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Sample records for polish health programmes

  1. Health Information in Polish (polski)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Polish (polski) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/polish.html Health Information in Polish (polski) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  2. Cost-effectiveness of a cardiovascular disease primary prevention programme in a primary health care setting. Results of the Polish part of the EUROACTION project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sović, Nevena; Pająk, Andrzej; Jankowski, Piotr; Duenas, Alejandra; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Wolfshaut-Wolak, Renata; Stepaniak, Urszula; Kawalec, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Well designed cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programmes appear to be generally applicable and effective in reducing exposure to risk factors and the incidence of disease. However, introducing them broadly into clinical practice would have a significant impact on the healthcare budget, and requires careful consideration. The purpose of this health economic analysis was to assess the potential cost-effectiveness of the model nurse-led, comprehensive CVD primary prevention programme which was prepared and introduced in the EUROACTION project, in high-risk patients in Poland. A Markov model was developed to assess the long-term costs of preventive intervention. The health states modelled were: event-free (all patients at the beginning of observation), stable angina first year, acute myocardial infarction, stable angina subsequent year, myocardial infarction subsequent year, CVD death, and other causes of death. Health benefits from the reduction in risk factors were estimated based on Framingham risk function assuming the probability of defined health states according to British registers. The time horizon of the analysis was ten years, and one Markov cycle length was one year. The analysis was prepared from the healthcare payer's perspective. A willingness to pay threshold of three gross domestic product (GDP) per capita / quality-adjusted life years (QALY) was used. Univariate sensitivity analysis was conducted. Results were presented as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) expressed as an incremental cost per QALY. In Poland, EUROACTION intervention resulted mainly in reductions in the prevalence of smoking (by 14%) and high blood pressure (by 7%). Intervention on other risk factors, including blood lipids, was found to be less effective. Estimated ICERs were 19,524 PLN for men and 82,262 PLN for women. The programme was even more cost-effective in smokers i.e. estimated ICERs were 12,377 PLN in men and 53,471 PLN in women. The results were most

  3. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

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    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  4. The Polish National Investment Fund Programme: Mass Privatisation With a Difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Hashi

    2000-01-01

    The Polish mass privatisation programme (MPP), though debated at length in the early phase of transition, was implemented with a long delay which led to the deterioration of the financial position of many of the companies in the scheme and the loss of, at least, some of the potential benefits of such schemes. The most important lesson of the programme for other countries is that mass privatisation should be implemented quickly in order to avoid uncertainty and to prevent opportunistic behavio...

  5. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  6. Macroeconomic Reasons of Debts in Polish Health Service

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    Kamila Szymańska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of debts in polish health service. Author analyzes the macroeconomic reasons of this situation. As a main reasons are indicated: a specificity of the health service market, which leads to a inefficient allocation of health services, lack of reliable data on health care system, too low level of public expenditure on a health care, inappropriate allocation of public capital and a monopolistic position of the payer.

  7. Radon programmes and health marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojtikova, I.; Rovenska, K.

    2011-01-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. (authors)

  8. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  9. Transparency in Health Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Taryn

    2008-01-01

    Transparency is an important tool for good governance, helping to expose abusive practices including fraud, patronage, corruption, and other abuses of power. Increasing transparency can also enhance accountability by providing performance management information and exposing policies and procedures to oversight. This U4 Brief discusses the role of transparency in preventing corruption in the health sector.

  10. Opinions of Polish occupational medicine physicians on workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta; Pyzalski, Jacek; Wojtaszczyk, Patrycja

    2005-01-01

    According to the current Polish legislation on occupational health services, occupational medicine physicians should perform workplace health promotion (WHP) activities as a part of their professional work. The concept of workplace health promotion or health promotion programs, however, has not been defined in this legislation in any way. Therefore, two essential questions arise. First, what is the physicians' attitude towards workplace health issues and second, what is actually carried out under the label of health promotion? The main objective of the research described in this paper was to answer these questions. The survey was carried out by the National Center for Workplace Health Promotion in 2002. A questionnaire prepared by the Center for the purpose of this survey was sent to a random sample of occupational medicine physicians. The results of the survey showed that 53% of occupational medicine physicians consider WHP just as a new name for prophylactics. On the other hand almost all of the respondents (94%) agree that occupational medicine physicians should perform WHP activities and find them useful in improving patients' health (78%). The main obstacle for the development of this activity in the perception of physicians is the lack of interest in workplace health promotion among employers (86%). In the modern understanding of workplace health promotion concept this type of intervention includes not only safety measures and health education, but also a profound organizational change that allows employers, employees and social partners to improve wellbeing of people at work. Each of such projects should facilitate changes necessary to create a health promoting workplace. It also needs a skilled leader--well trained and aware of a multidisciplinary dimension of WHP interventions. Occupational medicine specialists should become natural partners of employers and employees. The majority of the occupational medicine physicians, however, are not sufficiently

  11. [Health literacy as an element of the Polish occupational health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobras, Maciej

    Nowadays it is believed that a comprehensive approach towards one's health requires the development and subsequent mastering of health literacy. Although this term has no Polish equivalent, it applies to the ability of individuals to access, analyze and understand information necessary to make informed health decisions. In this publication it is suggested that 'biegłość zdrowotna' can be used as a corresponding Polish term. This publication is based on the review of the available literature (in Polish and in English) on health literacy. To illustrate the hypothetical level of health literacy among Polish employers and employees reports of the Chief Labour Inspectorate and individual items from the Second European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER-2) were used. The analysis proves that health literacy is a multidimensional concept which has been studied and investigated so far only in relation to chosen nosological units, but practically it does not appear in relation to occupational health. There are reasons to believe that in Poland the low level of health literacy among both employers and employees, lies at the forefront of a passive approach towards the safeguarding of workers health. The concept of health literacy needs further dissemination in Poland, whereas the main area of future research should be the design of the Polish tool for assessing health literacy. The national system of occupational health seems to offer a possible ground for implementing such a concept, especially bearing in mind that within the current system there are several entities and services, which have the legal mandate to undertake informative and advisory duties - exactly those, which help build and master health literacy skills. Med Pr 2016;67(5):681-689. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. The level of health education in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Chudek, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed factors influencing awareness of Poles concerning lifestyle factors that affect development of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A questionnaire survey covering awareness of lifestyle factors performed by general practitioners in 37,557 unselected patients. 96.1% of respondents believed that lifestyle has an impact on the occurrence of CVDs, especially: tobacco smoking (91.4%), excessive intake of fat (81.3%), alcohol (67.5%), salt (64.9%), and stress (64.9%). 79.0% respondents believed the smoking cessation, 77.5% weight loss and 66.8% healthy diet are most important to prevent diseases. Additionally, the belief in the need for an early weight reduction decreased with increasing BMI (82.9% with normal weight vs. 77.5% overweight and 70.4% obese). The most common source of health education was a physician (75.8%), the mass media, such as television and the press (62.0% and 64.8%, respectively), less often were educational materials (37.8%) and books (20.3 %), the Internet (3.8%) and radio (0.8%). Younger respondents presented a higher level of awareness about all analysed aspects of healthy lifestyle. The multiple regression analysis revealed that low education level and rural residence are the most important factors decreasing awareness of the lifestyle effect on health. 1. The level of knowledge about non-pharmacological methods of preventing lifestyle diseases in the Polish population is high except of the role of physical activity and daily vegetables consumption. This, however, has no impact on reducing the percentage of overweight and obese people and on increasing the tendency to pursue lifestyle changes. 2. Frustrating is the fact that more than one fifth of the study population is unaware that excessive weight reduction prevents development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the convince to early weight decreases with increasing BMI. 3. The highest level of the knowledge among younger subjects reflect

  13. Is hypochondriasis a significant problem among polish adolescents? An attempt of assessment of severe form of health anxiety in polish population

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    Janusz Kocjan

    2017-08-01

    [Conclusions] The study provides evidence about moderate intensification of health anxiety among polish adolescent. Health anxiety level was significantly higher among medical students versus non-medical students group.

  14. Forming a health culture of future teachers in Polish educational establishments

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    T.S. IERMAKOVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the experience of the structure and system of training of future teachers in Polish schools. Material: content analysis of domestic and foreign authors. Used data from the survey of students of Polish universities. Also were used survey results through polish service ANKIETKA. For comparison, a questionnaire survey 35 students of the Faculty of Physical Education (future teachers of physical training and 30 students - the future teachers of elementary school of Ukrainian university. Results: the study of Polish teachers consider health culture of a person as the ability to assess individual and community health needs using in everyday life hygiene and health regulations. There have been some differences among Ukrainian and Polish students in their health and health culture. Among the respondents, Polish students - the future teachers of physical culture, is dominated motives such as the improvement of the physical condition, strengthen self-esteem, as well as improved health. Polish students from other disciplines believe that the most important motive for the adoption of physical activity is a concern for the physical well-being and mental health. The majority of Ukrainian students (future teachers of physical culture believe an important part of building health culture of their direct participation in various sports clubs, as well as the ability to organize physical culture, sports and educational work with students outside the classroom. Ukrainian students (other specialty noted the need to improve health, enhance knowledge in specific subjects humanities and promoting healthy lifestyles. Conclusions: It is recommended to use the experience of preparing students of Polish schools in modern Ukrainian higher education.

  15. Requirements for laboratory animals in health programmes*

    OpenAIRE

    Held, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory animals are essential for the successful execution of many health programmes. A wide variety of animal models is used in the worldwide efforts to improve the control of various diseases, and in the basic research needed to improve health care. Biomedical programmes require specially-bred animals reared under controlled conditions, with close attention given to such factors as physical environment, nutrition, microbiological status, and genetic background. The need for a regular sup...

  16. ARUSHA SCHOOL DENTAL HEALTH PROGRAMME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS. 1. Pain due to ... increased intake of sweets and sweet snacks, ... to restrain production, import and marketing of modern sweets ... STRATEGY .... water we drink and bathe In. They are always ready to heip us or ...

  17. Health for all children: a programme for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliman, D A

    'The health of its children is the wealth of a nation.' For this reason a lot of time and energy is expended on preventive child health services, but with little evidence of effectiveness and great variation in programmes. Recently much has been done to rectify this. At the forefront of this work has been the multidisciplinary committee chaired by Professor Hall. Its third report, with its concentration on health promotion rather than 'defect detection', will form the basis for all future programmes.

  18. Prospects for the Use of Social Media Marketing Instruments in Health Promotion by Polish Marshal Offices

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    Magdalena Syrkiewicz-S´witała

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion.Methodology14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed.FindingsThe number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93% performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%. More than half of the surveyed offices (56% did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25% or YouTube (6%. Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting. Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns.ValueThe use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.

  19. Prospects for the Use of Social Media Marketing Instruments in Health Promotion by Polish Marshal Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrkiewicz-S Witała, Magdalena; Romaniuk, Piotr; Strzelecka, Agnieszka; Lar, Katarzyna; Holecki, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether the Polish Marshal Offices use instruments for social media marketing activities in the field of health promotion. 14 Polish Marshal Offices participated. The Computer-Assisted Web Interview and Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview were used along with a proprietary questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were employed. The number of people using the Internet and social media in Poland is steadily growing. The majority of the offices (93%) performed health promotion activities. The authorities collaborated with other units of local government and non-governmental organizations in these activities. According to respondents, the most convincing form of health promotion is direct communication (46%). More than half of the surveyed offices (56%) did not use portals or social networking sites in health campaigns. The rest of the offices indicated using Facebook (25%) or YouTube (6%). Half of them did not apply the tools of social media marketing. The other half was involved in discussions on health-related online forums (moderation or consulting). Relatively few offices use social media and social media marketing in health promotion campaigns. The use of social media by the Marshal Offices may result in a potential increase in effectiveness of the pro-health campaigns. It is recommended that Polish Marshal Offices recognize the potential benefits of social media marketing campaign instruments in the field of health promotion in order to reach out the digital recipients.

  20. Parent involvement when developing health education programmes

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    Holger Hassel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The problem of obesity in children and adults has been widely recognised and described in the literature [1]. There are several challenges leading to an augmentation of the problem. Firstly, the aetiology of overweight and obesity is not clear. Secondly, the long term effectiveness of prevention programmes is low. Only in some groups and for a short period of time an effect may be visible [2]. Thirdly, little is known about what children should learn when [3]. A proper concept of educating children in regard to healthy eating or physical activity does not exist. As far as we know an essential pre-requisite for health education programmes is that they are lifestyleoriented and easily transferable into daily family life [4]. For this, working together with the parents would be essential. The main goal of this article will be 1 to get a better understanding of what parents and nurses/ teachers want 2 to strengthen the point that this method is one way to involve the target groups and thus it is likely to increase the acceptance of health education programmes 3 to describe that focus group discussions are a useful tool to identify the opinions of the target group.

    Methods: In the frame of three projects, focus groups with nurses/ teachers and parents have been carried out.

    Results and Conclusions: Results from different focus group discussions with pedagogues and parents will be discussed and conclusions for health education programmes relevant to all key players involved will be identified.

  1. Individualization of forming health culture in schoolchildren of Polish schools

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    T.S. Yermakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to highlight the issues of gender education and individual characteristics of schoolchildren in the formation of their health culture due to school conditions. Material: content analysis of domestic and foreign authors. Results . Determined that the peculiarities of forming health culture of schoolchildren make for the specifics of school age (primary school age - 6/7 - 10/11 years; teen school age - 12/13 - 15/16 years. It is found that the level of formation of health culture in childhood will depend on the next person’s lifestyle, the level of his personal potential. Gender approach in pedagogy can overcome entrenched negative gender stereotypes, to develop a set of approaches aimed at helping children to easily go through the process of socialization and gender identity. Conclusions: information about formation schoolchildren health culture should be provided necessarily considering age and individual characteristics of schoolchildren, because otherwise it can be confusing for them and as a consequence is not only beneficial, but also harm.

  2. The School Health Programme : A Situational Revisit. | Akani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School Health Programme (SHP) refers to all the aspects of the total school programme which contribute to the understanding, maintenance and improvement of the health of the population, i.e. school children and staff. It consists of three main areas namely: school health services, school health instruction and healthful ...

  3. Peer Sexual Health Education: Interventions for Effective Programme Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…

  4. Education of children in Polish family in a context of forming health culture

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    T.S. IERMAKOVA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - analysis of the approaches of family education in a Polish family in the direction of forming a culture of children's health. Material: The analysis of the publications of post-communist countries and Poland scientists. Used the results of a questionnaire on health culture. Results: It was found that healthsaving aspect of family education in Polish family plays a significant role in forming health culture. Highlighted in national traditions of family upbringing of a healthy child. It is noted that social support, as a result of active participation in the religious life, helps to better cope with the challenges of everyday life, reduces anxiety and excessive sadness, increases the feeling of well-being. There is a possibility in the Ukrainian family and the school to ensure the spiritual education of children, the right of parents to ensure the education and upbringing of their children in conformity with their own philosophical convictions. Considered necessary to strengthen the role of the family and school education of students in the context of building a culture of health. The main factors of a healthy lifestyle today's young people are: quality of food, measures to prevent stress, problems of environmental protection, sports, leisure. Conclusions: It is recommended to involve parents in various activities of the societies and volunteers of various organizations. Considered necessary to strengthen the role of the family and school education of students in the context of building a culture of health.

  5. Polish physicians' cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry and its potential impact on public health.

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    Marta Makowska

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe how Polish physicians cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry and show how this relationship may pose a threat to public health.It considers the results of an online survey of 379 physicians. The survey was hosted by surveymonkey.com with links from a Polish physicians' website (Medycyna Praktyczna between 29 October 2013 and 31 December 2013. The sample was purposive, respondents having to be physicians working in Poland.The majority of respondents (96.8% said that they had talked with pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs in their practice, with 85% saying that they had had regular contact with them. Despite the existing legal ban in Poland, 35% of respondents admitted that they had usually met with PSRs in their office during working hours. As many as 81.8% of surveyed doctors said that they had taken part in an educational meeting organized by the pharmaceutical industry at least once during the 12 months preceding the study. A majority of the respondents (72.3% said they trusted the information provided by PSRs. Over one third of respondents (36.4% claimed that Polish doctors accepted gifts of a type that they should not accept according to Polish law.The study showed that Polish physicians cooperate in different ways with pharmaceutical companies and have frequent contact with them. This can influence their knowledge and doctors whose knowledge of drugs is based mainly on information from pharmaceutical industry materials may prescribe medicines in a biased way, possibly exposing their patients to sub-optimal treatments and burdening both their patients and the state budget with unnecessary costs. Lack of trust in doctors and pharmaceutical companies have other implications too: there may be a decline of faith in the efficacy of therapy and patients may be encouraged to engage in self-diagnosis and self-treatment. For these reasons it is necessary to increase transparency and strengthen the ethical

  6. Polish physicians' cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry and its potential impact on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to describe how Polish physicians cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry and show how this relationship may pose a threat to public health. It considers the results of an online survey of 379 physicians. The survey was hosted by surveymonkey.com with links from a Polish physicians' website (Medycyna Praktyczna) between 29 October 2013 and 31 December 2013. The sample was purposive, respondents having to be physicians working in Poland. The majority of respondents (96.8%) said that they had talked with pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) in their practice, with 85% saying that they had had regular contact with them. Despite the existing legal ban in Poland, 35% of respondents admitted that they had usually met with PSRs in their office during working hours. As many as 81.8% of surveyed doctors said that they had taken part in an educational meeting organized by the pharmaceutical industry at least once during the 12 months preceding the study. A majority of the respondents (72.3%) said they trusted the information provided by PSRs. Over one third of respondents (36.4%) claimed that Polish doctors accepted gifts of a type that they should not accept according to Polish law. The study showed that Polish physicians cooperate in different ways with pharmaceutical companies and have frequent contact with them. This can influence their knowledge and doctors whose knowledge of drugs is based mainly on information from pharmaceutical industry materials may prescribe medicines in a biased way, possibly exposing their patients to sub-optimal treatments and burdening both their patients and the state budget with unnecessary costs. Lack of trust in doctors and pharmaceutical companies have other implications too: there may be a decline of faith in the efficacy of therapy and patients may be encouraged to engage in self-diagnosis and self-treatment. For these reasons it is necessary to increase transparency and strengthen the ethical guidelines

  7. Polish physicians’ cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry and its potential impact on public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective This article aims to describe how Polish physicians cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry and show how this relationship may pose a threat to public health. Methods It considers the results of an online survey of 379 physicians. The survey was hosted by surveymonkey.com with links from a Polish physicians’ website (Medycyna Praktyczna) between 29 October 2013 and 31 December 2013. The sample was purposive, respondents having to be physicians working in Poland. Results The majority of respondents (96.8%) said that they had talked with pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) in their practice, with 85% saying that they had had regular contact with them. Despite the existing legal ban in Poland, 35% of respondents admitted that they had usually met with PSRs in their office during working hours. As many as 81.8% of surveyed doctors said that they had taken part in an educational meeting organized by the pharmaceutical industry at least once during the 12 months preceding the study. A majority of the respondents (72.3%) said they trusted the information provided by PSRs. Over one third of respondents (36.4%) claimed that Polish doctors accepted gifts of a type that they should not accept according to Polish law. Conclusions The study showed that Polish physicians cooperate in different ways with pharmaceutical companies and have frequent contact with them. This can influence their knowledge and doctors whose knowledge of drugs is based mainly on information from pharmaceutical industry materials may prescribe medicines in a biased way, possibly exposing their patients to sub-optimal treatments and burdening both their patients and the state budget with unnecessary costs. Lack of trust in doctors and pharmaceutical companies have other implications too: there may be a decline of faith in the efficacy of therapy and patients may be encouraged to engage in self-diagnosis and self-treatment. For these reasons it is necessary to increase transparency

  8. A Bourdieusian Analysis of the Participation of Polish Students in the Erasmus Programme: Cultural and Social Capital Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bótas, Paulo Charles Pimentel; Huisman, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the perceptions of ERASMUS agents' of Polish students' participation in the EP. We provide a Bourdieusian analyse of the cultural and social capital acquisition of students based on the qualitative data, collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Erasmus agents, of a European research project. We argue…

  9. Cultural events – does attendance improve health? Evidence from a Polish longitudinal study

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    Dorota Węziak-Białowolska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is strong advocacy for uptake of both the arts and creative activities as determinants of individual health conditions, studies evaluating causal influence of attendance at cultural events on population health using individual population data on health are scarce. If available, results are often only of an associative nature. In this light, this study investigated causative impact of attendance at cultural events on self-reported and physical health in the Polish population. Methods Four recent waves (2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015 of the biennial longitudinal Polish household panel study, Social Diagnosis, were analysed. The data, representative for the Polish population aged over 16, with respect to age, gender, classes of place of residence and NUTS 2 regions, were collected from self-report questionnaires. Causative influence of cultural attendance on population health was established using longitudinal population representative data. To account for unobserved heterogeneity of individuals and to mitigate issues caused by omitted variables, a panel data model with a fixed effects estimator was applied. The endogeneity problem (those who enjoy good health are more likely to participate in cultural activities more frequently was circumvented by application of instrumental variables. Results Results confirmed positive association between cultural attendance and self-reported health. However, in contrast to the often suggested positive causative relationship, such a link was not confirmed by the study. Additionally, no evidence was found to corroborate a positive impact from cultural attendance on physical health. Both findings were substantiated by augmentation in the longitudinal perspective and causal link. Conclusions We showed the relation between attendance at cultural events and self-reported health could only be confirmed as associational. Therefore, this study provided little justification to encourage use

  10. [Polish adaptation and validation of Health-Related Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiak, Krystyna A; Karzel, Katarzyna; Mathiak, Klaus; Ostaszewski, Paweł; Luba, Małgorzata; Wolańczyk, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent chronic disease in children, having a strong impact on a child's psychosocial functioning. Effective therapy must take into account the wide range of physical, psychological and social needs of patients. The importance of assessing patients' quality of life is becoming increasingly acknowledged. In addition to providing better health care, it may reveal how the disease and its psychosocial outcome interact. Quality of life in epilepsy can be assessed most reliably by disease-specific measures. Health-Related Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) is an English parental questionnaire for children aged between 4 and 18 years. It contains 87 questions that fall into five domains: physical function, emotional well-being, cognitive function, social function and behavioural function. The original scale has a well-grounded theoretical background and good psychometric properties. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of QOLCE and evaluate its psychometric properties. Parents of 87 patients suffering from epilepsy were recruited in neurological clinics in the Warsaw area. Reliability was very high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97). The construct validity was confirmed by the correlation between subscales of QOLCE and the Child Behaviour Checklist, as well as selected clinical measures of child's health (duration of disease: r=-0.22, p=0.02; duration of treatment: r=-0.20, p=0.04; number of hospitalizations: r=-0.24, p=0.02). All the psychometric properties were similar to those of the original scale. A Polish scale examining the quality of life was created that takes into account a wide range of psychosocial problems. We confirmed very high reliability and good validity, and thus we recommend the inventory for both research on and clinical diagnostics of Polish children with epilepsy.

  11. Operational Programme Health 2007-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-08-01

    The Operational Programme Health (OPH) is a programming document of the Slovak Republic (SR) for drawing assistance from funds of the European Union (EU) for the healthcare sector for the 2007 - 2013 period. It contains the strategy, aims and also defines years-long measures to attain them, which are to be carried out with the help of national funds and of the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). On the basis of Government Resolution of the SR No. 832/2006 of 8 October 2006, the Managing Authority for the OPH is the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic. The OPH has been elaborated on the basis of Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006 laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the European Social Fund (ESF) and the Cohesion Fund (CF) and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1260/1999, and of Regulation (EC) No 1080/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the ERDF and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1783/1999. Under the 'Convergence' objective, supported can be on the level NUTS II, i. e. their 2000 - 2002 gross domestic product (hereinafter referred to as 'GDP') per capita measured by purchasing power parity is less than 75% of the Community average. All regions of NUTS II of the Slovak Republic (Western, Central and Eastern Slovakia) except for the Bratislava region fulfil this condition. The West Slovak region consists of the following self-governing regions (NUTS III): Trnava region (TT), Trencin region (TN), Nitra region (NR); The Central Slovak Region consists of the following self-governing regions (NUTS III): Banska Bystrica region and Zilina region; The East Slovak Region consists of the following self-governing regions (NUTS III): Presov region and Kosice region. The OPH strategy creates conditions for the convergence of the SR towards the EU level in the area of healthcare. Concurrently, it helps considerably to keep the overall SR economy convergence to the EU-15 average in line with sustainable

  12. Radiation and nuclear safety included in the environmental health programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Finland is currently preparing a national environmental health programme, the objective of which is to chart the main environmental health problems in Finland, to identify means for securing a healthy environment, and to draw up a practical action programme for preventing and rectifying problems pertaining to environmental health. Radiation and nuclear safety form an essential part of preventive health care. The action programme is based on decisions and programmes approved at the WHO Conference on the Environment and Health, held in Helsinki in June 1994. In addition to the state of the Finnish environment and the health of the Finnish population, the programme addresses the relevant international issues, in particular in areas adjacent to Finland. The Committee on Environmental Health is expected to complete its work by the end of the year. A wide range of representatives from various branches of administration have contributed to the preparation of the programme. Besides physical, biological and chemical factors, the environmental factors affecting health also include the physical environment and the psychological, social and aesthetic features of the environment. Similarly, environmental factors that have an impact on the health of present or future generations, on the essential preconditions of life and on the quality of life are investigated. The serious risk to nature caused by human actions is also considered as a potential risk to human health. (orig.)

  13. The National Institute for Health Research Leadership Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Molly Morgan; Wamae, Watu; Fry, Caroline Viola; Kennie, Tom; Chataway, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract RAND Europe evaluated the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leadership Programme in an effort to help the English Department of Health consider the extent to which the programme has helped to foster NIHR's aims, extract lessons for the future, and develop plans for the next phase of the leadership programme. Successful delivery of high-quality health research requires not only an effective research base, but also a system of leadership supporting it. However, research leaders are not often given the opportunity, nor do they have the time, to attend formal leadership or management training programmes. This is unfortunate because research has shown that leadership training can have a hugely beneficial effect on an organisation. Therefore, the evaluation has a particular interest in understanding the role of the programme as a science policy intervention and will use its expertise in science policy analysis to consider this element alongside other, more traditional, measures of evaluation. PMID:28083231

  14. Effects of social intervention on detection and efficacy of treatment for arterial hypertension. Main results of the Polish Four Cities Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Głuszek, Jerzy; Posadzy-Małaczyńska, Anna; Drygas, Wojciech; Ornoch-Tabedzka, Małgorzata; Januszko, Wiktor; Tykarski, Andrzej; Dylewicz, Piotr; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Krupa-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Wyrzykowski, Bogdan

    2004-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in the adult Polish population. Beside lipid disorders and cigarette smoking, hypertension represents the most important risk factor leading to cardiovascular complications. Representative studies conducted in Poland in 1994-2002 showed that in 2002 the number of respondents in the survey who stated they knew their own blood pressure values dropped by 3.5 million, compared with 1994. This decrease was predominantly seen in small towns and in the countryside. Preventive programmes should therefore be addressed mainly to the most vulnerable communities. Modern methods of social marketing may play a substantial role in the creation of a healthy lifestyle. The aim of the Polish Four Cities Programme (PP4M), conducted in 2000-2001, was to develop the most effective methods of detection of and improvement in treatment for hypertension among the residents of small towns and rural areas. One of the programme tasks was to compare the effectiveness of a standard medical screening intervention with a similar approach combined with the use of social marketing methods.Methods. The programme was conducted by an interdisciplinary team in three small Polish towns -- Kartuzy, Oborniki Wlkp. and Braniewo, as well as in one of the districts of a large city Łódź -- Olechów. Medical intervention combined with social marketing (community intervention) took place in Oborniki Wlkp. whereas the residents of Kartuzy and Łódź were subjected only to the traditional medical intervention. Braniewo served as a control location -- neither medical nor community intervention was implemented. Community intervention with elements of social marketing consisted of a three-month, intensive education and information campaign, initiated four weeks prior to the start of medical intervention. Epidemiological situation was assessed in all the four cities before and after the completion of the preventive interventions (screening), using representative

  15. PORT (Programme of Recognition and Therapy): the first Polish recognition and treatment programme for patients with an at-risk mental state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Rabe-Jabłońska, Jolanta; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2015-08-01

    To present the activities of the first early intervention centre in Poland and the Programme of Recognition and Therapy (PORT) run by the centre. An overview of the admission process, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions offered to individuals with an at-risk mental state. The PORT programme, developed in 2010, included 81 individuals, aged 15-29 years so far. The diagnostic procedures consists of evaluation of symptoms with the use of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State (CAARMS), assessment of premorbid and current personality traits and the evaluation of cognitive functions. Therapeutic interventions include cognitive behavioural therapy, diet supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and pharmacological treatment. Overall rate of conversion into psychosis within the years 2010-2103 was 18.5%. The programme has also been a source of research in the field of early psychosis. The PORT programme enables young people with an ARMS an easy access to the specialized service offering treatment tailored to their specific needs. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Horizontal schools-based health programme in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, James; Eder, Ben; Magnus, Dan; Amonje, Onguko David; Gant, Martina

    2017-09-01

    Primary school children in low-income countries are at risk of many diseases and poor health affects attendance, cognition and ability to learn. Developing school health and nutrition strategies has been extensively highlighted as a global priority, with a particular focus on complex programme design. However, such programmes are relatively untested in low-income settings. We implemented a complex school health and nutrition programme in two schools in Western Kenya over 3 years. There were numerous elements covering health policy, skills-based health education, infrastructure and disease prevention. A local non-governmental organisation, with involvement from local government and the community, performed programme implementation. Height-for-age, weight-for-age,height-for-weight, anaemia prevalence, academic performance and school attendance were the primary outcome measures. The programme improved nutrition, academic performance and anaemia prevalence. The number of underweight children fell from 20% to 11% (OR 0.51 95% CI 0.39 to 0.68 p=effect on school attendance, the reasons for which are unclear. These results are encouraging and demonstrate that complex schools health programmes can lead to positive gains in health, nutrition and importantly academic performance. There is a need for further evaluation of comprehensive school health interventions in poor communities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  18. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  19. Diffusion of a quality improvement programme among allied health professionals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, E.M.; Dekker, J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diffusion of a quality improvement (QI) programme among allied health professions in The Netherlands. Design: Descriptive study, based on a questionnaire distributed to allied health professionals; response rate, 63%. Settings and participants: All subsectors in health care

  20. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

  1. Health-related quality of life and sense of coherence among Polish immigrants in Germany and indigenous Poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2015-06-01

    Immigrants are faced with several impediments in the host country that may affect their quality of life (QoL), but little is known about the impact of these stressors as well as about the protective role of sense of coherence (SoC) in the context of Polish immigration to Germany. Health Related QoL (Short Form Health Survey SF-36) and SoC (Sense of Coherence Scale SOC-29) were assessed in a total sample consisting of 511 participants aged between 18 and 84 years (260 Polish immigrants in Germany and 251 indigenous Poles). Polish immigrants reported a significantly lower mental and physical health-related QoL than the German norm population, but they were comparable to native Poles. This result remained the same when the model was adjusted for age but physical health status was better for immigrants compared with indigenous Poles. Both groups scored significantly lower for SoC than Germans, but did not differ from each other. The main differences concerning the examined variables were with respect to the German norm population and are putatively shaped by culture. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Applying the Ottawa Charter to inform health promotion programme design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Denise; Zask, Avigdor

    2017-10-01

    There is evidence of a correlation between adoption of the Ottawa Charter's framework of five action areas and health promotion programme effectiveness, but the Charter's framework has not been as fully implemented as hoped, nor is generally used by formal programme design models. In response, we aimed to translate the Charter's framework into a method to inform programme design. Our resulting design process uses detailed definitions of the Charter's action areas and evidence of predicted effectiveness to prompt greater consideration and use of the Charter's framework. We piloted the process by applying it to the design of four programmes of the Healthy Children's Initiative in New South Wales, Australia; refined the criteria via consensus; and made consensus decisions on the extent to which programme designs reflected the Charter's framework. The design process has broad potential applicability to health promotion programmes; facilitating greater use of the Ottawa Charter framework, which evidence indicates can increase programme effectiveness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Sexual Health Promotion Programme: Participants' Perspectives on Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Brian; Daly, Louise; Sharek, Danika; De Vries, Jan; McCann, Edward; Higgins, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate a Health Service Executive (HSE) Foundation Programme in Sexual Health Promotion (FPSHP) with a specific emphasis on capacity building. Design: A mixed-method design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect the data. Setting: The FPSHP was delivered to staff working in…

  4. tanzania danida dental health programme progress in prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gramme have been reactivated. Three of these projects deal with prevention only and more specifically with dental health education of the population. These projects are the. Tanzania School Health Programme, our work. 8 with the MCH system and, the continuing educa- tion of dental personnel to reorient them towards.

  5. Knowledge of School Health Programme among Public Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: School-age children, Effective implementation, Adequate knowledge, Positive health ... healthy habits of the future adult population of any nation2 ... understanding of skills that a person has acquired ..... 7. Ofovwe GE, Ofili AN. Knowledge, attitude and practice of school health programme among head teachers of.

  6. Financial aspects of veterinary herd health management programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifende, V.I.; Derks, M.; Hooijer, G.A.; Hogeveen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programmes are meant to support herd health and farmers’ income (Brand and Guard 1996). They were introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s (Sol and Renkema 1984) and at present many veterinarians provide them to farmers. VHHM comprises a basic structure of

  7. Financial aspects of veterinary herd health management programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifende, V I; Derks, M; Hooijer, G A; Hogeveen, H

    2014-09-06

    Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programmes have been shown to be economically effective in the past. However, no current information is available on costs and benefits of these programmes. This study compared economics and farm performance between participants and non-participants in VHHM programmes in 1013 dairy farms with over 40 cows. Milk Production Registration (MPR) data and a questionnaire concerning VHHM were used. Based on the level of participation in VHHM (as indicated in the questionnaire), costs of the programmes were calculated using a normative model. The economic value of the production effects was similarly calculated using normative modelling based on MPR data. Participants in VHHM had a better performance with regard to production, but not with regard to reproduction. Over 90 per cent of the VHHM participants were visited at least once every six weeks and most participants discussed at least three topics. In most farms, the veterinarian did the pregnancy checks as part of the VHHM programmes. There was a benefit to cost ratio of about five per cow per year for VHHM participants, and a mean difference in net returns of €30 per cow per year after adjusting for the cost of the programme. This portrays that participation in a VHHM programme is cost-efficient. There is, however, much unexplained variation in the net returns, possibly due to diverse approaches by veterinarians towards VHHM or by other factors not included in this analysis, like nutritional quality or management abilities of the farmer. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Mentoring health researchers globally: Diverse experiences, programmes, challenges and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Johnson, Nancy; Mejia, Raul; McCullough, Hazel; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Falabella Luco, María Soledad

    2016-10-01

    Mentoring experiences and programmes are becoming increasingly recognised as important by those engaged in capacity strengthening in global health research. Using a primarily qualitative study design, we studied three experiences of mentorship and eight mentorship programmes for early career global health researchers based in high-income and low- and middle-income countries. For the latter, we drew upon programme materials, existing unpublished data and more formal mixed-method evaluations, supplemented by individual email questionnaire responses. Research team members wrote stories, and the team assembled and analysed them for key themes. Across the diverse experiences and programmes, key emergent themes included: great mentors inspire others in an inter-generational cascade, mentorship is transformative in personal and professional development and involves reciprocity, and finding the right balance in mentoring relationships and programmes includes responding creatively to failure. Among the challenges encountered were: struggling for more level playing fields for new health researchers globally, changing mindsets in institutions that do not have a culture of mentorship and building collaboration not competition. Mentoring networks spanning institutions and countries using multiple virtual and face-to-face methods are a potential avenue for fostering organisational cultures supporting quality mentorship in global health research.

  9. A European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngve, A; Warm, D; Landman, J; Sjöström, M

    2001-12-01

    Effective population-based strategies require people trained and competent in the discipline of Public Health Nutrition. Since 1997, a European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition has been undergoing planning and implementation, by establishing initial quality assurance systems with the aid of funding from the European Commission (DG SANCO/F3). Partners from 17 European countries have been involved in the process. A European Network of Public Health Nutrition has been developed and accredited by the European Commission.

  10. Cancer prevention awareness among young adult Polish females on the basis of the assessment of knowledge and health behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna R. Wiraszka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The accelerating rate of incidence of malignant cancers in Polish women as compared to men and the higher mortality due to these diseases as compared to other regions in Europe is an important medical and social problem. Aim of the research : To attempt an assessment of cancer prevention awareness among young adult Polish females on the basis of the analysis of their knowledge as well as of the prevalence of negative health behaviours. Material and methods : The study was conducted in 270 young Polish females: students of nursing and pedagogy. The study was conducted using a proprietary questionnaire, the Inventory of Health Behaviour, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and Nina Schenider’s Motivation for Quitting Smoking Test. Results : The highest percentages of negative behaviours included low intake of fruit and vegetables (76.3%, whole-grain products (78.9%, and fish (93.3%, as well as tanning (56.7% and smoking (37% and health check behaviours (breast self-exams 60.7%, cervical cytological screening 36%. Conclusions: Despite the relatively high level of knowledge, cancer risk-related lifestyles and behaviours unfavourable for the possibility of early diagnosis were observed among the subjects. The less favourable model of cognitive and behavioural competence in health and cancer prevention was observed at bachelor-level students of pedagogy at the ages below 24 years. Development of skills and motivation for pro-health behaviours and the awareness of behaviour models presented by educators are, along with appropriate knowledge, the most desirable strategies for the success of health education in the area of cancer prevention.

  11. [The issue of harm reduction in Polish legislation concerning drug addiction. A comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeyko, Justyna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of work is the assessment of legal permissibility for health and social harm reduction programmes resulting from drug use in the context of the polish legislation on narcotic drug use and drug addiction. The thesis outlines harm reduction programmes implemented worldwide, role of penal code in counteracting both narcotic drug supply and demand, attitude of United Nations and European Union to the drug problem including harm reduction programmes, solutions adopted in the selected European Union member states. The main part of the thesis presents the evolution of polish legislation regarding drug use and analysis of legal permissibility for harm reduction programmes in this context. The conclusion inferred is the statement that implementation of the harm reduction programmes requires a certain minimal depenalisation of the drug use by a legislator and the fact that restrictive legal system impedes programme realization. Thus the thesis postulates depenalisation of small drug quantities for personal use.

  12. Wellness programme and health policy development at a large faith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study's primary recommendations include: taking its employees' cultural and social norms into consideration; addressing issues related to capacity and ... list of recommendations for other resource-constrained NGOs that also wish to develop and implement wellness programmes and health policies in their workplace.

  13. Health-related doctoral distance education programmes: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health-related doctoral distance education programmes: A review of ethical scholarship considerations. ... Universities should encourage and support supervisors and students to publish research findings in academic journals and to present these at conferences. However, communities that participated in a research project ...

  14. Evaluation of a Health Education Programme about Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jane Mertz; Sellers, Debra M.; Hilgendorf, Amy E.; Burnett, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to evaluate a health education programme (TBIoptions: Promoting Knowledge) designed to increase public awareness and understanding about traumatic brain injury (TBI) through in-person (classroom) and computer-based (electronic) learning environments. Design: We used a pre-post survey design with randomization of participants…

  15. Exploring the relationship of emotional intelligence with mental health status in polish unemployed persons – differences between men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knopp Katarzyna A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between EI and the state of mental health of unemployed persons. Gender differences were also identified in terms of mental health and its correlation with EI. A sample of 160 Polish unemployed persons aged 35 to 45 years filled in self-descriptive measures of EI and mental health. Significant gender differences were found - unemployed women were characterised by a greater intensity of mental health disorders than unemployed men. EI was negatively correlated with mental health disorders, but the correlations were few and weaker than expected. However, when unemployed persons with a low, average and high EI were compared, it turned out that participants with a low EI were characterised by a significantly worse condition of mental health than participants with a average or high EI.

  16. Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hobday, E, fl. 1905, artist

    2003-01-01

    A photograph of an illustrated programme listing dances. The illustration shows a snake charmer playing to a snake while another man watches. Buildings and trees can be seen behind a wall in the distance. In the lower right-hand corner of the programme is the signature 'E. Hobday'. The programme is almost certainly related to the Punjab Ball, Lahore. It is placed next to the Punjab Ball Menu in the album and the Menu is also illustrated by 'E. Hobday'.

  17. An international partnership interdisciplinary training programme on public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrioti, Despena; Charalambous, George; Skitsou, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Targeted training programmes are more efficient towards skills development. Literature on assessing training needs in order to formulate programmes through international partnerships is very limited. This study intended to identify perceived training needs in public health with an aim...... at providing the respective training in cooperation with the World Health Organization, European Office. Method and Material: We distributed a questionnaire to Greek professionals such as doctors, nurses, administrative personnel and social scientists, employed in the public sector all over the country. We...... analysed 197 structured self-administered questionnaires using one way ANOVA to identify associations between individual characteristics of health professionals and perceived training needs. Results: The majority of participants were women (n=143, 73%) and men (n=53, 27%). In terms of motivation...

  18. Health programmes for school employees: improving quality of life, health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Lloyd J; Tirozzi, Gerald N; Marx, Eva; Bobbitt-Cooke, Mary; Riedel, Sara; Jones, Jack; Schmoyer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    School health programmes in the 21st century could include eight components: 1) health services; 2) health education; 3) healthy physical and psychosocial environments; 4) psychological, counselling, and social services; 5) physical education and other physical activities; 6) healthy food services; and 7) integrated efforts of schools, families, and communities to improve the health of school students and employees. The eighth component of modern school health programmes, health programmes for school employees, is the focus of this article. Health programmes for school employees could be designed to increase the recruitment, retention, and productivity of school employees by partially focusing each of the preceding seven components of the school health programme on improving the health and quality of life of school employees as well as students. Thus, efforts to improve the quality of life, health, and productivity of school employees may be distinct from, but integrated with, efforts to improve the quality of life, health, and education of students. School employee health programmes can improve employee: 1) recruitment; 2) morale; 3) retention; and 4) productivity. They can reduce employee: 5) risk behaviours (e.g., physical inactivity); 6) risk factors (e.g., stress, obesity, high blood pressure); (7) illnesses; 8) work-related injuries; 9) absentee days; 10) worker compensation and disability claims; and 11) health care and health insurance costs. Further, if we hope to improve our schools' performance and raise student achievement levels, developing effective school employee health programmes can increase the likelihood that employees will: 12) serve as healthy role models for students; 13) implement effective school health programmes for students; and 14) present a positive image of the school to the community. If we are to improve the quality of life, health, and productivity of school employees in the 21st century: school administrators, employees, and

  19. Psychological Predictors of Seeking Help from Mental Health Practitioners among a Large Sample of Polish Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Perenc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the corresponding literature contains a substantial number of studies on the relationship between psychological factors and attitude towards seeking professional psychological help, the role of some determinants remains unexplored, especially among Polish young adults. The present study investigated diversity among a large cohort of Polish university students related to attitudes towards help-seeking and the regulative roles of gender, level of university education, health locus of control and sense of coherence. The total sample comprised 1706 participants who completed the following measures: Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-SF, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and Orientation to Life Questionnaire (SOC-29. They were recruited from various university faculties and courses by means of random selection. The findings revealed that, among socio-demographic variables, female gender moderately and graduate of university study strongly predict attitude towards seeking help. Internal locus of control and all domains of sense of coherence are significantly correlated with the scores related to the help-seeking attitude. Attitudes toward psychological help-seeking are significantly related to female gender, graduate university education, internal health locus of control and sense of coherence. Further research must be performed in Poland in order to validate these results in different age and social groups.

  20. Specialist English as a foreign language for European public health: evaluation of competencies and needs among Polish and Lithuanian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Bruneviciūte, Raimonda; Kregzdyte, Rima; Krikstaponyte, Zita; Ziomkiewicz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Foreign languages are becoming an essential prerequisite for a successful carrier among all professions including public health professionals in many countries. The expanding role of English as a mode of communication allows for university graduates to project and to seek their career in English-speaking countries. The present study was carried out in the framework of EU Leonardo da Vinci project "Specialist English as a foreign language for European public health." The study aimed to get a deeper insight how the English language is perceived as a foreign language, by Polish and Lithuanian public health students, what is level of their language competence, which level of English proficiency they expect to use in future. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 246 respondents completed the special questionnaires in autumn semester in 2005. A questionnaire form was developed by the international project team. For evaluation of English competences, the Language Passport (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages of Council of Europe) was applied. RESULTS. Current self-rated proficiency of the English language was at the same level for Lithuanian (3.47+/-1.14) and Polish (3.31+/-0.83) respondents (P>0.05). Majority of respondents (88.6% of Lithuanian and 87.8% of Polish) reported using the English language for their current studies. Respondents reported a significant increase in necessity for higher level of English proficiency in future: mean scores provided by respondents changed from B1 level to B2 level. Respondents gave priority to less formal and practice-based interactive English teaching methods (going abroad, contacts with native speakers) in comparison with theory-oriented methods of learning (self-studying, Internet courses). CONCLUSIONS. Similar levels of English language in all five areas of language skills were established in Polish and Lithuanian university students. Respondents gave more priorities to less formal and practice-based interactive

  1. Active ingredients in anti-stigma programmes in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfold, Vanessa; Thornicroft, Graham; Huxley, Peter; Farmer, Paul

    2005-04-01

    This paper draws upon a review of the relevant literature and the results of the recent Mental Health Awareness in Action (MHAA) programme in England to discuss the current evidence base on the active ingredients in effective anti-stigma interventions in mental health. The MHAA Programme delivered educational interventions to 109 police officers, 78 adults from different community groups whose working lives involved supporting people with mental health problems but who had received no mental health training and 472 schools students aged 14-15. Each adult target group received two intervention sessions lasting two hours. The two school lessons were 50 minutes each. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intent were assessed at baseline and follow-up. In addition focus groups were held with mental health service users to explore the impact of stigma on their lives and facilitators of educational workshops were interviewed to provide expert opinion on 'what works' to reduce psychiatric stigma. Personal contact was predictive of positive changes in knowledge and attitudes for the school students but not the police officers or community adult group. The key active ingredient identified by all intervention groups and workshop facilitators were the testimonies of service users. The statements of service users (consumers) about their experience of mental health problems and of their contact with a range of services had the greatest and most lasting impact on the target audiences in terms of reducing mental health stigma.

  2. Global health training in US obstetrics and gynaecology residency programmes: perspectives of students, residents and programme directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Lisa M; Banks, Erika H; Conroy, Erin M; McGinn, Aileen P; Ghartey, Jeny P; Wagner, Sarah A; Merkatz, Irwin R

    2015-12-01

    Benefits of exposure to global health training during medical education are well documented and residents' demand for this training is increasing. Despite this, it is offered by few US obstetrics and gynaecology (OBGYN) residency training programmes. To evaluate interest, perceived importance, predictors of global health interest and barriers to offering global health training among prospective OBGYN residents, current OBGYN residents and US OGBYN residency directors. We designed two questionnaires using Likert scale questions to assess perceived importance of global health training. The first was distributed to current and prospective OBGYN residents interviewing at a US residency programme during 2012-2013. The second questionnaire distributed to US OBGYN programme directors assessed for existing global health programmes and global health training barriers. A composite Global Health Interest/Importance score was tabulated from the Likert scores. Multivariable linear regression was performed to assess for predictors of Global Health Interest/Importance. A total of 159 trainees (77%; 129 prospective OBGYN residents and 30 residents) and 69 (28%) programme directors completed the questionnaires. Median Global Health Interest/Importance score was 7 (IQR 4-9). Prior volunteer experience was predictive of a 5-point increase in Global Health Interest/Importance score (95% CI -0.19 to 9.85; p=0.02). The most commonly cited barriers were cost and time. Interest and perceived importance of global health training in US OBGYN residency programmes is evident among trainees and programme directors; however, significant financial and time barriers prevent many programmes from offering opportunities to their trainees. Prior volunteer experience predicts global health interest. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Polish visit

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 6 October, Professor Michal Kleiber, Polish Minister of Science and Chairman of the State Committee for Scientific Research, visited CERN and met both the current and designated Director General, Luciano Maiani and Robert Aymar. Professor Kleiber visited the CMS and ATLAS detector assembly halls, the underground cavern for ATLAS, and the LHC superconducting magnet string test hall. Michal Kleiber (left), Polish minister of science and Jan Krolikowski, scientist at Warsaw University and working for CMS, who shows the prototypes of the Muon Trigger board of CMS.

  4. Radiological safety programme for the health departments in Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly, J.G. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of Brazil's centralized administration in the past, various parts of the public service were somewhat inefficient. Another reason was the size of the country. To improve the situation in the health sector, it was decided to transfer administrative responsibility to the municipal authorities. Accordingly, the public health system is now defined under the appropriate legislation as the 'Unified Health System' (SUS), comprising federal, state and municipal levels. This system promotes decentralization of therapeutic or preventive services (including the Radiation Facility Health Inspectorate) and proposes any additional legislation required. In Parana the Radiation Facility Health Inspectorate has 3600 organizations listed, employing ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research, which need to be regularly inspected for licensing and control. In 1994, 50% of the annual inspection target in the state was attained. The Radiation Safety Programme for the Health Departments in Parana directs these activities in this State. Its strategies are: (1) to establish implementation phases for activities planned for each area; (2) to take advantage of the SUS structure to introduce or expand operational services at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels with appropriate equipment. The tertiary level involves co-ordination of the Programme and complementary executive functions, as well as maintaining an information system with other related organizations. The other levels include licensing, control and emergency response. As the Programme develops, indicators will be established to help identify progress achieved and correct operating strategy where necessary. Thus, the services provided to the public will be enhanced in quality and the radiation doses reduced. In addition, in emergency situations, the time elapsing between the event and its notification to the authorities will be reduced, minimizing the consequences of any accidents. (author)

  5. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  6. Economic evaluation of occupational health and safety programmes in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, J; Tompa, E; Koehoorn, M; de Boer, H; Macdonald, S; Alamgir, H

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based resource allocation in the public health care sector requires reliable economic evaluations that are different from those needed in the commercial sector. To describe a framework for conducting economic evaluations of occupational health and safety (OHS) programmes in health care developed with sector stakeholders. To define key resources and outcomes to be considered in economic evaluations of OHS programmes and to integrate these into a comprehensive framework. Participatory action research supported by mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, including a multi-stakeholder working group, 25 key informant interviews, a 41-member Delphi panel and structured nominal group discussions. We found three resources had top priority: OHS staff time, training the workers and programme planning, promotion and evaluation. Similarly, five outcomes had top priority: number of injuries, safety climate, job satisfaction, quality of care and work days lost. The resulting framework was built around seven principles of good practice that stakeholders can use to assist them in conducting economic evaluations of OHS programmes. Use of a framework resulting from this participatory action research approach may increase the quality of economic evaluations of OHS programmes and facilitate programme comparisons for evidence-based resource allocation decisions. The principles may be applicable to other service sectors funded from general taxes and more broadly to economic evaluations of OHS programmes in general. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effects of an employee exercise programme on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, N D; Merrill, D A; Shedd, K; Bilder, R M; Siddarth, P

    2017-03-01

    Prior research indicates that workplace wellness programmes (WWPs) are generally associated with lowered healthcare costs and improved employee health. Despite the importance of mental well-being in workplace productivity and attendance, few WWP studies have focused on improvements in psychological well-being. To examine the effects of the Bruin Health Improvement Program (BHIP), a 3-month exercise and nutrition WWP, on seven domains of health: physical and mental health, stress, energy level, social satisfaction, self-efficacy and quality of life. Using data from BHIP completers, we conducted multiple one-way multivariate analyses of variance and follow-up univariate t-tests to examine changes in physical and mental health, stress, energy level, social satisfaction, self-efficacy and quality of life. Effect sizes were also calculated post hoc to determine the magnitude of each effect. Results for the 281 participants reveal significant improvements across all seven domains (P < 0.001). Effect sizes ranged from 0.19 to 0.67. This study is unique in revealing the effects of a WWP on multiple domains of psychological well-being. Given rising healthcare costs associated with mental health, targeting mental health through WWP may be an effective strategy for reducing indirect healthcare costs associated with absenteeism and presenteeism. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Occupational health programme for lead workers in battery plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Kook

    The realization of problems resulting from the exposure to undue high lead levels of workers in lead-using industries, particularly in storage battery plants, has given rise to a new occupational health service, the so-called type specific (harmful agent specific) group occupational health. In 1988, the Korean Ministry of Labor designated the Institute of Industrial Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, as an authorized organization to take care of lead workers in lead industries. The following occupational health services are provided by the Institute: (i) physical health examination; (ii) biological monitoring with zinc protoporphyrin, urine δ-aminolevulinic acid and blood lead; (iii) respiratory protection with maintenance-free respirators; (iv) measurement of the environmental condition of workplaces; (v) health education. A three-year occupational health programme for lead workers has contributed to improvements in the working conditions of lead industries, particularly in large-scale battery plants, and has decreased the unnecessary high lead burden of workers through on-going medical surveillance with biological monitoring and health education schemes. The strong commitment of both employers and the government to improve the working conditions of lead industries, together with the full cooperation of lead workers, has served to reduce the high lead burdens of lead workers. This decreases the number of lead-poisoning cases and provides more comfortable workplaces, particularly in battery plants.

  9. Impact of a mental health teaching programme on adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Paul B; Cowie, Helen A; Walters, Stephen J; Talamelli, Lorenzo; Dawkins, Judith

    2009-04-01

    Child and adolescent mental health disorders are present in around 10% of the population. Research indicates that many young people possess negative attitudes towards mental health difficulties among peers. To assess the impact of a mental health teaching programme on adolescent pupils' understanding. Two-group pre-test-post-test control group study in two English secondary schools. Experimental classes (School E) received a six-lesson teaching intervention on mental health; control classes (School C) did not. Participants were 14- and 15-year-old pupils. The intervention consisted of six lessons on mental health issues common to young people: stress; depression; suicide/self-harm; eating disorders; being bullied; and intellectual disability. School C was given access to these lesson plans and materials on completion of the study. Understanding was measured at two time points, Time 1 (T(1)) and Time 2 (T(2)), 8 months apart, by a Mental Health Questionnaire. Behavioural, emotional and relationship strengths and difficulties were measured by the self-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) with five subscales: hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems and prosocial behaviour. At T(2), pupils in School E compared with those in School C showed significantly more sensitivity and empathy towards people with mental health difficulties. They also used significantly fewer pejorative expressions to describe mental health difficulties. There was a significant reduction in SDQ scores on conduct problems and a significant increase on prosocial behaviour among School E pupils compared with controls. Pupils valued the intervention highly, in particular the lessons on suicide/self-harm. Teaching 14- and 15-year-olds about mental health difficulties helps to reduce stigma by increasing knowledge and promoting positive attitudes. The intervention also reduced self-reported conduct problems and increased prosocial behaviour. Generally

  10. The effects of preventive mental health programmes in secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Bror Just

    2013-01-01

    The author wanted to test the effects of preventive mental health programmes in schools and established a longitudinal study with a test group and a control group, using Solomon's method. Data was collected through questionnaires prior to intervention and at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months after the intervention. The size of the effect on the various indices were estimated in terms of (a) differences in improvement of total percentage scores and (b) Cohen's d. From to to t1, t2 and t3 the intervention group showed significantly greater progress in six out of seven knowledge indexes, and 12 months later we found significant effects on the level of mental health problems.

  11. Health literacy among Danish university students enrolled in health-related study programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsborg, Lea; Krossdal, Fie; Kayser, Lars

    2017-12-01

    It is important to address people's health literacy when providing health care. Health professionals should be aware of, and have insight into, people's health literacy when they provide health services. Health professionals need to be health literate themselves. We examined the level of health literacy in students in Denmark attending one of four full university programmes related to health and investigated how their health literacy was associated with their sociodemographic background. The health literacy level of the students was measured using the multi-dimensional Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) supplemented with sociodemographic questions. The questionnaire was administrated through the students' Facebook groups. The students were enrolled in courses on health informatics, medicine, molecular biomedicine or public health. Out of a total of 7663 students, 630 responded to the questionnaire. No sex difference was found although female students scored higher than male students in domain 4 (social support for health). Students attending the public health programme tended to score higher and those attending molecular biomedicine tended to score lower in the HLQ. There was a positive correlation between HLQ scores and the educational level of the students' parents. If one of their parents was employed in the health care sector, the HLQ score tended to be higher in domains 1 and 4. Students who had been hospitalized also tended to score higher in domains 1, 5 and 6. Students' health literacy relates to their personal background and educational path. This may be of importance when planning curricula and educational activities, including cross-disciplinary courses.

  12. Developing mental health services in Nigeria : the impact of a community-based mental health awareness programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Julian; Agomoh, Ahamefula O

    2008-07-01

    This grass-roots level mental health awareness programme considerably increased use of community-based mental health services in a part of Nigeria where knowledge about treatability of mental illness was limited. The benefits of the programme were sustained for a significant period after the initial awareness programme. In order for attitude changes to be reinforced, similar awareness programmes must be repeated at regular intervals.

  13. The social nature of health and illness--evolution of research approaches in Polish classical medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowski, Włodzimierz; Skrzypek, Michał

    2012-01-01

    The cognitive identity of medical sociology has developed in a historical perspective in the context of a specific double frame of reference comprising medicine and general sociology. The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the process of the development of the subdiscipline's research specificity in Poland, drawing attention to the general-sociological context of the conceptualization of basic interpretive and analytical sociomedical categories. In this aspect, the presented study is based on the analysis of Polish sociomedical and general-sociological research published from the early 1960s until 1989. The purpose of the study is also to describe in this perspective the structure of the research field of contemporary Western medical sociology, which was a major point of reference in this process. A look at the chronology of how the scientific identity of medical sociology developed in Poland from a historical perspective shows the gradual balancing-out of the subdiscipline's medical references, typical of the early stage of its development, and manifested in the implementation of research projects for the requirements of doctors, through consistently developed and cultivated connections with general sociology manifested in complementing the knowledge of society with aspects related to health and illness. A sine qua non condition for undertaking this scope of research was to work out strictly sociological formulations of these concepts, which was accomplished as a result of the successful reception of general sociology by the subdiscipline in question. The contemporary understanding of the research field of Polish medical sociology defined by Magdalena Sokołowska and developed as part of the 'school of medical sociology', which she initiated, is characterized by the maintenance of close relations with general sociology (affiliations of sociomedical departments in academic sociological institutions, etc.), and at the same time, by partnership cooperation with

  14. Parent-training programmes for improving maternal psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J; Coren, E

    2004-01-01

    Mental health problems are common and there is evidence to suggest that the origins of such problems lie in infancy and childhood. In particular, there is evidence from a range of studies to suggest that maternal psychosocial health can have a significant effect on the mother-infant relationship, and that this in turn can have consequences for both the short and long-term psychological health of the child. The use of parenting programmes is increasing in the UK and elsewhere and evidence of their effectiveness in improving outcomes for children has been provided. Evidence is now required of their effectiveness in improving outcomes for mothers. The objective of this review is to address whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving maternal psychosocial health including anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. A range of biomedical, social science, educational and general reference electronic databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE CINAHL, PsychLIT, ERIC, ASSIA, Sociofile and the Social Science Citation Index. Other sources of information included the Cochrane Library (SPECTR, CENTRAL), and the National Research Register (NRR). Only randomised controlled trials were included in which participants had been randomly allocated to an experimental and a control group, the latter being a waiting-list, no-treatment or a placebo control group. Studies had to include at least one group-based parenting programme, and one standardised instrument measuring maternal psychosocial health. A systematic critical appraisal of all included studies was undertaken using a modified version of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published criteria. The treatment effect for each outcome in each study was standardised by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores for the intervention and treatment group, by the pooled standard deviation, to produce an effect size. Where appropriate the results were then combined in a meta

  15. International institutions, global health initiatives and the challenge of sustainability: lessons from the Brazilian AIDS programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loup, G; Fleury, S; Camargo, K; Larouzé, B

    2010-01-01

    The sustainability of successful public health programmes remains a challenge in low and middle income settings. These programmes are often subjected to mobilization-demobilization cycle. Indeed, political and organizational factors are of major importance to ensure this sustainability. The cooperation between the World Bank and the Brazilian AIDS programme highlights the role of international institutions and global health initiatives (GHI), not only to scale up programmes but also to guarantee their stability and sustainability, at a time when advocacy is diminishing and vertical programmes are integrated within health systems. This role is critical at the local level, particularly when economic crisis may hamper the future of public health programmes. Political and organizational evolution should be monitored and warnings should trigger interventions of GHI before the decline of these programmes.

  16. Transparency in practice: Evidence from 'verification analyses' issued by the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment in 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozierański, Piotr; Löblová, Olga; Nicholls, Natalia; Csanádi, Marcell; Kaló, Zoltán; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence

    2018-01-08

    Transparency is recognised to be a key underpinning of the work of health technology assessment (HTA) agencies, yet it has only recently become a subject of systematic inquiry. We contribute to this research field by considering the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment (AHTAPol). We situate the AHTAPol in a broader context by comparing it with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in England. To this end, we analyse all 332 assessment reports, called verification analyses, that the AHTAPol issued from 2012 to 2015, and a stratified sample of 22 Evidence Review Group reports published by NICE in the same period. Overall, by increasingly presenting its key conclusions in assessment reports, the AHTAPol has reached the transparency standards set out by NICE in transparency of HTA outputs. The AHTAPol is more transparent than NICE in certain aspects of the HTA process, such as providing rationales for redacting assessment reports and providing summaries of expert opinions. Nevertheless, it is less transparent in other areas of the HTA process, such as including information on expert conflicts of interest. Our findings have important implications for understanding HTA in Poland and more broadly. We use them to formulate recommendations for policymakers.

  17. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Galinski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls’ Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA, based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%, high-fat foods (22.4%, and fats (21.3%. Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the “fruit and vegetables” (considered pro-healthy dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17–2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04–2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38–2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97–5.37, respectively, and less likely to adhere to the “fast foods and sweets” (unhealthy and “traditional Polish” (rather unhealthy patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the “fruit and

  18. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: The South African river health programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hill, Liesl

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available the design of the River Health Programme (RHP) to monitor the health of rivers in South Africa. The RHP forms part of a bigger initiative, the National Aquatic Ecosystem Health Monitoring Programme which will eventually cover all surface water resources...

  19. Enhancing health care non-technical skills: the TINSELS programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris; Box, Helen; Halliwell, Jo-Anne; Farrell, Michael; Parker, Linda; Stewart, Alison

    2015-12-01

    Training in 'non-technical skills', i.e. social (communication and teamwork) and cognitive (analytical and personal behaviour) skills, in health care have been of great interest over the last decade. Whereas the majority of publications focus on 'whether' such education can be successful, they overlook 'how' they enhance skills. We designed and piloted a theoretically robust teaching package that addresses non-technical skills in the context of medicine safety through simulation-based interprofessional learning: the Training In Non-technical Skills to Enhance Levels of Medicines Safety (TINSELS) programme. A modified Delphi process was completed to identify learning outcomes, and multi-professional teams were recruited through local publicity. The faculty staff developed a three-session simulation-based intervention: firstly, a simulated ward encounter with multiple medicine-related activities; secondly, an extended debriefing and facilitated discussion; and finally, a 'chamber of horrors', where interprofessional teams identified potential sources of error. Each session was completed in the simulation suite with between six and nine participants, lasted approximately 90 minutes and took place over 2 weeks. Full details of the course will be presented to facilitate dissemination. Training in 'non-technical skills' in health care have been of great interest over the last decade Feedback was collected on a Likert scale after the course (1, strongly disagree; 5, strongly agree). Mean scores were all greater than 4, with qualitative feedback noting the fidelity of the authentic interprofessional groups. A previously validated safety attitudes questionnaire found changes in attitudes towards handover of care and perceptions of safety in the workplace. An original, simulation-based, multi-professional training programme has been developed with learning and assessment materials available for widespread replication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Screening for major cardiovascular risk factors among Members of Polish Parliament as a continuation of health marketing for effective cardiovascular prevention in Poland. Warsaw, May 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Bandosz, Piotr; Wierucki, Lukasz; Piwoński, Jerzy; Piwońska, Aleksandra; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Opolski, Grzegorz; Drygas, Wojciech; Korewicki, Jerzy; Wyrzykowski, Bogdan

    2007-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of mortality in Poland. To improve the situation in this area, a national cardiovascular preventive project is necessary, and it can be done by close cooperation between medical and political agencies. To present the current epidemiological situation in Poland to political and key opinion leaders and also to assess individual cardiovascular risk among Members of Polish Parliament. The Project was carried out on 23-24 May 2006 in the residence of the Polish Parliament. Anthropometric, blood pressure and cholesterol measurements and a short questionnaire were performed. Survey and educational programme were carried out on 310 out of 460 Members of the Polish Parliament (females 59, males 251). Awareness of one's own blood pressure was declared by 70% of subjects, 39% declared earlier detected arterial hypertension, 21% had new detected elevated blood pressure, 31% declared earlier detected elevated cholesterol level and 32% had new detected elevated cholesterol level. Obesity was found in 40%, smoking was declared by 16.5%. The results were compared with those obtained in corresponding age-groups in the general population. 1. The results of screening survey in the Polish Parliament in 2006 indicate that, in comparison with nationwide adult population and Parliament Members examined in the year of 2000, present Parliament Members are more often diagnosed with obesity. However, they present with a better awareness of their own blood pressure and better control of arterial hypertension, as well as much lower percentage of those who admit smoking cigarettes. 2. Drawing Parliament Members attention to the problem of high prevalence and insufficient control of cardiovascular risk factors should result in positive outcome of future legislation process and make the battle with the epidemic of heart attacks and strokes in Poland more successful.

  2. Re-Imagining School Health in Education and Health Programmes: A Study across Selected Municipal Schools in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Mita; Baru, Rama V.; Nundy, Madhurima

    2014-01-01

    The idea of school health is re-imagined with an emphasis on the need for children's health programmes to be rooted in an understanding of the social context. Such programmes must address health, nutrition and education in a comprehensive manner. The article details findings and insights emerging from a qualitative study conducted in municipal…

  3. [The fate of Polish psychiatry under German occupation during World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, Friedrich

    2014-07-01

    Polish psychiatry was since its origin deeply influenced by German (Austrian) and Russian psychiatry. After the German assault Polish psychiatric patients were the first victims of mass executions, and the first to be killed by new developed "gassing" technology. Especially cruel was the fate of Jewish patients. German "health policy" in occupied Poland was only "starvation or shooting". Some hospitals continued working under German rule and received patients from Germany in the framework of Nazi-"euthanasia". The article describes the mostly ignored facts of the close link between the medical programme of annihilation of the "unfit" and the genocide of Poles and Jews. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Leadership as a Health Research Policy Intervention: An Evaluation of the NIHR Leadership Programme (Phase 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Cochrane, Gavin; Manville, Catriona; Harte, Emma; Chataway, Joanna; Jones, Molly Morgan

    2016-01-29

    In early 2012, the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) leadership programme was re-commissioned for a further three years following an evaluation by RAND Europe. During this new phase of the programme, we conducted a real-time evaluation, the aim of which was to allow for reflection on and adjustment of the programme on an on-going basis as events unfold. This approach also allowed for participants on the programme to contribute to and positively engage in the evaluation. The study aimed to understand the outputs and impacts from the programme, and to test the underlying assumptions behind the NIHR Leadership Programme as a science policy intervention. Evidence on outputs and impacts of the programme were collected around the motivations and expectations of participants, programme design and individual-, institutional- and system-level impacts.

  5. A Systematic Review of Reporting Tools Applicable to Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes: Step 1 in Developing Programme Reporting Standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    Full Text Available Complete and accurate reporting of programme preparation, implementation and evaluation processes in the field of sexual and reproductive health (SRH is essential to understand the impact of SRH programmes, as well as to guide their replication and scale-up.To provide an overview of existing reporting tools and identify core items used in programme reporting with a focus on programme preparation, implementation and evaluation processes.A systematic review was completed for the period 2000-2014. Reporting guidelines, checklists and tools, irrespective of study design, applicable for reporting on programmes targeting SRH outcomes, were included. Two independent reviewers screened the title and abstract of all records. Full texts were assessed in duplicate, followed by data extraction on the focus, content area, year of publication, validation and description of reporting items. Data was synthesized using an iterative thematic approach, where items related to programme preparation, implementation and evaluation in each tool were extracted and aggregated into a consolidated list.Out of the 3,656 records screened for title and abstracts, full texts were retrieved for 182 articles, out of which 108 were excluded. Seventy-four full text articles corresponding to 45 reporting tools were retained for synthesis. The majority of tools were developed for reporting on intervention research (n = 15, randomized controlled trials (n = 8 and systematic reviews (n = 7. We identified a total of 50 reporting items, across three main domains and corresponding sub-domains: programme preparation (objective/focus, design, piloting; programme implementation (content, timing/duration/location, providers/staff, participants, delivery, implementation outcomes, and programme evaluation (process evaluation, implementation barriers/facilitators, outcome/impact evaluation.Over the past decade a wide range of tools have been developed to improve the reporting of health research

  6. Development of Health Promoting Leadership--Experiences of a Training Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Andrea; Axelsson, Runo; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the experiences of an intervention programme for development of health promoting leadership in Gothenburg in Sweden. The more specific purpose is to identify critical aspects of such a programme as part of the development of a health promoting workplace. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  7. Review of a community oral health programme in Nigeria after ten ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It comprises school health programmes, health education programmes for specific target groups, examination for early detection of diseases and provision of dental services at the clinic located on site. Within the first ten years under review (1988-1997), a total of 780 patients were seen at the dental clinic. Three hundred ...

  8. Programme Costing of a Physical Activity Programme in Primary Prevention: Should the Costs of Health Asset Assessment and Participatory Programme Development Count?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke B. Wolfenstetter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis aims to discuss the implications of the “health asset concept”, introduced by the WHO, and the “investment for health model” requiring a “participatory approach” of cooperative programme development applied on a physical activity programme for socially disadvantaged women and to demonstrate the related costing issues as well as the relevant decision context. The costs of programme implementation amounted to €48,700. Adding the costs for developing the programme design of €48,800 results in total costs of €97,500; adding on top of that the costs of asset assessment running to €35,600 would total €133,100. These four different cost figures match four different types of potentially relevant decisions contexts. Depending on the decision context the total costs, and hence the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a health promotion intervention, could differ considerably. Therefore, a detailed cost assessment and the identification of the decision context are of crucial importance.

  9. Equity, social determinants and public health programmes--the case of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2011-12-01

    The WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health issued the 2008 report 'Closing the gap within a generation - health equity through action on the social determinants of health' in response to the widening gaps, within and between countries, in income levels, opportunities, life expectancy, health status, and access to health care. Most individuals and societies, irrespective of their philosophical and ideological stance, have limits as to how much unfairness is acceptable. In 2010, WHO published another important report on 'Equity, Social Determinants and Public Health Programmes', with the aim of translating knowledge into concrete, workable actions. Poor oral health was flagged as a severe public health problem. Oral disease and illness remain global problems and widening inequities in oral health status exist among different social groupings between and within countries. The good news is that means are available for breaking poverty and reduce if not eliminate social inequalities in oral health. Whether public health actions are initiated simply depends on the political will. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) and subsequent charters have emphasized the importance of policy for health, healthy environments, healthy lifestyles, and the need for orientation of health services towards health promotion and disease prevention. This report advocates that oral health for all can be promoted effectively by applying this philosophy and some major public health actions are outlined. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. How do Polish workers respond to the information concerning health-oriented lifestyle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Korzeniowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information overload, including commercial ones, about healthy lifestyle, is a challenge for perception of health education. Material and Methods: The empirical data gathered from 100 employees in 2010 by means of free interviews with a standardized list of required information, aimed at analyzing a feeling of pressure to lead a healthy lifestyle, including reactions to meassages provided by the media. Results: Respondents feel pressure associated with a healthy lifestyle from doctors, the state, relatives, friends and themselves. They accept pressure exerted by doctors and appreciate it from relatives and friends, however, the latter may stimulate adverse behavior. As a negative pressure they perceive that imposed by the media, government’s shifting the responsibility for citizens’ health, information overload contradictory to their own knowledge, unattainable recommendations and their volatility. Such pressure evokes conviction for their own resistance or rejection of the messages. They criticize the media for promoting unhealthy behavior, attending interests of advertisers, hiding information about harmful environmental influence. They appreciate the media for facilitating learning about health and preventive examinations. Health education messages are only occasionally identified by better educated people. Conclusions: “Dense” information environment is a hostile background for health education. An excess of critically evaluated information evokes pressure and lack of trust in information. Therefore, health education should facilitate the identification of its contents, avoid normative methods, limit the number of guidelines and better explain the faced changes, counteract tendencies to associate healthy lifestyle mainly with consumer behaviors, teach how to maintain self orientation in information overload conditions, and build up awareness of one’s own brand. Med Pr 2017;68(4:525–543

  11. [How do Polish workers respond to the information concerning health-oriented lifestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Elżbieta; Puchalski, Krzysztof

    2017-06-27

    Information overload, including commercial ones, about healthy lifestyle, is a challenge for perception of health education. The empirical data gathered from 100 employees in 2010 by means of free interviews with a standardized list of required information, aimed at analyzing a feeling of pressure to lead a healthy lifestyle, including reactions to meassages provided by the media. Respondents feel pressure associated with a healthy lifestyle from doctors, the state, relatives, friends and themselves. They accept pressure exerted by doctors and appreciate it from relatives and friends, however, the latter may stimulate adverse behavior. As a negative pressure they perceive that imposed by the media, government's shifting the responsibility for citizens' health, information overload contradictory to their own knowledge, unattainable recommendations and their volatility. Such pressure evokes conviction for their own resistance or rejection of the messages. They criticize the media for promoting unhealthy behavior, attending interests of advertisers, hiding information about harmful environmental influence. They appreciate the media for facilitating learning about health and preventive examinations. Health education messages are only occasionally identified by better educated people. "Dense" information environment is a hostile background for health education. An excess of critically evaluated information evokes pressure and lack of trust in information. Therefore, health education should facilitate the identification of its contents, avoid normative methods, limit the number of guidelines and better explain the faced changes, counteract tendencies to associate healthy lifestyle mainly with consumer behaviors, teach how to maintain self orientation in information overload conditions, and build up awareness of one's own brand. Med Pr 2017;68(4):525-543. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Rethinking programme evaluation in health professions education: beyond 'did it work?'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal; Morin, Marie-Paule; Parker, Kathryn

    2013-04-01

    For nearly 40 years, outcome-based models have dominated programme evaluation in health professions education. However, there is increasing recognition that these models cannot address the complexities of the health professions context and studies employing alternative evaluation approaches that are appearing in the literature. A similar paradigm shift occurred over 50 years ago in the broader discipline of programme evaluation. Understanding the development of contemporary paradigms within this field provides important insights to support the evolution of programme evaluation in the health professions. In this discussion paper, we review the historical roots of programme evaluation as a discipline, demonstrating parallels with the dominant approach to evaluation in the health professions. In tracing the evolution of contemporary paradigms within this field, we demonstrate how their aim is not only to judge a programme's merit or worth, but also to generate information for curriculum designers seeking to adapt programmes to evolving contexts, and researchers seeking to generate knowledge to inform the work of others. From this evolution, we distil seven essential elements of educational programmes that should be evaluated to achieve the stated goals. Our formulation is not a prescriptive method for conducting programme evaluation; rather, we use these elements as a guide for the development of a holistic 'programme of evaluation' that involves multiple stakeholders, uses a combination of available models and methods, and occurs throughout the life of a programme. Thus, these elements provide a roadmap for the programme evaluation process, which allows evaluators to move beyond asking whether a programme worked, to establishing how it worked, why it worked and what else happened. By engaging in this process, evaluators will generate a sound understanding of the relationships among programmes, the contexts in which they operate, and the outcomes that result from them

  13. Why do managers allocate resources to workplace health promotion programmes in countries with national health coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Angela M; Sharp, David J

    2007-06-01

    There is extensive evidence that worksite health promotion (WHP) programmes reduce healthcare costs and improve employee productivity. In many countries, a large proportion of healthcare costs are borne by the state. While the full benefits of WHP are still created, they are shared between employers and the state, even though the employer bears the full (after-tax) cost. Employers therefore have a lower incentive to implement WHP activity. We know little about the beliefs of managers with decision responsibility for the approval and implementation of WHP programmes in this context. This article reports the results of a study of the attitudes of Canadian senior general managers (GMs) and human resource managers (HRMs) in the auto parts industry in Ontario, Canada towards the consequences of increasing discretionary spending on WHP, using Structural Equation Modelling and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. We identified factors that explain managers' intentions to increase discretionary spending on wellness programmes. While both senior GMs and HRMs are motivated primarily by their beliefs that WHP reduces indirect costs of health failure, GMs were also motivated by their moral responsibility towards employees (but surprisingly HRMs were not). Importantly, HRMs, who usually have responsibility for WHP, felt constrained by a lack of power to commit resources. Most importantly, we found no social expectation that organizations should provide WHP programmes. This has important implications in an environment where the adoption of WHP is very limited and cost containment within the healthcare system is paramount.

  14. Global health diplomacy in Iraq: international relations outcomes of multilateral tuberculosis programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Jaf, Payman; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Abu Dalod, Mohammad; Tabena, Mohammed; Rashid, Sara; Al Hilfi, Thamer Kadum Yousif

    2014-01-01

    International development programmes, including global health interventions, have the capacity to make important implicit and explicit benefits to diplomatic and international relations outcomes. Conversely, in the absence of awareness of these implications, such programmes may generate associated threats. Due to heightened international tensions in conflict and post-conflict settings, greater attention to diplomatic outcomes may therefore be necessary. We examine related 'collateral' effects of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis programmes in Iraq. During site visits to Iraq conducted during 2012 and 2013 on behalf of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, on-site service delivery evaluations, unstructured interviews with clinical and operational staff, and programme documentary review of Global Fund-supported tuberculosis treatment and care programmes were conducted. During this process, a range of possible external or collateral international relations and diplomatic effects of global health programmes were assessed according to predetermined criteria. A range of positive diplomatic and international relations effects of Global Fund-supported programmes were observed in the Iraq setting. These included (1) geo-strategic accessibility and coverage; (2) provisions for programme sustainability and alignment; (3) contributions to nation-building and peace-keeping initiatives; (4) consistent observation of social, cultural and religious norms in intervention selection; and (5) selection of the most effective and cost-effective tuberculosis treatment and care interventions. Investments in global health programmes have valuable diplomatic, as well as health-related, outcomes, associated with their potential to prevent, mitigate or reverse international tension and hostility in conflict and post-conflict settings, provided that they adhere to appropriate criteria. The associated international presence in such regions may also contribute to peace

  15. Solec Spa – worldwide unique properties of Polish health resort in the service of rural medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L Grabowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Solec Spa is health resort in south-eastern Poland. Its unique balneorehabilitation significance worldwide is determined by chloride-iodine-sodium water with a high content of hydrogen sulphide. This water, classified as highly mineralized sodium-chloride (seltzer sulphide, bromide, iodide, boron water, contains naturally approximately 0.9 g/l divalent sulphur compounds, which is the highest concentration noted among the mineral waters of the world. The effectiveness of the Solec waters is proven in: inflammatory and autoimmunological locomotor system diseases, degenerative joint disorders (osteoarthritis, post-traumatic and post-operative orthopedic diseases, skin diseases and allergic disorders. One of the main indications for balneotherapy in Solec Spa and Busko Spa is chronic brucellosis.

  16. Ineffective programme management on the delivery of health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outsourced to the Department of Public Works and the Independent. Development .... achieve a common strategic or business goal. ... Since programme management ... civil and structural engineering together with quantity surveying. The.

  17. Trialling a shaken baby syndrome prevention programme in the Auckland District Health Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick; Wilson, Kati; Mowjood, Aqeela; Friedman, Joshua; Reed, Peter

    2016-02-19

    To describe and evaluate a shaken baby prevention programme trialled in the Auckland District Health Board from January 2010, to December 2011. Development and implementation of the programme, telephone survey of a sample of caregivers and written survey of a sample of providers. At least 2,592 caregivers received the trial programme. 150 (6%) were surveyed by telephone a median of 6 weeks later. 128 (85%) remembered at least one key message, unprompted; most commonly "It's OK to walk away" (94/150, 63%). When asked, 92% had made a plan for what to do when frustrated and 63% had shared the information with others. Only 98/150 (65%) watched the programme DVD. Many said they already knew about the risks of shaking a baby, but still found the programme highly relevant. Thirty-one nurses were surveyed. There was a high degree of agreement that the programme was relevant. Barriers to programme delivery included time, workload and the documentation required. A shaken baby prevention programme adapted to New Zealand can be introduced in a District Health Board and is acceptable to caregivers and health professionals. Further research is needed to evaluate the content, mode of delivery and effectiveness of this programme.

  18. Health promotion and sustainability programmes in Australia: barriers and enablers to evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2017-08-01

    In an era characterised by the adverse impacts of climate change and environmental degradation, health promotion programmes are beginning to actively link human health with environmental sustainability imperatives. This paper draws on a study of health promotion and sustainability programmes in Australia, providing insights to evaluation approaches being used and barriers and enablers to these evaluations. The study was based on a multi-strategy research involving both quantitative and qualitative methods. Health promotion practitioners explained through surveys and semi-structured interviews that they focused on five overarching health and sustainability programme types (healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature, and capacity building). Various evaluation methods and indicators (health, social, environmental, economic and demographic) were identified as being valuable for monitoring and evaluating health and sustainability programmes. Findings identified several evaluation enablers such as successful community engagement, knowledge of health and sustainability issues and programme champions, whereas barriers included resource constraints and competing interests. This paper highlights the need for ecological models and evaluation tools to support the design and monitoring of health promotion and sustainability programmes.

  19. Experiences of instructors delivering the Mental Health First Aid training programme: a descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J

    2010-09-01

    Mental health literacy among the public is often poor, and although people frequently encounter others experiencing mental distress in their workplace, families and communities, they may be ill-equipped to provide appropriate support. 'Mental Health First Aid' (MHFA), a 12-h mental health promotion programme seeks to address this, training people in the knowledge and skills needed to engage with someone experiencing mental health problems. Research relating to the MHFA programme has centred on course attendees, with a paucity of research surrounding the delivery of basic mental health training programmes. Understanding experiences of instructors delivering such programmes is key to the success of future delivery. This study sought to identify the views and experiences of instructors delivering the MHFA programme in Wales. Fourteen MHFA instructors participated in semi-structured audio-recorded interviews, with the transcripts analysed to identify key themes. This paper explores two of the identified themes namely prerequisite skills and support required by instructors. The study highlighted that because of the ensuing emotional labour experienced by instructors, universal mental health training programmes must put in place a clear infrastructure to train, support and monitor those delivering them, for programme roll-out to be effective.

  20. [Participant structure and economic benefit of prevention bonus programmes in company health insurance funds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, M; Friedel, H; Bödeker, W

    2009-10-01

    This study investigates differences in sex, age, and educational level between participants and non-participants of prevention bonus programmes. The differences in the utilisation of drugs, hospital care, and sickness absence before the start of the programmes between these groups are also shown. Finally the economic benefit of the health insurance funds attributed to these programmes is estimated. Data from some 5.2 million insured subjects of 74 company health insurance funds in Germany were linked to information on enrollment into a prevention bonus programme anonymously. In a descriptive analysis the differences in the sociodemographic patterns between both groups are shown as well as the differences in costs to the health insurances in the three sectors mentioned above. The benefit to the health insurance funds is estimated by means of an analysis of covariance. Prevention bonus programmes yields an annual benefit of at least 129 euro per participant. Men aged 40 and older and women aged 30 and older are more likely to opt into such a programme. The same is true for persons with a higher educational level. There are only few differences in health-care utilisation between the participants and non-participants of the programmes before enrollment. Only 1.4% of all insured persons participated in the programmes. There is at least a short-term gain to both involved parties: the insured and the health insurance funds. The programmes are not dominated by deadweight effects. Long-term effects and effectiveness of prevention bonus programmes still have to be investigated. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  1. Strategic planning of the master programme in health informatics at Aalborg University: targeting and updating the programme, to meet explicit customer needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøhr, C; Bygholm, A; Hejlesen, O

    1998-06-01

    Education is essentially giving people new skills and qualifications to fulfil certain tasks. In planning and managing educational programmes it is crucial to know what skills and what qualifications are needed to carry out the tasks in question, not to mention the importance of knowing what tasks are relevant to carry out. The programme in health informatics at Aalborg University produces health informatics professionals. The students are developing skills in solving informatics problems in health care organisations. The programme has been running for 3 years now and to maintain the perception of the aim for the programme a number of activities have been launched. In the following, the programme will be presented, the activities to obtain information on how to keep the programme targeted and updated will be described and the changes that are going to be introduced will be outlined.

  2. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science

  3. Implementation of electronic health records in Polish outpatient health care clinics – starting point, progress, problems, and forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Czerw

    2016-06-01

    Most health care entities providing specialized outpatient care would not have complied with the provisions of the Act on Information System in Health Care had the deadline for implementation of EHR not been postponed. Five months before the date stipulated in the first version of the Act (August 2014, about 74% of health care entities covered by this study did not yet have a ready EHR system. The study also showed that 2 years is insufficient time for the entire process of informatization of a health care establishment.

  4. [Work place health promotion programmes of the statutory German Pension Insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, C; Mittag, O; Jäckel, W H

    2013-12-01

    In 2009, the amendment of § 31 Abs. 1 Nr. 2 SGB VI gave the German Pension Insurance the opportunity to provide outpatient medical treatments for insured people who have an occupation with particularly high risk of health. Ever since, the German Pension Insurance has developed various work place prevention programmes, which have been implemented as pilot projects. This article aims at systematically recording and comparatively analyzing these programmes in a synopsis which meets the current state of knowledge. We developed an 8 page questionnaire focusing on work place prevention programmes by the German Pension Insurance. This questionnaire was sent to people in charge of all programmes known to us. All programmes have been drafted -across indications. They are aiming at insured people who already suffer from first health disorders but who are not in imminent need of rehabilitation. However, the concrete target groups at which the specific programmes are aimed differ (shift workers, nurses, elderly employees). Another difference between the various programmes is the setting (in- or outpatients) as well as the duration. All programmes are using existing structures offered by the German Pension Insurance. They provide measures in pension insurance owned rehabilitation centers. It would be desirable to link these performances with internal work place health promotion and offers of other social insurances. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Public health lessons from a pilot programme to reduce mother-to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public health lessons from a pilot programme to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Khayelitsha. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... took blood for HIV enzyme-linked imrnunosorbent assay (EUSA) testing.

  6. Programme Reporting Standards (PRS for improving the reporting of sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Kågesten

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation is central to understand the impact of programmes within the field of sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (SRMNCAH. Existing reporting guidelines do not orient on reporting of contextual and implementation issues in sufficient detail. We therefore developed Programme Reporting Standards (PRS to be used by SRMNCAH programme implementers and researchers. Methods Building on the first step of the PRS development (a systematic review to identify reporting items, we conducted a three-round online Delphi consensus survey with experts. Consensus was defined a-priori as 80% agreement of items as essential. This was followed by a technical consultation with a group of experts to refine the items, definitions and their structuring. The revised PRS was piloted to assess its relevance to current SRMNCAH programme reports and identify key issues regarding the use of the PRS. Results Of the 81 participants invited to the Delphi survey, 20 responded to all three rounds. In the final round, 27 items received consensus as essential; three items were ranked as “borderline” essential; 20 items as supplementary. The items were subsequently revised, followed by a technical consultation with 29 experts to further review and refine the PRS. The feedback resulted in substantial changes to the structure and content of the PRS into 24 items across five domains: Programme overview; Programme components and implementation; Monitoring of Implementation; Evaluation and Results; and Synthesis. This version was used in a piloting exercise, where questions regarding how much information to report and how to comment on the quality of the information reported were addressed. All items were kept in the PRS following the pilot although minor changes were made to the flow and description of items. Conclusions The PRS 1.0 is the result of a structured

  7. Community-level impact of the reproductive health vouchers programme on service utilization in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obare, Francis; Warren, Charlotte; Njuki, Rebecca; Abuya, Timothy; Sunday, Joseph; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Ben

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines community-level association between exposure to the reproductive health vouchers programme in Kenya and utilization of services. The data are from a household survey conducted among 2527 women (15-49 years) from voucher and comparable non-voucher sites. Analysis entails cross-tabulations with Chi-square tests and significant tests of proportions as well as estimation of multi-level logit models to predict service utilization by exposure to the programme. The results show that for births occurring after the voucher programme began, women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 were significantly more likely to have delivered at a health facility and to have received skilled care during delivery compared with those from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. There were, however, no significant differences in the timing of first trimester utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and making four or more ANC visits by exposure to the programme. In addition, poor women were significantly less likely to have used safe motherhood services (health facility delivery, skilled delivery care and postnatal care) compared with their non-poor counterparts regardless of exposure to the programme. Nonetheless, a significantly higher proportion of poor women from communities that had been exposed to the programme since 2006 used the services compared with their poor counterparts from communities that had not been exposed to the programme at all. The findings suggest that the programme is associated with increased health facility deliveries and skilled delivery care especially among poor women. However, it has had limited community-level impact on the first trimester timing of antenatal care use and making four or more visits, which remain a challenge despite the high proportion of women in the country that make at least one antenatal care visit during pregnancy.

  8. Changes in physical health among participants in a multidisciplinary health programme for long-term unemployed persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutgens, Christine A E; Schuring, Merel; Voorham, Toon A J; Burdorf, Alex

    2009-06-19

    The relationship between poor health and unemployment is well established. Health promotion among unemployed persons may improve their health. The aims of this study were to investigate characteristics of non-participants and drop-outs in a multidisciplinary health promotion programme for long-term unemployed persons with health complaints, to evaluate changes in physical health among participants, and to investigate determinants of improvement in physical health. A longitudinal, non-controlled design was used. The programme consisted of two weekly exercise sessions and one weekly cognitive session during 12 weeks. The main outcome measures were body mass index, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, abdominal muscle strength, and low back and hamstring flexibility. Potential determinants of change in physical health were demographic variables, psychological variables (self-esteem, mastery, and kinesiophobia), and self-perceived health. The initial response was 73% and 252 persons had complete data collection at baseline. In total, 36 subjects were lost during follow-up. Participants were predominantly low educated, long-term unemployed, and in poor health. Participation in the programme was not influenced by demographic and psychological factors or by self-reported health. Drop-outs were younger and had a lower body mass index at baseline than subjects who completed the programme. At post-test, participants' cardiorespiratory fitness, abdominal muscle strength, and flexibility had increased by 6.8%-51.0%, whereas diastolic and systolic blood pressures had decreased by 2.2%-2.5%. The effect sizes ranges from 0.17-0.68. Participants with the poorest physical health benefited most from the programme and gender differences in improvement were observed. Physical health of unemployed persons with health complaints improved after participation in this health promotion programme, but not sufficiently, considering their poor physical health at baseline.

  9. Changes in physical health among participants in a multidisciplinary health programme for long-term unemployed persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuring Merel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between poor health and unemployment is well established. Health promotion among unemployed persons may improve their health. The aims of this study were to investigate characteristics of non-participants and drop-outs in a multidisciplinary health promotion programme for long-term unemployed persons with health complaints, to evaluate changes in physical health among participants, and to investigate determinants of improvement in physical health. Methods A longitudinal, non-controlled design was used. The programme consisted of two weekly exercise sessions and one weekly cognitive session during 12 weeks. The main outcome measures were body mass index, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, abdominal muscle strength, and low back and hamstring flexibility. Potential determinants of change in physical health were demographic variables, psychological variables (self-esteem, mastery, and kinesiophobia, and self-perceived health. Results The initial response was 73% and 252 persons had complete data collection at baseline. In total, 36 subjects were lost during follow-up. Participants were predominantly low educated, long-term unemployed, and in poor health. Participation in the programme was not influenced by demographic and psychological factors or by self-reported health. Drop-outs were younger and had a lower body mass index at baseline than subjects who completed the programme. At post-test, participants' cardiorespiratory fitness, abdominal muscle strength, and flexibility had increased by 6.8%–51.0%, whereas diastolic and systolic blood pressures had decreased by 2.2%–2.5%. The effect sizes ranges from 0.17–0.68. Conclusion Participants with the poorest physical health benefited most from the programme and gender differences in improvement were observed. Physical health of unemployed persons with health complaints improved after participation in this health promotion programme, but not

  10. Cancer morbidity among polishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, B; Thiringer, G; Axelson, O

    1982-01-01

    The mortality pattern among 86 men was determined to investigate the possible hazards of polishing steel. The men had polished steel with polishing paste for at least five years. The polishing pastes had contained tallow, beeswax, carnauba wax, alundum, carborundum, ferric oxide, and chalk. A total of 18 men had died compared with 13.3 expected. Four had died of stomach cancer compared with 0.44 expected (p less than 0.005). The mortality for other causes of death was not increased. The study does not permit any definite conclusion but indicates a possible cancer hazard among polishers. PMID:7066237

  11. The impact of aging on different types of health care: The example of the Polish health insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocot, Ewa

    2018-02-22

    The aging phenomenon, which is being observed all over the world, can strongly affect health policy and a planning in the health care sector. However, the impact of demographic changes on different parts of it can be varied. The main objective of this study was to check the possible impact of aging on health expenditure (HE) regarding different types of health care and to evaluate whether this impact is significant for all analyzed areas. To show a relationship between age and HE a special indicator (old-age sensitivity) was defined, showing a difference between the standardized value of HE per capita in the age group 65+ and in the group 20 to 64 (defined as the reference group). Then a simple prognosis of expenditure was prepared. Both analyses were done separately for 11 types of health care services and 2 types of goods reimbursement. The results show that while sensitivity varies between the different types of care, however, it is strong in most of them. Because of the prognosis, the expenditure will be increasing for the 9 types of care and decreasing for 4 of them. While in the case of the low values of sensitivity the HE is actually decreasing, the high value of sensitivity does not result in a growing tendency. Our main conclusion is that it is very important for health policy and planning to take into account the diversity of the types of health care and the different influences of changes in the size and structure of population on them. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Where there is no psychiatrist: A mental health programme in Sierra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. For most low- and middle-income countries, mental health remains a neglected area, despite the recognised burden associated with neuropsychiatric conditions and the inextricable link to other public health priorities. Objectives. To describe the results of a free outpatient mental health programme delivered by ...

  13. An Evaluation of Participation in a Schools-Based Youth Mental Health Peer Education Training Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Aileen; Barry, James; Neary, Marie-Louise; Lane, Sabrina; O'Keeffe, Lynsey

    2016-01-01

    The use of peer education has been well documented within the discipline of health promotion, but not within the youth mental health domain. This paper describes an evaluation of an innovative schools-based peer education training programme that involved preparing young people to deliver a mental health workshop to their peers. Participants…

  14. Can Low-Cost Support Programmes with Coaching Accelerate Doctoral Completion in Health Science Faculty Academics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…

  15. Ranking of healthcare programmes based on health outcome, health costs and safe delivery of care in hospital pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisseau, Lionel; Bussières, Jean-François; Bois, Denis; Vallée, Marc; Racine, Marie-Claude; Bonnici, André

    2013-02-01

    To establish a consensual and coherent ranking of healthcare programmes that involve the presence of ward-based and clinic-based clinical pharmacists, based on health outcome, health costs and safe delivery of care. This descriptive study was derived from a structured dialogue (Delphi technique) among directors of pharmacy department. We established a quantitative profile of healthcare programmes at five sites that involved the provision of ward-based and clinic-based pharmaceutical care. A summary table of evidence established a unique quality rating per inpatient (clinic-based) or outpatient (ward-based) healthcare programme. Each director rated the perceived impact of pharmaceutical care per inpatient or outpatient healthcare programme on three fields: health outcome, health costs and safe delivery of care. They agreed by consensus on the final ranking of healthcare programmes. A ranking was assigned for each of the 18 healthcare programmes for outpatient care and the 17 healthcare programmes for inpatient care involving the presence of pharmacists, based on health outcome, health costs and safe delivery of care. There was a good correlation between ranking based on data from a 2007-2008 Canadian report on hospital pharmacy practice and the ranking proposed by directors of pharmacy department. Given the often limited human and financial resources, managers should consider the best evidence available on a profession's impact to plan healthcare services within an organization. Data are few on ranking healthcare programmes in order to prioritize which healthcare programme would mostly benefit from the delivery of pharmaceutical care by ward-based and clinic-based pharmacists. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Community health workers programme in Luanda, Angola: an evaluation of the implementation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliani, Camila; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Harzheim, Erno; Lavor, Antônio Carlile Holanda; Lavor, Míria Campos; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Barbosa, Maria Idalice; Bornstein, Vera Joana; Pontes, Ana Lúcia; Knauth, Daniela Riva

    2014-12-09

    The Community Health Workers (CHWs) Programme was launched in Luanda, Angola, in 2007 as an initiative of the provincial government. The aim of this study was to assess its implementation process. This is a case study with documental analysis, CHWs reports data, individual interviews and focus groups. Until June 2009, the programme had placed in the community 2,548 trained CHWs, providing potential coverage for 261,357 families. Analysis of qualitative data suggested an association of CHWs with improvements in maternal and child access to health care, as well as an increase in the demand for health services, generating further need to improve service capacity. Nevertheless, critical points for programme sustainability were identified. For continuity and scaling up, the programme needs medium- and long-term technical, political and financial support. The results of this study may be useful in strengthening and reformulating the planning of the CHWs programme in Luanda and in Angola. Moreover, the lessons learned with this experience can also provide insight for the development of CHWs programmes in other parts of the world. By means of cooperation, Brazil has supported the implementation of this CHWs programme and can potentially contribute to its improvement.

  17. Health- and Taste-Related Attitudes Associated with Dietary Patterns in a Representative Sample of Polish Girls and Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study (GEBaHealth Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Lonnie, Marta; Wadolowska, Lidia; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2018-02-23

    Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. The study population consisted of 1107 girls, aged 13-21 and living in Poland. Attitudes were assessed using the Health and Taste Attitudes Scale (HTAS) and categorised as negative, neutral or positive. Dietary data was obtained using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns (DPs), derived previously with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were 'Traditional Polish', 'Fruit and vegetables', 'Fast food and sweets' and 'Dairy and fats'. The associations between attitudes and DPs were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients and logistic regression. The reference group were girls with neutral attitudes. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status (SES), and body mass index (BMI). The correlations between attitudes and DPs ranged from -0.28 for attitudes towards health and 'Fast food and sweets' and 'Traditional Polish' DPs to 0.33 for attitudes towards health and the 'Fruit and vegetables' DP ( p girls and young women, positive attitudes towards health should be strengthened and supported by emphasizing the sensory values of pro-healthy foods.

  18. Sustainability of recurrent expenditure on public social welfare programmes: expenditure analysis of the free maternal care programme of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankrah Odame, Emmanuel; Akweongo, Patricia; Yankah, Ben; Asenso-Boadi, Francis; Agyepong, Irene

    2014-05-01

    Sustainability of public social welfare programmes has long been of concern in development circles. An important aspect of sustainability is the ability to sustain the recurrent financial costs of programmes. A free maternal care programme (FMCP) was launched under the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2008 with a start-up grant from the British Government. This article examines claims expenditure under the programme and the implications for the financial sustainability of the programme, and the lessons for donor and public financing of social welfare programmes. Records of reimbursement claims for services and medicines by women benefitting from the policy in participating facilities in one sub-metropolis in Ghana were analysed to gain an understanding of the expenditure on this programme at facility level. National level financial inflow and outflow (expenditure) data of the NHIS, related to implementation of this policy for 2008 and 2009, were reviewed to put the facility-based data in the national perspective. A total of US$936 450.94 was spent in 2009 by the scheme on FMCP in the sub-metropolis. The NHIS expenditure on the programme for the entire country in 2009 was US$49.25 million, exceeding the British grant of US$10.00 million given for that year. Subsequently, the programme has been entirely financed by the National Health Insurance Fund. The rapidly increasing, recurrent demands on this fund from the maternal delivery exemption programme-without a commensurate growth on the amounts generated annually-is an increasing threat to the sustainability of the fund. Provision of donor start-up funding for programmes with high recurrent expenditures, under the expectation that government will take over and sustain the programme, must be accompanied by clear long-term analysis and planning as to how government will sustain the programme.

  19. Sustainable practice change: Professionals' experiences with a multisectoral child health promotion programme in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogren Ingrid

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New methods for prevention and health promotion and are constantly evolving; however, positive outcomes will only emerge if these methods are fully adopted and sustainable in practice. To date, limited attention has been given to sustainability of health promotion efforts. This study aimed to explore facilitators, barriers, and requirements for sustainability as experienced by professionals two years after finalizing the development and implementation of a multisectoral child health promotion programme in Sweden (the Salut programme. Initiated in 2005, the programme uses a 'Salutogenesis' approach to support health-promoting activities in health care, social services, and schools. Methods All professionals involved in the Salut Programme's pilot areas were interviewed between May and September 2009, approximately two years after the intervention package was established and implemented. Participants (n = 23 were midwives, child health nurses, dental hygienists/dental nurses, and pre-school teachers. Transcribed data underwent qualitative content analysis to illuminate perceived facilitators, barriers, and requirements for programme sustainability. Results The programme was described as sustainable at most sites, except in child health care. The perception of facilitators, barriers, and requirements were largely shared across sectors. Facilitators included being actively involved in intervention development and small-scale testing, personal values corresponding to programme intentions, regular meetings, working close with collaborators, using manuals and a clear programme branding. Existing or potential barriers included insufficient managerial involvement and support and perceived constraints regarding time and resources. In dental health care, barriers also included conflicting incentives for performance. Many facilitators and barriers identified by participants also reflected their perceptions of more general and forthcoming

  20. Developing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers in Thailand: formative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to and supports for implementing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers (CHCWs) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The study also aimed to get preliminary input into the design of a tailored diabetes prevention education programme for CHCWs. Thailand has faced under-nutrition and yet, paradoxically, the prevalence of diseases of over-nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes, has escalated. As access to diabetes prevention programme is limited in Thailand, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, it becomes critical to develop a health information delivery system that is relevant, cost-effective, and sustainable. Health-care professionals (n = 12) selected from health centres within one district participated in in-depth interviews. In addition, screened people at risk for diabetes participated in interviews (n = 8) and focus groups (n = 4 groups, 23 participants). Coded transcripts from audio-taped interviews or focus groups were analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Concept mapping illustrated the findings. Health-care professionals identified potential barriers to programme success as a motivation for regular participation, and lack of health policy support for programme sustainability. Health-care professionals identified opportunities to integrate health promotion and disease prevention into CHCWs' duties. Health-care professionals recommended small-group workshops, hands-on learning activities, case studies, and video presentations that bring knowledge to practice within their cultural context. CHCWs should receive a credit for continuing study. People at risk for diabetes lacked knowledge of nutrition, diabetes risk factors, and resources to access health information. They desired two-way communication with CHCWs. Formative research supports the need for an effective, sustainable programme to support knowledge translation to CHCWs and at-risk populations in the

  1. Using evaluability assessment to assess local community development health programmes: a Scottish case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Belford

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of a programme’s objectives (health or otherwise is important in demonstrating how programmes work. However, evaluations are expensive and can focus on unrealistic outcomes not grounded in strong theory, especially where there is pressure to show effectiveness. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that the evaluability assessment (a cost-effective pre-evaluation tool that primarily gives quick, constructive feedback can be used to help develop programme and outcome objectives to improve programmes while they run and to assist in producing more effective evaluations. This was done using the example of a community development programme aiming to improve health and reduce health inequalities in its target population. Methods The setting was Glasgow, Scotland, UK and focused on the Health Issues in the Community programme. Data were collected from documents and nine individual stakeholder interviews. Thematic analysis and a realist approach were used to analyse both datasets and, in conjunction with a workshop with stakeholders, produce a logic model of the programme theory and related evaluation options to explore further. Results Five main themes emerged from the analysis: History; Framework; Structure and Delivery of the Course; Theory of Action; and Barriers to Delivery and Successful Outcomes. These themes aided in drafting the logic model which revealed they key programme activities (e.g. facilitating group learning and 23 potential outcomes. The majority of these outcomes (16 were deemed to be short-term outcomes (more easily measured within the timeframe of an individual being involved in the programme e.g. increased self-esteem or awareness of individual/community health. The remaining 6 outcomes were deemed longer-term and included outcomes such as increased social capital and individual mental health and wellbeing. Conclusions We have shown that the evaluability

  2. Family health nursing: the education programme for the WHO Europe Scottish Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ian

    2004-06-01

    This article outlines the development of the family health nurse (FNH) programme, which was delivered by the University of Stirling in the highlands and islands of Scotland as part of a World Health Organization European pilot project. An outline of the structure of the programme and its key features is described. The concept of the FHN emerged from the WHO's initiative to develop a practitioner who has the family as the organizing focus of their practice (WHO, 2000). An insight is provided into the experience of the first students to undergo this programme, along with a brief summary of the main findings of the external evaluation of both the education programme and the implementation of the role in the remote and rural communities of the highlands and islands of Scotland. Suggestions are made that will hopefully influence the second phase of this project that the Scottish Executive are supporting in an urban setting, which is due to begin in September 2004.

  3. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  4. The Relation of Rapid Changes in Obesity Measures to Lipid Profile - Insights from a Nationwide Metabolic Health Survey in 444 Polish Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Bernhard M.; Jóźwiak, Jacek; Nelson, Christopher P.; Lukas, Witold; Mastej, Mirosław; Windak, Adam; Tomasik, Tomasz; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Tykarski, Andrzej; Gąsowski, Jerzy; Ślęzak-Prochazka, Izabella; Ślęzak, Andrzej; Charchar, Fadi J.; Sattar, Naveed; Thompson, John R.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Tomaszewski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Objective The impact of fast changes in obesity indices on other measures of metabolic health is poorly defined in the general population. Using the Polish accession to the European Union as a model of political and social transformation we examined how an expected rapid increase in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference relates to changes in lipid profile, both at the population and personal level. Methods Through primary care centres in 444 Polish cities, two cross-sectional nationwide population-based surveys (LIPIDOGRAM 2004 and LIPIDOGRAM 2006) examined 15,404 and 15,453 adult individuals in 2004 and 2006, respectively. A separate prospective sample of 1,840 individuals recruited in 2004 had a follow-up in 2006 (LIPIDOGRAM PLUS). Results Two years after Polish accession to European Union, mean population BMI and waist circumference increased by 0.6% and 0.9%, respectively. This tracked with a 7.6% drop in HDL-cholesterol and a 2.1% increase in triglycerides (all p<0.001) nationwide. The direction and magnitude of the population changes were replicated at the personal level in LIPIDOGRAM PLUS (0.7%, 0.3%, 8.6% and 1.8%, respectively). However, increases in BMI and waist circumference were both only weakly associated with HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides changes prospectively. The relation of BMI to the magnitude of change in both lipid fractions was comparable to that of waist circumference. Conclusions Moderate changes in obesity measures tracked with a significant deterioration in measures of pro-atherogenic dyslipidaemia at both personal and population level. These associations were predominantly driven by factors not measureable directly through either BMI or waist circumference. PMID:24497983

  5. Governance in community based health programmes in I.R of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahat, Katayoun; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Malekafzali, Hossein; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh; Dejman, Masoumeh

    2013-02-01

    To assess the nature of community-based health programme experience in Iran, and use the results in order to advocate more friendly policies in community, academy and funding organisations. The qualitative study was done in 2010-11 at various locations in Iran using semi structural in-depth interviews with the principals and managers of programmes, and focus group discussions with volunteers and service users of 13 Community Based Health Programmes which were active for at least five years. A total of 21 in-depth interviews and 20 focus group discussions were conducted. Data analysis was based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach considering the pre-determined structure in accordance with the study questions. The participants' views were analysed within the main category of governance, including the three sub-categories of leadership, monitoring and evaluation, and resource mobilisation. According to the participants, governmental programmes have centralised decision-making and management processes and local volunteers have no role in selecting managers at different levels of a programme. Such programmes are funded by the governmental core resources. In non-government organisations, resources available for such purposes mainly come through charitable individuals, service delivery fees and profitable economical activities, financial participation of volunteers and by using other organisations' facilities. In most programmes, there were no systematic process for monitoring and evaluation. Community-based Health programmes in Iran need to be revised in line with the positive input.There is a need to have community-based units within the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and other relevant organisations.

  6. International programme to mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident: Establishment of an international centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    In April 1990, an agreement was signed between the WHO and the USSR Ministry of Health to set up a long-term international programme to assist the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as to increase the body of scientific knowledge about radiation effects. This report outlines the contents of the agreement and describes the action taken by the WHO to implement the programme

  7. The radiation protection programme activities of the World Health Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, E.; Suess, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation protection activities of the World Health Organization are reviewed. They include studies of radiation protection standards and guidelines, and public health aspects of nuclear power. WHO also provides member states with world data on radioactivity in air, water and food, and assessments of population exposure and health effects. (H.K.)

  8. An assessment of individual health benefits from a domestic Radon remediation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.; McClatchey, J.

    2002-01-01

    Radon gas occurs naturally in the environment and has been shown to cause increased numbers of lung cancers in miners when present at high levels in underground workings. Reviews of the miners' studies suggest that levels found in some homes can give rise to increased lung cancer incidence, and this has been confirmed by recent case control studies in South West England, and Germany. The current scientific consensus, expressed in the BEIR 6. report is that the risk of lung cancer has a linear relation with increasing radon exposure, and that there is no threshold of risk. The distribution of such excessive levels is geographically varied, and many countries have established programmes to identify the homes at risk, and encourage homeowners to remediate to reduce levels. Northamptonshire, in the centre of England, has been declared a radon Affected Area by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), and has an average of 6.3 % of homes above the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 . Several studies have suggested that theoretically such programmes can be justified on the basis of health benefits and cost effectiveness. Our group was the first to study actual radon remediation programmes - in Northamptonshire, studying first National Health Service properties, schools, and homes. These studies demonstrated that remediation programmes in Northamptonshire could be justified. The domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, once complete, could be favourably compared to other health initiatives such as the UK mammography screening programme for women aged 50 to 65

  9. The Realization of the System Programme "Health Saving Education" in the Pedagogical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagovitsyn, Roman S.; Chigovskaya-Nazarova, Yanina A.; Miroshnichenko, Aleksey A.; Senator, Svetlana Y.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to develop a system programme "Health saving education" on the basis of creating a structural model and model of management and ensuring health and preventive activities and experimentally prove the effectiveness of its implementation in the educational process of the university. The solution of research…

  10. Maintenance of behaviour change after a 12-week mHealth lifestyle programme for young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Allman-Farinelli

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Young adulthood is a period of rapid weight gain but this group are hard to reach for health promotion. Despite the relatively low intensity of the TXT2BFiT programme, behaviours were maintained during the six months following the intervention. mHealth shows promise to deliver intervention with wide reach and low cost.

  11. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-09-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two 'blocks', purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women's collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  12. Evaluation a Community Maternal Health Programme: Lessons Learnt

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sheetal; Simkhada, Padam; Hundley, Vanora; Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Stephens, Jane; Silwal, R.C.; Angell, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Using the example of a community-based health promotion intervention, this paper explores the important triangle between health promotion theory, intervention design, and evaluation research. This paper first outlines the intervention and then the mixed-method evaluation. In 2007, a non-governmental organisation (NGO) designed and implemented an intervention to improve the uptake of maternal health provision in rural Nepal. A community-based needs assessment preceded this novel healt...

  13. Establishing an independent mobile health programme for chronic disease self-management support in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Piette

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mobile health (m-health work in low and middle-income countries (LMICs mainly consists of pilot programmes with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD self-management support in Bolivia. Methods: 364 primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. 165 of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly Interactive Voice Response (IVR calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Results: 37% of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home, and 38% had six or fewer years of education. 82% had a mobile phone; half (45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR programme participants completed 1007 self-management support calls, with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients’ ethnicity, health status or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during baseline interviews. Patients’ likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health via IVR increased during programme participation, and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the programme, with 19/20 (95% reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. Conclusions: By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programmes can be transferred from higher-resource centres to LMICs and implemented in ways that improve access to self-management support among people

  14. Seasonal Variations in Health Hazards from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to Submicrometer Particles at Three Characteristic Sites in the Heavily Polluted Polish Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kozielska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particles with aerodynamic diameters not greater than 1 μm (PM1 were sampled at the urban background; regional background; and urban traffic points in southern Poland. In total, 120 samples were collected between 2 August 2009 and 27 December 2010. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in each sample. The samples were collected with a high volume sampler (Digitel. Afterwards, they were chemically analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (Perkin Elmer Clarus 500. The mean concentration values of the PAH sum (ΣPAH and particular PAHs; the percentages of carcinogenic PAHs in total PAHs (ΣPAHcarc/ΣPAH; carcinogenic equivalent (CEQ; mutagenic equivalent (MEQ; and TCDD-toxic equivalent (TEQ were much higher in the winter (heating season than in the summer (non-heating one. For both periods, the resulting average values obtained were significantly higher (a few; and sometimes a several dozen times higher in the researched Polish region than the values observed in other areas of the world. Such results indicate the importance of health hazards resulting from PM1 and PM1-bound PAHs in this Polish area.

  15. The NIHR Public Health Research Programme: responding to local authority research needs in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorling, Hannah; Cook, Andrew; Ollerhead, Liz; Westmore, Matt

    2015-12-11

    The remit of the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research (PHR) Programme is to evaluate public health interventions, providing new knowledge on the benefits, costs, acceptability and wider impacts of interventions, set outside of the National Health Service, intended to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities. This paper illustrates how the PHR Programme is providing new knowledge for public health decision makers, based on the nine key areas for local authority public health action, described by the King's Fund. Many funded PHR projects are evaluating interventions, applied in a range of settings, across the identified key areas for local authority influence. For example, research has been funded on children and young people, and for some of the wider determinants of health, such as housing and travel. Other factors, such as spatial planning, or open and green spaces and leisure, are less represented in the PHR Programme. Further opportunities in research include interventions to improve the health of adolescents, adults in workplaces, and communities. Building evidence for public health interventions at local authority level is important to prioritise and implement effective changes to improve population health.

  16. [Factors Influencing Participation in Financial Incentive Programmes of Health Insurance Funds. Results of the Study 'German Health Update'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, S; von der Lippe, E; Starker, A; Hoebel, J; Franke, A

    2015-11-01

    The statutory health insurance can offer their insured incentive programmes that will motivate for healthy behaviour through a financial or material reward. This study will show results about what factors influence financial incentive programme participation (BPT) including all sorts of statutory health insurance funds and taking into account gender differences. For the cross-sectional analysis, data were used from 15,858 participants in the study 'Germany Health Update' (GEDA) from 2009, who were insured in the statutory health insurance. The selection of potential influencing variables for a BPT is based on the "Behavioural Model for Health Service Use" of Andersen. Accordingly, various factors were included in logistic regression models, which were calculated separately by gender: predisposing factors (age, education, social support, and health awareness), enabling factors (income, statutory health insurance fund, and family physician), and need factors (smoking, fruit and vegetable consumption, sports, body mass index, and general health status). In consideration of all factors, for both sexes, BPT is associated with age, health awareness, education, use of a family physician, smoking, and sports activities. In addition, income, body mass index, and diet are significant in women and social support and kind of statutory health insurance fund in men. It is found that predisposing, enabling and need factors are relevant. Financial incentive programmes reach population groups with greatest need less than those groups who already have a health-conscious behaviour, who receive a reward for this. In longitudinal studies, further research on financial incentive programmes should investigate the existence of deadweight effects and whether incentive programmes can contribute to the reduction of the inequity in health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Affordability of comprehensive community health worker programmes in rural sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Celia; Griffiths, Frances; Lilford, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Community health worker (CHW) programmes have low costs per person served and are central to achieving universal healthcare. However, their total cost is high and the target of one million CHWs for sub-Saharan Africa by 2015 was not met. We consider the affordability of rural CHW programmes by estimating total programme costs relative to national healthcare expenditure at different CHW salaries and resources available for healthcare. We combine an existing source of rural CHW programme costs with World Bank data to estimate relative CHW programme costs in 37 countries. We consider three 'salaries' (CHWs as volunteers, paid the local equivalent of US$80 per month and paid the national minimum wage) and four potential healthcare budgets (both actual and Abuja declaration allocations alone and increased by external funding received and potential foreign aid, respectively). Costs are shown in 2012 nominal US$. With CHWs paid the local equivalent of US$80 per month and financed from existing central government healthcare budgets, the median relative cost of a CHW programme would be 27% of the healthcare budget. While less than 2.5% in five countries (Botswana, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Namibia and South Africa), this relative cost would exceed 100% in three (Chad, Eritrea and Niger). There is a strong negative linear relationship (R 2 =0.83, psub-Saharan Africa. In many countries, such programmes are not yet affordable unless significant foreign aid is received.

  18. A taxonomy and results from a comprehensive review of 28 maternal health voucher programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Ben W; Conlon, Claudia M; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Townsend, John W; Nahed, Matta G; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly clear that Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5 will not be achieved in many low- and middle-income countries with the weakest gains among the poor. Recognizing that there are large inequalities in reproductive health outcomes, the post-2015 agenda on universal health coverage will likely generate strategies that target resources where maternal and newborn deaths are the highest. In 2012, the United States Agency for International Development convened an Evidence Summit to review the knowledge and gaps on the utilization of financial incentives to enhance the quality and uptake of maternal healthcare. The goal was to provide donors and governments of the low- and middle-income countries with evidence-informed recommendations on practice, policy, and strategies regarding the use of financial incentives, including vouchers, to enhance the demand and supply of maternal health services. The findings in this paper are intended to guide governments interested in maternal health voucher programmes with recommendations for sustainable implementation and impact. The Evidence Summit undertook a systematic review of five financing strategies. This paper presents the methods and findings for vouchers, building on a taxonomy to catalogue knowledge about voucher programme design and functionality. More than 120 characteristics under five major categories were identified: programme principles (objectives and financing); governance and management; benefits package and beneficiary targeting; providers (contracting and service pricing); and implementation arrangements (marketing, claims processing, and monitoring and evaluation). Among the 28 identified maternal health voucher programmes, common characteristics included: a stated objective to increase the use of services among the means-tested poor; contracted-out programme management; contracting either exclusively private facilities or a mix of public and private providers; prioritizing community

  19. A Taxonomy and Results from a Comprehensive Review of 28 Maternal Health Voucher Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Claudia M.; Higgs, Elizabeth S.; Townsend, John W.; Nahed, Matta G.; Cavanaugh, Karen; Grainger, Corinne G.; Okal, Jerry; Gorter, Anna C.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5 will not be achieved in many low- and middle-income countries with the weakest gains among the poor. Recognizing that there are large inequalities in reproductive health outcomes, the post-2015 agenda on universal health coverage will likely generate strategies that target resources where maternal and newborn deaths are the highest. In 2012, the United States Agency for International Development convened an Evidence Summit to review the knowledge and gaps on the utilization of financial incentives to enhance the quality and uptake of maternal healthcare. The goal was to provide donors and governments of the low- and middle-income countries with evidence-informed recommendations on practice, policy, and strategies regarding the use of financial incentives, including vouchers, to enhance the demand and supply of maternal health services. The findings in this paper are intended to guide governments interested in maternal health voucher programmes with recommendations for sustainable implementation and impact. The Evidence Summit undertook a systematic review of five financing strategies. This paper presents the methods and findings for vouchers, building on a taxonomy to catalogue knowledge about voucher programme design and functionality. More than 120 characteristics under five major categories were identified: programme principles (objectives and financing); governance and management; benefits package and beneficiary targeting; providers (contracting and service pricing); and implementation arrangements (marketing, claims processing, and monitoring and evaluation). Among the 28 identified maternal health voucher programmes, common characteristics included: a stated objective to increase the use of services among the means-tested poor; contracted-out programme management; contracting either exclusively private facilities or a mix of public and private providers; prioritizing community

  20. TB Notification from Private Health Sector in Delhi, India: Challenges Encountered by Programme Personnel and Private Health Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Satpati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the challenges encountered by private health care providers (PHCP to notify tuberculosis cases through a programme developed web-based portal mechanism called “NIKSHAY.” Study Design. It is a descriptive qualitative study conducted at two revised national tuberculosis control programme (RNTCP districts of New Delhi. The study included in-depth interviews of PHCP registered with “NIKSHAY” and RNTCP programme personnel. Grounded theory was used to conceptualise the latent social patterns in implementation of tuberculosis case notification process and promptly identifying their challenges. Results. The analysis resulted in identification of three broad themes: (a system implementation by RNTCP: it emphasizes the TB notification process by the RNTCP programme personnel; (b challenges faced by PHCP for TB notification with five different subthemes; and (c perceived gaps and suggestions: to improvise the TB notification process for the private health sector. The challenges encountered by PHCP were mainly related to unsystematic planning and suboptimal implementation by programme personnel at the state and district level. The PHCP lacked clarity on the need for TB notification. Conclusion. Implementation of TB notification among private health care providers requires systematic planning by the programme personnel. The process should be user-friendly with additional benefits to the patients.

  1. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits.

  2. Communicable disease control programmes and health systems: an analytical approach to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigayeva, Altynay; Coker, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    There is renewed concern over the sustainability of disease control programmes, and re-emergence of policy recommendations to integrate programmes with general health systems. However, the conceptualization of this issue has remarkably received little critical attention. Additionally, the study of programmatic sustainability presents methodological challenges. In this article, we propose a conceptual framework to support analyses of sustainability of communicable disease programmes. Through this work, we also aim to clarify a link between notions of integration and sustainability. As a part of development of the conceptual framework, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed literature on concepts, definitions, analytical approaches and empirical studies on sustainability in health systems. Identified conceptual proposals for analysis of sustainability in health systems lack an explicit conceptualization of what a health system is. Drawing upon theoretical concepts originating in sustainability sciences and our review here, we conceptualize a communicable disease programme as a component of a health system which is viewed as a complex adaptive system. We propose five programmatic characteristics that may explain a potential for sustainability: leadership, capacity, interactions (notions of integration), flexibility/adaptability and performance. Though integration of elements of a programme with other system components is important, its role in sustainability is context specific and difficult to predict. The proposed framework might serve as a basis for further empirical evaluations in understanding complex interplay between programmes and broader health systems in the development of sustainable responses to communicable diseases. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  3. Understanding student early departure from a Master of Public Health programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Dlungwane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Student departure from university without completing a qualification is a major concern in higher education. Higher Education South Africa reported that in undergraduate studies, 35% of students depart after the first year and only 15% of students who enrol complete their degree within the minimum permissible time. At postgraduate level, the departure from Masters programmes in South Africa (SA ranged from 30% to 67% in 2010. Early departure refers to students who leave an academic programme within the first semester of commencing their studies. At one SA university, there were a total of 109 first-time Master of Public Health (MPH student registrations in 2013 and 2014. By the end of the first semester in the respective years, a total of 27 students actively deregistered from the programme and 11 students did not sit the first-semester examinations, representing an aggregate 35% rate of early departure. The factors associated with early departure at the University of KwaZulu-Natal are not well understood. Objective. To understand factors associated with early departure in the MPH programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Method. A mixed-methods design was implemented. Students who departed within the first semester of commencing the MPH programme in 2013/2014 were followed up. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Results. Failure to balance work and academic obligations with poor time management, stress and academic demands related to the programme, and insufficient academic progress were found to be associated with student early departure from the MPH programme. Conclusion. Student early departure from the MPH programme was influenced by multifaceted factors. Senior students can mentor new students as early as possible in their programme. The orientation block should include development activities such as time management, stress management and effective study skills to assist

  4. The Influence of School Health Education Programmes on the Knowledge and Behaviour of School Children towards Nutrition and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keirle, Kathleen; Thomas, Malcolm

    2000-02-01

    A comparative investigation was conducted involving two school situations; one identified as being health promoting and having a comprehensive policy and a defined programme of health education, and the other not health promoting, having no policy and an unstructured programme of health education. A total of 367 students from two secondary and four primary schools participated in the study. The factors used to categorise schools are highlighted. A self-completion questionnaire was employed to assess students' knowledge and behaviour with regard to nutrition and health. Students' dietary intake was monitored by employing a frequency of consumption tick sheet. The results revealed that students from the more health promoting secondary school (School 1(H)) were more knowledgeable of what constitutes a healthy diet and the benefits and risks to health. The implications of these results are considered within the context of the many factors that could influence students' knowledge and behaviour.

  5. Impact of rural health development programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran on rural-urban disparities in health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S

    2007-01-01

    By 1979 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and Central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.

  6. International Maritime Health Promotion Programme 2007-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Rodriguez, Maria Manuela; Canals, Maria Luisa

    effect. Change of the pattern of risk factors in the population strategy, however, have been shown in a Finnish study. In addition, the SHIP project international relates to the population strategy. Though no direct health effect can be measured, the program has been successfully performed. The effects......Background: Prevention of diabetes-2, cardio-vascular diseases, cancer and overweight is needed in general and in seafaring as well. The diseases are related to three main causal factors: diet, physical activity and smoking. Seafarers have their daily life on board and health promotion is a natural...... part of the occupational health for seafarers. WHO use the concept of a high-risk strategy and a population strategy for prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD). Speaking about intervention studies, related to the population strategy, there are few if any studies with known long-term health...

  7. Improving capacity in ethnicity and health research: report of a tailored programme for NHS Public Health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Sarah; Piercy, Hilary; Chowbey, Punita; Brewins, Louise; Dhoot, Permjeet

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether an intervention designed to enhance research capacity among commissioners in the area of ethnicity and health was feasible and impactful, and to identify programme elements that might usefully be replicated elsewhere. How healthcare commissioners should be equipped to understand and address multiethnic needs has received little attention to-date. Being able to mobilise and apply evidence is a central element of the commissioning process that requires development. Researching ethnicity and health is widely recognised as challenging and several prior interventions have aimed to enhance competence in this area. These have, however, predominantly taken place in North America and have not been evaluated in detail. An innovative research capacity development programme was delivered to public health staff within a large healthcare commissioning organisation in England. Evaluation methodology drew on 'pluralistic' evaluation principles and included formative and summative elements. Participant evaluation forms gave immediate feedback during the programme. Participants also provided feedback at two weeks and 12 months after the programme ended. In addition, one participant and one facilitator provided reflective accounts of the programme's strengths and weaknesses, and programme impact was traced through ongoing partnership work. The programme was well received and had a tangible impact on knowledge, confidence and practice for most participants. Factors important to success included: embedding learning within the participants' work context; ensuring a balance between theory and practical tips to enhance confidence; and having sustained interaction between trainers and participants. Despite positive signs, the challenging nature of the topic was highlighted, as were wider structural and cultural factors that impede progress in this area. Although it is unrealistic to expect such programmes to have a major impact on commissioning practices, they may well

  8. Polish Cartographical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Cartographical Review (PCR journal has been published in English four times a year since 2015. The journal is in open access and it is published by De Gruyter Open. It is edited by Polish scientists in collaboration with international experts.

  9. Impact of school based oral health education programmes in India: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Sohi, Ramandeep Kaur; Nanda, Tarun; Sawhney, Gurjashan Singh; Setia, Saniya

    2013-12-01

    The teaching of Oral Health Education aims at preventing the dental disease and promoting dental health at early stages. Schools are powerful places to shape the health, education and well-being of our children. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of school dental health education programmes conducted in various parts of India. A systematic review from available literature was carried out. The study examined papers relating to oral health interventions which were published between 1992 and 2012. Ten articles were selected and included in the review. All the studies were found to contain the required information on the outcomes of school dental health programmes in India. Different methods were used to deliver oral health education. All the studies reported significant improvement in oral hygiene of school children after imparting dental health education. In some studies, school teachers were also trained to impart oral health education. Decreased level of awareness was found in children coming from low income families. Longer duration studies are needed to improve the results. School dental education programmes should be more focused on north-eastern Indian population.

  10. Measuring the loss of consumer choice in mandatory health programmes using discrete choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Bonny; Goodall, Stephen; Norman, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Economic evaluation of mandatory health programmes generally do not consider the utility impact of a loss of consumer choice upon implementation, despite evidence suggesting that consumers do value having the ability to choose. The primary aim of this study was to explore whether the utility impact of a loss of consumer choice from implementing mandatory health programmes can be measured using discrete choice experiments (DCEs). Three case studies were used to test the methodology: fortification of bread-making flour with folate, mandatory influenza vaccination of children, and the banning of trans-fats. Attributes and levels were developed from a review of the literature. An orthogonal, fractional factorial design was used to select the profiles presented to respondents to allow estimation of main effects. Overall, each DCE consisted of 64 profiles which were allocated to four versions of 16 profiles. Each choice task compared two profiles, one being voluntary and the other being mandatory, plus a 'no policy' option, thus each respondent was presented with eight choice tasks. For each choice task, respondents were asked which health policy they most preferred and least preferred. Data was analysed using a mixed logit model with correlated coefficients (200 Halton draws). The compensating variation required for introducing a programme on a mandatory basis (versus achieving the same health impacts with a voluntary programme) that holds utility constant was estimated. Responses were provided by 535 participants (a response rate of 83 %). For the influenza vaccination and folate fortification programmes, the results suggested that some level of compensation may be required for introducing the programme on a mandatory basis. Introducing a mandatory influenza vaccination programme required the highest compensation (Australian dollars [A$] 112.75, 95 % CI -60.89 to 286.39) compared with folate fortification (A$18.05, 95 % CI -3.71 to 39.80). No compensation was

  11. Programme evaluation training for health professionals in francophone Africa: process, competence acquisition and use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banza Baya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While evaluation is, in theory, a component of training programmes in health planning, training needs in this area remain significant. Improving health systems necessarily calls for having more professionals who are skilled in evaluation. Thus, the Université de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso and the Université de Montréal (Canada have partnered to establish, in Burkina Faso, a master's-degree programme in population and health with a course in programme evaluation. This article describes the four-week (150-hour course taken by two cohorts (2005–2006/2006–2007 of health professionals from 11 francophone African countries. We discuss how the course came to be, its content, its teaching processes and the master's programme results for students. Methods The conceptual framework was adapted from Kirkpatrick's (1996 four-level evaluation model: reaction, learning, behaviour, results. Reaction was evaluated based on a standardized questionnaire for all the master's courses and lessons. Learning and behaviour competences were assessed by means of a questionnaire (pretest/post-test, one year after adapted from the work of Stevahn L, King JA, Ghere G, Minnema J: Establishing Essential Competencies for Program Evaluators. Am J Eval 2005, 26(1:43–59. Master's programme effects were tested by comparing the difference in mean scores between times (before, after, one year after using pretest/post-test designs. Paired sample tests were used to compare mean scores. Results The teaching is skills-based, interactive and participative. Students of the first cohort gave the evaluation course the highest score (4.4/5 for overall satisfaction among the 16 courses (3.4–4.4 in the master's programme. What they most appreciated was that the forms of evaluation were well adapted to the content and format of the learning activities. By the end of the master's programme, both cohorts of students considered that they had greatly improved their

  12. An assessment of oral health promotion programmes in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, A; Reeves, A O; Newton, T; Hughes, R; Dunne, S; Donaldson, N; Wilson, N

    2012-02-01

    Improving oral health and reducing tooth decay is a key area for action, both in the United Kingdom (UK) and overseas. The World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted the unique advantage schools have in promoting oral health. We summarise current oral health promotion strategies in the United Kingdom and estimate the spread of their use as well as their impact on oral health and influence on the oral health-related knowledge and behaviour in a patient population. A structured overview of published papers, government publications, official government websites and policy reports. A cross-sectional study of patients referred for a tooth extraction in one dental surgery in south-east London. Statistical methods consisted of logistic and ordinal regressions to model the likelihood of exposure to oral health promotion and of obtaining higher levels of knowledge of oral health issues, respectively. Linear regression was used to model the level of oral health and knowledge of oral health issues. We found three main promotion programmes, namely, National Healthy Schools (NHS), Sure Start and Brushing for life plus a small number of local initiatives. Sure Start targets disadvantaged areas, but is limited. In our observational study, 34% of the patients reported exposure to a settings-based oral health education programme: Sure Start (5%), NHS (7%) and other (22%). This exposure was not influenced by age or gender, but an association with education was detected. Although oral health promotion was not found to influence the actual knowledge of oral health issues, it was found to influence some oral health-related attitudes and perceptions. Participation in an oral health promotion programme was found to be significantly associated with the patients' education, their belief that they can prevent oral disease and the subjective perception of their own oral health. The WHO principles need to be embedded across all schools to achieve a true national oral health promotion

  13. An evaluation of a public health practitioner registration programme: lessons learned for workforce development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Em; Wills, Jane

    2014-09-01

    This article explores the lessons learned for workforce development from an evaluation of a regional programme to support the assessment and registration of public health practitioners to the UK Public Health Register (UKPHR) in England. A summative and process evaluation of the public health practitioner programme in Wessex was adopted. Data collection was by an online survey of 32 public health practitioners in the Wessex area and semi-structured interviews with 53 practitioners, programme support, employers and system leaders. All survey respondents perceived regulation of the public health workforce as very important or important. Managers and system leaders saw a register of those fit to practise and able to define themselves as a public health practitioner as a necessary assurance of quality for the public. Yet, because registration is voluntary for practitioners, less value was currently placed on this than on completing a master's qualification. The local programme supports practitioners in the compilation of a retrospective portfolio of evidence that demonstrates fitness to practise; practitioners and managers stated that this does not support current and future learning needs or the needs of those working at a senior level. One of the main purposes of statutory regulation of professionals is to protect the public by an assurance of fitness to practise where there is a potential for harm. The widening role for public health practitioners without any regulation means that there is the risk of inappropriate interventions or erroneous advice. Regulators, policy makers and system leaders need to consider how they can support the development of the public health workforce to gain professional recognition at all levels of public health, including practitioners alongside specialists, and support a professional career framework for the public health system. © Royal Society for Public Health 2014.

  14. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish university degree programmes of Veterinary Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, María Del Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Huerta, Belén

    2017-04-19

    To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into the Veterinary Medicine degree training. The 3rd Forum of University Professors of Public Health was held at the School of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Cordoba (12-13 January 2016). Forty-two university professors and lecturers from nine Spanish universities with veterinary degrees participated in the forum. They were divided into five working groups during three working sessions to identify and classify core public health competencies for the Veterinary Medicine degree, propose public health contents for the identified competencies and organize such contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in different plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the following public health functions: «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organized into five units: 1) Fundamentals of public health; 2) Study and research in public health; 3) Production, animal health and environment; 4) Food security; and 5) Health education. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to update public health training programmes for future veterinary professionals. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Resource needs of an occupational health service to accommodate a hepatitis B vaccination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachuck, S J; Jones, C; Nicholls, A; Bartlett, M

    1990-01-01

    The administrative, organizational and clinical commitment of an occupational health department to implement the DHSS recommendation for a hepatitis B vaccination programme for the health care workers in a District General Hospital was reviewed to evaluate the resource implications needed to accommodate the additional workload. The deficiencies observed in the existing DHSS guidance in implementing the plan are described. It is suggested that the Department of Health, while making future recommendations for vaccination, should be more precise in identifying those at risk, in describing the desired titre to be achieved after vaccination, and in describing the follow-up plan for those who accept the vaccination, those who refuse and those who do not seroconvert. The recommendation should describe the commitment of the Health Authorities and must include recommendations for appropriate and adequate resources to support such a programme. Vaccination for 1000 employees at risk required 4000 additional consultations necessitating 16 additional hours of occupational health commitment per week. Eighteen months after initiating the vaccination programme, 677 employees had accepted the vaccine. After receiving 3 vaccines 508 (75 per cent) recipients had protective seroconversion (anti-Hbs greater than 100 I.U.) and a further 61 (9 per cent) converted after the 4th injection, thereby offering protective immunity to 84 per cent of the recipients. During the period 84 (12.4 per cent) were lost to follow-up. Recommendations have been made to accommodate the additional commitment through the vaccination programme to standardize our care and prevent disruption of the existing service.

  16. The association between socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life among Polish postmenopausal women from urban and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, M; Pacholska-Bogalska, J; Kwaśniewski, W; Kotarski, J; Halerz-Nowakowska, B; Goździcka-Józefiak, A

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, more scholarly attention has been paid to a growing range of geographic characteristics as antecedents of inequalities in women's health and well-being. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in health-related quality of life between rural and urban Polish postmenopausal women. Using a data set from a reproductive health preventive screening of 660 postmenopausal women aged 48-60 years, inhabitants of Wielkopolska and Lublin provinces, the association of place of residence, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors with health-related quality of life (the SF-36 instrument) was evaluated using ANCOVA models and multiple logistic regression analysis with backward elimination steps. A consistent rural-to-urban gradient was found in all indices of physical health functioning and well-being but not in vitality, social functioning, emotional role and mental health scales with women in large cities being likely to enjoy the highest and those in villages the lowest quality of life. The rural-urban disparities in health-related quality of life were mediated by women's socioeconomic status. The likelihood of worse physical and mental functioning and well-being was 2-3 times greater for the low socioeconomic status rural women than their counterparts from more affluent urban areas. The educational attainment and employment status were the most powerful independent risk factors for health-related quality of life in both rural and urban women. Better understanding of the role of socioeconomic status that acts as a mediator in the association between area of residence and health-related quality of life may be useful in developing public health policies on health inequalities among women at midlife. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Implementing primary health care: some problems of creating national programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J P; Walt, G

    1984-07-01

    While there is a great deal of agreement about the principles underlying Primary Health Care (PHC), there exist many problems, political, planning and management, involved in putting the approach into effect. Some of these difficulties are discussed. It is clear that the PHC approach is essentially political; the way it is implemented in each country will reflect the political priorities and systems of that country. Moreover, ministries of health are not known for their strong position in the ministerial pecking order. Finance and planning ministeries would have to be won over to the importance of the concept of PHC to try to eexpand the health budget and to change the emphasis of existing resource allocation patterns. Costs incurred by a PHC approach ( e.g., expensive transport and communication systems), and resources needed to finance it may be available; however, they may not be channelled to the politically less articulate groups in rural areas. Political implications are not limited to national levels; considerable conflict may exist between different status groups and classes at the village level, thus sabotaging PHC plans. Professional politics will also be played at all levels. It is equally essential to recognize the historical context in which PHC is being introduced. Many countries have inherited colonial infrastructures. Changing the values, perceptions, expectations, administration and organization that accompany such systems is extremely hard, and to put PHC into effect demands radical changes. The planning difficulties which beset PHC are related to the still large private provision of social services like health, and to a flourishing traditional private sector in many developing countries. These may limit the implementation of a national health policy and PHC may thus result in a very patchy service throughout the country. The level of centralized planning will also affect resource allocation and therefore the policy, planning and implementation

  18. [Self-assessment of tasks and roles of occupational medicine service (OMS) nurses in the Polish system of workers' health protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of survey performed to find out how occupational medicine service (OMS) nurses assess their tasks and roles in the Polish system of workers' health protection. The survey was carried out in a random group of 200 OMS nurses. The survey showed that OMS nurses form-an experienced professional group. According to self-assessment they have an opportunity to use their competence in its full scope. Almost half of respondents agreed that in Poland the skills of OMS nurses are properly used. There are two reasons why certain tasks are not performed by OMS nurses, first, certain tasks are assigned to other persons in the unit; second, employers are sometimes not interested in those tasks or find them not necessary. The majority of nurses assess their knowledge and preparation to perform tasks relatively well, however they want to broaden their knowledge and improve their skills. OMS nurses play an important role in the Polish system of workers' health protection. They perform many tasks, which fall within the scope of OMS activities being currently implemented. Their competences are usually properly used. There is a need to convince employers that the scope of services provided by OMS units should be extended and adequately financed. This should result in the better use of OMS nurses' competences. Nurses are well educated and skilled to perform their jobs. Nevertheless, they feel the need to broaden their knowledge. Although the programs of specialization and qualification courses are rather comprehensive, nurses declare that some areas should be enriched with additional information.

  19. Keeping health facilities safe: one way of strengthening the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Schouten, Erik J; Chimbwandira, Frank; Van Damme, Wim; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2010-12-01

    The debate on the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health system strengthening in the last few years has intensified as experts seek to tease out common ground and find solutions and synergies to bridge the divide. Unfortunately, the debate continues to be largely academic and devoid of specificity, resulting in the issues being irrelevant to health care workers on the ground. Taking the theme 'What would entice HIV- and tuberculosis (TB)-programme managers to sit around the table on a Monday morning with health system experts', this viewpoint focuses on infection control and health facility safety as an important and highly relevant practical topic for both disease-specific programmes and health system strengthening. Our attentions, and the examples and lessons we draw on, are largely aimed at sub-Saharan Africa where the great burden of TB and HIV ⁄ AIDS resides, although the principles we outline would apply to other parts of the world as well. Health care infections, caused for example by poor hand hygiene, inadequate testing of donated blood, unsafe disposal of needles and syringes, poorly sterilized medical and surgical equipment and lack of adequate airborne infection control procedures, are responsible for a considerable burden of illness amongst patients and health care personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. Effective infection control in a district hospital requires that all the components of a health system function well: governance and stewardship, financing,infrastructure, procurement and supply chain management, human resources, health information systems, service delivery and finally supervision. We argue in this article that proper attention to infection control and an emphasis on safe health facilities is a concrete first step towards strengthening the interaction between disease-specific programmes and health systems where it really matters – for patients who are sick and for the health care workforce who provide

  20. Understanding the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in underserved areas: a realist synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vareilles, Ga?lle; Pommier, Jeanine; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Background The recruitment of community health volunteers (CHVs) to support the delivery of health programmes is an established approach in underserved areas and in particular where there are health inequalities due to the scarcity of trained human resources. However, there is a dearth of evidence about what works to improve CHVs? performance. This review aimed to synthesise existing literature to explain why, how and under which circumstances intervention approaches to improve the performanc...

  1. Views of commissioners, managers and healthcare professionals on the NHS Health Check programme: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katie; Harte, Emma; Martin, Adam; MacLure, Calum; Griffin, Simon J; Mant, Jonathan; Meads, Catherine; Saunders, Catherine L; Walter, Fiona M; Usher-Smith, Juliet A

    2017-11-15

    To synthesise data concerning the views of commissioners, managers and healthcare professionals towards the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check programme in general and the challenges faced when implementing it in practice. A systematic review of surveys and interview studies with a descriptive analysis of quantitative data and thematic synthesis of qualitative data. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Embase, Health Management Information Consortium, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, PsycInfo, Web of Science, OpenGrey, the Cochrane Library, NHS Evidence, Google Scholar, Google, ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry from 1 January 1996 to 9 November 2016 with no language restriction and manual screening of reference lists of all included papers. Primary research reporting views of commissioners, managers or healthcare professionals on the NHS Health Check programme and its implementation in practice. Of 18 524 citations, 15 articles met the inclusion criteria. There was evidence from both quantitative and qualitative studies that some commissioners and general practice (GP) healthcare professionals were enthusiastic about the programme, whereas others raised concerns around inequality of uptake, the evidence base and cost-effectiveness. In contrast, those working in pharmacies were all positive about programme benefits, citing opportunities for their business and staff. The main challenges to implementation were: difficulties with information technology and computer software, resistance to the programme from some GPs, the impact on workload and staffing, funding and training needs. Inadequate privacy was also a challenge in pharmacy and community settings, along with difficulty recruiting people eligible for Health Checks and poor public access to some venues. The success of the NHS Health Check Programme relies on engagement by those responsible for its

  2. What do general practitioners think about an online self-regulation programme for health promotion? Focus group interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaete, Jolien; Crombez, Geert; DeSmet, Ann; Deveugele, Myriam; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-22

    Chronic diseases may be prevented through programmes that promote physical activity and healthy nutrition. Computer-tailoring programmes are effective in changing behaviour in the short- and long-term. An important issue is the implementation of these programmes in general practice. However, there are several barriers that hinder the adoption of eHealth programmes in general practice. This study explored the feasibility of an eHealth programme that was designed, using self-regulation principles. Seven focus group interviews (a total of 62 GPs) were organized to explore GPs' opinions about the feasibility of the eHealth programme for prevention in general practice. At the beginning of each focus group, GPs were informed about the principles of the self-regulation programme 'My Plan'. Open-ended questions were used to assess the opinion of GPs about the content and the use of the programme. The focus groups discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and thematically analysed via NVivo software. The majority of the GPs was positive about the use of self-regulation strategies and about the use of computer-tailored programmes in general practice. There were contradictory results about the delivery mode of the programme. GPs also indicated that the programme might be less suited for patients with a low educational level or for old patients. Overall, GPs are positive about the adoption of self-regulation techniques for health promotion in their practice. However, they raised doubts about the adoption in general practice. This barrier may be addressed (1) by offering various ways to deliver the programme, and (2) by allowing flexibility to match different work flow systems. GPs also believed that the acceptability and usability of the programme was low for patients who are old or with low education. The issues raised by GPs will need to be taken into account when developing and implementing an eHealth programme in general practice.

  3. Wellbeing: the challenge of 'operationalising' an holistic concept within a reductionist public health programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooris, Mark; Farrier, Alan; Froggett, Lynn

    2018-03-01

    Wellbeing is a concept that, while contested, recognises individual and wider social, economic, political and environmental contextual influences - and is of growing interest and relevance locally and globally. In this article, we report on one aspect of an evaluative research study conducted on a public health programme in North West England. Within the context of a process evaluation that explored the delivery of a public health programme and sought to increase understanding of how and why different approaches worked well or not so well, this article focuses specifically on the concept of wellbeing, examining perceptions of multiple stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were undertaken with 52 stakeholders involved in managing and facilitating the programme and its composite projects and with 90 community members involved as project participants. Data were subjected to thematic analysis, cross-check and refining. Results highlight stakeholders' diverse understandings of wellbeing, the complex relationship between health and wellbeing, and the perceived dissonance between the holistic concept of wellbeing and the reductionist design of the programme. Wellbeing was understood to be 'more than health' and 'more than happiness', concerned with effective functioning, sense of purpose and flourishing. Essentially holistic, wellbeing offers opportunities to transcend clinical/pathogenic conceptions of 'health' and resonate with individuals, communities and local authorities. This raises concerns about how wellbeing can be meaningfully realised without compromising the concept, particularly when programmes are structured in reductionist ways requiring monitoring against discrete outcomes. Implications for practice include the following: utilising wellbeing as a driver for cross-cutting public health in challenging economic and organisational contexts, acknowledging that wellbeing is essentially social as well as individual, appreciating that wellbeing is experienced

  4. Quality of care in reproductive health programmes: monitoring and evaluation of quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwast, B E

    1998-12-01

    As 200 million women become pregnant every year, at least 30 million will develop life-threatening complications requiring emergency treatment at any level of society where they live. But it is a basic human right that pregnancy be made safe for all women as complications are mostly unpredictable. This requires reproductive health programmes which are responsive to women's and their families' needs and expectations on the one hand and enhancement of community participation, high quality obstetric services, and both provider collaboration and satisfaction on the other. Monitoring and evaluation of these facets need to be an integral part of any safe motherhood programme, not only to assess progress, but also to use this information for subsequent planning and implementation cycles of national programmes. Lessons learned from ten years' implementation of Safe Motherhood programmes indicate that process and outcome indicators are more feasible for short-term evaluation purposes than impact indicators, such as maternal mortality reduction. The former are described in this paper with relevant country examples. This is the third, and last, article in a series on quality of care in reproductive health programmes. The first (Kwast 1998a) contains an overview of concepts, assessments, barriers and improvements of quality of care. The second (Kwast 1998b) addresses education issues for quality improvement.

  5. African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: Model-Estimated Health Impact and Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Coffeng (Luc); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); H.G.M. Zouré (Honorat G.); J.L. Veerman (Lennert); K.B. Agblewonu (Koffi); M.E. Murdoch (Michele); M. Noma (Mounkaila); G. Fobi (Grace); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); D.A.P. Bundy (Donald A.); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); U.V. Amazigo (Uche)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health

  6. FIFA 11 for Health Programme: Implementation in Five Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W.; Junge, Astrid; Amaning, Jacob; Kaijage, Rogasian R.; Kaputa, John; Magwende, George; Pambo, Prince; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the FIFA 11 for Health programme in increasing children's knowledge about communicable and non-communicable diseases in five countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Method: A prospective five-cohort study was implemented in schools in Ghana (17), Malawi (12), Namibia (11), Tanzania (18) and Zambia (11). The…

  7. Evaluation of health promotion programmes in severe mental illness : theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, Fenneke M.; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Loonen, Anton J. M.

    Health promotion programmes for patients with severe mental illness (HPP) are not uniformly evaluated. We discuss the evaluation of HPP in theory and practice, as a prerequisite for future uniform evaluation. We explored the expected outcome and mechanism of HPP in the current literature. Based on

  8. On PAR: A feasibility study of the Promoting Adult Resilience programme with mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kim; Shochet, Ian; Wurfl, Astrid; Roche, Michael; Maybery, Darryl; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Furness, Trentham

    2018-02-27

    Mental health settings are recognized as complex, unpredictable environments, and challenging interpersonal situations are common for nurses in acute adult mental health services. Occupational stressors include verbal aggression and physical assault and are correlated with poor physical and mental health outcomes for nurses. There is a clear need for proactive approaches that address the negative impacts of stressors on the mental health nursing workforce. Resilience interventions are a preventive approach to strengthening skills for addressing workplace stress, improving health and well-being, and preventing adverse outcomes associated with occupational stressors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a workplace resilience education programme for nurses in high-acuity adult mental health settings. The outcomes were measured using a single-group pretest post-test design with follow-up at 3 months postintervention. The feasibility and acceptability of the programme were identified with descriptors of mental health, well-being, resilience, facilitator fidelity checklists, and participant satisfaction questionnaires. The programme was found to be feasible for nurses working in high-acuity inpatient settings. There were significant changes to mental health, well-being, and workplace resilience. The programme was delivered with fidelity by facilitators and accepted with high levels of satisfaction by participants. The study findings indicated that nurses can benefit from resilience education that equips them with cognitive, emotion regulation, and relational skills, in conjunction with available external supports and resources, to address workplace challenges. There is a need for comprehensive organizational approaches that include individual, work unit, and organizational-level strategies to support staff well-being. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's grant-making programme for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, David; Kembhavi, Gayatri; Patel, Jinesh; Luintel, Akish

    2009-05-09

    The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is a major contributor to global health; its influence on international health policy and the design of global health programmes and initiatives is profound. Although the foundation's contribution to global health generally receives acclaim, fairly little is known about its grant-making programme. We undertook an analysis of 1094 global health grants awarded between January, 1998, and December, 2007. We found that the total value of these grants was US$8.95 billion, of which $5.82 billion (65%) was shared by only 20 organisations. Nevertheless, a wide range of global health organisations, such as WHO, the GAVI Alliance, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, prominent universities, and non-governmental organisations received grants. $3.62 billion (40% of all funding) was given to supranational organisations. Of the remaining amount, 82% went to recipients based in the USA. Just over a third ($3.27 billion) of funding was allocated to research and development (mainly for vaccines and microbicides), or to basic science research. The findings of this report raise several questions about the foundation's global health grant-making programme, which needs further research and assessment.

  10. The use of programme planning and social marketing models by a state public health agency: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohr, J M; Strack, R W; Newton-Ward, M; Cooke, C H

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the use of planning models and social marketing planning principles within a state's central public health agency as a means for informing improved planning practices. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 key programme planners in selected division branches, and a quantitative survey was distributed to 63 individuals responsible for programme planning in 12 programme-related branches. Employees who have an appreciation of and support for structured programme planning and social marketing may be considered the 'low hanging fruit' or 'early adopters'. On the other hand, employees that do not support or understand either of the two concepts have other barriers to using social marketing when planning programmes. A framework describing the observed factors involved in programme planning on an individual, interpersonal and organizational level is presented. Understanding the individual and structural barriers and facilitators of structured programme planning and social marketing is critical to increase the planning capacity within public health agencies.

  11. Assessment of human resources for health programme implementation in 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Poz, Mario Roberto; Sepulveda, Hernan Rodrigo; Costa Couto, Maria Helena; Godue, Charles; Padilla, Monica; Cameron, Rick; Vidaurre Franco, Thais de Andrade

    2015-04-28

    The health systems in the Americas region are characterized by fragmentation and segmentation, which constitute an important barrier to expanding coverage, achieving integrated primary health care, and reducing inefficiency and discontinuity of care. An assessment of the human resources for health (HRH) programmes that have been implemented at the country level was developed as part of the measurement of the 20 HRH regional goals for 2007-2015, adopted in 2007 by the Pan American Sanitary Conference (CSPA). The exercise was a combination of academic research and the development/application of an advocacy tool involving policy makers and stakeholders to influence the decision-making in the development, implementation, or change of HRH programmes while building evidence through a structured approach based on qualitative and quantitative information and the exchange and dissemination of best practices. This paper covers the methodological challenges, as well as a summary of the main findings of the study, which included 15 countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama in the Central America, Dominican Republic in the Caribbean, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru in the Andean sub region, and Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay in the South Cone. Despite the different contexts, the results showed that the programmes evaluated faced common challenges, such as lack of political support and financial unsustainability. The evaluation process allowed the exchange and dissemination of practices, interventions, and programmes currently running in the region. A shared lesson was the importance of careful planning of the implementation of programmes and interventions. The similarities in the problems and challenges of HRH among the participating countries highlighted the need for a cooperation programme on the evaluation and assessment of implementation strategies in the Americas region.

  12. [Population impact of a podiatric school health programme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Galván, José; Álvarez-Ruiz, Verónica; Tovaruela-Carrión, Natalia; Mahillo-Durán, Ramón; Gago-Reyes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the work done over the past 12 years in a collaboration between the school communities at various primary and secondary schools and the practical experience managers working in the Preventive and Community Podiatry area of the Podiatry degree at the University of Seville (Spain). The article presents several strategies, which were carried out in the fields of Foot Health for All and Preventive and Community Podiatry as part of the Hermes Research Group (CTS-601) aimed at promoting general foot health. Foot examinations were conducted in a total of 4,630 school pupils, with foot problems being confirmed in 677 of them. Some 7,145 members of the school community were also helped, with these people being reached through educational activities around foot care. The aim of the initiative was to prevent foot damage among children, which could have a harmful impact on their quality of life as adults. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding sexual health among young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kumar; Mahalingam Venkateshan; Selvi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adulthood is the pinnacle of all stages of human growth and development. Sexuality plays the axial role in all the spheres of human life. Individual's health can be regarded on the reciprocal function of his sexuality and sexual practices. Abnormal sexuality results in deviation in physical, physiological, psychological and even economical disturbances. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding sexual health...

  14. Parent education programmes for special health care needs children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alun C; Liang, Rachel P-T; Frydenberg, Erica; Higgins, Rosemary O; Murphy, Barbara M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this review was to examine parent education programmes for families with children with special health care needs, to better design interventions focusing on the psychosocial aspects of living with a child's chronic condition. Studies of familial coping with children with special health care needs indicate high levels of parenting stress, with families with children with special health care needs at risk of major psychological and social disturbances and financial strain. Despite increased knowledge of the factors affecting children with special health care needs themselves, evidence for the effectiveness of preventative and treatment interventions in the form of parent education programmes remains limited. Systematic review using PRISMA guidelines. Multi database Boolean searches in EBSCO Discovery Services using the search terms 'complex/special health care needs children', 'child/pediatric/congenital heart disease', 'chronic illness (including diabetes, cancer and cystic fibrosis)', 'family coping', 'siblings' AND 'parenting/family support programs' were conducted. Analysis of 13 included studies showed evidence for the effectiveness of both mixed-health condition and condition-specific parenting programmes delivered in a variety of modes. Three common core intervention approaches were: use of narrative therapy enabling families to tell their own stories, thus facilitating emotional processing and (co-) construction of meaning; a focus on strengthening protective factors such as enhancing parents' skills in communication, and behavioural management and provision of psycho-education to deepen parents' understanding of their child's condition and associated developmental challenges. Irrespective of the type of outcome measures used in the studies, the review showed that there were positive gains and improvements across a range of areas of family functioning such as mental health, parenting, communication and problem-solving skills postprogramme

  15. Study on predictors of health outcome in patients attending hypertension intervention programme in Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Rasidah Abd.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore predictor of health outcomes among Malaysian hypertensive patients attending a standard hypertension intervention programme. Among the psychological predictors studied are illness perception, health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Quality of life, anxiety and depression and demographic variables are among the predictors included in the study. Two series of studies were conducted to answer the research question formulated for each study. Study 1 aims to...

  16. Implementing the global plan of action. IAEA's programme for improving children's health and nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is working to ensure improved health for all, particularly children and women, in partnership with its 132 Member States, other United Nations organizations, and donors. Its programme of technical activities is fully supportive of the recommendations adopted in 1990 by the international community during the World Summit for Children, particularly the statement 'enhancement of children's health and nutrition is a first duty'. (IAEA)

  17. Implementing the global plan of action. IAEA's programme for improving children's health and nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is working to ensure improved health for all, particularly children and women, in partnership with its 132 Member States, other United Nations organizations, and donors. Its programme of technical activities is fully supportive of the recommendations adopted in 1990 by the international community during the World Summit for Children, particularly the statement 'enhancement of children's health and nutrition is a first duty'. (IAEA)

  18. Family planning: a major public health programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S

    1968-01-01

    India's increase of 12 million people each year nullifies almost all the considerable progress the country made in agriculture and industrial production during 19 years of her freedom. Today she ranks 2nd in population and 7th in land area of the world. She claims 15% of the world's population, on about 2.4% of the world's land area. The Government of India has taken family planning as a major national health program under her Five-Year Plans, but impact of this program is not felt as yet. Since this is a difficult complex problem with many facets, it has to be attacked forcefully, drastically, and on all fronts. An all-out war has to be waged against the population growth. India should attack it with all the weapons she had: education, propaganda, taxation, legalization of abortion, and even compulsory sterilization. Overnight change in the fertility pattern of the people is impossible.

  19. Financial incentives for disease management programmes and integrated care in German social health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, Stefan; Focke, Axel; Hessel, Franz; Wasem, Jürgen

    2006-10-01

    As a result of recent health care reforms sickness funds and health care providers in German social health insurance face increased financial incentives for implementing disease management and integrated care. Sickness funds receive higher payments form the risk adjustment system if they set up certified disease management programmes and induce patients to enrol. If health care providers establish integrated care projects they are able to receive extra-budgetary funding. As a consequence, the number of certified disease management programmes and the number of integrated care contracts is increasing rapidly. However, contracts about disease management programmes between sickness funds and health care providers are highly standardized. The overall share of health care expenses spent on integrated care still is very low. Existing integrated care is mostly initiated by hospitals, is based on only one indication and is not fully integrated. However, opportunity to invest in integrated care may open up innovative processes, which generate considerable productivity gains. What is more, integrated care may serve as gateway for the introduction of more widespread selective contracting.

  20. Optimal allocation of resources over health care programmes: dealing with decreasing marginal utility and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Maiwenn J; Feenstra, Talitha L; Hout, Ben A van

    2005-07-01

    This paper addresses the problem of how to value health care programmes with different ratios of costs to effects, specifically when taking into account that these costs and effects are uncertain. First, the traditional framework of maximising health effects with a given health care budget is extended to a flexible budget using a value function over money and health effects. Second, uncertainty surrounding costs and effects is included in the model using expected utility. Other approaches to uncertainty that do not specify a utility function are discussed and it is argued that these also include implicit notions about risk attitude.

  1. Integrating eHealth in HIV/AIDS intervention programmes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babasile D. Osunyomi

    2015-03-01

    Objective: The key aim of this article is to explore the status quo of the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICTs in selected intervention programmes in the South African HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain. The contribution of this article is the mapping of key intervention activities along an HIV care value chain and to suggest a roadmap towards the integration of ICTs in service delivery programmes. Method: 20 managers of HIV/AIDS intervention programmes were surveyed, followed by semi-structured in-depth interviews with these respondents. A further five in-depth interviews were conducted with experts in the ICT area for exploring the uses of and barriers to integrating ICTs in the HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain. Results: The researchers mapped the barriers to implementation and ICT tools utilised within the HIV/AIDS care delivery value chain, which proves to be a useful tool to explore the status quo of technology in such service delivery programmes. The researchers then considered the wider policy environment and provided a roadmap based on the analysis and the South Africa eHealth strategy for driving development in this sector. Conclusion: The authors found that South Africa’s eHealth environment is still nascent and that the South African eHealth strategy does not place enough emphasis on systems integration and stakeholder engagement or the planning and process of uptake of ICTs by target audiences.

  2. Expanded programme on immunization and primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, R N

    1982-09-01

    The ultimate objective of the Expanded Program on Immunication, better known as EPI, is to reduce the morbidity of the diseases for which vaccine is available. The EPI is a key component of the country effort to provide Health for All by the year 2000. It is planned that by 1990 immunization services will be available for all infants against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, tuberculosis, and poliomyelitis and for all school children for diptheria, tetanus, and typhoid, and for all pregnant women against tetanus. The immunization services will be a part of the comprehensive health care and will be integrated with all hospitals and dispensaries in urban areas and primary health centers/subcenters in the rural areas. Outreach operations are encouraged to bring these services as close to the mother and children as possible. Steps have already been taken to make the country self-sufficient in the production of different quality vaccines to meet the program requirements. New vaccines will be added where found to be epidemiologically necessary and administratively feasible. The vaccination program is effective only if given at the right age. A national immunization schedule has been prepared which emphasizes vaccination of all infants with 1 dose of BCG, 3 doses of DPT and polio at a minimum interval of 1 month, by the 1st birthday. School entrants are given a booster dose of DT and 2 doses of typhoid vaccine at an interval of 1 month. The children leaving primary school and leaving high school are given 1 booster dose of tetanus toxoid. In case of history of tetanus toxoid immunization in the earlier preganancy, 1 booster dose is adequate. Important components of management of EPI are cold chain maintenance, record keeping and evaluation, uniform vaccination coverage standards, and communication with the public through various media. A table gives the number of children/women proposed to be covered with full course of vaccine during each year of the 6th Plan. Disease

  3. Working on wellness (WOW): A worksite health promotion intervention programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    CVD is preferred. Importantly, this study extends the work of a previous, similar study, Health Under Construction, in a different setting. Finally, this study will allow an economic evaluation of the intervention that will be an important outcome for health care funders, who ultimately will be responsible for implementation of such an intervention. Trial registration United States Clinical Trails Register NCT 01494207 PMID:22625844

  4. Working on wellness (WOW: A worksite health promotion intervention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L

    2012-05-01

    employees at increased risk for CVD is preferred. Importantly, this study extends the work of a previous, similar study, Health Under Construction, in a different setting. Finally, this study will allow an economic evaluation of the intervention that will be an important outcome for health care funders, who ultimately will be responsible for implementation of such an intervention. Trial registration United States Clinical Trails Register NCT 01494207

  5. Working on wellness (WOW): a worksite health promotion intervention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Proper, Karin I; Lambert, Estelle V; van Wier, Marieke F; Pillay, Julian D; Nossel, Craig; Adonis, Leegale; Van Mechelen, Willem

    2012-05-24

    , this study extends the work of a previous, similar study, Health Under Construction, in a different setting. Finally, this study will allow an economic evaluation of the intervention that will be an important outcome for health care funders, who ultimately will be responsible for implementation of such an intervention. United States Clinical Trails Register NCT 01494207.

  6. Initial community perspectives on the Health Service Extension Programme in Welkait, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAuliffe Eilish

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Service Extension Programme (HSEP is an innovative approach to addressing the shortfall in health human resources in Ethiopia. It has developed a new cadre of Health Extension Workers (HEWs, who are charged with providing the health and hygiene promotion and some treatment services, which together constitute the bedrock of Ethiopia's community health system. Methods This study seeks to explore the experience of the HSEP from the perspective of the community who received the service. A random sample of 60 female heads-of-household in a remote area of Tigray participated in a structured interview survey. Results Although Health Extension Workers (HEWs had visited them less frequently than planned, participants generally found the programme to be helpful. Despite this, their basic health knowledge was still quite poor regarding the major communicable diseases and their vectors. Participants felt the new HESP represented an improvement on previous health provision. HEWs were preferred over Traditional Birth Attendants for assistance with labour Conclusion While the introduction of HEWs has been a positive experience for women living at the study site, the frequency of visits, extent of effectively imparted health knowledge and affects of HEWs on other health providers needs to be further explored.

  7. Managing the demands of the preregistration mental health nursing programme: The views of students with mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramluggun, Pras; Lacy, Mary; Cadle, Martha; Anjoyeb, Mahmood

    2018-05-30

    An increasing number of students with a pre-existing mental health condition are enrolling on preregistration mental health nursing programmes. The challenges faced by these students in managing the demands of the programme have not been fully explored. Mental health and well-being is an integral part of providing a healthy university in which students can flourish. The purpose of the study was to explore how students with an underlying mental health issue manage the demands of the mental health nursing programme. The outcomes of the study are aimed at informing inclusive teaching and learning and current student support provision. Ethics approval was given. Students from two universities in South East England who met the criterion of having a pre-existing mental health condition when enrolling on the mental health preregistration nursing programme were invited to take part. Nine students took part in the study. Using an interpretative descriptive design, 1:1 face-to-face, audio-taped, semistructured interviews were undertaken. The data were analysed using a framework approach, and this revealed four main themes: timing of disclosure; managing lived experience in learning environments; students' coping mechanisms, and experience of support. Recommendations for practice was that approved education institutes (AEIs) should ensure they have a robust, inclusive practice by implementing strategies to develop these students' resilience, and enhance their learning and the current support provisions. This will ensure the barriers to disclosing their mental health conditions are recognized and minimized to enable these students to fully contribute to their own learning and teaching experience. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  8. Indigenous Health Workforce Development: challenges and successes of the Vision 20:20 programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elana; Reid, Papaarangi

    2013-01-01

    There are significant health workforce inequities that exist internationally. The shortage of indigenous health professionals within Australia and New Zealand requires action across multiple sectors, including health and education. This article outlines the successes and challenges of the University of Auckland's Vision 20:20 programme, which aims to improve indigenous Māori and Pacific health workforce development via recruitment, bridging/foundation and tertiary retention support interventions within the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences (FMHS). Seven years of student data (2005-2011) are presented for undergraduate Student Pass Rate (SPR) by ethnicity and Certificate in Health Sciences (CertHSc) SPR, enrolments and completions by ethnicity. Four key areas of development are described: (i) student selection and pathway planning; (ii) foundation programme refinement; (iii) academic/pastoral support; and (iv) re-development of the indigenous recruitment model. Key programme developments have had a positive impact on basic student data outcomes. The FMHS undergraduate SPR increased from 89% in 2005 to 94% in 2011 for Māori and from 81% in 2005 to 87% in 2011 for Pacific. The CertHSc SPR increased from 52% in 2005 to 92% in 2011 with a greater proportion of Māori and Pacific enrolments achieving completion over time (18-76% for Māori and 29-74% for Pacific). Tertiary institutions have the potential to make an important contribution to indigenous health workforce development. Key challenges remain including secondary school feeder issues, equity funding, programme evaluation, post-tertiary specialist workforce development and retention in Aotearoa, New Zealand. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Cost and impact of a quality improvement programme in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Jennifer; Ramsay, Angus; Gordon, Kate; Maltby, Sophie; Walshe, Kieran; Shaw, Ian; Worrall, Adrian; King, Sarah

    2010-04-01

    To estimate the cost and impact of a centrally-driven quality improvement initiative in four UK mental health communities. Total costs in year 1 were identified using documentation, a staff survey, semi-structured interviews and discussion groups. Few outcome data were collected within the programme so thematic analysis was used to identify the programme's impact within its five broad underlying principles. The survey had a 40% response. Total costs ranged between pound164,000 and pound458,000 per site, plus staff time spent on workstreams. There was a very hazy view of the resources absorbed and poor recording of expenditure and activity. The initiative generated little demonstrable improvements in service quality but some participants reported changes in attitudes. Given the difficult contexts, short time-scales and capacity constraints, the programme's lack of impact is not surprising. It may, however, represent a worthwhile investment in cultural change which might facilitate improvements in how services are delivered.

  10. [Sexual and reproductive health in Roma women: the family planning programme of Polígono Sur in Seville (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Ballesta, Marta; García-Ramírez, Manuel; Albar-Marín, M ª Jesús; Paloma, Virginia

    2018-04-05

    To describe the challenges, resources and strategies of the staff of the family planning programme of the Polígono Sur Healthcare Centre in Seville (Spain) in their care of Roma women. This is a descriptive study in which in-depth interviews and discussion groups were held with all programme professionals, including a documentary review of the programme. The information was analyzed based on the Roma Health Integration Policy Index, a tool that evaluates the entitlement, accessibility, sensitivity and capacity for change of health programmes for the Roma population. The professionals encountered multiple challenges to implement the family planning programme with Roma women due to the characteristics of the users and the low sensitivity of the programme towards them. The absence of specific actions for Roma women within the family planning programme, agreed to by the healthcare district, obliges professionals to develop adaptations and strategies to ensure quality sexual and reproductive health services for their users. It is necessary to adapt sexual and reproductive health programmes targeted at Roma women by (a) detecting, evaluating, systematizing and disseminating good practices, (b) developing actions that address the multiple vulnerabilities of Roma women, (c) acknowledging professionals who advocate for the health of these women within their organizations, and (d) promoting reproductive justice as the goal of these programmes. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Art engagement and mental health: experiences of service users of a community-based arts programme at Tate Modern, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Eamonn; Weir, Hannele; Berridge, Emma-Jane; Ellis, Liz; Kyratsis, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    To examine the experiences of mental health service users who took part in an arts-based programme at Tate Modern, a major London art gallery. Exploratory qualitative design. Data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews with 10 mental health service users who had taken part in a community-based programme at Tate Modern. Additionally, six art educators from Tate Modern were interviewed. Concepts that emerged from the text were identified using thematic analysis. All participants valued the gallery-based programme. The three overarching thematic areas were: the symbolic and physical context in which the programme workshops were located; the relational and social context of the programme workshops; and reflections on the relationship between the arts-based programme and subsequent mental health. Art galleries are increasingly seen to function as vehicles for popular education with mental health service users. This study adds to the growing body of evidence related to how mental health service users experience and reflect on arts-related programmes targeted at them. This study indicates that emphasis on how users experience gallery-based programmes may contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between art and mental health. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceived learned skills and professional development of graduates from a master in dental public health programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, S; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Bernabé, E

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the impact of a training programme is important for quality assurance and further development. It also can helps with accountability and marketing purposes. This study evaluated the impact of King's College London (KCL) Master of Science programme in Dental Public Health in terms of graduates' perceived learned skills and professional development. An online questionnaire was sent to individuals who completed successfully the KCL Master of Science programme in Dental Public Health and had a valid email address. Participants provided information on demographic characteristics, perceived learned skills (intellectual, practical and generic) and professional development (type of organisation, position in the organisation and functions performed at work before and after the programme). Learned skills' scores were compared by demographic factors in multiple linear regression models, and the distribution of responses on career development was compared using nonparametric tests for paired groups. Although all scores on learned skills were on the favourable side of the Likert scale, graduates reported higher scores for practical skills, followed by intellectual and generic skills. No differences in scores were found by sex, age, nationality or time since graduation. In terms of career development, there were significantly higher proportions of graduates working in higher education institutions and taking leadership/managerial roles in organisations as well as greater number and variety of functions at work after than before the programme. This online survey shows that the programme has had a positive impact on graduates in terms of perceived learned skills and professional development. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Dental Education Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Oral hygiene caregivers' educational programme improves oral health conditions in institutionalised independent and functional elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando F; Rocha, Aline W; Haddad, Daniel C; Fortes, Carmem B B; Hugo, Fernando N; Padilha, Dalva M P; Samuel, Susana M W

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of an oral hygiene education programme for caregivers on the oral health of institutionalised elderly and to examine the effect of disability and low muscle strength on programme outcomes. The subjects of this study were geriatric patients (n = 80) from a nursing home. Katz Index for activities of daily living, handgrip strength and mucosal-plaque score (MPS) was evaluated at baseline and 1 year after intervention. The intervention consisted of an educational programme and specific guidelines for caregivers (to perform oral hygiene for dependent elderly and to supervise the independent elderly during oral hygiene practices). Differences on MPS were evaluated using a paired-sample t-test. A stratified analysis was carried out to identify differences in response to the programme according to the Katz Index and handgrip strength of elderly. The MPS was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) at follow-up; however, a separate analysis showed that only the independent elderly (p = 0.002) and those with normal muscle strength (p = 0.006) showed a reduction in MPS during the follow-up examination. The oral hygiene education programme for caregivers resulted in a positive impact on oral hygiene of the independent and functional elderly. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. The CRACK programme: a scientific alliance for bridging healthcare research and public health policies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corrao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare utilisation databases, and other secondary data sources, have been used with growing frequency to assess health outcomes and healthcare interventions worldwide. Their increased popularity as a research tool is due to their timely availability, the large patient populations covered, low cost, and applicability for studying real-world clinical practice. Despite the need to measure Italian National Health Service performance both at regional and national levels, the wealth of good quality electronic data and the high standards of scientific research in this field, healthcare research and public health policies seem to progress along orthogonal dimensions in Italy. The main barriers to the development of evidence-based public health include the lack of understanding of evidence-based methodologies by policy makers, and of involvement of researchers in the policy process. The CRACK programme was launched by some academics from the Lombardy Region. By extensively using electronically stored data, epidemiologists, biostatisticians, pharmacologists and clinicians applied methods and evidence to several issues of healthcare research. The CRACK programme was based on their intention to remove barriers that thwart the process of bridging methods and findings from scientific journals to public health practice. This paper briefly describes aim, articulation and management of the CRACK programme, and discusses why it might find articulated application in Italy.

  15. Assessing quality of a worksite health promotion programme from participants’ views: findings from a qualitative study in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Siow‐Yen; Hassali, Mohamed‐Azmi A.; Shafie, Asrul A.; Ibrahim, Mohamed‐Izham M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background  An assessment of the process and outcomes of a health promotion programme is necessary for the continuous improvement of a programme. Objective  To explore the participants’ perceptions of the quality and effectiveness of the ‘Love Your Heart Programme’. Design  A qualitative study using semi‐structured interviews with a purposive sample of participants of the ‘Love Your Heart’ programme. Interviews were based on an interview guide that grouped questions into four main subgroups: structure, process, immediate outcomes and impact. The interviews were audio‐recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the principles of grounded theory. Results  A total of 17 interviews were conducted. The participants were satisfied with the structural aspects of the programme. Different opinions arose regarding the ideal frequency and duration of the programme. The content of the seminars was thought to be too general. There was also a lack of interest in the ‘Road to a Healthy Heart’ booklet. All of the respondents had positive opinions about the communication skills and attitude of the health educator. The potential advantages and disadvantages of participating in the programme were discussed. Finally, the respondents expressed their satisfaction with the programme and the impact it had on them. Discussion and conclusions  In general, the participants who were interviewed held the programme, and the health educator conducted the programme in high regard. The suggestions that were received can be used to further improve the acceptability and feasibility of the programme. PMID:22050457

  16. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme for Austrian school teachers: a cluster randomised pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl-Hertlein, A; Horsak, B; Dean, E; Schöny, W; Stamm, T

    2014-03-01

    Although physiotherapists have long advocated workplace health, school teachers have not traditionally been a focus of study by these professionals. However, classroom teaching contributes to a range of occupational health issues related to general health as well as ergonomics that can be prevented or addressed by physiotherapists. To undertake a pilot study to explore the potential effects of a physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme individualised for school teachers, develop study methodology and gather preliminary data to establish a 'proof of concept' to inform future studies. Cluster randomised pilot study using a convenience sample. Eight Austrian regional secondary schools. Schools and their teachers were recruited and allocated to an intervention group (IG, n=26 teachers) or a control group (CG, n=43 teachers). Teachers were eligible to participate if they reported no health issues that compromised their classroom responsibilities. The IG participated in an individualised physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme (six 30-minute sessions) related to ergonomics and stress management conducted over a 5-month semester. The CG had a pseudo-intervention of one oral education session. Primary outcomes included scores from the physical and mental components and health transition item of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36), and emotional well-being and resistance to stress items from the work-related behaviour and experience patterns questionnaire. Data were collected before and after one semester. The primary outcome measure, the SF-36 physical component score, showed a reduction in the CG and no change in the IG, meaning that the CG deteriorated over the study semester while the IG did not show any change. A physiotherapy-directed occupational health programme may prevent deterioration of physical health of school teachers in one semester (proof of concept). This pilot study provided valuable information to inform the

  17. Stakeholder analysis of the Programme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME): baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makan, Amit; Fekadu, Abebaw; Murhar, Vaibhav; Luitel, Nagendra; Kathree, Tasneem; Ssebunya, Joshua; Lund, Crick

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge generated from evidence-based interventions in mental health systems research is seldom translated into policy and practice in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Stakeholder analysis is a potentially useful tool in health policy and systems research to improve understanding of policy stakeholders and increase the likelihood of knowledge translation into policy and practice. The aim of this study was to conduct stakeholder analyses in the five countries participating in the Programme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME); evaluate a template used for cross-country comparison of stakeholder analyses; and assess the utility of stakeholder analysis for future use in mental health policy and systems research in LMIC. Using an adapted stakeholder analysis instrument, PRIME country teams in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda identified and characterised stakeholders in relation to the proposed action: scaling-up mental health services. Qualitative content analysis was conducted for stakeholder groups across countries, and a force field analysis was applied to the data. Stakeholder analysis of PRIME has identified policy makers (WHO, Ministries of Health, non-health sector Ministries and Parliament), donors (DFID UK, DFID country offices and other donor agencies), mental health specialists, the media (national and district) and universities as the most powerful, and most supportive actors for scaling up mental health care in the respective PRIME countries. Force field analysis provided a means of evaluating cross-country stakeholder power and positions, particularly for prioritising potential stakeholder engagement in the programme. Stakeholder analysis has been helpful as a research uptake management tool to identify targeted and acceptable strategies for stimulating the demand for research amongst knowledge users, including policymakers and practitioners. Implementing these strategies amongst stakeholders at a country level will

  18. Community participation in primary health care projects of the Muldersdrift Health and Development Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available After numerous teething problems (1974-1994, the Department of Nursing Education of WITS University took responsibility for the Muldersdrift Health and Development Programme (MHDP. The nursing science students explored and implemented an empowerment approach to community participation. The students worked with MHDP health workers to improve health through community participation, in combination with primary health care (PHC activities and the involvement of a variety of community groups. As the PHC projects evolved overtime, the need arose to evaluate the level of community participation and how much community ownership was present over decision-making and resources. This led to the question “What was the level of community participation in PHC projects of the MHDP?” Based on the question the following objectives were set, i.e. i to evaluate the community participation in PHC initiatives; ii to provide the project partners with motivational affirmation on the level of community participation criteria thus far achieved; iii to indicate to participants the mechanisms that should still be implemented if they wanted to advance to higher levels of community participation; iv to evaluate the MHDP’s implementation of a people-centred approach to community participation in PHC; and v the evaluation of the level of community participation in PHC projects in the MHDP. An evaluative, descriptive, contextual and quantitative research design was used. Ethical standards were adhered to throughout the study. The MHDP had a study population of twentythree (N=23 PHC projects. A purposive sample of seven PHC initiatives was chosen according to specific selection criteria and evaluated according to the “Criteria to evaluate community participation in PHC projects” instrument (a quantitative tool. Structured group interviews were done with PHC projects’ executive committee members. The Joint Management Committee’s data was collected through mailed

  19. Polish polar research (outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Ludwik Birkenmajer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes Polish research and discoveries in the Arctic and the Antarctic since the 19th century. The author is a geologist and since 1956 has been engaged in scientific field research on Spitsbergen, Greenland and Antarctica (23 expeditions. For many years chairman of the Committee on Polar Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, he is now its Honorary Chairman.

  20. Health protection: communicable disease, public health and infection control educational programmes--a case study from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ansari, W; Privett, S

    2005-04-01

    The health protection (HP) landscape is changing. Issues related to infectious diseases in the context of global health are receiving the attention of world leaders and policy makers. In the UK, the national health policies resonate with such transformations, presenting a range of opportunities and challenges. The opportunities include the formation of a new national organisation dedicated to protecting the people's health and reducing the impact of infectious disease, the Health Protection Agency. The opportunities also include the opening of non-medical specialists's pathways in public health. The challenges represent the limited number of centres offering infection control education; the hospital focus and bias of the courses; new, resurgent and emerging infections; globalisation and travel; bacterial resistance; vaccine safety and coverage; bioterrorism; global response capacity; and visa restrictions. Within this context, this paper presents a case study of a HP educational programme at a British university in the south of England. It outlines the course design and philosophy, participants, recruitment, aims, descriptions and learning outcomes. A range of teething problems associated with the initiation and running of such programmes is considered. These include aspects related to the university, features associated with the modules, characteristics of the students, and other interconnected larger scale international issues. Some suggestions for the way forward are presented. Collectively, attention to the suggested measures can ensure that the processes that teaching programmes embrace to refine their content and delivery will equip tomorrow's professionals with the requisite HP knowledge and skills.

  1. A synopsis of the Joint Environment and Human Health Programme in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael N; Kempton, Pamela D

    2009-12-21

    The Joint Environment and Human Health (E&HH) Programme has explored how both man-made and natural changes to the environment can influence human health. Scientists have tackled the complicated mix of environmental, social and economic factors that influence health, particularly focusing on naturally occurring toxins, man-made pollutants, nanoparticles and pathogens to see:* how they spread within the environment* how their properties change as they interact with other substances or organisms* how we become exposed to them, and* their impact on human health.The Programme has not only succeeded in bringing together scientists from a broad range of environmental, social and biomedical backgrounds, but also fostered new relationships with end users and policy makers. This new community is helping to provide the multidisciplinary capacity able to respond in an interdisciplinary way to resolve problems that are intrinsically interfacial in character. Many of these questions relate to complex issues such as the environmental biology and geochemistry of soils and how these influence the transport, accessibility and bioavailability of chemical pollutants and infectivity of pathogens. The dispersion of harmful particles in the atmosphere is another area of major concern where the E&HH Programme has broken new ground by showing how the chemical and physical properties of such particles influence their environmental behaviour and may govern their toxicity and resultant pathological reactions induced following inhalation. Working groups and networks have identified potential health problems concerning the transport and emergence of human pathogens associated with food, soil, air and water. The consequence(s) of global and regional climate change for the environmental behaviours of pollutants and pathogens have been considered by a number of the projects supported by the E&HH programme.The selection of articles in this supplement reflect the broad scope of the E&HH programme

  2. An evidence-based oral health promotion programme: Lessons from Leicester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J M; Burch, T E; Dickenson, A J; Wong, J; Moore, R

    2018-03-01

    To provide an overview and draw lessons from the establishment of a local oral health promotion programme for preschool children in Leicester, England (2013-2017). The article provides information on the strategic approach taken in Leicester, one of the most ethnically diverse cities in England, and also one of the most deprived. Over a third of children aged 3 years, and half of those aged 5 years, have experience of obvious dental decay. A description of the evolution and development of the programme is provided along with commentary by the authors. This includes the origins, design and evaluation of the programme. Progress so far has been promising. There has been a statistically significant 8% decrease in the proportion of 5-year-old children in Leicester with dental decay from 2011/2012 to 2014/2015. This will need to be sustained and further developed to deliver the 10% reduction required within the strategy. The successful implementation of a local oral health improvement programme in Leicester has required leadership to coordinate a multiagency partnership approach to embedding effective concepts and realising opportunities collaboratively. However, longer term sustainability remains a concern. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Strengthening mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: the Emerald programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Maya; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Alem, Atalay; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chisholm, Dan; Gureje, Oye; Hanlon, Charlotte; Jordans, Mark; Kigozi, Fred; Lempp, Heidi; Lund, Crick; Petersen, Inge; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-04-10

    There is a large treatment gap for mental health care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), with the majority of people with mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders receiving no or inadequate care. Health system factors are known to play a crucial role in determining the coverage and effectiveness of health service interventions, but the study of mental health systems in LMICs has been neglected. The 'Emerging mental health systems in LMICs' (Emerald) programme aims to improve outcomes of people with MNS disorders in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda) by generating evidence and capacity to enhance health system performance in delivering mental health care. A mixed-methods approach is being applied to generate evidence on: adequate, fair, and sustainable resourcing for mental health (health system inputs); integrated provision of mental health services (health system processes); and improved coverage and goal attainment in mental health (health system outputs). Emerald has a strong focus on capacity-building of researchers, policymakers, and planners, and on increasing service user and caregiver involvement to support mental health systems strengthening. Emerald also addresses stigma and discrimination as one of the key barriers for access to and successful delivery of mental health services.

  4. Measuring and modelling the quality of 40 post-disaster mental health and psychosocial support programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dückers, Michel L A; Thormar, Sigridur B; Juen, Barbara; Ajdukovic, Dean; Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy; Olff, Miranda

    2018-01-01

    Disasters can have an enormous impact on the health and well-being of those affected. Internationally, governments and service providers are often challenged to address complex psychosocial problems. Ideally, the potentially broad range of support activities include a coherent, high-quality mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programme. We present a theory-driven quantitative analysis of the quality of 40 MHPSS programmes, mostly implemented in European disaster settings. The objective is to measure quality domains recognized as relevant in the literature and to empirically test associations. During the EU project "Operationalizing Psychosocial Support in Crisis" (OPSIC) an evaluation survey was designed and developed for this purpose and completed by 40 MHPSS programme coordinators involved in different mass emergencies and disasters. We analysed the survey data in two steps. Firstly, we used the data to operationalize quality domains of a MHPSS programme, tested constructs and assessed their internal consistency reliability. A total of 26 out of 44 survey items clustered into three of the four domains identified within the theoretical framework: "planning and delivery system" (Cronbach's alpha 0.82); "general evaluation criteria" (Cronbach's alpha 0.82); and "essential psychosocial principles" (Cronbach's alpha 0.75). "Measures and interventions applied", theoretically a potential fourth domain, could not be confirmed to empirically cluster together. Secondly, several models with associations between domains and measures and interventions were tested and compared. The model with the best fit suggests that in MHPSS programmes with a higher planning and delivery systems score, a larger number of measures and interventions from evidence-informed guidelines are applied. In such programmes, coordinators are more positive about general evaluation criteria and the realization of essential psychosocial principles. Moreover, the analyses showed that some

  5. Child oral health concerns amongst parents and primary care givers in a Sure Start local programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, B; Clarke, W; McEvoy, W; Periam, K; Zoitopoulos, L

    2010-09-01

    To conduct an oral health promotion needs assessment amongst parents and primary care givers of pre-school children in a South East London Sure Start Local Programme (SSLP). To explore the oral health concerns and oral health literacy with regard to children's oral health amongst parents and primary care givers in a South East London SSLP. A qualitative study using four in-depth focus groups with a purposive sample of 20 participants. Data were analysed using the framework method. The SSLP was identified as an important source of information, support and social interaction for participants. Participants rated the informal networks of the programme as equally authoritative as other formal sources of information. Oral health concerns included: introducing healthy eating, establishing tooth brushing, teething and access to dental care. While participants had adequate knowledge of how to prevent oral disease they cited many barriers to acting on their knowledge which included: parents' tiredness, lack of confidence in parenting skills, confusing information, widespread availability of sugary foods and drinks, and lack of local child friendly dentists. Parenting skills and the social support provided by the SSLP appeared to be integral to the introduction of positive oral health behaviours. SSLPs were seen as a trusted source of support and information for carers of pre-school children. Integration of oral health promotion into SSLPs has the potential to tap into early interventions which tackle the wider support needs of carers of pre-school children while also supporting the development of positive oral health behaviours.

  6. Maternal sensitivity and mental health: does an early childhood intervention programme have an impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahm, Paulina; Cortázar, Alejandra; Fillol, María Paz; Mingo, María Verónica; Vielma, Constanza; Aránguiz, María Consuelo

    2016-06-01

    Maternal sensitivity (MS) and mental health influence mother-child attachment and the child's mental health. Early interventions may promote resilience and facilitate healthy development of the children through an impact on mothers' outcomes such as their sensitivity and mental health. Play with Our Children (POC) is an early intervention programme aiming to promote a positive mother-child interaction for children who attend three family health centres of deprived areas of Santiago de Chile. To estimate the effect of the programme POC on MS and mental health. A quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching estimations was employed. MS was measured with the Q-Sort of Maternal Sensitivity, and maternal mental health was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index. Mean-difference comparison and difference-in-difference method were used as statistical strategies. The sample included 102 children from 2 to 23 months of age, 54 of them participated in the intervention and 48 children were the comparison group. Estimates showed that participation in POC was positively associated with less stress in mothers of children younger than 12 months (P early intervention POC may influence mother's mental health and indirectly impact children's well-being during critical stages of their development by strengthening their mother's sensitivity towards them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Tracking uptake of innovations from the European Union Public Health Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Margaretha; Alexanderson, Kristina; McCarthy, Mark

    2013-11-01

    The European Commission developed the Public Health Programme to enable cross-national innovation and transfer in fields of health information, health threats and health promotion. PHIRE (Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe), a collaboration of the European Public Health Association (EUPHA) with seven partners, addressed the uptake of these public health innovation projects at country level. EUPHA thematic sections lead on areas of public health practice and research and experts can choose to be section members. The section presidents of seven sections chose eight European public health projects, starting in the EU Public Health Programme in 2003-05, that provided new knowledge for practice and covered a majority of the EU countries. A web-based questionnaire recorded country informants' (CIs) perceptions of uptake, assessed as relevance and dissemination to a range of public and non-governmental organizations. 108 CIs individually described the eight innovations in an average of 14 (46%) of the 30 European countries. Three of the eight innovations were considered of high relevance by >60% of respondents and at least 70% of informants considered seven of the eight innovation projects as of high or moderate relevance. Dissemination was noted across governmental, professional and academic settings, with high impact on knowledge/awareness for at least 30% of CIs. Some projects had uptake within the policy cycle in particular countries and connected strongly with academics and professionals. Projects working at local level had less visibility nationally and some projects were unknown to national respondents. European Union funding for public health can contribute to cross-national knowledge transfer and uptake of innovations. More attention is needed to classify, characterize and identify public health innovations and to demonstrate their direct contribution to European health and well-being.

  8. Increasing health worker capacity through distance learning: a comprehensive review of programmes in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisimbo Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania, like many developing countries, faces a crisis in human resources for health. The government has looked for ways to increase the number and skills of health workers, including using distance learning in their training. In 2008, the authors reviewed and assessed the country's current distance learning programmes for health care workers, as well as those in countries with similar human resource challenges, to determine the feasibility of distance learning to meet the need of an increased and more skilled health workforce. Methods Data were collected from 25 distance learning programmes at health training institutions, universities, and non-governmental organizations throughout the country from May to August 2008. Methods included internet research; desk review; telephone, email and mail-in surveys; on-site observations; interviews with programme managers, instructors, students, information technology specialists, preceptors, health care workers and Ministry of Health and Social Welfare representatives; and a focus group with national HIV/AIDS care and treatment organizations. Results Challenges include lack of guidelines for administrators, instructors and preceptors of distance learning programmes regarding roles and responsibilities; absence of competencies for clinical components of curricula; and technological constraints such as lack of access to computers and to the internet. Insufficient funding resulted in personnel shortages, lack of appropriate training for personnel, and lack of materials for students. Nonetheless, current and prospective students expressed overwhelming enthusiasm for scale-up of distance learning because of the unique financial and social benefits offered by these programs. Participants were retained as employees in their health care facilities, and remained in their communities and supported their families while advancing their careers. Space in health training institutions was freed up

  9. Note On Research Design For The Study Of Community Participation In Health Care Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifkin Susan B

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available After describing types of research designs for the study of community participation in health care programmes, this paper examines one methodology, the quantitative methodology, the quantitative methodology, in detail. It presents some of the major attractions and limitations of this approach. The attractions include the need for evaluation of success and failure and of cost effectiveness of programmes. The limitations include the inability of the approach to deal with definitions and interventions that cannot be quantitified and the difficulty of identifying casual relationship between interventions and outcomes. These characteristics are illustrated by a case by a medical school in Asia. Research design, research developments and research outcomes are described and analysed. The paper concludes that an alternative analysis which examines the linkages between participation and health improvements would be more useful as it would allow the political, social and economic dimensions of community participation to be examined.

  10. Moving from trust to trustworthiness: Experiences of public engagement in the Scottish Health Informatics Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Mhairi; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Pagliari, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    The Scottish Health Informatics Programme (SHIP) was a Scotland-wide research programme exploring ways of collecting, managing and analysing electronic patient records for health research. As part of the SHIP public engagement work stream, a series of eight focus groups and a stakeholder workshop were conducted to explore perceptions of the role, relevance and functions of trust (or trustworthiness) in relation to research practices. The findings demonstrate that the public's relationships of trust and/or mistrust in science and research are not straightforward. This paper aims to move beyond simple descriptions of whether publics trust researchers, or in whom members of the public place their trust, and to explore more fully the bases of public trust/mistrust in science, what trust implies and equally what it means for research/researchers to be trustworthy. This has important implications for public engagement in interdisciplinary projects.

  11. Enhancing public health practice through a capacity-building educational programme: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Sharma, Kavya; Wild, Sarah; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-05-13

    The Post-Graduate Diploma in Public Health Management, launched by the Govt. of India under the aegis of the National Rural Health Mission in 2008, aims to enhance the managerial capabilities of public health professionals to improve the public health system. The Govt. of India invested enormous resources into this programme and requested an evaluation to understand the current processes, assess the graduates' work performance and identify areas for improvement. Quantitative telephone surveys as well as qualitative in-depth interviews were used. Graduates from the first three batches, their supervisors, peers and subordinates and faculty members were interviewed. Quantitative data were analysed using proportions, means and interpretative descriptions. Qualitative analyses involved transcription, translation, sorting, coding and filing into domains. Of the 363 graduates whose contact details were available, 138 could not be contacted. Two hundred twenty-three (223) graduates (61.43% of eligible participants) were interviewed by telephone; 52 in-depth interviews were conducted. Of the graduates who joined, 63.8% graduates were motivated to join the programme for career advancement and gaining public health knowledge. The content was theoretically good, informative and well-designed. Graduates expressed need for more practical and group work. After graduating, they reported being equipped with some new skills to implement programmes effectively. They reported that attitudes and healthcare delivery practices had improved; they had better self-esteem, increased confidence, better communication skills and implementation capacity. While they were able to apply some skills, they encountered some barriers, such as governance, placements, lack of support from the system and community, inadequate implementation authority and lack of planning by the state government. Incentives (both monetary and non-monetary) played a major role in motivating them to deliver public health

  12. Private animal health and welfare standards in quality assurance programmes: a review and proposed framework for critical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Hanlon, A; Marchewka, J; Boyle, L

    2017-06-24

    In recent years, 'private standards' in animal health and welfare have become increasingly common, and are often incorporated into quality assurance (QA) programmes. Here, we present an overview of the use of private animal health and welfare standards in QA programmes, and propose a generic framework to facilitate critical programme review. Private standards are being developed in direct response to consumer demand for QA, and offer an opportunity for product differentiation and a means to drive consumer choice. Nonetheless, a range of concerns have been raised, relating to the credibility of these standards, their potential as a discriminatory barrier to trade, the multiplicity of private standards that have been developed, the lack of consumer input and compliance costs. There is a need for greater scrutiny of private standards and of associated QA programmes. We propose a framework to clarify the primary programme goal(s) and measureable outputs relevant to animal health and welfare, the primary programme beneficiaries and to determine whether the programme is effective, efficient and transparent. This paper provides a theoretical overview, noting that this framework could be used as a tool directly for programme evaluation, or as a tool to assist with programme development and review. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Quality of Life Programme – Food, Nuntrition, and Health – Projects Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Boenke, Achim

    2001-01-01

    The EC Quality of Life Programme (QoL), Key Action 1 – Food, Nutrition & Health aims at providing a healthy, safe, and high-quality food supply leading to reinforced consumer’s confidence in the safety of the European food. Key Action 1 is currently supporting several European projects investigating analytical methods for food control including sensors, risk analysis, and food safety standardisation. Their objectives range from the development and validation of prevention strategies for mycot...

  14. Empowering communities and strengthening systems to improve transgender health: outcomes from the Pehchan programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Simran; Mburu, Gitau; Arumugam, Viswanathan; Mattipalli, Naveen; Aher, Abhina; Mehta, Sonal; Robertson, James

    2016-01-01

    Transgender populations face inequalities in access to HIV, health and social services. In addition, there is limited documentation of models for providing appropriately tailored services and social support for transgender populations in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents outcomes of the Global Fund-supported Pehchan programme, which aimed to strengthen community systems and provide HIV, health, legal and social services to transgender communities across 18 Indian states through a rights-based empowerment approach. We used a pre- and post-intervention cross-sectional survey design with retrospective analysis of programmatic data. Using stratified sampling, we identified 268 transgender participants in six Indian states from a total of 48,280 transgender people served by Pehchan through 186 community-based organizations. We quantified the impact of interventions by comparing baseline and end line indicators of accessed health social and legal services. We also assessed end line self-efficacy and collective action with regard to social support networks. There were significant increases in community-based demand and use of tailored health, legal, social and psychological services over the time of the Pehchan programme. We report significant increases in access to condoms (12.5%, pgender-affirming approaches significantly improved both demand and access to tailored HIV, health and social services for transgender individuals across India. Furthermore, the Pehchan programme successfully fostered both self-efficacy and collective identity and served as a model for addressing the unique health needs of transgender communities. Continued strengthening of health, social and community systems to better respond to the unique needs of transgender communities is needed in order to sustain these gains.

  15. Empowering communities and strengthening systems to improve transgender health: outcomes from the Pehchan programme in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Simran; Mburu, Gitau; Arumugam, Viswanathan; Mattipalli, Naveen; Aher, Abhina; Mehta, Sonal; Robertson, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transgender populations face inequalities in access to HIV, health and social services. In addition, there is limited documentation of models for providing appropriately tailored services and social support for transgender populations in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents outcomes of the Global Fund-supported Pehchan programme, which aimed to strengthen community systems and provide HIV, health, legal and social services to transgender communities across 18 Indian states through a rights-based empowerment approach. Methods We used a pre- and post-intervention cross-sectional survey design with retrospective analysis of programmatic data. Using stratified sampling, we identified 268 transgender participants in six Indian states from a total of 48,280 transgender people served by Pehchan through 186 community-based organizations. We quantified the impact of interventions by comparing baseline and end line indicators of accessed health social and legal services. We also assessed end line self-efficacy and collective action with regard to social support networks. Results There were significant increases in community-based demand and use of tailored health, legal, social and psychological services over the time of the Pehchan programme. We report significant increases in access to condoms (12.5%, pgender-affirming approaches significantly improved both demand and access to tailored HIV, health and social services for transgender individuals across India. Furthermore, the Pehchan programme successfully fostered both self-efficacy and collective identity and served as a model for addressing the unique health needs of transgender communities. Continued strengthening of health, social and community systems to better respond to the unique needs of transgender communities is needed in order to sustain these gains. PMID:27431474

  16. The relevance of ethics in the European Union’s second public health programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly K. Otenyo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this paper was to investigate whether ethical values were explicitly identified in the Second Public Health Programme (2008-2013 of the European Commission. Methods: A qualitative case study methodology of exploratory nature was followed. The data used were the summaries of the project proposals and Public Health Programme objectives and was retrieved from the publicly available Consumers, Health and Food Executive Agency database. Since the PHP was finalized during the study, the study only focused on the summaries of the fifty-five finalized project proposals while excluding the ongoing projects and those projects at the reporting stage. The full proposals for the projects are confidential and thus could not be retrieved. However, the project summaries were inarguably sufficient to conduct the study. Using a table, a content analysis method in addition to the ethical framework, was applied in order to analyze and categorise the project findings. Results: The results unfold that, out of the seven ethical principles, only ‘equity’ and ‘efficiency’ were explicitly considered in eighteen projects and four projects respectively. Moreover, from the shared health values, eight projects identified aspects pertaining to ‘accessibility to quality health care’ while ‘solidarity’ was only discussed in one project. Lastly, the ethical aspects ‘ethics’ and ‘values’ were identified in three projects and in one project respectively. Conclusions: From the results, there is a limited consideration of ethical principles within the projects. Therefore, future public health programmes could use this as an opportunity to emphasis on the inclusion and application of ethical principles in public health projects.

  17. Teaching seven principles for public health ethics: towards a curriculum for a short course on ethics in public health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Duncan, Peter; Sherlaw, William; Brall, Caroline; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2014-10-07

    Teaching ethics in public health programmes is not routine everywhere - at least not in most schools of public health in the European region. Yet empirical evidence shows that schools of public health are more and more interested in the integration of ethics in their curricula, since public health professionals often have to face difficult ethical decisions. The authors have developed and practiced an approach to how ethics can be taught even in crowded curricula, requiring five to eight hours of teaching and learning contact time. In this way, if programme curricula do not allow more time for ethics, students of public health can at least be sensitised to ethics and ethical argumentation. This approach - focusing on the application of seven mid-level principles to cases (non-maleficence, beneficence, health maximisation, efficiency, respect for autonomy, justice, proportionality) - is presented in this paper. Easy to use 'tools' applying ethics to public health are presented. The crowded nature of the public health curriculum, and the nature of students participating in it, required us to devise and develop a short course, and to use techniques that were likely to provide a relatively efficient introduction to the processes, content and methods involved in the field of ethics.

  18. Inclusion of the equity focus and social determinants of health in health care education programmes in Colombia: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rincón, Erwin H; Pimentel-González, Juan P; Orozco-Beltrán, Domingo; Carratalá-Munuera, Concepción

    2016-06-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Colombian Ministry of Health and Social Protection have determined a need for an approach to include Equity Focus (EF) and Social Determinants of Health (SDH) in health training programmes in Colombia. We studied the incorporation of EF and SDH in the curricula of several universities in Colombia to identify opportunities to strengthen their inclusion. Qualitative methodology was performed in two stages: (i) initial exploration (self-administered questionnaires and review of curricula) and (ii) validation of the information (semi-structured interviews). The inclusion of the EF and SDH in university curricula is regarded as an opportunity to address social problems. This approach addresses a broad cross-section of the curriculum, especially in the subjects of public health and Primary Health Care (PHC), where community outreach generates greater internalization by students. The dominance of the biomedical model of study plans and practice scenarios focusing on disease and little emphasis on community outreach are factors that limit the inclusion of the approach. The inclusion of EF and SDH in university curricula in Colombia has primarily focused on increasing the knowledge of various subjects oriented towards understanding the social dynamics or comprehensiveness of health and disease and, in some programmes, through practical courses in community health and PHC. Increased integration of EF and SDH in subjects or modules with clinical orientation is recommended. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Will they stay fit and healthy? A three-year follow-up evaluation of a physical activity and health intervention in Polish youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we evaluate the sustainability of changes of involvement in physical activity. The paper examines the effectiveness of a model aiming at influencing the frequency of leisure time physical activity, physical fitness and body constituency in youth. The baseline of this study was a randomly selected sample of 13 year olds who participated in an intervention programme carried out in three schools in Poznan in 2005-08. From a total of 199 adolescent boys a subsample of 38 individuals from the experimental group and 34 from the control group were followed for 15 months after the interventional programme finished. From 170 girls, a subsample of 33 from the experimental group and 32 girls from the control group were also randomly selected for the follow-up study. Among the variables monitored were: physical fitness, body constituency, and frequency of leisure time physical activity. All the variables were monitored in pre-test, post-test and follow-up examinations. It was established that 15 months after the end of the interventional programme boys and girls from the intervention groups maintained a higher level of leisure time physical activity than their control group peers, and similarly in the case of selected health-related components of physical fitness. No distinctive differences were found in the case of body constituency, though, apart from muscle mass and the sum of skinfolds in girls. The study exposed an increase in leisure time physical activity in time and a positive influence on selected components of health-related variables. The findings confirm the effectiveness of a multi-level intervention programme involving self-determined out-of-school physical activity planning for school-age youths, indicating the importance of personal and social context.

  20. "Crazy? So what!": A School Programme to Promote Mental Health and Reduce Stigma--Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Ines; Dietrich, Sandra; Heider, Dirk; Blume, Anne; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the health-promoting and stigma-reducing effect of the German school-based programme "Crazy? So what!". Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experimental longitudinal control-study was carried out with assessments one week prior to the school programme, immediately after it and three…

  1. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.; Repacholi, M.; Carr, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based

  2. Setting the stage for school health-promoting programmes for deaf children in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Baell, Irma M; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Ruiz, M Teresa; Ferreiro-Lago, Emilio; Aroca-Fernandez, Eva

    2008-12-01

    Implementing health-promoting programmes for the most excluded and at-risk social groups forms a key part of any efforts to address underserved populations and reduce health inequalities in society. However, many at-risk children, particularly children in deaf communities, are not reached, or are poorly served, by health-promoting programmes within the school setting. This is so because schools are effective as health-promoting environments for d/Deaf children only to the extent that they properly address their unique communication needs and ensure they are both able and enabled to learn in a communication-rich and supportive psycho-social environment. This article examines how the usually separate strands of school health promotion and d/Deaf education might be woven together and illustrates research with deaf community members that involves them and gives their perspective. The primary objective of this study was to map deaf pilot bilingual education programmes in Spain-one of the first countries to ratify the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations. (2006) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Resolution A/RES/61/106.)-with particular attention to their compliance to the Convention's article 24. Following pre-testing, 516 key informants were surveyed by mail (response rate: 42.08%) by using a snow-ball key-informant approach, within a Participatory Action Research framework, at a national, regional and local level. The results show that although some schools have achieved recommended standards, bilingual programmes are in various stages of formulation and implementation and are far from being equally distributed across the country, with only four regions concentrating more than 70% of these practices. This uneven geographical distribution of programmes probably reflects more basic differences in the priority given by regions, provinces, and municipalities to the deaf community's needs and rights as an important

  3. Comparing dietary patterns derived by two methods and their associations with obesity in Polish girls aged 13-21 years: the cross-sectional GEBaHealth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadolowska, Lidia; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2017-05-01

    To compare dietary patterns (DPs) derived by two methods and their assessment as a factor of obesity in girls aged 13-21 years. Data from a cross-sectional study conducted among the representative sample of Polish females ( n = 1,107) aged 13-21 years were used. Subjects were randomly selected. Dietary information was collected using three short-validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) regarding fibre intake, fat intake and overall food intake variety. DPs were identified by two methods: a priori approach (a priori DPs) and cluster analysis (data-driven DPs). The association between obesity and DPs and three single dietary characteristics was examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Four data-driven DPs were obtained: 'Low-fat-Low-fibre-Low-varied' (21.2%), 'Low-fibre' (29.1%), 'Low-fat' (25.0%) and 'High-fat-Varied' (24.7%). Three a priori DPs were pre-defined: 'Non-healthy' (16.6%), 'Neither-pro-healthy-nor-non-healthy' (79.1%) and 'Pro-healthy' (4.3%). Girls with 'Low-fibre' DP were less likely to have central obesity (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17, 0.75) than girls with 'Low-fat-Low-fibre-Low-varied' DP (reference group, OR = 1.00). No significant associations were found between a priori DPs and overweight including obesity or central obesity. The majority of girls with 'Non-healthy' DP were also classified as 'Low-fibre' DP in the total sample, in girls with overweight including obesity and in girls with central obesity (81.7%, 80.6% and 87.3%, respectively), while most girls with 'Pro-healthy' DP were classified as 'Low-fat' DP (67.8%, 87.6% and 52.1%, respectively). We found that the a priori approach as well as cluster analysis can be used to derive opposite health-oriented DPs in Polish females. Both methods have provided disappointing outcomes in explaining the association between obesity and DPs. The cluster analysis, in comparison with the a priori approach, was more useful for finding any

  4. Improving capacity in ethnicity and health research: report of a tailored programme for NHS Public Health practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Salway, Sarah; Piercy, Hilary; Chowbey, Punita; Brewins, Louise; Dhoot, Permjeet

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether an intervention designed to enhance research capacity among commissioners in the area of ethnicity and health was feasible and impactful, and to identify programme elements that might usefully be replicated elsewhere.\\ud Background: How healthcare commissioners should be equipped to understand and address multiethnic needs has received little attention to-date. Being able to mobilise and apply evidence is a central element of the commissioning process that requires d...

  5. Health literacy among Danish university students enrolled in health-related study programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Lea; Krossdal, Fie; Kayser, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Aims: It is important to address people’s health literacy when providing health care. Health professionals should be aware of, and have insight into, people’s health literacy when they provide health services. Health professionals need to be health literate themselves. We examined the level...

  6. The female community health volunteer programme in Nepal: decision makers' perceptions of volunteerism, payment and other incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Scheel, Inger B; Pradhan, Sabina; Lewin, Simon; Hodgins, Stephen; Shrestha, Vijaya

    2010-06-01

    The Female Community Health Volunteer (FCHV) Programme in Nepal has existed since the late 1980s and includes almost 50,000 volunteers. Although volunteer programmes are widely thought to be characterised by high attrition levels, the FCHV Programme loses fewer than 5% of its volunteers annually. The degree to which decision makers understand community health worker motivations and match these with appropriate incentives is likely to influence programme sustainability. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of stakeholders who have participated in the design and implementation of the Female Community Health Volunteer regarding Volunteer motivation and appropriate incentives, and to compare these views with the views and expectations of Volunteers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in 2009 with 19 purposively selected non-Volunteer stakeholders, including policy makers and programme managers. Results were compared with data from previous studies of Female Community Health Volunteers and from interviews with four Volunteers and two Volunteer activists. Stakeholders saw Volunteers as motivated primarily by social respect, religious and moral duty. The freedom to deliver services at their leisure was seen as central to the volunteer concept. While stakeholders also saw the need for extrinsic incentives such as micro-credit, regular wages were regarded not only as financially unfeasible, but as a potential threat to the Volunteers' social respect, and thereby to their motivation. These views were reflected in interviews with and previous studies of Female Community Health Volunteers, and appear to be influenced by a tradition of volunteering as moral behaviour, a lack of respect for paid government workers, and the Programme's community embeddedness. Our study suggests that it may not be useful to promote a generic range of incentives, such as wages, to improve community health worker programme sustainability. Instead, programmes should ensure that

  7. A community health programme in rural Tamil Nadu, India: the need for gender justice for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mini Elizabeth; Abraham, Sulochana; Surya, Susila; Minz, Shantidani; Singh, Daisy; Abraham, Vinod Joseph; Prasad, Jasmin; George, Kuryan; Kuruvilla, Anju; Jacob, K S

    2006-05-01

    This article highlights the efforts of the Community Health and Development (CHAD) Programme of Christian Medical College to address the issues of gender discrimination and improve the status of women in the Kaniyambadi Block, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. The many schemes that are specifically for women and general projects for the community from which women can also benefit represent a multi-pronged approach whose aim is the improvement of women's health, education and employment in the context of community development. However, despite five decades of work with a clear bias in favour of women, the improvement in health and the empowerment of women has lagged behind that achieved by men. We believe this is because the community, with its strong male bias, utilises the health facilities and education and employment programmes more for the benefit of men and boys than women and girls. The article argues for a change of approach, in which gender and women's issues are openly discussed and debated with the community. It would appear that nothing short of social change will bring about an improvement in the health of women and a semblance of gender equality in the region.

  8. Health-related quality of life of medical students in a Brazilian student loan programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Menezes, Marta Silva; Porto-Silva, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life of medical students participating in a large Brazilian government loan programme for undergraduate students in private schools.A cross-sectional study in a stratified sample of students from a private medical school in Salvador, Brazil, evaluated their health-related quality of life by using a Brazilian Portuguese version of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36).Students supported by the loan programme consistently presented lower mean scores in all SF-36 domains and in the physical and mental component summary scores than those who were not in the programme. Students supported by the loan programme presented systematically lower physical and mental component mean scores, after stratification by age, gender, school year, physical activity, sleepiness, headache, having a car, having a housemaid, living with family, and living in a rented house.The loan programme has enabled less wealthy undergraduate students to attend private medical schools in Brazil. However, this support is insufficient to improve students' health-related quality of life during medical school, as compared with students who do not participate in the programme. Because of a poorer health-related quality of life, students supported by the loan programme deserve special attention from private medical schools.

  9. Women's participation in rural credit programmes in Bangladesh and their demand for formal health care: is there a positive impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, P

    1999-08-01

    Within the overall aim of poverty alleviation, development efforts have included credit and self-employment programmes. In Bangladesh, the major beneficiaries of such group-based credit programmes are rural women who use the loans to initiate small informal income-generating activities. This paper explores the benefits of women's participation in credit programmes on their own health seeking. Using data from a sample of 1798 households from rural Bangladesh, conducted in 1991-1992 through repeated random sampling of 87 districts covered by Grameen Bank, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB), this paper addresses the question: does women's participation in credit programmes significantly affect their use of formal health care? A non-unitary household preference model is suggested to test the hypothesis that women's empowerment through participation in these programmes results in greater control of resources for their own demand for formal health care. The analysis controls for endogeneity due to self-selection and other unobserved village level factors through the use of a weighted two stage instrumental variable approach with village level fixed effects. The findings indicate a positive impact of women's participation in credit programmes on their demand for formal health care. The policy simulations on the results of this study highlight the importance of credit programmes as a health intervention in addition to being a mechanism for women's economic empowerment.

  10. Coffee, Cake & Culture: Evaluation of an art for health programme for older people in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Brenda; McCormick, Sheila; Lucas, Terri; Gallagher, Wendy; Winn, Andrea; Elkin, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Arts for health initiatives and networks are being developed in a number of countries and an international literature is emerging on the evidence of their benefits to people's health, wellbeing and quality of life. Engagement in cultural and creative arts by older people can increase their morale and self-confidence and provides opportunities for social connection. Museums and galleries are increasingly required to justify their expenditure, reach and impact and some are working in partnership with local councils, hospitals, schools and communities to improve access to their collections. There is a body of literature emerging that describes such initiatives but empirical evidence of their benefits is less developed. This article reports an evaluation of an art for health initiative - Coffee, Cake & Culture organised and delivered by Whitworth Art Gallery and Manchester Museum in 2012 for older people living in a care home and a supported living facility. The study has identified the benefits and impacts of the arts for health programme and its feasibility for older people, with or without diagnosed memory loss - dementia, living in a care home or supported living facility and their care staff. The findings demonstrate there were benefits to the older people and their care staff in terms of wellbeing, social engagement, learning, social inclusion and creativity. These benefits were immediate and continued in the short term on their return home. The majority of older people and care staff had not previously been to the art gallery or museum and the programme encouraged creative arts and cultural appreciation which promoted social inclusion, wellbeing and quality of life. The programme is feasible and important lessons were identified for future planning. Further research involving partnerships of researchers, arts for health curators, artists, care staff, older people and their families is warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Implementing and sustaining a hand hygiene culture change programme at Auckland District Health Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sally A; Sieczkowski, Christine; Campbell, Taima; Balla, Greg; Keenan, Andrew

    2012-05-11

    In January 2009 Auckland District Health Board commenced implementation of the Hand Hygiene New Zealand (HHNZ) programme to bring about a culture change and to improve hand hygiene compliance by healthcare workers. We describe the implementation process and assess the effectiveness of this programme 36 months after implementation. In keeping with the HHNZ guideline the implementation was divided into five steps: roll-out and facility preparation, baseline evaluation, implementation, follow-up evaluation and sustainability. The process measure was improvement in hand hygiene compliance and the outcome measure was Staphylococcus aureus clinical infection and bacteraemia rates. The mean (95% CI; range) baseline compliance rates for the national reporting wards was 35% (95% CI 24-46%, 25-61%). The overall compliance by the 7th audit period was 60% (95% CI 46-74; range 47-91). All healthcare worker groups had improvement in compliance. The reduction in healthcare-associated S. aureus bacteraemia rates following the implementation was statistically significant (p=0.027). Compliance with hand hygiene improved following implementation of a culture change programme. Sustaining this improvement requires commitment and strong leadership at a senior level both nationally and within each District Health Board.

  12. Proceedings of the 21. Autumn School of Polish Radiation Research Society '' Chernobyl - 20 years after. Contamination of food and the environment and health effects. Nuclear power industry: for and against ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachocki, K.

    2006-01-01

    21. Autumn Schools of the Polish Radiation Research Society held in 2006 '' Chernobyl - 20 years after. Contamination of food and the environment and health effects '' consisted of 35 lectures and scientific contributions. All aspects concerning accident in the Chernobyl NPP: technical, environmental, medical (direct and prolonged, as well) and safety problems were presented and discussed. Perspectives for the development of the nuclear power industry in Poland were also shown

  13. [Tools to assess the impact on health of public health programmes and community interventions from an equity perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Álvarez, Óscar; Fernández-Feito, Ana; Vallina Crespo, Henar; Aldasoro Unamuno, Elena; Cofiño, Rafael

    2018-05-11

    It is essential to develop a comprehensive approach to institutionally promoted interventions to assess their impact on health from the perspective of the social determinants of health and equity. Simple, adapted tools must be developed to carry out these assessments. The aim of this paper is to present two tools to assess the impact of programmes and community-based interventions on the social determinants of health. The first tool is intended to assess health programmes through interviews and analysis of information provided by the assessment team. The second tool, by means of online assessments of community-based interventions, also enables a report on inequality issues that includes recommendations for improvement. In addition to reducing health-related social inequities, the implementation of these tools can also help to improve the efficiency of public health interventions. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Where there is no psychiatrist: A mental health programme in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Alonso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. For most low- and middle-income countries, mental health remains a neglected area, despite the recognised burden associated with neuropsychiatric conditions and the inextricable link to other public health priorities. Objectives. To describe the results of a free outpatient mental health programme delivered by non-specialist health workers in Makeni, Sierra Leone between July 2008 and May 2012.  Methods. A nurse and two counsellors completed an 8-week training course focused on the identification and management of seven priority conditions: psychosis, bipolar disorder, depression, mental disorders due to medical conditions, developmental and behavioural disorders, alcohol and drug use disorders, and dementia. The World Health Organization recommendations on basic mental healthcare packages were followed to establish treatment for each condition.  Results. A total of 549 patients was assessed and diagnosed as suffering from psychotic disorders (n=295, 53.7%, manic episodes (n=69, 12.5%, depressive episodes (n=53, 9.6%, drug use disorders (n=182, 33.1%, dementia (n=30, 5.4%, mental disorders due to medical conditions (n=39, 7.1%, and developmental disorders (n=46, 8.3%. Of these, 417 patients received pharmacological therapy and 70.7% were rated as much or very much improved. Of those who could not be offered medication, 93.4% dropped out of the programme after the first visit.  Conclusions. The identification and treatment of mental disorders must be considered an urgent public health priority in low- and middle-income countries. Trained primary health workers can deliver safe and effective treatment for mental disorders as a feasible alternative to ease the scarcity of mental health specialists in developing countries.

  15. War film as a political problem in Polish press 1945–1949

    OpenAIRE

    Rachwald, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    This book was financially supported by the National Programme for the Development of Humanities: project “Cinema: Intercultural Perspective. Western-European Cinema in Poland, Polish Cinema in Western Europe. Mutual Perception of Film Cultures (1918–1939)”.

  16. Health effects of 'Juntos', a conditional cash transfer programme in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lu, José E; Cárcamo, Cesar; Nandi, Arijit; Kaufman, Jay S

    2017-07-01

    In some countries, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes show an impact on maternal and child health. Juntos, the CCT programme in Peru, has been evaluated several times operationally, but seldom for maternal and child health outcomes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of Juntos on children under 6 years, pregnant women and mothers of children under 17 years. Outcomes evaluated included (1) anaemia in women and children; (2) acute malnutrition in children; (3) post-partum complications in mothers; and (4) underweight and overweight in mothers. We identified Juntos eligible respondents from the Demographic and Health Surveys of Peru for years 2007 to 2013. Propensity score matching was used to identify comparable treatment and control groups, including eligible respondents enrolled in Juntos vs. those not enrolled in Juntos (individual-level analysis), as well as eligible respondents living in Juntos districts vs. those not residing in Juntos districts (district-level analysis). We then used generalized linear models to estimate prevalence ratios. Individual level analysis showed that Juntos reduced underweight in women (PR:0.39, 95%CI:0.18 - 0.85) and anaemia in children (PR:0.93, 95%CI:0.86 - 1.00). In the district level analysis, the programme was associated with a reduction of overweight in women (PR:0.94, 95%CI:0.90 - 0.98) and acute malnutrition in children (PR:0.49, 95%CI:0.32 - 0.73), but an increase in the prevalence of anaemia in children (PR:1.09, 95%CI:1.01 - 1.17). We found that Juntos had an effect on maternal and child health indicators, but further studies are required to overcome some limitations encountered here. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Polish Higher Education: Intersectoral Distinctiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes degrees of differences between the private and public sectors of Polish higher education. It finds them to be strong: Polish private institutions function very differently from Polish public institutions and these differences correspond with those found in the literature on higher education elsewhere in the world. Polish…

  18. [Methods in health services research. The example of the evaluation of the German disease management programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, M; Wirtz, M

    2006-02-01

    According to the established definition of Pfaff, health services research analyses patients' path through the institutions of the health care system. The focus is on development, evaluation and implementation of innovative measures of health care. By increasing its quality health services research strives for an improvement of efficacy and efficiency of the health care system. In order to allow for an appropriate evaluation it is essential to differentiate between structure, process and outcome quality referring to (1) the health care system in its entirety, (2) specific health care units as well as (3) processes of communication in different settings. Health services research comprises a large array of scientific disciplines like public health, medicine, social sciences and social care. For the purpose of managing its tasks adequately a special combination of instruments and methodological procedures is needed. Thus, diverse techniques of evaluation research as well as special requirements for study designs and assessment procedures are of vital importance. The example of the German disease management programmes illustrates the methodical requirements for a scientific evaluation.

  19. Evaluation of service users' experiences of participating in an exercise programme at the Western Australian State Forensic Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynaden, Dianne; Barr, Lesley; Omari, Omar; Fulton, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Approximately 210 patients are admitted each year to the Western Australian State Forensic Mental Health Service, and most present with psychotic illness, along with other physical and mental comorbidities. In 2010, a healthy lifestyle programme, which included a formal exercise programme coordinated by an exercise physiologist, was introduced at the service. A self-report questionnaire was developed to obtain feedback on the programme, and 56 patients completed the questionnaire during the 6-month evaluation period. As well as providing patients with access to regular physical activity, the programme also supports the recovery philosophy, where patients work in partnership with forensic mental health staff. Overall, patients reported that the programme assisted them to manage their psychiatric symptoms, as well as improving their level of fitness, confidence, and self-esteem. In addition, patients received education about the importance of regular exercise to their mental health, and the role exercise plays in preventing chronic illness and obesity. While the benefits of exercise on mental health outcomes for people with depression and anxiety are well established, this evaluation adds to the evidence that such programmes provide similar benefits to people who have a psychotic illness and are hospitalized in an acute secure setting. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. The current and potential health benefits of the National Health Service Health Check cardiovascular disease prevention programme in England: A microsimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver T; Jackson, Christopher; Steinacher, Arno; Goodman, Anna; Langenberg, Claudia; Griffin, Simon; Wareham, Nick; Woodcock, James

    2018-03-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Health Check programme was introduced in 2009 in England to systematically assess all adults in midlife for cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, its current benefit and impact on health inequalities are unknown. It is also unclear whether feasible changes in how it is delivered could result in increased benefits. It is one of the first such programmes in the world. We sought to estimate the health benefits and effect on inequalities of the current NHS Health Check programme and the impact of making feasible changes to its implementation. We developed a microsimulation model to estimate the health benefits (incident ischaemic heart disease, stroke, dementia, and lung cancer) of the NHS Health Check programme in England. We simulated a population of adults in England aged 40-45 years and followed until age 100 years, using data from the Health Survey of England (2009-2012) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (1998-2012), to simulate changes in risk factors for simulated individuals over time. We used recent programme data to describe uptake of NHS Health Checks and of 4 associated interventions (statin medication, antihypertensive medication, smoking cessation, and weight management). Estimates of treatment efficacy and adherence were based on trial data. We estimated the benefits of the current NHS Health Check programme compared to a healthcare system without systematic health checks. This counterfactual scenario models the detection and treatment of risk factors that occur within 'routine' primary care. We also explored the impact of making feasible changes to implementation of the programme concerning eligibility, uptake of NHS Health Checks, and uptake of treatments offered through the programme. We estimate that the NHS Health Check programme prevents 390 (95% credible interval 290 to 500) premature deaths before 80 years of age and results in an additional 1,370 (95% credible interval 1,100 to 1,690) people

  1. Qualitative evaluation of a physical activity health promotion programme for people with intellectual disabilities in a group home setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Ibarra, A; Driver, S; Nery-Hurwit, M; VanVolkenburg, H

    2018-01-01

    There is a lack of health promotion programming designed to change the physical activity environment of the group home setting. The Menu-Choice programme assists staff in creating physical activity goals alongside residents with intellectual disabilities and provides strategies to incorporate activity into the group home schedule. The purpose of this study was to complete a process evaluation of Menu-Choice utilizing qualitative methods. Twelve participants, who completed a 10-week pilot intervention (n = 7 staff, mean age 42; n = 5 residents, mean age 52), participated in face-to-face interviews. Participants represented five group home sites involved in the intervention. Meta-themes included: (i) Programme training, (ii) Programme implementation, (iii) Programme physical activity, (iv) Programme barriers, (v) Programme facilitators and (vi) Programme feedback. Changes in programme training and simplified programme materials are needed to accommodate identified barriers for implementation. The importance of obtaining increased agency support and policy change is highlighted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Determinants of health-related quality of life in polish patients with CF - adolescents' and parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borawska-Kowalczyk, Urszula; Sands, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    1. Evaluation of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). 2. Evaluation of HRQOL in children with CF from the parents' perspective. 3. Evaluation of the relationship between HRQOL and both medical and psychosocial factors. Health-related quality of life was measured with the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire - Revised. Seventy patients with cystic fibrosis, aged 14-18 years completed the version for adolescents and adults (CFQ-R 14⁺ and 70 parents of children aged 6-13 years filled out the version for parents (CFQ-R 6-13). Scores ranged from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating a better quality of life. Disease severity was assessed by lung function test, nutritional status, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and type of CFTR gene mutation. Social indices i.e. the patient's school attendance and the parent's work status were collected. In the adolescents' opinion, Eating problems and Digestive functioning got the highest rate, whereas Vitality, Treatment burden, Health perceptions and Weight got the lowest. Boys estimated their Physical functioning significantly higher than girls. When evaluating their children's quality of life, parents granted the highest score to Physical, Respiratory and Digestive functioning and the lowest results were attributed to Treatment burden. Nutritional status and lung function impairment turned out to be predictors of some other domains but not psychosocial ones. The chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection had an influence on several quality of life areas from the parents' perspective. School attendance had a significant impact on many aspects of the adolescents' functioning. 1. The study revealed that the health-related quality of life of CF children and adolescents is moderately good. 2. Digestive functioning was one of the highest scored domains, while Treatment burden was one of the lowest, according to both the adolescents' and the parents' perception. 3. The potential impact of

  3. Does Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in the Context of a Rural School Mental Health Programme Have an Impact on Academic Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Kurt D.; Albright, Abby; Jameson, John Paul; Sale, Rafaella; Massey, Cameron; Kirk, Alex; Egan, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Given the prevalence of mental health difficulties among children and adolescents, schools have become a suitable context for providing psychological services to those who may otherwise go untreated. The co-occurrence of mental health impairments and academic problems has been widely cited, and many school mental health (SMH) programmes have begun…

  4. Priorities for research for oral health in the 21st century--the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    research in the developed and developing world to reduce risk factors and the burden of oral disease, and to improve oral health systems and the effectiveness of community oral health programmes. Building and strengthening research capacity in public health are highly recommended by WHO for effective......The World Health Organization (WHO) "World Oral Health Report 2003" emphasized that despite great improvements in the oral health status of populations across the world, problems persist. The major challenges of the future will be to translate existing knowledge and sound experiences of disease...... prevention and health promotion into action programmes, this is particularly the case with developing countries that have not yet benefited from advances in oral health science to the fullest extent possible. The WHO Oral Health programme gives priority to research helping correct the so called 10/90 gap...

  5. A Review of NICE Methods and Processes Across Health Technology Assessment Programmes: Why the Differences and What is the Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Emma; Marsden, Grace; Cole, Amanda; Devlin, Nancy

    2017-08-01

    Decisions made by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) exert an influence on the allocation of resources within 'fixed' National Health Service budgets. Yet guidance for different types of health interventions is handled via different 'programmes' within NICE, which follow different methods and processes. The objective of this research was to identify differences in the processes and methods of NICE health technology assessment programmes and to explore how these could impact on allocative efficiency within the National Health Service. Data were extracted from the NICE technology appraisal programme, medical technologies guidance, diagnostic assessment programme, highly specialised technologies programme, and clinical guidelines process and methods manuals to undertake a systematic comparison. Five qualitative interviews were carried out with NICE members of staff and committee members to explore the reasons for the differences found. The main differences identified were in the required evidence review period, or lack thereof, mandatory funding status, the provision of a reference case for economic evaluation, the requirement for and the type of economic analysis undertaken, and the decision making criteria used for appraisal. Many of the differences found can be justified on grounds of practicality and relevance to the health technologies under assessment. Nevertheless, from a strict utilitarian view, there are several potential areas of inefficiency that could lead to the misallocation of resources within the National Health Service, although some of these might be eliminated or reduced if an egalitarian view is taken. The challenge is determining where society is willing to trade health gains between different people.

  6. [Evaluation of disease management programmes--assessing methods and initial outcomes from a health economic perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Dana Sophie; Braun, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation represents a substantial component of the concept of Disease Management Programmes. This and the fact that the implementation of Disease Management Programmes constitutes a major change in the German healthcare system require that the criteria established by the German Federal Social Insurance Authority (Bundesversicherungsamt) be carefully reviewed. The present paper focuses on the evaluation method and the economic data. The pre-/-post study design used in the evaluation is known to be vulnerable to threats to internal validity. The objective of this paper is to analyze whether these threats to internal validity which have been known theoretically are confirmed by the results of the final reports. A review of the final reports of health insurance companies like the AOK, Barmer and a group of the BKK in Westfalen-Lippe shows that this question can be answered in the affirmative. The pre-/-post design without control groups is unable to recognize the failure or success of the Disease Management concept. The reasons include a high drop-out rate as well as the lack of consideration of the characteristics of chronic disease. Hence the evaluation method has failed to prove the quality of Disease Management Programmes in Germany. This is why consistent further development is needed.

  7. A conceptual and analytical approach to comparative analysis of country case studies: HIV and TB control programmes and health systems integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coker, Richard; Balen, Julie; Mounier-Jack, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Attempts to comparatively analyse large-scale communicable disease control programmes have, for the most part, neglected the wider health system contexts within which the programmes lie. In addition, many evaluations of the integration of vertical disease control programmes into health systems ha...

  8. Considering consumer choice in the economic evaluation of mandatory health programmes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Bonny; Goodall, Stephen

    2011-08-01

    Governments are increasing their focus on mandatory public health programmes following positive economic evaluations of their impact. This review aims to examine whether loss of consumer choice should be included in economic evaluations of mandatory health programmes (MHP). A systematic literature review was conducted to identify economic evaluations of MHP, whether they discuss the impact on consumer choice and any methodological limitations. Overall 39 economic evaluations were identified, of which 10 discussed the loss of consumer choice and 6 attempted to place a value on the loss of consumer choice. Methodological limitations included: measuring the marginal cost of compliance, unavailability of price elasticity estimates, the impact of income effects, double counting health impacts, biased willingness-to-pay responses, and "protest" responses. Overall it was found that the inclusion of the loss of consumer choice rarely impacted on the final outcome of the study. The impact of MHP on the loss of consumer choice has largely been ignored in economic evaluations. Its importance remains uncertain due to its infrequent inclusion and significant methodological limitations. Further research regarding which methodology is best for valuing the loss of consumer choice and whether it is important to the final implementation decision is warranted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of a faculty development programme for health professions educators in sub-Saharan Africa: an archival study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, José M; Bezuidenhout, Juanita; Burch, Vanessa C; Mthembu, Sindi; Rowe, Michael; Tan, Christina; Van Wyk, Jacqueline; Van Heerden, Ben

    2015-03-03

    In 2008 the sub-Saharan FAIMER Regional Institute launched a faculty development programme aimed at enhancing the academic and research capacity of health professions educators working in sub-Saharan Africa. This two-year programme, a combination of residential and distance learning activities, focuses on developing the leadership, project management and programme evaluation skills of participants as well as teaching the key principles of health professions education-curriculum design, teaching and learning and assessment. Participants also gain first-hand research experience by designing and conducting an education innovation project in their home institutions. This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of participants regarding the personal and professional impact of the SAFRI programme. A retrospective document review, which included data about fellows who completed the programme between 2008 and 2011, was performed. Data included fellows' descriptions of their expectations, reflections on achievements and information shared on an online discussion forum. Data were analysed using Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework. Participants (n=61) came from 10 African countries and included a wide range of health professions educators. Five key themes about the impact of the SAFRI programme were identified: (1) belonging to a community of practice, (2) personal development, (3) professional development, (4) capacity development, and (5) tools/strategies for project management and/or advancement. The SAFRI programme has a positive developmental impact on both participants and their respective institutions.

  10. Impact of a national QI programme on reducing electronic health record notifications to clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tina; Patel-Teague, Shilpa; Kroupa, Laura; Meyer, Ashley N D; Singh, Hardeep

    2018-03-05

    Emerging evidence suggests electronic health record (EHR)-related information overload is a risk to patient safety. In the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), EHR-based 'inbox' notifications originally intended for communicating important clinical information are now cited by 70% of primary care practitioners (PCPs) to be of unmanageable volume. We evaluated the impact of a national, multicomponent, quality improvement (QI) programme to reduce low-value EHR notifications. The programme involved three steps: (1) accessing daily PCP notification load data at all 148 facilities operated nationally by the VA; (2) standardising and restricting mandatory notification types at all facilities to a recommended list; and (3) hands-on training for all PCPs on customising and processing notifications more effectively. Designated leaders at each of VA's 18 regional networks led programme implementation using a nationally developed toolkit. Each network supervised technical requirements and data collection, ensuring consistency. Coaching calls and emails allowed the national team to address implementation challenges and monitor effects. We analysed notification load and mandatory notifications preintervention (March 2017) and immediately postintervention (June-July 2017) to assess programme impact. Median number of mandatory notification types at each facility decreased significantly from 15 (IQR: 13-19) to 10 (IQR: 10-11) preintervention to postintervention, respectively (Pmanage them. Nevertheless, our project suggests feasibility of using large-scale 'de-implementation' interventions to reduce unintended safety or efficiency consequences of well-intended electronic communication systems. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. The association between farmers’ participation in herd health programmes and their behaviour concerning treatment of mild clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Ann-Kristina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Denmark, it has recently become mandatory for all dairy farmers with more than 100 cows to sign up for a herd health programme. Three herd health programmes are available. These differ in a number of aspects, including the frequency of veterinary visits and the farmer’s access to prescription drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dairy farmers’ behavioural intentions, i.e. to call a veterinarian or start medical treatment on the day that they detect a cow with mild clinical mastitis (MCM, are different depending on the type of herd health programme. Methods A questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was conducted. TPB proposes that a person’s behavioural intention is strongly correlated with his or her actual behaviour. Three behavioural factors determine the behavioural intention: attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Each of these factors is decided by a set of beliefs, each of which in turn is weighted by an evaluation: 1 the expected outcomes of performing the behaviour, 2 what a person believes that others think of the behaviour, and 3 the person’s perceived power to influence the behaviour. A set of statements about the treatment of MCM based on interviews with 38 dairy farmers were identified initially. The statements were rephrased as questions and the resulting questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly selected Danish dairy farmers who use the two most restrictive herd health programmes, either Core or Module1, and to all 669 farmers with the least restrictive herd health programme, Module2. The association between intention and the herd health programme was modelled using logistic regression. Results The farmers with the Module2 herd health programme had a significantly higher behavioural intention to perform the behaviour, when compared to farmers with a more restrictive herd health programme (OR = 2.1, p Conclusion Danish dairy

  12. [Indicators of governance in mental health policies and programmes in Mexico: a perspective of key actors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    To analyse the role of Mexico's mental health system governance in the development of mental health policies and programmes, from the perspective of its own actors. A map was developed for identifying the actors in Mexico's mental health system. A guide was designed for in-depth interviews, which were recorded and arranged in categories for their analysis. The Atlas-ti v.7 software was used for the organisation of qualitative data and Policy Maker v.4 was used to determine the position and influence of actors within the health system. The actors were identified according to their level of influence in mental health policies: high, medium and low. Actors with a high level of influence participate in national policies, actors with medium influence are involved in regional or local policies and the participation of actors with a low level of influence is considered marginal. This study facilitated understanding of governance in mental health. The level of influence of the actors directly affects the scope of governance indicators. Relevant data were obtained to improve policies in mental health care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrating national community-based health worker programmes into health systems: a systematic review identifying lessons learned from low-and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Kinsman, John; Michelo, Charles; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-09-22

    Despite the development of national community-based health worker (CBHW) programmes in several low- and middle-income countries, their integration into health systems has not been optimal. Studies have been conducted to investigate the factors influencing the integration processes, but systematic reviews to provide a more comprehensive understanding are lacking. We conducted a systematic review of published research to understand factors that may influence the integration of national CBHW programmes into health systems in low- and middle-income countries. To be included in the study, CBHW programmes should have been developed by the government and have standardised training, supervision and incentive structures. A conceptual framework on the integration of health innovations into health systems guided the review. We identified 3410 records, of which 36 were finally selected, and on which an analysis was conducted concerning the themes and pathways associated with different factors that may influence the integration process. Four programmes from Brazil, Ethiopia, India and Pakistan met the inclusion criteria. Different aspects of each of these programmes were integrated in different ways into their respective health systems. Factors that facilitated the integration process included the magnitude of countries' human resources for health problems and the associated discourses about how to address these problems; the perceived relative advantage of national CBHWs with regard to delivering health services over training and retaining highly skilled health workers; and the participation of some politicians and community members in programme processes, with the result that they viewed the programmes as legitimate, credible and relevant. Finally, integration of programmes within the existing health systems enhanced programme compatibility with the health systems' governance, financing and training functions. Factors that inhibited the integration process included a rapid

  14. [Geriatric health promotion and prevention for independently living senior citizens: programmes and target groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapp, U; Anders, J; Meier-Baumgartner, H P; v Renteln-Kruse, W

    2007-08-01

    Nearly all diseases in old age that are epidemiologically important can be reduced or prevented successfully through consequent changes in individual lifestyle, a systematic provision of measures in primary prevention (i.e. vaccination programmes) and the creation of health promoting settings. However, at the moment the amount of potential for preventative interventions is neither systematically nor sufficiently utilised in Germany. Two different preventative approaches: a) multidimensional advice session in small groups through an interdisciplinary team at a geriatric centre (seniors come to seek advice offered at a centre) or b) multidimensional advice at the seniors home through one member of the interdisciplinary team from the geriatric centre (expert takes advice to seniors home) were tested simultaneously with a well-described study sample of 804 independent community-dwelling senior citizens aged 60 years or over, without need of care and cognitive impairments recruited from general practices. Information about target group specific approaches in health promotion and prevention for senior citizens were retrieved from analyses of sociodemographic, medical, psychological and spacial characteristics of this study sample. The majority of the study sample (580 out of 804 or 72.1%) decided to participate: a) 86.7% (503 out of 580) attended at the geriatric centre and sought advice in group sessions and b) 13.3% (77 out of 580) decided to receive advice in a preventive home visit. A total of 224 seniors (224 out of 804 or 27.9%) refused to participate at all. These three target groups were characterised on the basis of their age, gender, education, social background, health status, health behaviour, use of preventive care, self perceived health, functional disabilities, social net and social participation and distance or accessibility of preventative approaches. The 503 senior citizens who participated in small group sessions at the geriatric centre were

  15. Efficiency of the health extension programme in Tigray, Ethiopia: a data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemma Hailemariam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2004, the government of Ethiopia has made a bold decision to strengthen and expand its primary health care system by launching the Health Extension Program (HEP. While the scaling up of the HEP is necessary to achieve the aim of universal access to primary health care, close attention should be paid to the performance of the program. Using a data envelopment analysis this study aimed at (i to estimate the technical efficiency of a sample of health posts in rural Tigray, ii to identify those factors which might be explaining the efficiency results. Methods Efficiency was measured using a data envelopment analysis model. A Tobit model was performed to identify factors associated with efficiency. Seven rural districts (out of 35 were purposely chosen. Input/output information was collected from the database of the Tigray Health Bureau during July 2007-June 2008. Information was also collected on environmental factors that might influence the efficiency outcomes through a structured questionnaire from the correspondent district health officers. Results Analysis was based on data from 60 health posts. The mean scores for technical and scale efficiency were 0.57 (SD = 0.32 and 0.95 (SD = 0.11 respectively. Out of the 60 health posts, 15 (25.0% were found to be technically efficient constituting the best practice frontier. Thirty eight (63.3% were operating at their most productive scale size. In the regression analysis, none of the variables was significantly associated with the efficiency outcome. Conclusion There is a need to review the management of the health information system in the region. The findings have also revealed that only a quarter of the health posts are working efficiently and pointed the need for improvement. A closer monitoring of the health extension programme is required in order to achieve the best possible performance.

  16. Equity, social determinants and public health programmes - the case of oral health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2011-01-01

    is that means are available for breaking poverty and reduce if not eliminate social inequalities in oral health. Whether public health actions are initiated simply depends on the political will. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) and subsequent charters have emphasized the importance of policy......', with the aim of translating knowledge into concrete, workable actions. Poor oral health was flagged as a severe public health problem. Oral disease and illness remain global problems and widening inequities in oral health status exist among different social groupings between and within countries. The good news......The WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health issued the 2008 report 'Closing the gap within a generation - health equity through action on the social determinants of health' in response to the widening gaps, within and between countries, in income levels, opportunities, life expectancy...

  17. Lessons learned from England's Health Checks Programme: using qualitative research to identify and share best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hanif; Kelly, Shona

    2015-10-20

    This study aimed to explore the challenges and barriers faced by staff involved in the delivery of the National Health Service (NHS) Health Check, a systematic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and management program in primary care. Data have been derived from three qualitative evaluations that were conducted in 25 General Practices and involved in depth interviews with 58 staff involved all levels of the delivery of the Health Checks. Analysis of the data was undertaken using the framework approach and findings are reported within the context of research and practice considerations. Findings indicated that there is no 'one size fits all' blueprint for maximising uptake although success factors were identified: evolution of the programme over time in response to local needs to suit the particular characteristics of the patient population; individual staff characteristics such as being proactive, enthusiastic and having specific responsibility; a supportive team. Training was clearly identified as an area that needed addressing and practitioners would benefit from CVD specific baseline training and refresher courses to keep them up to date with recent developments in the area. However there were other external factors that impinged on an individual's ability to provide an effective service, some of these were outside the control of individuals and included cutbacks in referral services, insufficient space to run clinics or general awareness of the Health Checks amongst patients. The everyday experiences of practitioners who participated in this study suggest that overall, Health Check is perceived as a worthwhile exercise. But, organisational and structural barriers need to be addressed. We also recommend that clear referral pathways be in place so staff can refer patients to appropriate services (healthy eating sessions, smoking cessation, and exercise referrals). Local authorities need to support initiatives that enable data sharing and linkage so that

  18. The emergence of community health worker programmes in the late apartheid era in South Africa: An historical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Nadja; Lewin, Simon; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-09-01

    There is re-emerging interest in community health workers (CHWs) as part of wider policies regarding task-shifting within human resources for health. This paper examines the history of CHW programmes established in South Africa in the later apartheid years (1970s-1994) - a time of innovative initiatives. After 1994, the new democratic government embraced primary healthcare (PHC), however CHW initiatives were not included in their health plan and most of these programmes subsequently collapsed. Since then a wide array of disease-focused CHW projects have emerged, particularly within HIV care. Thirteen oral history interviews and eight witness seminars were conducted in South Africa in April 2008 with founders and CHWs from these earlier programmes. These data were triangulated with written primary sources and analysed using thematic content analysis. The study suggests that 1970s-1990s CHW programmes were seen as innovative, responsive, comprehensive and empowering for staff and communities, a focus which respondents felt was lost within current programmes. The growth of these earlier projects was underpinned by the struggle against apartheid. Respondents felt that the more technical focus of current CHW programmes under-utilise a valuable human resource which previously had a much wider social and health impact. These prior experiences and lessons learned could usefully inform policy-making frameworks for CHWs in South Africa today. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A qualitative exploration of stakeholder perspectives on a school-based multi-component health promotion nutrition programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, G; Keegan, R; Henderson, H

    2012-12-01

    Food for Fitness is an on-going multi-component health promotion programme, delivered in primary and secondary schools by community nutrition assistants. The programme uses nutritional interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating practices for children. This service evaluation investigated the receipt and delivery of the programme, as perceived by local stakeholders who had experienced and administered the service. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were carried out with three key stakeholder groups: health professionals (n = 9), school teachers (n = 10) and senior health officials (n = 3). Qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and received thematic analysis with deductive and inductive processes. Stakeholders reported that the programme contributed to the development of food education and healthy-eating practices of children in the local area. Stakeholders considered that the main concern was the limited capacity and size of the service. They described problems with long-term sustainability in supporting schools with maintaining nutritional interventions, highlighting issues regarding contact, planning and organisation of several interventions. The findings of the service evaluation inform service management, organisation and ground-level delivery. The use of stakeholder opinion provided contextualised information on the factors that impact on the implementation of the programme. The richness of the qualitative results can guide future planning and provision for similar health promotion nutrition programmes delivered in the school environment. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Effect of multidisciplinary disease management for hospitalized heart failure under a national health insurance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chun-Tai; Liu, Min-Hui; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Huang, Yu-Yen; Yang, Ning-I; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2015-09-01

    Multidisciplinary disease management programmes (MDPs) for heart failure have been shown to be effective in Western countries. However, it is not known whether they improve outcomes in a high population density country with a national health insurance programme. In total, 349 patients hospitalized because of heart failure were randomized into control and MDP groups. All-cause death and re-hospitalization related to heart failure were analyzed. The median follow-up period was approximately 2 years. Mean patient age was 60 years; 31% were women; and 50% of patients had coronary artery disease. MDP was associated with fewer all-cause deaths [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.27-0.91, P = 0.02] and heart failure-related re-hospitalizations (HR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.25-0.77, P = 0.004). MDP was still associated with better outcomes for all-cause death (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.29-0.98, P = 0.04) and heart failure-related re-hospitalization (HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.26-0.81, P = 0.007), after adjusting for age, diuretics, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, sodium, and albumin. However, MDPs' effect on all-cause mortality and heart failure-related re-hospitalization was significantly attenuated after adjusting for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers or β-blockers. A stratified analysis showed that MDP combined with guideline-based medication had synergistic effects. MDP is effective in lowering all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization rates related to heart failure under a national health insurance programme. MDP synergistically improves the effectiveness of guidelines-based medications for heart failure.

  1. An evaluation of staff engagement programmes in four National Health Service Acute Trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewison, Alistair; Gale, Nicola; Yeats, Rowena; Shapiro, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings from an evaluation project conducted to investigate the impact of two staff engagement programmes introduced to four National Health Service (NHS) hospital Trusts in England. It seeks to examine this development in the context of current policy initiatives aimed at increasing the level of staff involvement in decision-making, and the related literature. A mixed-methods approach incorporating document analysis, interviews, a survey and appreciative inquiry, informed by the principles of impact evaluation design, was used. The main finding to emerge was that leadership was crucial if widespread staff engagement was to be achieved. Indeed, in some of the trusts the staff engagement programmes were seen as mechanisms for developing leadership capability. The programmes had greater impact when they were "championed" by the Chief Executive. Effective communication throughout the organisations was reported to be a prerequisite for staff engagement. Problems were identified at the level of middle management where the lack of confidence in engaging with staff was a barrier to implementation. The nature of the particular organisational context is crucial to the success of efforts to increase levels of staff engagement. The measures that were found to work in the trusts would need to be adapted and applied to best meet the needs of other organisations. Many health care organisations in England will need to harness the efforts of their workforce if they are to meet the significant challenges of dealing with financial restraint and increasing patient demand. This paper provides some insights on how this can be done.

  2. Towards school mental health programmes in Nigeria: systematic review revealed the need for contextualised and culturally-nuanced research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Ola, Bolanle

    2016-01-01

    School-based mental health programmes, a potential avenue to reach many children and youth, are not yet developed in Nigeria. In view of the importance of cultural nuances in mental health issues, initial groundwork towards the establishment of these programmes in Nigeria must be cognizant of cultural peculiarities at the outset. The objective of the study was to critically examine, through the lens of transcultural psychiatry, all the currently available epidemiological studies and needs assessments relevant to school-based mental health programmes in Nigeria. The study was a systematic review of relevant studies available from MEDLINE, Science Direct, PsychInfo, Google Scholar, and AJOL databases. This review shows that there is an ongoing effort at documenting the burden of mental health problems and risks, resource needs, and the available resource and capacity for school-based mental health programmes in Nigeria. However, generally speaking these epidemiological data and needs assessments are significantly limited in epistemological philosophy and cultural contextualisation. This was evidenced by a preponderance of non-representative data, quantitative assessments, and decontextualised interpretation of results and conclusions. Going forward, recommendations are offered for culturally-nuanced epidemiology and the direction is set for context-appropriate needs assessments for school-based mental health programmes in Nigeria.

  3. [Alcohol drinking in the time of political transition in Poland. Report of the National Health Programme ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalewicz, Jacek; Zulewska-Sak, Justyna

    2003-01-01

    The National Health Programme was adopted in Poland in the mid-1990s. It consists of 18 targets including target 4 that calls for diminishing alcohol consumption and changing its structure as well as limiting health harms associated with alcohol. The programme is being monitored on bi-annual basis. The monitoring covers a level of alcohol consumption and associated harm including trends in mortality and morbidity as well as in road accidents in 1990-2001 period. During the period in point, particularly in the beginning of the transition alcohol consumption increased at least by one third reaching 10-11 litres of pure ethanol per capita, mostly due to sudden disruption of the alcohol control system and high tide of unrecorded supply. Currently, the consumption is estimated to be 9.5-10.0 litres with 30% share of the unrecorded. During last decade recorded morbidity due to mental disorders associated with alcohol increased by 80% and 60% respectively in out- and in-patient system while mortality rates almost doubled. Male mortality due to liver diseases increased by 50% while that of women remained relatively flat. In last few years, alcohol related mortality tended to decline slightly parallel to consumption trends. Significant improvement has been achieved in prevention of drunken diving. The number of deaths in alcohol related road accidents decreased two fold while a rate of drunken crashes per 1000 vehicles dropped three times.

  4. Men's health promotion interventions: what have we learned from previous programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Steve; Witty, Karl; Zwolinsky, Steve; Day, Rhiannon

    2013-11-01

    Concern persists in health-related literature about men's reduced life expectancy and higher premature death rates; this is often linked to difficulties in engaging with men as a client group. However, some innovative projects and programmes, often led by health visitors or other community based nurses, have developed successful health promotion work with men. This article collates existing tacit knowledge (previous learning) about men's health interventions by integrating interview data from nine practitioners who have established such initiatives with data from 35 men's health project reports to consider 'what works'. Five themes stood out as being significant across the data reviewed: using the right setting (often outside statutory services); ensuring the right approach (drawing on male-specific interests and language); actively listening to what local men say; appropriate training (initial and ongoing) for those involved in such work; and partnership working with local community groups, businesses and statutory service providers. While not a panacea for working with any and all men, these themes form a good basis for successful engagement with men and align well with what a recent review of health visitor interventions suggest works in helping bridge service provision-uptake gaps.

  5. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-02-26

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner.

  6. Access to justice: evaluating law, health and human rights programmes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Ezer, Tamar; Gathumbi, Anne; Cohen, Jonathan; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia

    2013-11-13

    In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and human rights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration activities at four sites: the Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) facility, where the Legal Aid Centre of Eldoret (LACE) operates, in Eldoret; Kenyatta National Hospital's Gender-based Violence Recovery Centre, which hosts the COVAW legal integration program; and Christian Health Association of Kenya (CHAK) facilities in Mombasa and Naivasha. In consultation with the organizations implementing the programs, we designed a conceptual logic model grounded in human rights principles, identified relevant indicators and then coded structure, process and outcome indicators for the rights-related principles they reflect. The evaluation included a resource assessment questionnaire, a review of program records and routine data, and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with clients and service providers. Data were collected in May-August 2010 and April-June 2011. Clients showed a notable increase in practical knowledge and awareness about how to access legal aid and claim their rights, as well as an enhanced ability to communicate with healthcare providers and to improve their access to healthcare and justice. In turn, providers became more adept at identifying human rights violations and other legal difficulties, which enabled them to give clients basic information about their rights, refer them to legal aid and assist them in accessing needed support. Methodological challenges in evaluating such activities point to the need to strengthen rights-oriented evaluation

  7. Polish Semantic Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grudzinska

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amount of information transferred by computers grows very rapidly thus outgrowing the average man's capability of reception. It implies computer programs increase in the demand for which would be able to perform an introductory classitication or even selection of information directed to a particular receiver. Due to the complexity of the problem, we restricted it to understanding short newspaper notes. Among many conceptions formulated so far, the conceptual dependency worked out by Roger Schank has been chosen. It is a formal language of description of the semantics of pronouncement integrated with a text understanding algorithm. Substantial part of each text transformation system is a semantic parser of the Polish language. It is a module, which as the first and the only one has an access to the text in the Polish language. lt plays the role of an element, which finds relations between words of the Polish language and the formal registration. It translates sentences written in the language used by people into the language theory. The presented structure of knowledge units and the shape of understanding process algorithms are universal by virtue of the theory. On the other hand the defined knowledge units and the rules used in the algorithms ure only examples because they are constructed in order to understand short newspaper notes.

  8. [Sustainable Implementation of Evidence-Based Programmes in Health Promotion: A Theoretical Framework and Concept of Interactive Knowledge to Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, A; Wolff, A; Streber, A

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses 2 current issues in the field of public health research: (i) transfer of scientific knowledge into practice and (ii) sustainable implementation of good practice projects. It also supports integration of scientific and practice-based evidence production. Furthermore, it supports utilisation of interactive models that transcend deductive approaches to the process of knowledge transfer. Existing theoretical approaches, pilot studies and thoughtful conceptual considerations are incorporated into a framework showing the interplay of science, politics and prevention practice, which fosters a more sustainable implementation of health promotion programmes. The framework depicts 4 key processes of interaction between science and prevention practice: interactive knowledge to action, capacity building, programme adaptation and adaptation of the implementation context. Ensuring sustainability of health promotion programmes requires a concentrated process of integrating scientific and practice-based evidence production in the context of implementation. Central to the integration process is the approach of interactive knowledge to action, which especially benefits from capacity building processes that facilitate participation and systematic interaction between relevant stakeholders. Intense cooperation also induces a dynamic interaction between multiple actors and components such as health promotion programmes, target groups, relevant organisations and social, cultural and political contexts. The reciprocal adaptation of programmes and key components of the implementation context can foster effectiveness and sustainability of programmes. Sustainable implementation of evidence-based health promotion programmes requires alternatives to recent deductive models of knowledge transfer. Interactive approaches prove to be promising alternatives. Simultaneously, they change the responsibilities of science, policy and public health practice. Existing boundaries

  9. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, James W; Phuanakoonon, Suparat; Nema, K Henry; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Papua New Guinea. The study relied on a literature review and 30 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund-supported activities were found to be largely integrated, or at least coordinated, with the national HIV and TB programmes. However, this has reinforced the vertical nature of these programmes with respect to the general health system, with parallel systems established to meet the demands of programme scale-up and the performance-based nature of Global Fund investment in the weak health system context of Papua New Guinea. The more parallel functions include monitoring and evaluation, and procurement and supply chain systems, while human resources and infrastructure for service delivery are increasingly integrated at more local levels. Positive synergies of Global Fund support include engagement of civil-society partners, and a reliable supply of high-quality drugs which may have increased patient confidence in the health system. However, the severely limited and overburdened pool of human resources has been skewed towards the three diseases, both at management and service delivery levels. There is also concern surrounding the sustainability of the disease programmes, given their dependence on donors. Increasing Global Fund attention towards health system strengthening was viewed positively, but should acknowledge that system changes are slow

  10. nstitutional Capacities and Social Policy Implementation: Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Programmes in Argentina and Chile (1930-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Idiart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares maternal child health and nutrition programmes in Argentina and Chile, focusing on long-term institutional features and the central neo-liberal trends organizing social reforms during the 1980s and the 1990s. Objective: To carry out a comparative study of the ransformations of Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Programmes, taking into account three intertwined issues: social policies, institutional capacity, and policy implementation. Methodology: The documentary analysis done in this article is framed in the structural force model of Carmelo Mesa-Lago and the polity-centred structure model of Theda Skocpol. Conclusions: Despite relatively similar policy lines implemented in both countries, the contrasting long-term institutional features (Chilean programmes addressed maternal and child health more efficiently than the Argentines account for most of the variation in the overall process of reform implementation and the performance of maternal and child health policies.

  11. The impact of urban regeneration programmes on health and health-related behaviour: Evaluation of the Dutch District Approach 6.5 years from the start.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    Full Text Available Large-scale regeneration programmes to improve the personal conditions and living circumstances in deprived areas may affect health and the lifestyle of the residents. Previous evaluations concluded that a large-scale urban regeneration programme in the Netherlands had some positive effects within 3.5 years. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects at the longer run.With a quasi-experimental research design we assessed changes in the prevalence of general health, mental health, physical activity, overweight, obesity, and smoking between the pre-intervention (2003-04 -mid 2008 and intervention period (mid 2008-2013-14 in 40 deprived target districts and comparably deprived control districts. We used the Difference-in-Difference (DiD to assess programme impact. Additionally, we stratified analyses by sex and by the intensity of the regeneration programme.Changes in health and health related behaviours from pre-intervention to the intervention period were about equally large in the target districts as in control districts. DiD impact estimates were inconsistent and not statistically significant. Sex differences in DiD estimates were not consistent or significant. Furthermore, DiD impact estimates were not consistently larger in target districts with more intensive intervention programmes.We found no evidence that this Dutch urban regeneration programme had an impact in the longer run on self-reported health and related behaviour at the area level.

  12. Addressing health inequalities in the delivery of the human papillomavirus vaccination programme: examining the role of the school nurse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Boyce

    Full Text Available HPV immunisation of adolescent girls is expected to have a significant impact in the reduction of cervical cancer. UK The HPV immunisation programme is primarily delivered by school nurses. We examine the role of school nurses in delivering the HPV immunisation programme and their impact on minimising health inequalities in vaccine uptake.A rapid evidence assessment (REA and semi-structured interviews with health professionals were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. 80 health professionals from across the UK are interviewed, primarily school nurses and HPV immunisation programme coordinators. The REA identified 2,795 articles and after analysis and hand searches, 34 relevant articles were identified and analysed. Interviews revealed that health inequalities in HPV vaccination uptake were mainly related to income and other social factors in contrast to published research which emphasises potential inequalities related to ethnicity and/or religion. Most school nurses interviewed understood local health inequalities and made particular efforts to target girls who did not attend or missed doses. Interviews also revealed maintaining accurate and consistent records influenced both school nurses' understanding and efforts to target inequalities in HPV vaccination uptake.Despite high uptake in the UK, some girls remain at risk of not being vaccinated with all three doses. School nurses played a key role in reducing health inequalities in the delivery of the HPV programme. Other studies identified religious beliefs and ethnicity as potentially influencing HPV vaccination uptake but interviews for this research found this appeared not to have occurred. Instead school nurses stated girls who were more likely to be missed were those not in education. Improving understanding of the delivery processes of immunisation programmes and this impact on health inequalities can help to inform solutions to increase uptake and address health inequalities

  13. Impact of a District-Wide Diabetes Prevention Programme Involving Health Education for Children and the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeladevi, Sethu; Sagar, Jayanthi; Pujari, Siddharth; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present results from a district-wide diabetes prevention programme involving health education for school children and the local community. Method: The model of health education that was utilized aimed to secure lifestyle changes and the identification of diabetes risk by school children (aged 9-12 years). The children acted as health…

  14. Student-Led Health Education Programmes in the Waiting Room of a Free Clinic for Uninsured Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Tabler, Jennifer; Myers, Kyl; Ahmed, Fattima; Aguilera, Guadalupe; Ashby, Jeanie

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Free clinics provide free or reduced fee healthcare to individuals who lack access to primary care and are socio-economically disadvantaged in the USA. Free clinic patients may have health education needs, but experience barriers to attending health education programmes. In an attempt to reach out to free clinic patients who might not…

  15. Evaluation of an occupational health intervention programme on whole-body vibration in forklift truck drivers: a controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, C. T. J.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; Braam, I. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate process and outcome of a multifaceted occupational health intervention programme on whole-body vibration (WBV) in forklift truck drivers. METHODS: An experimental pretest/post-test control group study design. The authors trained occupational health services (OHS) in the

  16. Implementation of health promotion programmes in schools: an approach to understand the influence of contextual factors on the process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Emily Joan; Violon, Nolwenn; Jourdan, Didier

    2018-01-22

    Implementing complex and multi-level public health programmes is challenging in school settings. Discrepancies between expected and actual programme outcomes are often reported. Such discrepancies are due to complex interactions between contextual factors. Contextual factors relate to the setting, the community, in which implementation occurs, the stakeholders involved, and the characteristics of the programme itself. This work uses realist evaluation to understand how contextual factors influence the implementation process, to result in variable programme outcomes. This study focuses on identifying contextual factors, pinpointing combinations of contextual factors, and understanding interactions and effects of such factors and combinations on programme outcomes on different levels of the implementation process. Schools which had participated in a school-based health promotion programme between 2012 and 2015 were included. Two sets of qualitative data were collected: semi-structured interviews with school staff and programme coordinators; and written documents about the actions implemented in a selection of four schools. Quantitative data included 1553 questionnaires targeting pupils aged 8 to 11 in 14 schools to describe the different school contexts. The comparison between what was expected from the programme (programme theory) and the outcomes identified in the field data, showed that some of the mechanisms expected to support the implementation of the programme, did not operate as anticipated (e.g. inclusion of training, initiation by decision-maker). Key factors which influenced the implementation process included, amongst other factors, the mode of introduction of the programme, home/school relationship, leadership of the management team, and the level of delegated power. Five types of interactions between contextual factors were put forward: enabling, hindering, neutral, counterbalancing and moderating effects. Recurrent combinations of factors were

  17. Health research 2000. Programme of the Federal German Government. Overview of projects '94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkelmann, P.

    1995-01-01

    The health research programme of the Federal German Government has existed since 1978. Its implementation has been reported on at regular intervals by project status reports. The last report appeared in 1991. This research promotion pursues the following aims: to enhance preventive health care, to elucidate the causes of diseases and find effective treatments, to develop further an efficient, financially acceptable health care system. The book has three main parts, in accordance with the three main research areas: Intersectorial reseach, health care and preventive health care, fighting of diseases. Within these three sectors, the main research activities carried out in 1994 are described. Each research activity is introduced with a brief text on its aims and state of progress; this is followed by a description of the projects carried out. The projects that were on-going in 1994 are outlined in concise form; finalized projects within each main research activity are shown in tabulated form with their most important characteristics. The annex contains some bibliographic items and addresses. (orig./VHE) [de

  18. Participatory methods for Inuit public health promotion and programme evaluation in Nunatsiavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Manpreet

    2017-01-01

    Engaging stakeholders is crucial for health promotion and programme evaluations; understanding how to best engage stakeholders is less clear, especially within Indigenous communities. The objectives of this thesis research were to use participatory methods to: (1) co-develop and evaluate a whiteboard video for use as a public health promotion tool in Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, and (2) develop and validate a framework for participatory evaluation of Inuit public health initiatives in Nunatsiavut, Labrador. Data collection tools included interactive workshops, community events, interviews, focus-group discussions and surveys. Results indicated the whiteboard video was an engaging and suitable medium for sharing public health messaging due to its contextually relevant elements. Participants identified 4 foundational evaluation framework components necessary to conduct appropriate evaluations, including: (1) community engagement, (2) collaborative evaluation development, (3) tailored evaluation data collection and (4) evaluation scope. This research illustrates stakeholder participation is critical to develop and evaluate contextually relevant public health initiatives in Nunatsiavut, Labrador and should be considered in other Indigenous communities.

  19. Scaling up proven public health interventions through a locally owned and sustained leadership development programme in rural Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Morsi; Mansour, Joan Bragar; El Swesy, Abdo Hasan

    2010-01-19

    In 2002, the Egypt Ministry of Health and Population faced the challenge of improving access to and quality of services in rural Upper Egypt in the face of low morale among health workers and managers.From 1992 to 2000, the Ministry, with donor support, had succeeded in reducing the nationwide maternal mortality rate by 52%. Nevertheless, a gap remained between urban and rural areas. In 2002, the Ministry, with funding from the United States Agency for International Development and assistance from Management Sciences for Health, introduced a Leadership Development Programme (LDP) in Aswan Governorate. The programme aimed to improve health services in three districts by increasing managers' ability to create high performing teams and lead them to achieve results.The programme introduced leadership and management practices and a methodology for identifying and addressing service delivery challenges. Ten teams of health workers participated. In 2003, after participation in the LDP, the districts of Aswan, Daraw and Kom Ombo increased the number of new family planning visits by 36%, 68% and 20%, respectively. The number of prenatal and postpartum visits also rose.After the United States funding ended, local doctors and nurses scaled up the programme to 184 health care facilities (training more than 1000 health workers). From 2005 to 2007, the Leadership Development Programme participants in Aswan Governorate focused on reducing the maternal mortality rate as their annual goal. They reduced it from 85.0 per 100,000 live births to 35.5 per 100,000. The reduction in maternal mortality rate was much greater than in similar governorates in Egypt. Managers and teams across Aswan demonstrated their ability to scale up effective public health interventions though their increased commitment and ownership of service challenges. When teams learn and apply empowering leadership and management practices, they can transform the way they work together and develop their own solutions

  20. Learning essentials: what graduates of mental health nursing programmes need to know from an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Margaret; Happell, Brenda; Flynn, Trudi

    2014-12-01

    To explore the perspectives of nursing directors in mental health in Queensland, Australia, regarding the skills and attributes of graduates of comprehensive nursing programme to provide an industry perspective and thus augment knowledge from theoretical and professional dimensions. There is a worldwide shortage of appropriately qualified nurses with the knowledge, skills and attitudes to work effectively in mental health services. Within Australia, this has been well documented since the introduction of comprehensive nursing education. The underrepresentation of mental health content in undergraduate curricula has been identified as the primary reason for nursing graduates not being adequately prepared for practice in this field. To date, this issue has primarily been addressed from the perspective of university academics, with the voice of industry relatively silent in the published literature. Qualitative exploratory. In-depth telephone interviews with Director of Nursing (Mental Health) in Queensland, Australia. The concerns of participants were expressed in six main themes: (1) foundational knowledge of mental health and disorders, (2) recovery-oriented skills, (3) physical as well as mental health skills, (4) therapeutic strategies, (5) resilience and self-development and (6) advanced knowledge and skills. The education of comprehensive nursing education needs to be reviewed as a matter of priority to ensure graduates with the attributes required to provide high-quality care for consumers of mental health services. A skilled and knowledgeable workforce is an essential component of high-quality mental health services. Research highlighting the current deficits and issues is therefore of the highest priority. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of a school-based oral health education programme in Wuhan City, Peoples Republic of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin; Tai, Baojun

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess oral health outcomes of a school-based oral health education (OHE) programme on children, mothers and schoolteachers in China, and to evaluate the methods applied and materials used. DESIGN: The WHO Health Promoting Schools Project applied to primary schoolchildren in 3...... in experimental schools adopted regular oral health behaviour such as toothbrushing, recent dental visits, use of fluoride toothpaste, with less frequent consumption of cakes/biscuits compared to controls. In experimental schools, mothers showed significant beneficial oral health developments, while teachers...... showed higher oral health knowledge and more positive attitudes, also being satisfied with training workshops, methods applied, materials used and involvement with children in OHE. CONCLUSIONS: The programme had positive effects on gingival bleeding score and oral health behaviour of children...

  2. A national public health programme on gambling policy development in New Zealand: insights from a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi; Landon, Jason; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2018-03-06

    In New Zealand, a public health programme on gambling policy development is part of a national gambling harm reduction and prevention strategy mandated by the Gambling Act 2003. Funded by the Ministry of Health, the programme directs workplace/organisational gambling policies, non-gambling fundraising policies, and local council policies on electronic gaming machines (EGMs). We carried out a process evaluation of this programme to identify practical information (e.g. advocacy approaches; challenges and ameliorating strategies) that can be used by programme planners and implementers to reinforce programme effectiveness and serve to guide similar policy-focused public health initiatives elsewhere. Evaluation criteria, based on the programme's official service specifications, guided our evaluation questions, analysis and reporting. To identify informative aspects of programme delivery, we thematically analysed over 100 six-monthly implementer progress reports (representing 3 years of programme delivery) and transcript of a focus group with public health staff. Identified output-related themes included purposeful awareness raising to build understanding about gambling harms and the need for harm-reduction policies and stakeholder relationship development. Outcome-related themes included enhanced community awareness about gambling harms, community involvement in policy development, some workplace/organisational policy development, and some influences on council EGM policies. Non-gambling fundraising policy development was not common. The programme offers an unprecedented gambling harm reduction approach. Although complex (due to its three distinct policy focus areas targeting different sectors) and challenging (due to the extensive time and resources needed to develop relationships and overcome counteractive views), the programme resulted in some policy development. Encouraging workplace/organisational policy development requires increased awareness of costs to

  3. Relaunch of the official community health worker programme in Mozambique: is there a sustainable basis for iCCM policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilundo, Baltazar Gm; Cliff, Julie L; Mariano, Alda Re; Rodríguez, Daniela C; George, Asha

    2015-12-01

    In Mozambique, integrated community case management (iCCM) of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia is embedded in the national community health worker (CHW) programme, mainstreaming it into government policy and service delivery. Since its inception in 1978, the CHW programme has functioned unevenly, was suspended in 1989, but relaunched in 2010. To assess the long-term success of iCCM in Mozambique, this article addresses whether the current CHW programme exhibits characteristics that facilitate or impede its sustainability. We undertook a qualitative case study based on document review (n = 54) and key informant interviews (n = 21) with respondents from the Ministry of Health (MOH), multilateral and bilateral agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Maputo in 2012. Interviews were mostly undertaken in Portuguese and all were coded using NVivo. A sustainability framework guided thematic analysis according to nine domains: strategic planning, organizational capacity, programme adaptation, programme monitoring and evaluation, communications, funding stability, political support, partnerships and public health impact. Government commitment was high, with the MOH leading a consultative process in Maputo and facilitating successful technical coordination. The MOH made strategic decisions to pay CHWs, authorize their prescribing abilities, foster guidance development, support operational planning and incorporate previously excluded 'old' CHWs. Nonetheless, policy negotiations excluded certain key actors and uncertainty remains about CHW integration into the civil service and their long-term retention. In addition, reliance on NGOs and donor funding has led to geographic distortions in scaling up, alongside challenges in harmonization. Finally, dependence on external funding, when both external and government funding are declining, may hamper sustainability. Our analysis represents a nuanced assessment of the various domains that influence CHW programme

  4. Implementing a Health and Wellbeing Programme for Children in Early Childhood: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Munday

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, there is a high prevalence of childhood poverty and food insecurity, which can impact a family’s ability to provide high quality, nutrient dense foods for their children. In an attempt to increase the quality of the food consumed by children attending a decile two (low socio-economic kindergarten and to address food insecurity issues, an educational health and wellness initiative, in conjunction with a free lunch programme, was introduced. The impact of the lunches and the effectiveness of the programme were evaluated. Baseline and end-intervention 24-h modified dietary recall questionnaire data and a vegetable- and fruit-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ were collected. A follow-up FFQ was administered six months after the end of the intervention. The nutrient composition of the foods recorded in the 24-h recall questionnaires were analysed using FoodWorks8™. Whilst no significant differences were observed with the intakes of individual nutrients, there was a significant decrease in the consumption of ultra-processed snack foods (p = 0.015. The results of the follow-up FFQ, including the comments collected from the parents, suggested that the intervention had a longer-term positive impact on not only the children involved in the study but also on their whānau (wider family members

  5. The acceptability, feasibility and impact of a lay health counsellor delivered health promoting schools programme in India: a case study evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaraman Divya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in resource-limited settings have shown that there are constraints to the use of teachers, peers or health professionals to deliver school health promotion interventions. School health programmes delivered by trained lay health counsellors could offer a cost-effective alternative. This paper presents a case study of a multi-component school health promotion intervention in India that was delivered by lay school health counsellors, who possessed neither formal educational nor health provider qualifications. Methods The intervention was based on the WHO’s Health Promoting Schools framework, and included health screening camps; an anonymous letter box for student questions and complaints; classroom-based life skills training; and, individual psycho-social and academic counselling for students. The intervention was delivered by a lay school health counsellor who had attained a minimum of a high school education. The counsellor was trained over four weeks and received structured supervision from health professionals working for the implementing NGO. The evaluation design was a mixed methods case study. Quantitative process indicators were collected to assess the extent to which the programme was delivered as planned (feasibility, the uptake of services (acceptability, and the number of students who received corrective health treatment (evidence of impact. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over two years with 108 stakeholders, and were analysed to identify barriers and facilitators for the programme (feasibility, evaluate acceptability, and gather evidence of positive or negative effects of the programme. Results Feasibility was established by the high reported coverage of all the targeted activities by the school health counsellor. Acceptability was indicated by a growing number of submissions to the students’ anonymous letter-box; more students self-referring for counselling services over time; and, the

  6. The acceptability, feasibility and impact of a lay health counsellor delivered health promoting schools programme in India: a case study evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Divya; Travasso, Sandra; Chatterjee, Achira; Bhat, Bhargav; Andrew, Gracy; Parab, Suraj; Patel, Vikram

    2012-05-25

    Studies in resource-limited settings have shown that there are constraints to the use of teachers, peers or health professionals to deliver school health promotion interventions. School health programmes delivered by trained lay health counsellors could offer a cost-effective alternative. This paper presents a case study of a multi-component school health promotion intervention in India that was delivered by lay school health counsellors, who possessed neither formal educational nor health provider qualifications. The intervention was based on the WHO's Health Promoting Schools framework, and included health screening camps; an anonymous letter box for student questions and complaints; classroom-based life skills training; and, individual psycho-social and academic counselling for students. The intervention was delivered by a lay school health counsellor who had attained a minimum of a high school education. The counsellor was trained over four weeks and received structured supervision from health professionals working for the implementing NGO. The evaluation design was a mixed methods case study. Quantitative process indicators were collected to assess the extent to which the programme was delivered as planned (feasibility), the uptake of services (acceptability), and the number of students who received corrective health treatment (evidence of impact). Semi-structured interviews were conducted over two years with 108 stakeholders, and were analysed to identify barriers and facilitators for the programme (feasibility), evaluate acceptability, and gather evidence of positive or negative effects of the programme. Feasibility was established by the high reported coverage of all the targeted activities by the school health counsellor. Acceptability was indicated by a growing number of submissions to the students' anonymous letter-box; more students self-referring for counselling services over time; and, the perceived need for the programme, as expressed by principals

  7. Missed opportunities in the evaluation of public health interventions: a case study of physical activity programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hanson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based approaches are requisite in evaluating public health programmes. Nowhere are they more necessary than physical activity interventions where evidence of effectiveness is often poor, especially within hard to reach groups. Our study reports on the quality of the evaluation of a government funded walking programme in five ‘Walking Cities’ in England. Cities were required to undertake a simple but robust evaluation using the Standard Evaluation Framework (SEF for physical activity interventions to enable high quality, consistent evaluation. Our aim was not to evaluate the outcomes of this programme but to evaluate whether the evaluation process had been effective in generating new and reliable evidence on intervention design and what had worked in ‘real world’ circumstances. Methods Funding applications and final reports produced by the funder and the five walking cities were obtained. These totalled 16 documents which were systematically analysed against the 52 criteria in the SEF. Data were cross checked between the documents at the bid and reporting stage with reference to the SEF guidance notes. Results Generally, the SEF reporting requirements were not followed well. The rationale for the interventions was badly described, the target population was not precisely specified, and neither was the method of recruitment. Demographics of individual participants, including socio-economic status were reported poorly, despite being a key criterion for funding. Conclusions Our study of the evaluations demonstrated a missed opportunity to confidently establish what worked and what did not work in walking programmes with particular populations. This limited the potential for evidence synthesis and to highlight innovative practice warranting further investigation. Our findings suggest a mandate for evaluability assessment. Used at the planning stage this may have ensured the development of realistic objectives and

  8. Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health Programme for providing innovative mental health care in rural communities in India

    OpenAIRE

    Maulik, P. K.; Devarapalli, S.; Kallakuri, S.; Praveen, D.; Jha, V.; Patel, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. India has few mental health professionals to treat the large number of people suffering from mental disorders. Rural areas are particularly disadvantaged due to lack of trained health workers. Ways to improve care could be by training village health workers in basic mental health care, and by using innovative methods of service delivery. The ongoing Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment Mental Health Programme will assess the acceptability, feasibility and prelimina...

  9. The health promotion lifestyle of metabolic syndrome individuals with a diet and exercise programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hua; Chu, Li-Ling

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a health promotion lifestyle (HPL) with a diet and exercise programme (DEP) in metabolic syndrome adults. The study consisted of 207 individuals who followed a DEP and 185 who did not. The subjects were rural community adults. Their HPL was evaluated using the Chinese version of the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Short Form (HPLP-S). The average HPLP-S score was significantly higher in the DEP group (3.28 ± 0.36) than in the group without the DEP (2.05 ± 0.65). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that group, gender, smoking, alcohol use, marital status, religion and chronic disease were predictors of an HPL and accounted for 67.0% of the variance in the HPLP-S score. This study demonstrates that a DEP has positive effects on a health promotion lifestyle. The community-based DEP targeting health promotion behaviours should be presented as a strategy for metabolic syndrome in adults. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of Maternal Health Component of Reproductive and Child Health (RCH II Programme in Beed District, Maharashtra, India 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyaneshwar Nipte,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Situation analysis of Reproductive and Child Health programme of Government of India in Beed district of Maharashtra state in India indicated lack of achievement of targeted maternal health indicators. Evaluation of the utilization of maternal health services component of Reproductive and Child Health (RCH II programme in Beed district of Maharashtra state in India was undertaken. Material and Methods: A cross sectional survey in the rural area of Beed district using cluster sampling method was conducted. The information about the utilization of maternal health services was collected from mothers who delivered between 1st April and 30th June 2013. A facility survey using pre tested check list was undertaken. Analysis of the data using Epi Info Version 3.5.3 and proportion for selected maternal health care indicators were calculated. Results: Out of the 374 mothers included in the study, 122 (33.0% had registered within first trimester of pregnancy; nearly 50% had received more than three antenatal care (ANC visits and 90% had institutional delivery. Of the 70 mothers, who made phone call for ambulance service, 56 (80% utilized ambulance from their residence to the hospitals. Of the 183 mothers who delivered in Government hospitals, 103 (56.3% utilized it to reach home from hospitals after delivery. Of the eligible women, 96 (76.2% were registered for Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY scheme of the Government and 67 (69.8% received the benefit. In all 46 (16.4% Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs were trained as Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA. Of the 22 facilities, 14 (63.6% had delivery kits and in 6 (27.3% facilities maternal health services were monitored by medical officers. Conclusion: The utilization of maternal health care services and knowledge and implementation regarding JSY Scheme and ambulance service utilization among mothers was less than desirable. The coverage of training of ANMs as SBA was low. Provision of antenatal services in

  11. Dimensions of lay health worker programmes: results of a scoping study and production of a descriptive framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Jane; Meah, Angela; Bagnall, Anne-Marie; Jones, Rebecca

    2013-03-01

    Approaches that engage and support lay health workers in the delivery of health improvement activities have been widely applied across different health issues and populations. The lack of a common terminology, inconsistency in the use of role descriptors and poor indexing of lay health worker roles are all barriers to the development of a shared evidence base for lay health worker interventions. The aim of the paper is to report results from a scoping study of approaches to involve lay people in public health roles and to present a framework for categorisation of the different dimensions of lay health worker programmes. Our scoping study comprised a systematic scoping review to map the literature on lay health worker interventions and to identify role dimensions and common models. The review, which was limited to interventions relevant to UK public health priorities, covered a total of 224 publications. The scoping study also drew on experiential evidence from UK practice. Research-based and practice-based evidence confirmed the variety of role descriptors in use and the complexity of role dimensions. Five common models that define the primary role of the lay health worker were identified from the literature. A framework was later developed that grouped features of lay health worker programmes into four dimensions: intervention, role, professional support/service and the community. More account needs to be taken of the variations that occur between lay health worker programmes. This framework, with the mapping of key categories of difference, may enable better description of lay health worker programmes, which will in turn assist in building a shared evidence base. More research is needed to examine the transferability of the framework within different contexts.

  12. Delivering a basic mental health training programme: views and experiences of Mental Health First Aid instructors in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J

    2011-10-01

    Originating in Australia, 'Mental Health First Aid' (MHFA) is a way of providing support to someone who is experiencing a mental health problem before professional help is obtained. Positive evaluations have shown that it both increases confidence while decreasing stigmatizing attitudes. However, the evidence base surrounding the delivery of basic mental health programmes remains underdeveloped. This descriptive qualitative study explored the views and experiences of 14 MHFA instructors from across Wales through semi-structured interviews, as a means to identify the experience of course delivery from their perspective. Data were collected between January and April 2009. The study found individuals benefited from being an MHFA instructor through increased confidence and self-development. However, instructors encountered logistical difficulties in course delivery and noted that as attendees related to the course material, they wished to discuss their own mental health problems during the course. This created considerable challenges for instructors, who noted both positive and negative impacts on themselves, and on their expectations of the role of becoming MHFA instructors. In conclusion, basic mental health training courses must build a clear infrastructure, ongoing quality assurance processes and reliable support structures to train, support and monitor those delivering them. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  13. Healthy Parent Carers programme: development and feasibility of a novel group-based health-promotion intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra J. Borek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parent carers of disabled children report poor physical health and mental wellbeing. They experience high levels of stress and barriers to engagement in health-related behaviours and with ‘standard’ preventive programmes (e.g. weight loss programmes. Interventions promoting strategies to improve health and wellbeing of parent carers are needed, tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. Methods We developed a group-based health promotion intervention for parent carers by following six steps of the established Intervention Mapping approach. Parent carers co-created the intervention programme and were involved in all stages of the development and testing. We conducted a study of the intervention with a group of parent carers to examine the feasibility and acceptability. Standardised questionnaires were used to assess health and wellbeing pre and post-intervention and at 2 month follow up. Participants provided feedback after each session and took part in a focus group after the end of the programme. Results The group-based Healthy Parent Carers programme was developed to improve health and wellbeing through engagement with eight achievable behaviours (CLANGERS – Connect, Learn, be Active, take Notice, Give, Eat well, Relax, Sleep, and by promoting empowerment and resilience. The manualised intervention was delivered by two peer facilitators to a group of seven parent carers. Feedback from participants and facilitators was strongly positive. The study was not powered or designed to test effectiveness but changes in measures of participants’ wellbeing and depression were in a positive direction both at the end of the intervention and 2 months later which suggest that there may be a potential to achieve benefit. Conclusions The Healthy Parent Carers programme appears feasible and acceptable. It was valued by, and was perceived to have benefited participants. The results will underpin future refinement of the

  14. Characteristics of a self-management support programme applicable in primary health care: a qualitative study of users' and health professionals' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Hilde Strøm; Steinsbekk, Aslak; Solbjør, Marit; Granbo, Randi; Garåsen, Helge

    2014-11-08

    Development of more self-management support programmes in primary health care has been one option used to enhance positive outcomes in chronic disease management. At present, research results provide no consensus on what would be the best way to develop support programmes into new settings. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore users' and health professionals' perceptions of what would be the vital elements in a self - management support programme applicable in primary health care, how to account for them, and why. Four qualitative, semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted in Central Norway. The informants possessed experience in development, provision, or participation in a self-management support programme. Data was analysed by the Systematic Text Condensation method. The results showed an overall positive expectation to the potential benefits of development of a self-management support programme in primary health care. Despite somewhat different arguments and perspectives, the users and the health professionals had a joint agreement on core characteristics; a self-management support programme in primary health care should therefore be generic, not disease specific, and delivered in a group- based format. A special focus should be on the everyday- life of the participants. The most challenging aspect was a present lack of competence and experience among health professionals to moderate self-management support programmes. The development and design of a relevant and applicable self-management support programme in primary health care should balance the interests of the users with the possibilities and constraints within each municipality. It would be vital to benefit from the closeness of the patients' every-day life situations. The user informants' perception of a self-management support programme as a supplement to regular medical treatment represented an expanded understanding of the self-management support concept. An exploring

  15. Quality of Life Programme--food, nutrition, and health--projects promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenke, A

    2001-03-01

    The EC Quality of Life Programme (QoL), Key Action 1--Food, Nutrition & Health aims at providing a healthy, safe, and high-quality food supply leading to reinforced consumer's confidence in the safety of the European food. Key Action 1 is currently supporting several European projects investigating analytical methods for food control including sensors, risk analysis, and food safety standardisation. Their objectives range from the development and validation of prevention strategies for mycotoxin formation via the development of a communication platform for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), validation and standardisation of diagnostic Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for food-borne pathogens, up to the evaluation of the potential cancer-preventing activity of pro- and pre-biotic ("SYNBIOTIC") combinations in human volunteers. This paper also informs on future research needs in food safety.

  16. The women's heart health programme: a pilot trial of sex-specific cardiovascular management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ting Ting; Chan, Siew Pang; Wai, Shin Hnin; Ang, Zhou; Kyu, Kyu; Lee, Kim Yee; Ching, Anne; Comer, Sarah; Tan, Naomi Qiu Pin; Thong, Elizabeth Grace Hui En; Nang, Tracy; Dutta, Mohan; Lam, Carolyn S P

    2018-04-16

    There is increasing knowledge of sex-specific differences in cardiovascular disease and recognition of sex disparities in management. In our study, we investigated whether a cardiovascular programme tailored to the specific needs of women could lead to improved outcomes. We randomised 100 female patients to receive cardiology follow-up with the conventional sex-neutral cardiac programme (control), or the sex-tailored Women's Heart Health Programme (intervention). The intervention group was managed by an all-women multidisciplinary team and received culture-centred health intervention workshops, designed through in-depth interviews with the participants. The primary outcome was cardiovascular risk factor improvement at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include cardiovascular event rates, quality of life scores, and self-reported improvement in knowledge, attitudes, intentions and practices. Generalised structural equation model analysis was used to determine if the intervention group had better outcomes at alpha level 0.1. The mean age was 67.3 ± 12.7 years, with an ethnic distribution of 70% Chinese, 18% Malays, and 12% Indians. The majority of these patients had no formal or primary level of education (63%), and were mostly unemployed (78%). Patients in intervention group had better control of diabetes mellitus (lower HbA1c of 0.63% [CI 0.21-1.04], p = 0.015) and lower body-mass-index (0.74 kg/m 2 [CI 0.02-1.46], p = 0.092) at 1 year, but there was no significant difference in blood pressure or lipid control. Overall, there was a trend towards better risk factor control, 31.6% of intervention group versus 26.5% of control group achieved improvement in at least 1 CV risk factor control to target range. There was no significant difference in incidence of cardiovascular events, quality of life, or domains in knowledge, attitudes, intention and practices. This pilot study is the first of its kind evaluating a new model of care for women with heart disease

  17. Improving skills and institutional capacity to strengthen adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in African countries through HPV vaccine introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Dochez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several African countries have recently introduced or are currently introducing the HPV vaccine, either nationwide or through demonstration projects, while some countries are planning for introduction. A collaborative project was developed to strengthen country adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in the African Region, addressing unique public health considerations of HPV vaccination: adolescents as the primary target group, delivery platforms (e.g. school-based and facility based, socio-behavioural issues, and the opportunity to deliver other health interventions alongside HPV vaccination.Following a successful “taking-stock” meeting, a training programme was drafted to assist countries to strengthen the integration of adolescent health interventions using HPV vaccination as an entry point. Two workshops were conducted in the Eastern and Southern African Regions. All countries reported on progress made during a final joint symposium.Of the 20 countries invited to participate in either of the workshops and/or final symposium, 17 countries participated: Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Countries that are currently implementing HPV vaccination programmes, either nationally or through demonstration projects, reported varying degrees of integration with other adolescent health interventions. The most commonly reported adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination include health education (including sexually transmitted infections, deworming and delivering of other vaccines like tetanus toxoid (TT or tetanus diphtheria (Td.The project has successfully (a established an African-based network that will advocate for incorporating the HPV vaccine into national immunisation programmes; (b created a platform for experience exchange and thereby contributed to novel ideas of

  18. The role of community health workers in improving child health programmes in Mali

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    Altmann Mathias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality of children under the age of five remains one of the most important public health challenges in developing countries. In rural settings, the promotion of household and community health practices through community health workers (CHWs is among the key strategies to improve child health. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of CHWs in the promotion of basic child heath services in rural Mali. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken using multi-stage cluster sampling of wards and villages. Data was collected through questionnaires among 401 child-caregivers and registers of 72 CHWs. Results Of 401 households suppose to receive a visit by a CHW, 219 (54.6%; confidence interval 95%; 49.6-59.5 had received at least one visit in the last three months before the survey. The mother is the most important caregiver (97%; high percentage being illiterate. Caregivers treat fever and diarrhoea with the correct regimen in 40% and 11% of cases respectively. Comparative analysis between households with and without CHW visits showed a positive influence of CHWs on family health practices: knowledge on the management of child fever (p = Conclusion Continuous training, transport means, adequate supervision and motivation of CHWs through the introduction of financial incentives and remuneration are among key factors to improve the work of CHWs in rural communities. Poor performance of basic household health practices can be related to irregular supply of drugs and the need of appropriate follow-up by CHWs.

  19. Singing for Lung Health: a qualitative assessment of a British Lung Foundation programme for group leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam; Cave, Phoene; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Singing for Lung Health (SLH) groups are an increasingly popular intervention for people with respiratory disease. There are limited data as to how these groups should be developed and run. We aimed to evaluate the experience of singing leaders both to assess the training provided by the British Lung Foundation (BLF) and to provide information to guide future development of programmes. Methods A convenience sample of 15 leaders who had received BLF SLH training participated in the BLF service evaluation. Fifteen singing groups were observed, and singing leader interviews and questionnaires were collected. Inductive themes from the qualitative data were the primary outcome. The content of observed singing groups was also rated against the training leaders had received. Results Singing leaders valued the BLF training but felt that a significant level of expertise is required before joining. Singing leaders often found setting up groups challenging and some found clinician support beneficial. There were important technical aspects of running a lung health group including issues around content, for example, choice of repertoire to suit breathing pattern, and delivery, for example, pace, rhythm and management of group dynamics. Leaders said that group participants reported physical health improvements such as reduced breathlessness on activity. The content and delivery of singing classes observed displayed a good level of fidelity, suggesting that SLH training is effective. Conclusion The experience of the leaders highlights the requirements, support and technical skills needed to run SLH groups, which have features distinct from generic community singing groups. PMID:29071079

  20. Health system changes under pay-for-performance: the effects of Rwanda's national programme on facility inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Diana K L; Sherry, Tisamarie B; Bauhoff, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    Pay-for-performance (P4P) programmes have been introduced in numerous developing countries with the goal of increasing the provision and quality of health services through financial incentives. Despite the popularity of P4P, there is limited evidence on how providers achieve performance gains and how P4P affects health system quality by changing structural inputs. We explore these two questions in the context of Rwanda's 2006 national P4P programme by examining the programme's impact on structural quality measures drawn from international and national guidelines. Given the programme's previously documented success at increasing institutional delivery rates, we focus on a set of delivery-specific and more general structural inputs. Using the programme's quasi-randomized roll-out, we apply multivariate regression analysis to short-run facility data from the 2007 Service Provision Assessment. We find positive programme effects on the presence of maternity-related staff, the presence of covered waiting areas and a management indicator and a negative programme effect on delivery statistics monitoring. We find no effects on a set of other delivery-specific physical resources, delivery-specific human resources, delivery-specific operations, general physical resources and general human resources. Using mediation analysis, we find that the positive input differences explain a small and insignificant fraction of P4P's impact on institutional delivery rates. The results suggest that P4P increases provider availability and facility operations but is only weakly linked with short-run structural health system improvements overall. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A review of the factors affecting the cost effectiveness and health benefits of domestic radon remediation programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Radon levels in domestic properties can be sufficiently high to pose a health hazard, significantly increasing the risk of lung cancer. The distribution of high levels varies geographically. As a result, radon remediation programmes in the United Kingdom (UK) have been developed, firstly to find the houses with high levels, and then remediate these. Our group has extensively studied domestic remediation programmes in the U.K., principally in Northamptonshire, where 6.3% of existing houses exhibit radon levels greater than the UK Action Level of 200 Bq.m -3 , but also in other parts of the country. This analysis has addressed the influences of a number of different factors. Firstly, programmes in areas where more houses are over the Action level are necessarily more cost-effective. Secondly, cost-effectiveness is reduced if people do not take action to test, and then remediate, their houses, which is the case in practice. Therefore, radon awareness programmes in areas with a modest number of houses over the Action level can be more expensive, and therefore inappropriate, compared with other health interventions. Our studies have also demonstrated that the occupancy of the home, together with the ratio of radon levels upstairs and downstairs, has only a modest effect on the value of remediation. More significantly, remediation with an active pump eliminates diurnal variation, and night-time exposure is thus reduced while day-time exposure is not. The most significant impact on the value of remediation programmes, however, is whether the occupants smoke, as radon and smoking combine to produce a greater health risk. Unfortunately, surveys have shown that fewer smokers take action to test and remediate their homes, and many of those most at risk are consequently not reached by the current programmes. This paper presents a review of these issues, and considers the impact of the results on the design of future remediation programmes. (author)

  2. Perceptions of educators regarding the implementation of the health promotion programme manuals for children in schools in Makapanstad, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriccah Peu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health promoting schools focus on, amongst other things, preventing leading causes of death such as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s, Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS, a sedentary lifestyle and creating conditions that are conducive to health through health education. Aim: This study explored the perceptions of educators regarding implementation of the health promotion programme manuals in selected schools of the Makapanstad community. Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was utilised in this study. Four schools were selected to participate in the study. Purposive sampling was used to select educators from these schools who were actively involved in the health promotion programme. Data collection was taken through focus group interviews. One focus group comprised of eight participants who were interviewed three times. The focus group interviews were conducted until data were saturated. Data were analysed using an adaptation of Tesch’s method. The eight steps of Tesch’s method enabled researchers to systematically analyse and organise data using colour coding to develop data into categories, sub-categories and themes. Results and conclusion: The themes that emerged during data analysis were: the perceptions of educators regarding health promotion programme manuals before implementation of manuals, and the perceptions of educators regarding health promotion programme manuals after the implementation of manuals. Introducing health promotion materials to the schools served as a point of departure for developing personal skills and creating a supportive environment for health in schools. The health promotion manual assisted the educators to attain appropriate health promotion information.

  3. The physical health of people with schizophrenia in Asia: Baseline findings from a physical health check programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongsai, S; Gray, R; Bressington, D

    2016-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Physical health problems, especially cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders are far more common in people with severe mental illness (SMI) than the general population. While there are a considerable number of studies that have examined the physical health and health behaviours of people with SMI in Western countries, there have been few studies that have done this in Asia. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Unhealthy body mass index (BMI) values were observed in 44% of Thai service users diagnosed with schizophrenia despite desirable levels of exercise and relatively good diets being reported by the majority of participants. Being prescribed two or more antipsychotics was significantly associated with greater body weight and a higher BMI than in people prescribed only one antipsychotic. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Mental health professionals in Asia should be particularly aware of the additional risks of obesity that seem to be associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy when they are promoting the physical health of people with schizophrenia. Introduction People with schizophrenia have worse physical health than the general population, and studies in developed countries demonstrate that their health behaviours are often undesirable. However, as no similar studies have been conducted in Asian countries with emerging healthcare systems, the physical health promotion challenges in these settings is unknown. Aim To identify and explore relationships between cardiometabolic health risks, lifestyle and treatment characteristics in people with schizophrenia in Thailand. Method This cross-sectional study reports the baseline findings from a physical health check programme using the Thai version of the Health Improvement Profile. Results Despite desirable levels of exercise and relatively good diets being reported by most of the 105 service users, unhealthy body mass index values were observed in 44% of

  4. Implementation of a web-based national child health-care programme in a local context: A complex facilitator role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Johanna; Olander, Ewy; Anderberg, Peter; Berglund, Johan Sanmartin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate child health-care coordinators' experiences of being a facilitator for the implementation of a new national child health-care programme in the form of a web-based national guide. The study was based on eight remote, online focus groups, using Skype for Business. A qualitative content analysis was performed. The analysis generated three categories: adapt to a local context, transition challenges and led by strong incentives. There were eight subcategories. In the latent analysis, the theme 'Being a facilitator: a complex role' was formed to express the child health-care coordinators' experiences. Facilitating a national guideline or decision support in a local context is a complex task that requires an advocating and mediating role. For successful implementation, guidelines and decision support, such as a web-based guide and the new child health-care programme, must match professional consensus and needs and be seen as relevant by all. Participation in the development and a strong bottom-up approach was important, making the web-based guide and the programme relevant to whom it is intended to serve, and for successful implementation. The study contributes valuable knowledge when planning to implement a national web-based decision support and policy programme in a local health-care context.

  5. The Sexuality Education Initiative: a programme involving teenagers, schools, parents and sexual health services in Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Magaly; Ressa, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In response to abstinence-only programmes in the United States that promote myths and misconceptions about sexuality and sexual behaviour, the comprehensive sexuality education community has been sidetracked from improving the sexuality education available in US schools for almost two decades now. Much work is still needed to move beyond fear-based approaches and the one-way communication of information that many programmes still use. Starting in 2008 Planned Parenthood Los Angeles developed and launched a teen-centred sexuality education programme based on critical thinking, human rights, gender equality, and access to health care that is founded on a theory of change that recognises the complex relationship between the individual and broader environment of cultural norms, socio-economic inequalities, health disparities, legal and institutional factors. The Sexuality Education Initiative is comprised of a 12-session classroom sexuality education curriculum for ninth grade students; workshops for parents; a peer advocacy training programme; and access to sexual health services. This paper describes that experience and presents the rights-based framework that was used, which seeks to improve the learning experience of students, strengthen the capacity of schools, teachers and parents to help teenagers manage their sexuality effectively and understand that they have the right to health care, education, protection, dignity and privacy. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2015: Model-Estimated Health Impact and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffeng, Luc E.; Stolk, Wilma A.; Zouré, Honorat G. M.; Veerman, J. Lennert; Agblewonu, Koffi B.; Murdoch, Michele E.; Noma, Mounkaila; Fobi, Grace; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Bundy, Donald A. P.; Habbema, Dik; de Vlas, Sake J.; Amazigo, Uche V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. Methods and Findings With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. Conclusions Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future. PMID:23383355

  7. African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffeng, Luc E; Stolk, Wilma A; Zouré, Honorat G M; Veerman, J Lennert; Agblewonu, Koffi B; Murdoch, Michele E; Noma, Mounkaila; Fobi, Grace; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Bundy, Donald A P; Habbema, Dik; de Vlas, Sake J; Amazigo, Uche V

    2013-01-01

    Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015. With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million. Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.

  8. African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc E Coffeng

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries. In this study, we estimate the health impact of APOC and the associated costs from a program perspective up to 2010 and provide expected trends up to 2015.With data on pre-control prevalence of infection and population coverage of mass treatment, we simulated trends in infection, blindness, visual impairment, and severe itch using the micro-simulation model ONCHOSIM, and estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost due to onchocerciasis. We assessed financial costs for APOC, beneficiary governments, and non-governmental development organizations, excluding cost of donated drugs. We estimated that between 1995 and 2010, mass treatment with ivermectin averted 8.2 million DALYs due to onchocerciasis in APOC areas, at a nominal cost of about US$257 million. We expect that APOC will avert another 9.2 million DALYs between 2011 and 2015, at a nominal cost of US$221 million.Our simulations suggest that APOC has had a remarkable impact on population health in Africa between 1995 and 2010. This health impact is predicted to double during the subsequent five years of the program, through to 2015. APOC is a highly cost-effective public health program. Given the anticipated elimination of onchocerciasis from some APOC areas, we expect even more health gains and a more favorable cost-effectiveness of mass treatment with ivermectin in the near future.

  9. [Implementation of a health promotion programme for women in social exclusion in the city of Seville (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Fernández-Viagas, Cristina; García Gil, Carmen; Bayo Barroso, Nora; Villalba Quesada, Cristina; Álvarez Girón, Manuela

    2018-01-09

    Health promotion can contribute towards reducing inequality and ensuring equal opportunities, providing the means to enable the entire population to develop its maximum health possibilities. Women living in areas with social transformation needs (ASTN) are an especially vulnerable group due to the situation of material deprivation and social exclusion in which they live. Health promotion programmes for this group can bring about an improvement in their health. This paper describes the health promotion programme Socio-educational Groups of Primary Care for Women (SEGPC-W), and evaluates its implementation in ASTN in the city of Seville (Spain), as well as the benefits and difficulties of its development through a documentary analysis and interviews with participating professionals. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Lysenkoism in Polish botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2008-01-01

    Lysenkoism in Poland was never an autonomous phenomenon. The whole array of reasons for which it appeared in Polish science would require a separate study--here it only needs to be pointed out that the major reasons included terror on the part of the security service, lawlessness, the ubiquitous atmosphere of intimidation and terror, censorship, the diminishing sphere of civil liberties, political show trials, propaganda and denunciations. An important role in facilitating the introduction of Lysenkoism was played also by the reorganization of science after World War Two, the isolation of Polish science from science in the West, as well as the damage it had suffered during the war. At first, Lysenkoism was promoted in Poland by a small group of enthusiastic and uncritical proponents. A overview of the events connected with the ten years of Lysenkoism in Poland (end of 1948--beginning of 1958) shows a two-tier picture of how the 'idea' was propagated. The first tier consisted in the activities of the Association of Marxist Naturalists [Koło Przyrodników-Marksistów], which it engaged in since the end of 1948. The Association was later transformed into a Union of Marxist Naturalists, and this in turn merged, in 1952, with the Copernican Society of Polish Naturalists [Polskie Towarzystwo Przyrodników im. Kopernika]. It was that society which promoted Lysenkoism longest, until the end of 1956. The propaganda and training activities of the circle and the society prepared ground for analogous activities of the newly formed Polish Academy of Science (PAN), which--since its very establishment in 1952--engaged in promoting Lysenkoism through its Second Division. These activities were aimed at naturalists, initially at those who were prominent scientists (eg. the conference at Kuźnice, 1950/1951), and then at those who were only starting their academic career (including national courses in new biology at Dziwnów, 1952, or Kortowo, 1953 and 1955). The end to promoting

  11. Polish Americans. Second, Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Helen Znaniecka

    This book examines Polonia, the Polish ethnic community in America created by three giant waves of immigration between 1880 and 1990. The complicated history of this ethnic group is reflected in the lives of increasing numbers of Polish Americans, including recent immigrants brought by political and economic changes, as they achieve middle class…

  12. The important role of food composition in policies and programmes for better public health: A South African case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeldt, Hettie C; Hall, Nicolette; Pretorius, B

    2018-01-01

    Most governments have committed to the set of Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations (UN) to be achieved by 2030. Subsequently the governments have drafted, or are in process of drafting, policies and programmes which aim to answer to these global requests. South Africa provides a unique case study: despite economic growth, undernutrition has not improved when compared to other industrialised nations, while at the same time, diet-related non-communicable diseases and obesity have exponentially increased. Access to healthy food is a constitutional right of all South Africans, and towards increasing food security and improving population health, various policies, programmes and regulations have been developed and implemented by the government to rectify the situation. The paper presents an overview of food composition within these public health policies, programmes and regulations and unpacks the important role of accurate food composition data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. School-Based Health Education Programmes, Health-Learning Capacity and Child Oral Health--related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…

  14. Exploring competing experiences and expectations of the revitalized community health worker programme in Mozambique: an equity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Give, Celso Soares; Sidat, Mohsin; Ormel, Hermen; Ndima, Sozinho; McCollum, Rosalind; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Mozambique launched its revitalized community health programme in 2010 in response to inequitable coverage and quality of health services. The programme is focused on health promotion and disease prevention, with 20 % of community health workers' (known in Mozambique as Agentes Polivalentes Elementares (APEs)) time spent on curative services and 80 % on activities promoting health and preventing illness. We set out to conduct a health system and equity analysis, exploring experiences and expectations of APEs, community members and healthcare workers supervising APEs. This exploratory qualitative study captured the perspectives of a range of participants including women caring for children under 5 years (service clients), community leaders, service providers (APEs) and their supervisors. Participants in the Moamba and Manhiça districts, located in Maputo Province (Mozambique), were selected purposively. In total, 29 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions were conducted in the local language and/or Portuguese. A framework approach was used for analysis, assisted by NVivo10 software. Our analysis revealed that health equity is viewed as linked to the quality and coverage of the APE programme. Demand and supply factors interplay to shape health equity. The availability of responsive and appropriate services led to tensions between community expectations for curative services (and APEs' willingness to perform them) and official policy focusing APE efforts mainly on preventive services and health promotion. The demand for more curative services by community members is a result of having limited access to healthcare services other than those offered by APEs. This study highlights the need to pay attention to the determinants of demand and supply of community interventions in health, to understand the opportunities and challenges of the difficult interface role played by APEs and to create communication among stakeholders in order to build a stronger, more

  15. Evaluation of a Sexual and Reproductive Health Education Programme: Students' Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour in Bolgatanga Municipality, Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geugten, Jolien; van Meijel, Berno; den Uyl, Marion H G; de Vries, Nanne K

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation research concerning the impact of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. This study obtained more insight into the knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions of students concerning SRH in Bolgatanga municipality in northern Ghana, and studied the effects of an SRH programme for this group. This quasi-experimental study used a pre-post-intervention design, with an SRH programme as intervention. A questionnaire was filled in by 312 students before, and by 272 students after the SRH programme. The results showed that before the programme, students answered half of the knowledge questions correctly, they thought positively about deciding for themselves whether to have a relationship and whether to have sex, and their intentions towards SRH behaviour, such as condom use were positive. The SRH intervention led to a small but significant increase in the students' knowledge. It was also found that the attitude of the students aged 18-20 significantly improved. Finally, it was found that female students aged 18-20 were more positive towards changing their behaviour after following the SRH programme. It can be concluded that the impact of the SRH programme in general was positive. Significant effects were found for gender and age.

  16. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of parenting programmes in improving maternal psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Coren, Esther; Stewart-Brown, Sarah

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving maternal psychosocial health. Data sources used were English and non-English language articles published between January 1970 and July 2000, retrieved using a keyword search of a number of biomedical, social science, educational, and general reference electronic databases. Two independent reviewers selected the relevant abstracts and articles. Only controlled trials were included in which participants had been randomly allocated to an experimental and a control group, the latter being a waiting-list, no-treatment or a placebo control group. Studies had to include at least one group-based parenting programme and one standardised instrument measuring maternal psychosocial health. Means, standard deviations, and information regarding study quality were selected from the included studies by two independent reviewers. The treatment effect for each outcome in each study was standardised by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores for the intervention and treatment group, by the pooled standard deviation, to produce an effect size. The results were then combined in a meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. A total of 23 studies met all the inclusion criteria and 17 of these provided sufficient data with which to calculate effect sizes. Fifteen of these studies provided data on the five main outcomes of interest: depression, anxiety/stress, self-esteem, social support, and relationship with partner. The meta-analyses show statistically significant results favouring the intervention group for depression (-0.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.4 to -0.1), anxiety/stress (-0.5, 95% CI = -0.7 to -0.3), self-esteem (-0.4, 95% CI = -0.6 to -0.1), and relationship with partner (-0.4, 95% CI = -0.7 to -0.2). However, the meta-analysis of the social support data showed no evidence of effectiveness (-0.04, 95% CI = -0.3 to 0.2). Follow-up data were

  17. Evaluation of an occupational health intervention programme on whole‐body vibration in forklift truck drivers: a controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, C T J; Verbeek, J H A M; Braam, I T J; Bovenzi, M; van Dijk, F J H

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate process and outcome of a multifaceted occupational health intervention programme on whole‐body vibration (WBV) in forklift truck drivers. Methods An experimental pretest/post‐test control group study design. The authors trained occupational health services (OHS) in the experimental group in the use of the programme. OHS in the control group were asked to deliver care as usual. In total, 15 OHS, 32 OHS professionals, 26 companies, and 260 forklift drivers were involved. Post‐test measurements were carried out one year after the start of the programme. Results Baseline data before the start of the programme showed no difference between experimental and control group. Results of the outcome evaluation indicate a slight, although not statistically significant, reduction of WBV exposure in the experimental group (p = 0.06). Process evaluation revealed a positive influence on company policy toward WBV, attitude and intended behaviour of forklift drivers, and a trend towards an increase in knowledge of OHS professionals and company managers. The number of observed control measures with a major impact (levelling of surface and reduction of speed) was rather low. In those cases where control measures had been taken, there was a significant reduction in WBV exposure. This limited effect of the programme might be caused by the short period of follow up and the dropout of participants. The feasibility and the usefulness of the programme within the OHS setting were rated good by the participants. Conclusions This programme to decrease WBV exposure was partially effective. Significant effects on intermediate objectives were observed. More research on the effectiveness of intervention in the field of WBV is needed. PMID:16551762

  18. Impact of the rural health development programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran on rural-urban disparities in health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S

    2008-01-01

    By 1979, 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.

  19. Acid deposition: a select review 1852-1990. 2. Effects on materials and health; abatement strategies and programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Raper, D.W.; Lee, D.S.; Heath, B.A.; Conlan, B.; King, H.J. (Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom). Atmospheric Research and Information Centre)

    1993-10-01

    Part 2 of this review is concerned with the impact of acid deposits and their precursors on materials and human health, and with the control technologies and programmes introduced as a consequence of the environmental impacts of acid deposition. 269 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Effects on Physical Health of a Multicomponent Programme for Overweight and Obesity for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín; Campillo-Martínez, José M.; Ato-García, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are major health risk factors in people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a multicomponent programme (physical activity, diet and motivation) for overweight and obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities. Material and Methods: A quasi-experimental design…

  1. A Pilot Project to Develop and Assess a Health Education Programme for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atak, Nazli; Arslan, Umit

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The current research was designed to develop a health education programme for type 2 diabetes mellitus based on the Taba-Tyler model and to evaluate its effect. Design: The study was quasi-experimental in design. Setting: Fifty-five patients from the Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, University Hospital of Ankara. Method: An education…

  2. Linking research to practice: the organisation and implementation of The Netherlands health and social care improvement programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovretveit, John; Klazinga, Niek

    2013-01-01

    Both public and private health and social care services are facing increased and changing demands to improve quality and reduce costs. To enable local services to respond to these demands, governments and other organisations have established large scale improvement programmes. These usually seek to

  3. Development of Health Education Learning Module in Bac.TSE-LDPE Programme in TTI: Needs Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Alijah; Alias, Norlidah; Siraj, Saedah

    2015-01-01

    This study is to explore the need to develop learning modules of health education for trainee teachers in the Bachelor Of Teaching (Hons)(Special Education-Learning Disabilities For Primary Education) Programme (Bac.TSE-LDPE) in the Teacher Training Institute (TTI). The questionnaire uses the Likert scale with the close ended questions analysed by…

  4. Evaluating the effect of policies and interventions to address inequalities in health: lessons from a Dutch programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, Karien; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many initiatives have been taken in European countries that are designed to reduce inequalities in health. However, the effects of only a very few of these initiatives have been assessed. The main aim of a Dutch research and development programme was to systematically investigate and

  5. The nutritional impact of the Pre-School Health Programme at three clinics in Central Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Abr. sum.: Contains an account of a study of the effects of the Pre-School Health Programme at three clinics in different ecological zones in Central Province, Kenya. Two groups of mothers were selected for interviewing: recent entrants and longtime participants. The study concentrates on the

  6. Qualitative Evaluation of a Physical Activity Health Promotion Programme for People with Intellectual Disabilities in a Group Home Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Ibarra, A.; Driver, S.; Nery-Hurwit, M.; VanVolkenburg, H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of health promotion programming designed to change the physical activity environment of the group home setting. The Menu-Choice programme assists staff in creating physical activity goals alongside residents with intellectual disabilities and provides strategies to incorporate activity into the group home schedule. The…

  7. Development of "Long Live Love+," a School-Based Online Sexual Health Programme for Young Adults. An Intervention Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevissen, Fraukje E. F.; van Empelen, Pepijn; Watzeels, Anita; van Duin, Gee; Meijer, Suzanne; van Lieshout, Sanne; Kok, Gerjo

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Dutch online programme called "Long Live Love+" focusing on positive, coercion-free relationships, contraception use, and the prevention of STIs, using the Intervention Mapping (IM) approach. All six steps of the approach were followed. Step 1 confirmed the need for a sexual health programme…

  8. GIS in Public Health: applications in the Legionnaires' disease prevention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Aránguez Ruiz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experience has been developed by the Public Health Institute of the Community of Madrid in order to use the GIS tools in the Legionnaires’ disease prevention programme and specifically in three work areas: epidemiologic surveillance, cooling towers environmental control and plans of intervention in case of an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease.After having considered different strategies with their advantages the selected model have been the use of map viewers in the intranet with a different configuration format depending on its goals: images map viewers for systematic non-outbreak cases and cooling towers surveillance, viewers that allow an easier and usual consultation and, in the other hand, layers map viewers, better adapted to more complex users’ necessities and so designed to work in emergency situations. Both models are implemented to decentralise the use of these indispensable tools and make them closer of the public health professionals.Some methodological proposals to study spatial association of Legionaires’disease outbreaks are also presented and discussed in this paper.

  9. Teachers' experiences of workplace bullying and its effects on health :|bdeveloping a multi-level intervention programme / Jaqueline de Vos

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Jaqueline

    2012-01-01

    Workplace bullying is recognised as a major psychosocial stressor in various professions and can have severe effects on health. Teachers are distinguished as an occupational group that is severely affected by this phenomenon. The general objectives of this research study were to firstly investigate teachers’ experiences of workplace bullying and its effects on health, and secondly, to develop a multi-level intervention programme that can be implemented to address workplace bullying and its ef...

  10. Health consequences of the US Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration programme: a quasi-experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Atheendar S Venkataramani, DrMD; Sachin J Shah, MD; Rourke O'Brien, PhD; Ichiro Kawachi, ProfPhD; Alexander C Tsai, MD

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Background: The effects of changes in immigration policy on health outcomes among undocumented immigrants are not well known. We aimed to examine the physical and mental health effects of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) programme, a 2012 US immigration policy that provided renewable work permits and freedom from deportation for a large number of undocumented immigrants. Methods: We did a retrospective, quasi-experimental study using nationally representative, repea...

  11. The Adaptation of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme for Youth with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Community-Engaged Research Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kristie L.; Bandini, Linda G.; Folta, Sara C.; Wansink, Brian; Must, Aviva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidenced-based health promotion programmes for youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are notably absent. Barriers include a lack of understanding of how to adapt existing evidence-based programmes to their needs, maximize inclusion and support mutual goals of health and autonomy. Methods: We undertook a…

  12. GOSH! : an open and distance learning programme which helps in Gearing up to the Occupational Safety and Health Systems of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robertson, S.A.; Piek, W.S.M.; Kwantes, J.H.; Meeuwsen, J.M.; Man. M. de

    1999-01-01

    The GOSH! open and distance learning programme on the topic of occupational safety and health (OSH) was organized as part of the European Studies Programme. Prevention of damage to workers' health is an important issue in EU-policy. Apart from the individual human trauma, the socio-economic costs of

  13. Health- and Taste-Related Attitudes Associated with Dietary Patterns in a Representative Sample of Polish Girls and Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study (GEBaHealth Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnie, Marta; Wadolowska, Lidia; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. The study population consisted of 1107 girls, aged 13–21 and living in Poland. Attitudes were assessed using the Health and Taste Attitudes Scale (HTAS) and categorised as negative, neutral or positive. Dietary data was obtained using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns (DPs), derived previously with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were ‘Traditional Polish’, ‘Fruit and vegetables’, ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Dairy and fats’. The associations between attitudes and DPs were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and logistic regression. The reference group were girls with neutral attitudes. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status (SES), and body mass index (BMI). The correlations between attitudes and DPs ranged from −0.28 for attitudes towards health and ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Traditional Polish’ DPs to 0.33 for attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (p food and sweets’ DP (OR: 10.93; 95% CI: 3.32–36.01) and between positive attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (OR: 5.10; 3.11–8.37). The strongest associations within taste-related HTAS subscales were observed between positive attitudes towards craving for sweet foods and the ‘Traditional Polish’ DP (OR: 1.93; 1.43–2.61) and between positive attitudes towards using food as a reward and the ‘Dairy and fats’ DP (OR: 2.08; 1.22–3.55) as well as the ‘Fast food and sweets’ DP (OR: 2.07; 1.14–3.74). Positive attitudes towards health were associated with a pro-healthy dietary pattern characterised by the consumption of

  14. Polishing large NaCl windows on a continuous polisher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Helios and Antares CO 2 fusion laser systems incorporate numerous large sodium chloride windows. These must be refinished periodically, making necessary a consistent and predictable polishing capability. A continuous polisher (or annular lap) which might at Kirtland's Developmental Optical Facility. Large NaCl windows had not been polished on this type of machine. The machine has proven itself capable of producing lambda/16 figures at 633 nm (HeNe) with extremely smooth surfaces on glass. Since then, we have been working exclusively on NaCl optics. Due to different polishing parameters between NaCl and glass, and the slight solubility of the pitch in the slurry, this phase presents new problems. The work on glass will be reviewed. Results on NaCl to date will be reported. The potential of this type of machine relative to prisms, thin and irregularly shaped optics will be discussed

  15. Scaling up proven public health interventions through a locally owned and sustained leadership development programme in rural Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Joan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In 2002, the Egypt Ministry of Health and Population faced the challenge of improving access to and quality of services in rural Upper Egypt in the face of low morale among health workers and managers. From 1992 to 2000, the Ministry, with donor support, had succeeded in reducing the nationwide maternal mortality rate by 52%. Nevertheless, a gap remained between urban and rural areas. Case description In 2002, the Ministry, with funding from the United States Agency for International Development and assistance from Management Sciences for Health, introduced a Leadership Development Programme (LDP in Aswan Governorate. The programme aimed to improve health services in three districts by increasing managers' ability to create high performing teams and lead them to achieve results. The programme introduced leadership and management practices and a methodology for identifying and addressing service delivery challenges. Ten teams of health workers participated. Discussion and evaluation In 2003, after participation in the LDP, the districts of Aswan, Daraw and Kom Ombo increased the number of new family planning visits by 36%, 68% and 20%, respectively. The number of prenatal and postpartum visits also rose. After the United States funding ended, local doctors and nurses scaled up the programme to 184 health care facilities (training more than 1000 health workers. From 2005 to 2007, the Leadership Development Programme participants in Aswan Governorate focused on reducing the maternal mortality rate as their annual goal. They reduced it from 85.0 per 100,000 live births to 35.5 per 100,000. The reduction in maternal mortality rate was much greater than in similar governorates in Egypt. Managers and teams across Aswan demonstrated their ability to scale up effective public health interventions though their increased commitment and ownership of service challenges. Conclusions When teams learn and apply empowering leadership and

  16. Effects of two physical education programmes on health- and skill-related physical fitness of Albanian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarani, J; Grøntved, Anders; Muca, F

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two school-based physical education (PE) programmes (exercise-based and games-based) compared with traditional PE, on health- and skill-related physical fitness components in children in Tirana, Albania. Participants were 378 first-grade (6.8 years...... intervention programmes were taught by professional PE teachers using station/circuit teaching framework while CG referred to traditional PE school lessons by a general teacher. All programmes ran in parallel and lasted 5 months, having the same frequency (twice weekly) and duration (45 min). Heart rate (HR......) monitoring showed that intensity during PE lessons was significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with control (P

  17. Comparison of two school-based programmes for health behaviour change: the Belo Horizonte Heart Study randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Robespierre Q C; Alves, Luciana

    2014-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of two school-based programmes to promote students' willingness to engage in lifestyle changes related to eating habits and physical activity behaviours. Elementary school-based health promotion intervention, designed as a multicomponent experimental study, based on a behavioural epidemiological model. Nine intervention and eight comparative public and private elementary schools. The goal was to determine the impact on the longitudinally assessed outcomes of two programmes that addressed healthy nutrition and active living in a cohort of 2038 children. The evaluations used pre-intervention and follow-up student surveys that were based on the Transtheoretical Model of the stages of behaviour change. In the intervention group, there were significant (P motivated teachers. The comparison group did not show significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention times for any of the stages of behaviour. The intervention programme encouraged the students to make healthy lifestyle choices related to eating habits and physical activity behaviours.

  18. Investigating the validity and usability of an interactive computer programme for assessing competence in telephone-based mental health triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Natisha; Elsom, Stephen; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Henderson, Kathryn; King, Peter; Bourke-Finn, Karen; Brunning, Debra

    2016-02-01

    Telephone-based mental health triage services are frontline health-care providers that operate 24/7 to facilitate access to psychiatric assessment and intervention for people requiring assistance with a mental health problem. The mental health triage clinical role is complex, and the populations triage serves are typically high risk; yet to date, no evidence-based methods have been available to assess clinician competence to practice telephone-based mental health triage. The present study reports the findings of a study that investigated the validity and usability of the Mental Health Triage Competency Assessment Tool, an evidence-based, interactive computer programme designed to assist clinicians in developing and assessing competence to practice telephone-based mental health triage. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  19. Leadership and governance of community health worker programmes at scale: a cross case analysis of provincial implementation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Helen; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla

    2017-09-15

    National community health worker (CHW) programmes are returning to favour as an integral part of primary health care systems, often on the back of pre-existing community based initiatives. There are significant challenges to the integration and support of such programmes, and they require coordination and stewardship at all levels of the health system. This paper explores the leadership and governance tasks of large-scale CHW programmes at sub-national level, through the case of national reforms to South Africa's community based sector, referred to as the Ward Based Outreach Team (WBOT) strategy. A cross case analysis of leadership and governance roles, drawing on three case studies of adoption and implementation of the WBOTs strategy at provincial level (Western Cape, North West and Gauteng) was conducted. The primary case studies mapped system components and assessed implementation processes and contexts. They involved teams of researchers and over 200 interviews with stakeholders from senior to frontline, document reviews and analyses of routine data. The secondary, cross case analysis specifically focused on the issues and challenges facing, and strategies adopted by provincial and district policy makers and managers, as they engaged with the new national mandate. From this key sub-national leadership and governance roles were formulated. Four key roles are identified and discussed: 1. Negotiating a fit between national mandates and provincial and district histories and strategies of community based services 2. Defining new organisational and accountability relationships between CHWs, local health services, communities and NGOs 3. Revising and developing new aligned and integrated planning, human resource, financing and information systems 4. Leading change by building new collective visions, mobilising political, including budgetary, support and designing implementation strategies. This analysis, from real-life systems, adds to understanding of the processes

  20. Measuring physical activity during pregnancy - Cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) and assessment of its reliability in Polish conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzepota, Justyna; Sadowska, Dorota; Sempolska, Katarzyna; Pelczar, Małgorzata

    2017-12-23

    The assessment of physical activity during pregnancy is crucial in perinatal care and it is an important research topic. Unfortunately, in Poland there is a lack of one commonly accepted questionnaire of physical activity during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to adapt the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to Polish conditions and assess the reliability of its Polish version (PPAQ-PL). The PPAQ was translated from English into Polish and its reliability tested. 64 correctly completed (twice, one week apart) questionnaires were qualified for analysis. Test-retest reliability was assessed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). As a result of the adaptation and psychometric assessment, in the Polish version of the questionnaire the number of questions was reduced from 36 to 35 by removing the question concerning 'mowing lawn while on a riding mower'. The ICC value for total activity was 0.75, which confirms a substantial level of reliability. The ICC values for subscales of intensity ranged from 0.53 (light) - 0.86 (vigorous). For subscales of type, ICC values ranged from 0.59 (transportation) - 0.89 (household/caregiving). The PPAQ-PL can be accepted as a reliable tool for the assessing physical activity of pregnant women in Poland. Information obtained using the questionnaire might be helpful in monitoring health behaviours, preventing obesity, as well as designing and promoting physical activity programmes for pregnant women.

  1. Intervention Effects of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme on Obesity Related Behavioural Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kobel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown preventive effects of an active lifestyle during childhood on later life; therefore, health promotion has to start early. The programme “Join the Healthy Boat” promotes a healthy lifestyle in primary school children. In order to evaluate it, children’s behaviours in respect of increased physical activity (PA, a decrease in screen media use (SMU, more regular breakfast, and a reduction of the consumption of soft drinks (SDC were investigated. 1943 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years participated in the cluster-randomised study and were assessed at baseline and 1736 of them at follow-up. Teachers delivered lessons, which included behavioural contracting and budgeting of SMU and SDC. Daily SMU, PA behaviours, SDC, and breakfast patterns were assessed via parental questionnaire. After one-year intervention, significant effects were found in the intervention group for SMU of girls, children without migration background, and children with parents having a low education level. In the control group, second grade children skipped breakfast significantly more often. Tendencies but no significant differences were found for PA and SDC. This intervention seems to affect groups, which are usually hard to reach, such as children of parents with low education levels, which shows that active parental involvement is vital for successful interventions.

  2. [Drawing up indicators regarding success in public health programmes having a social-sports approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortês-Neto, Ewerton Dantas; Alchieri, João Carlos; Miranda, Hênio Ferreira de; Dantas-Cavalcanti, Francisco Ivo

    2010-04-01

    The present study was aimed at analysing how social sports projects are evaluated so as to draw up and develop indicators of success regarding social programmes' efficacy and effectiveness. This was a descriptive survey. The sample consisted of 51 participants, male (n=29) and female (n=22), from the Nova Descoberta project whose ages ranged from 8 to 17. Data was obtained from a semi-directed survey having open items covering 10 topics; it was carried out with children and adolescents over a 2-year period (2007-2008). Documental data was also obtained from schools which had agreed to cooperate with the project. There were no statistically significant differences (pperformance of survey group participants and those who had not joined the project in terms of scholastic performance during 2007. A significant difference (psports projects. The manifestation of other characteristics in the environment could have interfered with participation and involvement in physical activity and, consequently, with the children and adolescents' health and quality of life. It was found that school work performance indicators could be taken together with other indicators, such as development of various abilities, participation in other activities, activity motivation, behaviour and attitudes at home and at school, for evaluating social projects.

  3. The healthy device and the definition of health: The example of the National Programme for a Healthy Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Andrés De Francisco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The National Programme for a Healthy Life emerges from the creation of three other programmes that encourage the so-called healthy habits among individuals. Due to be implemented by the National Ministry of Health between 2007 and 2010, it is not a unique case in its group, as the National Programme for a Healthy Life presents the opportunity to think about the importance of health in modern society. In the modern context of a transition that migrates from medicine as curative medicine to a conception of medicine as a preventive science, and from the perspective of the concept of biopolitics, developed by the French philosopher Michel Foucault, it is inferred the existence of a healthy mechanism which organizes the discourses on health and builds truthful discourses about it. The presence of this mechanism could be a possible explanation of the omnipresence of health in modern society, the constant concern to prolong life and the instigation of self-control, care and improvement of an individual's health

  4. Better health at work? An evaluation of the effects and cost-benefits of a structured workplace health improvement programme in reducing sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, T; Bambra, C; Booth, M; Adetayo, K; Milne, E

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the Better Health at Work Award-a structured regional workplace health programme which combined changes to the work environment with lifestyle interventions. Baseline and follow-up data on sickness-absence rates and programme costs were collected retrospectively via a web survey of all participating organizations. Changes over time were calculated using 95% confidence intervals of the mean, supplemented by hypothesis testing using a t-test. The indicative cost-benefits of the intervention were also calculated. Participation was associated with a mean reduction in sickness absence of 0.26-1.6 days per employee per year depending on the length and level of participation in the programme. The estimated cost for the programme was £3 per sickness-absence day saved. These results suggest that the Better Health at Work Award could be a cost-effective way of improving health and reducing sickness absence particularly in the public sector. However, controlled evaluations of future interventions are needed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 3 study of the health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.; Kellerer, A.; Pott-Born, R.; Gagniere, B.; Mansoux, H.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Valenty, M.; Calmont, I.; Brun-Yaba, Ch.; Verger, P.; Franc, B.; Robert-Gnansia, E.; Briend, A.

    2006-03-01

    The results of the French-German Initiative Health Effects project, conducted over a period of four years, were presented to the international authorities at a congress held in October 2004 in Kiev and are summarised below. Thyroid cancer increase in children and young adults seems clearly related to exposure at young ages in 1986. For the other cancers sites, the observed results do not add any decisive elements that would make it possible to quantify the impact of post-Chernobyl irradiation: the trend observed in time is similar in both exposed and non-exposed areas in most situations. These observations do not exclude the fact that an increase of leukaemia may exist for those exposed as children; it may be too low to be detectable in a statistically significant way. Similarly, the higher rate of congenital malformations observed during recent years cannot be attributed to radiation, because the same trend over time is observed both in contaminated and non-contaminated areas in Belarus. Reliable and up-to-date knowledge has been collected in a H.E.D.A.C. database, it should facilitate communication concerning the health impact of the Chernobyl accident. The main results published at national or international level, will be made available to the public and the international scientific community via modern distribution methods and will contribute to the development of a necessary cohesion between international research programmes and work carried out locally. Contact the web site: www.fgi.icc.gov.ua For detailed information, final reports are available: contact with mentioned investigators is proposed (see authors of final reports) or contact scientific coordinator M. Tirmarche at I.R.S.N. (France) D. Bazyka at R.C.R.M., Kiev in charge of the database and communication of scientific results at Chernobyl Center

  6. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl. Programme 3 study of the health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, S.; Kellerer, A.; Pott-Born, R. [Munich Univ., Radiobiological Institute (Germany); Gagniere, B. [CIRE Ouest, 35 - Rennes (France); Mansoux, H.; Rutschkowsky, N.; Valenty, M.; Calmont, I.; Brun-Yaba, Ch. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Verger, P. [ORS PACA, 13 - Marseille (France); Franc, B. [Hopital Ambroise-Pare, 92 - Boulogne (France); Robert-Gnansia, E. [European Instituteof Genomutations, 69 - Lyon (France); Briend, A. [Scientific and Technical Institute of Nutrition and Alimentation/CNAM, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-03-15

    The results of the French-German Initiative Health Effects project, conducted over a period of four years, were presented to the international authorities at a congress held in October 2004 in Kiev and are summarised below. Thyroid cancer increase in children and young adults seems clearly related to exposure at young ages in 1986. For the other cancers sites, the observed results do not add any decisive elements that would make it possible to quantify the impact of post-Chernobyl irradiation: the trend observed in time is similar in both exposed and non-exposed areas in most situations. These observations do not exclude the fact that an increase of leukaemia may exist for those exposed as children; it may be too low to be detectable in a statistically significant way. Similarly, the higher rate of congenital malformations observed during recent years cannot be attributed to radiation, because the same trend over time is observed both in contaminated and non-contaminated areas in Belarus. Reliable and up-to-date knowledge has been collected in a H.E.D.A.C. database, it should facilitate communication concerning the health impact of the Chernobyl accident. The main results published at national or international level, will be made available to the public and the international scientific community via modern distribution methods and will contribute to the development of a necessary cohesion between international research programmes and work carried out locally. Contact the web site: www.fgi.icc.gov.ua For detailed information, final reports are available: contact with mentioned investigators is proposed (see authors of final reports) or contact scientific coordinator M. Tirmarche at I.R.S.N. (France) D. Bazyka at R.C.R.M., Kiev in charge of the database and communication of scientific results at Chernobyl Center.

  7. The Life and Afterlife of a Socialist Media Friend. On the Longterm Cultural Relevance of the Polish TV Series 'Czterdziestolatek'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga S. Bloch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses how the relationship of the Polish audience to a series from the 1970s, Czterdziestolatek (The Fourty-Year Old evolved during socialism and after the Fall of the Iron Curtain. Contemporary reactions to the original series and a new season that was produced in the early 1990s are compared to nostalgic recollections and memories of the programme in later periods. The study discusses how the Polish audience uses the programme as a historical document today and whether there is a generational difference in the perception of the audiovisual interpretation of Polish everyday life in the 1970s.

  8. Detection of paint polishing defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Wagner, M.; Mazal, J.; Rosén, B.-G.; Dahlén, M.

    2018-06-01

    Surface finish plays a major role on perceived product quality, and is the first thing a potential buyer sees. Today end-of-line repairs of the body of cars and trucks are inevitably to secure required surface quality. Defects that occur in the paint shop, like dust particles, are eliminated by manual sanding/polishing which lead to other types of defects when the last polishing step is not performed correctly or not fully completed. One of those defects is known as ‘polishing roses’ or holograms, which are incredibly hard to detect in artificial light but are clearly visible in sunlight. This paper will present the first tests with a measurement set-up newly developed to measure and analyse polishing roses. The results showed good correlations to human visual evaluations where repaired panels were estimated based on the defects’ intensity, severity and viewing angle.

  9. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  10. Lysenko affair and Polish botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the slight impact of Lysenkoism upon Polish botany. I begin with an account of the development of plant genetics in Poland, as well as the attitude of scientists and the Polish intelligentsia toward Marxist philosophy prior to the World War II. Next I provide a short history of the introduction and demise of Lysenkoism in Polish science, with a focus on events in botany, in context with key events in Polish science from 1939 to 1958. The article outlines the little effects of Lysenkoism upon botanists and their research, as well as how botanists for the most part rejected what was often termed the "new biology." My paper shows that though Lysenko's theories received political support, and were actively promoted by a small circle of scientists and Communist party activists, they were never accepted by most botanists. Once the political climate in Poland altered after the events of 1956, Lysenko's theories were immediately abandoned.

  11. The global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: health impact after 8 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Ottesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In its first 8 years, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF achieved an unprecedentedly rapid scale-up: >1.9 billion treatments with anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine were provided via yearly mass drug administration (MDA to a minimum of 570 million individuals living in 48 of the 83 initially identified LF-endemic countries. METHODOLOGY: To assess the health impact that this massive global effort has had, we analyzed the benefits accrued first from preventing or stopping the progression of LF disease, and then from the broader anti-parasite effects ('beyond-LF' benefits attributable to the use of albendazole and ivermectin. Projections were based on demographic and disease prevalence data from publications of the Population Reference Bureau, The World Bank, and the World Health Organization. RESULT: Between 2000 and 2007, the GPELF prevented LF disease in an estimated 6.6 million newborns who would otherwise have acquired LF, thus averting in their lifetimes nearly 1.4 million cases of hydrocele, 800,000 cases of lymphedema and 4.4 million cases of subclinical disease. Similarly, 9.5 million individuals--previously infected but without overt manifestations of disease--were protected from developing hydrocele (6.0 million or lymphedema (3.5 million. These LF-related benefits, by themselves, translate into 32 million DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years averted. Ancillary, 'beyond-LF' benefits from the >1.9 billion treatments delivered by the GPELF were also enormous, especially because of the >310 million treatments to the children and women of childbearing age who received albendazole with/without ivermectin (effectively treating intestinal helminths, onchocerciasis, lice, scabies, and other conditions. These benefits can be described but remain difficult to quantify, largely because of the poorly defined epidemiology of these latter infections. CONCLUSION: The GPELF has

  12. Does addressing gender inequalities and empowering women and girls improve health and development programme outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taukobong, Hannah F G; Kincaid, Mary M; Levy, Jessica K; Bloom, Shelah S; Platt, Jennifer L; Henry, Sarah K; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2016-12-01

    This article presents evidence supporting the hypothesis that promoting gender equality and women's and girls' empowerment (GEWE) leads to better health and development outcomes. We reviewed the literature across six sectors-family planning (FP); maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH); nutrition; agriculture; water, sanitation and hygiene; and financial services for the poor-and found 76 studies from low and middle-income countries that met our inclusion criteria. Across these studies, we identified common GEWE variables that emerged repeatedly as significant predictors of sector outcomes. We grouped these variables into 10 thematic categories, which we termed 'gender-related levers'. These levers were then classified by the strength of evidence into Wedges, Foundations and Facilitators. Wedges are gender-related levers that had strong associations with improved outcomes across multiple sectors. They include: 'control over income/assets/resources', 'decision-making power' and 'education'. Elements of these levers overlap, but combined, they encapsulate agency. Increasing female agency promotes equality and broadly improves health and development for women, their families and their communities. The second classification, Foundations, displayed strong, positive associations across FP, MNCH and nutrition. Foundations have a more proximal relationship with sector outcomes and include: 'equitable interpersonal relationships', 'mobility' and 'personal safety'. Finally, the third group of levers, Facilitators, was associated with improved outcomes in two to three sectors and include: 'access to information', 'community groups', 'paid labour' and 'rights'. These levers make it easier for women and girls to achieve their goals and are more traditional elements of development programmes. Overall, gender-related levers were associated with improvements in a variety of health and development outcomes. Furthermore, these associations were cross-sectoral, suggesting that to

  13. Implementing large-scale programmes to optimise the health workforce in low- and middle-income settings: a multicountry case study synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Unni; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire

    2014-12-01

    To identify factors affecting the implementation of large-scale programmes to optimise the health workforce in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a multicountry case study synthesis. Eligible programmes were identified through consultation with experts and using Internet searches. Programmes were selected purposively to match the inclusion criteria. Programme documents were gathered via Google Scholar and PubMed and from key informants. The SURE Framework - a comprehensive list of factors that may influence the implementation of health system interventions - was used to organise the data. Thematic analysis was used to identify the key issues that emerged from the case studies. Programmes from Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Malawi, Venezuela and Zimbabwe were selected. Key system-level factors affecting the implementation of the programmes were related to health worker training and continuing education, management and programme support structures, the organisation and delivery of services, community participation, and the sociopolitical environment. Existing weaknesses in health systems may undermine the implementation of large-scale programmes to optimise the health workforce. Changes in the roles and responsibilities of cadres may also, in turn, impact the health system throughout. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting integration of programme activities within a strengthened health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Dermot

    2010-07-05

    The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens), drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens), research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy development and scaling up interventions, and identify ways

  15. Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting integration of programme activities within a strengthened health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Dermot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. Discussion HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens, drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens, research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy

  16. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that.

  17. Integration of comprehensive women's health programmes into health systems: cervical cancer prevention, care and control in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Ngabo, Fidele; Wagner, Claire M; Mugeni, Cathy; Gatera, Maurice; Nutt, Cameron T; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2013-09-01

    Although it is highly preventable and treatable, cervical cancer is the most common and most deadly cancer among women in Rwanda. By mobilizing a diverse coalition of partnerships, Rwanda became the first country in Africa to develop and implement a national strategic plan for cervical cancer prevention, screening and treatment. Rwanda - a small, landlocked nation in East Africa with a population of 10.4 million - is well positioned to tackle a number of "high-burden" noncommunicable diseases. The country's integrated response to infectious diseases has resulted in steep declines in premature mortality over the past decade. In 2011-2012, Rwanda vaccinated 227,246 girls with all three doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Among eligible girls, three-dose coverage rates of 93.2% and 96.6% were achieved in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The country has also initiated nationwide screening and treatment programmes that are based on visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid, testing for HPV DNA, cryotherapy, the loop electrosurgical excision procedure and various advanced treatment options. Low-income countries should begin to address cervical cancer by integrating prevention, screening and treatment into routine women's health services. This requires political will, cross-sectoral collaboration and planning, innovative partnerships and robust monitoring and evaluation. With external support and adequate planning, high nationwide coverage rates for HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer can be achieved within a few years.

  18. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of lay health worker programmes to improve access to maternal and child health: qualitative evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Colvin, Christopher J; Carlsen, Benedicte; Swartz, Alison; Lewin, Simon; Noyes, Jane; Rashidian, Arash

    2013-10-08

    Lay health workers (LHWs) perform functions related to healthcare delivery, receive some level of training, but have no formal professional or paraprofessional certificate or tertiary education degree. They provide care for a range of issues, including maternal and child health. For LHW programmes to be effective, we need a better understanding of the factors that influence their success and sustainability. This review addresses these issues through a synthesis of qualitative evidence and was carried out alongside the Cochrane review of the effectiveness of LHWs for maternal and child health. The overall aim of the review is to explore factors affecting the implementation of LHW programmes for maternal and child health. We searched MEDLINE, OvidSP (searched 21 December 2011); MEDLINE Ovid In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, OvidSP (searched 21 December 2011); CINAHL, EBSCO (searched 21 December 2011); British Nursing Index and Archive, OvidSP (searched 13 May 2011). We searched reference lists of included studies, contacted experts in the field, and included studies that were carried out alongside the trials from the LHW effectiveness review. Studies that used qualitative methods for data collection and analysis and that focused on the experiences and attitudes of stakeholders regarding LHW programmes for maternal or child health in a primary or community healthcare setting. We identified barriers and facilitators to LHW programme implementation using the framework thematic synthesis approach. Two review authors independently assessed study quality using a standard tool. We assessed the certainty of the review findings using the CerQual approach, an approach that we developed alongside this and related qualitative syntheses. We integrated our findings with the outcome measures included in the review of LHW programme effectiveness in a logic model. Finally, we identified hypotheses for subgroup analyses in future updates of the review of effectiveness. We

  19. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge

  20. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge Refs, figs, tabs

  1. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. Methods and analysis The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers’ performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. Discussion We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for proteinuria: the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia Lifecheck Health Screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Loke Meng; Punithavathi, Narayanan; Thurairatnam, Dharminy; Zainal, Hadzlinda; Beh, Mei Li; Morad, Zaki; Lee, Sharleen Ys; Bavanandan, Sunita; Kok, Lai Sun

    2013-08-01

    Treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a huge burden to the healthcare system. To address the problem, the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia embarked on a programme to screen for proteinuria and educate the public on CKD. The public was invited for health screening and the data collected over a 21 month period was analyzed. In total, 40400 adults from all the states in Malaysia were screened. The screening population had a mean age of 41 years, 30.1% had hypertension and 10.6% had diabetes. Proteinuria was detected in 1.4% and haematuria in 8.9% of the participants. Factors associated with the highest risk for proteinuria were the presence of diabetes (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.16-3.21)), hypertension (OR 2.49 (95% CI 2.03-3.07)) and cardiac disease (OR 2.05 (95% CI 1.50-2.81)). Other risk factors identified were lower educational level, family history of kidney disease, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity and lack of regular exercise. Chinese had the lowest risk for proteinuria among the races (OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.57-0.87) compared with Malays). The combination of high blood glucose and high blood pressure (BP) substantially increased the risk for proteinuria (OR 38.1 for glucose ≥ 10 mmol/L and systolic BP ≥ 180 mm Hg and OR 47.9 for glucose ≥ 10 mmol/L and diastolic BP ≥ 110 mm Hg). The prevalence of proteinuria in Malaysia is similar to other countries. The major risk factors for proteinuria were diabetes, hypertension and cardiac disease. The presence of both high blood pressure and high blood glucose exert a synergistic effect in substantially increasing the risk for proteinuria. © 2013 The Authors. Nephrology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. Do Children’s Health Resources Differ According to Preschool Physical Activity Programmes and Parental Behaviour? A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sterdt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family—children’s central social microsystems—can lead to differences in children’s health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of “preschools with systematic physical activity programmes” versus “preschools without physical activity programmes” were conducted to assess the extent to which children’s physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children’s physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227 children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children’s physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709. However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children’s physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children’s health resources in a differential manner.

  4. The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use

  5. Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health Programme for providing innovative mental health care in rural communities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, P K; Devarapalli, S; Kallakuri, S; Praveen, D; Jha, V; Patel, A

    2015-01-01

    India has few mental health professionals to treat the large number of people suffering from mental disorders. Rural areas are particularly disadvantaged due to lack of trained health workers. Ways to improve care could be by training village health workers in basic mental health care, and by using innovative methods of service delivery. The ongoing Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment Mental Health Programme will assess the acceptability, feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a task-shifting mobile-based intervention using mixed methods, in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. The key components of the study are an anti-stigma campaign followed by a mobile-based mental health services intervention. The study will be done across two sites in rural areas, with intervention periods of 1 year and 3 months, respectively. The programme uses a mobile-based clinical decision support tool to be used by non-physician health workers and primary care physicians to screen, diagnose and manage individuals suffering from depression, suicidal risk and emotional stress. The key aim of the study will be to assess any changes in mental health services use among those screened positive following the intervention. A number of other outcomes will also be assessed using mixed methods, specifically focussed on reduction of stigma, increase in mental health awareness and other process indicators. This project addresses a number of objectives as outlined in the Mental Health Action Plan of World Health Organization and India's National Mental Health Programme and Policy. If successful, the next phase will involve design and conduct of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

  6. The personal value of being part of a Tropical Health Education Trust (THET) links programme to develop a palliative care degree programme in Sub Saharan Africa: a descriptive study of the views of volunteer UK health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, B A; Kirton, J A; Downing, J; Frame, K

    2015-12-14

    There is a global need to expand palliative care services to reach the increasing number requiring end of life care. In developing countries where the incidences of cancer are rising there is an urgent need to develop the palliative care workforce. This paper reports on a UK Department for international development (DFID) initiative funded through the Tropical Health Education Trust (THET) where palliative care staff, both clinical and academic, volunteered to help to develop, support and deliver a degree in palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the study was to explore the personal impact on the health care professionals of being part of this initiative. An evaluation approach using a confidential electronic survey containing quantitative and qualitative questions was distributed to all 17 volunteers on the programme, three months after completion of the first cohort. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and content thematic analysis. Ethical review deemed the study to be service evaluation. 82 % (14) responded and several themes emerged from the data including the positive impact on teaching and educational skills; clinical practice and finally personal development. Using a score of 1-10 (1-no impact, 10 maximum impact) 'Lifestyle choices - life work balance' (rating 7.83) had the most impact. This approach to supporting the development of palliative care in Sub-Saharan Africa through skill sharing in supporting the delivery of a degree programme in palliative care was successful in terms of delivery of the degree programme, material development and mentorship of local staff. Additionally, this study shows it provided a range of positive impacts on the volunteer health care professionals from the UK. Professional impacts including increased management skills, and being better prepared to undertake a senior role. However it is the personal impact including lifestyle choices which the volunteers reported as the highest impact

  7. [Analysis of fourteen French national programmes on physical activity and sports as determinants of health from 2001 to 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchat, Pierre-Henri; Vogel, Thomas; Berthel, Marc; Kaltenbach, Georges; Le Divenah, Aude; Segouin, Christophe; Rymer, Roland; Lonsdorfer, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity and sports are considered as one of the determinants of health. The aim of this study is to review the rationale for the formulation of this public health issue and its integration in national action plans. The study shows that fourteen national programmes were drafted and implemented between 2001 and 2006 by seven institutions. The research methodology was based on crossing data obtained from semi-directed interviews and documents regarding the design, implementation and follow-up of these programmes. For the conditions of the success, the fourteen actions scored an average of 175.0 +/- 66.9 out of 300%. Public health actors and professionals must be given more opportunities to involve themselves and engage in developing stronger relationships and linkages, in particular with the institutional and community settings. In general, the most invested parts of a programme are the structural and operational aspects of activities. Six significant points surfaced from the study: consideration of drug use as an addictive behaviour; recognition of the psychological stress of professional athletes; acknowledgment of youth as being at high risk for doping behaviour; integration of the concept that physical activity and sports must take the benefit/risk perspective into account; and the necessity to promote health. Through the exchange of numerous local and regional experiences, an optimisation of their synergistic connections was made possible on a continuum extending from "health promotion through physical activity and sports" to "prevention of drug-use and doping behaviours". Professionals have been able to develop actions in the above-mentioned domains across this continuum that have, to date, remained isolated. Proposals are made to strengthen these dynamics. Other health determinants and public health priorities could be investigated with the same methodology.

  8. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of bank’s interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the company’s detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the company’s detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a “good host” is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the manager’s powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the

  9. [Oral health hygiene education programme for nursing personnel to improve oral health of residents in long-term care facilities 2010 in Frankfurt/Main, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, G; Allroggen, S; Köster-Schmidt, A; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Frank, M; Heudorf, U

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown the urgent need for improving oral health hygiene in nursing home residents. Deficits in the knowledge of the personnel about dental and oral hygiene are often cited as one of the causes. Therefore, an oral health education programme was provided to the personnel of 20 nursing homes in Frankfurt/Main. Here the results of the assessment of the impact of the education programme on knowledge and attitudes of the personnel as well as on oral health of the residents are presented. In May/June 2010, 471 nurses in 20 nursing homes in the Frankfurt/Main, Germany, received a two-hour education programme on oral health. The lessons were held by dentists with special education in geriatric dentistry. The personnel were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding knowledge and attitudes on oral health care before the education programme and 4-6 months afterwards. The oral health status of 313 residents (i. e., about 10% of the total residents) was examined by two dentists. Before and 4-6 months after education of the caregivers, the following data were recorded in the residents: number of teeth, caries, plaque index (PI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) and denture hygiene index (DHI). By attending the lessons, good improvements in knowledge of the caregivers could be obtained. The education programme was rated as very good/good by 85% of the nurses, having reduced their fear of oral care in the seniors and having gained more competence in practical oral hygiene procedures. Mean age of the residents was 80±13 years. About 32% of the residents were edentulous. Teeth were carious in 53% of the residents. Initially, one half of the residents exhibited plaque index>2, in 29% of the residents a severe and in 59% of them a very severe parodontitis was found (CPITN 3 or, respectively, 4). At 4-6 months after the education programme, an improvement in oral and dental hygiene of the residents could be

  10. Perspectives of rural health and human service practitioners following suicide prevention training programme in Australia: A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Ferguson, Monika; Walsh, Sandra; Martinez, Lee; Marsh, Michael; Cronin, Kathryn; Procter, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    There are well-established training programmes available to support health and human services professionals working with people vulnerable to suicide. However, little is known about involving people with lived experience in the delivery of suicide prevention training with communities with increased rates of suicide. The aim of this paper was to report on a formative dialogical evaluation that explored the views of health and human services workers with regard to a suicide prevention training programme in regional (including rural and remote areas) South Australia which included meaningful involvement of a person with lived experience in the development and delivery of the training. In 2015, eight suicide prevention training workshops were conducted with health and human services workers. All 248 participants lived and worked in South Australian regional communities. We interviewed a subsample of 24 participants across eight sites. A thematic analysis of the interviews identified five themes: Coproduction is key, It is okay to ask the question, Caring for my community, I can make a difference and Learning for future training. The overall meta-theme was "Involvement of a person with lived experience in suicide prevention training supports regional communities to look out for people at risk of suicide." This paper highlights the need for suicide prevention training and other workforce development programmes to include lived experience participation as a core component in development and delivery. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Self-rated health as a predictor of outcomes of type 2 diabetes patient education programmes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, D. H.; Christensen, K. B.; Christensen, U.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore if self-rated health (SRH) can predict differences in outcomes of patient education programmes among patients with type 2 diabetes over time. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational cohort study conducted among 83 patients with type 2 diabetes participating in patient educati...... education, as measured by the HeiQ, at 12 months. Only participants with optimal SRH appeared to benefit from patient education. Other patient characteristics may be responsible to explain the observed difference between patients with optimal and poor SRH.......OBJECTIVE: To explore if self-rated health (SRH) can predict differences in outcomes of patient education programmes among patients with type 2 diabetes over time. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational cohort study conducted among 83 patients with type 2 diabetes participating in patient education...... programmes in the Capital Region of Denmark. METHODS: Questionnaire data were collected by telephone interview at baseline and 2 weeks (77 participants, 93%) and 12 months (66, 80%) after the patient education ended. The seven-scale Health Education Impact Questionnaire (HeiQ) was the primary outcome...

  12. A public health e-learning master's programme with a focus on health workforce development targeting francophone Africa: the University of Geneva experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastonay, Philippe; Zesiger, Véronique; Moretti, Roberto; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Wheeler, Erika; Mattig, Thomas; Avocksouma, Djona Atchenemou; Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele

    2015-08-13

    Shortage of a competent public health workforce is as a worldwide problem. The situation is especially bad in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008, the World Health Organization and the Global Health Workforce Alliance launched a call for proposals for a public health training programme with an emphasis on health workforce development specifically targeting Africa. Our article presents the development, implementation and evaluation of an e-learning Master of Advanced Studies in Public Health on Workforce Development. The project was developed in collaboration with academic partner institutions of 10 French-speaking African countries and local/regional/HQ WHO offices. A five-step approach was adopted. First, a needs assessment study was done in the target countries, with identification of priority health issues. Second, student and tutor selection was done in collaboration with local WHO offices, health authorities and partner universities. Third, the e-platform was developed and a training workshop for tutors was organized. Fourth, the learning objectives were derived from the needs assessment study and an interactive educational approach was adopted. Fifth, the participation of students, their perception of the programme, their performance on assignments and community outcomes were monitored. The needs assessment allowed the identification of 12 priority health issues (trauma related to road accidents, maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS, mental heath, food and malnutrition, health resource management, infectious diseases, access to essential drugs, chronic diseases, health promotion, ageing and violence/conflicts) of which 10 were studied through the lens of the key public health disciplines (epidemiology, human resources, health project/service planning, health policy, communication, health economics/management, informatics and ethics/human rights), each validated through a certifying examination. Student participation, measured through connection hits (total: 58 256

  13. Effect of the Health Tourism weight loss programme on body composition and health outcomes in healthy and excess-weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Shizuma, Kayoko; Toguchi, Makiko; Mizuhara, Hiroji; Machida, Yukiko; Yamada, Yosuke; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2018-05-01

    Excess weight loss while minimising fat-free mass (FFM) loss is important for health. Travel is a particular period at risk for weight gain and for which the effects of a short-term intensive weight loss programme have not been studied. Therefore, we studied the effect of a novel, 1-week supervised health travel programme combining high volume, low-to-moderate intensity exercise and energy intake restriction on weight, body composition and health outcomes in adults. Weight was also monitored for 12 weeks after the programme. In all, thirty-six subjects (nineteen men, seventeen women) consisting of sixteen excess-weight (BMI: 27·1 (sd 1·7) kg/m2) and twenty healthy-weight (BMI: 22·3 (sd 1·8) kg/m2) individuals participated. Subjects performed 1 h of slow-paced intermittent jogging three times per d and other leisure activities, whereas consuming only provided foods without water restriction. Body mass significantly decreased from pre- to post-intervention in excess-weight and healthy-weight individuals (-3·5 (sd 1·5) and -3·5 (sd 1·3) %, respectively; PTourism weight loss programme's results indicate that it is a viable option.

  14. The 'Hothaps' programme for assessing climate change impacts on occupational health and productivity: an invitation to carry out field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Gabrysch, Sabine; Lemke, Bruno; Dear, Keith

    2009-11-11

    The 'high occupational temperature health and productivity suppression' programme (Hothaps) is a multi-centre health research and prevention programme aimed at quantifying the extent to which working people are affected by, or adapt to, heat exposure while working, and how global heating during climate change may increase such effects. The programme will produce essential new evidence for local, national and global assessment of negative impacts of climate change that have largely been overlooked. It will also identify and evaluate preventive interventions in different social and economic settings.Hothaps includes studies in any part of the world where hourly heat exposure exceeds physiological stress limits that may affect workers. This usually happens at temperatures above 25 degrees C, depending on humidity, wind movement and heat radiation. Working people in low and middle-income tropical countries are particularly vulnerable, because many of them are involved in heavy physical work, either outdoors in strong sunlight or indoors without effective cooling. If high work intensity is maintained in workplaces with high heat exposure, serious health effects can occur, including heat stroke and death.Depending on the type of occupation, the required work intensity, and the level of heat stress, working people have to slow down their work in order to reduce internal body heat production and the risk of heat stroke. Thus, unless preventive interventions are used to reduce the heat stress on workers, their individual health and productivity will be affected and economic output per work hour will be reduced. Heat also influences other daily physical activities, unrelated to work, in all age groups. Poorer people without access to household or workplace cooling devices are most likely to be affected.The Hothaps programme includes a pilot study, heat monitoring of selected workplaces, qualitative studies of perceived heat impacts and preventative interventions

  15. Psychiatric inpatient expenditures and public health insurance programmes: analysis of a national database covering the entire South Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Woojin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical spending on psychiatric hospitalization has been reported to impose a tremendous socio-economic burden on many developed countries with public health insurance programmes. However, there has been no in-depth study of the factors affecting psychiatric inpatient medical expenditures and differentiated these factors across different types of public health insurance programmes. In view of this, this study attempted to explore factors affecting medical expenditures for psychiatric inpatients between two public health insurance programmes covering the entire South Korean population: National Health Insurance (NHI and National Medical Care Aid (AID. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a nationwide, population-based reimbursement claims dataset consisting of 1,131,346 claims of all 160,465 citizens institutionalized due to psychiatric diagnosis between January 2005 and June 2006 in South Korea. To adjust for possible correlation of patients characteristics within the same medical institution and a non-linearity structure, a Box-Cox transformed, multilevel regression analysis was performed. Results Compared with inpatients 19 years old or younger, the medical expenditures of inpatients between 50 and 64 years old were 10% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 40% higher among AID beneficiaries. Males showed higher medical expenditures than did females. Expenditures on inpatients with schizophrenia as compared to expenditures on those with neurotic disorders were 120% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 83% higher among AID beneficiaries. Expenditures on inpatients of psychiatric hospitals were greater on average than expenditures on inpatients of general hospitals. Among AID beneficiaries, institutions owned by private groups treated inpatients with 32% higher costs than did government institutions. Among NHI beneficiaries, inpatients medical expenditures were positively associated with the proportion of

  16. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Kellerer, A.M.; Bazyka, D.

    2006-01-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  17. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). Report of the management committee meeting Geneva 16-17 March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) have been initiated in mid-1991 following its endorsement by the Forty-fourth World Health Assembly in resolution WHA44.36. The report of the Management Committee Meeting outlines the progress made in the implementation of the Programme, and summarises the scientific information obtained to date on the health effects and planned future activities. Status reports were provided by the representatives of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine and the WHO Secretariat. The major projects under the programme include Thyroid project, Hematology project, Dosimetry and Communication Support Services, Brain Damage in utero project and Epidemiological Registry project. 4 tabs

  18. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. Report by the Director-General. Executive Board 95. session, provisional agenda item 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) have been initiated in mid-1991 following its endorsement by the Forty-fourth World Health Assembly in resolution WHA44.36. This report by the Director General outlines the progress made in the implementation of the Programme, and summarises the scientific information obtained to date on the health effects and planned future activities. The major projects under the programme include Thyroid project, Hematology project, Dosimetry and Communication Support Services, Brain Damage in utero project and Epidemiological Registry project

  19. The inclusion of LGBT+ health issues within undergraduate healthcare education and professional training programmes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Edward; Brown, Michael

    2018-05-01

    An inclusive health curriculum within undergraduate and continuing professional development programmes (CPD) should include issues related to people whom identify as LGBT+. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the education and training requirements of undergraduate students and health professionals regarding the inclusion of LGBT+ health issues. A systematic review of the available published empirical studies. A systematic literature search was undertaken of the following databases: CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Sociological Abstracts. All papers reviewed were from the years 2007 to 2017 and written in English. Three research questions informing the literature review were: (i) What are the education and training requirements of undergraduate students and health professionals regarding the health needs of LGBT+ people? (ii) What are the approaches utilized in the education and training of undergraduate students and health professionals regarding the health needs of LGBT+ people? (iii) What are the best practice examples of the education and training of undergraduate students and health professionals? Following the application of definitive criteria, 22 papers were included in the review. Quality appraisal and data extraction was undertaken by the two authors. The 22 papers were reviewed in detail in the final data analysis and synthesis where four main themes were identified: (1) Cultural competence and inclusivity. (2) Existing knowledge of LGBT+ health-related issues. (3) Curriculum developments and outcomes. (4) Evidence of best practice in education delivery. The review highlights the importance of the inclusion of LGBT+ health-related issues within the health curriculum and continuing professional development programmes and the implications for education and training, clinical practice and research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An implementation study of two evidence-based exercise and health education programmes for older adults with osteoarthritis of the knee and hip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, O.R.W de; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.C.M.P.; Klazinga, N.S.

    2004-01-01

    Implementation studies are recommended to assess the feasibility and effectiveness in real-life of programmes which have been tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We report on an implementation study of two evidence-based exercise and health education programmes for older adults with

  1. Polish-German bilingualism at school. A Polish perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulaczewska, Hanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the institutional frames for the acquisition of Polish literacy skills in Germany and the maintenance of Polish-German bilingualism after the repatriation of bilingual children to Poland. These processes are examined in the context of recent developments in the European domestic job market. While the European Union has placed proficiency in several languages among its educational objectives, and foreign languages have been made obligatory school subjects in all member countries, the potential advantages of internal European migrations for producing high-proficiency bilinguals are being ignored. Bilingualism resulting from migration and biculturalism enjoys little social prestige in the host countries. In Germany, there is significant regional variation in how school authorities react to challenges posed by the presence of minority languages. In many cases, the linguistic potential of many second-generation migrants and re-emigrants gets largely wasted because of lacking interest and incentives from German and Polish institutions alike.

  2. Health- and Taste-Related Attitudes Associated with Dietary Patterns in a Representative Sample of Polish Girls and Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study (GEBaHealth Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kowalkowska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. The study population consisted of 1107 girls, aged 13–21 and living in Poland. Attitudes were assessed using the Health and Taste Attitudes Scale (HTAS and categorised as negative, neutral or positive. Dietary data was obtained using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns (DPs, derived previously with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA, were ‘Traditional Polish’, ‘Fruit and vegetables’, ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Dairy and fats’. The associations between attitudes and DPs were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and logistic regression. The reference group were girls with neutral attitudes. Odds ratios (ORs were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status (SES, and body mass index (BMI. The correlations between attitudes and DPs ranged from −0.28 for attitudes towards health and ‘Fast food and sweets’ and ‘Traditional Polish’ DPs to 0.33 for attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (p < 0.05. In the logistic regression analysis, the strongest associations within health-related HTAS subscales were observed between negative attitudes towards natural products and the ‘Fast food and sweets’ DP (OR: 10.93; 95% CI: 3.32–36.01 and between positive attitudes towards health and the ‘Fruit and vegetables’ DP (OR: 5.10; 3.11–8.37. The strongest associations within taste-related HTAS subscales were observed between positive attitudes towards craving for sweet foods and the ‘Traditional Polish’ DP (OR: 1.93; 1.43–2.61 and between positive attitudes towards using food as a reward and the ‘Dairy and fats’ DP (OR: 2.08; 1

  3. Mental health training programmes for non-mental health trained professionals coming into contact with people with mental ill health: a systematic review of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alison; Scantlebury, Arabella; Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Mitchell, Natasha; Wright, Kath; Scott, William; McDaid, Catriona

    2017-05-25

    The police and others in occupations where they come into close contact with people experiencing/with mental ill health, often have to manage difficult and complex situations. Training is needed to equip them to recognise and assist when someone has a mental health issue or learning/intellectual disability. We undertook a systematic review of the effectiveness of training programmes aimed at increasing knowledge, changing behaviour and/or attitudes of the trainees with regard to mental ill health, mental vulnerability, and learning disabilities. Databases searched from 1995 onwards included: ASSIA, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL), Criminal Justice Abstracts, Embase, ERIC, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index. Courses, training, or learning packages aimed at helping police officers and others who interact with the public in a similar way to deal with people with mental health problems were included. Primary outcomes were change in practice and change in outcomes for the groups of people the trainees come into contact with. Systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non- randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs) were included and quality assessed. In addition non-comparative evaluations of training for police in England were included. From 8578 search results, 19 studies met the inclusion criteria: one systematic review, 12 RCTs, three prospective non-RCTs, and three non-comparative studies. The training interventions identified included broad mental health awareness training and packages addressing a variety of specific mental health issues or conditions. Trainees included police officers, teachers and other public sector workers. Some short term positive changes in behaviour were identified for trainees, but for the people the trainees came into contact with there was little or no evidence of benefit. A variety of training programmes exist for non-mental health professionals who come into contact with

  4. An evaluation of a morphine public health programme for cancer and AIDS pain relief in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harding Richard

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite growing HIV and cancer prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa, and WHO advocacy for a public health approach to palliative care provision, opioid availability is severely limited. Uganda has achieved a morphine roll-out programme in partnership with the Ministry of Health. This study aimed to evaluate that programme by identifying challenges to implementation that may inform replication. Methods A multi-methods protocol appraised morphine regulation, storage, prescribing, and consumption in three phases: key informant interviews throughout the opioid supply chain, and direct observation and audit of clinical practice. Results Regulation had achieved its goal of preventing misuse and leakage from the supply chain. However, the Government felt that relaxation of regulation was now appropriate. Confusion and complexity in storage and authorisation rules led to discontinuation of opioid pain management at the patient level and also wasted service time in trying to obtain supplies to which they were entitled. Continued neglect to prescribe among clinicians and public fear of opioids led to under prescribing, and clinical skills showed some evidence of need for improvement with respect to physical assessment and follow-up. Conclusion The Ugandan programme offers a successful model for both advocacy and Governmental support in achieving opioid roll-out across health districts. Despite initial concerns, abuse of opioids has not been evident. Further work is required to ensure that available supplies of opioids are prescribed to those in need, and that clinical standards are met. However, the programme for roll-out has proved a useful model to expand opioid availability as the first step in improving patient care, and may prove a useful template for other Sub-Saharan African countries.

  5. Effectiveness of an NGO primary health care programme in rural Bangladesh: evidence from the management information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Alec; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Daulatuzzaman, Muhammad; Reid, Joanna

    2004-07-01

    This paper considers evidence of the effectiveness of a non-governmental organization (NGO) primary health care programme in rural Bangladesh. It is based on data from the programme's management information system reported by 27 partner NGOs from 1996-2002. The data indicate relatively high coverage has been achieved for reproductive and child health services, as well as lower infant and child mortality. On the basis of a crude indicator of socio-economic status, the programme is poverty-focused. There is good service coverage among the poorest one-third and others, and the infant and child mortality differential has been eliminated over recent years. A rapid decline in infant mortality among the poorest from 1999-2002 reflects a reduction in neonatal mortality of about 50%. Allowing for some under-reporting and possible misclassification of deaths to the stillbirths category, neonatal mortality is relatively low in the NGO areas. The lower child and maternal mortality for the NGO areas combined, compared with estimates for Bangladesh in recent years, may at least in part be due to high coverage of reproductive and child health services. Other development programmes implemented by many of the NGOs could also have contributed. Despite the limited resources available, and the lower infant and child mortality already achieved, there appears to be scope for further prevention of deaths, particularly those due to birth asphyxia, acute respiratory infection, diarrhoeal disease and accidents. Maternal mortality in the NGO areas was lower in 2000-02 than the most recent estimate for Bangladesh. Further reduction is likely to depend on improved access to qualified community midwives and essential obstetric care at government referral facilities.

  6. The health benefits and cost effectiveness of the radon mitigation programme in NHS properties in Northamptonshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Parkinson, S.; Barker, S.P.; Phillips, P.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive radon remediation programme in Nahs properties in Northamptonshire, where 11 100 staff are employed working on 83 separate sites, has been in progress since 1992, and has resulted in many locations with raised radon levels being identified and re mediated. This paper considers the dose saving achieved and costs of the remediation to derive a value for the cost-effectiveness of the programme. A value of 84 000 per Man-Sievert of annual dose reduction was obtained, which is around half the figure calculated by the NRPB in its recent initiative to reduce patient doses from dental x-rays in the UK, based on cost-benefit analysis. Thus similar comprehensive radon remediation programmes in any workplace in Radon Affected Areas can be justified. The cost of this workplace programme is, however, a factor of about 4 times more expensive than the theoretical estimates for domestic radon mitigation programmes found in the literature, and the reasons for this difference are considered. (author)

  7. Experience gained in Hungary on the role and responsibility of the public health authority in the nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztanyik, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    The public health service of every country has a basic responsibility for maintaining and continuously improving the standard of health of its population. A significant part of this general responsibility, which has grown in importance in recent years, is radiation protection. While substantial economic, social, medical and scientific benefits are derived from various applications of nuclear energy, health authorities must insist on adequate control to protect the population from excessive exposure to radiation. Safety in the nuclear power industry means the assurance that all operational activities are carried out without undue radiation hazard to the general public and to the persons on-site. It is essential, therefore, that national public health authorities give immediate attention to their responsibilities for radiation protection and ensure the development of an adequate system of control as soon as initiation of a nuclear power programme has been decided. The role and responsibility assigned in Hungary to the public health authority by the government, the development of its organizational structure and of its control system and the actions taken to assert radiation protection requirements in the nuclear power programme of the country from the very beginning of its institution till the commissioning of the first 440 MW(e) unit of the nuclear power plant at Paks are reviewed. (author)

  8. Challenges faced by health workers in implementing the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programme in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, H; Mayon-White, R T; Okong, P; Carpenter, L M

    2007-09-01

    To report the experience of health workers who had played key roles in the early stages of implementing the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services (PMTCT) in Uganda. Interviews were conducted with 15 key informants including counsellors, obstetricians and PMTCT coordinators at the five PMTCT test sites in Uganda to investigate the benefits, challenges and sustainability of the PMTCT programme. Audio-taped interviews were held with each informant between January and June 2003. These were transcribed verbatim and manually analysed using the framework approach. The perceived benefits reported by informants were improvement of general obstetric care, provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV-positive mothers, staff training and community awareness. The main challenges lay in the reluctance of women to be tested for HIV, incomplete follow-up of participants, non-disclosure of HIV status and difficulties with infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers. Key informants thought that the programme's sustainability depended on maintaining staff morale and numbers, on improving services and providing more resources, particularly antiretroviral therapy for the HIV-positive women and their families. Uganda's experience in piloting the PMTCT programme reflected the many challenges faced by health workers. Potentially resource-sparing strategies such as the 'opt-out' approach to HIV testing required further evaluation.

  9. Contribution by primary health nurses and general practitioners to the Diabetes Annual Review (Get Checked) programme in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Barbara; Kenealy, Timothy; Arroll, Bruce; Sheridan, Nicolette; Scragg, Robert

    2013-08-16

    To describe primary health care (practice and specialist) nurses involvement in the government-funded annual diabetes review 'Get Checked' programme and the division of care between nurses and general practitioners in Auckland, New Zealand. Of the total 911 practice and specialist nurses identified and working in the greater Auckland region, 276 (30%) were randomly selected and invited to undertake a self-administered questionnaire and telephone interview in 2006-8. An 86% response rate was achieved. Over 60% of practice nurses and over half of specialist nurses participate in 'Get Checked' reviews. Of those nurses, 40% of practice and 70% specialist nurses, reported completing over half of the total number of 'Get Checked' reviews at their practice. Of the nurses sampled who work in general practice (n=198), 38% reported that 'nurses mostly complete' the reviews, 45% stated that 'nurses and doctors equally complete' them and 17% reported that only 'doctors' did so. For the nurses who reported that 'nurses and doctors equally complete' the reviews (n=89), most nurses undertake blood pressure measurements (90%), weigh patients (88%), give lifestyle advice (87%), examine patient's feet (73%), and 44% carried out the complete review of the patients they consult. These findings show the 'Get Checked' programme was successful in engaging practice and community-based specialist nurses in the community management of diabetes and has revealed positive relationships between nurses and doctors, extended roles for nurses and the importance of engaging nurses in the design of health care programmes.

  10. Occupational Therapy embraces the National #Littlethings mental health and wellbeing campaign in Offaly via an Operation Transformation Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Deegan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - In early 2015, an Occupational Therapy led Operation Transformation healthy eating and exercise programme produced results suggestive of the value and need to promote and integrate physical activity interventions into mental health services. Design/methodology/approach - In all, 41 clients with various mental illness diagnoses participated in the eight-week Operation Transformation programme. The outcome measures involved weekly weigh-ins and an end of programme evaluation form. Findings - The quantifiable benefits – a total weight loss of nine stone ten and a half pounds – were mirrored in equally impressive qualitative impacts. Participants’ feedback via anonymous evaluation forms, echoed the findings of the articles appraised in the literature, including improvements in mood and energy levels, better sleep and increased motivation. Practical implications - The organisers will benefit from lessons learned in this first experience, including overcoming logistical and organisational difficulties experienced in enabling clients’ full participation. Originality/value - The evidence base points to the successful benefits of physical activity in promoting positive mental health. Occupational Therapists have a unique opportunity to drive forward the message of promoting physical activity via meaningful occupations.

  11. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the work carried out in a project supported by the Danish Council for Technology and Innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC-machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost...... and time consumption can become prohibitive in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, calling for the object to be manually polished. During the polishing process, the operator...... needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...

  12. The CORE Service Improvement Programme for mental health crisis resolution teams: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Fullarton, Kate; Lamb, Danielle; Johnston, Elaine; Onyett, Steve; Osborn, David; Ambler, Gareth; Marston, Louise; Hunter, Rachael; Mason, Oliver; Henderson, Claire; Goater, Nicky; Sullivan, Sarah A; Kelly, Kathleen; Gray, Richard; Nolan, Fiona; Pilling, Stephen; Bond, Gary; Johnson, Sonia

    2016-03-22

    As an alternative to hospital admission, crisis resolution teams (CRTs) provide intensive home treatment to people experiencing mental health crises. Trial evidence supports the effectiveness of the CRT model, but research suggests that the anticipated reductions in inpatient admissions and increased user satisfaction with acute care have been less than hoped for following the scaling up of CRTs nationally in England, as mandated by the National Health Service (NHS) Plan in 2000. The organisation and service delivery of the CRTs vary substantially. This may reflect the lack of a fully specified CRT model and the resources to enhance team model fidelity and to improve service quality. We will evaluate the impact of a CRT service improvement programme over a 1-year period on the service users' experiences of care, service use, staff well-being, and team model fidelity. Twenty-five CRTs from eight NHS Trusts across England will be recruited to this cluster-randomised trial: 15 CRTs will be randomised to receive the service improvement programme over a 1-year period, and ten CRTs will not receive the programme. Data will be collected from 15 service users and all clinical staff from each participating CRT at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Service use data will be collected from the services' electronic records systems for two 6-month periods: the period preceding and the period during months 7-12 of the intervention. The study's primary outcome is service user satisfaction with CRT care, measured using a client satisfaction questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include the following: perceived continuity of care, hospital admission rates and bed use, rates of readmission to acute care following CRT support, staff morale, job satisfaction, and general health. The adherence of the services to a model of best practice will be assessed at baseline and follow-up. Outcomes will be compared between the intervention and control teams, adjusting for baseline

  13. Development of a Health Empowerment Programme to improve the health of working poor families: protocol for a prospective cohort study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Guo, Vivian Yawei; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Kung, Kenny; Ho, Sin Yi; Lam, Lai Ying; Ip, Patrick; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Lam, David Chi Leung; Wong, William Chi Wai; Tsang, Sandra Kit Man; Tiwari, Agnes Fung Yee; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2016-02-03

    People from working poor families are at high risk of poor health partly due to limited healthcare access. Health empowerment, a process by which people can gain greater control over the decisions affecting their lives and health through education and motivation, can be an effective way to enhance health, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), health awareness and health-seeking behaviours of these people. A new cohort study will be launched to explore the potential for a Health Empowerment Programme to enable these families by enhancing their health status and modifying their attitudes towards health-related issues. If proven effective, similar empowerment programme models could be tested and further disseminated in collaborations with healthcare providers and policymakers. A prospective cohort study with 200 intervention families will be launched and followed up for 5 years. The following inclusion criteria will be used at the time of recruitment: (1) Having at least one working family member; (2) Having at least one child studying in grades 1-3; and (3) Having a monthly household income that is less than 75% of the median monthly household income of Hong Kong families. The Health Empowerment Programme that will be offered to intervention families will comprise four components: health assessment, health literacy, self-care enablement and health ambassador. Their health status, HRQOL, lifestyle and health service utilisation will be assessed and compared with 200 control families with matching characteristics but will not receive the health empowerment intervention. This project was approved by the University of Hong Kong-the Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster IRB, Reference number: UW 12-517. The study findings will be disseminated through a series of peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, as well as a yearly report to the philanthropic funding body-Kerry Group Kuok Foundation (Hong Kong) Limited. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  14. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    OpenAIRE

    A Pokrywka; Z Obmiński; D Kwiatkowska; R Grucza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition). Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 year...

  15. Graphite Composite Panel Polishing Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Strojny, Carl; Budinoff, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The use of high-strength, lightweight composites for the fixture is the novel feature of this innovation. The main advantage is the light weight and high stiffness-to-mass ratio relative to aluminum. Meter-class optics require support during the grinding/polishing process with large tools. The use of aluminum as a polishing fixture is standard, with pitch providing a compliant layer to allow support without deformation. Unfortunately, with meter-scale optics, a meter-scale fixture weighs over 120 lb (.55 kg) and may distort the optics being fabricated by loading the mirror and/or tool used in fabrication. The use of composite structures that are lightweight yet stiff allows standard techniques to be used while providing for a decrease in fixture weight by almost 70 percent. Mounts classically used to support large mirrors during fabrication are especially heavy and difficult to handle. The mount must be especially stiff to avoid deformation during the optical fabrication process, where a very large and heavy lap often can distort the mount and optic being fabricated. If the optic is placed on top of the lapping tool, the weight of the optic and the fixture can distort the lap. Fixtures to support the mirror during fabrication are often very large plates of aluminum, often 2 in. (.5 cm) or more in thickness and weight upwards of 150 lb (68 kg). With the addition of a backing material such as pitch and the mirror itself, the assembly can often weigh over 250 lb (.113 kg) for a meter-class optic. This innovation is the use of a lightweight graphite panel with an aluminum honeycomb core for use as the polishing fixture. These materials have been used in the aerospace industry as structural members due to their light weight and high stiffness. The grinding polishing fixture consists of the graphite composite panel, fittings, and fixtures to allow interface to the polishing machine, and introduction of pitch buttons to support the optic under fabrication. In its

  16. The costs of heart failure in Poland from the public payer's perspective. Polish programme assessing diagnostic procedures, treatment and costs in patients with heart failure in randomly selected outpatient clinics and hospitals at different levels of care: POLKARD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Marcin; Opolski, Grzegorz; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Dubiel, Jacek S; Wizner, Barbara; Bolisęga, Dorota; Fedyk-Łukasik, Małgorzata; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a chronic disease of great clinical and economic significance for both the healthcare system and patients themselves. To determine the consumption of medical resources for treatment and care of HF patients and to estimate the related costs. The study involved 400 primary care practices and 396 specialist outpatient clinics, as well as 259 hospitals at all reference levels. The sample was representative and supplemented with patient interview data. Based on the consumption of particular resources and the unit costs of services in 2011, costs of care for HF patients in Poland were estimated. Separate analyses were conducted depending on the stage of the disease (according to NYHA classification I-IV). The public payer's perspective and a one year time horizon were adopted. Direct annual costs of an HF patient's treatment in Poland may range between PLN 3,373.23 and 7,739.49 (2011), the main cost item being hospitalisation. The total costs for the healthcare system could be as high as PLN 1,703 million, which is 3.16% of the National Health Fund's budget (Ex. rate from 05.03.2012: 1 EUR = 4.14 PLN). The costs of treating heart failure in Poland are high; proper allocation of resources to diagnostic procedures and treatment may contribute to rationalisation of the relevant expenditure.

  17. Reconceptualising Elite Athlete Programmes: "Undoing" the Politics of Labelling in Health and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth

    2015-01-01

    High-performance sport is a big business, with nations such as Australia and New Zealand dedicating hundreds of millions of dollars in the development of facilities and in creating sporting centres of excellence. Historically, high-performance sport and elite athlete programmes (EAPs) were regulated to an extra-curricular space in schools or local…

  18. Addressing Plagiarism in Online Programmes at a Health Sciences University: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Helen; Anast, Ade; Roehling, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern for all educational institutions. To build a solid foundation for high academic standards and best practices at a graduate university, aspects of plagiarism were reviewed to develop better management processes for reducing plagiarism. Specifically, the prevalence of plagiarism and software programmes for…

  19. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in children taking part in an oral health programme including fluoride tablet supplements from the age of 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckersten, Charlotte; Pylvänen, Lena; Schröder, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years.......To investigate the prevalence of dental fluorosis in children who had participated in an oral health programme between the ages 2-5 years, including fluoride tablets from the age of 2 years....

  20. Perceptions of the impact of an advanced training programme on the management skills of health professionals in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mutyabule

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. South Africa’s health sector spans the private and the public sectors. Within the sectors, health managers take on strategic leadership roles without formal training in management or leadership – a trend more common in the public sector than the private sector. Health managers are selected based on their clinical skills rather than their leadership or management skills. Objective. To compare self-rated competencies in management and leadership before and after training of the participants; to assess participants’ experience of the training programme; and to evaluate the management and leadership skills of the participants after training. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive analytical method and 360° interviewing were used in this study. Participants were evaluated ~18 months after completion of the training programme. A 360° evaluation (360° E of six of the 12 leadership/management competencies was done with the supervisors, colleagues, and subordinates of the participants. Results. All participants rated themselves as improved in 12 managerial and leadership competencies. The 360° E affirmed five of these competencies as improved, with the ability to create and implement a marketing plan rating poorly. Conclusion. Training in management leads to improvement in both leadership and managerial skills of health professionals.

  1. Perceptions of the impact of an advanced training programme on the management skills of health professionals in Gauteng South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Petrucka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. South Africa’s health sector spans the private and the public sectors. Within the sectors, health managers take on strategic leadership roles without formal training in management or leadership – a trend more common in the public sector than the private sector. Health managers are selected based on their clinical skills rather than their leadership or management skills.Objective. To compare self-rated competencies in management and leadership before and after training of the participants; to assess participants’ experience of the training programme; and to evaluate the management and leadership skills of the participants after training.Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive analytical method and 360° interviewing were used in this study. Participants were evaluated ~18 months after completion of the training programme. A 360° evaluation (360° E of six of the 12 leadership/management competencies was done with the supervisors, colleagues, and subordinates of the participants.Results. All participants rated themselves as improved in 12 managerial and leadership competencies. The 360° E affirmed five of these competencies  as improved, with the ability to create and implement a marketing plan rating poorly.Conclusion. Training in management leads to improvement in both leadership and managerial skills of health professionals.

  2. Will European agricultural policy for school fruit and vegetables improve public health? A review of school fruit and vegetable programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, Joia; Lock, Karen

    2008-12-01

    For the first time, public health, particularly obesity, is being seen as a driver of EU agricultural policy. In 2007, European Ministers of Agriculture were asked to back new proposals for school fruit and vegetable programmes as part of agricultural reforms. In 2008, the European Commission conducted an impact assessment to assess the potential impact of this new proposal on health, agricultural markets, social equality and regional cohesion. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to promote fruit and/or vegetable consumption in children in schools, to inform the EC policy development process. School schemes are effective at increasing both intake and knowledge. Of the 30 studies included, 70% increased fruits and vegetables (FV) intake, with none decreasing intake. Twenty-three studies had follow-up periods >1 year and provide some evidence that FV schemes can have long-term impacts on consumption. Only one study led to both increased fruit and vegetable intake and reduction in weight. One study showed that school fruit and vegetable schemes can also help to reduce inequalities in diet. Effective school programmes have used a range of approaches and been organized in ways which vary nationally depending on differences in food supply chain and education systems. EU agriculture policy for school fruits and vegetables schemes should be an effective approach with both public health and agricultural benefits. Aiming to increase FV intake amongst a new generation of consumers, it will support a range of EU policies including obesity and health inequalities.

  3. Improved cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children after the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe - A cluster-randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina

    2018-01-01

    programme. The programme combines small-sided football games, drills and health education. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: The IG improved their cognitive performance compared to the CG for psychomotor function (56, sx- = 22 ms, p attention (39, sx- = 17 ms......, p = .012) and working memory (79, sx- = 35 ms, p = .020). CONCLUSION: This pilot study provides evidence that the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt...

  4. [Groups of statutory bodies and evaluation of health recovery programmes for mothers and their child(ren) - An application of a time-based break-even analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönig, W

    2002-01-01

    Public and private expenditure in health recovery programmes for mothers and their children is stagnating. A focal point to turn around this trend is to convince the responsible statury bodies by proving both effectiveness and efficiency of these programmes. The paper suggests the application of the break-even analysis on a time-based principle. A primary calculation with the data of a major German evaluation shows significant savings if the success of the health recovery programmes holds for at least 1.19 years. Available data does not cover such a long period.

  5. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  6. Do universal school-based mental health promotion programmes improve the mental health and emotional wellbeing of young people? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Clare A; Dyson, Judith; Cowdell, Fiona; Watson, Roger

    2018-02-01

    To examine evidence-using a range of outcomes-for the effectiveness of school-based mental health and emotional well-being programmes. It is estimated that 20% of young people experience mental health difficulties every year. Schools have been identified as an appropriate setting for providing mental health and emotional well-being promotion prompting the need to determine whether current school-based programmes are effective in improving the mental health and emotional well-being of young people. A systematic search was conducted using the health and education databases, which identified 29 studies that measured the effectiveness of school-based universal interventions. Prisma guidelines were used during the literature review process. Thematic analysis generated three key themes: (i) help seeking and coping; (ii) social and emotional well-being; and (iii) psycho-educational effectiveness. It is concluded that whilst these studies show promising results, there is a need for further robust evaluative studies to guide future practice. All available opportunities should be taken to provide mental health promotion interventions to young people in the school environment, with a requirement for educational professionals to be provided the necessary skills and knowledge to ensure that the school setting continues to be a beneficial environment for conducting mental health promotion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  8. The role of intermediaries in delivering an occupational health and safety programme designed for small business - a case study of an insurance incentive programme in the agriculture sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kirsten Bendix; Hasle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    to the transformation and dissemination of a national OHS programme for small business that built on an Insurance incentive scheme – the New Zealand Workplace Safety Discount scheme. It is a case study of this scheme implementation in the agriculture sector. Data was collected from scheme documentation and semi......-structured interviews with the scheme owner, representatives from intermediary groups and the targeted small businesses. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed in relation to the scheme’s programme theory. The intermediaries introduced new programme mechanisms and recruitment...

  9. Mental health promotion in the Internet age: a consultation with Australian young people to inform the design of an online mindfulness training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshat, Kaveh; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Burns, Jane; Herrman, Helen

    2012-06-01

    Mindfulness training (MT) has been shown to lead to significant improvements in psychological distress and emotion regulation skills. The Internet has many advantages as a medium for building emotional skills in young people. The aim of this study was to involve young people in designing an online MT programme. A draft programme was initially designed based on a review of the literature and an established face-to-face programme for medical students. Twenty young people were then recruited through online advertising and 13 (age 16-26) interviewed. They were asked to comment on how useful, easy to use and enjoyable they found the proposed programme and how the draft version and its planned evaluation strategy could be improved. Interviewee responses were independently processed by two of the authors within a qualitative thematic analysis paradigm. The results showed that young people were eager to engage with the design of this health promotion programme and provided valuable input. All interviewees believed that young people would find the programme desirable. They provided a variety of suggestions about how training structure and content could be improved, how best it could be evaluated and how young people could be encouraged to engage with and complete the programme. It thus appears that online MT is a feasible mental health promotion strategy for young people and that it can be evaluated in a controlled trial. The result of this consultation process was the Mindful Awareness Training and Education (MATE) programme, which has been detailed.

  10. Droughts in historical times in Polish territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert; Doktor, Radoslaw

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is one of the key environmental, social and economical issues, and it is also followed by political consequences. Impact of climate conditions on countries' economy is increasingly recognized, and a lot of attention is given, both in the global scale and by the individual national governments. In years 2008-2010, at the Poland -Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute was realized the KLIMAT Project on Impact of climate change on environment, economy and society (changes, effects and methods of reducing them, conclusions for science, engineering practice and economic planning) No. POIG01-03-01-14-011/08. The project was financed by the European Union and Polish state budget in frame of Innovative Economy Operational Programme. A very wide range of research was carried out in the different thematic areas. One of them was "Natural disasters and internal safety of the country (civil and economical)." The problem of drought in Poland was developed in terms of meteorology and hydrology. "Proxy" Data Descriptions very often inform about dry years and seasons, hot periods without precipitation. Analysis of historical material allowed to extract the years that have experienced prolonged periods of high temperatures and rainfall shortages. Weather phenomenon defined as drought belongs to extreme events. This information was very helpful in the process of indexing and thus to restore the course and intensity of climatic elements in the past. The analysis covered the period from year 1000 to modern times. Due to the limited information from the period of 1000-1500 the authors focused primarily on the period from 1500 to 2010. Analysis of the collected material has allowed the development of a highly precise temporal structure of the possible occurrence of dry periods to Polish territory.

  11. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a First Aid Health Volunteers' Training Programme Using Kirkpatrick's Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizeshfar, Fatemeh; Momennasab, Marzieh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Iman, Mohamad Taghi

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a health volunteers' complementary training programme on first aid. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Setting: A comprehensive health centre in the southwest of Iran. Method: The study was conducted in the second half of 2015 with all 25 health volunteers in the Qamar Bani Hashem…

  12. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  13. Efficiency as a parameter for assessing the Polish healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bogdan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Efficacy is defined as one of the most valid parameters of health system evaluation. It should be said that there is no consistent definition of the concept of effectiveness in health care, which would allow for the evaluation and comparison of health systems in the world. One can not point to the best or even near ideal of the health system. However, you can rank individual health systems with respect to the evaluation of individual parameters or groups of parameters. One of the possibilities is to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Aim of the study. The aim of the article is to define and analyze particular types of system effectiveness in the context of the Polish health system. Description of knowledge. The literature on the subject is divided into operational and dynamic efficiency. Dynamic efficiency is divided into adaptive and innovative. The Polish health system is characterized by high operational efficiency. Operational efficiency determines the intensity of the system. The key factor for improving the health of the Polish society, as a factor of socio-economic development of the country is to improve the dynamic efficiency of the system. Conclusions. Health care in Poland has high operational efficiency while low dynamic efficiency, both adaptive and innovative, which clearly demonstrates the existence of a paradox of the overall effectiveness of the health care system in Poland.

  14. Promotion of breast feeding in the community: impact of health education programme in rural communities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Adetugbo, A A

    1996-03-01

    Breast feeding has been recognized as a child survival strategy, while breast feeding programmes have been increasingly implemented in many communities. This study assesses the effectiveness of a breast feeding education programme launched through the primary health care programme in the rural communities of Nigeria. Late trimester pregnant women were enrolled into the study and given a questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) about breast feeding. Women in the study group (n = 126) received breast feeding counselling before and after delivery, while those in control group (n = 130) did not receive any counselling. Both groups were monitored after delivery and followed with the KAP questionnaire. The results of the study showed marked improvements in the intervention group for colostrum feeding (p = 0.0000). Moreover, 31.6% of the mothers in the intervention group practised timely initiation of breast feeding compared to 5.6% of the controls, and the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months was 39.8% in the intervention group compared to 13.9% for the controls. Multivariate analysis showed that the intervention was a powerful and the only significant predictor of the increase in breast feeding behaviours (p = 0.0000), and that an early initiation of breast feeding is a strong predictor of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months of age. It is concluded that breast feeding promotion in rural communities is feasible and can lead to behavioural changes.

  15. Motivation and participation in a phase III cardiac rehabilitation programme: an application of the health action process approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnke, Birte; Nowossadeck, Enno; Müller-Fahrnow, Werner

    2010-10-01

    This longitudinal study extends the previous research on low participation rates and high dropout rates in phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise programmes. It examines the correlates of motivation and participation 6 months after inpatient phase II CR (T1) and the predictors of dropout 6 months later (T2) using the health action process approach (HAPA). Risk perception, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, intention (at T1), and participation (at T1 and T2) in relation to phase III CR programmes was assessed in 456 patients. Based on intention and participation at T1, patients were classified as nonintenders (56%), intenders (13%), or actors (31%). Group differences were confirmed in outcome expectancies and self-efficacy. By T2, 21% of T1 actors had dropped out. Dropouts and maintainers differed in intention and self-efficacy (at T1). Results are in line with the HAPA and suggest a perspective for tailoring motivational counselling to improve participation in phase III CR programmes.

  16. Seniors centre-based health intervention programmes in the United States and South Korea: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Misoon; Seo, Kyoungsan; Choi, Suyoung; Choi, Jeongshil; Ko, Hana; Lee, Soo Jin

    2017-10-01

    Despite the great need for health interventions among seniors centre participants, this matter has received little attention. This systematic review aimed to identify what types of health interventions are effective and feasible for seniors centre participants. MEDLINE, Ovid, CINAHL, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and RISS were searched. We searched for health intervention studies conducted in seniors centres published in English and Korean between 1990 and 2014. Of 907 screened articles, 22 studies of all types of experimental designs were selected. Selected studies were grouped by intervention domain: health promotion (n = 8), safety (n = 5), chronic disease management (n = 6), and comprehensive wellness (n = 3). Overall, 59.1% of the interventions were provided by nurses. The health interventions resulted in positive effects on seniors centre participants' knowledge, health behaviours, clinical indices, and hospitalization rates. Few studies reported on feasibility outcomes such as satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. Considering the impact and ease of access to older people at seniors centres, health interventions and services within seniors centres should be strengthened. There is potential for nursing to spearhead seniors centre health intervention programmes to enhance active ageing for participants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Workplace programmes for HIV and tuberculosis: a systematic review to support development of international guidelines for the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Annalee; O'Hara, Lyndsay M; Lockhart, Karen; Spiegel, Jerry M

    2013-01-01

    The health service sector has a vital role to play in delivering human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) prevention, treatment and care, yet evidence indicates that healthcare workers (HCWs) themselves lack adequate access to HIV and TB services. HCWs are also at increased risk from TB and other infectious diseases at work, and therefore accessing HIV services is particularly important. A systematic review was therefore conducted to inform the development of World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines to improve access to HIV and TB services, and specifically, to assess the evidence regarding providing such services through workplace-based programmes. We identified any study published since 1984 that addressed outcomes of interest as defined through multi-stakeholder consultations, and were related to workplace interventions in (1) the healthcare workplace and (2) any workplace that included HIV and/or TB diagnosis and/or treatment. Interventions focusing solely on primary prevention with no diagnostic or treatment services were excluded, as they were the subject of other guidelines. A minimum of two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the articles against pre-set selection criteria; studies were also profiled and quality assessed by a minimum of two reviewers. Three studies met these criteria specifically for HCWs; all showed a preponderance of positive benefits, with minimal negative outcome. Seven studies met these criteria regarding workplace HIV and/or TB diagnosis and/or treatment from other sectors, public or private. Again, all showed positive results. The paucity of high-quality evidence in this field of research was itself an important finding, beckoning further research on workplace-based programmes for health workers. Nonetheless, while more well-designed intervention studies are definitely desirable, providing programmes for HCWs to obtain HIV and TB diagnosis and treatment at the workplace is supported by the literature

  18. How valuable are environmental health interventions? Evaluation of water and sanitation programmes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Poulos, Christine; Yang, Jui-Chen; Patil, Sumeet

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate and quantify the economic benefits attributable to improvements in water supply and sanitation in rural India. We combined propensity-score "pre-matching" and rich pre-post panel data on 9500 households in 242 villages located in four geographically different districts to estimate the economic benefits of a large-scale community demand-driven water supply programme in Maharashtra, India. We calculated coping costs and cost of illness by adding across several elements of coping and illness and then estimated causal impacts using a difference-in-difference strategy on the pre-matched sample. The pre-post design allowed us to use a difference-in-difference estimator to measure "treatment effect" by comparing treatment and control villages during both periods. We compared average household costs with respect to out-of-pocket medical expenses, patients' lost income, caregiving costs, time spent on collecting water, time spent on sanitation, and water treatment costs due to filtration, boiling, chemical use and storage. Three years after programme initiation, the number of households using piped water and private pit latrines had increased by 10% on average, but no changes in hygiene-related behaviour had occurred. The behavioural changes observed suggest that the average household in a programme community could save as much as 7 United States dollars per month (or 5% of monthly household cash expenditures) in coping costs, but would not reduce illness costs. Poorer, socially marginalized households benefited more, in alignment with programme objectives. Given the renewed interest in water, sanitation and hygiene outcomes, evaluating the economic benefits of environmental interventions by means of causal research is important for understanding the true value of such interventions.

  19. Radioecology-related health physics and radiological protection. Departmental research programme of the BMU. Colloquium proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Pohl, H.

    1999-08-01

    The conference report covers the full texts of the 18 papers presented at the conference, as well as the contributions to the discussions. Except for two of the 18 papers, which set out the objectives and subjects of the departmental research programmes of the BMU, subject analysis and indexing has been done for individual retrieval of the papers from the database. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Prison mental health in-reach teams in England: the care programme approach and sexual abuse/violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Charles G D; Forrester, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Prison mental health in-reach teams have doubled in size over the past decade and case-loads have reduced. Since 2010 it has been mandatory for keyworkers to ask whether prisoners with serious mental illness being treated under the care programme approach have experienced sexual or physical abuse. This is known as routine enquiry and should take place for these prisoners but NHS England, the commissioners, do not audit this activity. It is time to review current interventions and their associated outcomes. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  1. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accidents (IPHECA). Protocol for the pilot project ''Thyroid''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The protocol document for the Thyroid Project of International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accidents (IPHECA) describes the main aims of the project, namely 1) to detect and describe selected diseases of the thyroid among children and adolescents in population centres assigned earlier as ''strictly controlled zones'' and, 2) to determine, if possible, the link between the prevalence of the diseases and radiation doses received by the thyroid. Population to be investigated, medical and laboratory examinations and advanced diagnostics for thyroid diseases to be undertaken are enlisted in the protocol

  2. [Coordinated care after myocardial infarction. The statement of the Polish Cardiac Society and the Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Piotr; Gąsior, Mariusz; Gierlotka, Marek; Cegłowska, Urszula; Słomka, Marta; Eysymontt, Zbigniew; Gałaszek, Michał; Buszman, Piotr; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Kaźmierczak, Jarosław; Legutko, Jacek; Sujkowska, Gabriela; Matusewicz, Wojciech; Opolski, Grzegorz; Hoffman, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The in-hospital mortality following myocardial infarction has decreased substantially over the last two decades in Poland. However, according to the available evidence approximately every 10th patient discharged after myocardial infarction (MI) dies during next 12 months. We identified the most important barriers (e.g. insufficient risk factors control, insufficient and delayed cardiac rehabilitation, suboptimal pharmacotherapy, delayed complete myocardial revascularisation) and proposed a new nation-wide system of coordinated care after MI. The system should consist of four modules: complete revascularisation, education and rehabilitation programme, electrotherapy (including ICDs and BiVs when appropriate) and periodical cardiac consultations. At first stage the coordinated care programme should last 12 months. The proposal contains also the quality of care assessment based on clinical measures (e.g. risk factors control, rate of complete myocardial revascularisation, etc.) as well as on the rate of cardiovascular events. The wide implementation of the proposed system is expected to decrease one year mortality after MI and allow for better financial resources allocation in Poland.

  3. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Marchal, Bruno; Kane, Sumit; Petrič, Taja; Pictet, Gabriel; Pommier, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents the results of a realist evaluation that aimed to understand how, why and under what circumstances a Red Cross (RC) capacity-building intervention influences the motivation and the performance of RC community health volunteers involved in the delivery of an immunisation programme in Kampala, Uganda. Method Given the complexity of the intervention, we adopted realist evaluation as our methodological approach and the case study as our study design. Data collection included document review, participant observation and interviews. The constant comparative method was used for the analysis. Two contrasted cases were selected within the five Kampala districts. Each case covers the management of the immunisation programme implemented at a RC branch. In each case, a programme manager and 15 RC volunteers were interviewed. The selection of the volunteers was purposive. Results We found that a capacity-building programme including supervision supportive of autonomy, skills and knowledge enhancement, and adapted to the different subgroups of volunteers, leads to satisfaction of the three key drivers of volunteer motivation: feelings of autonomy, competence and connectedness. This contributes to higher retention, and better task performance and well-being among the volunteers. Enabling contextual conditions include the responsiveness of the Uganda Red Cross Society (URCS) to community needs, and recognition of the work of the volunteers, from the URCS and the community. Conclusions A management approach that caters for the different motivational states and changing needs of the volunteers will lead to better performance. The findings will inform not only the management of community health volunteers, but also the management of all kinds of health workers. PMID:26525721

  4. Financing aspects of nuclear power plant construction under Polish economic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besant-Jones, John E.

    1999-01-01

    Within the framework of the new Polish Energy Law the different issues important far financing a programme to develop nuclear power power in Poland such as: economic competitiveness of nuclear power, financing options for nuclear power projects, managing the various risks for financing nuclear power as well as nuclear and business liability are considered. The importance of policy issues is stressed

  5. From theoretical concepts to policies and applied programmes: the landscape of integration of oral health in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnagea, Hermina; Lamothe, Lise; Couturier, Yves; Esfandiari, Shahrokh; Voyer, René; Charbonneau, Anne; Emami, Elham

    2018-02-15

    Despite its importance, the integration of oral health into primary care is still an emerging practice in the field of health care services. This scoping review aims to map the literature and provide a summary on the conceptual frameworks, policies and programs related to this concept. Using the Levac et al. six-stage framework, we performed a systematic search of electronic databases, organizational websites and grey literature from 1978 to April 2016. All relevant original publications with a focus on the integration of oral health into primary care were retrieved. Content analyses were performed to synthesize the results. From a total of 1619 citations, 67 publications were included in the review. Two conceptual frameworks were identified. Policies regarding oral heath integration into primary care were mostly oriented toward common risk factors approach and care coordination processes. In general, oral health integrated care programs were designed in the public health sector and based on partnerships with various private and public health organizations, governmental bodies and academic institutions. These programmes used various strategies to empower oral health integrated care, including building interdisciplinary networks, training non-dental care providers, oral health champion modelling, enabling care linkages and care coordinated process, as well as the use of e-health technologies. The majority of studies on the programs outcomes were descriptive in nature without reporting long-term outcomes. This scoping review provided a comprehensive overview on the concept of integration of oral health in primary care. The findings identified major gaps in reported programs outcomes mainly because of the lack of related research. However, the results could be considered as a first step in the development of health care policies that support collaborative practices and patient-centred care in the field of primary care sector.

  6. Effects of two physical education programmes on health- and skill-related physical fitness of Albanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarani, J; Grøntved, A; Muca, F; Spahi, A; Qefalia, D; Ushtelenca, K; Kasa, A; Caporossi, D; Gallotta, M C

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two school-based physical education (PE) programmes (exercise-based and games-based) compared with traditional PE, on health- and skill-related physical fitness components in children in Tirana, Albania. Participants were 378 first-grade (6.8 years) and 389 fourth-grade (9.8 years) children attending four randomly selected schools in Tirana. Twenty-four school classes within these schools were randomly selected (stratified by school and school grade) to participate as exercise group (EG), games group (GG) and control group (CG). Both EG and GG intervention programmes were taught by professional PE teachers using station/circuit teaching framework while CG referred to traditional PE school lessons by a general teacher. All programmes ran in parallel and lasted 5 months, having the same frequency (twice weekly) and duration (45 min). Heart rate (HR) monitoring showed that intensity during PE lessons was significantly higher in the intervention groups compared with control (P games programmes significantly improved several health- and skill-related fitness indicators compared with traditional PE lessons (e.g. gross motor skill summary score: 9.4 (95% CI 7.9; 10.9) for exercise vs. control and 6.5 (95% CI 5.1; 8.1) for games vs. control, cardiorespiratory fitness: 2.0 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1) (95% CI 1.5; 2.4) for exercise vs. control and 1.4 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1) (95% CI 1.0; 1.8) for games vs. control). Furthermore, compared to games-based PE, exercise-based PE showed more positive changes in some gross motor coordination skills outcomes, coordination skills outcomes and cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from this study show that exercise- and games-based PE represents a useful strategy for improving health- and skill-related physical fitness in Albanian elementary school children. In addition, the study shows that exercise-based PE was more effective than games-based PE in improving gross motor function

  7. Programmes for the prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV in Papua New Guinea: Health system challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Anna; Vallely, Lisa; Kupul, Martha; Neo, Ruthy; Fiya, Voletta; Worth, Heather; Kariwiga, Grace; Mola, Glen D L; Kaldor, John; Kelly-Hanku, Angela

    2018-01-01

    Prevention of parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT) of HIV is a highly complex package of interventions, which spans services in both maternal and child health programmes. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), a commitment to ensure that all pregnant women and their partners have access to the full range of PPTCT interventions exists; however, efforts to increase access and utilisation of PPTCT remain far from optimal. The aim of this paper is to examine health care worker (HCW) perception of health system factors impacting on the performance of PPTCT programmes. Sixteen interviews were undertaken with HCWs involved in the PPTCT programme. Application of the WHO 6 building blocks of a health system was applied, and further thematic analysis was conducted on the data with assistance from the analysis software NVivo. Broken equipment, problems with access to medication and supplies, and poorly supported workforce were reported as barriers for implementing a successful PPTCT programme. The absence of central coordination of this complex, multistaged programme was also recognised as a key issue. The study findings highlight an important need for investment in appropriately trained and supported HCWs and integration of services at each stage of the PPTCT programme. Lessons from the PPTCT experience in PNG may inform policy discussions and considerations in other similar contexts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Impact of health research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries: the case of WHO/TDR programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minja, Happiness; Nsanzabana, Christian; Maure, Christine; Hoffmann, Axel; Rumisha, Susan; Ogundahunsi, Olumide; Zicker, Fabio; Tanner, Marcel; Launois, Pascal

    2011-10-01

    Measuring the impact of capacity strengthening support is a priority for the international development community. Several frameworks exist for monitoring and evaluating funding results and modalities. Based on its long history of support, we report on the impact of individual and institutional capacity strengthening programmes conducted by the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and on the factors that influenced the outcome of its Research Capacity Strengthening (RCS) activities. A mix of qualitative and quantitative methods (questionnaires and in-depth interviews) was applied to a selected group of 128 individual and 20 institutional capacity development grant recipients that completed their training/projects between 2000 and 2008. A semi-structured interview was also conducted on site with scientists from four institutions. Most of the grantees, both individual and institutional, reported beneficial results from the grant. However, glaring inequities stemming from gender imbalances and a language bias towards English were identified. The study showed that skills improvement through training contributed to better formulation of research proposals, but not necessarily to improved project implementation or communication of results. Appreciation of the institutional grants' impact varied among recipient countries. The least developed countries saw the programmes as essential for supporting basic infrastructure and activities. Advanced developing countries perceived the research grants as complementary to available resources, and particularly suitable for junior researchers who were not yet able to compete for major international grants. The study highlights the need for a more equitable process to improve the effectiveness of health research capacity strengthening activities. Support should be tailored to the existing research capacity in disease endemic countries and should focus on strengthening

  9. Suggestions in maternal and child health for the National Technology Assessment Programme: a consideration of consumer and professional priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, R; Rigby, C; Newburn, M; Stewart, M; Jones, P

    2002-03-01

    In North Staffordshire, the Achieving Sustainable Quality in Maternity (ASQUAM) meetings provide the programme for clinical guidelines and audit over the following year. The ASQUAM clinical effectiveness programme has attempted to address a number of the issues identified as obstacles to informed democratic prioritization. For example, it became clear that a number of topics raised were actually research questions. The organizers therefore decided to split the fourth ASQUAM day into an 'audit' morning and a 'research' afternoon. The meeting organized by RJ, CR and PJ in partnership with the Midwives Information and Resource Service and the National Childbirth Trust, was timed to allow the research ideas to feed into the national Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme. This meeting was designed to increase the profile of ASQUAM amongst consumers and to increase their representation at the meeting. Objectives were to choose a new set of research priorities for the year 2000, and to ascertain the voting pattern of comparison to health professionals. There was overall agreement in terms of priorities, with the consumer group prioritizing 8 of the 10 topics chosen by the professionals (or 10 of the 11). No significant differences between the proportions of voted cast for each topic by professionals and consumers were found apart from topic 20. The numbers of consumers were small which does limit the number the validity of statistical comparisons. Nevertheless, it is clear that voting patterns were similar. Overall the process suggests that democratic prioritization is a viable option and one that may become essential within the framework of clinical and research governance.

  10. Impact of health research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries: the case of WHO/TDR programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happiness Minja

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measuring the impact of capacity strengthening support is a priority for the international development community. Several frameworks exist for monitoring and evaluating funding results and modalities. Based on its long history of support, we report on the impact of individual and institutional capacity strengthening programmes conducted by the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR and on the factors that influenced the outcome of its Research Capacity Strengthening (RCS activities. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A mix of qualitative and quantitative methods (questionnaires and in-depth interviews was applied to a selected group of 128 individual and 20 institutional capacity development grant recipients that completed their training/projects between 2000 and 2008. A semi-structured interview was also conducted on site with scientists from four institutions. Most of the grantees, both individual and institutional, reported beneficial results from the grant. However, glaring inequities stemming from gender imbalances and a language bias towards English were identified. The study showed that skills improvement through training contributed to better formulation of research proposals, but not necessarily to improved project implementation or communication of results. Appreciation of the institutional grants' impact varied among recipient countries. The least developed countries saw the programmes as essential for supporting basic infrastructure and activities. Advanced developing countries perceived the research grants as complementary to available resources, and particularly suitable for junior researchers who were not yet able to compete for major international grants. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the need for a more equitable process to improve the effectiveness of health research capacity strengthening activities. Support should be tailored to the existing research

  11. 'Out of two bad choices, I took the slightly better one': vaccination dilemmas for Scottish and Polish migrant women during the H1N1 influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, J A; Ulanika, A A; Katikireddi, S V; Gorman, D

    2011-08-01

    Pregnancy has been identified as a risk factor for complications from pandemic H1N1 influenza, and pregnant women were identified as a target group for vaccination in the UK in the 2009 pandemic. Poland took a more conservative approach, and did not offer vaccination to pregnant women. Poland accounts for the largest wave of recent migrants to the UK, many of whom are in their reproductive years and continue to participate actively in Polish healthcare systems after migration. The authors speculated that different national responses may shape differences in approaches to the vaccine between Scottish and Polish women. This study therefore aimed to assess how pregnant Polish migrants to Scotland weighed up the risks and benefits of the vaccine for pandemic H1N1 influenza in comparison with their Scottish counterparts. A qualitative interview-based study comparing the views of Scottish and Polish pregnant women on H1N1 vaccination was carried out in 'real time' during the first 2 weeks of the vaccination programme in November 2009. One-to-one interviews were conducted with 10 women (five Polish and five Scottish) in their native language. Interviews were transcribed, translated, coded and analysed for differences and similarities in decision-making processes between the two groups. Contrary to expectations, Scottish and Polish women drew on a strikingly similar set of considerations in deciding whether or not to accept the vaccine, with individual women reaching different conclusions. Almost all of the women adopted a critical stance towards the vaccine. While most women understood that pregnancy was a risk factor for complications from influenza, their primary concern was protecting family health overall and their fetus in particular. Deciding whether or not to accept the vaccine was difficult for women. Some identified a contradiction between the culture of caution which characterizes pregnancy-related advice, and the fact that they were being urged to accept what

  12. Applying the Innov8 approach for reviewing national health programmes to leave no one behind: lessons learnt from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, Victoria; Floranita, Rustini; Koemara Sakti, Gita Maya; Pambudi, Imran; Hermawan, Lukas; Villar, Eugenio; Magar, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The World Health Organization’s Innov8 Approach for Reviewing National Health Programmes to Leave No One Behind is an eight-step process that supports the operationalization of the Sustainable Development Goals’ commitment to ‘leave no one behind’. In 2014–2015, Innov8 was adapted and applied in Indonesia to review how the national neonatal and maternal health action plans could become more equity-oriented, rights-based and gender-responsive, and better address critical social determinants of health. The process was led by the Indonesian Ministry of Health, with the support of WHO. It involved a wide range of actors and aligned with/fed into the drafting of the maternal newborn health action plan and the implementation planning of the newborn action plan. Key activities included a sensitization meeting, diagnostic checklist, review workshop and in-country work by the review teams. This ‘methods forum’ article describes this adaptation and application process, the outcomes and lessons learnt. In conjunction with other sources, Innov8 findings and recommendations informed national and sub-national maternal and neonatal action plans and programming to strengthen a ‘leave no one behind’ approach. As follow-up during 2015–2017, components of the Innov8 methodology were integrated into district-level planning processes for maternal and newborn health, and Innov8 helped generate demand for health inequality monitoring and its use in planning. In Indonesia, Innov8 enhanced national capacity for equity-oriented, rights-based and gender-responsive approaches and addressing critical social determinants of health. Adaptation for the national planning context (e.g. decentralized structure) and linking with health inequality monitoring capacity building were important lessons learnt. The pilot of Innov8 in Indonesia suggests that this approach can help operationalize the SDGs’ commitment to leave no one behind, in particular in relation to

  13. A model for integrating strategic planning and competence-based curriculum design in establishing a public health programme: the UNC Charlotte experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael E; Harver, Andrew; Eure, Marquis

    2009-08-11

    The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, a doctoral/research-intensive university, is the largest institution of higher education in the Charlotte region. The university currently offers 18 doctoral, 62 master's and 90 baccalaureate programmes. Fall 2008 enrolment exceeded 23,300 students, including more than 4900 graduate students. The university's Department of Health Behavior and Administration was established on 1 July 2002 as part of a transformed College of Health & Human Services. In 2003, the Department initiated a series of stakeholder activities as part of its strategic planning and programmatic realignment efforts. The Department followed an empirically derived top-down/bottom-up strategic planning process that fostered community engagement and coordination of efforts across institutional levels. This process culminated in a vision to transform the unit into a Council on Education for Public Health accredited programme in public health and, eventually, an accredited school of public health. To date, the Department has revised its Master of Science in health promotion into an Master of Science in Public Health programme, renamed itself the Department of Public Health Sciences, launched a Bachelor of Science in Public Health major, laid plans for a doctoral programme, and received accreditation from the Council on Education for Public Health as a public health programme. Furthermore, the campus has endorsed the programme's growth into a school of public health as one of its priorities. It is only through this rigorous and cyclical process of determining what society needs, designing a curriculum specifically to prepare graduates to meet those needs, ensuring that those graduates meet those needs, and reassessing society's needs that we can continue to advance the profession and ensure the public's health. Community stakeholders should be active contributors to programme innovation. Lessons learnt from this process include: being connected to your

  14. A model for integrating strategic planning and competence-based curriculum design in establishing a public health programme: the UNC Charlotte experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harver Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, a doctoral/research-intensive university, is the largest institution of higher education in the Charlotte region. The university currently offers 18 doctoral, 62 master's and 90 baccalaureate programmes. Fall 2008 enrolment exceeded 23 300 students, including more than 4900 graduate students. The university's Department of Health Behavior and Administration was established on 1 July 2002 as part of a transformed College of Health & Human Services. Case description In 2003, the Department initiated a series of stakeholder activities as part of its strategic planning and programmatic realignment efforts. The Department followed an empirically derived top-down/bottom-up strategic planning process that fostered community engagement and coordination of efforts across institutional levels. This process culminated in a vision to transform the unit into a Council on Education for Public Health accredited programme in public health and, eventually, an accredited school of public health. To date, the Department has revised its Master of Science in health promotion into an Master of Science in Public Health programme, renamed itself the Department of Public Health Sciences, launched a Bachelor of Science in Public Health major, laid plans for a doctoral programme, and received accreditation from the Council on Education for Public Health as a public health programme. Furthermore, the campus has endorsed the programme's growth into a school of public health as one of its priorities. Discussion and Evaluation It is only through this rigorous and cyclical process of determining what society needs, designing a curriculum specifically to prepare graduates to meet those needs, ensuring that those graduates meet those needs, and reassessing society's needs that we can continue to advance the profession and ensure the public's health. Community stakeholders should be active contributors to

  15. Prison mental health in-reach teams, serious mental illness and the Care Programme Approach in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Charlie; Webster, Russell

    2017-08-01

    The delivery of prison mental health services in England is examined over the last 12 years. Resources for services have grown significantly during this period and improved organisational models for the delivery of services are now in place. During this period however the challenges of working in the prison environment have increased. The paper argues that a history of sexual abuse or violence are common amongst prisoners and the Care Programme Approach (CPA) provides the vehicle to assess these histories through the use of routine enquiry. Commissioners of prison mental health services now need to ensure that teams are delivering cogent trauma-based interventions where relevant and the outcomes are measured. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of the ‘Home-but not Alone’ mobile health application educational programme on parental outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shorey, Shefaly; Peng Mei, Yvonne; Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe

    2017-01-01

    -time parents and parents already with kids on the day of their discharge from a public hospital. Eligible parents will be randomly allocated to either a control group (receiving routine care) or an intervention group (routine care plus access to the 'Home-but not Alone' mobile health application. Outcome...... measures comprise of parenting self-efficacy, social support, parenting satisfaction and postnatal depression. Data will be collected at the baseline (on the day of discharge) and at four weeks postpartum. DISCUSSION: This will be an empirical study that evaluates a theory-based educational programme...... delivered via an innovative mobile health application on parental outcomes. Results from this study will enhance parenting self-efficacy, social support and parenting satisfaction, which may then reduce parental risks of postnatal depression....

  17. Importance of public participation in decision-making process in healthcare system illustarted with an example of the development of American and Polish scope of health benefit basket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Katarzyna; Hermanowski, Tomasz; Borek, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The process of the development of health benefit basket may serve as a good example of decision-making process in the healthcare system which is based on public participation. Comparative analysis of development and implementation of health benefit basket in Poland and the USA. On a basis of the literature review, following questions were studied, i.e.: What is the origin of health benefit basket development in the USA and Poland? What was the role of pubic opinion in determining the range of health benefit basket in both countries? What criteria were employed to determine the range of health benefit basket in both countries? What conclusions can be drawn for Poland from the USA experience of determining the range of health benefit basket? Irrespective of the similarities in the origin of health benefit basket development, both countries approached this issue differently. In the USA, the approach based on social dialogue and patient's perspective was selected while in Poland the perspective of public payer predominated. The transparency of principles and social dialogue constitute the fundamental elements of effective process of health benefit basket development and implementation which is both required and generally unpopular modification.

  18. An oral health programme for schoolchildren in Kuwait 1986-97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigild, M.; Skougaard, M.; Hadi, R.

    1999-01-01

    caries prevalence, caries prevention, community dental services, dental caries, DMFS, health education, Kuwait, primary dental care, schoolchildren......caries prevalence, caries prevention, community dental services, dental caries, DMFS, health education, Kuwait, primary dental care, schoolchildren...

  19. Polish energy-system modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy-system needs intensive investments in new technologies, which are energy efficient, clean and cost effective. Since the early 1990s, the Polish economy has had practically full access to modern technological devices, equipment and technologies. Introducing new technologies is a difficult task for project teams, constructors and investors. The author presents a set of principles for project teams useful in planning and energy modernisation. Several essential features are discussed: Energy-efficient appliances and systems; Choice of energy carriers, media and fuels; Optimal tariffs, maximum power and installed power; Intelligent, integrated, steering systems; Waste-energy recovery; Renewable-energy recovery. In practice there are several difficulties connected with planning and realising good technological and economic solutions. The author presents his own experiences of energy-system modernisation of industrial processes and building new objects. (Author)

  20. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  1. SAFETY PLATFORM OF POLISH TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna CHRUZIK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the level of Polish transport safety culture can be seen that it is now dependent on the culture of safety management within the organization and the requirements and recommendations of law in this field for different modes of transport (air, rail, road, water. Of the four basic types of transport requirements are widely developed in the aviation, rail, and water – the sea. In order to harmonize the requirements for transport safety so it appears advisable to develop a platform for exchange of safety information for different modes of transport, and the development of good practices multimodal offering the possibility of improving Polish transport safety. Described in the publication of the proposal in addition to the alignment platform experience and knowledge in the field of transport safety in all its kinds, it can also be a tool for perfecting new operators of public transport.

  2. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  3. Health-social partnership intervention programme for community-dwelling older adults: a research protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan Ching; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Chang, Katherine Ka Pik

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to describe the research protocol that will be used to determine the effectiveness of a health-social partnership intervention programme among community-dwelling older adults. Ageing in place is a preferred option for overcoming challenges of the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and the risk for hospitalization associated with the ageing population. Nevertheless, our knowledge of how to implement this concept is limited. The integrated efforts of health and social services may help to enable older adults to live with a sense of control over their daily life and to be independent to the fullest extent possible in the community. This is a randomized, controlled trial. Participants are community-dwelling older adults referred from a community centre. Sample size calculation was based on power analysis. The intervention group will receive the programme with the standard protocols guided by a comprehensive assessment-intervention-evaluation framework. Home visits and telephones follow-up will be employed as means of conducting the interventions and monitoring their progress. The customary care group will receive placebo social calls. The duration of the interventions will be 3 months. The study was funded by the School of Nursing in Hong Kong. Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained in September 2014. The results of this research are expected to enable older adults to stay in the community with optimal health and well-being. Health and social sciences are integrated into the practice in this research protocol. The scarce literature on this topic means that this study can also provide an opportunity to bridge the caring gap among older adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development and implementation of a peer-based mental health support programme for adolescents orphaned by HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2011-12-01

    The article describes a framework and the process for the development of the peer-based mental health support programme and its implementation. The development of a peer-based mental health support programme is based on Erikson's theory on the adolescent phase of development, the psycho-educational processes; the peer approach and the orphaned adolescents lived experiences as conceptual framework. A triangulation of five qualitative methods of photography, reflective diaries, focus groups, event history calendar and field notes were used to capture the lived experiences of adolescents orphaned to HIV and AIDS. Analysis of data followed Colaizzi's method of data analysis. The combination of psycho-education, Erikson's stages of development and peer support assisted the participants to gain knowledge and skills to overcome adversity and to assist them to become to more resilient. The peer based mental health support programme if used would enhance the mental health of adolescent orphans.

  5. What Do We Know about School Mental Health Promotion Programmes for Children and Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Linda; Lind, Candace

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous studies of school mental health promotion and primary prevention and many reviews of these studies; however, no clear consensus statement has emerged regarding school mental health promotion other than that child mental health is an important area that should be addressed in schools. This integrative review seeks to address this…

  6. The State of the Environment: Environment and Health 1986. United Nations Environment Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    People depend for their well-being on the health of the societies in which they live. This report aims to show that the achievement of sustained development, the promotion of health, and the rational use of environmental resources are absolutely inseparable. Chapter I, "Health Effects of Human Activities With Environmental Consequences,"…

  7. Careers of young Polish chemists

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Typical young Polish scientist is an alumnus of doctoral studies at the same university and department where he/she completed his/her Master degree. The career is continued by receiving a habilitation at the same university and department. Then a holder of habilitation is promoted to a tenured position at the same university and department. Detailed analysis of scientific careers of 154 recent Ph.D. recipients and of 16 habilitation candidates in chemistry from University of Warsaw is present...

  8. Zdrowie własnej rodziny w świetle opinii włoskich i polskich uczniów = The opinions of Italian and Polish students on their families' health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Charzyńska-Gula

    2016-08-01

    into a healthy or unhealthy lifestyle.             The objectives of the study was to identify the opinions of Italian and Polish students on their families' health and to determine the extent to which selected socio-demographic characteristics and health behaviour of the analysed families are related to the students' attitude towards the duty of caring for their health throughout their lives. The surveyed group included 175 students (90 from Poland and 85 from Italy (average age: 16.95 years. The diagnostic survey method was applied, with the use of a self-designed questionnaire. The surveys were carried out in Poland and Italy from March 2014 to March 2015.             The results point to the lack of correlation between the selected characteristics of the analysed families and the students' health awareness. Italian parents, despite their higher education in comparison to Polish parents, more often smoke tobacco and are more frequently unable to assess their body weight. Their children substantially more often than their peers from Poland do not consider it necessary to care for their health throughout their lives. Polish parents, in spite of having lower education, less frequently smoke tobacco. Their children significantly more often than their Italian peers have an appropriate attitude to caring for their health.             The obtained data show differences observed in both communities in the activity of schools in terms of prophylactic measures, which could fill the gaps in family health education.   Key words: family's health, health behaviour, student.

  9. Changes in physical health among participants in a multidisciplinary health programme for long-term unemployed persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Schutgens (Christine); M. Schuring (Merel); T. Voorham (Toon); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The relationship between poor health and unemployment is well established. Health promotion among unemployed persons may improve their health. The aims of this study were to investigate characteristics of non-participants and drop-outs in a multidisciplinary health promotion

  10. 19th Polish Control Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Oprzędkiewicz, Krzysztof; Skruch, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the KKA 2017 – the 19th Polish Control Conference, organized by the Department of Automatics and Biomedical Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology in Kraków, Poland on June 18–21, 2017, under the auspices of the Committee on Automatic Control and Robotics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and the Commission for Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. Part 1 deals with general issues of modeling and control, notably flow modeling and control, sliding mode, predictive, dual, etc. control. In turn, Part 2 focuses on optimization, estimation and prediction for control. Part 3 is concerned with autonomous vehicles, while Part 4 addresses applications. Part 5 discusses computer methods in control, and Part 6 examines fractional order calculus in the modeling and control of dynamic systems. Part 7 focuses on modern robotics. Part 8 deals with modeling and identification, while Part 9 deals with problems related to security, fault ...

  11. Integration of antenatal care services with health programmes in low– and middle– income countries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyra E de Jongh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal care (ANC presents a potentially valuable platform for integrated delivery of additional health services for pregnant women–services that are vital to reduce the persistently high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in low– and middle–income countries (LMICs. However, there is limited evidence on the impact of integrating