) systems are for cost reasons often used in industry for soft real-time stream processing. COTS CMP systems typically have a low timing predictability, which makes it difficult to develop software applications for these systems with tight

  9. Production of rare earth polishing powders in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosynkin, V.D.; Ivanov, E.N.; Kotrekhov, V.A.; Shtutza, M.G.; Grabko, A.I.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Russia is a potent producer of polishing powders made of rare earth material presented as an extensive and well developed base. Considering the reserves, the facilities predisposition and the polishing agent (cerium dioxide) content the chief mineral source is loparite, apatite and monazite. The production of rare earth polishing powders is based on specially developed continuous technological processes, corrosion-proof equipment, ensuring a high and stable production quality. A special attention is paid to the radiation safety of the powders. The initial material for the rare earth polishing powders based on loparite is the fusion cake of rare earth chlorides obtained at that mineral chlorination. The technology of the polishing powder production from the REE fusion cake includes the following stages: dissolution of the REE fusion cake chlorides; - thorough cleaning of the REE fusion cake chlorides from radioactive and non-rare-earth impurities; chemical precipitation of REE carbonates, obtaining middlings with proper material and granulometric composition, thermal treatment of precipitated carbonates followed with the operations of drying and roasting; classification of roasted oxides, obtaining end products - polishing powders. The production of fluorine-containing powders includes the stage of their fluorination after the stage of carbonate precipitation. The stabilizing doping can be introduced both into the middlings during one of the technological process of powders manufacturing and into the end product. Rare earth polishing powders are manufactured in Russia by the Share Holding Company 'Chepetz Mechanical Plant' (ChMP Co.), the city of Glasov. The plant produces a number of polishing materials, such as; polishing powder Optinol, containing at least 50% by mass of cerium dioxide, used in the mass production of optical and other articles; polishing powder Optinol-10 with doping to improve the sedimentary and aggregate stability of the solid phase

  10. ROUGHNESS ANALYSIS OF VARIOUSLY POLISHED NIOBIUM SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeill, G.; Reece, C.

    2008-01-01

    Niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities have gained widespread use in accelerator systems. It has been shown that surface roughness is a determining factor in the cavities’ effi ciency and maximum accelerating potential achievable through this technology. Irregularities in the surface can lead to spot heating, undesirable local electrical fi eld enhancement and electron multipacting. Surface quality is typically ensured through the use of acid etching in a Buffered Chemical Polish (BCP) bath and electropolishing (EP). In this study, the effects of these techniques on surface morphology have been investigated in depth. The surface of niobium samples polished using different combinations of these techniques has been characterized through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and stylus profi lometry across a range of length scales. The surface morphology was analyzed using spectral techniques to determine roughness and characteristic dimensions. Experimentation has shown that this method is a valuable tool that provides quantitative information about surface roughness at different length scales. It has demonstrated that light BCP pretreatment and lower electrolyte temperature favors a smoother electropolish. These results will allow for the design of a superior polishing process for niobium SRF cavities and therefore increased accelerator operating effi ciency and power.

  11. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of bank’s interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the company’s detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the company’s detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a “good host” is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the manager’s powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the

  12. Tripodal (N-alkylated) CMP(O) and malonamide ligands: synthesis, extraction of metal ions, and potentiometric studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janczewski, D.; Reinhoudt, D.N.; Verboom, W. [Twente Univ., Lab. of Supramolecular Chemistry and Technology, Mesa Research Institute for Nanotechnology, Enschede (Netherlands); Malinowska, E.; Pietrzak, M. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Hill, C.; Allignol, C. [CEA Valrho, 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2007-01-15

    Tripodal ligands build on the C-pivot (9b-e, 13b-d, and 17a-d) and tri-alkyl-benzene platforms (10a,b, 11, 12, 14a,b, and 18a,b) bearing (N-alkylated) carbamoyl-methyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO), carbamoyl-methyl-phosphonate (CMP), and malonamide moieties were synthesized. Extraction studies with Am{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} show that in general there is a positive influence of the N-alkyl substituents in C-pivot CMP(O) ligands on the D(distribution) coefficients. The tri-alkyl-benzene CMPO ligands 10a,b, 11, and 12 have considerably larger D coefficients than the corresponding C-pivot analogues 9a-e, although hardly having any selectivity, while N-alkylation gives rise to smaller D coefficients. Although less effective the extraction behavior of the C-pivot CMP analogues 13b-d shows more or less the same trend as the corresponding CMPO ligands 9b-e upon substitution of the carboxamide N-atom with different alkyl chains. The different malonamide ligands 17a-d and 18a,b are bad extractants, while N-alkylation makes them even worse. Potentiometric studies of CMP(O) and malonamide ligands in polymeric membranes on Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, and K{sup +} salts revealed that N-alkyl substituents increase the stability constants of ion-ionophore complexes compared to unsubstituted ligands. In polymeric membrane electrodes the ligands induce a selectivity pattern that differs significantly from the so-called Hofmeister series, giving the highest selectivity coefficients for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} among all examined cations (Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}). (authors)

  13. Tripodal (N-alkylated) CMP(O) and malonamide ligands: synthesis, extraction of metal ions, and potentiometric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczewski, D.; Reinhoudt, D.N.; Verboom, W.; Malinowska, E.; Pietrzak, M.; Hill, C.; Allignol, C.

    2007-01-01

    Tripodal ligands build on the C-pivot (9b-e, 13b-d, and 17a-d) and tri-alkyl-benzene platforms (10a,b, 11, 12, 14a,b, and 18a,b) bearing (N-alkylated) carbamoyl-methyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO), carbamoyl-methyl-phosphonate (CMP), and malonamide moieties were synthesized. Extraction studies with Am 3+ and Eu 3+ show that in general there is a positive influence of the N-alkyl substituents in C-pivot CMP(O) ligands on the D(distribution) coefficients. The tri-alkyl-benzene CMPO ligands 10a,b, 11, and 12 have considerably larger D coefficients than the corresponding C-pivot analogues 9a-e, although hardly having any selectivity, while N-alkylation gives rise to smaller D coefficients. Although less effective the extraction behavior of the C-pivot CMP analogues 13b-d shows more or less the same trend as the corresponding CMPO ligands 9b-e upon substitution of the carboxamide N-atom with different alkyl chains. The different malonamide ligands 17a-d and 18a,b are bad extractants, while N-alkylation makes them even worse. Potentiometric studies of CMP(O) and malonamide ligands in polymeric membranes on Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , and K + salts revealed that N-alkyl substituents increase the stability constants of ion-ionophore complexes compared to unsubstituted ligands. In polymeric membrane electrodes the ligands induce a selectivity pattern that differs significantly from the so-called Hofmeister series, giving the highest selectivity coefficients for UO 2 2+ among all examined cations (Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + ). (authors)

  14. Exposure Characteristics of Nanoparticles as Process By-products for the Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang-Min; Kim, Jin-Ho; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Kwan-Sick; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the exposure properties of nanoparticles (NPs; semiconductor manufacturing processes. The measurements of airborne NPs were mainly performed around process equipment during fabrication processes and during maintenance. The number concentrations of NPs were measured using a water-based condensation particle counter having a size range of 10-3,000 nm. The chemical composition, size, and shape of NPs were determined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The resulting concentrations of NPs ranged from 0.00-11.47 particles/cm(3). The concentration of NPs measured during maintenance showed a tendency to increase, albeit incrementally, compared to that measured during normal conditions (under typical process conditions without maintenance). However, the increment was small. When comparing the mean number concentration and standard deviation (n ± σ) of NPs, the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process was the highest (3.45 ± 3.65 particles/cm(3)), and the dry etch (ETCH) process was the lowest (0.11 ± 0.22 particles/cm(3)). The major NPs observed were silica (SiO2) and titania (TiO2) particles, which were mainly spherical agglomerates ranging in size from 25-280 nm. Sampling of semiconductor processes in CMP, chemical vapor deposition, and ETCH reveled NPs were particle size exceeded 100 nm in diffusion, metallization, ion implantation, and wet cleaning/etching process. The results show that the SiO2 and TiO2 are the major NPs present in semiconductor cleanroom environments.

  15. Identification of the nuclear export signals that regulate the intracellular localization of the mouse CMP-sialic acid synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Akiko; Sato, Chihiro; Kitajima, Ken.

    2007-01-01

    The CMP-sialic acid synthetase (CSS) catalyzes the activation of sialic acid (Sia) to CMP-Sia which is a donor substrate of sialyltransferases. The vertebrate CSSs are usually localized in nucleus due to the nuclear localization signal (NLS) on the molecule. In this study, we first point out that a small, but significant population of the mouse CMP-sialic acid synthetase (mCSS) is also present in cytoplasm, though mostly in nucleus. As a mechanism for the localization in cytoplasm, we first identified two nuclear export signals (NESs) in mCSS, based on the localization studies of the potential NES-deleted mCSS mutants as well as the potential NES-tagged eGFP proteins. These two NESs are conserved among mammalian and fish CSSs, but not present in the bacterial or insect CSS. These results suggest that the intracellular localization of vertebrate CSSs is regulated by not only the NLS, but also the NES sequences

  16. Determination of the anomeric specificity of the Escherichia coli CTP:CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate cytidylyltransferase by 13C NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlbrenner, W.E.; Fesik, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    [99%, 1- 13 C]- and [90%, 2- 13 C]3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) were prepared enzymatically and used to determine the anomeric specificity of the CTP:CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate cytidylyl transferase (CMP-KDO synthetase) by 13 C NMR spectroscopy. Addition of CMP-KDO synthetase to reaction mixtures containing either 1- 13 C- or 2- 13 C-labeled KDO resulted in rapid CMP-KDO formation which was accompanied by a substantial decrease in the 13 C-enriched resonances of the beta-pyranose form of KDO relative to the resonances of other KDO species in solution, demonstrating that the beta-pyranose is the preferred substrate. Concomitant with the production of CMP-KDO was the appearance of peaks at 174.3 and 101.4 ppm when [1- 13 C]- and [2- 13 C]KDO, respectively, were used as substrates. The correspondence of these resonances to the enriched carbons in CMP-KDO was confirmed by the expected 3-bond (3JP,C-1 = 6.9 Hz) and 2-bond coupling (2JP,C-2 = 8.3 Hz) between the labeled carbons and the ketosidically linked phosphoryl group. A large coupling (3J = 5.7 Hz) was observed in proton-coupled spectra of CMP-[1- 13 C]KDO between carbon 1 and the axial proton at carbon 3 of KDO. The magnitude of this coupling constant supports a diaxial relationship between these two groups and, along with chemical shift data, indicates that KDO retains the beta-configuration when linked in CMP-KDO

  17. Damage-free polishing of monocrystalline silicon wafers without chemical additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddut, A.Q.; Zhang, L.C.; Ali, Y.M.; Liu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation explores the possibility and identifies the mechanism of damage-free polishing of monocrystalline silicon without chemical additives. Using high resolution electron microscopy and contact mechanics, the study concludes that a damage-free polishing process without chemicals is feasible. All forms of damages, such as amorphous Si, dislocations and plane shifting, can be eliminated by avoiding the initiation of the β-tin phase of silicon during polishing. When using 50 nm abrasives, the nominal pressure to achieve damage-free polishing is 20 kPa

  18. Composite adaptive control of belt polishing force for aero-engine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhsao, Pengbing; Shi, Yaoyao

    2013-09-01

    The existing methods for blade polishing mainly focus on robot polishing and manual grinding. Due to the difficulty in high-precision control of the polishing force, the blade surface precision is very low in robot polishing, in particular, quality of the inlet and exhaust edges can not satisfy the processing requirements. Manual grinding has low efficiency, high labor intensity and unstable processing quality, moreover, the polished surface is vulnerable to burn, and the surface precision and integrity are difficult to ensure. In order to further improve the profile accuracy and surface quality, a pneumatic flexible polishing force-exerting mechanism is designed and a dual-mode switching composite adaptive control(DSCAC) strategy is proposed, which combines Bang-Bang control and model reference adaptive control based on fuzzy neural network(MRACFNN) together. By the mode decision-making mechanism, Bang-Bang control is used to track the control command signal quickly when the actual polishing force is far away from the target value, and MRACFNN is utilized in smaller error ranges to improve the system robustness and control precision. Based on the mathematical model of the force-exerting mechanism, simulation analysis is implemented on DSCAC. Simulation results show that the output polishing force can better track the given signal. Finally, the blade polishing experiments are carried out on the designed polishing equipment. Experimental results show that DSCAC can effectively mitigate the influence of gas compressibility, valve dead-time effect, valve nonlinear flow, cylinder friction, measurement noise and other interference on the control precision of polishing force, which has high control precision, strong robustness, strong anti-interference ability and other advantages compared with MRACFNN. The proposed research achieves high-precision control of the polishing force, effectively improves the blade machining precision and surface consistency, and

  19. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    OpenAIRE

    A Pokrywka; Z Obmiński; D Kwiatkowska; R Grucza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition). Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 year...

  20. Three-Dimensional Vibration Isolator for Suppressing High-Frequency Responses for Sage III Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Cutright, S.; Dyke, R.; Templeton, J.; Gasbarre, J.; Novak, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III - International Space Station (ISS) instrument will be used to study ozone, providing global, long-term measurements of key components of the Earth's atmosphere for the continued health of Earth and its inhabitants. SAGE III is launched into orbit in an inverted configuration on SpaceX;s Falcon 9 launch vehicle. As one of its four supporting elements, a Contamination Monitoring Package (CMP) mounted to the top panel of the Interface Adapter Module (IAM) box experiences high-frequency response due to structural coupling between the two structures during the SpaceX launch. These vibrations, which were initially observed in the IAM Engineering Development Unit (EDU) test and later verified through finite element analysis (FEA) for the SpaceX launch loads, may damage the internal electronic cards and the Thermoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalance (TQCM) sensors mounted on the CMP. Three-dimensional (3D) vibration isolators were required to be inserted between the CMP and IAM interface in order to attenuate the high frequency vibrations without resulting in any major changes to the existing system. Wire rope isolators were proposed as the isolation system between the CMP and IAM due to the low impact to design. Most 3D isolation systems are designed for compression and roll, therefore little dynamic data was available for using wire rope isolators in an inverted or tension configuration. From the isolator FEA and test results, it is shown that by using the 3D wire rope isolators, the CMP high-frequency responses have been suppressed by several orders of magnitude over a wide excitation frequency range. Consequently, the TQCM sensor responses are well below their qualification environments. It is indicated that these high-frequency responses due to the typical instrument structural coupling can be significantly suppressed by a vibration passive control using the 3D vibration isolator. Thermal and contamination

  1. The Electronic CardioMetabolic Program (eCMP) for Patients With Cardiometabolic Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Kristen M J; Koliwad, Suneil; Poon, Tak; Xiao, Lan; Lv, Nan; Griggs, Robert; Ma, Jun

    2016-05-27

    Effective lifestyle interventions targeting high-risk adults that are both practical for use in ambulatory care settings and scalable at a population management level are needed. Our aim was to examine the potential effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of delivering an evidence-based Electronic Cardio-Metabolic Program (eCMP) for improving health-related quality of life, improving health behaviors, and reducing cardiometabolic risk factors in ambulatory care high-risk adults. We conducted a randomized, wait-list controlled trial with 74 adults aged ≥18 years recruited from a large multispecialty health care organization. Inclusion criteria were (1) BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) and prediabetes, previous gestational diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome, or (2) BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Participants had a mean age of 59.7 years (SD 11.2), BMI 37.1 kg/m(2) (SD 5.4) and were 59.5% female, 82.4% white. Participants were randomized to participate in eCMP immediately (n=37) or 3 months later (n=37). eCMP is a 6-month program utilizing video conferencing, online tools, and pre-recorded didactic videos to deliver evidence-based curricula. Blinded outcome assessments were conducted at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. Data were collected and analyzed between 2014 and 2015. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes included biometric cardiometabolic risk factors (eg, body weight), self-reported diet and physical activity, mental health status, retention, session attendance, and participant satisfaction. Change in quality of life was not significant in both immediate and delayed participants. Both groups significantly lost weight and reduced waist circumference at 6 months, with some cardiometabolic factors trending accordingly. Significant reduction in self-reported anxiety and perceived stress was seen in the immediate intervention group at 6 months. Retention rate was 93% at 3 months and 86% at 6 months

  2. Barriers and Limitations of Mentoring in Polish Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mesjasz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Polish organizations one can recognize a lot of barriers in the mentoring implementation. According to the author, at the root of these barriers are hierarchies of values: social, national, organizational, and hierarchies of values represented by individual employees. The purpose of this article is to trace the sources of constraints in the mentoring implementation process. The analysis is carried out on several levels: from the broadest social perspective, through the national to the perspective of the organization. In the article, there are also presented actions that should be taken by Polish organizations to overcome barriers and constraints in the mentoring implementation process.

  3. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  4. Research on Grinding and Polishing Force Control of Compliant Flange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the grinding and polishing process is important to improve the production efficiency of the part surfaces. In this paper, a new compliant flange mounted on the end of the industrial robots for the robotic grinding and polishing force control is developed. With regard to the non-linear and time-varying problem of the contact force, the mathematical model of the new force control system was presented and the fuzzy PID control strategy was used to drive the proposed system. Especially, the air spring and electric proportional valve is studied to establish the model. The simulation results show that the selected control strategy has quick response and good robustness, which satisfies the real-time requirements of the grinding and polishing force control in processing.

  5. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  6. Polish Foreign Trade: The Quality Catch-up and the Influence of Foreign Direct Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates how the Polish transition process has expressed itself in export and inward foreign direct investments (FDI), and the relations between export and FDI. Since 1988, the number of Polish products able to compee in export markets has steadily increased. The quality level...

  7. Terminology extraction from medical texts in Polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Małgorzata; Mykowiecka, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Hospital documents contain free text describing the most important facts relating to patients and their illnesses. These documents are written in specific language containing medical terminology related to hospital treatment. Their automatic processing can help in verifying the consistency of hospital documentation and obtaining statistical data. To perform this task we need information on the phrases we are looking for. At the moment, clinical Polish resources are sparse. The existing terminologies, such as Polish Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), do not provide sufficient coverage for clinical tasks. It would be helpful therefore if it were possible to automatically prepare, on the basis of a data sample, an initial set of terms which, after manual verification, could be used for the purpose of information extraction. Using a combination of linguistic and statistical methods for processing over 1200 children hospital discharge records, we obtained a list of single and multiword terms used in hospital discharge documents written in Polish. The phrases are ordered according to their presumed importance in domain texts measured by the frequency of use of a phrase and the variety of its contexts. The evaluation showed that the automatically identified phrases cover about 84% of terms in domain texts. At the top of the ranked list, only 4% out of 400 terms were incorrect while out of the final 200, 20% of expressions were either not domain related or syntactically incorrect. We also observed that 70% of the obtained terms are not included in the Polish MeSH. Automatic terminology extraction can give results which are of a quality high enough to be taken as a starting point for building domain related terminological dictionaries or ontologies. This approach can be useful for preparing terminological resources for very specific subdomains for which no relevant terminologies already exist. The evaluation performed showed that none of the tested ranking procedures were

  8. Plasma electrolytic polishing of metalized carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Böttger-Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient lightweight structures require intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. Especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs are gaining relevance. Their increasing use aims at reducing energy consumption in many applications. CFRPs are generally very light in weight, while at the same time being extremely stiff and strong (specific strength: CFRPs: 1.3 Nm kg–1, steel: 0.27 Nm kg–1; specific stiffness: CFRPs: 100 Nm kg–1, steel: 25 Nm kg–1. To increase performance and especially functionality of CFRPs, the integration of microelectronic components into CFRP parts is aspired. The functionalization by sensors, actuators and electronics can enable a high lightweight factor and a new level of failure-safety. The integration of microelectronic components for this purpose requires a working procedure to provide electrical contacts for a reliable connection to energy supply and data interfaces. To overcome this challenge, metalized carbon fibers are used. Metalized fibers are, similar to the usual reinforcing fibers, able to be soldered and therefore easy to incorporate into CFRPs. Unfortunately, metalized fibers have to be pre-treated by flux-agents. Until now, there is no flux which is suitable for mass production without destroying the polymer of the CFRP. The process of plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP could be an option, but is so far not available for copper. Thus, in this study, plasma electrolytic polishing is transferred to copper and its alloys. To achieve this, electrolytic parameters as well as the electrical setup are adapted. It can be observed that the gloss and roughness can be adjusted by means of this procedure. Finally, plasma electrolytic polishing is used to treat thin copper layers on carbon fibers.

  9. Laser polishing for topography management of accelerator cavity surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Klopf, J. Mike [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Improved energy efficiency and reduced cost are greatly desired for advanced particle accelerators. Progress toward both can be made by atomically-smoothing the interior surface of the niobium superconducting radiofrequency accelerator cavities at the machine's heart. Laser polishing offers a green alternative to the present aggressive chemical processes. We found parameters suitable for polishing niobium in all surface states expected for cavity production. As a result, careful measurement of the resulting surface chemistry revealed a modest thinning of the surface oxide layer, but no contamination.

  10. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  11. SAFETY PLATFORM OF POLISH TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna CHRUZIK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the level of Polish transport safety culture can be seen that it is now dependent on the culture of safety management within the organization and the requirements and recommendations of law in this field for different modes of transport (air, rail, road, water. Of the four basic types of transport requirements are widely developed in the aviation, rail, and water – the sea. In order to harmonize the requirements for transport safety so it appears advisable to develop a platform for exchange of safety information for different modes of transport, and the development of good practices multimodal offering the possibility of improving Polish transport safety. Described in the publication of the proposal in addition to the alignment platform experience and knowledge in the field of transport safety in all its kinds, it can also be a tool for perfecting new operators of public transport.

  12. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  13. Radiosynthesis and in vivo evaluation of [{sup 11}C]MP-10 as a positron emission tomography radioligand for phosphodiesterase 10A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plisson, Christophe, E-mail: Christophe.2.plisson@gsk.com [GlaxoSmithKline, Clinical Imaging Centre Hammersmith Hospital, London, W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Salinas, Cristian [GlaxoSmithKline, Clinical Imaging Centre Hammersmith Hospital, London, W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Weinzimmer, David; Labaree, David; Lin, Shu-Fei; Ding, Yu-Shin [Yale University PET Center, Yale University School of Medicine, PO Box 208048 New Haven, CT (United States); Jakobsen, Steen [Aarhus PET Centre, Aarhus Sygehus, Norrebrogade 44, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Smith, Paul W. [GlaxoSmithKline, Clinical Imaging Centre Hammersmith Hospital, London, W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Eiji, Kawanishi [Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratories II, Research Division, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Saitama 335-8505 (Japan); Carson, Richard E. [Yale University PET Center, Yale University School of Medicine, PO Box 208048 New Haven, CT (United States); Gunn, Roger N.; Rabiner, Eugenii A. [GlaxoSmithKline, Clinical Imaging Centre Hammersmith Hospital, London, W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate a newly reported positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [{sup 11}C]MP-10, a potent and selective inhibitor of the central phosphodiesterase 10A enzyme (PDE10A) in vivo, using PET. Methods: A procedure was developed for labeling MP-10 with carbon-11. [{sup 11}C]MP-10 was evaluated in vivo both in the pig and baboon brain. Results: Alkylation of the corresponding desmethyl compound with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide produced [{sup 11}C]MP-10 with good radiochemical yield and specific activity. PET studies in the pig showed that [{sup 11}C]MP-10 rapidly entered the brain reaching peak tissue concentration at 1-2 min postadministration, followed by washout from the tissue. Administration of a selective PDE10A inhibitor reduced the binding in all brain regions to the levels of the cerebellum, demonstrating the saturability and selectivity of [{sup 11}C]MP-10 binding. In the nonhuman primate, the brain tissue kinetics of [{sup 11}C]MP-10 were slower, reaching peak tissue concentrations at 30-60 min postadministration. In both species, the observed rank order of regional brain signal was striatum>diencephalon>cortical regions=cerebellum, consistent with the known distribution and concentration of PDE10A. [{sup 11}C]MP-10 brain kinetics were well described by a two-tissue compartment model, and estimates of total volume of distribution (V{sub T}) were obtained. Blocking studies with unlabeled MP-10 revealed the suitability of the cerebellum as a reference tissue and enabled the estimation of regional binding potential (BP{sub ND}) as the outcome measure of specific binding. Quantification of [{sup 11}C]MP-10 binding using the simplified reference tissue model with cerebellar input function produced BP{sub ND} estimates consistent with those obtained by the two-tissue compartment model. Conclusion: We demonstrated that [{sup 11}C]MP-10 possesses good characteristics for the in vivo quantification of the PDE10A in the

  14. Careers of young Polish chemists

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Typical young Polish scientist is an alumnus of doctoral studies at the same university and department where he/she completed his/her Master degree. The career is continued by receiving a habilitation at the same university and department. Then a holder of habilitation is promoted to a tenured position at the same university and department. Detailed analysis of scientific careers of 154 recent Ph.D. recipients and of 16 habilitation candidates in chemistry from University of Warsaw is present...

  15. Importance of public participation in decision-making process in healthcare system illustarted with an example of the development of American and Polish scope of health benefit basket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Hermanowski, Tomasz; Borek, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The process of the development of health benefit basket may serve as a good example of decision-making process in the healthcare system which is based on public participation. Comparative analysis of development and implementation of health benefit basket in Poland and the USA. On a basis of the literature review, following questions were studied, i.e.: What is the origin of health benefit basket development in the USA and Poland? What was the role of pubic opinion in determining the range of health benefit basket in both countries? What criteria were employed to determine the range of health benefit basket in both countries? What conclusions can be drawn for Poland from the USA experience of determining the range of health benefit basket? Irrespective of the similarities in the origin of health benefit basket development, both countries approached this issue differently. In the USA, the approach based on social dialogue and patient's perspective was selected while in Poland the perspective of public payer predominated. The transparency of principles and social dialogue constitute the fundamental elements of effective process of health benefit basket development and implementation which is both required and generally unpopular modification.

  16. 19th Polish Control Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Oprzędkiewicz, Krzysztof; Skruch, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the KKA 2017 – the 19th Polish Control Conference, organized by the Department of Automatics and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Poland on June 18–21, 2017, under the auspices of the Committee on Automatic Control and Robotics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Commission for Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Part 1 deals with general issues of modeling and control, notably flow modeling and control, sliding mode, predictive, dual, etc. control. In turn, Part 2 focuses on optimization, estimation and prediction for control. Part 3 is concerned with autonomous vehicles, while Part 4 addresses applications. Part 5 discusses computer methods in control, and Part 6 examines fractional order calculus in the modeling and control of dynamic systems. Part 7 focuses on modern robotics. Part 8 deals with modeling and identification, while Part 9 deals with problems related to security, fault ...

  17. A novel vibration assisted polishing device based on the flexural mechanism driven by the piezoelectric actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration assisted polishing has widely application fields because of higher machining frequency and better polishing quality, especially the polishing with the non-resonant mode that is regarded as a kind of promising polishing method. This paper reports a novel vibration assisted polishing device, consisting of the flexible hinge mechanism driven by the piezoelectric actuators, which is suitable for polishing planes or curve surfaces with slow curvature. Firstly, the generation methods of vibration trajectory are investigated for the same frequency and different frequency signals’ inputs, respectively, and then the types of elliptic and Lissajous’s vibration trajectories are generated respectively. Secondly, a flexural mechanism consisting of the right circular flexible hinges and the leaf springs is developed to produce two-dimensional vibration trajectory. Statics and dynamics investigating of this flexible mechanism are finished in detail. The analytical models about input and output compliances of the flexural mechanism are established according to the matrix-based compliance modeling, and the dynamic model of the flexural mechanism based on the Euler-Lagrange equation is also presented. The finite element model of the flexural mechanism was established to carry out the numerical simulation in order to testify the rationality of device design. Finally, the polishing experiment is carried out to prove the effectiveness of the vibration device. The experimental results show that this novel vibration assisted polishing device developed in this study can remove more effectively the cutting marks left by last process and obviously reduce the workpiece surface roughness.

  18. SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING AS A DETERMINANT OF THE PROCESS OF MAKING PURCHASE DECISIONS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF POLISH AND FRENCH YOUNG CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jerzyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of the idea of sustainable development largely depends on the way it is perceived and understood by consumers. Therefore, the article presents the fi ndings of a survey on consumers’ knowledge about sustainable packaging, in particular: the understanding of the idea of sustainable packaging in terms of sustainable development, consumers’ interest in the concept of sustainable packaging, as well as the sources of information about sustainable packaging. Numerous earlier studies showed that younger and better-educated consumers are more favourably disposed to this concept, so the research was restricted to young consumers. The respondents’ opinions were analysed from the point of view of the purchase decision process. The subject of the analysis was the signifi cance of particular characteristics of sustainable packaging for consumers. The research allowed for establishing fi ve characteristics of sustainable packaging which, according to the respondents, are the main criteria for the assessment and the comparison of products and packaging during shopping. Moreover, it turned out that in mature markets consumers display higher sensitivity to companies’ sustainable activities, including those related to packaging, which can be caused by the economic reasons (consumers are not very price-conscious.

  19. The tourism attractiveness of Polish libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Miedzińska, Magdalena; Tanaś, Sławoj

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the article is to draw the reader's attention to the tourism attractiveness of renowned Polish libraries. These have attained a tourism function due to tourism exploration and penetration, but remain in the shadow of other Polish cultural assets. The article outlines the historical geography of Polish libraries, an analysis of tourism assets and an attempt to classify and catalogue libraries in Poland.

  20. Corporate Politics on Polish Millennials

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Roślik

    2017-01-01

    In the very beginning of this particular paper, an author is trying to determine and describe who Millennials actually are. Then, the basis of Millennials definition is analysing corporation’s activity over the past years regarding this age group. The main goal of the thesis is to bring their specific futures out and describe what corporations on Polish job market are doing to encourage them to work in their offices. Especially in Poland within the last years, it is observed that big multinat...

  1. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  2. Summary of Synthetic Lap Polishing Experiments at LLNL, FY95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, M A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to support the optics finishing development work for the NIF, the National Ignition Facility. One of the major expenses for the construction of NIF is the cost of finishing of the large aperture optics. One way to significantly reduce the cost of the project is to develop processes to reduce the amount of time necessary to polish the more than 3,000 amplifier slabs. These slabs are rectangular with an aspect ratio of more than twenty to one and are made of a very temperature sensitive glass, Nd doped phosphate laser glass. As a result of this effort, we could potentially reduce the time necessary to polish each surface of an amplifier from 20-30 hours of run time to under an hour to achieve the same removal and still maintain a flatness of between one to three waves concave figure. We also feel confident that we can polish rectangular thermally sensitive glass flat by use of temperature control of the polishing platen, pad curvature, slurry concentration with temperature control, pad rotation, and pressure; although further, larger scale experiments are necessary to gain sufficient confidence that such a procedure could be successfully fielded

  3. Incorporating travel-time reliability into the congestion management process : a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This primer explains the value of incorporating travel-time reliability into the Congestion Management Process (CMP) : and identifies the most current tools available to assist with this effort. It draws from applied research and best practices : fro...

  4. Sexual activity of Polish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.

  5. Calculation and simulation on mid-spatial frequency error in continuous polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Lei; Zhang Yunfan; You Yunfeng; Ma Ping; Liu Yibin; Yan Dingyao

    2013-01-01

    Based on theoretical model of continuous polishing, the influence of processing parameters on the polishing result was discussed. Possible causes of mid-spatial frequency error in the process were analyzed. The simulation results demonstrated that the low spatial frequency error was mainly caused by large rotating ratio. The mid-spatial frequency error would decrease as the low spatial frequency error became lower. The regular groove shape was the primary reason of the mid-spatial frequency error. When irregular and fitful grooves were adopted, the mid-spatial frequency error could be lessened. Moreover, the workpiece swing could make the polishing process more uniform and reduce the mid-spatial frequency error caused by the fix-eccentric plane polishing. (authors)

  6. New surface modification method of bio-titanium alloy by EB polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira; Uno, Yoshiyuki; Iio, Atsuo; Fujiwara, Kunihiko; Doi, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    A new surface modification for bio-titanium alloy products by electron beam (EB) polishing is proposed. In this EB polishing method, high energy density EB can be irradiated without concentrating the beam. Therefore, large-area EB with a maximum diameter of 60 mm can be used for instantaneously melting or evaporating metal surface. Experimental results made it clear that surface characteristics, such as repellency, corrosion resistance and coefficient of friction could be improved simultaneously with the surface smoothing in a few minutes under a proper condition. Therefore, EB polishing method has a possibility of high efficient surface smoothing and surface modification process for bio-titanium alloy. (author)

  7. Using STED and ELSM confocal microscopy for a better knowledge of fused silica polished glass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catrin, Rodolphe; Neauport, Jerome; Taroux, Daniel; Corbineau, Thomas; Cormont, Philippe; Maunier, Cedric; Legros, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics and nature of close surface defects existing in fused silica polished optical surfaces were explored. Samples were deliberately scratched using a modified polishing process in presence of different fluorescent dyes. Various techniques including Epi-fluorescence Laser Scanning Mode (ELSM) or Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) confocal microscopy were used to measure and quantify scratches that are sometimes embedded under the polished layer. We show using a nondestructive technique that depth of the modified region extends far below the surface. Moreover cracks of 120 nm width can be present ten micrometers below the surface. (authors)

  8. Polish Industry and Art at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 17 October 2000 the second Polish industrial and technological exhibition opened at CERN. The first one was held five years ago and nine of the companies that were present then have come back again this year. Six of those companies were awarded contracts with CERN in 1995. Three Polish officials were present at the Opening Ceremony today: Mrs Malgorzata Kozlowska, Under-secretary of State in the State Committee for Scientific Research, Mr Henryk Ogryczak, Under-secretary of State in Ministry of Economy and Prof. Jerzy Niewodniczanski, President of National Atomic Energy Agency. Professor Luciano Maiani welcomed the Polish delegation to CERN and stressed the important contribution of Polish scientists and industrialists to the work of the laboratory. Director General Luciano Maiani (back left) and head of SPL division Karl-Heinz Kissler (back right) visit the Poland at CERN exhibition… The exhibition offers Polish companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. Nineteen companies...

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of several dephosphonated analogues of CMP-Neu5Ac as inhibitors of GM3-synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paola; Cirillo, Federica; Piccoli, Marco; Gregorio, Antonio; Tettamanti, Guido; Allevi, Pietro; Anastasia, Luigi

    2015-10-05

    Previous studies demonstrated that reducing the GM3 content in myoblasts increased the cell resistance to hypoxic stress, suggesting that a pharmacological inhibition of the GM3 synthesis could be instrumental for the development of new treatments for ischemic diseases. Herein, the synthesis of several dephosphonated CMP-Neu5Ac congeners and their anti-GM3-synthase activity is reported. Biological activity testes revealed that some inhibitors almost completely blocked the GM3-synthase activity in vitro and reduced the GM3 content in living embryonic kidney 293A cells, eventually activating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling cascade. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Droughts in historical times in Polish territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert; Doktor, Radoslaw

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is one of the key environmental, social and economical issues, and it is also followed by political consequences. Impact of climate conditions on countries' economy is increasingly recognized, and a lot of attention is given, both in the global scale and by the individual national governments. In years 2008-2010, at the Poland -Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute was realized the KLIMAT Project on Impact of climate change on environment, economy and society (changes, effects and methods of reducing them, conclusions for science, engineering practice and economic planning) No. POIG01-03-01-14-011/08. The project was financed by the European Union and Polish state budget in frame of Innovative Economy Operational Programme. A very wide range of research was carried out in the different thematic areas. One of them was "Natural disasters and internal safety of the country (civil and economical)." The problem of drought in Poland was developed in terms of meteorology and hydrology. "Proxy" Data Descriptions very often inform about dry years and seasons, hot periods without precipitation. Analysis of historical material allowed to extract the years that have experienced prolonged periods of high temperatures and rainfall shortages. Weather phenomenon defined as drought belongs to extreme events. This information was very helpful in the process of indexing and thus to restore the course and intensity of climatic elements in the past. The analysis covered the period from year 1000 to modern times. Due to the limited information from the period of 1000-1500 the authors focused primarily on the period from 1500 to 2010. Analysis of the collected material has allowed the development of a highly precise temporal structure of the possible occurrence of dry periods to Polish territory.

  11. Corporate Politics on Polish Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Roślik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the very beginning of this particular paper, an author is trying to determine and describe who Millennials actually are. Then, the basis of Millennials definition is analysing corporation’s activity over the past years regarding this age group. The main goal of the thesis is to bring their specific futures out and describe what corporations on Polish job market are doing to encourage them to work in their offices. Especially in Poland within the last years, it is observed that big multinational companies are paying special attention to Millennials and trying to hire them before competitors will do so. As a part of this paper, an author will describe corporate politics and practices on Thomson Reuters and BNY Mellon examples. Within this work, an author is also discussing key features and differences between this generation and Millennials parent’s generation. Additionally, there is a reference to corporate social responsibility concept and work-life balance issues.

  12. Determinants of Polish public debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stryjewski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crisis, which had its beginning in 2007, turned into the debt crisis of the countries. The examples of Greece, Ireland, Iceland or Spain showed the category of public debt in a new light. Poland, at the turn of 2010/2011 also achieved the upper level of public debt acceptable by the law. In the present situation of the European Union countries being in debt, and even insolvent, the situation in Poland becomes riskier. This article attempts at an empirical verification of the determinants of Polish public debt within 95 months (the data link with the period of time from January 2003 to November 2010. The verification of the main factors which cause the formation of public debt takes place by means of an appropriately verified econometric model.

  13. Kinematic analysis of in situ measurement during chemical mechanical planarization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongkai; Wang, Tongqing; Zhao, Qian; Meng, Yonggang; Lu, Xinchun, E-mail: xclu@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is the most widely used planarization technique in semiconductor manufacturing presently. With the aid of in situ measurement technology, CMP tools can achieve good performance and stable productivity. However, the in situ measurement has remained unexplored from a kinematic standpoint. The available related resources for the kinematic analysis are very limited due to the complexity and technical secret. In this paper, a comprehensive kinematic analysis of in situ measurement is provided, including the analysis model, the measurement trajectory, and the measurement time of each zone of wafer surface during the practical CMP process. In addition, a lot of numerical calculations are performed to study the influences of main parameters on the measurement trajectory and the measurement velocity variation of the probe during the measurement process. All the efforts are expected to improve the in situ measurement system and promote the advancement in CMP control system.

  14. Scaling properties of Polish rain series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licznar, P.

    2009-04-01

    Scaling properties as well as multifractal nature of precipitation time series have not been studied for local Polish conditions until recently due to lack of long series of high-resolution data. The first Polish study of precipitation time series scaling phenomena was made on the base of pluviograph data from the Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences meteorological station located at the south-western part of the country. The 38 annual rainfall records from years 1962-2004 were converted into digital format and transformed into a standard format of 5-minute time series. The scaling properties and multifractal character of this material were studied by means of several different techniques: power spectral density analysis, functional box-counting, probability distribution/multiple scaling and trace moment methods. The result proved the general scaling character of time series at the range of time scales ranging form 5 minutes up to at least 24 hours. At the same time some characteristic breaks at scaling behavior were recognized. It is believed that the breaks were artificial and arising from the pluviograph rain gauge measuring precision limitations. Especially strong limitations at the precision of low-intensity precipitations recording by pluviograph rain gauge were found to be the main reason for artificial break at energy spectra, as was reported by other authors before. The analysis of co-dimension and moments scaling functions showed the signs of the first-order multifractal phase transition. Such behavior is typical for dressed multifractal processes that are observed by spatial or temporal averaging on scales larger than the inner-scale of those processes. The fractal dimension of rainfall process support derived from codimension and moments scaling functions geometry analysis was found to be 0.45. The same fractal dimension estimated by means of the functional box-counting method was equal to 0.58. At the final part of the study

  15. Mirror surface metrology and polishing for AXAF/TMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slomba, A.; Babish, R.; Glenn, P.

    1985-01-01

    The achievement of the derived goals for mirror surface quality on the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) required a combination of state-of-the-art metrology and polishing techniques. In this paper, the authors summarize the derived goals and cover the main facets of the various metrology instruments employed, as well as the philosophy and technique used in the polishing work. In addition, they show how progress was measured against the goals, using the detailed error budget for surface errors and a mathematical model for performance prediction. The metrology instruments represented a considerable advance on the state-of-the-art and fully satisfied the error budget goals for the various surface errors. They were capable of measuring the surface errors over a large range of spatial periods, from low-frequency figure errors to microroughness. The polishing was accomplished with a computer-controlled process, guided by the combined data from various metrology instruments. This process was also tailored to reduce the surface errors over the full range of spatial periods

  16. Preparation of cerium oxide for lens polishing powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injarean, Uthaiwan; Rodthongkom, Chouvana; Pichestapong, Pipat; Changkrurng, Kalaya

    2003-10-01

    Cerium is an element of rare earth group which is called lanthanide series. It is found in the ores like monazite and xenotime which are the tailings of tin mines in the south of Thailand. Cerium is used mostly as lens polishing powder besides the applications in other industries. In this study, cerium extracted from monazite ore breakdown by alkaline process was used for the preparation of lens polishing powder. Cerium hydroxide cake from the process was dissolved by hydrochloric acid and precipitated with oxalic acid. The oxalate precipitate then was calcined to oxide powder and its particle size was measured. Precipitation conditions being studied are concentration of feed cerium chloride solution, concentration of oxalic acid used for the precipitation, concentration of sulfuric acid used as precipitation control reagent and the precipitation temperature. It was found that the appropriate precipitation conditions yielded the fine oxide powder with particle size about 12μm. The oxide powder can be ground to the size of 1-3 μm which is suitable for making lens polishing powder

  17. Jewish problem in the Polish Communist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimek Henryk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jews accounted for approx. 8-10% of the population of the Second Republic and in the communist movement (Polish Communist Party and Polish Communist Youth Union the rate was approx, 30%, while in subsequent years it much fluctuated. The percentage of Jews was the highest in the authorities of the party and in the KZMP. This had a negative impact on the position of the KPP on many issues, especially in its relation to the Second Republic.

  18. Electrolytic polishing system for space age materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coons, W.C.; Iosty, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electrolytic polishing technique was developed for preparing Cr, Co, Hf, Mo, Ni, Re, Ti, V, Zr, and their alloys for structural analysis on the optical microscope. The base electrolyte contains 5g ZnCl 2 and 15g AlCl 3 . 6H 2 O in 200 ml methyl alcohol, plus an amount of H 2 SO 4 depending on the metal being polished. Five etchants are listed

  19. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  20. Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements

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    Danuta Roszko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Polish-Lithuanian Corpus with the Semantic Annotation Elements In the article the authors present the experimental Polish-Lithuanian corpus (ECorpPL-LT formed for the idea of Polish-Lithuanian theoretical contrastive studies, a Polish-Lithuanian electronic dictionary, and as help for a sworn translator. The semantic annotation being brought into ECorpPL-LT is extremely useful in Polish-Lithuanian contrastive studies, and also proves helpful in translation work.

  1. Nd:YOV4 laser polishing on WC-Co HVOF coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorleo, L.; Ceretti, E.; Montesano, L.; La Vecchia, G. M.

    2017-10-01

    WC/Co coatings are widely applied to different types of components due to their extraordinary performance properties including high hardness and wear properties. In industrial applications High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) technique is extensively used to deposit hard metal coatings. The main advantage of HVOF compared to other thermal spray techniques is the ability to accelerate the melted powder particles of the feedstock material at a relatively high velocity, leading to obtain good adhesion and low porosity level. However, despite the mentioned benefits, the surface finish quality of WC-Co HVOF coatings results to be poor (Ra higher than 5 µm) thus a mechanical polishing process is often needed. The main problem is that the high hardness of coating leads the polishing process expensive in terms of time and tool wear; moreover polishing becomes difficult and not always possible in case of limited accessibility of a part, micro dimensions or undercuts. Nowadays a different technique available to improve surface roughness is the laser polishing process. The polishing principle is based on focused radiation of a laser beam that melts a microscopic layer of surface material. Compared to conventional polishing process (as grinding) it ensures the possibility of avoiding tool wear, less pollution (no abrasive or liquids), no debris, less machining time and coupled with a galvo system it results to be more suitable in case of 3D complex workpieces. In this paper laser polishing process executed with a Nd:YOV4 Laser was investigated: the effect of different process parameters as initial coating morphology, laser scan speed and loop cycles were tested. Results were compared by a statistical approach in terms of average roughness along with a morphological analysis carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) investigation coupled with EDS spectra.

  2. Interculutral Polish-Chinese QQing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Gajek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Working in tandem with the use of information and communication technologies is well-known and frequently used as a method of supporting learning of foreign languages in authentic communication. It is based on a constructivist approach to teaching. In the reported case study Polish and Chinese students discussed in English preprepared topics. The work shows the potential of e-learning at the micro level, as the language and intercultural task is implemented into an academic course without modification of the objectives and learning outcomes of the course. Evaluation carried out at the end of the project indicates that both groups perceived the task as a significant linguistic, cultural and personal experience. They stressed the importance of sharing “culture for culture” as the partner culture was new for most of them. The ability to talk and respond to information which was often strange, from the point of view of their own culture, allowed for learning intercultural competence ̔in action’.

  3. Research status in ultra-precision machining of silicon carbide parts by oxidation-assisted polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmin SHEN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation-assisted polishing is an important machining method for obtaining SiC parts with high precision. Through plasma oxidation, thermal oxidation, and anodic oxidation, soft oxide can be obtained on the RS-SiC substrate. With the assistance of abrasive polishing to remove the oxide rapidly, the material removal rate can be increased and the surface quality can be improved. The research results indicate that the surface roughness root-mean-square (RMS and roughness-average (Ra can reach 0.626 nm and 0.480 nm by plasma oxidation-assisted polishing; in thermal oxidation-assisted polishing, the RMS and Ra can be 0.920 nm and 0.726 nm; in anodic oxidation, the calculated oxidation rate is 5.3 nm/s based on Deal-Grove model, and the RMS and Ra are 4.428 nm and 3.453 nm respectively in anodic oxidation-assisted polishing. The oxidation-assisted polishing can be propitious to improve the process level in machining RS-SiC, which would promote the application of SiC parts in optics and ceramics fields.

  4. Performance test of condensate polishing system for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Zhaojin; Qian Shijun; Lu Ruiting

    1995-11-01

    The flow chart, resin performance and water quality specifications of the condensate polishing system for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP) are briefly described. The initial regeneration process and the following service of the condensate polishing system are introduced. And the ability to remove corrosion products and ionic impurities of the condensate polishing system are verified during start-up, normal power operation and condenser leakage of the plant. The result shows that the performance of condensate polishing system in QNPP can completely meet the design requirements. Especially during the start-up of the unit or the leakage of the condenser, despite the inlet water quality of the polishers is far worse than the specified standard, the outlet water quality is still controlled within the indexes. Finally, several existing problems, such as 'volume ratio between resins is not optimum' and 'the inert resin and anion resin can not be stratified completely', in the condensate polishing system are also discussed. (4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.)

  5. Cleansing orthodontic brackets with air-powder polishing: effects on frictional force and degree of debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Brisa Dos Santos; Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro; Dias, Carmen Gilda Barroso Tavares; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    Debris buildup on the bracket-wire interface can influence friction. Cleansing brackets with air-powder polishing can affect this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional force and amount of debris remaining on orthodontic brackets subjected to prophylaxis with air-powder polishing. Frictional force and debris buildup on the surface of 28 premolar brackets were evaluated after orthodontic treatment. In one hemiarch, each bracket was subjected to air-powder polishing (n = 14) for five seconds, while the contralateral hemiarch (n = 14) served as control. Mechanical friction tests were performed and images of the polished bracket surfaces and control surfaces were examined. Wilcoxon test was applied for comparative analysis between hemiarches at p Brackets that had been cleaned with air-powder polishing showed lower friction (median = 1.27 N) when compared to the control surfaces (median = 4.52 N) (p orthodontic brackets with air-powder polishing significantly reduces debris buildup on the bracket surface while decreasing friction levels observed during sliding mechanics.

  6. Polish Adaptation of Wrist Evaluation Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Piotr; Wawrzyniak-Bielęda, Anna; Romanowski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Questionnaires evaluating hand and wrist function are a very useful tool allowing for objective and systematic recording of symptoms reported by the patients. Most questionnaires generally accepted in clinical practice are available in English and need to be appropriately adapted in translation and undergo subsequent validation before they can be used in another culture and language. The process of translation of the questionnaires was based on the generally accepted guidelines of the International Quality of Life Assessment Project (IQOLA). First, the questionnaires were translated from English into Polish by two independent translators. Then, a joint version of the translation was prepared collectively and translated back into English. Each stage was followed by a written report. The translated questionnaires were then evaluated by a group of patients. We selected 31 patients with wrist problems and asked them to complete the PRWE, Mayo, Michigan and DASH questionnaires twice at intervals of 3-10 days. The results were submitted for statistical analysis. We found a statistically significant (pquestionnaires. A comparison of the PRWE and Mayo questionnaires with the DASH questionnaire also showed a statistically significant correlation (pquestionnaires was successful and that the questionnaires may be used in clinical practice.

  7. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  8. Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziębik Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.

  9. Marketing Globalisation – Polish Market Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nowacki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the 21st century has been yielded with an acceleration of transformations occurring in economies of the whole world. These changes relate to all the areas of economic life functioning. The most important manifestation thereof is a reinforcement of competitive phenomena. Among the most important reasons for such a state of affairs, there is mentioned globalisation. The course of its processes forces the organisation operating in the market to undertake adaptive actions. One of them is reorientation of marketing activities. The need to modify the previous marketing concepts results, first of all, from far reaching alterations in the sphere of consumption, just triggered by globalisationís impact. These trends are noticed in all the markets, also in the Polish one. The foreign enterprises operating in it more and more often use the concept of global marketing. This makes us to have reflection on what is the real effectiveness of such actions and what are the possibilities to form oneís competitive position owing to that. The article constitutes an attempt to provide answers to these questions.

  10. The Analysis of Geometrical Reasoning Ability Viewed from Self-Efficacy on Connected Mathematic Project (CMP Learning Etnomathematics-Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Dwi Damaryanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the geometrical reasoning ability of the students viewed from the self-efficacy through the learning of  Connected Mathematic Project (CMP ethnomathematic-based. The type of this research was qualitative which was descriptive. To obtained the validity of the qualitative data, the checking technique used in this research was sources triangulation, which had been done by comparing the suitability of the obtained data from the results of the interview and the test. Population of this research was the students of grade VIII at SMP Negeri 1 Sidoharjo and the sample was the students from VIII A Class. At the final, 12 research subjects were chosen to represent the group of level 1 self-efficacy, level 2 self-efficacy, level 3 self-efficacy, level 4 self efficacy, level 5 self-efficacy, and level 6 self-efficacy. In this research, there was a finding which shows us that the students with high self-efficacy had low ability to finish the geometrical reasoning ability test, while the students with low self-efficacy had the ability to finish the geometrical reasoning ability test. The factors which affected the finding were the motivations and the interest of learning mathematics which was affecting the attitude of the students in the classroom.

  11. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined two main hypotheses: a) Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b) Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (>\\/= 20 cigarettes a day) when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of \\'current\\' smoking (some days and everyday) among the Polish immigrants. METHODS: Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545) completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July-August, 2007). The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484). RESULTS: Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0%) among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4%) among the general Irish population (p < 0.001). Of the 57% of smokers (n = 345\\/606) who purchased cigarettes solely from Poland and the 33% (n = 198\\/606) who purchased only from Ireland, 42.6% (n = 147\\/345) and 41.4% (n = 82\\/198) were "heavy" smokers, respectively (p = 0.79). Employment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.25-6.69), lower education (OR: 3.76; 95%CI: 2.46-5.74), and a longer stay in Ireland (>24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  12. Stress 'deafness' in a language with fixed word stress: an ERP study on Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eDomahs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present contribution was to examine the factors influencing the prosodic processing in a language with predictable word stress. For Polish, a language with fixed penultimate stress but several well-defined exceptions, difficulties in the processing and representation of prosodic information have been reported (e.g., Peperkamp & Dupoux, 2002. The present study utilized event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate the factors influencing prosodic processing in Polish. These factors are i the predictability of stress and ii the prosodic structure in terms of metrical feet. Polish native speakers were presented with correctly and incorrectly stressed Polish words and instructed to judge the correctness of the perceived stress patterns. For each stress violation an early negativity was found which was interpreted as reflection of an error-detection mechanism, and in addition exceptional stress patterns (= antepenultimate stress and post-lexical (= initial stress evoked a task-related positivity effect (P300 whose amplitude and latency is correlated with the degree of anomaly and deviation from an expectation. Violations involving the default (= penultimate stress in contrast did not produce such an effect. This asymmetrical result is interpreted to reflect that Polish native speakers are less sensitive to the default pattern than to the exceptional or post-lexical patterns. Behavioral results are orthogonal to the electrophysiological results showing that Polish speakers had difficulties to reject any kind of stress violation. Thus, on a meta-linguistic level Polish speakers appeared to be stress-‘deaf’ for any kind of stress manipulation, whereas the neural reactions differentiate between the default and lexicalized patterns.

  13. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY THROUGH RECOVERY AND RECYCLING OF GALLIUM AND ARSENIC FROM GAAS POLISHING WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A process was developed for the recovery of both arsenic and gallium from gallium arsenide polishing wastes. The economics associated with the current disposal techniques utilizing ferric hydroxide precipitation dictate that sequential recovery of toxic arsenic and valuble galliu...

  14. 1.06 μm 150 psec laser damage study of diamond turned, diamond turned/polished and polished metal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.T.; Milam, D.; Baker, P.; Murphy, G.

    1975-01-01

    Using a well characterized 1.06 μm 150 ps glass laser pulse the damage characteristics for diamond turned, diamond turned/ polished, and polished copper and silver mirrors less than 5 cm diameter were studied. Although most samples were tested with a normal angle of incidence, some were tested at 45 0 with different linear polarization showing an increase in damage threshold for S polarization. Different damage mechanisms observed will be discussed. Laser damage is related to residual surface influences of the fabrication process. First attempts to polish diamond turned surfaces resulted in a significant decrease in laser damage threshold. The importance of including the heat of fusion in the one dimensional heat analysis of the theoretical damage threshold and how close the samples came to the theoretical damage threshold is discussed. (auth)

  15. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INNOVATION PROJECTS IN POLISH INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zwolak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the dependency of the net income from the sales of new and significantly modernised products on the expenditure on (1 marketing and staff training as well as on the expenditure on (2 land, buildings and structures; machinery, technical equipment and tools; and means of transportation within the scope of product and process innovations in Polish industry in 2010. Furthermore the study was intended to determine the effectiveness of the abovementioned expenditure aggregated to descriptive variables (1 and 2. In the study, the correlation and regression methods as well as the least squares method was applied.The estimation resulted in the determination of functional dependency of net sales income on the expenditure on marketing and staff training (0.5040 as well as on the expenditure on land, buildings and structures; machinery, technical equipment and tools; and means of transportation (0.8064 in the field of innovative processes in industry. The net sales income increased more than proportionally relative to the combined effect of the aforementioned expenditure (1.3104. The total increase in the aforementioned expenditure by 10% resulted in the increase in net sales income by 13.1%. The determined power regression model may have practical implications for the economic evaluation of expenditure in innovative processes in Polish industry in the future, as well as for the forecast (prediction.The expenditure application in innovative processes may also have social implications connected to the increase in the value-in-use of products and with the increase in the social efficiency of work in Polish industry.

  16. Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Žmigrodzki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a lexicographical project involving the development of the newest general dictionary of the Polish language: the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish [Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN]. The project is coordinated by the Institute of Polish Language at the Polish Academy of Sciences and carried out in collaboration with linguists and lexicographers from several other Polish academic centres. The paper offers a brief description of the genesis of the project and the scope of information included in the dictionary, the organisation of work, the life of the dictionary on the Web as well as the plans for the future.

  17. Effect of Mixing Temperature of CMP Pulp and Cellulose Nanofiber on Paper Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahba Alinia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several processing parameters affect the function of cellulose nanofiber as an environmentally friend cellulosic reinforcer. One of the potential parameters can be the mixing temperature of pulp and cellulose nanofiber that has been investigated in this study. In order to study the influence of this parameter, mixing drainage velocity and the air permeability and strength properties of resulting paper were measured. A mixture of chemi-mechanical pulp suspensions (with concentration of 0.2 wt% and freeness of 250 ml, CSF containing 5 wt% cellulose nanofiber were prepared. This mixture was then stirred at 25, 50, and 70 ◦C using a magnetic stirrer for 1 hour followed by draining using vacuum filtration to make wet handsheet. The wet handsheet was first pressed, and then dried in oven at 100 ◦C for 24 hours. The test’ results showed that the increase of mixing temperature led to decreasing drainage time and air permeability. The strength properties of paper reinforced by nanofibers were positively affected by mixing temperature (i.e. the more mixing temperature, the higher strength. The data of tensile strength index was considerably increased. The tear strength of paper increased approximately by 200% over rising mixing temperature.

  18. RISK IDENTIFICATION TOOLS – POLISH MSMES COMPANIES PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Gorzeń-Mitka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present risk identification tools in Polish micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs. Risk identification is a key element of the risk management process in companies. Correctly fitting risk identification tools affect the accuracy of management decisions. The result of research is to identify the leading risk identification tools used by MSMEs. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 using a mixed survey-monographic method and questionnaires. The qualitative data were obtained during the study.

  19. Circular motion and Polish Doughnuts in NUT spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefremov, Paul I.

    The astrophysical relevance of the NUT spacetime(s) is a matter of debate due to pathological properties exhibited by this solution. However, if it is realised in nature, then we should look for the characteristic imprints of it on possible observations. One of the major sources of data on black hole astrophysics is the accretion process. Using a simple but fully analytical ``Polish Doughnuts'' model of accretion disk one gets both qualitative and quantitative differences from the Kerr spacetime produced by the presence of the gravitomagnetic charge. The present paper is based on our work Jefremov & Perlick (2016).

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Optically Polished Aluminum Panels on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, V.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground?based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34?meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by state of?the?art polished aluminum panels. Theoretical analyses of receiving antenna pointing, temporal synchronization and data detection have been addressed in previous papers. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. Two polished aluminum panels (a standard DSN panel polished to high reflectance, and a custom designed aluminum panel with much better surface quality) have been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep?Space Station 13 (DSS?13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather?proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. The point?spread function (PSF) generated by the Vertex polished panel has been determined to be smaller than the sensor of the CCD camera, hence a detailed picture of the PSF can be obtained every few seconds, and the sensor array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution. In addition to estimating the center coordinates, expected communications performance can also been evaluated with the recorded data. The results of preliminary pointing experiments with the Vertex polished panel receiver using the planet Jupiter to simulate the PSF generated by a deep?space optical transmitter are presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. Evaluation of alignment marks using ASML ATHENA alignment system in 90nm BEOL process

    CERN Document Server

    Tan Chin Boon; Koh Hui Peng; Koo Chee, Kiong; Siew Yong Kong; Yeo Swee Hock

    2003-01-01

    As the critical dimension (CD) in integrated circuit (IC) device reduces, the total overlay budget needs to be more stringent. Typically, the allowable overlay error is 1/3 of the CD in the IC device. In this case, robustness of alignment mark is critical, as accurate signal is required by the scanner's alignment system to precisely align a layer of pattern to the previous layer. Alignment issue is more severe in back-end process partly due to the influenced of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP), which contribute to the asymmetric or total destruction of the alignment marks. Alignment marks on the wafer can be placed along the scribe-line of the IC pattern. ASML scanner allows such type of wafer alignment using phase grating mark, known as Scribe-line Primary Mark (SPM) which can be fit into a standard 80um scribe-line. In this paper, we have studied the feasibility of introducing Narrow SPM (NSPM) to enable a smaller scribe-line. The width of NSPM has been shrunk down to 70% of the SPM and the length remain...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or powder form...

  3. Microbiological flora and nail polish: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, G M; Flournoy, D J; Schlageter, P

    1994-11-01

    Removing nail polish and prosthetic nails from operating room (OR) personnel prior to scrubbing and from patients prior to hand surgery is recommended but not practiced in many hospitals. There is concern that nail polish can act as a vehicle for the transfer of infectious agents. This study was designed to determine the incidence of microbiological flora of nail polish in a clinical setting.

  4. Polish Qualitative Sociology: The General Features and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The article explores the development of Polish qualitative sociology in Poland by presenting its main intellectual routes and some of the general features of Polish sociology. Romanticism and inductionmethod are crucial elements for the development of this discipline in Poland and contribute to its. unigueness. The role of Florian Znaniecki in creating the Polish qualitative sociology is also underlined. Krzysztof Konecki

  5. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  6. Professional Training of Economists at Polish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogienko, Olena

    2016-01-01

    Polish experience in professional training of economists at university has been generalized. Structural, content and procedural peculiarities of the training have been defined. It has been proved that key factors for reforming economic education in Poland are globalization, internationalization, integration, technologization and informatization.…

  7. Knowledge Mobilisation in the Polish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlagic, Jan; Erkol, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Poland has made substantial progress in improving the quality of its education system in recent years. This paper aims to describe the situation of the Polish education system from a knowledge management perspective and, to some extent, through innovation policies in education. The many challenges, this paper argues, can be tackled only through…

  8. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  9. Directory of Polish Officials: A Reference Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Jan 86 Deputy Director Mondalski, Janusz Aug 83 Polish Steamship Company (Polski Zegluga Morska ) (PZM) Director Andruczyk, Mieczyslaw Jan...2<> Polski Kosciol Chrzescijan Baptystow 12° Polski Linie Oceaniczne ’"- Polski Towarzystwo Ekonomiczne ’’° Polski Zegluga Morska 102 Polski

  10. Polish students’ opinion about medicinal cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Mazur

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Polish students seem to be ready for introduction into medical marijuana and are aware of its therapeutic potential. The majority is in favor of sales in a controlled manner. The task of researchers should be accurate examination of the effectiveness of specific cannabinoids in the treatment of diseases.

  11. Calculation of regimes of electro-erosion polishing with roughness value Rsub(a) less 0,2 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotykh, B.N.; Zolotykh, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    Calculation technique of ''polishing'' regimes of electroerosion treatment (EET) is considered and calculation results for a number of metals are presented. It is shown, that the calculation technique of EET polishing regimes provides results close to the experimental ones and can be used for the calculation of special pulse generators, as well as in the systems of automated projecting of EET technological processes

  12. Surface Roughness and Gloss of Actual Composites as Polished With Different Polishing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Junior, S A; Chemin, P; Piaia, P P; Ferracane, J L

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of polishing with different polishing systems on the surface roughness and gloss of commercial composites. One hundred disk-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter × 2 mm thick) were made with Filtek P-90, Filtek Z350 XT, Opallis, and Grandio. The specimens were manually finished with #400 sandpaper and polished by a single operator using three multistep systems (Superfix, Diamond Pro, and Sof-lex), one two-step system (Polidores DFL), and one one-step system (Enhance), following the manufacturer's instructions. The average surface roughness (μm) was measured with a surface profilometer (TR 200 Surface Roughness Tester), and gloss was measured using a small-area glossmeter (Novo-Curve, Rhopoint Instrumentation, East Sussex, UK). Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Statistically significant differences in surface roughness were identified by varying the polishing systems (pGloss was influenced by the composites (pone-step system, Enhance, produced the lowest gloss for all composites. Surface roughness and gloss were affected by composites and polishing systems. The interaction between both also influenced these surface characteristics, meaning that a single polishing system will not behave similarly for all composites. The multistep systems produced higher gloss, while the one-step system produced the highest surface roughness and the lowest gloss of all.

  13. Chemical mechanical glass polishing with cerium oxide: Effect of selected physico-chemical characteristics on polishing efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoš, P.; Ederer, J.; Pilařová, V.; Henych, Jiří; Tolasz, Jakub; Milde, D.; Opletal, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 362, SEP (2016), s. 114-120 ISSN 0043-1648 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Chemical mechanical polishing * Ceria-based polishing powders * Polishing efficienc Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2016

  14. Calculation of regimes of electro-erosion polishing with roughness value Rsub(a) less 0,2. mu. m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotykh, B.N.; Zolotykh, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    Calculation technique of ''polishing'' regimes of electroerosion treatment (EET) is considered and calculation results for a number of metals are presented. It is shown, that the calculation technique of EET polishing regimes provides results close to the experimental ones and can be used for the calculation of special pulse generators, as well as in the systems of automated projecting of EET technological processes.

  15. A Study of Polishing Feature of Ultrasonic-Assisted Vibration Method in Bamboo Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Min Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the feature of porosity in bamboo charcoal, this study applies the ultrasonic-assisted vibration method to perform surface polishing of the silicon wafer workpiece. The self-developed bamboo charcoal polishing spindle and ultrasonic- assisted vibration mechanism are attached to a single lapping machine. In the machining process, ultrasonic vibration enables the diamond slurry to smoothly pass through the microscopic holes of bamboo charcoal; the end of the bamboo charcoalis able to continue machining on the surface of the workpiece through the grasping force which exists in the microscopic holes. Under the polishing and machining parameters of ultrasonic-assisted vibration, with a diamond slurry concentration of 0.3%, the experimental results show a polishing time of 20 min, a loading of 25 N on the workpiece surface, a spindle speed of 1200 rpm, a vibration frequency of 30 kHz and the original surface roughness value of Ra 0.252 μm equals that of a mirror-like surface at Ra 0.017 μm. These research results prove that by using bamboo charcoal and ultrasonic-assisted vibration for polishing, a very good improvement can be achieved on the workpiece surface.

  16. Polish Code of Ethics of a Medical Laboratory Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elżbieta, Puacz; Waldemar, Glusiec; Barbara, Madej-Czerwonka

    2014-09-01

    Along with the development of medicine, increasingly significant role has been played by the laboratory diagnostics. For over ten years the profession of the medical laboratory specialist has been regarded in Poland as the autonomous medical profession and has enjoyed a status of one of public trust. The process of education of medical laboratory specialists consists of a five-year degree in laboratory medicine, offered at Medical Universities, and of a five-year Vocational Specialization in one of the fields of laboratory medicine such as clinical biochemistry, medical microbiology, medical laboratory toxicology, medical laboratory cytomorphology and medical laboratory transfusiology. An important component of medical laboratory specialists' identity is awareness of inherited ethos obtained from bygone generations of workers in this particular profession and the need to continue its further development. An expression of this awareness is among others Polish Code of Ethics of a Medical Laboratory Specialist (CEMLS) containing a set of values and a moral standpoint characteristic of this type of professional environment. Presenting the ethos of the medical laboratory specialist is a purpose of this article. Authors focus on the role CEMLS plays in areas of professional ethics and law. Next, they reconstruct the Polish model of ethos of medical diagnostic laboratory personnel. An overall picture consists of a presentation of the general moral principles concerning execution of this profession and rules of conduct in relations with the patient, own professional environment and the rest of the society. Polish model of ethical conduct, which is rooted in Hippocratic medical tradition, harmonizes with the ethos of medical laboratory specialists of other European countries and the world.

  17. Technology Transfer brochure (Polish version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2008-01-01

    A brief overview of how CERN's pioneering technologies for scientific research have branched out into various fields. Medicine, industrial processes, information and communication technology, as well as environment and energy fields make use of these innovative developments.

  18. Diffraction efficiency enhancement of femtosecond laser-engraved diffraction gratings due to CO2 laser polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hun-Kook; Jung, Deok; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Noh, Young-Chul; Lee, Yong-Tak; Kim, Jin-Tae; Ahsan, Shamim

    2014-01-01

    This research demonstrates laser-assisted fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in fused-silica glass samples. Initially, femtosecond laser pulses are used to engrave diffraction gratings on the glass surfaces. Then, these micro-patterned glass samples undergo CO 2 laser polishing process. unpolished diffraction gratings encoded in the glass samples show an overall diffraction efficiency of 18.1%. diffraction gratings imprinted on the glass samples and then polished four times by using a CO 2 laser beam attain a diffraction efficiency of 32.7%. We also investigate the diffraction patterns of the diffraction gratings encoded on fused-silica glass surfaces. The proposed CO 2 laser polishing technique shows great potential in patterning high-efficiency diffraction gratings on the surfaces of various transparent materials.

  19. The Polish family under Stalinist subjugation [Rodzina w sytuacji stalinowskiego zniewolenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira JOLANTA KRYŃSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The situation of Polish families during Stalinist subjugation was particularly arduous. The family was treated as an important part of the political system’s socialization which was not rooted at all in the sphere of traditional values and norms developed in the process of historical progress of the Polish statehood. Due to the foundations of Latin civilization based on personalization that were cherished by Polish families, cynical endeavors to take away freedom, legal capacity and personal property – the objectives which Stalinism aimed at both indirectly and directly – failed, which destroyed the communists’ plans. The family did not cease to be the most important centre of human life and development. Theoreticians of a „new deal” did not manage to limit the family to the role of a „basic social unit” of „socialist morality”.

  20. Smooth polishing of femtosecond laser induced craters on cemented carbide by ultrasonic vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zheng, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Rough surface features induced by laser irradiation have been a challenging for the fabrication of micro/nano scale features. In this work, we propose hybrid ultrasonic vibration polishing method to improve surface quality of microcraters produced by femtosecond laser irradiation on cemented carbide. The laser caused rough surfaces are significantly smoothened after ultrasonic vibration polishing due to the strong collision effect of diamond particles on the surfaces. 3D morphology, SEM and AFM analysis has been conducted to characterize surface morphology and topography. Results indicate that the minimal surface roughness of Ra 7.60 nm has been achieved on the polished surfaces. The fabrication of microcraters with smooth surfaces is applicable to molding process for mass production of micro-optical components.

  1. Use of mep HyperCel for polishing of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Karl B; Vucica, Yvonne; Wu, John; Bertolini, Joseph

    2014-10-15

    The manufacture of human serum albumin by chromatographic procedures involves gel filtration chromatography as a final polishing step. Despite this step being essential to remove high molecular weight impurity proteins and thus ensure a stable and safe final product, it is relatively inefficient. This paper explores the use of hydrophobic charge induction chromatographic media, MEP HyperCel as an alternative to Sephacryl S200HR gel filtration for the polishing of human serum albumin derived by ion exchange chromatographic purification of Cohn Supernatant I. The use of MEP HyperCel results in a product with a higher purity than achieved with gel filtration and in a less time consuming manner and with potential resource savings. MEP HyperCel appears to have great potential for incorporation into downstream processes in the plasma fractionation industry as an efficient means of achieving polishing of intermediates or capture of proteins of interest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 10. national conference of Maria Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society. Abstract of papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The 10. national conference of M. Sklodowska-Curie Polish Radiation Research Society has given the opportunity to present novel Polish advisement in all fields of radiation research, e.g. radiation chemistry and biology, radiation processing, environmental study, mathematical modeling and simulation as well as different theoretical study. As a whole it may be treated as a review of actual state of art. The scientific progress since 1992 when the 9. national conference place up to now can be easy assessed on the base of presented material

  3. Polish Accession to the European Union: Participating Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewski Waldemar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2014 it was aready ten years since Poland’s accession to the European Union. The accession was preceded by a long period of political action and negotiations between the Polish and the EU institutions. The process of integration was extremely complex. It covered almost all areas of economic, legal and civil aspects of the aspiring country’s economy, in which all necessary requirements had to be met. The aim of the article was to present the institutional framework created for efficient implementation of the process of accession. The considerations involved especially an institutional method. The research resulted in poining out both the actually efficient and less efficient bodies participating in the process of integration.

  4. Emissions from the Polish power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz

    2007-01-01

    Poland is a country where power and heat energy production is based on conventional fuel combustion, above all hard coal and lignite. In power plants and combined heat and power plants, fossil fuel combustion results in emitting to the atmosphere first of all SO 2 , NO x , CO, particulate matter, greenhouse gases for instance N 2 O and CO 2 . For many years the Polish power industry has tried to reduce the emission of air contaminants to the atmosphere. The reduction is feasible on account of various methods of emission reduction, which have been advanced and applied for many years. The paper presents conventional fuels used in the Polish professional power industry, as well as the principal emission types occurring there for the last 10 years and the undertaken reduction measures

  5. Chemical polishing of epitoxial silicon wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Shohei

    1978-01-01

    SSD telescopes are used for the determination of the kind and energy of charged particles produced by nuclear reactions, and are the equipments combining ΔE counters and E counters. The ΔE counter is a thin SSD which is required to be thin and homogeneous enough to get the high resolution of measurement. The SSDs for ΔE counters have so far been obtained by polishing silicon plates mechanically and chemically or by applying electrolytic polishing method on epitaxial silicon wafers, but it was very hard to obtain them. The creative etching equipment and technique developed this time make it possible to obtain thin SSDs for ΔE counters. The outline of the etching equipment and its technique are described in the report. The etching technique applied for the silicon films for ΔE counters with thickness of about 10 μm was able to be experimentally established in this study. (Kobatake, H.)

  6. Polish normalization of the Body Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lipowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical attractiveness plays an important part in one’s social functioning. The interest in one’s own appearance have been documented as widespread among the female population, but over the recent years it is more and more often emphasized that concentrating on body appearance concerns men as well. Franzoi and Shields (1984 created the Body Esteem Scale which allows to qualify the subject’s attitude towards his or her own body. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale along with the norms for age and sex clusters. Participants and procedure The normalization sample consisted of 4298 participants: 1865 women aged 16 to 80 (M = 29.92; SD = 12.85 and 2433 men aged 16 to 78 (M = 28.74; SD = 11.50. Education levels among the participants were also controlled for. In order to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, translation was adopted as the adaptation strategy. Like the original one, the Polish scale comprises 35 items grouped into three gender specific subscales. The subscales for women include Sexual Attractiveness, Weight Concern, and Physical Condition, whereas the body esteem of is examined with regards to Physical Attractiveness, Upper Body Strength, and Physical Condition. Results Reliability of subscales was high both for females (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.80 to 0.89 and males (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.85 to 0.88. The given coefficients of reliability cover the original division into subscales adopted by the authors of BES. Conclusions We confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, thus we recommend it as a diagnostic tool. Created norms allowed to refer results obtained in the course of research carried out on people with various disorders (e.g. eating disorders or body dysmorphic disorder with population data for corresponding age brackets.

  7. Effects of polishing procedures on color stability of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Umut Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of posterior, universal and nanohybrid composite resin restorative materials upon exposure to a staining agent. Twenty-five specimens were prepared for each of 5 different composite resins (Filtek Z250, Filtek P60, Quadrant LC, Grandio and Filtek Supreme. Specimens were divided into 5 groups and different polishing procedures, including polishing discs (Pd, polishing discs then diamond polishing paste (PdP, polishing discs then a liquid polishing system (Biscover (PdB, and combinations of these (PdPB were used. Unpolished specimens served as the control (C. The specimens were stored for 48 h in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a colorimeter, and total color change (DE* were calculated. The data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey HSD test (a=0.05. The lowest color difference was observed in the groups PdP and C, while the highest color difference was observed in PdPB, and PdB. When comparing the five different restorative materials, no significant difference was observed between FiltekP60 and FiltekZ250, and these materials demonstrated significantly less color change than Quadrant LC and the nanohybrid materials (Grandio, Filtek Supreme. The posterior (Filtek P60 and universal (Filtek Z250 composite resin restorative materials, which do not contain tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, were found to be less stainable than the nanohybrid (Grandio, Filtek Supreme and universal (Quadrant LC composite resins, which contain TEGDMA. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with polishing discs significantly decreased staining when compared to the groups that used polishing discs alone, for all restorative materials tested. The highest color change values were obtained for the specimens that were polished with the Biscover liquid polish

  8. Precision machining and polishing of scintillating crystals for large calorimeters and hodoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, C.R.; Fuchs, B.A.

    1993-05-01

    New machining and polishing techniques have been developed for large barium fluoride scintillating crystals that provide crystalline surfaces without sub-surface damage or deformation as verified by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Rutherford Back-scattering (RBS) analyses. Surface roughness of about 10--20 angstroms and sub-micron mechanical tolerances have been demonstrated on large crystal samples. Mass production techniques have also been developed for machining and polishing up to five 50 cm long crystals at one time. We present this technology along with surface studies of barium fluoride crystals polished with this technique. This technology is applicable for a number of new crystal detectors proposed at Colliders including the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter at SSC, the Crystal Clear Collaboration's cerium fluoride calorimeter at LHC, and the KTeV and PHENIX scintillating hodoscopes at Fermilab, and RHIC, respectively. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has an active program of study on barium fluoride scintillating crystals for the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter Collaboration and cerium fluoride and lead fluoride for the Crystal Clear Collaboration. This program has resulted in a number of significant improvements in the mechanical processing, polishing and coating of fluoride crystals. Techniques have been developed using diamond-loaded pitch lapping that can produce 15 angstrom RMS surface finishes over large areas. Also, special polishing fixtures have been designed based on mounting technology developed for the 1.1 m diameter optics used in LLNL's Nova Laser. These fixtures allow as many as five 25--50 cm long crystals to be polished and lapped at the same time with tolerances satisfying the stringent requirements of crystal calorimeters. We also discuss results on coating barium fluoride with UV reflective layers of magnesium fluoride and aluminum

  9. 16th French-German-Polish Conference on Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Korytowski, Adam; Maurer, Helmut; Szymkat, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This book contains extended, in-depth presentations of the plenary talks from the 16th French-German-Polish Conference on Optimization, held in Kraków, Poland in 2013. Each chapter in this book exhibits a comprehensive look at new theoretical and/or application-oriented results in mathematical modeling, optimization, and optimal control. Students and researchers involved in image processing, partial differential inclusions, shape optimization, or optimal control theory and its applications to medical and rehabilitation technology, will find this book valuable. The first chapter by Martin Burger provides an overview of recent developments related to Bregman distances, which is an important tool in inverse problems and image processing. The chapter by Piotr Kalita studies the operator version of a first order in time partial differential inclusion and its time discretization. In the chapter by Günter Leugering, Jan Sokołowski and Antoni Żochowski, nonsmooth shape optimization problems for variational inequa...

  10. Strategies for sustainable development of the Polish electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiczek, R.

    1996-01-01

    The key features of sustainable development of the Polish electric power industry are discussed. Priorities and limitations for changes and power demand forecasts are described. Results of least-cost planning for existing power plants' modernization and generation expansion with environmental impacts are presented. The least-cost strategy is given by the optimal upgrades of older plants until year 2002 and by expansion of gas-fired units. The limited availability of gas after 2010 will lead to the construction of new coal-fired plants. For the next planning process, an integrated resource planning methodology is proposed, which includes dynamic optimization of supply and demand side options. Innovative mechanisms are shown to overcome barriers of development like long-terms contracts and decentralization of the power system planning process. (author)

  11. Tribological approach to study polishing of road surface under traffic

    OpenAIRE

    KANE, Malal; DO, Minh Tan

    2007-01-01

    The polishing phenomenon of road pavements under the vehicle traffic constitutes the main mechanism inherent to the loss of skid resistance over time. A better understanding of this phenomenon would allow an improvement of road safety. This study comprises a review of laboratory test and a model simulating the polishing of road surfaces. The laboratory test uses a polishing machine so called 'Wehner-Schulze' which can reproduce the evolution of the road texture from specimens taken directly f...

  12. Polish Phoneme Statistics Obtained On Large Set Of Written Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Ziółko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phonetical statistics were collected from several Polish corpora. The paper is a summaryof the data which are phoneme n-grams and some phenomena in the statistics. Triphonestatistics apply context-dependent speech units which have an important role in speech recognitionsystems and were never calculated for a large set of Polish written texts. The standardphonetic alphabet for Polish, SAMPA, and methods of providing phonetic transcriptions are described.

  13. Polish Qualitative Sociology: The General Features and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz; Kacperczyk, Anna; Marciniak, Łukasz

    2005-01-01

    Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research,2005, 6(3) The article explores the development of Polish qualitative sociology in Poland by presenting its main intellectual routes and some of the general features of Polish sociology. Romanticism and inductionmethod are crucial elements for the development of this discipline in Poland and contribute to its. unigueness. The role of Florian Znaniecki in creating the Polish qualitative sociology is also underlined.

  14. Assessing operability of a novel polisher arrangement using MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, S.W.W.

    1987-01-01

    A condensate polisher is intended to remove both particulate matter and ionic material from the condensate. Condensate polishers have normally been placed directly in the condensate system downstream of the condensate pumps. This inline location has certain disadvantages. These disadvantages are discussed. Placing the polisher in a sidestream location, where water is removed from the condensate system, pumped through the polisher, and then returned to the condensate system provides a solution to these disadvantages. Several possible types of sidestream installations is described. This has a polisher taking unpolished condensate from one compartment from one compartment of a divided hotwell in a specially modified condenser and returning polished condensate to the other compartment. The polisher is supplied by its own dedicated pumps, which have a head requirement sufficient only to overcome the pressure drop through the polisher circuit at a flow rate of 110% of maximum condensate flow. This concept is very attractive but has not yet been tested even though it is being installed in several new units. A simulation was, therefore, performed using MMS to provide confidence that this particular sidestream polisher arrangement was operationally viable

  15. Slower nicotine metabolism among postmenopausal Polish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Delijewski, Marcin; Koszowski, Bartosz; Sobczak, Andrzej; Benowitz, Neal L; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2018-06-01

    A non-invasive phenotypic indicator of the rate of nicotine metabolism is nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) defined as a ratio of two major metabolites of nicotine - trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine. The rate of nicotine metabolism has important clinical implications for the likelihood of successful quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We conducted a study to measure NMR among Polish smokers. In a cross-sectional study of 180 daily cigarette smokers (42% men; average age 34.6±13.0), we collected spot urine samples and measured trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) and cotinine levels with LC-MS/MS method. We calculated NMR (molar ratio) and analyzed variations in NMR among groups of smokers. In the whole study group, an average NMR was 4.8 (IQR 3.4-7.3). The group of women below 51 years had significantly greater NMR compared to the rest of the population (6.4; IQR 4.1-8.8 vs. 4.3; IQR 2.8-6.4). No differences were found among group ages of male smokers. This is a first study to describe variations in nicotine metabolism among Polish smokers. Our findings indicate that young women metabolize nicotine faster than the rest of population. This finding is consistent with the known effects of estrogen to induce CYP2A6 activity. Young women may require higher doses of NRT or non-nicotine medications for most effective smoking cessation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An Unbiased View of the History of Polish Medical Physics by a Senior Polish Medical Physicist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomicki, O. A.

    2008-01-01

    Here is a story told by Maria Sklodowska-Curie at the meeting of the International Committee of Intellectual Cooperation in 1921: 'In a free literary competition on the role and importance of elephants the Englishman's story was 'My adventures while shooting elephants in South Africa', the Frenchman was more concerned with 'The sexual and erotic life of elephants', while the Polish approach was invariably 'The elephant versus Poland's national independence', which seemed quite understandable in the light of over 120 years when Poland was partitioned and lost its independence. Since then this saying has become proverbial and came to express the unmistakably Polish tendency to see everything in terms of Polish interests. In my remarks and reminiscences on the history of the Polish Society of Medical Physics you will quickly recognize the same tendency. First, I will, among other things, try to open some old cupboards to 'produce good [things] from the store of good' (Matthew 12:35), especially concerning the first few years of the activity in medical physics in Poland, and second, I will draw some conclusions and/or offer suggestions based on what a senior medical physicist has seen for more than 50 years of his activity in this field. (author)

  17. Constraints on Negative Prefixation in Polish Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a negative prefix, NEG-, in Polish Sign Language (PJM) which appears to be indigenous to the language. This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages. Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences). In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise. The research results can enrich models for describing processes of grammaticalization in the context of the visual-gestural modality that forms the basis for sign language structure.

  18. Polish model of electric energy market-bulk energy tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malysa, H.

    1994-01-01

    The key problem of electric energy supply industry reform is gradually launching a competitive wholesale generation market since 1994. In process of this transformation the important role plays bulk energy supply tariff in electricity transactions between Polish Power Grid Company and distribution and retail supply companies (distributors). Premises, factors and constrains having influence on shaping of the bulk energy supply tariff are presented. A brief outline of economic foundation for calculation of demand charges and energy rate is given. Particular attention has been paid to description of bulk energy supply tariff structure. The scope and manner of adjustment of this tariff to circumstances and constrains in the initial stage of the wholesale electric energy market have been described as well. (author). 8 refs

  19. Study of Pneumatic Servo Loading System in Double-Sided Polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, N; Ruan, J; Li, W

    2006-01-01

    The precise double-sided polishing process is one of the main methods to get the ultra-smooth surface of workpiece. In double-sided polishing machine, a loading system is required to be able to precisely control the load superimposed on the workpiece, while the polishing is being carried out. A pneumatic servo loading system is proposed for this purpose. In the pneumatic servo system, the servo valve, which acts both the electrical to mechanical converter and the power amplifier, has a substantial influence on the performance of the loading system. Therefore a specially designed pneumatic digital servo valve is applied in the control system. In this paper, the construction of the pneumatic servo loading system in double-sided polishing machine and control strategy associated with the digital servo valve are first addressed. The mathematical model of the system established and the hardware of the pneumatic servo system is designed. Finally, the experiments are carried out by measuring the practical load on the workpiece and the quality of the surface finish. It is demonstrated that the error rate of load is less than 5% and a super-smooth surface of silicon wafer with roughness Ra 0.401 nm can be obtained

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of FeNiCr Matrix-TiC Composite for Polishing CVD Diamond Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuji Jin; Zewei Yuan; Renke Kang; Boxian Dong

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic friction polishing (DFP) is one of the most promising methods appropriate for polishing CVD diamond film with high efficiency and low cost.By this method CVD diamond film is polished through being simply pressed against a metal disc rotating at a high speed utilizing the thermochemical reaction occurring as a result of dynamic friction between them in the atmosphere.However, the relatively soft materials such as stainless steel, cast iron and nickel alloy widely used for polishing CVD diamond film are easy to wear and adhere to diamond film surface, which may further lead to low efficiency and poor polishing quality.In this paper, FeNiCr matrix-TiC composite used as grinding wheel for polishing CVD diamond film was obtained by combination of mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS).The process of ball milling,composition, density, hardness, high-temperature oxidation resistance and wear resistance of the sintered piece were analyzed.The results show that TiC was introduced in MA-SPS process and had good combination with FeNiCr matrix and even distribution in the matrix.The density of composite can be improved by mechanical alloying.The FeNiCr matrix-TiC composite obtained at 1273 K was found to be superior to at 1173 K sintering in hardness, high-temperature oxidation resistance and wearability.These properties are more favorable than SUS304 for the preparation of high-performance grinding wheel for polishing CVD diamond film.

  1. Farmers' pensions and the Polish economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanis, J G

    1983-04-01

    The Polish Government, in 1977, inaugurated a new pension program that made old-age and invalidity benefits available for the first time to most farmers in that country. The evolution and eventual failure of that program were closely intertwined with a growing national economic crisis, manifested in widespread popular unrest and culminating in emergence of the Solidarity movement. The farmers' pension program was originally presented as both a social security measure and a vehicle for improving agricultural efficiency. The economic situation was expected to benefit as farms of older owners were passed to younger, presumably more efficient, successors, with the state sometimes acting as intermediary. A further step to bind the social security concept to agricultural efficiency came through relating the pension amount to the quantity of produce the individual farmer sold to the state over a number of years. The failure of these provisions and other unpopular features of the new program was aggravated by inflation and continuing deterioration of the Polish economy.

  2. The Czechoslovak-Polish Club in Brno (1925–1939)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2011), s. 43-64 ISSN 1803-6546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : Czechoslovak-Polish solidarity * Czechoslovak-Polish relations * Brno * associations * Interwar Period Subject RIV: AB - History

  3. Phonematic translation of Polish texts by the neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielecki, A.; Podolak, I.T.; Wosiek, J.; Majkut, E.

    1996-01-01

    Using the back propagation algorithm, we have trained the feed forward neural network to pronounce Polish language, more precisely to translate Polish text into its phonematic counterpart. Depending on the input coding and network architecture, 88%-95% translation efficiency was achieved. (author)

  4. Etymology in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article offers an insight into etymological information provided in the Polish Academy of Sciences Great Dictionary of Polish (Pol. Wielki słownik języka polskiego PAN, WSJP PAN). The dictionary and the rules of producing the entries are briefly presented. These rules influence the way of working on etymology within ...

  5. Polish Qualitative Sociology. Insight into the future of postdisciplinary research

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The paper desctibes the definitions of following concepts: multidisiplinarity, interdisciplinarity, transdysciplinarity, postdisciplinarity. MOreover it discuss the meanings of a concept of discipline. It describes the place of the Polish qualitative sociology in the context of postdisciplinary research. The main question of paper is: Does the POlish Qualitative Sociology has entered the postdisciplinary phase of research? DGS, UL Krzysztof Konecki

  6. Note on the polishing of small spheres of ferrimagnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunberg, J. G.; Antier, G. [Centre d' etudes nucleaires de Grenoble - C.E.N.G. (France); Seiden, P. E. [Institut Fourier, Universite de Grenoble (France)

    1961-07-01

    This note describes a simple and rapid method that we have used for obtaining a high degree of polish on spheres of ferrimagnetic materials. A high surface polish is of particular importance if one desires to perform ferrimagnetic resonance experiments on very narrow linewidth materials such as Yttrium Iron Garnet. It is not possible to obtain the very narrow linewidths without polishing the sample with a very fine abrasive such as 'Linde A'. Although the methods presently used for the fine polishing of ferrite spheres give satisfactory results, the method described here is of particular interest because of its simplicity and speed. For example with the air-jet tumbling technique it can take as long as three days of polishing to obtain an acceptable surface while our method will give the same results in one to two hours. (author)

  7. The influence of polishing techniques on pre-polymerized CAD\\CAM acrylic resin denture bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alammari, Manal Rahma

    2017-10-01

    Lately, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has broadly been successfully employed in dentistry. The CAD/CAM systems have recently become commercially available for fabrication of complete dentures, and are considered as an alternative technique to conventionally processed acrylic resin bases. However, they have not yet been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to inspect the effects of mechanical polishing and chemical polishing on the surface roughness (Ra) and contact angle (wettability) of heat-cured, auto-cured and CAD/CAM denture base acrylic resins. This study was conducted at the Advanced Dental Research Laboratory Center of King Abdulaziz University from March to June 2017. Three denture base materials were selected: heat cure poly-methylmethacrylate resin, thermoplastic (polyamide resin) and (CAD\\CAM) denture base resin. Sixty specimens were prepared and divided into three groups, twenty in each. Each group was divided according to the polishing techniques into (Mech P) and (Chem P), ten specimens in each; surface roughness and wettability were investigated. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 22, using one-way ANOVA and Pearson coefficient. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc tests were used for comparing the surface roughness values between three groups which revealed a statistical significant difference between them (p 1 CAD\\CAM denture base material (group III) showed the least mean values (1.08±0.23, 1.39±0.31, Mech P and Chem P respectively). CAD/CAM showed the least contact angle in both polishing methods, which were statistically significant at 5% level (p=0.034 and pCAD\\CAM denture base resin with superior smooth surface compared to chemical polishing. Mechanical polishing is considered the best effective polishing technique. CAD/CAM denture base material should be considered as the material of choice for complete denture construction in the near future, especially for older dental

  8. Grinding and polishing of conformal windows and domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fess, Edward; Ross, James; Matthews, Greg

    2017-05-01

    Conformal optics require special manufacturing techniques to produce them to optical tolerances. In many cases the materials used are very hard optical ceramics that present additional manufacturing challenges due to their hardness and grain structure. OptiPro has developed grinding technologies such as OptiSonic grinding, as well as sub-aperture polishing technologies like UltraForm Finishing (UFF) to manufacture these challenging components. We have also developed a custom computer aided manufacturing (CAM) software package, ProSurf, to generate the complex tool paths for both grinding and polishing processes. One of the main advantages of ProSurf over traditional CAM software packages is that it uses metrology feedback for deterministic corrections. The metrology input can be obtained from OptiPro's 5-axis UltraSurf metrology system, which is capable of measuring these complex shapes to sub-micron accuracies. Through the development of these technologies much work has been performed in creating, measuring and analyzing the alignment fiducials or datum's used to qualify the location of the optical surfaces. Understanding the sensitivity of the optical surface to any datum misalignment is critical to knowing not only where the part is in space, but how good the optical surfaces are to each other. Working with the optical designer to properly tolerance surfaces to these datums is crucial. This paper will present the technologies developed by OptiPro to manufacture conformal windows as well as information related to the optical surfaces sensitivity to datums and how accurately those datums can be measured.

  9. Chemical polishing of partially oxidized T-111 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teaney, P.E.

    1974-01-01

    The specimens were pressure-mounted in Bakelite and ground through 600 grit on silicon carbide papers. The specimens were rough-polished on a vibratory polisher for 4 to 6 h, using a water slurry of one micron alumina on Texmet, followed by 0.3-μ alumina on Texmet overnight. Final polishing was accomplished by continuous swabbing with a chemical polish. A chemical polish consisting of ten parts lactic acid, four parts nitric acid, and four parts hydrofluoric acid worked well for the T-111 parent material specimens; however, in the partially oxidized specimens, considerable pitting and staining occurred in the oxygen-affected zone and in the transition zone between the oxygen-affected zone and the parent material. A chemical polish was developed for the partially oxidized specimens by adjusting the ratio of the acids to ten parts lactic acid, two parts nitric acid, and two parts hydrofluoric acid. This slowed the chemical attack on the oxygen-affected zone considerably and, with continuous swabbing, the pitting and stain could be avoided. The specimens were rinsed and checked occasionally on the metallograph to determine when the proper polish had been obtained. Some specimens required intermittent polishing times up to 1 / 2 hour. No relationship could be established between the oxygen content of the specimen and the time required for chemical polishing in the partially oxidized specimens. However, the microstructure of the transition zone was the most difficult to obtain, and specimens with uniform reaction zones across the width of the specimen polished quicker than those with the transition zone

  10. Mirror-smooth surfaces and repair of defects in superconducting RF cavities by mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C. A. [Fermilab; Cooley, L. D. [Fermilab

    2012-11-22

    Mechanical techniques for polishing the inside surface of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities have been systematically explored. By extending known techniques to fine polishing, mirror-like finishes were produced, with <15 nm RMS (root mean square) roughness over 1 mm2 scan area. This is an order of magnitude less than the typical roughness produced by the electropolishing of niobium cavities. The extended mechanical polishing (XMP) process was applied to several SRF cavities which exhibited equator defects that caused quench at <20 MV m-1 and were not improved by further electropolishing. Cavity optical inspection equipment verified the complete removal of these defects, and minor acid processing, which dulled the mirror finish, restored performance of the defective cells to the high gradients and quality factors measured for adjacent cells when tested with other harmonics. This innate repair feature of XMP could be used to increase manufacturing yield. Excellent superconducting properties resulted after initial process optimization, with quality factor Q of 3 × 1010 and accelerating gradient of 43 MV m-1 being attained for a single-cell TESLA cavity, which are both close to practical limits. Several repaired nine-cell cavities also attained Q > 8 × 109 at 35 MV m-1, which is the specification for the International Linear Collider. Future optimization of the process and pathways for eliminating requirements for acid processing are also discussed.

  11. Using quantum dots to tag subsurface damage in lapped and polished glass samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Wesley B.; Mullany, Brigid A.; Parker, Wesley C.; Moyer, Patrick J.; Randles, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    Grinding, lapping, and polishing are finishing processes used to achieve critical surface parameters in a variety of precision optical and electronic components. As these processes remove material from the surface through mechanical and chemical interactions, they may induce a damaged layer of cracks, voids, and stressed material below the surface. This subsurface damage (SSD) can degrade the performance of a final product by creating optical aberrations due to diffraction, premature failure in oscillating components, and a reduction in the laser induced damage threshold of high energy optics. As these defects lie beneath the surface, they are difficult to detect, and while many methods are available to detect SSD, they can have notable limitations regarding sample size and type, preparation time, or can be destructive in nature. The authors tested a nondestructive method for assessing SSD that consisted of tagging the abrasive slurries used in lapping and polishing with quantum dots (nano-sized fluorescent particles). Subsequent detection of fluorescence on the processed surface is hypothesized to indicate SSD. Quantum dots that were introduced to glass surfaces during the lapping process were retained through subsequent polishing and cleaning processes. The quantum dots were successfully imaged by both wide field and confocal fluorescence microscopy techniques. The detected fluorescence highlighted features that were not observable with optical or interferometric microscopy. Atomic force microscopy and additional confocal microscope analysis indicate that the dots are firmly embedded in the surface but do not appear to travel deep into fractures beneath the surface. Etching of the samples exhibiting fluorescence confirmed that SSD existed. SSD-free samples exposed to quantum dots did not retain the dots in their surfaces, even when polished in the presence of quantum dots.

  12. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  13. Food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status...... (living alone or living with other people). Respondents were asked questions about consumption of 55 food products. The factor analysis allowed for separating 21 food patterns. They included from 1 to 3 groups of products, intake of which was mutually dependant. Big number of separated food patterns...... and small number of products fonning joint food patterns speak in advocacy of relatively small reciprocal relationship between different food items consumed by the seniors in Poland....

  14. Attitudes of Polish Consumers Toward Experiential Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skorek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The experience economy is a concept that can be defned as a new way of perceiving the market offer of an enterprise, focusing on the customer experience. Enterprises, both in the production and service industries, are becoming similar to one another on a massive scale, which makes it increasingly diffcult to stand out. The response to this can be to offer the consumer an unforgettable experience related to a product or service provided by a company. Methodology: This study analysed the results of qualitative research on the attitudes and opinions of Polish consumers on experience marketing. Results/fndings: The results showed that participants of the study were prepared to transition from the economy based on products or services to an economy based on experiences at a moderate level. They declared a willingness to participate in experiences offered by companies but at the same time focus on the cost and utility of them

  15. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizak, B.; Plucienniczak, A.

    1995-01-01

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Popularity of marijuana among Polish students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Pająk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and the aim: Marijuana is the most commonly used drug in the world (excluding alcohol and tobacco. According to the literature about 16% of Poles at the age of 16 to 64 years old, at least once have used cannabis. The aim of study was to estimate the popularity of marijuana among students of Polish universities. We also asked questions about respondents’ attitude towards marijuana and opinions about its validation. Material and methods: The study was conducted in 2017 on 132 individuals – 60 men and 72 women. The results were analyzed in STATISTICA 10 at p<0.05. Results:Out of interviewees, 63.6% of them, at least once in their lives, have used marijuana. This is a percentage of up to four times greater than that one given in the literature for the general population. Even 80% of men and 50% of women have tried marijuana at least once in their lives. Students of Catholic University of Lublin reach for marijuana significantly more often than students of Medical University of Lublin. The majority of respondents (53% treats marijuana as a "soft" drug, though up 67.4% believe that it has the addictive potential. More than a half of respondents (56.8% stands for liberalization of rules relevant to marijuana in Poland. Vast majority (70% of respondents believes that marijuana is easily available in Poland. Conclusions: Marijuana is a drug popular among students. The criminalization of drug use in Poland is not effective for the prevention of its use, the majority of respondents believes that marijuana is easily available in Poland. Considering the negative health and social consequences of the current state, it is worth wondering about making changes in the education system and Polish drug law.

  17. Development of polishing methods for Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide mirrors for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, B.A.; Brown, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Material properties of Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide (CVD SiC) make it ideal for use in mirrors for synchrotron radiation experiments. We developed methods to grind and polish flat samples of CVD SiC down to measured surface roughness values as low as 1.1 Angstroms rms. We describe the processing details, including observations we made during trial runs with alternative processing recipes. We conclude that pitch polishing using progressively finer diamond abrasive, augmented with specific water based lubricants and additives, produces superior results. Using methods based on these results, a cylindrical and a toroidal mirror, each about 100 x 300mm, were respectively finished by Continental Optical and Frank Cooke, Incorporated. WYCO Interferometry shows these mirrors have surface roughness less than 5.7 Angstroms rms. These mirrors have been installed on the LLNL/UC X-ray Calibration and Standards Facility at the Stanford Synthrotron Radiation Laboratory

  18. Mathematical model of temperature field distribution in thin plates during polishing with a free abrasive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilov Alex

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the heating process of thin plates during polishing with a free abrasive. A mathematical model of the temperature field distribution in space and time according to the plate thickness is based on Lagrange equation of the second kind in the thermodynamics of irreversible processes (variation principle Bio. The research results of thermo elasticity of thin plates (membranes will allow to correct the modes of polishing with a free abrasive to receive the exact reflecting surfaces of satellites reflector, to increase temperature stability and the ability of radio signal reflection, satellite precision guidance. Calculations of temperature fields in thin plates of different thicknesses (membranes is held in the Excel, a graphical characteristics of temperature fields in thin plates (membranes show non-linearity of temperature distribution according to the thickness of thin plates (membranes.

  19. Intergeneration transmission of cultural heritage of polish Tatars family in the years 1918 - 1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URSZULA WRÓBLEWSKA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of my article is analysis religion educational and cultural processes, which influenced in family on Polish Muslim Tatars during the period between World Wars. Chronological rangę overlaps 1918-1939 years. During that period, Poland built its State structures after a long time of partitions. I would like to display a multi-dimensional characteristic of Polish Tatars religion education. In my article I would like to answer to the ąuestion: What was important in transfer between generation in family of Tatars? I would also like to fili in ‘blank’ in the researches in the field of Tatars minority and family educational processes in the years 1918-1939.

  20. Abstracts Book of 3. All-Polish Conference on Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The development of radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry in Poland have been presented during the 3. All-Polish Conference on Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry held in Kazimierz Dolny in May 2001. The broad range of problems connected with radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry application in environmental protection and quality control, nuclear medicine and radiation protection, radioactive waste processing and many other scientific and everyday problems solution have been extensively presented and discussed

  1. Issue of productivity versus strategies for the development of Polish agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Floriańczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of the "Polished Panel Optical Receiver" Concept on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground-based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation proposes to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by even state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. A custom designed aluminum panel has been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather-proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. Using the planet Jupiter as the optical point-source, the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished panel has been characterized, the array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution, and expected communications performance of the proposed polished panel optical receiver has been evaluated.

  3. Reel-to-reel substrate tape polishing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, Venkat; Gardner, Michael T.; Judd, Raymond D.; Weloth, Martin; Qiao, Yunfei

    2005-06-21

    Disclosed is a reel-to-reel single-pass mechanical polishing system (100) suitable for polishing long lengths of metal substrate tape (124) used in the manufacture of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) coated tape, including multiple instantiations of a polishing station (114) in combination with a subsequent rinsing station (116) arranged along the axis of the metal substrate tape (124) that is translating between a payout spool (110a) and a take-up spool (110b). The metal substrate tape obtains a surface smoothness that is suitable for the subsequent deposition of a buffer layer.

  4. Microscopic machining mechanism of polishing based on vibrations of liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z G; Guo, Z N; Chen, X; Yu, Z Q; Yu, T M; Lee, W B

    2007-01-01

    A molecular dynamics method has been applied to study the mechanism of polishing based on vibrations of liquid. Movements of polishing particles and formations of impact dents are simulated and discussed. The abrasive effect between particle and machined substrate is evaluated empirically. Polishing qualities, including roughness and fractal character under multiple impacts, are obtained by numerical methods. Results show that the particle will vibrate and roll viscously on the substrate. Press, tear and self-organization effects will be responsible for the formation of impact dents. Simulation results are compared with experimental data to verify the conclusions

  5. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  6. "Agricultural budget" and the competitiveness of the Polish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lenkiewicz, Stanisław; Rokicki, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the publication is to assess the impact of public support on the functioning of the Polish agriculture. In order to achieve this aim the publication includes an analysis of the system of direct payments and rural development policy instruments planned to be implemented in Poland within the CAP 2014-2020. The study also presents an analysis of regional diversity of the Polish agriculture and an assessment of the scale of agricultural investment made in recent years in all the Polish...

  7. The regeneration test of the secondary loop condensate polishing mixed bed resin in Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Meijing; Dong Liming

    1995-12-01

    There are four condensate polishing mixed beds in the water chemical treatment plant of Qinshan NPP. 2125 kg of D001-TR type cation exchange resin, 2000 kg of D201-TR type anion exchange resin, and 375 kg of S-TR type inert resin are filled into each mixed bed. The bed height of resin is 1.2 m and the volume is about 2.7 m 3 . In order to regenerate the exhausted resin out of the bed, the pre-designed condensate polishing mixed bed regeneration process was used to regenerate the first exhausted resin. After the resin was scrubbed and separated, cation resin and anion resin were respectively regenerated, rinsed to resume the exchange capability of the resin. The regenerated mixed bed is able to keep higher efficiency for condensate polishing. The outlet water quality and the resin service-life are able to meet the design requirements or more favorable than that. During the test, some main cations and anions in the blow-off water at each procedure were analyzed. The analyzed results were used to make pre-designed regeneration process better. The test results proved that pre-designed process is reasonable and effective. (6 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.)

  8. Polish adaptation of Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Harasymczuk, Jerzy

    2009-12-01

    Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity are relatively new tools aimed at facilitating the evaluation of long-term results of therapy in persons with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing conservative treatment. To use these tools properly in Poland, they must be translated into Polish and adapted to the Polish cultural settings. The process of cultural adaptation of the questionnaires was compliant with the guidelines of International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project. In the first stage, two independent translators converted the originals into Polish. Stage two, consisted of a comparison of the originals and two translated versions. During that stage, the team of two translators and authors of the project identified differences in those translations and created a combination of the two. In the third stage, two independent translators, who were native speakers of German, translated the adjusted version of the Polish translation into the language of the original document. At the last stage, a commission composed of: specialists in orthopedics, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all translations and drafted a pre-final version of the questionnaires. Thirty-five adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis who were treated with Cheneau brace were subjected to the questionnaire assessment. All patients were treated in an out-patient setting by a specialist in orthopedics at the Chair and Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology. Median age of patients was 14.8 SD 1.5, median value of the Cobb's angle was 27.8 degrees SD 7.4. 48.6% of patients had thoracic scoliosis, 31.4% had thoracolumbar scoliosis, and 20% patients had lumbar scoliosis. Median results obtained by means of the Polish version of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity questionnaires were 17.9 SD 5.0 and 11.3 SD 4.7, respectively. Internal consistency of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity was at the level of 0.80 and 0.87, whereas the value of

  9. CHANGES IN THE LEVEL AND STRUCTURE OF UTILISATION OF SERVICES IN POLISH AND GERMAN AGRICULTURE IN 1998-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kołodziejczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to present the differences in the level and structure of utilisation of services in Polish and German agriculture. An attempt to define the factors influencing these values was also done. The research covered the share of agricultural services, veterinary expenses and financial intermediation services in intermediate consumption, the value of the studied services per 1 hectare of agricultural land, 1 AWU or 1 DJP, as well as services absorptivity of agricultural production. It was proved that although a significant difference between the role of these services in Poland and Germany still exists, in many cases in 2012 it was not so considerable as in 1998. It can be also assumed that further absorption of funds from the European Union will stimulate investment processes in Polish agriculture, and progressive improvement in utilisation of services by Polish agriculture.

  10. Diffraction efficiency enhancement of femtosecond laser-engraved diffraction gratings due to CO{sub 2} laser polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hun-Kook [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Deok; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Noh, Young-Chul; Lee, Yong-Tak [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Tae [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ahsan, Shamim [Khulna University, Khulna (Bangladesh)

    2014-11-15

    This research demonstrates laser-assisted fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in fused-silica glass samples. Initially, femtosecond laser pulses are used to engrave diffraction gratings on the glass surfaces. Then, these micro-patterned glass samples undergo CO{sub 2} laser polishing process. unpolished diffraction gratings encoded in the glass samples show an overall diffraction efficiency of 18.1%. diffraction gratings imprinted on the glass samples and then polished four times by using a CO{sub 2} laser beam attain a diffraction efficiency of 32.7%. We also investigate the diffraction patterns of the diffraction gratings encoded on fused-silica glass surfaces. The proposed CO{sub 2} laser polishing technique shows great potential in patterning high-efficiency diffraction gratings on the surfaces of various transparent materials.

  11. Statistical metrology - measurement and modeling of variation for advanced process development and design rule generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boning, Duane S.; Chung, James E.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced process technology will require more detailed understanding and tighter control of variation in devices and interconnects. The purpose of statistical metrology is to provide methods to measure and characterize variation, to model systematic and random components of that variation, and to understand the impact of variation on both yield and performance of advanced circuits. Of particular concern are spatial or pattern-dependencies within individual chips; such systematic variation within the chip can have a much larger impact on performance than wafer-level random variation. Statistical metrology methods will play an important role in the creation of design rules for advanced technologies. For example, a key issue in multilayer interconnect is the uniformity of interlevel dielectric (ILD) thickness within the chip. For the case of ILD thickness, we describe phases of statistical metrology development and application to understanding and modeling thickness variation arising from chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). These phases include screening experiments including design of test structures and test masks to gather electrical or optical data, techniques for statistical decomposition and analysis of the data, and approaches to calibrating empirical and physical variation models. These models can be integrated with circuit CAD tools to evaluate different process integration or design rule strategies. One focus for the generation of interconnect design rules are guidelines for the use of 'dummy fill' or 'metal fill' to improve the uniformity of underlying metal density and thus improve the uniformity of oxide thickness within the die. Trade-offs that can be evaluated via statistical metrology include the improvements to uniformity possible versus the effect of increased capacitance due to additional metal

  12. Polish electoral geography and its methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rykiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the understanding of electoral geography between social sciences are discussed in the article. Main fields and spatial scales of Polish electoral geography are identified. Main methods of multidimensional statistics are discussed. A necessity of a proper choice, based on theories of voting behaviour, of explaning variables to statistical models are emphasised. Regression analysis indicates only a formal usefulness in electoral geography, for quantitative relationships between variables in the model can be evidenced, which may be meaningless not only essentially, but even statistically. The application of canonical analysis in electoral geography brought a methodological turning-point to the statistical approach. This method allowed to combine: (1 the foundation of the selection of input variables on theories of voting behaviour; (2 the analysis of dependence of the electoral results on socio-economic characteristics of areas; (3 an identification of electoral options; (4 a quantification of the role of the historical heritage in the contemporary voting behaviour; and (5 the analysis of the stability of the electoral space. A well grounded opinion was weakened about the general competitiveness of right- and left-wing parties in Poland’s political space. Parties with similar rather than different programmes compete in given areas. It was indicated that elections have only formal influence on the structure of Parliament while the electoral system is decisive. Electoral, including territorial, manipulations also play their part. The empirical analysis indicated that Poland’s political space is polarised between the right-wing-oriented areas of the south-eastern half of the country and the left-wing-oriented areas of the north-western half. The political competition between the left and the right operates merely on the national scale, while it is not reflected territorially.The quantification of the influence of the nineteenth

  13. Evaluation and analysis of polished fused silica subsurface quality by the nanoindenter technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Bin; Shen Zhengxiang; He Pengfei; Sha Fei; Wang Chunliang; Wang Bin; Ji Yiqin; Liu Huasong; Li Weihao; Wang Zhanshan

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the subsurface quality of polished fused silica samples using the nanoindenter technique. Two kinds of samples, consisting of hundreds of nanometers and micrometers of subsurface damage layers, are fabricated by controlling the grinding and polishing processes, and the subsurface quality has been verified by the chemical etching method. Then several nanoindentation experiments are performed using the Berkovich tip to investigate the subsurface quality. Some differences are found by relative measurements in terms of the relationship between the total penetration and the peak load on the surfaces, the modulus calculated over the defined depths and from unload, and the indented morphology at a constant load near the surface collapse threshold. Finally, the capabilities of such a mechanical method for detecting subsurface flaws are discussed and analyzed.

  14. Polish Housing Policy in Com parison with the Housing Policy in the UE – Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szelągowska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the main principles of Polish housing policy and to compare it with the housing policy in the European Union. Poland, as an UE member, did not hammer out successful solutions which could facilitate the process of building new low-rental dwellings. The authors aim is to find the answer to research question: is it worth concentrating on fulfilling housing needs of low-income households in Poland and if yes, why? In order to do this the following hypothesis is put forward: on account of long-standing neglect connected with the Polish social housing finance there is an urgent need of housing reform oriented to the low-income housing growth.

  15. Reducing the Edge Chipping for Capillary End Face Grinding and Polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hošek J.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of glass capillary end face grinding and polishing by approach that reduces the edge chipping. Brittle materials have natural tendency for edge chipping what leads to beveling the sharp edges. Not beveled sharp edges on glass capillary are important for special applications like surface tension measurement of small liquid samples. We use common grinding and polishing process for capillary end face machining modified with gradual decreasing of grinding load based on the relation of the critical chipping load. Achieved surface roughness is measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Capillary inner edge quality is checked both with optical microscopes and electron microscope too. We achieved a non-chipped capillary inner edge with radius down to 100 nm.

  16. Anglo-Saxon experience in the implementation of correctional treatment and the Polish individual rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bernasiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors cite American and British research on the effectiveness of correctional treatment. On that basis, they describe several crucial factors that affect the success of rehabilitation (e.g., educators’ skills, working with families of juvenile offenders. The article broadly discusses the specific juvenile residential treatment program that has been implemented in Florida. The conclusions of this program are drawn from the research conducted through interviews with juvenile offenders (young adults who have effectively completed the process of rehabilitation in correctional facilities. Furthermore, the authors discuss an individual program of rehabilitation (IPR implemented in Polish correctional facilities. Using the experience and the impact of correctional treatment in the West, it is proposed to introduce certain modifications in the planning and implementation of Polish correctional treatment programs (IPR s.

  17. Optimizing Centrifugal Barrel Polishing For Mirror Finish SRF Cavity And RF Tests At Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palczewski, Ari; Geng, Rongli; Tian, Hui

    2012-01-01

    We performed Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) on a 1.3 GHz fine grain TESLA single cell cavity and 1.5 GHz fine grain CEBAF high gradient superconducting radio frequency (SRF) single cell cavity following a modified recipe originally developed at Fermi National Accelerator Lab (FNAL). We were able to obtain a mirror like surface similar to that obtained at FNAL, while reducing the number of CBP steps and total processing time. This paper will discuss the change in surface and subsequent cavity performance post CBP, after a 800 C bake (no pre-bake chemistry) and minimal controlled electro-polishing (10 micron). In addition to Q vs. E ACC thermometry mapping with preheating characteristics and optical inspection of the cavity after CBP will also be shown.

  18. Polish Listening SPAN: A new tool for measuring verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zychowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in second language acquisition (SLA encompass differences in working memory capacity, which is believed to be one of the most crucial factors influencing language learning. However, in Poland research on the role of working memory in SLA is scarce due to a lack of proper Polish instruments for measuring this construct. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of construction and validation of the Polish Listening Span (PLSPAN as a tool intended to measure verbal working memory of adults. The article presents the requisite theoretical background as well as the information about the PLSPAN, that is, the structure of the test, the scoring procedures and the steps taken with the aim of validating it.

  19. Enhanced Production of Glucose Oxidase Using Penicillium notatum and Rice Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Sabir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose oxidase (GOD is an important enzyme that finds a wide range of applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. In this investigation the feasibility of using rice polish as a substrate for the production of GOD by Penicillium notatum in submerged fermentation (SmF has been evaluated. The intention was to enhance total GOD activity by the selection of economical substrate, microorganism and consecutive optimization of various cultural conditions. Maximum GOD activity of (112±5 U/mL was achieved under optimum growth conditions: rice polish 5 g, incubation period 72 h, buffering agent 3 % (by mass per volume, incubation temperature (30±1 °C and pH=6.0. Addition of carbon and nitrogen sources further enhanced the enzyme yield, indicating an economically attractive process for GOD production.

  20. THE CULTURAL RELEVANCE OF INDONESIAN PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS AS CONTRASTED WITH POLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Wiatrowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Indonesian set phrases, a research area not previously investigated by Polish scholars. The aim is to analyze expressions which reveal the cultural specificity of the Indonesian speech community. Specifically, the author is concerned with two categories of multiword expressions. One of them is lexical combinations which preserve observations characteristic of the Indonesian speech community. These are reflected in a system of lexical connotations drawn upon in the process of semantic motivation of idioms. The other is expressions made up of units which are specific to Indonesian culture. The cultural relevance of Indonesian multi-word combinations is examined against the background of the Polish language. By examining research material derived from dictionaries of phrases and collocations and general dictionaries of the Indonesian language, the author provides insights into the way of thinking and responding to reality which is embedded in the language and in the collective experience of members of the Indonesian community.

  1. Benefits and costs of IFRS implementation in the opinion of Polish certified auditors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karmańska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a survey conducted among a carefully selected group of Polish certified auditors. The purpose of the study was to determine whether auditors, during the audit of financial state- ments, perceive certain costs and benefits resulting from the fact that the audited statements were pre- pared in accordance with IFRS. This survey was undertaken to demonstrate that the cost-benefit analysis of IFRS, after more than a decade of their use in Polish practice, could provide important observations for future legislative changes in this area. The study shows that, thanks to the implementation of IFRSs, auditors gain the benefit of lower audit workloads. At the same time, however, they identify six reasons why the audit process is prolonged, requiring special organization, prior special preparation and, as a result, higher auditing costs

  2. Technology of Polish copper ore beneficiation – perspectives from the past experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieniewski Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main types of existing copper deposits in the world and the most common enrichment technologies. The characteristic elements of the current flowsheet of the Polish ore beneficiation were discussed together with the reasons for using them. The paper presents a perspective flowsheet based on more than 50-years of experience in beneficiation of Polish copper ore. The main elements of proposed technology are: leaving in justified cases the division of ore into fractions of increased sandstone and carbonate ores content, flotation in the milling circuit as part of the effective preparation of the ore to rougher flotation, intensive rougher flotation, classic cleaning system, processing of the middlings with grinding system in new type mills, classification and flotation with outlet of final tailings.

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  4. The resettlement of Polish refugees after the second world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Blaszczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The passing of the Polish Resettlement Act and the creation of the different agencies related to it undoubtedly represented an unprecedented response to the challenge of mass migration in the UK.

  5. Comparative study of performance of shoe polishes formulated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GARZALI

    1Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Bayero University, Kano. 2College of Science ... carbon black pigment. Polyethylene polish like the one formulated using carbon black pigment was ... into fine black powder. Purification of Wax.

  6. Polish Defense Policy in the Context of National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bieniek, Piotr S

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Polish security policy and strategy is shaped by its geographical location, which places Poland in NATO's main strategic area opposite the Russian Federation and Belarus...

  7. Employability management practices in the Polish ICT sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzec, I.; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Scholarios, D.; van der Schoot, E.; Jedrzejowicz, P.; Bozionelos, N.; Epitropaki, O.; Knauth, P.; Mikkelsen, A.; van der Heijde, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines current career thinking and employability management practices within the Polish Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector. The aim of this contribution is to identify career management problems and to determine obstacles for implementing employability management

  8. Continuous counter-current chromatography for capture and polishing steps in biopharmaceutical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Fabian; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    The economic advantages of continuous processing of biopharmaceuticals, which include smaller equipment and faster, efficient processes, have increased interest in this technology over the past decade. Continuous processes can also improve quality assurance and enable greater controllability, consistent with the quality initiatives of the FDA. Here, we discuss different continuous multi-column chromatography processes. Differences in the capture and polishing steps result in two different types of continuous processes that employ counter-current column movement. Continuous-capture processes are associated with increased productivity per cycle and decreased buffer consumption, whereas the typical purity-yield trade-off of classical batch chromatography can be surmounted by continuous processes for polishing applications. In the context of continuous manufacturing, different but complementary chromatographic columns or devices are typically combined to improve overall process performance and avoid unnecessary product storage. In the following, these various processes, their performances compared with batch processing and resulting product quality are discussed based on a review of the literature. Based on various examples of applications, primarily monoclonal antibody production processes, conclusions are drawn about the future of these continuous-manufacturing technologies. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Technical report for generic site add-on facility for plutonium polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide environmental data and reference process information associated with incorporating plutonium polishing steps (dissolution, impurity removal, and conversion to oxide powder) into the genetic-site Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MOXFF). The incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will enable the removal of undesirable impurities, such as gallium and americium, known to be associated with the plutonium. Moreover, unanticipated impurities can be removed, including those that may be contained in (1) poorly characterized feed materials, (2) corrosion products added from processing equipment, and (3) miscellaneous materials contained in scrap recycle streams. These impurities will be removed to the extent necessary to meet plutonium product purity specifications for MOX fuels. Incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will mean that the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will need to produce a plutonium product that can be dissolved at the MOXFF in nitric acid at a suitable rate (sufficient to meet overall production requirements) with the minimal usage of hydrofluoric acid, and its complexing agent, aluminum nitrate. This function will require that if the PDCF product is plutonium oxide powder, that powder must be produced, stored, and shipped without exceeding a temperature of 600 C

  10. THE ECCLESIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE LETTER OF THE POLISH BISHOPS TO THE GERMAN BISHOPS OF 1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żmudziński Marek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of World War II influenced the relations between the nations of Europe. They also influenced the life of the Church in a universal way, because its members found themselves of both sides of the Iron Curtain. This was particularly visible in Polish-German relations. The Polish bishops, inspired by the message of the Gospel and the legacy of the Second Vatican Council, came forward with a proposal of initiating the process of reconciliation. The words, “we forgive and ask for forgiveness”, contained in the Letter to the German Bishops of 1965, became the inspiration for the years-long reconciliation effort. The specific results of this formula are indicated in the formal normalisation of the state and church relations. In the ecclesial dimension, it included a new canonical diocese order and cooperation on the pastoral, charitable and journalistic plane. The real influence of the Polish-German reconciliation on the process of integration of the peoples of Europe should be emphasised. In this sense, the influence of the Christian message on shaping the public sphere is revealed.

  11. Reusing Ceramic Tile Polishing Waste In Paving Block Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Penteado; Carmenlucia Santos; de Carvalho; Eduardo Viviani; Cecche Lintz; Rosa Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic companies worldwide produce large amounts of polishing tile waste, which are piled up in the open air or disposed of in landfills. These wastes have such characteristics that make them potential substitutes for cement and sand in the manufacturing of concrete products. This paper investigates the use of ceramic tile polishing waste as a partial substitute for cement and sand in the manufacturer of concrete paving blocks. A concrete mix design was defined and then the sand was replaced...

  12. Borel hierarchies in infinite products of Polish spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with two product topologies: (i) the product of copies of the Polish topology on X, so that H is again a Polish space and (ii) the product of copies of the discrete topology on X. Define now the Borel hierarchy in the larger topology on H. To do so, we need some notation. An element of H will be denoted by h = (x1,x2,...,xn,.

  13. Polish Standard of the Technical Safety of Transmission Gas Pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacz, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The document is presenting the idea of the CNGI Norm called The Polish Standard of the Technical Safety of Transmission Gas Pipelines and the way of using it by companies associated in the Chamber of the Natural Gas Industry in the business activity. It will be applied to improve the quality and reliability of gas transmission after full opening of Polish natural gas market. (author)

  14. ROLE OF EU FUNDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLISH COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Igielski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With main mechanism of stimulating the trade boom, at present in our country, should be projects financed from European Union funds. Therefore for Poland, at the beginning of the consecutive programming period, an optimal use is an important challenge coming from budget the EU of the stream of financial means - it should assure lasted and sustainable development. We must increase the competitiveness of our economy on the global market through the systematic process of raising the competitive edge of Polish enterprises on the European market. It is result of functioning in the era of the forming of the economy based on the knowledge which is forcing us into pointing the principal funding stream to such scientific areas which permanently are cooperating with the economy and will be responsible for the faster economic development of the country. Exactly enterprises which in the 21st century, in relation to permanent turbulences of the global environment, must aspire to the constant development based on the available resources are chief players of this process.

  15. Strategy for development of the Polish electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybowski, J. [Polish Power Grid Co., Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper represents the strategy for development of the Polish Electricity Sector dealing with specific problems which are common for all of East Central Europe. In 1990 Poland adopted a restructuring program for the entire energy sector. Very ambitious plans were changed several times but still the main direction of change was preserved. The most difficult period of transformation is featured by several contradictions which have to be balanced. Electricity prices should increase in order to cover the modernization and development program but the society is not able to take this burden in such a short time. Furthermore the new environment protection standards force the growth of capital investment program which sooner or later has to be transferred through the electricity prices. New economic mechanisms have to be introduced to the electricity sector to replace the old ones noneffective, centrally planned. This process has to follow slow management changes. Also, introduction of new electricity market is limited by those constraints. However, this process of change would not be possible without parallel governmental initiation like preparation of new energy law and regulatory frames.

  16. POLISH AND EUROPEAN ECONOMIC CULTURE – A COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Ścibiorska-Kowalczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The term "economic culture" describes historically shaped elements in the general culture of population, concerning values recognized and desired by a particular community, relating to the management and to the economic system of the states. The most important economic cultural behaviors include: awareness of economic choices, attitudes and behaviors of economic choices, the rules of the economic game. There is a theory which assumes that the globalization of the economy will lead to the emergence of a single, common to the whole world culture through enculturation, which is defined as a gradual process of growing of the individual (or group into the culture or cultures through assimilation of cultural heritage of the surrounding community. More inculturation can be understood as a process of movement between different cultures come into contact and the transmission of cultural patterns. The article is an attempt at presenting the Polish economic culture against the European background and identifying the differences. It discusses the impact of national history and religion on the present shape of economic life, with particular regard to its negative aspects, i.e. the relatively high level of bribery and unemployment or the negative personal attitudes.

  17. The intrinsic antimicrobial activity of citric acid-coated manganese ferrite nanoparticles is enhanced after conjugation with the antifungal peptide Cm-p5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Abarrategui, Carlos; Figueroa-Espi, Viviana; Lugo-Alvarez, Maria B; Pereira, Caroline D; Garay, Hilda; Barbosa, João ARG; Falcão, Rosana; Jiménez-Hernández, Linnavel; Estévez-Hernández, Osvaldo; Reguera, Edilso; Franco, Octavio L; Dias, Simoni C; Otero-Gonzalez, Anselmo J

    2016-01-01

    Diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens are among the major health problems in the world. Newer antimicrobial therapies based on novel molecules urgently need to be developed, and this includes the antimicrobial peptides. In spite of the potential of antimicrobial peptides, very few of them were able to be successfully developed into therapeutics. The major problems they present are molecule stability, toxicity in host cells, and production costs. A novel strategy to overcome these obstacles is conjugation to nanomaterial preparations. The antimicrobial activity of different types of nanoparticles has been previously demonstrated. Specifically, magnetic nanoparticles have been widely studied in biomedicine due to their physicochemical properties. The citric acid-modified manganese ferrite nanoparticles used in this study were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which confirmed the formation of nanocrystals of approximately 5 nm diameter. These nanoparticles were able to inhibit Candida albicans growth in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 250 µg/mL. However, the nanoparticles were not capable of inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). Finally, an antifungal peptide (Cm-p5) from the sea animal Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) was conjugated to the modified manganese ferrite nanoparticles. The antifungal activity of the conjugated nanoparticles was higher than their bulk counterparts, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration of 100 µg/mL. This conjugate proved to be nontoxic to a macrophage cell line at concentrations that showed antimicrobial activity. PMID:27563243

  18. MicroRNA Dysregulation in Liver and Pancreas of CMP-Neu5Ac Hydroxylase Null Mice Disrupts Insulin/PI3K-AKT Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deug-Nam Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase (Cmah-null mice fed with a high-fat diet develop fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and ultimately develop characteristics of type 2 diabetes. The precise metabolic role of the Cmah gene remains poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms through which microRNAs (miRNAs regulate type 2 diabetes. Expression profiles of miRNAs in Cmah-null mouse livers were compared to those of control mouse livers. Liver miFinder miRNA PCR arrays (n=6 showed that eight miRNA genes were differentially expressed between the two groups. Compared with controls, seven miRNAs were upregulated and one miRNA was downregulated in Cmah-null mice. Specifically, miR-155-5p, miR-425-5p, miR-15a-5p, miR-503-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-29a-3p, and miR-29b-3p were significantly upregulated in the liver and pancreas of Cmah-null mice. These target miRNAs are closely associated with dysregulation of insulin/PI3K-AKT signaling, suggesting that the Cmah-null mice could be a useful model for studying diabetes.

  19. Factors influencing the surface quality of polished tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebeggiani, S; Rosén, B-G

    2014-01-01

    Today’s demands on surface quality of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components involve no/low defect contents and roughness levels in the nm-range for high gloss applications. Material properties as well as operating conditions influence the mould finish, and thus the final surface of moulded products. This paper focuses on how particle content and different polishing strategies influence final surface qualities of moulds. Visual estimations of polished tool steel samples were combined with non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis in order to correlate traditional assessments to more quantitative methods, and to be able to analyse the surfaces at nanometre-level. It was found that steels with a lower proportion of particles, like carbides and oxides, gave rise to smoother polished surfaces. In a comparative study of polishers from different polishing shops, it was found that while different surface preparation strategies can lead to similar final roughness, similar preparation techniques can produce high-quality surfaces from different steel grades. However, the non-contact 3D-surface texture analysis showed that not all smooth polished surfaces have desirable functional topographies for injection moulding of glossy plastic components. (paper)

  20. Personality of Polish gay men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kwiatkowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Sexuality is a part of one’s identity and personality that is shaped under the influence of biological and environmental factors and interactions with society. The results of research conducted so far and concerning the personality traits of gay men and women are not consistent, and only a small number of them concern the Polish population. Hence the objective of the present research was to provide personality profiles of men and women with different sexual orientations. Participants and procedure The participants (N = 346 included 84 gay women, 82 gay men, 95 heterosexual women and 85 heterosexual men. The following measures were used: a survey developed by the author, the Kinsey Scale, the EPQ-R (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised adapted by Brzozowski and Drwal (1995, and the Sixteen-factor Personality Questionnaire of Cattell adapted by Nowakowska (1970. Results The results support the hypothesis that gay women and heterosexual men share similar personality traits, while gay men have more diverse traits, similar to the traits typical for heterosexual women and men. In particular, personalities of gay men are described by such traits as progressive attitude, independence, or willingness to take risks, which means traits linked to factor Q1. The highest values of that factor are observable in the case of gay men, as compared to gay women, and also in comparison with heterosexual men and women. Conclusions Sexual orientation is responsible for differences in personality traits of the studied group to a greater extent than their biological sex.

  1. Polish university as an (unattractive potential employer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruk, Agnieszka Izabela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues associated with the reasons for the fact that young potential employees are not interested in starting work at Polish universities. The article is theoretical-empirical in character. The theoretical part highlights the importance of a situation in which an entity is regarded as an attractive employer, which allows attracting the best employees. Particular attention is paid to the fact that a university needs to build its image as an employer, which results from its characteristics. The article strives to achieve three research goals, among others, identifying the reasons why respondents are not interested in starting work at a university and arranging these reasons hierarchically. Two research hypotheses were subject to preliminary verification: H1 – the main reason for the unwillingness to start work at a university are financial aspects; H2 – the main reason for the unwillingness to start work at a university are the aspects of prestige. The data collected in course of primary research were subject to quantitative analysis based on the method of average assessment analysis and the method of factor analysis. Their results show that the respondents were not interested in work at a university mainly because they wanted to test the knowledge and skills acquired during studies in other branches. At the same time, the aspects of finances and prestige didn’t play a major role. Thus, in case of the surveyed sample of respondents both research hypotheses have to be recognized as untrue.

  2. Mercury emissions from polish pulverized coalfired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichliński Michał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the research results carried out at one of Polish power plants at a pulverized hard coal-fired 225 MW unit. The research was carried out at full load of the boiler (100% MCR and focused on analysis of mercury content in the input fuel and limestone sorbent for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD system, as well as investigation of mercury content in the combustion products, i.e. fly ash, slag, FGD product (gypsum and FGD effluents (waste. Within the framework of the present study the concentration of mercury vapor in the exhaust gas was also investigated. The analysis was performed using Lumex RA-915+ spectrometer with an attachment (RP-91C. The measurements were carried out at three locations, i.e. before the electrostatic precipitator (ESP, downstream the ESP, and downstream the wet FGD plant. Design of the measurement system allowed to determine both forms of mercury in the flue gas (Hg0 and Hg2+ at all measurement locations.Based on the measurement results the balance of mercury for a pulverized coal (PC boiler was calculated and the amount of mercury was assessed both in the input solids (fuel and sorbent, as well as the gaseous and solids products (flue gas, slag, ash, gypsum and FGD waste.

  3. The Polish Mother on the defensive? The transformation of the myth and its impact on the motherhood of Polish women

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    Agnieszka Imbierowicz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this presentation is the attempt to define and to present the origins, socio-cultural content and the evolution of The Polish Mother myth, present in the polish national consciousness. The author tries to show how this myth was born, what functions it fulfilled and what forms it took in the changing historical and social reality, from the moment of loss of independence, through a period of real socialism, until the present day. The impact of this myth in the lives of real women and their motherhood is taken into consideration. Then, the author comparing the results of the latest polish sociological researches on the family and its transformation, and transformation of value systems together with theories about the specifics of life in the period of postmodernity, wonders whether it’s time to deconstruct the myth of The Polish Mother, because it does not fit the conditions of today’s world, which is characterized, above all, by the apotheosis of individuality, self-realization and freedom, or perhaps in polish society there is still strong traditionalism in thinking about motherhood, and the myth of The Polish Mother is still alive?

  4. A preliminary study in zero anaphora coreference resolution for Polish

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    Adam Jan Kaczmarek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study in zero anaphora coreference resolution for Polish Zero anaphora is an element of the coreference resolution task that has not yet been directly addressed in Polish and, in most studies, it has been left as the most challenging aspect for further investigation. This article presents an initial study of this problem. The preparation of a machine learning approach, alongside engineering features based on linguistic study of the KPWr corpus, is discussed. This study utilizes existing tools for Polish coreference resolution as sources of partial coreferential clusters containing pronoun, noun and named entity mentions. They are also used as baseline zero coreference resolution systems for comparison with our system. The evaluation process is focused not only on clustering correctness, without taking into account types of mentions, using standard CoNLL-2012 measures, but also on the informativeness of the resulting relations. According to the annotation approach used for coreference to the KPWr corpus, only named entities are treated as mentions that are informative enough to constitute a link to real world objects. Consequently, we provide an evaluation of informativeness based on found links between zero anaphoras and named entities. For the same reason, we restrict coreference resolution in this study to mention clusters built around named entities.   Wstępne studium rozwiązywania problemu koreferencji anafory zerowej w języku polskim Koreferencja zerowa, w języku polskim, jest jednym z zagadnień rozpoznawania koreferencji. Dotychczas nie była ona bezpośrednim przedmiotem badań, gdyż ze względu na jej złożoność była pomijana i odsuwana na dalsze etapy badań. Artykuł prezentuje wstępne studium problemu, jakim jest rozpoznawanie koreferencji zerowej. Przedstawiamy podejście wykorzystujące techniki uczenia maszynowego oraz proces tworzenia cech w oparciu o analizę lingwistyczną korpusu KPWr. W przedstawionej

  5. Genetic medicine: Polish deontological guidelines and the ethical practice of research studies with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebrój, Lesław T

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the article is: (1) to describe deontological guidelines which regulate medical research involving human subjects in Poland, and (2) to clarify the understanding of the fundamental ethical concepts presented in these documents. To do this, two main documents are analysed: (1) the Polish Medical Ethics Code, which was approved by the 7th Extraordinary National Doctors' Convention in September 2003 after a long and difficult process of revision, and (2) the Good Practice in Science, a set of rules concerning scientists, approved by the Committee of Ethics of the Polish Academy of Science in 2001. The pluralism of contemporary ethics and of medical ethics in particular, results in various interpretations of the understanding of the crucial terms used in the deontological statements of these codes. The paper suggests that clarity in the understanding of the terms may be achieved by exploring the 'intellectual' context in which the analysed documents have been appearing and in which they are presently functioning. In order to examine such a context, the following aspects are taken into account: (1) the development of bioethics as a discipline in Poland, (2) international deontological documents which are universally accepted and are in use in Poland, (3) legal regulations regarding medical research involving persons which are currently in force in Poland, and (4) the practice of Polish Institutional Review Boards (IRBs).

  6. [Polish version of the ADOS (autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnicka, Izabela; Płoski, Rafał

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the Polish version of the autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic (ADOS), which together with the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) is cited as the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of autism. The ADOS is a standardised, semistructured observation protocol appropriate for children and adults of differing age and language levels. It is linked to ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR criteria. The ADOS consists of four modules, ranging from module 1 for nonverbal individuals to module 4 for verbally fluent adults. The adequate inter-rater reliability for items has been established. The protocol has high discriminant validity and distinguishes children with pervasive developmental disorders from children, who are outside of the spectrum. Although it does not enable to distinguish individuals with pervasive developmental disorder, unspecified from individuals with childhood autism. The paper presents subsequent steps of the translation process of the original version into Polish, as well as a chosen adaptation strategy of the Polish version. The ADOS is a very useful tool both for clinical diagnosis and for the scientific purpose diagnosis. In this last case it is extremely important to use a standardised method. Until now, there was no standardised diagnostic tool for autism in Poland.

  7. Life cycle assessment study on polishing units for use of treated wastewater in agricultural reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkamacı, Nurdan; Karaca, Gökçe

    2017-12-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used in the assessment of environmental impacts of some polishing units for reuse of wastewater treatment plant effluents in agricultural irrigation. These alternative polishing units were assessed: (1) microfiltration and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, (2) cartridge filter and ultrafiltration (UF), and (3) just UV disinfection. Two different energy sources, electric grid mix and natural gas, were considered to assess the environmental impacts of them. Afterwards, the effluent of each case was evaluated against the criteria required for irrigation of sensitive crops corresponding to Turkey regulations. Evaluation of environmental impacts was carried out with GaBi 6.1 LCA software. The overall conclusion of this study is that higher electricity consumption causes higher environmental effects. The results of the study revealed that cartridge filter and UF in combination with electric grid mix has the largest impact on the environment for almost all impact categories. In general, the most environmentally friendly solution is UV disinfection. The study revealed environmental impacts for three alternatives drawing attention to the importance of the choice of the most appropriate polishing processes and energy sources for reuse applications.

  8. Internalisation of external costs in the Polish power generation sector: A partial equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudelko, Mariusz

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodical framework, which is the basis for the economic analysis of the mid-term planning of development of the Polish energy system. The description of the partial equilibrium model and its results are demonstrated for different scenarios applied. The model predicts the generation, investment and pricing of mid-term decisions that refer to the Polish electricity and heat markets. The current structure of the Polish energy sector is characterised by interactions between the supply and demand sides of the energy sector. The supply side regards possibilities to deliver fuels from domestic and import sources and their conversion through transformation processes. Public power plants, public CHP plants, industry CHP plants and municipal heat plants represent the main producers of energy in Poland. Demand is characterised by the major energy consumers, i.e. industry and construction, transport, agriculture, trade and services, individual consumers and export. The relationships between the domestic electricity and heat markets are modelled taking into account external costs estimates. The volume and structure of energy production, electricity and heat prices, emissions, external costs and social welfare of different scenarios are presented. Results of the model demonstrate that the internalisation of external costs through the increase in energy prices implies significant improvement in social welfare

  9. [Validation of the Polish version of The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire for the of evaluation purpose of nursing management staff in national hospital wards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpińska, Lidia

    2013-09-01

    The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) is a standardized research instrument for the evaluation of individual elements of leader's conduct which contribute to the authentic leadership. The application of this questionnaire in Polish conditions required to carry out the validation process. The aim of the study was to evaluate of validity and reliability of the Polish version of the American research instrument for the needs of evaluation of authenticity of leadership of the nursing management in Polish hospitals. The study covered 286 nurses (143 head nurses and 143 of their subordinates) employed in 45 hospitals in Poland. Theoretical validity of the instrument was evaluated using Fisher's transformation (r-Person correlation coefficient), while the criterion validity of the ALQ was evaluated using rho-Spearman correlation coefficient and the BOHIPSZO questionnaire. The reliability of the ALQ was assessed by means of the Cronbach-alpha coefficient. The ALQ questionnaire applied for the evaluation of authenticity of leadership of the nursing management in Polish hospital wards shows an acceptable theoretical and criterion validity and reliability (Cronbach-alpha coefficient 0.80). The Polish version of the ALQ is valid and reliable, and may be applied in studies concerning the evaluation of authenticity of leadership of the nursing management in Polish hospital wards.

  10. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  11. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF LAKES MANAGEMENT IN POLISH WATER LAW RELATED TO THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN POLISH AND EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARSZELEWSKI M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Proper management of water resources has got significant social and economic dimension. For this reason, it is an essential element of almost every national law, European Union law, and also international law in a broad sense. Legislative authority, during legislature process, should allway s balance private and public interests to adopt compromised solutions. Furthermore these solutions must be determined mostly by hydrology to be appropriate to the nature of waters and environment. Because of mentioned issues, it is very undesirable state of affairs when law simply does not fit to the object of its regulation. In Water Law Act of 2001 Polish legislator classifies lakes, depending upon the type of watercourse (natural or man-made flowing into or out of the lake, among either flowing water or stagnant one. This regulation is against hydrological classification of lakes. Moreover this legal act introduces different treatment of dammed lakes in the context of public access to the lakeshores. Indicated problems have got significant impact on many aspects such as ownership of lakes, obligations of the owners of the lakes, lakes and environmental protection and, mentioned above, right to public acces to the lakes.

  12. The intrinsic antimicrobial activity of citric acid-coated manganese ferrite nanoparticles is enhanced after conjugation with the antifungal peptide Cm-p5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Abarrategui C

    2016-08-01

    studied in biomedicine due to their physicochemical properties. The citric acid-modified manganese ferrite nanoparticles used in this study were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which confirmed the formation of nanocrystals of approximately 5 nm diameter. These nanoparticles were able to inhibit Candida albicans growth in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 250 µg/mL. However, the nanoparticles were not capable of inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli or Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, an antifungal peptide (Cm-p5 from the sea animal Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda: Littorinidae was conjugated to the modified manganese ferrite nanoparticles. The antifungal activity of the conjugated nanoparticles was higher than their bulk counterparts, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration of 100 µg/mL. This conjugate proved to be nontoxic to a macrophage cell line at concentrations that showed antimicrobial activity. Keywords: nanoparticles, conjugation, antifungal, Cm-p5 peptide

  13. Infestation of Polish Agricultural Soils by Plasmodiophora Brassicae Along The Polish-Ukrainian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędryczka Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid, worldwide increase in oilseed rape production that has resulted in enormous intensification of oilseed rape cultivation, leading to tight rotations. This in turn, has caused an accumulation of pests as well as foliar and soil-borne diseases. Recently, clubroot has become one of the biggest concerns of oilseed rape growers. Clubroot is caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. The pathogen may be present in groundwater, lakes, and irrigation water used in sprinkling systems. It can be easily transmitted from one field to another not only by water, but also by soil particles and dust transmitted by wind and on machinery. The aim of our overall study was to check for P. brassicae infestation of Polish agricultural soils. This paper presents the 2012 results of a study performed along the Polish-Ukrainian border in two provinces: Lublin (Lubelskie Voivodeship and the Carpathian Foothills (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, in south-east Poland. Monitoring was done in 11 counties, including nine rural and two municipal ones. In total, 40 samples were collected, out of which 36 were collected from fields located in rural areas and four from municipal areas, with two per municipal region. Each sample was collected at 8-10 sites per field, using a soil auger. The biotest to detect the presence of P. brassicae was done under greenhouse conditions using seedlings of the susceptible Brassicas: B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and the Polish variety of oilseed rape B. napus cv. Monolit. Susceptible plants grown in heavily infested soils produced galls on their roots. A county was regarded as free from the pathogen, if none of the bait plants became infected. The pathogen was found in three out of 40 fields monitored (7.5% in the Carpathian Foothill region. The fields were located in two rural counties. The pathogen was not found in Lublin province, and was also not detected in any of the municipal counties. The detection with

  14. Sensory factors affecting female consumers' acceptability of nail polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Koppel, K; Adhikari, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine what sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to explore how these sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to investigate whether there are any consumer segments according to their overall acceptability on different nail polishes and to scrutinize how the consumer segments are related to the sensory factors. Ninety-eight females participated in a nail polish consumer study at Kansas State University. Eight commercial products belonging to four categories - regular (REG), gel (GEL), flake (FLK) and water-based (WAT) - were evaluated. Each nail polish sample was evaluated twice by each participant in two different tasks - a task devoted to applying and evaluating the product and a task devoted to observing the appearance and evaluating the product. Pearson's correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), external preference mapping, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping were applied for data analysis. Participants' scores of overall liking of the nail polishes were similar in the application task and in the observation task. In general, participants liked the REG and GEL product samples more than the FLK and WAT samples. Among all the sensory attributes, appearance attributes were the major factors that affected participants' overall liking. Aroma seemed to be a minor factor to participants' overall liking. Some sensory attributes, such as runny, shininess, opacity, spreadability, smoothness, coverage and wet appearance, were found to drive participants' overall acceptability positively, whereas others such as pinhole, fatty-edges, blister, brushlines, pearl-like, flake-protrusion, glittery and initial-drag impacted participants' overall acceptability negatively. Four clusters of participants were identified according to their overall liking scores from both the application task and the observation task. Participants' acceptability, based on different

  15. Experimental Study on Abrasive Waterjet Polishing of Hydraulic Turbine Blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakpour, H; Birglenl, L; Tahan, A; Paquet, F

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation is implemented on the abrasive waterjet polishing technique to evaluate its capability in polishing of surfaces and edges of hydraulic turbine blades. For this, the properties of this method are studied and the main parameters affecting its performance are determined. Then, an experimental test-rig is designed, manufactured and tested to be used in this study. This test-rig can be used to polish linear and planar areas on the surface of the desired workpieces. Considering the number of parameters and their levels, the Taguchi method is used to design the preliminary experiments. All experiments are then implemented according to the Taguchi L 18 orthogonal array. The signal-to-noise ratios obtained from the results of these experiments are used to determine the importance of the controlled polishing parameters on the final quality of the polished surface. The evaluations on these ratios reveal that the nozzle angle and the nozzle diameter have the most important impact on the results. The outcomes of these experiments can be used as a basis to design a more precise set of experiments in which the optimal values of each parameter can be estimated

  16. The social shaping of innovation in polish companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with strategies of innovation in Polish manufacturing companies. The point of departure is a theoretical framework of enterprise level innovation, and of the factors forming strategies of innovation on enterprise level. The paper analyses evidence from 23 Polish companies and pres......The paper deals with strategies of innovation in Polish manufacturing companies. The point of departure is a theoretical framework of enterprise level innovation, and of the factors forming strategies of innovation on enterprise level. The paper analyses evidence from 23 Polish companies...... and presents two cases more in detail. The analysis shows that the Polish companies have all been quite innovative, mostly in relation to product innovation. They choose innovation strategies, which are incremental more than radical, and they tend to differentiate their product range rather than to specialise....... They consider quality development a must in the fight for market shares and they adapt equipment and organisation to this goal. The factors forming and determining the strategies of the companies count the technological knowledge and expertise of the owner/founder, the structural changes of the market...

  17. [Adhesion of oral microorganisms on dental porcelain polished and glazed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-ning; Wen, Guo-jiang; Shi, Bin; Pan, Xin-hua

    2003-09-01

    This study compared the roughness of porcelain polished or glazed surfaces and the adhesion of oral streptococcus mutans to them in vitro. 30 porcelain samples were made. Porcelain samples in group A were polished with diamond paste. Porcelain samples were glazed in group B and were polished with Al2O3 (240#) bur in group C. Their roughness values were measured by profilometer. Standardized cell suspensions were incubated with test samples for one hour at 37 degrees C, then retained cells were counted by image analysis (percentage area of a microscopic field covered by cells). Roughness values of group A, B, C were respectively (0.1987 +/- 0.057) microm, (0.1990 +/- 0.091) microm, (0.4260 +/- 0.174) microm. There was no significantly difference between group A and group B. The roughness samples in group C were significantly rougher than that in the other groups. The amount of retained cells in group A, group B, group C was respectively (15.92 +/- 4.37)%, (16.39 +/- 6.31)% and (41.48 +/- 12.1)%. There was no significant difference between the cell adhesion on porcelain surface glazed and polished, but more bacteria adhered on the porcelain surface in group C. Porcelain surface polished treatment was clinically acceptable compared with its glazed. They all exhibited the least amount of bacteria adhesion. The more porcelain surface was rough, the more bacteria adhered on it.

  18. Initial polishing time affects gloss retention in resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheeb, Nehal; Silikas, Nick; Watts, David

    2012-10-01

    To determine the effect of finishing and polishing time on the surface gloss of various resin-composites before and after simulated toothbrushing. Eight representative resin-composites (Ceram X mono, Ceram X duo, Tetric EvoCeram, Venus Diamond, EsteliteSigma Quick, Esthet.X HD, Filtek Supreme XT and Spectrum TPH) were used to prepare 80 disc-shaped (12 mm x 2 mm) specimens. The two step system Venus Supra was used for polishing the specimens for 3 minutes (Group A) and 10 minutes (Group B). All specimens were subjected to 16,000 cycles of simulated toothbrushing. The surface gloss was measured after polishing and after brushing using the gloss meter. Results were evaluated using one way ANOVA, two ways ANOVA and Dennett's post hoc test (P = 0.05). Group B (10-minute polishing) resulted in higher gloss values (GV) for all specimens compared to Group A (3 minutes). Also Group B showed better gloss retention compared to Group A after simulated toothbrushing. In each group, there was a significant difference between the polished composite resins (P gloss after the simulated toothbrushing.

  19. Grinding and polishing articles in bulk: Burnishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmotz, K.

    1980-01-01

    Various processes and equipment used for burnishing different materials are discussed. Drum and vibration installations are considered, as are processing chemicals and additive materials used in the burnishing process.

  20. Impact of initial surface parameters on the final quality of laser micro-polished surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Michael; Bordatchev, Evgueni V.; Knopf, George K.

    2012-03-01

    Laser micro-polishing (LμP) is a new laser-based microfabrication technology for improving surface quality during a finishing operation and for producing parts and surfaces with near-optical surface quality. The LμP process uses low power laser energy to melt a thin layer of material on the previously machined surface. The polishing effect is achieved as the molten material in the laser-material interaction zone flows from the elevated regions to the local minimum due to surface tension. This flow of molten material then forms a thin ultra-smooth layer on the top surface. The LμP is a complex thermo-dynamic process where the melting, flow and redistribution of molten material is significantly influenced by a variety of process parameters related to the laser, the travel motions and the material. The goal of this study is to analyze the impact of initial surface parameters on the final surface quality. Ball-end micromilling was used for preparing initial surface of samples from H13 tool steel that were polished using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The height and width of micromilled scallops (waviness) were identified as dominant parameter affecting the quality of the LμPed surface. By adjusting process parameters, the Ra value of a surface, having a waviness period of 33 μm and a peak-to-valley value of 5.9 μm, was reduced from 499 nm to 301 nm, improving the final surface quality by 39.7%.

  1. [Polish medical ethics in the period 1945-1980].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichrowski, Marek

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is o present that main currents of Polish medical ethics in the years 1945-1980, which the author treats as the 'prehistory' of Poland's contemporary bioethics. The author begins by ascertaining the post-war disappearance of two Polish traditions--that of the Warsaw school of philosopher-physicians (known in the West as the Polish School of Philosophy of Medicine) and the Lwów-Warsaw School of Philosophy. The political system that come into being after 1945 was not conducive to the development of medical ethics, but several clear orientations may be discerned in the utterances of physicians, lawyers, moral technologlans and academic philosophers. The analysis begins with Catholic ethics in its archaic 1950s-vintage form. The author then presents the thinking of ethicians Independent of both the Church and Marxism (the milieu of the journal 'Etyka') as well as the deontological writings of physicians.

  2. Condensate polishing guidelines for PWR and BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, P.; Crinigan, P.; Graham, B.; Kohlmann, R.; Crosby, C.; Seager, J.; Bosold, R.; Gillen, J.; Kristensen, J.; McKeen, A.; Jones, V.; Sawochka, S.; Siegwarth, D.; Keeling, D.; Polidoroff, T.; Morgan, D.; Rickertsen, D.; Dyson, A.; Mills, W.; Coleman, L.

    1993-03-01

    Under EPRI sponsorship, an industry committee, similar in form and operation to other guideline committees, was created to develop Condensate Polishing Guidelines for both PWR and BWR systems. The committee reviewed the available utility and water treatment industry experience on system design and performance and incorporated operational and state-of-the-art information into document. These guidelines help utilities to optimize present condensate polisher designs as well as be a resource for retrofits or new construction. These guidelines present information that has not previously been presented in any consensus industry document. The committee generated guidelines that cover both deep bed and powdered resin systems as an integral part of the chemistry of PWR and BWR plants. The guidelines are separated into sections that deal with the basis for condensate polishing, system design, resin design and application, data management and performance and management responsibilities

  3. Optimization of the buffer layer of a side polished fiber slab coupler based on 3 D ADI beam propagation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cherl Hee; Kim, Cheol; Park, Jae Hee

    2008-01-01

    A side polished fiber slab coupler has been widely applied to a sensor, which has the advantages of short response time, simple manufacturing process, and reusability as well as in line fiber component. A new type of a side polished fiber sensor providing remote sensing with an improved performance was also recently developed. The side polished fiber slab coupler is modeled as a fiber to planar waveguide coupler with four layers, including the fiber cladding, a buffer layer, planar waveguide and overlay material. The coupling effects by the buffer layer of a side polished fiber slab coupler are analyzed by using 3 dimensional alternating direction implicit (ADI)beam propagation method, where the refractive index and thickness of the buffer layer were tuned for efficient light coupling. The coupling is easily tuned and more occurred by the refractive index and thickness of the buffer layer for efficient coupling. This study tried to optimize the buffer layer parameters for achieving the desired light coupling and power transfer performance

  4. Recurrent APC gene mutations in Polish FAP families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pławski Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular diagnostics of genetically conditioned disorders is based on the identification of the mutations in the predisposing genes. Hereditary cancer disorders of the gastrointestinal tracts are caused by mutations of the tumour suppressor genes or the DNA repair genes. Occurrence of recurrent mutation allows improvement of molecular diagnostics. The mutation spectrum in the genes causing hereditary forms of colorectal cancers in the Polish population was previously described. In the present work an estimation of the frequency of the recurrent mutations of the APC gene was performed. Eight types of mutations occurred in 19.4% of our FAP families and these constitute 43% of all Polish diagnosed families.

  5. Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Bulgarian-Polish online dictionary The paper describes the implementation of an online Bulgarian-Polish dictionary as a technological tool for applications in digital humanities. This bilingual digital dictionary is developed in the frame of the joint research project “Semantics and Contrastive Linguistics with a focus on a bilingual electronic dictionary” between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS, supervised by L. Dimitrova (IMI-BAS and V. Koseska-Toszewa (ISS-PAS. In addition, the main software tools for web-presentation of the dictionary are described briefly.

  6. Confocal Raman spectrocopy for the analysis of nail polish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Maria; Vaz, Joana; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Nail polishes are cosmetic paints that may be susceptible of forensic analysis offering useful information to assist in a crime reconstruction. Although the nail polish appearance could allow a quick visual identification of the sample, this analysis is subjected to the perception and subjective interpretation of the forensic examiner. The chemical analysis of the nail polishes offers great deal of information not subjected to analyst interpretation. Confocal Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for the analysis of paints due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature and its ability to supply information about the organic and inorganic components of the sample. In this work, 77 regular and gel nail polishes were analyzed with confocal Raman spectroscopy using two laser wavelengths (532 and 780 nm). The sample behavior under the two laser wavelengths and the differences in the spectra taken at different points of the sample were studied for each nail polish. Additionally, the spectra obtained for all the nail polishes were visually compared. The results concluded that the longer laser wavelength prevents sample burning and fluorescence effects; the similarity among the spectra collected within the sample is not directly related with the presence of glitter particles; and 64% of the samples analyzed showed a characteristic spectrum. Additionally, the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy for the forensic analysis of nail polishes evidence in the form of flakes or smudges on different surfaces were studied. The results showed that both types of evidence can be analyzed by the technique. Also, two non-invasive sampling methods for the collection of the evidence from the nails of the suspect or the victim were proposed: (i) to use acetone-soaked cotton swabs to remove the nail varnishes and (ii) to scrape the nail polish from the nail with a blade. Both approaches, each exhibiting advantages and drawbacks in terms of transport and handling were appropriate

  7. Reduction of Residual Stresses in Sapphire Cover Glass Induced by Mechanical Polishing and Laser Chamfering Through Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jeh Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sapphire is a hard and anti-scratch material commonly used as cover glass of mobile devices such as watches and mobile phones. A mechanical polishing using diamond slurry is usually necessary to create mirror surface. Additional chamfering at the edge is sometimes needed by mechanical grinding. These processes induce residual stresses and the mechanical strength of the sapphire work piece is impaired. In this study wet etching by phosphate acid process is applied to relief the induced stress in a 1” diameter sapphire cover glass. The sapphire is polished before the edge is chamfered by a picosecond laser. Residual stresses are measured by laser curvature method at different stages of machining. The results show that the wet etching process effectively relief the stress and the laser machining does not incur serious residual stress.

  8. Simulation and analysis of an alternative kinematics for improving the polishing uniformity over the surface of polished tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingaertner, W. L.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the possibility of adopting a new kinematics at the industrial polishing lines of porcelain stoneware tile. An alternative motion of the transverse oscillation of the polishing heads is proposed, in which no radical changes in the industries facilities are required. The basic idea is to replace the purely sinus motion of the polishing heads by a rather trapezoid wavelike motion. In theory this could be achieved simply by adopting regular delays at the transverse oscillation motion. Consequences of this alternative kinematics were quantitatively analyzed considering the spatial homogeneity of polishing expected for tiles. Such homogeneity was represented by the coefficient of variation of the distribution of polishing time over the surface, which was in turn determined by means of computational simulations, taking into account the effect of multiple polishing heads.

    El presente trabajo investiga la posibilidad de adoptar una nueva cinemática en las líneas de pulido industrial de baldosas de gres porcelánico. Se propone una propuesta alternativa de la oscilación transversal de los cabezales pulidores, en el que no hay cambios radicales en las instalaciones de las industrias son necesarias. La idea básica consiste en sustituir el movimiento totalmente del seno de los cabezales pulidores por un movimiento ondulatorio trapezoide. En teoría, esto podría lograrse sólo mediante la adopción de los habituales retrasos en el movimiento de oscilación transversal. las consecuencias de esta cinemática fueron analizados cuantitativamente, teniendo en cuenta la homogeneidad espacial de pulido. Tal homogeneidad fora representada por el coeficiente de variación de la distribución de lo tiempo de pulido en la superficie, determinada por medio de simulaciones computacionales, teniendo también en cuenta el efecto de pulido de las cabezas múltiples.

  9. Note: Automated electrochemical etching and polishing of silver scanning tunneling microscope tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Stephen S; Perdue, Shawn M; Rodriguez Perez, Alejandro; Tallarida, Nicholas; Majors, Julia H; Apkarian, V Ara; Lee, Joonhee

    2013-09-01

    Fabrication of sharp and smooth Ag tips is crucial in optical scanning probe microscope experiments. To ensure reproducible tip profiles, the polishing process is fully automated using a closed-loop laminar flow system to deliver the electrolytic solution to moving electrodes mounted on a motorized translational stage. The repetitive translational motion is controlled precisely on the μm scale with a stepper motor and screw-thread mechanism. The automated setup allows reproducible control over the tip profile and improves smoothness and sharpness of tips (radius 27 ± 18 nm), as measured by ultrafast field emission.

  10. Materials of jubilee scientific assembly of the Polish Chemical Society, Warsaw'94. Homo chemicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Jubilee Scientific Assembly of the Polish Chemical Society has been held in 1994 in Warsaw. The general view on scientific progress in chemistry in Poland has been presented during plenary session. The conference has been divided into 15 sessions and 3 microsymposia covering the most important research fields in chemistry. Sessions topics were: analytical chemistry, chemistry of solid state materials, physical chemistry, coordination chemistry, medical chemistry, chemistry of metalorganic compounds, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, chemistry of polymers, young scientists forum, didactics and history of chemistry, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, environment protection. Microsymposia's topics were as follows: chemistry of saccharides, electrochemistry, membranes and membrane processes

  11. The View of Lithuanian Statehood Held by the Polish Underground during 1939-1944

    OpenAIRE

    Bubnys, Arūnas

    2006-01-01

    The article investigates the attitudes of Polish underground actors towards the statehood of Lithuania, its territorial integrity, and Lithuanian-Polish relations during the World War II. The author draws the conclusion that Polish underground political structures expressed a hostile and prejudiced attitude towards Lithuania. All the blame and responsibility for bad mutual relations is put on Lithuania and Lithuanians. Polish underground actors living in Vilnija were extremely hostile towards...

  12. Semi-strong informational efficiency in the Polish foreign exchange market

    OpenAIRE

    Luksz Goczek

    2015-01-01

    During the financial crisis a notion that the Polish exchange rate is not determined effectively was very dominant, because of a contagion effect of the global financial crisis on the Polish economy. In addition, many foreign exchange market analysts explained developments in the Polish exchange market trough a hypothesis that the Polish zloty exchange rate follows other exchange rates. This contradicts market efficiency as this would lead to profitable arbitrage possibility based on past inf...

  13. Polish Perceptions on the Immigration Influx: a Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Hódor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue of Poles’ attitude to the problem of the influx of migrants to Poland in the context of the migration crisis, which Europe has to face today. The issues discussed in the present paper are aimed to illustrate the characteristic features specific to Poles’ attitudes in favor of or against the process of influx of migrants to the E.U. Member States or Poland. The analysis covers both positive and negative aspects of migration to Poland, which have been most often indicated by Poles with respects to migrants. On the one hand, they include fears with regard to national security, potential conflicts of cultural and religious background, fear of the alleged loss of jobs to migrants and their preying on the country’s social security system. All of the above result in anti-migration demonstrations and the language of hatred. On the other hand, positive aspects of the migration influx are believed to consist in cultural enrichment, benefits for the labor market resulting from the inflow of both qualified professionals and laborers with lower pay expectations in comparison to Polish workers and believing that migrants might be the chance of minimize the negative effects of the demographic crisis. The supporters of helping migrants also point out the issue of solidarity and sympathy for the victims and the fact that in the past it was the Poles who received support from other countries in Poland’s difficult moments. Thus, extending such help to others may prove to be beneficial in the future. The present paper is based on academic articles, internet sources and statistical data, which all reveal a division into two camps: supporters and opponents of receiving migrants in Poland, which prevents determining Poland’s definitive stance on this issue. All the aspects of the problem discussed in the paper are undoubtedly a basis for further analysis.

  14. Stress-induced light scattering method for the detection of latent flaws on fine polished glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Y; Sakai, K; Nonaka, K

    2014-08-01

    Fine polishing techniques, such as the chemical mechanical polishing treatment, are one of the most important technique to glass substrate manufacturing. Mechanical interaction in the form of friction occurs between the abrasive and the substrate surface during polishing, which may cause formation of latent flaws on the glass substrate surface. Fine polishing-induced latent flaws may become obvious during a subsequent cleaning process if glass surfaces are corroded away by chemical interaction with the cleaning liquid. Latent flaws thus reduce product yield. In general, non-destructive inspection techniques, such as the light-scattering methods, used to detect foreign matters on the glass substrate surface. However, it is difficult to detect latent flaws by these methods because the flaws remain closed. Authors propose a novel inspection technique for fine polishing-induced latent flaws by combining the light scattering method with stress effects, referred to as the stress-induced light scattering method (SILSM). SILSM is able to distinguish between latent flaws and particles on the surface. In this method, samples are deformed by an actuator and stress effects are induced around the tips of latent flaws. Due to the photoelastic effect, the refractive index of the material around the tip of a latent flaw is changed. This changed refractive index is in turn detected by a cooled charge-coupled device camera as variations in light scattering intensity. In this report, surface latent flaws are detected non-destructively by applying SILSM to glass substrates, and the utility of SILSM evaluated as a novel inspection technique.

  15. Effect of Polishing Systems on Surface Roughness and Topography of Monolithic Zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, C L; Yap, Auj; Tan, Kbc; Fawzy, A S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different chairside polishing systems on the surface roughness and topography of monolithic zirconia. Thirty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (Lava PLUS, 3M ESPE) were fabricated and divided into five groups of seven and polished with the following: Group 1 (WZ)-Dura white stone followed by Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 2 (SZ)-Shofu zirconia polishing kit; Group 3 (CE)-Ceramiste porcelain polishers; Group 4 (CM)-Ceramaster porcelain polishers; and Group 5 (KZ)-Komet ZR zirconia polishers. All specimens were ground with a fine-grit diamond bur prior to polishing procedures to simulate clinical finishing. Baseline and post-polishing profilometric readings were recorded and delta Ra values (difference in mean surface roughness before and after polishing) were computed and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe post hoc test (pSEM) images of the ground but unpolished and polished specimens were acquired. Delta Ra values ranged from 0.146 for CE to 0.400 for KZ. Delta Ra values for KZ, WZ, and SZ were significantly greater than for CE. Significant differences in delta Ra values were also observed between KZ and CM. The SEM images obtained were consistent with the profilometric findings. Diamond-impregnated polishing systems were more effective than silica carbide-impregnated ones in reducing the surface roughness of ground monolithic zirconia.

  16. Using Nail Polish to Teach about Gender and Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nelta M.

    2010-01-01

    How might teachers help students investigate the relationship between gender and homophobia? This article describes an exercise that uses fingernail polish to do just that. The authors uses anecdotal evidence to describe the exercise in which students pair with someone of the opposite gender and paint each other's fingernails. Additionally, the…

  17. In-situ photopatterning of hydrogel microarrays in polished microchips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fabrication method which enables simple and eproducible photopatterning of micron- sized hydrogel arrays inside closed microchips. To achieve this, the glass cover of the microchip is thinned by mechanical grinding and polishing. This procedure reduces the spacing between the photomask

  18. Bioethanol productions from rice polish by optimization of dilute acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose materials are abundant renewable resource for the production of biofuel from fermentative organism (Sacchromyces cervesiae). Rice polish is cheapest and abundant lignocelluloses resource and has potential to produce bioethanol. The main steps for the conversion of biomass into glucose required dilute ...

  19. An operational map of the Polish Coastal Front 1970

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Theis; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Tinning, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The map of the Operational Plan for the Coastal Front, from Poland 1970 forms the basis for this paper. The map portraits the blueprint of the combined operational war plans for the Polish military in the late 1960’s and 70’s. It details the offensive against NATO countries and their forces...

  20. Social Interest in The Polish Doctrine of Monument Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses a controversy surrounding the latest amendment to the text of the Polish Parliament Act Conservation and the Care of Monuments (2015). It is a common dictum that any edifice cannot exist without good foundations. In this particular case of the mentioned above Act, definition of monument appears to be such a basis. A social interest is one of the constituent elements of the definition mentioned above. In the first part of the paper the notion of the social interest expression has been discussed, particularly from national and international points of view. The second part of the paper comprises some examples from the Polish monument preservation experience with the use of comparison method supported by case study. Only three big Polish cities: Warsaw, Wroclaw and Szczecin are involved in the presented case study but it must be emphasized that many other places on Polish territory experienced the same. Basing on the faith of these cities, the results and discussion chapter proves fundamental discrepancy in social interest notion between national and international scopes using some analytical methods. Finally, in the discussion chapter some proposals for the future amendment of monument definition in the Act of Conservation and the Care of Monuments have been provided.

  1. Financial repression, money growth, and seignorage: The Polish experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarle, B. van; Budina, N.

    1997-01-01

    Financial Repression, Money Growth and Seignorage: The Polish Experience. — A small analytical framework is developed to analyze the relation between reserve requirements, base money growth and seignorage revenues. From the analysis, the authors can derive of steady-state seignorage revenues as a

  2. Detection of Polish clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates resistant to triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawrot, Urszula; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2018-01-01

    We studied the presence of triazole resistance of 121 Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates collected in two Polish cities, Warsaw and Wrocław, to determine if resistance is emerging in our country. We identified five itraconazole resistant isolates (4.13%) carrying the TR34/L98H alteration...

  3. Values Education--A Reality or Myth in Polish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switala, Eugeniusz

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), which is coming to an end, will offer all kinds of summaries and reflections on this issue. The aim of this paper, strictly related with the goals of the DESD, is to answer the following questions: (1) "Is the Polish school ready to provide values education?"; (2)…

  4. Violation of interest-rate parity: a Polish example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystawa, Jerzy; Wolf, Marek

    2000-09-01

    The mechanism of the so-called “Bagsik Oscillator” is presented and discussed. In essence, it is a repeated exploitation of arbitrage opportunities that resulted from a marked departure from the interest-rate parity relationship between the local Polish currency and the western currencies.

  5. Empirical relations of sediment transport prediction in Polish multibanks shore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruszak, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative description of various elements of bottom sediment movement in Polish multibanks coastal region has been down. Empirical relations linking transport velocity, thickness of the drag layer and the transport volume with the generating wave-current background have been presented. Practical engineering advices on performance of various reports concerning coastal engineering or coastal zone ecology. (author)

  6. Diamond turning and polishing tests on new RSP aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R. ter; Haan, M. de; Gubbels, G.P.H.; Senden, R.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Hoogstrate, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    For years now conventional aluminium 6061 T6 has widely been used for mirrors in astronomical instruments, being diamond turned or since a few years also being optically polished. This allows the development of optical systems that can be tested and operated at any temperature, without being

  7. The Profile of a Polish Mutual Fund Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Filip

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics that are typical of mutual fund managers. Design/methodology/approach - The study concentrates on a set of socio-demographic data, such as: age, gender, education, experience, and professional qualifications of 336 portfolio managers. The applied research strategy relies on an analysis concerning a set of statistical metrics describing the population under examination. Findings - The average Polish fund manager is a 37-year-old man, a holder of a stock-broker or investment adviser license. He obtained the authorization from the Polish Financial Supervision Authority (KNF a few years after graduating from the Warsaw School of Economics (SGH. He has 11 years' experience in financial markets and 7 years' experience in the mutual fund industry. Research implications/limitations - The identification of managerial characteristics for the purpose of creating a profile of a Polish mutual fund manager will provide an important basis for further surveys and analyses aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mutual funds. Originality/value/contribution - There are no investigations within the discussed area in Polish studies. Therefore, the identification of the characteristics that are typical of mutual fund managers will make a contribution to the finance literature.(original abstract

  8. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Pilarczyk, A.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later

  9. Clear and compelling evidence: the Polish tribunal on abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Françoise; Nowicka, Wanda

    2002-05-01

    On 25 July 2001 the Polish Federation for Women and Family Planning organised a Tribunal on Abortion Rights in Warsaw, to publicize the negative consequences of the criminalization of abortion in Poland. A panel of Polish and foreign experts heard the testimonials of seven Polish women's experiences under the 1993 "Anti-Abortion Act". Only two of the seven women were able to tell their stories in person. One died in 2001, at the age of 21, of an unsafe abortion. One is legally blind after having carried her last pregnancy to term. One is in prison for infanticide, which in all likelihood was committed by her boyfriend. National and foreign journalists were in attendance, as well as observers from all walks of life--writers, students, mothers, activists, feminists, husbands. The evidence was clear and compelling. Restrictive abortion laws make abortion unsafe by pushing it underground, endanger women's health, create a climate where even those services that are allowed by law-become unavailable, and contravene standards set by international human rights law. The restrictive abortion law in Poland has not increased the number of births; it has only caused women and their families suffering. The Tribunal brought the issue of abortion into the media prior to an election campaign and galvanised Polish and other Eastern European women's groups to become more active in defence of abortion rights.

  10. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of different popular brands of nail polishes in 13 colors (yellow, beige, silver, pink, white, violet, brown, golden, green, black, colorless, red and blue were randomly purchased from beauty shops in Tehran City, Iran, in 2014. Microwave digestion EPA method 3051 was used by a microwave oven to determine the amount of 5 heavy metals; Nickel, Chromium, Lead, Arsenic and Cadmium. One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses were applied by Statistica 7.0 software. Results: The concentrations of chrome, lead, nickel and arsenic showed significant differences between the colors (p<0.05. In all studied samples, the level of cadmium was beyond the safe maximum permissible limit (MPS, but no significance difference in the cadmium content was identified. Conclusion: Due to the high concentrations of toxic metals in many brands of nail polishes, meticulous quality control is recommended for these beauty products.

  11. Polish adaptation of scoliosis research society-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Maciej; Misterska, Ewa; Laurentowska, Maria; Mankowski, Przemyslaw

    2009-05-01

    Polish adaptation of the original version of Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) instrument. The transcultural adaptation of SRS-22 and evaluation of its internal consistency. High psychometric value of the SRS-22 Questionnaire has made it an effective evaluation instrument in clinically assessing the functional status of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. First, 2 translators translated the original version into Polish. Afterwards, the translators identified differences between the translations and produced a consensus version. In the third stage, 2 native English speakers produced back translations. Finally, a team of 2 orthopedic surgeons, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all the translations to produce a prefinal version. The questionnaire was administered to 60 girls at the age of 16.6, SD 2.0 with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated with the Cotrel-Dubousset method in Pediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinic in Poznań. The internal consistency in the Polish version equaled 0.89 for the overall result and 0.81 for function, 0.81 for pain, 0.80 for mental health, 0.77 for self-image, and 0.69 for treatment satisfaction domains, respectively. The Polish version of SRS-22 is characterized by high internal consistency for all domains and for the overall score, which makes it an evaluation tool after surgical treatment compatible with the original SRS-22.

  12. Scope of Nursing Care in Polish Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wysokiński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The TISS-28 scale, which may be used for nursing staff scheduling in ICU, does not reflect the complete scope of nursing resulting from varied cultural and organizational conditions of individual systems of health care. Aim. The objective of the study was an attempt to provide an answer to the question what scope of nursing care provided by Polish nurses in ICU does the TISS-28 scale reflect? Material and Methods. The methods of working time measurement were used in the study. For the needs of the study, 252 hours of continuous observation (day-long observation and 3.697 time-schedule measurements were carried out. Results. The total nursing time was 4125.79 min. (68.76 hours, that is, 60.15% of the total working time of Polish nurses during the period analyzed. Based on the median test, the difference was observed on the level of χ2=16945.8, P<0.001 between the nurses’ workload resulting from performance of activities qualified into the TISS-28 scale and load resulting from performance of interventions within the scopes of care not considered in this scale in Polish ICUs. Conclusions. The original version of the TISS-28 scale does not fully reflect the workload among Polish nurses employed in ICUs.

  13. Great Britain and German-Polish Relations, 1929–1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotova Ekaterina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of British-German relations during the period of exacerbation of territorial disputes between Germany and Poland in 1929-1931. Germany was making plans for revising the eastern borders. It sought to enlist the support of the new Labour government. Britain didn’t only approve of Germany's intention to carry out revision of the Treaty of Versailles (reparation issue, the evacuation of the Rhineland and the change in the German-Polish border, but also supported the strengthening of the political and economic situation in Germany as a whole. Assistance to Germany was advantageous for Britain. Firstly, the British support helped to improve the capacity of the purchasing power of the German market as one of the traditional markets of the English sale. Secondly, the strengthening of the position of the German cabinet meant failure of the French policy in Europe at this stage. The defeat of France in a dispute on the issue of early evacuation of the Rhineland would seriously devalue the foreign policy initiatives of Paris. Thirdly, the British government hoped that Germany will go into orbit of British political influence. The identity of the positions of the German and the British cabinets were considered as the components of British policy success not only in relations with France and Italy, but also with Czechoslovakia and Poland. Since the formation of the MacDonald’s cabinet, anti-Polish moods increased in the British course for the settlement of German-Polish relations. However, the threat of an attack on Poland by Germany was regarded by the government of Britain as unacceptable way of resolving the German-Polish conflict. Britain tried to follow the traditional foreign policy concept of “balance of power”, but the inefficiency of British policy “mediation” in European affairs was clearly shown in times of growing financial and economic crisis. The issue of the German-Polish border remained unsolved.

  14. Symmetry or asymmetry? Cross-border openness of service providers in Polish-Czech and Polish-German border towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołzbłasz Sylwia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The symmetry and/or asymmetry in terms of cross-border openness of service providers is examined in this article, for the cases of two border twin towns: Cieszyn/Český Těšín at the Polish-Czech border, and Gubin/Guben at the Polish-German border. To assess the level of openness of firms towards clients from the other side of the border, four trans-border categories were examined: neighbour’s language visible at store location; business offers in the language of the neighbour; the possibilities of payment in the neighbour’s currency; and the staff’s knowledge of the language. This enabled a comparison of both parts of the particular twin towns in relation to the character of cross-border openness, as well as an assessment of their symmetry/asymmetry. Comparisons of Gubin/Guben and Cieszyn/Český Těšín with respect to the analysed features were also carried out. The analysis shows significant variation in the level of cross-border openness towards clients from neighbouring countries. Whereas in the Polish-Czech town a relative symmetry was observed, in the Polish-German case, significant asymmetry was noted.

  15. The impact of medical tourism on the quality of organizational and functional changes in the Polish healthcare system

    OpenAIRE

    Olkiewicz, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The role of Medical Tourism in the process of a complex satisfaction of the prosumers and the impact played in the organizational and functional changes in the Polish healthcare system. The analysis of the literature on the subject as well as an analysis of the documentation were the inspiration to write this work. The main emphasis was put on stating the conditions stimulating the development of this sector of the economy as well as the risk factors determining the quality of pro...

  16. Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Christina R; Walker, David D

    2008-11-10

    In this paper we first contrast classical and CNC polishing techniques in regard to the repetitiveness of the machine motions. We then present a pseudo-random tool path for use with CNC sub-aperture polishing techniques and report polishing results from equivalent random and raster tool-paths. The random tool-path used - the unicursal random tool-path - employs a random seed to generate a pattern which never crosses itself. Because of this property, this tool-path is directly compatible with dwell time maps for corrective polishing. The tool-path can be used to polish any continuous area of any boundary shape, including surfaces with interior perforations.

  17. Numerical simulation of polishing U-tube based on solid-liquid two-phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-ye; Meng, Wen-qing; Wu, Gui-ling; Hu, Jing-lei; Wang, Bao-zuo

    2018-03-01

    As the advanced technology to solve the ultra-precision machining of small hole structure parts and complex cavity parts, the abrasive grain flow processing technology has the characteristics of high efficiency, high quality and low cost. So this technology in many areas of precision machining has an important role. Based on the theory of solid-liquid two-phase flow coupling, a solid-liquid two-phase MIXTURE model is used to simulate the abrasive flow polishing process on the inner surface of U-tube, and the temperature, turbulent viscosity and turbulent dissipation rate in the process of abrasive flow machining of U-tube were compared and analyzed under different inlet pressure. In this paper, the influence of different inlet pressure on the surface quality of the workpiece during abrasive flow machining is studied and discussed, which provides a theoretical basis for the research of abrasive flow machining process.

  18. The prospects for hard coal as a fuel for the Polish power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Jacek; KudeLko, Mariusz

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the prospects for the development of the Polish hard coal sector from the perspective of the power sector. The most important issues determining the mid- and long-term future for domestic coal production are: (1) the development of the economy, hence the demand for electricity, (2) regulations (mostly environmental) affecting the power sector, (3) the competitiveness of coal-based technologies, and (4) the costs of domestic coal production. Since the range of issues and relations being considered is very broad, a specific method needs to be employed for the quantitative analysis. The tool applied in this study is the partial equilibrium model POWER-POL, in which both the coal and the power sectors are incorporated. The model focuses on energy-economy-environmental issues without capturing detailed macroeconomic links. The model was run under six scenario assumptions. The results show that the domestic coal sector should maintain its position as a key supplier of primary energy for the Polish power sector. However, the environmental regulations to which the domestic power sector has to conform will decrease the share of coal in the fuel-mix. Since the investment processes in this sector are usually long-term, the effects of changes will be noticeable from 2015 onwards. - Research highlights: →Application of the partial equilibrium model POWER-POL for a quantitative analysis. →Coal will maintain its dominant position in the Polish heat and electricity production fuel-mix at least up to 2020. →Attractiveness of domestic hard coal supplies will depend on the environmental regulations (mostly on the EU level) and development in the world coal market. →The first nuclear power plant will be put into operation in 2020.

  19. Polish as a foreign language at elementary level of instruction : crosslinguistic influences in writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Gabrys-Barker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a minority European language, Polish has not attracted the attention of second language research (SLA very much. Most studies in the area focus on English and other major languages describing variables and process observed in learners’ interlanguage development. This article looks at the language performance of elementary learners of Polish as a foreign language with a view to diagnosing areas of difficulty at the initial stages of language instruction. It is a case study of five learners’ written production after a year of intensive language instruction in the controlled conditions of a classroom. The objective of the study presented here is: 1. to determine the types of error produced in a short translation task at different levels of language (morphosyntactic, lexical 2. to observe manifestations of crosslinguistic influences between languages the subjects know (interlingual transfer as well as those related to the language learnt itself (intralingual transfer.The small sample of texts produced does not allow for any generalized observations and conclusions, however, at the level of elementary competence in any foreign language, as other research shows, the amount of individual variation is not the most significant factor. Thus the incorrect forms produced may testify to some more universally error-prone areas of language. The value of this kind of analysis lies in this direct application to the teaching of Polish as a synthetic language. The study also demonstrates the fact that communicative teaching has a limited contribution to make in the case of this family of languages. It suggests that overt and explicit teaching of a synthetic language will give a sounder basis for further development of language competence in its communicative dimension

  20. Westernization of dietary patterns among young Japanese and Polish females -- a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaka, Tomoko; Wozniewicz, Malgorzata; Jeszka, Jan; Bajerska, Joanna; Nowaczyk, Paulina; Sone, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the process of the westernization of eating habits is perceived to be one of the main causes of epidemics of civilization diseases, such as metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to assess the westernization of eating habits among 100 Japanese (aged 18-23 years) and 111 Polish female students (aged 19-25 years) of nutrition science related faculties. Food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess a dietary pattern during the four seasons of a one-year investigation. Data obtained in each season was pooled. The frequency of consumption of different foods (servings/week) between the two countries was compared and characterization of the dietary patterns of both studied populations was analyzed by factor analysis. When food consumption between the two countries was compared, apart from total meat and meat products and high-energy drink intake, significant differences were observed in all foods and food groups. Three dietary patterns were identified in both groups. Among Japanese participants, the first pattern was 'traditional Japanese', the second 'sweets and beverages', and the third 'Western', explaining 9.0%, 8.5% and 6.4% of the total variance, respectively. Among Polish participants, the first pattern was 'prudent', the second 'Western', and the third 'sweets and alcoholic beverages', explaining 8.2%, 7.7%, 6.4% of the total variance, respectively. Although the 'Western' dietary pattern was found in both groups, there were some differences in the remaining dietary patterns between the two countries. In the Japanese participants, significant cultural influences on habitual food intake could still be observed, and the extent of diet westernization seems to be smaller compared to the Polish participants.

  1. Influence of polishing on surface roughness following toothbrushing wear of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla-Vecchia, Karine Battestin; Taborda, Talita Damas; Stona, Deborah; Pressi, Heloísa; Burnett Júnior, Luiz Henrique; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resins following procedures to simulate the effects of toothbrushing over time. Four currently available commercial composites were used to make 128 cylindrical specimens. The specimens were randomly allocated to polishing with a 1-step polisher or 1 of 3 multistep polishers (n = 8 per group). The baseline surface roughness was measured, and the specimens were submitted to 5000, 10,000, and 20,000 brushing cycles to represent toothbrushing throughout 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. Results showed that surface roughness was influenced by the type of composite and polishing system and was not influenced by the simulated toothbrushing time. However, the surface roughness, as challenged by toothbrushing wear, was affected by the interaction among the composite, the polisher, and the toothbrushing time. The 1-step polisher produced the highest surface roughness and influenced toothbrushing wear resistance of some composites.

  2. A STUDENT MODEL AND LEARNING ALGORITHM FOR THE EXPERT TUTORING SYSTEM OF POLISH GRAMMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostikov Mykola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When creating computer-assisted language learning software, it is necessary to use the potential of information technology in controlling the learning process fully. Modern intelligent tutoring systems help to make this process adaptive and personalized thanks to modeling the domain and students’ knowledge. The aim of the paper is to investigate possibilities for applying these methods in teaching Polish grammar in Ukraine taking into account its specifics. The article is concerned with the approaches of using student models in modern intelligent tutoring systems in order to provide personalized learning. A structure of the student model and a general working algorithm of the expert tutoring system of Polish grammar have been developed. The modeling of knowing and forgetting particular learning elements within the probabilistic (stochastic model has been studied, as well as the prognostication of future probabilities of students’ knowledge, taking into account their individual forgetting rates. The objective function of instruction quality with allowance for frequency of grammar rules within a certain amount of words being learned and their connections to another rules has been formulated. The problem of generating the next learning step taking into account the need for mastering previous, connected rules has been studied, as well as determining the optimal time period between the lessons depending on the current knowledge level.

  3. A REVIEW ON SEWAGE TREATMENT AND POLISHING USING MOVING BED BIOREACTOR (MBBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMAL ALI KAWAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Effluent treatment and polishing using moving bed bioreactors (MBBRs are advanced technique in biological treatment operations become increasing widely and popular use all over the world to treat various types of effluents with very different operating status. It is a combination of two separate processes suspended and attached growth systems for the treatment in order to minimize the concentrations of the contaminated parameters at the required level for reuse or final destination. The MBBR has been proved to be effective in great removing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD with nutrients (N and P from the effluent stream simultaneously. It provides additional capacity of wastewater treatment technology with high treatment efficiency; low capital, operational, maintenance and replacement cost; single reliable and robust operation procedure. This process can be used for new sewage treatment works or for modifying (upgrading existing wastewater treatment plants as it is efficient, compact and easy to operate. The efficiency of MBBR depends on the filling percent of biofilm carriers to be provided inside the tank, surface area of the biocarrier, diffused aeration supply and the organic loading. The aim of this paper is reviewing the sewage treatment and polishing using moving bed bioreactor MBB technology as an alternative and successful method. It presents the advantages of the MBBR compared to conventional waste water treatment. The review also includes many relevant researches carried out at the laboratory andpilot scales plants that could improve these systems by enhancing performance and reducing costs.

  4. Polishing, coating and integration of SiC mirrors for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfo, Jacques

    2017-11-01

    In the last years, the technology of SiC mirrors took an increasingly significant part in the field of space telescopes. Sagem is involved in the JWST program to manufacture and test the optical components of the NIRSpec instrument. The instrument is made of 3 TMAs and 4 plane mirrors made of SiC. Sagem is in charge of the CVD cladding, the polishing, the coating of the mirrors and the integration and testing of the TMAs. The qualification of the process has been performed through the manufacturing and testing of the qualification model of the FOR TMA. This TMA has shown very good performances both at ambient and during the cryo test. The polishing process has been improved for the manufacturing of the flight model. This improvement has been driven by the BRDF performance of the mirror. This parameter has been deeply analysed and a model has been built to predict the performance of the mirrors. The existing Dittman model have been analysed and found to be optimistic.

  5. Association study of folate-related enzymes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR genetic variants with non-obstructive male infertility in a Polish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Kurzawski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a process where an important contribution of genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (677C > T; 1298A > C, MTR (2756A > G and MTRR (66A > G polymorphisms in a Polish population. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies were detected between the groups of 284 infertile men and of 352 fertile controls. These results demonstrate that common polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not major risk factors for non-obstructive male infertility in the Polish population.

  6. Polish media and public opinion on NPP Mochovce commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, Stanislaw

    1999-01-01

    The so called 'Mochovce Problem' was one of the major topics in Polish media in the period from May to July 1998. The nuclear power plant commissioning caused an unexpectedly strong reaction, especially in the newspapers, slightly less so in electronic media. Faced with clearly hostile media reaction to Mochovce NPP, the National Atomic Energy Agency representatives, together with atomic and nuclear experts, undertook to change these attitudes. In numerous interviews, letters to the editors and talks with journalists, they attempted to correct the mistakes, explain the true safety situation in the nuclear power plant, by whom it was constructed, who supervised and tested the systems and so on. The completion of Mochovce NPP construction improved significantly the electricity balance in Slovakia, thus decreasing the pressure for continuing the operation of older Bohunice V1 units beyond their design lifetime. For this reason, as well as in view of striving for improvement in environmental factors beyond Polish southern border, especially after Kyoto/97 decisions on greenhouse gases emissions, the public opinion in Poland should support the Mochovce NPP construction. In 1996 Poland has signed with Slovakia a bilateral inter-governmental agreement on the prompt notification on nuclear accidents and on the cooperation in the nuclear safety and radiological protection matters. On the basis of this agreement the experts from Polish National Atomic Energy Agency are in perpetual contact with Slovakian Nuclear Regulatory Body and in each and every moment can obtain full and comprehensive information on the plant parameters iportant for nuclear safety. The experts explanations, together with the NAEA top management visit to the plant itself, brought some results. The media became less aggressive, and Polish public and authorities - contrary to the Austrians - do not protest loudly against the commissioning of this newest European NPP. Now, in December 1998, the tune of

  7. Changes in Polish foreign trade in agri-food products under accession to the European Union Zmainy w polskim handlu zagranicznym produktami rolno-spożywczymi w warunkach integracji z Unią Europejską

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess main trends and changes in commodity structure of Polish agri-food trade in 2003-2006. Joining in the Common Market and adopting the Common Trade Policy rules caused the significant growth of Polish agri-food trade values and improvement in the positive trade balance. Taking into account loss or reduction of some cost advantages, as well as liberalization of world agricultural trade, next years can be much more difficult for Polish exporters. The highest export potential applies to trade in animal origin products. Considering commodity structure of Polish agri-food trade, it should be said that processed products dominate both in export and in import.

  8. Polish food industry 2008-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mroczek, Robert; Drożdż, Jadwiga; Tereszczuk, Mirosława; Urban, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the functioning of the food industry and its various sectors in 2008-2013. Meat and poultry industry. Dairy industry. Fishing industry. Milling industry. Sugar industry. Oil-mill industry. Processing of fruit, vegetables and potatoes. Bakery industry. Confectionery industry. Feed industry. Production of other food products. Production of alcoholic beverages.Tobacco industry. Food industry.

  9. Abstracts Book of 41. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry is the most important scientific forum of Polish Chemists. The state of the art in many basic, fundamental and applied investigations has been presented and discussed. The following scientific sessions and microsymposia have been proposed: theoretical chemistry; molecular interactions; metal compounds - chemical, physical, electronic and biological aspects; catalysis and surface physico-chemistry; polymers - radiochemistry, modifications, physics and analytical methods; organic and bioorganic chemistry; physico-chemistry of condensed matter; chemical metallurgy; environmental protection; inorganic technology; chemistry and technology of coal; radiation chemistry; analytical chemistry; chemical engineering; young scientists forum; chemical didactics; petrochemistry; energetic materials; membranes and membrane processes; medical chemistry

  10. Hegemons and their law in the time of the Polish communism. An attempt at a constitutional, legal and philosophical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Bunikowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author, developing his theory of hegemony, interprets legal and real actions taken by the Secretaries of the Polish United Workers’ Party: Bierut, Gomułka, Gierek, General Jaruzelski, and by the Party itself. According to the constitutional and legal analysis, the Polish communist Secretaries did not often obey the law which was valid at the time. There are many examples of such actions: from illegal judicial processes „on demand of the authority”, through criminal sanctions as well as civic and real restrictions for members of the political opposition, to unofficial officials’ appointments or political directives/unofficial law of the Party, and marginalization of the due constitutional powers. The most controversial case of the realization of the hegemony law by the Party seems to be the enforcement of the martial law by General Jaruzelski in December 1981.

  11. Pre-polishing on a CNC platform with bound abrasive contour tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeffer, Adrienne E.

    2003-05-01

    Deterministic micorgrinding (DMG) of optical glasses and ceramics is the commercial manufacturing process of choice to shape glass surfaces prior to final finishing. This process employs rigid bound matrix diamond tooling resulting in surface roughness values of 3-51.tm peak to valley and 100-400nm rms, as well as mid-spatial frequency tool marks that require subsequent removal in secondary finishing steps. The ability to pre-polish optical surfaces within the grinding platform would reduce final finishing process times. Bound abrasive contour wheels containing cerium oxide, alumina or zirconia abrasives were constructed with an epoxy matrix. The effects of abrasive type, composition, and erosion promoters were examined for tool hardness (Shore D), and tested with commercial optical glasses in an OptiproTM CNC grinding platform. Metrology protocols were developed to examine tool wear and subsequent surface roughness. Work is directed to demonstrating effective material removal, improved surface roughness and cutter mark removal.

  12. Cross-cultural translation and measurement properties of the Polish version of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradowski, Przemysław T; Witoński, Dariusz; Kęska, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is available in over 30 languages and a commonly used Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) for assessment of treatment effects following knee surgery. The aim of the study was to report the linguistic translational process and evaluate the psychometri...... properties of the Polish version of the KOOS questionnaire....

  13. Natural immunity factors in Polish mixed breed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-breed rabbits in Poland are widely used for diagnostic and scientific research and as utility animals, therefore there is a need to know their immunological status, as well as their haematological status. In this study natural immunity factors were analyzed in Polish mixed-breed rabbits and Polish mixed-breed rabbits with addition of blood of meet-breed, considering the impact of sex and season of the year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) using measurement of non-specific cellular and humoral immunity parameters in peripheral blood. The study has revealed that there is a variety between the two commonly used mixed-breed types of rabbits, especially when sex and season is concerned, which is crucial for using these animals in experiments.

  14. Impact of polishing on the light scattering at aerogel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu.; Barnyakov, M.Yu.; Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Danilyuk, A.F.; Katcin, A.A.; Kononov, S.A.; Kirilenko, P.S.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Kuyanov, I.A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Ovtin, I.V.; Predein, A.Yu.; Protsenko, R.S.

    2016-01-01

    Particle identification power of modern aerogel RICH detectors strongly depends on optical quality of radiators. It was shown that wavelength dependence of aerogel tile transparency after polishing cannot be described by the standard Hunt formula. The Hunt formula has been modified to describe scattering in a thin layer of silica dust on the surface of aerogel tile. Several procedures of polishing of aerogel tile have been tested. The best result has been achieved while using natural silk tissue. The resulting block has optical smooth surfaces. The measured decrease of aerogel transparency due to surface scattering is about few percent. This result could be used for production of radiators for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detectors.

  15. Problems in laser repair welding of polished surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Skumavc

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents problems in laser repair welding of the tools for injection moulding of plastics and light metals. Tools for injection moulding of the car headlamps are highly polished in order to get a desirable quality of the injected part. Different light metals, glasses, elastomers, thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers are injected into the die cavity under high pressures resulting in the surface damages of the tool. Laser welding is the only suitable repair welding technique due to the very limited sputtering during deposition of the filler metal. Overlapping of the welds results in inhomogeneous hardness of the remanufactured surface. Results have shown strong correlation between hardness and surface waviness after final polishing of the repair welded surface.

  16. E-TOURISM SERVICES IN POLISH TOURISTS' OPINIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Papińska-Kacperek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available E-tourism is most often related only with web pages of travel agencies or aggregators offering many services, where it is possible to make transactions electronically. Whereas many applications and devices are applied in tourism, like the audio guides and mobile guides (sometimes with augmented reality functions, electronic cards in museums, 2D codes systems, web pages for individual tourists, geographic information systems (e.g. Google Street View, social network sites recommendation, and profiles of cities on social networks sites like Facebook. Polish tourists' opinions about mentioned innovative tools will be presented as the report from the survey conducted among students and graduates from three Polish universities. The objectives of the study are: investigating the popularity of e-tourist services in Poland and verifying whether municipal authorities promote e-tourism initiatives.

  17. Legal aspects of Polish Tax and Social Security in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Parlińska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are describing legal aspects of treatment of farming sector in the tax and social security system in Poland. Tax System in Polish Agriculture is an integral part of Polish Tax System. Most taxes paid by farmers are property taxes, which supplied the budget of main local authority in Poland (municipality. In some cases farmers pay also personal income tax and value added tax like those, who run specific agricultural production as well individual farmers who operate through a limited liability company are subject to corporate income tax. The social security fund for farmers (known as KRUS was speared in 1990 from the social security system (ZUS. Farmers receive similar benefits with regard to health care, education, and social welfare although the contributions into the farmers system are lower then under the ZUS system.

  18. Edge effect modeling of small tool polishing in planetary movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi-xin; Ma, Zhen; Jiang, Bo; Yao, Yong-sheng

    2018-03-01

    As one of the most challenging problems in Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS), the edge effect greatly affects the polishing accuracy and efficiency. CCOS rely on stable tool influence function (TIF), however, at the edge of the mirror surface,with the grinding head out of the mirror ,the contact area and pressure distribution changes, which resulting in a non-linear change of TIF, and leads to tilting or sagging at the edge of the mirror. In order reduce the adverse effects and improve the polishing accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we used the finite element simulation to analyze the pressure distribution at the mirror edge and combined with the improved traditional method to establish a new model. The new method fully considered the non-uniformity of pressure distribution. After modeling the TIFs in different locations, the description and prediction of the edge effects are realized, which has a positive significance on the control and suppression of edge effects

  19. Africa and Its People in the Polish Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Średziński Paweł

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The African continent is treated by the Polish media marginally and usually seen through the lens of four domains of stereotypical perceptions that are associated with difficult life conditions, threats and dangers, beautiful and wild nature, as well as original and diverse cultures. Monitoring of the Polish media has become very important in this situation. That is why the results of first media monitoring report were published in 2011 by ‘Africa Another Way’ Foundation. Five years later the monitoring was repeated. It is hard to resist the impression that Africa is still viewed as this poor, underdeveloped and dangerous continent. And the way it is presented translates into the way individuals of African descent are perceived.

  20. Restaurants and hotels expenditure in Polish households of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piekut Marlena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The age of household members is an important factor for expenditures. The aim of the study is to investigate the level of expenditure on restaurants and hotels incurred in Polish households of the elderly in 2004-2013 and to identify the factors affecting such expenditures. The source of information used in the study was the household budget survey of the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The main methods used in this study were variance analysis and regression analysis. Restaurants and hotels expenditure increases every year together with their share in total household expenditure. The most important factors affecting the restaurants and hotels spending in Polish households of the elderly are: income per capita and the level of education of the head of the family. The study on consumption determinants at different groups leads to better understanding of consumer behavior circumstances and thereby ensuring a good quality of life for the people of the elderly.

  1. A new strategy for the restructuring of Polish energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, R.H.; Tallat, J.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with strategic planning in the military, the leader (in this case the Minister of Economy) is responsible for setting goals, finding the right people to accomplish these goals (those working in the energy sector), analysing the current situation (state of the energy sector) and evaluating available resources (conventional and renewable energy resources). In terms of economic planning (this term is proper for an economy that sets numerous laws and quotas), the goal is to get the Polish economy out of economic slump, which is the result of seventeen years of improper government practices, into a state of prosperity corresponding to no less than the European average. The only way of accomplishing this goal of high economic growth and catching up with highly-developed countries is to develop local inexpensive energy resources. This study focuses on the potential to develop abundant Polish geothermal resources as well as natural gas based co-generation. (author)

  2. Numerical Thermodynamic Analysis of Two-Phase Solid-Liquid Abrasive Flow Polishing in U-Type Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available U-type tubes are widely used in military and civilian fields and the quality of the internal surface of their channel often determines the merits and performance of a machine in which they are incorporated. Abrasive flow polishing is an effective method for improving the channel surface quality of a U-type tube. Using the results of a numerical analysis of the thermodynamic energy balance equation of a two-phase solid-liquid flow, we carried out numerical simulations of the heat transfer and surface processing characteristics of a two-phase solid-liquid abrasive flow polishing of a U-type tube. The distribution cloud of the changes in the inlet turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence intensity, turbulent viscosity, and dynamic pressure near the wall of the tube were obtained. The relationships between the temperature and the turbulent kinetic energy, between the turbulent kinetic energy and the velocity, and between the temperature and the processing velocity were also determined to develop a theoretical basis for controlling the quality of abrasive flow polishing.

  3. Diagenetic and other highly mineralized waters in the Polish Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, Andrzej; Chowaniec, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Highly mineralized waters of different chemical types and origin occur in the flysch formations and their bedrocks in the western part of the Polish Carpathians. The marine sedimentation water of the flysch formations is not preserved, as the most mineralized and the heaviest isotopic values of flysch waters are characterized by δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in the ranges of 5-7 per mille and -(20-30) per mille , respectively. Their origin is related to the dehydration of clay minerals during burial diagenesis, with molecules of marine water completely removed by molecules of released bound water. They are relatively enriched in Na + in respect to the marine water, supposedly due to the release of Na + during the illitization of smectites and preferable incorporation of other cations from the primary brine into newly formed minerals. In some parts of younger formations, i.e. in the Badenian sediments, brines occur with isotopic composition close to SMOW and Cl - contents greatly exceeding the typical marine value of about 19.6 g/L, supposedly due to ultrafiltration. Most probably, the marine water of the flysch formations was similarly enriched chemically in its initial burial stages. Final Cl - contents in diagenetic waters depend on different Cl - contents in the primary brines and on relationships between diagenetic and further ultrafiltration processes. In some areas, diagenetic waters migrate to the surface along fault zones and mix with young local meteoric waters becoming diluted, with the isotope composition scattering along typical mixing lines. In areas with independent CO 2 flow from great depths, they form chloride CO 2 -rich waters. Common CO 2 -rich waters are formed in areas without near-surface occurrences of diagenetic waters. They change from the HCO 3 -Ca type for modern waters to HCO 3 -Mg-Ca, HCO 3 -Na-Ca and other types with elevated TDS, Mg 2+ and/or Na - contents for old waters reaching even those of glacial age. Bedrocks of the flysch are

  4. Diagenetic and other highly mineralized waters in the Polish Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.zuber@pgi.gov.pl [Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, PL-31560 Krakow, ul. Skrzatow 1 (Poland); Chowaniec, Jozef [Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, PL-31560 Krakow, ul. Skrzatow 1 (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    Highly mineralized waters of different chemical types and origin occur in the flysch formations and their bedrocks in the western part of the Polish Carpathians. The marine sedimentation water of the flysch formations is not preserved, as the most mineralized and the heaviest isotopic values of flysch waters are characterized by {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values in the ranges of 5-7 per mille and -(20-30) per mille , respectively. Their origin is related to the dehydration of clay minerals during burial diagenesis, with molecules of marine water completely removed by molecules of released bound water. They are relatively enriched in Na{sup +} in respect to the marine water, supposedly due to the release of Na{sup +} during the illitization of smectites and preferable incorporation of other cations from the primary brine into newly formed minerals. In some parts of younger formations, i.e. in the Badenian sediments, brines occur with isotopic composition close to SMOW and Cl{sup -} contents greatly exceeding the typical marine value of about 19.6 g/L, supposedly due to ultrafiltration. Most probably, the marine water of the flysch formations was similarly enriched chemically in its initial burial stages. Final Cl{sup -} contents in diagenetic waters depend on different Cl{sup -} contents in the primary brines and on relationships between diagenetic and further ultrafiltration processes. In some areas, diagenetic waters migrate to the surface along fault zones and mix with young local meteoric waters becoming diluted, with the isotope composition scattering along typical mixing lines. In areas with independent CO{sub 2} flow from great depths, they form chloride CO{sub 2}-rich waters. Common CO{sub 2}-rich waters are formed in areas without near-surface occurrences of diagenetic waters. They change from the HCO{sub 3}-Ca type for modern waters to HCO{sub 3}-Mg-Ca, HCO{sub 3}-Na-Ca and other types with elevated TDS, Mg{sup 2+} and/or Na{sup -} contents for

  5. Macroeconomic Reasons of Debts in Polish Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Szymańska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of debts in polish health service. Author analyzes the macroeconomic reasons of this situation. As a main reasons are indicated: a specificity of the health service market, which leads to a inefficient allocation of health services, lack of reliable data on health care system, too low level of public expenditure on a health care, inappropriate allocation of public capital and a monopolistic position of the payer.

  6. Ion beam polishing for three-dimensional electron backscattered diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saowadee, Nath; Agersted, Karsten; Ubhi, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    averaging and/or poor 3D-EBSD data quality. In this work a low kV focused ion beam was successfully implemented to automatically polish surfaces during 3D-EBSD of La- and Nb-doped strontium titanate of volume 12.6 × 12.6 × 3.0 μm. The key to achieving this technique is the combination of a defocused low k...

  7. Polish epistolography in Ukrainian polemic of the 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhareva Svitlana Volodymyrivna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The block of Polish epistolary in the system of polemical prose of the 17th century is analyzed in the article. It's indicated in its genre features, holistic character, publicistic and artistic level. Special attention is paid to the epistolary style of Hypatij Potij, Andrew Muzhylovski and Klyryk from Ostrog. Innovative and classical elements of epistolary heritage of the Baroque epoch are identified.

  8. Sports metaphors in Polish written commentaries on politics

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław Wiliński

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate what sports metaphors are used in Polish written commentaries on politics and what special purpose they serve. In particular, the paper examines structural metaphors that come from the lexicon of popular sports, such as boxing, racing, track and field athletics, sailing, etc. The language data, derived from English Internet websites, has been grouped and discussed according to source domains. Applying George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s approach to metaphor, the p...

  9. [Polish forensic entomology--the past, present and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronek, Rafał; Chowaniec, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Forensic medicine increasingly more often benefits from the achievements of other biological sciences, which may be used in post mortem investigation. One of them is forensic entomology--the science based on the knowledge about biology of insects preying on cadavers. The objective of this article is to present the history of Polish forensic entomology, its present state and possibilities and directions of further development.

  10. Mutual Fund Performances of Polish Domestic Equity Fund Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Ömer Faruk; Ünal, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the article: The main purpose of the paper is empirically evaluating selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers during the period from January 2009 to November 2014. After the global financial crisis of 2008, in this period of quantitative easing (QE), thanks to an increase in the money supply, a capital flow from developed countries to developing countries was observed. In this study, we try to analyse that although the financial market in Pol...

  11. Mutual Fund Performances of Polish Domestic Equity Fund Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ömer faruk tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The main purpose of the paper is empirically evaluating selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers during the period from January 2009 to November 2014. After the global financial crisis of 2008, in this period of quantitative easing (QE, thanks to an increase in the money supply, a capital flow from developed countries to developing countries was observed. In this study, we try to analyse that although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, whether fund managers show better or worse performance than the market. Methodology/Methods: In order to evaluate fund manager performances, Jensen alpha (1968 is computed, which depicts selectivity skills of fund managers. For determining market timing ability of fund managers, Treynor & Mazuy (1966 regression analysis and Henriksson & Merton (1981 regression analysis are applied. Fund performances are evaluated using Warsaw Stock Exchange Index as the benchmark index. Scientific aim: In this study, we have tried to evaluate selectivity skills and market timing ability of Polish fund managers. A total of 14 equity fund managers’ performances are analysed. The study can be guiding especially for investors who are interested in Polish equity fund performances in a period where emerging stock markets outperformed with quantitative easing. Findings: Jensen (1968 alphas indicate that over this period fund managers did not have selective ability, as none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive alphas. Furthermore, Treynor & Mazuy (1966 and Henriksson & Merton (1981 regression analysis indicate that over the same period fund managers did not also have market timing ability, as again none of the 14 funds had statistically significant positive coefficients. Conclusions: In this work, we can detect that in the era of quantitative easing, although the financial market in Poland made an incredible progress, the fund returns were

  12. Fracking in the Polish press: Geopolitics and national identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspal, Rusi; Nerlich, Brigitte; Lemańcyzk, Szczepan

    2014-01-01

    In a context of resource scarcity and political instability, new energy sources and technologies are being explored in many parts of the world and exploited in some. One of these new energy sources is shale gas and one of the countries seeking to decrease its energy dependence and increase its energy security is Poland which is largely dependent on gas and oil imports from Russia. This article presents the results of a thematic content analysis of articles reporting on shale gas/fracking published in Gazeta Wyborcza and Rzeczpospolita, two leading Polish newspapers, from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. Findings suggest that in media reporting the geopolitical dimension of fracking overrides the technological/scientific dimension and that representations are overwhelmingly positive. Positive representations are bolstered through particular linguistic framings. It is argued that the Polish press has polarized the debate on fracking in a particular (positive) direction, which has silenced an open and constructive debate concerning energy policy in Poland and constructed criticism of fracking as counter-normative and “un-Polish.” The potential socio-political and policy implications of these media representations are discussed. - Highlights: • The general tone of Polish media reporting is positive and emphatic about the benefits of fracking. • The geopolitical dimension of fracking overrides the technological/scientific dimension. • The implementation of fracking is constructed as a national priority. • Opposition to fracking is constructed as counter-normative and “anti-Polish”. • Representations impede open and constructive dialogue about energy policy

  13. Cogeneration – development and prospect in Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next 10-15 years are crucial for condition of Polish energy sector in light of challenges arising mainly from increasing demand for electric energy, need of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and shutdowns of old units. In this situation cogeneration can be one of the most rational way to meet those circumstances. This paper analyzes present development of cogeneration in Poland and its prospect for future.

  14. Chemical etching and polishing of InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, E.; Reif, A.; Gottschalch, V.; Finster, J.; Butter, E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes possibilities of several chemical preparations for the selective cleaning of InP surfaces. The investigations of the surface states after the chemical treatment were carried out by means of XPS measurements. A pre-etching with (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 :H 2 SO 4 :H 2 O and a polishing with 1% bromine in methanol produce optically smooth (100)-and (111) P surfaces free of oxides. (author)

  15. Between Positivism, Narrativism and Idealisation in Polish Methodology of History

    OpenAIRE

    Brzechczyn, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    This paper has two main purposes. Its primary purpose is to present the reception of the discussion between positivism and narrativism in Polish methodology of history. A secondary one is to paraphrase, using the notion apparatus of the idealisational theory of science, the issue of the accuracy of explanation. The paper consists of six parts. In the first, Hempel’s deductive-nomological (or covering law) model of explanation is presented. In the second part, the main tenets and assumptions o...

  16. Efficiency as a parameter for assessing the Polish healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bogdan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Efficacy is defined as one of the most valid parameters of health system evaluation. It should be said that there is no consistent definition of the concept of effectiveness in health care, which would allow for the evaluation and comparison of health systems in the world. One can not point to the best or even near ideal of the health system. However, you can rank individual health systems with respect to the evaluation of individual parameters or groups of parameters. One of the possibilities is to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Aim of the study. The aim of the article is to define and analyze particular types of system effectiveness in the context of the Polish health system. Description of knowledge. The literature on the subject is divided into operational and dynamic efficiency. Dynamic efficiency is divided into adaptive and innovative. The Polish health system is characterized by high operational efficiency. Operational efficiency determines the intensity of the system. The key factor for improving the health of the Polish society, as a factor of socio-economic development of the country is to improve the dynamic efficiency of the system. Conclusions. Health care in Poland has high operational efficiency while low dynamic efficiency, both adaptive and innovative, which clearly demonstrates the existence of a paradox of the overall effectiveness of the health care system in Poland.

  17. The attractiveness of family medicine among Polish medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda; Michalak, Michał; Avonts, Dirk; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Lukas, Witold; Korman, Tomasz; Litwiejko, Alicja; Chlabicz, Sławomir

    2014-06-01

    In many developed countries tuning supply and demand of medical doctors is a continuous challenge to meet the ever changing needs of community and individual patients. The long study period for medical doctors creates the opportunity to observe the current career preferences of medical students and evolution in time. To investigate the career choices of Polish students in different stages of their medical education. Medical students at five Polish medical universities were questioned about their career aspirations in the first, third and sixth year. A total of 2020 students were recruited for the survey. Among first year students 17% preferred family medicine as final career option, compared to 20% in the third year, and 30% in the sixth year (significant trend, P family medicine: 71% women versus 62% women in the group with a preference for a non-family medicine orientation (P = 0.008). Medical students rejecting a career as a family doctor stated that the impossibility to work in a hospital environment was the determining factor. The opportunity for professional development seems to be an important determining factor in the choice of a medical specialty in Poland. The proportion of Polish students choosing family medicine increases during their progress in medical education, with one third of students interested in a career in family medicine by year six.

  18. Cleaning, abrasion, and polishing effect of novel perlite toothpaste abrasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to optimize perlite particle size and morphology for better tooth cleaning and lower tooth abrasion, and to evaluate the performance of a whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive for tooth cleaning, abrasion, and polishing. Perlite toothpaste abrasive samples were prepared by air classifying a commercial expanded perlite product. The tooth cleaning and abrasion properties for these classified perlite samples were reported via the pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) and relative dentin abrasion (RDA). Performance of the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive in tooth cleaning, polishing, and abrasion was evaluated against a widely used synthetic high-cleaning silica. Air classification removes large perlite particles and also physically changes perlite particle morphology from mostly three dimensional and angular particles to mainly two dimensional and platy particles. All the classified samples show good tooth cleaning effect, but tooth abrasion decreases significantly with decreasing particle size. Compared to high-cleaning silica whitening toothpaste, the whitening toothpaste containing the optimized perlite abrasive (PerlClean) is slightly better at tooth cleaning, lower in tooth abrasion, and significantly better at tooth polishing. Fine platy perlite particles are effective in tooth cleaning with low tooth abrasion. The enhanced performance of optimized perlite toothpaste abrasive compared to high-cleaning silica in a whitening toothpaste is attributed to the optimized particle size distribution and the unique platy particle geometry.

  19. The Persistence of Abnormal Returns: Analysis of Polish Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Puziak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of a company is to build the enterprise value, which is achievable thanks to abnormal profits generated in particular period. Moreover, firms are expected to take measures to maintain abnormal profit in the future. On the other hand, abnormal profits attract competitors, who increase competition and as a result abnormal profits disappear. The persistence of profit is a term that describes a situation, when the company is successful in maintaining the abnormal profit over time. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the persistence of abnormal profit in Polish manufacturing sector. In other words, the question is whether Polish manufacturing companies are able to maintain their abnormal profits over time. The persistence of abnormal profits is investigated using dynamic panel model with generalized method-of-moments estimators. The method is applied to a panel of 5303 Polish companies from manufacturing sector observed over the period 2006-2014. This paper contributes to the existing literature in two ways. First, analysis is performed for developing country. Second, analysis is performed both at the level of entire sector and at division level. Three main conclusions can be drawn from the conducted research: there are significant differences between profit rates within the same industry at division level; estimated persistence of abnormal profit coefficients are at moderate level; there are substantial differences between estimated persistence of profit coefficients for divisions in the same industry.

  20. The prevalence of burnout syndrome in Polish anaesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiołek, Aleksandra; Gorczyca, Piotr; Misiołek, Hanna; Gierlotka, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Burnout syndrome is a psychological response to chronic work-related stress characterized by low enthusiasm towards the job, high psychological exhaustion, indolence and guilt. Being a medical doctor, both in Poland and in other countries, is one of the most stressful occupations and anaesthesiology is considered one of the most stressful specializations, which justify carrying out of the study on Polish anaesthesiologists. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of burnout syndrome in Polish anaesthesiologists Non-randomized cross-sectional study was carried out and data were gathered through a self-administrated questionnaire. The sample consisted of 373 Polish anaesthesiologists, 57.6% were women and 42.4% were men. A 66% response rate was achieved. The Burnout Syndrome was measured by the Spanish Burnout Inventory. The prevalence burnout risk was almost 70%. The percentage of participants who indicated very high levels of burnout was 18%; 5.9% of whom fell into profile 2 considered to be clinical. The instrument applied was reliable with Cronbach's alphas exceeding 0.70. The sample is characterized by high burnout risk with 5.9% of clinical cases. Participation in prevention programs is recommended.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Polish and Czech International New Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Danik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the characteristics of Polish and Czech companies which follow the Born Global internationalization model. More concretely, the analysis aims to discover the differences or similarities in terms of the internationalization paths of Polish and Czech SMEs in the characteristics of their managers in terms of the so-called “international vision” and in their innovativeness level. The introductory part of article provides a description of this internationalization model and the International New Ventures traits (INV and summarizes the recent studies on this topic conducted in Poland and Czech Republic. In the empirical part, the International New Ventures from the two countries are compared. The Polish sample includes 105 companies which were surveyed with use of computer assisted telephone interviews in autumn 2014. For the Czech Republic, the sample consists of 54 small and medium-sized companies, which were surveyed using the computer assisted web interviews from November 2013 till January 2014. The surveyed companies in both countries fulfilled the definition of Born Globals. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation analysis and non-parametric tests are applied to accomplish the goals of the paper.

  2. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sibtain; Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from 21 Polish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudzki, J; Szczotka, A; Nowak, A; Strzelecka, H; Grzesiak, A; Pejsak, Z

    2012-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a common disease among pigs worldwide, which contributes to major production losses. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae, the etiological agent of SD, is mainly performed by the agar dilution method. This method has certain limitations due to difficulties in interpretation of results. The aim of this study was the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B. hyodysenteriae) Polish field isolates by broth microdilution procedure. The study was performed on 21 isolates of B. hyodysenteriae, collected between January 2006 to December 2010 from cases of swine dysentery. VetMIC Brachyspira panels with antimicrobial agents (tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, tylosin and ampicillin) were used for susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth dilution procedure. The lowest antimicrobial activity was demonstrated for tylosin and lincomycin, with inhibition of bacterial growth using concentrations > 128 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively. In the case of doxycycline, the MIC values were < or = 2.0 microg/ml. No decreased susceptibility to tiamulin was found among the Polish isolates and MIC values for this antibiotic did not exceed 1.0 microg/ml. The results of the present study confirmed that Polish B. hyodysenteriae isolates were susceptible to the main antibiotics (tiamulin and valnemulin) used in treatment of swine dysentery. Further studies are necessary to evaluate a possible slow decrease in susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Poland.

  4. Knowledge of chronic total occlusion among Polish interventional cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryniarski, Krzysztof L; Zabojszcz, Michał; Dębski, Grzegorz; Marchewka, Jakub; Legutko, Jacek; Surowiec, Sławomir; Siudak, Zbigniew; Żmudka, Krzysztof; Dudek, Dariusz; Bryniarski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Chronic total occlusion (CTO) recanalization is indicated in patients with symptoms and evidence of ischemia, but in most cases those types of lesions are still treated medically. In the last few years CTO angioplasty technique has changed dramatically due to considerable advances in techniques and dedicated equipment. An attempt to assess the state of knowledge of technical aspects of CTO angioplasty of coronary arteries among Polish interventional cardiologists. Questionnaire survey performed during two major Polish invasive cardiology workshops. In the study there participated 113 physicians with an average length of work experience of 13 years, most of them cardiologists certified as independent primary operators. The majority of respondents recognized the need of prevention of thrombotic complications through control of activated coagulation time during the CTO procedures. Prevention of renal complications and X-ray protection are also recognized as a significant part of the procedures. The benefits from the use of over-the-wire microcatheters and balloons, the proper choice of dedicated guidewires, contralateral injections and retrograde technique are underestimated. Despite satisfactory knowledge about indications and qualification for the CTO procedure, the awareness of procedural aspects (particularly the retrograde technique) as well as the dedicated CTO equipment among Polish interventional cardiologists is still insufficient.

  5. Comparative analysis of features of Polish and Lithuanian Day-ahead electricity market prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobinaite, Viktorija; Juozapaviciene, Aldona; Staniewski, Marcin; Szczepankowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to better understand the processes of electricity market price formation in Poland and Lithuania through an analysis of the features (volatility and spikes) of Lithuanian and Polish day-ahead electricity market prices and to assess how acquired electricity price features could affect the achievement of the main goals of the national energy policy. The following indicators have been calculated to determine electricity market price volatility: the oscillation coefficient, the coefficient of variation, an adjusted coefficient of variation, the standard deviation indicator, the daily velocity indicator (based on the overall average price) and the daily velocity indicator (based on the daily average price). Critical values for electricity market price have been calculated to evaluate price spikes. This analysis reveals that electricity market-price volatility is moderate in Poland and high in Lithuania. Electricity price spikes have been an observable phenomenon both in Lithuanian and in Polish day-ahead electricity markets, but they are more common in Lithuania, encompassing 3.15% of the time period analysed in Poland and 4.68% of the time period analysed in Lithuania. Volatile, spiking and increasing electricity prices in day-ahead electricity markets in Lithuania and Poland create preconditions and substantiate the relevance of implementation of the national energy policies and measures. - Highlights: • Moderate and seasonal volatility. • spiking market price and. • stable average price

  6. Degradation rates of alachlor, atrazine and bentazone in the profiles of Polish Luvisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszko, Tadeusz; Muszyński, Paweł

    2017-07-01

    The degradation rates of three herbicides (alachlor, atrazine, and bentazone) were examined according to OECD Guideline 307 in three profiles of grey-brown podzolic soil (Luvisol) in a laboratory experiment. The aim of the experiment was to determine herbicide degradation parameters and their relationships with soil properties. Degradation processes were effectively described by a first-order model. However, in some cases, the best results were produced by bi-phasic kinetics (hockey-stick and bi-exponential model). The degradation rates of the tested herbicides at 25°C and 40% maximum water holding capacity, established based on half-life values in the Ap horizon, increased in the following order: atrazine (32.6-42.8 days) herbicide degradation rates and the organic matter content of soils. The depth-dependent degradation factors obtained for topsoil and two subsoil horizons (1: 0.42: 0.11 - based on average values, and 1: 0.31: 0.12 - based on median values) reflect the degradation abilities of Polish Luvisols. The values noted are soil-specific; therefore, they can also be applied to other pesticides in Polish Luvisols.

  7. Financial Performance in the Light of Corporate Governance in Polish Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socha Błażej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view (on the basis of theoretical and empirical analysis of corporate governance models used in Polish family businesses through financial performance. The empirical analysis covered a sample of 24,000 Polish family businesses in the period of 2008–2013. The use of linear regression has allowed the authors to verify the hypothesis concerning the occurrence of differences in profitability ratios in groups of family businesses using variant management models and allowed verifying the relationship between the degree of control and involvement of the owners in management and financial performance. The received results, though inconclusive, indicate that the involvement of the owner in the governance process can affect the financial aspect of a business. The prepared empirical analysis and conclusions of the article contribute to a better understanding of the measures taken on management and control decisions; what is more, they can provide guidance to the owners of family businesses in shaping the corporate governance model.

  8. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds of polish dry-cured loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Ewa; Nowicka, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Danuta; Przybylski, Wiesław; Tambor, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between objective sensory descriptors and volatile flavour compound composition of Polish traditional dry-cured loin. Methods The volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). For sensory assessment, the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method was used. Results A total of 50 volatile compounds were found and assigned to 17 chemical families. Most of the detected volatile compounds derived from smoking, lipid oxidative reactions and seasoning (46.8%, 21.7%, and 18.9%, respectively). The dominant compounds were: aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene); alkanes (hexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane); aldehyde (hexanal); alcohol (2-furanmethanol); ketone (3-hydroxy-2-butanone); phenol (guaiacol); and terpenes (eucalyptol, cymene, γ-terpinen, and limonene). Correlation analysis showed that some compounds derived from smoking were positively correlated with the intensity of cured meat odour and flavour and negatively with the intensity of dried meat odour and flavour, while terpenes were strongly correlated with odour and flavour of added spices. Conclusion The analysed dry-cured loins were characterized by specific and unique sensory profile. Odour and flavour of studied loins was mainly determined by volatile compounds originating from smoking, seasoning and lipid oxidation. Obtained results suggest that smoking process is a crucial stage during Polish traditional dry-cured loins production. PMID:27456422

  9. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds of polish dry-cured loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Górska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between objective sensory descriptors and volatile flavour compound composition of Polish traditional dry-cured loin. Methods The volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. For sensory assessment, the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA method was used. Results A total of 50 volatile compounds were found and assigned to 17 chemical families. Most of the detected volatile compounds derived from smoking, lipid oxidative reactions and seasoning (46.8%, 21.7%, and 18.9%, respectively. The dominant compounds were: aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene; alkanes (hexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane; aldehyde (hexanal; alcohol (2-furanmethanol; ketone (3-hydroxy-2-butanone; phenol (guaiacol; and terpenes (eucalyptol, cymene, γ-terpinen, and limonene. Correlation analysis showed that some compounds derived from smoking were positively correlated with the intensity of cured meat odour and flavour and negatively with the intensity of dried meat odour and flavour, while terpenes were strongly correlated with odour and flavour of added spices. Conclusion The analysed dry-cured loins were characterized by specific and unique sensory profile. Odour and flavour of studied loins was mainly determined by volatile compounds originating from smoking, seasoning and lipid oxidation. Obtained results suggest that smoking process is a crucial stage during Polish traditional dry-cured loins production.

  10. Slab-coupled optical sensor fabrication using side-polished Panda fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rex; Seng, Frederick; Stan, Nikola; Cuzner, Kevin; Josephson, Chad; Selfridge, Richard; Schultz, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    A new device structure used for slab-coupled optical sensor (SCOS) technology was developed to fabricate electric field sensors. This new device structure replaces the D-fiber used in traditional SCOS technology with a side-polished Panda fiber. Unlike the D-fiber SCOS, the Panda fiber SCOS is made from commercially available materials and is simpler to fabricate. The Panda SCOS interfaces easier with lab equipment and exhibits ∼3  dB less loss at link points than the D-fiber SCOS. The optical system for the D-fiber is bandwidth limited by a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) used to amplify to the electric signal. The Panda SCOS exhibits less loss than the D-fiber and, as a result, does not require as high a gain setting on the TIA, which results in an overall higher bandwidth range. Results show that the Panda sensor also achieves comparable sensitivity results to the D-fiber SCOS. Although the Panda SCOS is not as sensitive as other side-polished fiber electric field sensors, it can be fabricated much easier because the fabrication process does not require special alignment techniques, and it is made from commercially available materials.

  11. Economic Assessment of an Integrated Membrane System for Secondary Effluent Polishing for Unrestricted Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Oron

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Extra treatment stages are required to polish the secondary effluent for unrestricted reuse, primarily for agricultural irrigation. Improved technology for the removal of particles, turbidity, bacteria and cysts, without the use of disinfectants is based on MicroFiltration (MF and UltraFiltration (UF membrane technology and in series with Reverse Osmosis (RO for dissolved solids removal. Field experiments were conducted using a mobile UF and RO membrane pilot unit at a capacity of around 1.0 m3/hr. A management model was defined and tested towards optimal polishing of secondary effluent. The two major purposes of the management model are: (i to delineate a methodology for economic assessment of optimal membrane technology implementation for secondary effluent upgrading for unrestricted use, and; (ii to provide guidelines for optimal RO membrane selection in regards to the pretreatment stage. The defined linear model takes into account the costs of the feed secondary effluent, the UF pretreatment and the RO process. Technological constraints refer primarily to the longevity of the membrane and their performance. Final treatment cost (the objective function includes investment, operation and maintenance expenses, UF pretreatment, RO treatment, post treatment and incentive for low salinity permeate use. The cost range of water for irrigation according to the model is between 15 and 42 US cents per m3.

  12. Industrial environmental practices in Polish Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmer, Trine Pipi

    , and environment. The five case firms all had a Communist past. The firms represent three different industrial sectors; i.e. textile, energy, and publishing and printing industries. Furthermore, the firms are both private and state owned as well as in the process of privatisation.......The study investigates how discursive developments in Poland interact with industrial environmental practices in five production firms. The analysis of the discursive development covers the period from the end of World War I to the turn of the century. The areas in focus are identity, industry...

  13. TORR system polishes oily water clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowers, J.

    2002-01-01

    The TORR (total oil recovery and remediation) system utilizes a specially patented polymer material, similar to styrofoam, which is used to get rid of non-soluble hydrocarbons from water. An application in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, is described where it was used to recover diesel oil, which had been seeping into the groundwater over a period of 20 years. About 100,000 gallons of heating oil had leached into the water; TORR removed the non-soluble hydrocarbons, while another piece of equipment removed the soluble portions. After treatment the water tested consistently at non-detectable levels and was clean enough to be discharged into the town's sewer system. The system is considered ideal for oil spills clean-up underground, onshore, or the open sea, but it also has many potentially useful applications in industrial and oilfield applications. Water used in steam injection and water floods to produce heavy oil and SAGD applications are some of the obvious ones that come to mind. Cleaning up the huge tailings ponds at the mining and processing of oil sands, and removing diluent from water that is used to thin out bitumen in pipelines so that it can be transported to processing plants, are other promising areas of application. Several field trials to test the effectiveness of the system in these type of applications are scheduled for the summer and fall of 2002

  14. Can Reduced-Step Polishers Be as Effective as Multiple-Step Polishers in Enhancing Surface Smoothness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemaloglu, Hande; Karacolak, Gamze; Turkun, L Sebnem

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various finishing and polishing systems on the final surface roughness of a resin composite. Hypotheses tested were: (1) reduced-step polishing systems are as effective as multiple-step systems on reducing the surface roughness of a resin composite and (2) the number of application steps in an F/P system has no effect on reducing surface roughness. Ninety discs of a nano-hybrid resin composite were fabricated and divided into nine groups (n = 10). Except the control, all of the specimens were roughened prior to be polished by: Enamel Plus Shiny, Venus Supra, One-gloss, Sof-Lex Wheels, Super-Snap, Enhance/PoGo, Clearfil Twist Dia, and rubber cups. The surface roughness was measured and the surfaces were examined under scanning electron microscope. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test (p One-gloss, Enamel Plus Shiny, and Venus Supra groups. (1) The number of application steps has no effect on the performance of F/P systems. (2) Reduced-step polishers used after a finisher can be preferable to multiple-step systems when used on nanohybrid resin composites. (3) The effect of F/P systems on surface roughness seems to be material-dependent rather than instrument- or system-dependent. Reduced-step systems used after a prepolisher can be an acceptable alternative to multiple-step systems on enhancing the surface smoothness of a nanohybrid composite; however, their effectiveness depends on the materials' properties. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:31-40, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Writing a case report: polishing a gem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanas, N; Lazarides, M K

    2008-08-01

    Case reports describe patient cases which are of particular interest due to their novelty and their potential message for clinical practice. While there are several types of case reports, originality and clinical implications constitute the main virtues by which case reports are judged. Defining the educational message and choosing the right audience are vital steps in the process of writing. Generally, a case report is structured, its main components being the abstract, the introduction, the case description and the discussion. Guidelines and tips for writing case reports are not enough for making a successful author, but they help, especially less experienced doctors, to exercise and improve their writing. If properly prepared, case reports can still communicate new observations in an interesting and pleasant way, thereby enriching our knowledge, even in the era of evidence-based medicine.

  16. Evaluation of extractants and chelating resins in polishing actinide-contaminated waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used for recovering plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, the trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remaining in the effluent require additional processing. We are doing research to develop a secondary unit operation that can directly polish the effluent so that actinide levels are reduced to below the maximum allowed for facility discharge. We selected solvent extraction, the only unit operation that can meet the stringent process requirements imposed; several carbonyl and phosphoryl extractants were evaluated and their performance characterized. We also investigated various engineering approaches for solvent extraction; the most promising was a chelating resin loaded with extractant. Our research now focuses on the synthesis of malonamides, and our goal is to bond these extractants to a resin matrix. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  17. Negentropy Generation and Fractality in the Dry Friction of Polished Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordecai Segall

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Robin Hood model of dry friction to study entropy transfer during sliding. For the polished surface (steady state we study the probability distribution of slips and find an exponential behavior for all the physically relevant asperity interaction-distance thresholds. In addition, we characterize the time evolution of the sample by its spatial fractal dimension and by its entropy content. Starting from an unpolished surface, the entropy decreases during the Robin Hood process, until it reaches a plateau; thereafter the system fluctuates above the critical height. This validates the notion that friction increases information in the neighborhood of the contacting surface at the expense of losing information in remote regions. We explain the practical relevance of these results for engineering surface processing such as honing.

  18. Effects of laser polishing on surface microstructure and corrosion resistance of additive manufactured CoCr alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. J.; Yung, K. C.; Choy, H. S.; Xiao, T. Y.; Cai, Z. X.

    2018-06-01

    Laser polishing of 3D printed metal components has drawn great interest in view of its potential applications in the dental implant industries. In this study, corrosion resistance, surface composition and crystalline structure of CoCr alloys were investigated. The corrosion resistance, micromorphology, composition, phase transformations and crystalline structures of samples were characterized using an electrochemical analyzer, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The results indicate that high laser powers and low object distances within a certain range can facilitate the formation of complex oxide films, which exhibits high corrosion resistance. Further, object distances have a significant influence on cooling rates during the solidification of the melt pool in laser polishing, and fast cooling generates vast amounts of vacancies and defects, which result in the crystalline phase transformation from γ to ε. Consequently, the formed oxides play an important role in corrosion resistance on the outer layer, and inner layer with γ phase also helps keep the CoCr alloys in a stable structure with high resistant to corrosion. The two process parameters in laser polishing, laser power and object distances, are demonstrated as being important for controlling the surface microstructures and corrosion resistance of the additive manufactured CoCr alloy components.

  19. Two planar polishing methods by using FIB technique: Toward ultimate top-down delayering for failure analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. D., E-mail: dandan.wang@globalfoundries.com; Huang, Y. M.; Tan, P. K.; Feng, H.; Low, G. R.; Yap, H. H.; He, R.; Tan, H.; Dawood, M. K.; Zhao, Y. Z.; Lam, J.; Mai, Z. H. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore Pte. Ltd, 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Presently two major limiting factors are hindering the failure analysis (FA) development during the semiconductor manufacturing process and technology improvement: (1) Impossibility of manual polishing on the edge dies due to the amenability of layer peeling off; (2) Abundant demand of multi-locations FA, especially focusing different levels of layers simultaneously. Aiming at resolving these limitations, here we demonstrate two unique high precision polishing methods by using focused ion beam (FIB) technique. One is the vertical top down chemical etching at the aimed location; the other one is the planar top down slicing. Using the FIB for delayering not only solves these problems mentioned above, but also offers significant advantages over physical planar polishing methods such as: (1) having a better control of the delayering progress, (2) enabling precisely milling at a region of interest, (3) providing the prevention of over-delayering and (4) possessing capability to capture images at the region of interest simultaneously and cut into the die directly to expose the exact failure without damaging other sections of the specimen.

  20. Interaction, transformation and toxicity assessment of particles and additives used in the semiconducting industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Eduard; Karunaratne, Dinusha P; Babu, S V; Wallace, Kenneth N; Andreescu, Silvana

    2018-02-01

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is a widely used technique for the manufacturing of integrated circuit chips in the semiconductor industry. The process generates large amounts of waste containing engineered particles, chemical additives, and chemo-mechanically removed compounds. The environmental and health effects associated with the release of CMP materials are largely unknown and have recently become of significant concern. Using a zebrafish embryo assay, we established toxicity profiles of individual CMP particle abrasives (SiO 2 and CeO 2 ), chemical additives (hydrogen peroxide, proline, glycine, nicotinic acid, and benzotriazole), as well as three model representative slurries and their resulting waste. These materials were characterized before and after use in a typical CMP process in order to assess changes that may affect their toxicological profile and alter their surface chemistry due to polishing. Toxicity outcome in zebrafish is discussed in relation with the physicochemical characteristics of the abrasive particles and with the type and concentration profile of the slurry components pre and post-polishing, as well as the interactions between particle abrasives and additives. This work provides toxicological information of realistic CMP slurries and their polishing waste, and can be used as a guideline to predict the impact of these materials in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spray-dried Powder Granulometry: Influence on the Porous Microstructure of Polished Porcelain Tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschi, A. O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The low porosity of porcelain tile is the result of strict control of the material’s processing conditions (milling of raw materials, compaction and sintering and the characteristics of the raw materials used in its formulation (formation of liquid phases. Sealed pores remaining after the manufacturing process are revealed at the surface after polishing and are the main factor responsible for staining the product. The porous microstructure of the sintered material depends on the characteristics of the porous microstructure of the green compact and on how the densification process evolves during sintering. The present work evaluated how the size distribution of spray-dried granules acts upon the porous microstructure of green compacts and of polished porcelain tile. The results revealed that minor adjustments in the granulometric distribution curve can reduce the visibility of stains on the polished surface, thus improving this property.

    La baja porosidad de los revestimientos porcelánicos, es el resultado del estricto control que se ejerce sobre los distintos parámetros que condicionan el procesamiento de los materiales ( molienda de la materias primas, compactación y sinterización y de las características de las materias primas empleadas en su formulación (formación de fases líquidas. Los poros cerrados que se generan durante la fabricación, y que se abren en la superficie durante el proceso de pulido, son los principales responsables de las manchas que aparecen en la superficie del material. La porosidad microestructural de los materiales sinterizados está condicionada por la porosidad microstrucutural de la pieza en verde y por la evolución del proceso de densificación durante la sinterización. E l trabajo presente evalúa la influencia de la distribución granulométrica del granulado procedente del atomizador sobre la porosidad granulométrica de las piezas en verde y de la pieza ya pulida. Los resultados revelan como

  2. Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary

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    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neologisms in bilingual digital dictionaries (on the example of Bulgarian-Polish dictionary The paper discusses the presentation of neologisms in the recent version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary. We also continue the discussion of important problems related to the classifiers of the verbs as headwords of the digital dictionary entries. We analyze some examples from ongoing experimental version of the Bulgarian-Polish digital dictionary.

  3. Poland, a workforce in transition: Exploring leadership styles and effectiveness of Polish vs. Western expatriate managers

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Jacob; Pieczonka, Artur; Eisenring, Martin; Mironski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Given the cultural differences between Western Europe and Poland, differences are expected in leadership styles and behaviours between Polish and Western managers. Our study explored Polish employees’ perceptions and attitudes toward expatriate Western versus local managers. The main method was surveying Polish employees working under Western managers in three mid-size companies. We supplemented the survey with in-depth interviews with five West European middle managers working in Poland. We ...

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That May Affect Female Consumers’ Buying Decision of Nail Polishes

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Chen; Adhikari, Koushik; Koppel, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine what factors female consumers valued more when they buy nail polish. Ninety-eight female consumers participated in a nail polish consumer study at the Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University. A questionnaire containing a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question, behavior questions and demographic questions was presented to each consumer. In the CATA question, the factors that may affect consumers’ decision to buy a nail polish were asked, incl...

  5. How to Investigate Polish Clusters’ Attractiveness for Inward FDI? Addressing Ambiguity Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Marta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess whether, and in what fashion, managers of Polish cluster organizations perceive the attractiveness of foreign direct investment in Polish clusters This research is exploratory and qualitative in nature. The complex nature of Polish clusters, which can benefit from and be competitively challenged by, FDI are identified and a conceptual framework for assessing that nature is proposed; specifically, research using the grounded theory method (GTM.

  6. Research on Laser Micro Polishing of SLS Technology Sintered Iron-Based Powder Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gerda Vaitkūnaitė; Vladislav Markovič; Olegas Černašėjus

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes laser micro polishing of 1.2083 steel samples produced applying selective laser sintering (SLS) method. The study has evaluated the distribution of the shape, size and temperature of the laser beam treated area in the surface layer of sintered and laser polished samples. Experimental tests have shown the impact of the technical parameters of laser micro polishing on the width and hardness of the impact zone of the treated sample. The microstructure analysis of laser treat...

  7. Effects of Polishing Bur Application Force and Reuse on Sintered Zirconia Surface Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, N G; Tsujimoto, A; Baruth, A G

    2018-03-16

    Limited information is available on how to polish and finish zirconia surfaces following computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM), specifically, how differing application forces and reuse of zirconia polishing systems affect zirconia topography. To determine the effect of differing, clinically relevant, polishing application forces and multiple usages of polishing burs on the surface topography of CAD/CAM zirconia. One hundred twenty 220-grit carbide finished zirconia disks were sintered according to manufacturer's directions and divided into two groups for the study of two coarse polishing bur types. Each group was divided into subgroups for polishing (15,000 rpm) at 15 seconds for 1.0 N, 4.5 N, or 11 N of force using a purpose-built fixture. Subgroups were further divided to study the effects of polishing for the first, fifth, 15th, and 30th bur use, simulating clinical procedures. Unpolished surfaces served as a control group. Surfaces were imaged with noncontact optical profilometry (OP) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure average roughness values (Ra). Polishing burs were optically examined for wear. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on burs and zirconia surfaces. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD (honest significant difference) tests (α=0.05) were used for statistical analyses. AFM and OP Ra values of all polished surfaces were significantly lower than those of the unpolished control. Different polishing forces and bur reuse showed no significant differences in AFM Ra. However, significant differences in OP Ra were found due to differing application forces and bur reuse between the first and subsequent uses. SEM and optical micrographs revealed notable bur wear, increasing with increasing reuse. SEM and AFM micrographs clearly showed polished, periodic zirconia surfaces. Nanoscale topography, as analyzed with kurtosis and average groove depth, was found dependent on the specific polishing bur type. These in

  8. Surface analysis of polished fused-silica laser lenses by ion-scattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvek, K.; Steward, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    New advances in high-powered glass lasers, particularly the NOVA system, have resulted in a need for lenses having higher damage threshold values than those now available. It is currently thought that surface contaminants on the lenses are responsible for initiating part of the damage. These contaminants are apparently introduced during the final polishing stages. In this study, we used ion-scattering spectrometry (ISS) to identify contaminants arising through the use of different polishing techniques. Five lenses were studied, each having undergone different polishing procedures. The first lens was not polished after receiving it from the manfacturer (No. 381). Ion microprobe data were available for this lens, and they were compared to ISS results. The second lens had been polished with rouge, a polishing compound no longer in use (No. 796). This sample served as a further check on the ISS results. The third lens was studied as received from the manufacturer - with no handling or cleaning (No. 802). The final two lenses had both been polished using high-purity ceria, cerium oxide (No. 800 and No. 801). The difference between these two was that No. 800 was polished using a nylon lap, and No. 801 was polished using pitch as a lap. The 800-series lenses were all made from the same batch, and constituted the major part of the investigation

  9. Macroeconomic, legal, administrative and cultural factors of technological innovations1 in Polish industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Sudoł

    2016-12-01

    The vast majority of experts participating in the study positively assessed the cultural conditions of technological innovativeness in Polish enterprises. Experts also provided negative cultural characteristics of Poles.

  10. On the Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian Leksykon odpowiedniości semantycznych w języku polskim, bułgarskim i rosyjskim [The Dictionary of Semantic Equivalents in Polish, Bulgarian and Russian] is the first Polish dictionary which compares semantic equivalents in the largest languages of each Slavic subgroup: The West Slavic group (Polish, the South Slavic group (Bulgarian and the East Slavic group (Russian. The content of the dictionary reflects the social processes, changes and trends which have taken place over recent years. The dictionary consists of 5 volumes, with approximately 5000 entries for each language. What sets it apart from other dictionaries is that it ventures beyond the standard vocabulary one might expect from a dictionary of this sort. Leksykon also contains neologisms as well as realogisms - words which do not often have perfect equivalents in other languages because they are so deeply embedded in a nation’s culture. Each entry in the dictionary offers state-of-the-art semantic and syntactic categorisers, developed by Polish experts in Slavic semantics and aspectology. We consider the dictionary to be an innovation in lexicography, because its open structure enables more languages to be added in the future, including non-Slavic languages. Developed with the use of the most recent methodologies available, the dictionary will constitute a sound basis for lexicographic research in the future, in particular for the development of multilingual electronic dictionaries. In the 21st century, we face two great challenges: to make academic research more interdisciplinary and to build an integrated multinational European community. We hope that our dictionary will help address these challenges by promoting multilingualism and facilitating intercultural communication.The primary language of the dictionary is Polish - the largest Slavic language in the European Union. During the Polish

  11. International Trade and Economic Growth in the Polish Economy

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    Henryk Gurgul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examinations of linear and nonlinear causalities performed for international trade involving the Polish economy and its economic growth. In order to infer the impact of the world crisis on the Polish economy, two samples have been studied (containing quarterly data – a full sample (Q1 1996–Q3 2009 and pre-crisis sample (Q1 1996–Q3 2008. The results of linear causality tests support the existence of feedback between the growth rate of exports and growth in gross domestic product (GDP irrespectively of the time period chosen. For both the samples examined, no direct causal links between the growth rates of GDP and imports were detected. One can only suppose the existence of indirect links before the crisis. Bidirectional causality was found for growth rates of exports and imports only for the pre-crisis sample. Some weak evidence of a causal link running from the growth rate of imports to the growth rate of exports was also found for the period that covers the crisis, which may be interpreted as a confirmation of the fact that growth in imports also precedes growth in exports in bullish periods. It results from our computations that, at the time of the financial crisis of 2008, the main factor that caused Polish GDP growth to remain positive was domestic demand. The results of nonlinear causality analysis provided only weak evidence for causality running from GDP to exports, from GDP to imports and from imports to exports. (original abstract

  12. Analysis of the Motor Activities of Professional Polish Soccer Players

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    Andrzejewski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of the present study were to determine the activity profiles of a large sample of Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-standard soccer matches depending on their position on the pitch and the intensity range of physical activity. Material and methods. The study sample comprised 1,178 players in 5 outfield positions: external defenders (ED, n = 289, central defenders (CD, n = 307, central midfield players (CM, n = 327, external midfield players (EM, n = 152, and forwards (F, n = 103. Altogether, 81 Polish League games held during four domestic seasons (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 were used in the analysis. A semi-automatic computerised player tracking system (Amisco Pro®, version 1.0.2, Nice, France was applied to create the match activity profiles of the teams. Results. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all the players (n = 1,178 was 11,313 ± 852 m. With respect to the players’ position on the pitch, the central midfielders travelled the longest average distance (11,894 ± 765 m during the game. The longest distance was covered in the V1 intensity range (62%, followed by V2 (15%, V3 (10%, V4 (8%, V5 (3%, and V6 (2%. Conclusions. The objective of this study was to verify the differences among playing positions and to quantify the demands placed on elite Polish soccer players in each individual position during match play. While analysing elite-level match play in terms of the overall distance covered in different categories of intensity, we found a number of statistically significant differences between different playing positions. The data presented in this study can be regarded as norms for elite soccer players, serve for present and future comparison, and represent the scientific basis for developing position-specific conditioning/training protocols in soccer.

  13. Congress of the Polish Chamber of Tourism - Egypt 2017

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    Marek Napierała

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the effectiveness of the Congress of the Polish Chamber of Tourism 2017 in the elaboration of joint applications regarding the provision of substantive and logistical support to entrepreneurs as well as the pursuit of comprehensive regulation of tourism law; adaptation of Polish law to European standards. Research problems: What is the legal status in the field of tourism law regarding outgoing tourism, incoming tourism and MICE, children and youth tourism, domestic tourism and accommodation facilities, travel agents and air transport? What are the main problems of the industries and what are their solutions proposed? What is the position and conclusions of the Congress? Research methods: study of documents, source materials, study of Congress materials, interviews with participants of the Congress, personal participation in the Congress. The PIT Congress took place on 25.11. - 2.12.2017 in Egypt (Marsa Alam: "Groundbreaking changes in tourism law: challenges and problems". The aim of the Congress was to develop a common position in the field of tourism law on outgoing tourism, incoming tourism and MICE, children and youth tourism, domestic tourism and accommodation facilities, travel agents and air transport. PIT is the largest nationwide organization of the economic self-government of the tourism industry. Polish Chamber of Tourism, which is a full member of the European Union of Travel Agencies of the European Union (ECTAA. From the beginning of its existence (25 years of activity, it has been successfully applying for a new shape of tourist business in Poland. Conclusions: - trainings should be carried out using the latest laws, - substantive and logistical support should be provided to entrepreneurs, - strive for comprehensive regulation of tourism law, - tourism needs a host so that it can be prioritized as an important branch of the economy.

  14. Database for content of mercury in Polish brown coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrząb, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    Poland is rated among the countries with largest level of mercury emission in Europe. According to information provided by the National Centre for Balancing and Management of Emissions (KOBiZE) more than 10.5 tons of mercury and its compounds were emitted into the atmosphere in 2015 from the area of Poland. Within the scope of the BazaHg project lasting from 2014 to 2015 and co-financed from the National Centre of Research and Development (NCBiR) a database was set up with specification of mercury content in Polish hard steam coal, coking coal and brown coal (lignite) grades. With regard to domestic brown coal the database comprises information on coal grades from Brown Coal Mines of `Bełchatów', `Adamów', `Turów' and `Sieniawa'. Currently the database contains 130 records with parameters of brown coal, where each record stands for technical analysis (content of moisture, ash and volatile particles), elemental analysis (CHNS), content of chlorine and mercury as well as net calorific value and combustion heat. Content of mercury in samples of brown coal grades under test ranged from 44 to 985 μg of Hg/kg with the average level of 345 μg of Hg/kg. The established database makes up a reliable and trustworthy source of information about content of mercury in Polish fossils. The foregoing details completed with information about consumption of coal by individual electric power stations and multiplied by appropriate emission coefficients may serve as the background to establish loads of mercury emitted into atmosphere from individual stations and by the entire sector of power engineering in total. It will also enable Polish central organizations and individual business entities to implement reasonable policy with respect of mercury emission into atmosphere.

  15. Effect of polishing instruments and polishing regimens on surface topography and phase transformation of monolithic zirconia: An evaluation with XPS and XRD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj Husain, Nadin; Camilleri, Josette; Özcan, Mutlu

    2016-12-01

    Polishing procedures might alter monolithic zirconia (MZ) surface resulting in phase changes that can be deleterious for clinical performance and antagonist tooth wear. This study investigated the topographical features and phase transformation in MZ after polishing with different regimens simulating the clinical workflow. ​ MZ specimens (Katana Zirconia HT, Kuraray-Noritake) (12×12×1.8 mm(3)) were grinded and polished using one of the five systems assessed: BG: Silicone carbide polishers (Brownie, Greenie, Super Greenie); CG: Diamond impregnated ceramic polisher kit (Ceragloss); EV: Synthetically bonded grinder interspersed with diamond (EVE Kit); SL: Urethane coated paper with aluminium oxide grits (Soflex Finishing and Polishing System Kit) and DB: Diamond bur (8 µm). Polished specimens were initially roughened with 220 µm diamond burs (Grinding Bur-GB) (10 s, 160.000160,000 rpm) and considered for baseline measurements. Polishing regimens were performed for 10 s using a slow-speed hand piece under water-cooling except for SL, in a custom made device (750 g; 5000 and 75,000 rpm). Surface roughnesses, phase changes (XRD) were assessed, surface characterization was performed (SEM, EDS). The highest roughness was obtained with the EV system (1.11 µm) compared to those of other systems (0.13-0.4 µm) (pθ and minor peak at 34.94°2θ. While GB, CG, EV, SL and DB exhibited a peak shift to the left, BG demonstrated a right peak shift on the 2θ scale. Monoclinic phase change was not noted in any of the groups. All polishing methods, except BG, exhibited a peak shift towards the lower angles of the 2-theta scale. Since the peak shifts were in the order of fractions of an angle they are attributed to stress formation rather than a phase change in the material. Thus, all polishing systems tested may not be detrimental for the phase transformation of MZ. EV system resulted in the highest roughness and none of the polishing regimens restored the polishability to the

  16. Rights and obligations of communal enterprises under Polish administrative law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipek, J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper elucidates the legal environment in which Polish power producing and distributing enterprises operate. In particular, the different forms of communal enterprises are described: public owned companies; public owned companies serving ''higher purposes''; communal enterprises operating on the strength of special laws; forms of organization subject to private law. Over the long term the rules in the sphere of the communal economy can be simplified. As the administrative judiciary develops, comprehensive administrative surveillance will become superfluous. The communal enterprises render their services to the citizen. The legal remedies at the citizen's disposal are the administrative complaint and the appeal to the administrative courts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Discriminant analysis in Polish manufacturing sector performance assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Dziechciarz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of the preliminary results of a larger project on the determination of the attractiveness of manufacturing branches. Results of the performance assessment of Polish manufacturing branches in 2000 (section D „Manufacturing” – based on NACE – Nomenclatures des Activites de Communite Europeene are shown. In the research, the classical (Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis technique was used for the analysis of the profit generation ability by the firms belonging to a certain production branch. For estimation, the data describing group level was used – for cross-validation, the classes data.

  18. Theorizing Polish migration across Europe: perspectives, concepts, and methodologies

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    Elżbieta M. Goździak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Theorizing Polish migration across Europe: perspectives, concepts, and methodologies With the focus on the post-2004 mobility of Polish citizens, in this article we discuss two interrelated questions; namely, what are the most productive ways to theorize contemporary Polish migration, and what are the most fruitful methodologies aimed at understanding Polish migration and Poles on the move? In the first part of this article we unpack three interrelated theoretical frameworks: ‘liquid migration’, ‘regimes of mobility,’ and ‘transnationalism’. The methodological discussion in the second part of the article focuses mainly on outlining and contextualizing the most common approaches to migration phenomena. By critically introducing quantitative and qualitative methodologies, we explore and indicate the advantages of the ethnographic perspective and the merits and predicaments of research engagement in multiple sites.   Polskie migracje w Europie: perspektywy, koncepcje, metodologie Z naciskiem na mobilność obywateli polskich po przyłączeniu Polski do Unii Europejskiej w 2004 roku, w niniejszym artykule staramy się odpowiedzieć na dwa powiązane ze sobą pytania: jakie są najbardziej wydajne sposoby teoretyzowania współczesnej migracji polskiej oraz jakie są najbardziej owocne metody badawcze mające na celu zrozumienie polskiej migracji po akcesji do UE? W pierwszej części artykułu przedstawiamy więc trzy powiązane ze sobą koncepcje teoretyczne: „płynna migracja”, „reżimy mobilności” oraz transnarodowość. Dyskusja metodologiczna w drugiej części artykułu skupia się natomiast głównie na przedstawieniu najczęściej stosowanej metodyki i metodologii w badaniach zjawisk migracyjnych. Wprowadzając krytyczną perspektywę na temat ilościowych i jakościowych metod badawczych, staramy się wskazać wartość poznawczą perspektywy etnograficznej oraz wady i zalety etnograficznego zaangażowania badawczego w

  19. Advanced ion exchange resins for PWR condensate polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, B.; Tsuzuki, S.

    2002-01-01

    The severe chemical and mechanical requirements of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) condensate polishing plant (CPP) present a major challenge to the design of ion exchange resins. This paper describes the development and initial operating experience of improved cation and anion exchange resins that were specifically designed to meet PWR CPP needs. Although this paper focuses specifically on the ion exchange resins and their role in plant performance, it is also recognized and acknowledged that excellent mechanical design and operation of the CPP system are equally essential to obtaining good results. (authors)

  20. Specificity of Geotechnical Measurements and Practice of Polish Offshore Operations

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    Bogumil Laczynski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As offshore market in Europe grows faster and faster, new sea areas are being managed and new ideas on how to use the sea potential are being developed. In North Sea, where offshore industry conducts intensive expansion since late 1960s, numerous wind farms, oil and gas platforms and pipelines have been put into operation following extensive research, including geotechnical measurement. Recently, a great number of similar projects is under development in Baltic Sea, inter alia in Polish EEZ, natural conditions of which vary from the North Sea significantly. In this paper, those differences are described together with some solutions to problems thereby arising.