WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy studies series

  1. Educational Policy Transfer in an Era of Globalization: Theory--History--Comparison. Comparative Studies Series. Volume 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    As education becomes increasingly global, the processes and politics of transfer have become a central focus of research. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of contemporary theoretical and analytical work aimed at exploring international educational reform and reveals the myriad ways that globalization is now fundamentally altering our…

  2. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses the r...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory.......Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...

  3. Policy Archaeology: A New Policy Studies Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurich, James Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Discusses policy archaeology, a radically different approach to policy studies in education drawn from the poststructuralist work of Foucault. Policy archaeology examines the social construction of problems before they become visible, focusing on five social regularities (race, gender, class, governmentality, and professionalization) comprising…

  4. Chernobyl: A policy response study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segerstahl, B.

    1991-01-01

    Chernobyl consists of a series of papers concerned with societal responses to the accident at Chernobyl. The book is composed of a series of segments that focus of aspects of the post-accident policy: monitoring and assessment, health effects, agriculture and trade, international responses, and the media and credibility crisis. Seven European countries were investigated for information on how they dealt with the accident

  5. Reduction in male suicide mortality following the 2006 Russian alcohol policy: an interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Chamlin, Mitchell B; Andreev, Evgeny

    2013-11-01

    We took advantage of a natural experiment to assess the impact on suicide mortality of a suite of Russian alcohol policies. We obtained suicide counts from anonymous death records collected by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) interrupted time series techniques to model the effect of the alcohol policy (implemented in January 2006) on monthly male and female suicide counts between January 2000 and December 2010. Monthly male and female suicide counts decreased during the period under study. Although the ARIMA analysis showed no impact of the policy on female suicide mortality, the results revealed an immediate and permanent reduction of about 9% in male suicides (Ln ω0 = -0.096; P = .01). Despite a recent decrease in mortality, rates of alcohol consumption and suicide in Russia remain among the highest in the world. Our analysis revealed that the 2006 alcohol policy in Russia led to a 9% reduction in male suicide mortality, meaning the policy was responsible for saving 4000 male lives annually that would otherwise have been lost to suicide. Together with recent similar findings elsewhere, our results suggest an important role for public health and other population level interventions, including alcohol policy, in reducing alcohol-related harm.

  6. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  7. Public invited to Appalachian Studies Film Series

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The Appalachian Studies Program at Virginia Tech is hosting a series of notable artistic and documentary films. The films deal with themes or issues covered in Appalachian Studies courses and are organized historically, touching upon issues common to all Appalachians.

  8. The impact of policy on hospital productivity: a time series analysis of Dutch hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jos L T; Eggink, Evelien

    2014-06-01

    The health care industry, in particular the hospital industry, is under an increasing degree of pressure, by an ageing population, advancing expensive medical technology a shrinking labor. The pressure on hospitals is further increased by the planned budget cuts in public spending by many current administrations as a result of the economic and financial crises. However, productivity increases may alleviate these problems. Therefore we study whether productivity in the hospital sector is growing, and whether this productivity growth can be influenced by government policy. Using an econometric time series analysis of the hospital sector in the Netherlands, productivity is estimated for the period 1972-2010. Then, productivity is linked to the different regulation regimes during that period, ranging from output funding in the 1970s to the current liberalized hospital market. The results indicate that the average productivity of the hospital sector in different periods differs and that these differences are related to the structure of regulation in those periods.

  9. Policy Matters in Teaching English Language Learners: New York and California. Urban Diversity Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Christine H.

    This monograph in the Urban Diversity Series examines historical and current policy in the teaching of language minority students in New York and California. It explores the key issues in the public's understanding of bilingual education and defines bilingual education in terms of local educational legislation and implementations. Part I,…

  10. International study on energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A study, presented in September 2004 at the world energy council congress of Sydney (Australia) by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) evaluates the energy efficiency policies and their impact in 63 countries, and in particular in the developing countries. It has permitted to identify the five most efficient measures about which case studies have been given to subject specialists for thorough analysis. Completed in July 2004, this triennial report has been carried out by the Ademe and the World energy council with the joint collaboration of the Latin American energy organization (Olade) and the Asia Pacific energy research centre (Aperc) under the coordination of Enerdata agency. This short article makes a brief summary of this presentation: energy efficiency at the global scale, transport sector, world power consumption and CO 2 emissions, evaluation of energy efficiency policies and measures (institutions and programmes, efficiency labels and standards for household appliances, innovative financing means, local information centers). (J.S.)

  11. Association between Florida's smoke-free policy and acute myocardial infarction by race: A time series analysis, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Bernat, Debra; Whitsel, Laurie; Huang, Jidong; Sherwin, Chris; Robertson, Rose Marie

    2016-11-01

    Racial disparities in acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs) are increasing over time. Previous studies have shown that the implementation of smoke-free policies is associated with reduced AMI rates. The objective of this study was to determine the association between smoke-free policy and AMI hospitalization rates and smoking by race. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project data from Florida from 2000-2013 were analyzed using interrupted time series analysis to determine the relationship between Florida's smoke-free restaurant and workplace laws and AMI among the total adult population (aged ≥18years), by age, race, and gender. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from Florida from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed using logistic regression to determine the association between policy and the adult smoking prevalence. After implementation of the smoke-free policy, no statistically significant associations between AMI hospitalization rates or smoking prevalence were detected in the total population. In the subgroup analysis, the policy was associated with declines in AMI hospitalization rates among non-Hispanic white adults aged 18-44years (β=-0.001 per 10,000, p-value=0.0083). No other relationships with AMI hospitalization rates and smoking prevalence were found in the subgroup analysis. More comprehensive smoke-free and tobacco control policies are needed to further reduce AMI hospitalization rates, particularly among minority populations. Further research is needed to understand and address how the implementation of smoke-free policies affects secondhand smoke exposure among racial and ethnic minorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Area Handbook Series: Zaire: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Age cultures start to flourish in southern savannas. first millennium B.C. In long series of migrations, lasting well into first millen - nium A.D...thus formed a major element in the armature of paternalism. The darker side of this paternalism was the political control and compulsion underlying

  13. Studying and evaluating pharmaceutical policy--becoming a part of the policy and consultative process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine M

    2006-01-01

    In this last article in the series the authors focus on the issue of researching and evaluating pharmaceutical policy. The past five articles made an argument for why pharmaceutical policy is important and why it is different from health policy. The evidence base needed for pharmaceutical policym...

  14. Sustainability of Italian budgetary policies: a time series analysis (1862-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon L. Brady

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the sustainability of Italian public finances using a unique database covering the period 1862-2013. This paper focuses on empirical tests for the sustainability and solvency of fiscal policies. A necessary but not sufficient condition implies that the growth rate of public debt should in the limit be smaller than the asymptotic rate of interest. In addition, the debt-to-GDP ratio must eventually stabilize at a steady-state level. The results of unit root and stationarity tests show that the variables are non-stationary at levels, but stationary in first-differences form, or I(1. However, some breaks in the series emerge, given internal and external crises (wars, oil shocks, regime changes, institutional reforms. Therefore, the empirical analysis is conducted for the entire period, as well as two sub‐periods (1862‐1913 and 1947‐2013. Moreover, anecdotal evidence and visual inspection of the series confirm our results. Furthermore, we conduct tests on cointegration, which evidence that a long-run relationship between public expenditure and revenues is found only for the first sub-period (1862-1913. In essence, the paper’s results reveal that Italy have sustainability problems in the Republican age.

  15. Area Handbook Series: Israel: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    equipment. Among Israel’s clients were communist states ( China and Romania), Mus- lim states (Morocco, Turkey, Indonesia, and Malaysia ), and so- called...Handbook for Israel. IV. Series: DA Pam 550-25. DS126.5.1772 1990 90-6119 CIP - DTA P 5 L)-- ’:• ............. Headquarters, Department of the Army...there has been a tacit relationship between Israel and the People’s Republic of China in such fields as com- merce, technical and agricultural programs

  16. Area Handbook Series: Bolivia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    handed over to logging companies in 1987. In addition to ruining the forest’s flora and fauna, the Indians claimed that the loggers were threatening... Puebla , Mexico, in 1979, the CEB suggested that Paz Estens- soro’s New Economic Policy (Nueva Politica Econ6mica-NPE) would generate increasing levels...34 International Social Security Review (Geneva], 31, No. 2, 1978, 187-204. La iglesia de Bolivia: eCompromiso o traicidn? DeMedellin a Puebla : Ensayo de andlisis

  17. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.; Lee, J. H

    2007-02-15

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposals for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology R and D programs. To do this, environmental changes of international nuclear energy policy and trends of nuclear technology development were surveyed and analyzed. This Study analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategy in a viewpoint of analyzing the changes in the global policy environment associated with nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy.

  18. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Ham, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Lee, B. O.; Yun, S. W.; Choi, Y. M.; Eom, T. Y.

    1998-01-01

    This study analyzed the major issues as the research activities for the support of establishment and implementation of national policy. The analyses were focused on the recommendations of the responsive direction of national policy in positive and effective manners in accordance with the changes of international nuclear affairs. This study also analyzed the creation of environmental foundation for effective implementation of the national policy and national R and D investment such as securing national consensus and openings of policy information to the public. The major results of the role and position of nuclear policy, trends of nuclear policy and nuclear R and D activities of USA, France, Japan, Asian developing countries etc. and international trends of small- and medium-sized reactor as well as spin-offs of nuclear R and D activities, were analyzed. (author). 66 refs., 27 tabs., 15 figs

  19. Studies on time series applications in environmental sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bărbulescu, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Time series analysis and modelling represent a large study field, implying the approach from the perspective of the time and frequency, with applications in different domains. Modelling hydro-meteorological time series is difficult due to the characteristics of these series, as long range dependence, spatial dependence, the correlation with other series. Continuous spatial data plays an important role in planning, risk assessment and decision making in environmental management. In this context, in this book we present various statistical tests and modelling techniques used for time series analysis, as well as applications to hydro-meteorological series from Dobrogea, a region situated in the south-eastern part of Romania, less studied till now. Part of the results are accompanied by their R code. .

  20. Policy Studies on Bioethical Issues Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes the policies, operation, and some decisions of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research instituted to study the ethical aspects of scientific research. (MLH)

  1. Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    molecular era. The second episode is familiar to historians of 20th century biology (Sapp 1987). Recent studies have enriched it, as well as thrown light on the first use of ciliates as models. 2. ... low level of consciousness in these organisms. A fascinating part of ... phenomena are due to self-replicating particles present in.

  2. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C. Y.; Lee, K. S.; Jeong, I.; Lee, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, recent changes of international nuclear energy policy and trends of nuclear technology R and D was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed the trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) discussed the mid and long term strategy of nuclear energy R and D. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) analyzed the trends of nuclear technology policies - Trend and prospects of the international and domestic nuclear policies - Investigation of development of small and medium sized policies - International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies (2) discussed the mid and long term strategy of nuclear energy R and D - The long term development plan for future nuclear energy system - The facilitation of technology commercialization

  3. THE IMPACT OF AN EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION SERIES, AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MERRILL, I.R.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO DISCOVER WHETHER THE DOCUMENTARY TV FILM SERIES, "COUNTY AGENT," HAD APPEAL FOR AND IMPACT UPON A GENERAL AUDIENCE AND WHETHER A SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP EXISTED BETWEEN THE METHODS OF PROGRAM EVALUATION USED. THE TV SERIES, BROADCAST OVER WKAR-TV, CONSISTED OF 13 PROGRAMS ABOUT PROJECTS SPONSORED BY THE…

  4. Area Handbook Series: Peru: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Mercado , Hilda. La madre trabajadora: El caso de las comerciantes am- bulantes. Lima: Centro de Estudios de Poblaci6n y Desarrollo, 1978. Millones... Estudios Peruanos-IEP) and the Center for Develop- ment Studies and Promotion (Centro de Estudios y Promoci6n del Desarrollo-DESCO), and publishers such as...integral to national security. The Advanced Military Studies Center (Centro de Altos Estudios Militares-CAEM) in Lima was a proponent of this philosophy in

  5. Area Handbook Series Guatemala, A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    deities include a remote and inaccessible high god; subservient to hin) is a matrimonial couple, called variously Jesus and Mary or the sun and the moon...NACLA Report on the Americas in early 1983 was valuable, though not unbiased. Richard Newbold Adams’ 1970 study, Crucifixion by Power, remained the

  6. Area Handbook Series: Spain: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    earned as much as US$1 million a year. Under the Securities and Market Reform Act of 1988 (Ley de Reforma de Mercado de Valores), stock market operators...Victor. Estructura social del campo y ixodo rural. estudio de un pueblo de Castilla. Madrid: Tecnos, 1966. Pescatello, Ann M. Power and Pawn: The...Espaila: un presentepara elfuturo, 1. Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Econ6micos, 1984. 367 I Spain: A Country Study Economist Intelligence Unit

  7. Area Handbook Series: Venezuela; A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    la Economia Venezolana. (2d ed.) Caracas: Edime, 1963. Arnove, Robert F. Student Alienation. A Venezuelan Study. New York: Praeger, 1971. Banks, Arthur...1987. Uslar Pietri, Arturo. Sumario de Economia Venezolana. Caracas: Fun- daci6n Mendoza, 1958. Venezuela. Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social... Latinoamericana [Buenos Aires], 12, No. 127, September 1987, 20-48. Echevarra, Oscar A. Opportunities from Debt: A rrimer on Venezuelan Investments and Debt

  8. Area Handbook Series: Tunisia; a Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Social Values-The Individual, the Family, and the Sexes -RELI- GIOUS LIFE-Tenets of Islam-Early Development of Islam- Islamic Institutions-Popular...Prioritv was also shifted away from raw materials to agriculture. tourim ,. and manufacturing as the chief’ sources of foreign earn- ings. TIhe first...Study The Individual, the Family, and the Sexes Personal status and interpersonal relations in the Tunisian so- ciety were dictated traditionally by the

  9. Area Handbook Series: Uruguay, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    liberalismo en el Uruguay. Montevideo: Universidad de la Repdblica, 1962. Arocena, Jos6. "El desarrollo de la pequefia y microempresa ," Cua- demos del...CIESU) and the Interdisciplinary Center of Development Studies, Uruguay (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios del Desarrollo , Uruguay- CIEDUR). With the... de la Banda Oriental, 1982. Faroppa, Luis, Marisa Buchelli, Alberto Couriel, and Alberto Ben- si6n. Cuatro tesis sobre la situacidn econdmica nacional

  10. Area Handbook Series: Portugal, A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    in medieval Portugal, hereditary title to land did not exist in any developed legal form. As the original grants of land were obscured by passing...Chapter 2. The Society and Its Environment Monsaraz, a medieval village near the Spanish frontier AS A RESULT OF CHANGES wrought by the Revolution of...Children playing in a Lisbon courtyard Courtesy Daniide Kohier 101 Portugal: A Country Study Other aspects of Portuguese folk religion, including witchcraft

  11. African Studies Monographs: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Studies Monographs is a serial that promotes research and scholarship on the African perspective worldwide. This includes matters of philosophy, history, literature, arts and culture, environment, gender, politics, administration crisis management, etc.

  12. Human Intelligence. Transaction Book Series, Studies in Social Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. McVicker, Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following articles: "Genetics and competance: Do heritability indices predict educability?" Jerry Hirsch; "The role of experience in the development of competence," J. McVicker Hunt; "Intelligence-- why it grows, why it declines," John L. Horn; "The demographic context of metropolitan education," Karl E. Taeuber;…

  13. Anus neoplasm: study of a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lima Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anus neoplasm accounts for 2 to 4% of colorectal tumors, being more prevalent around the seventh and the eighth decades. Females are mostly affected, and the ratio is 3:1. Its increased prevalence amongst the population in the past years is probably related to the higher number of people that are affected by sexually transmitted diseases, mainly human papillomavirus (types 16 and 18, mostly and/or the human immunodeficiency virus. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and anatomopathological tests. The treatment of choice is radiochemotherapy, and the rescue surgery with abdominoperineal resection is used for recurrence and persistence cases. A retrospective and prospective longitudinal observational study was performed with 11 patients diagnosed with anal neoplasm from 2004 to 2010. Six (54.5% were females and five (45.5% were males. The incidence was higher in the sixth decade, at the mean age of 54.45 years. The most frequent histological type observed was the epidermoid carcinoma, and the most frequent cell differentiation type was the moderately differentiated. Chemotharapy associated with radiotherapy was used in 81.9% of the patients, and abdominoperineal resection was necessary as a rescue surgery in 18.2% of the patients.Neoplasias do ânus correspondem de 2 a 4% dos tumores de intestino grosso, sendo predominante nas sétima e oitava décadas. A maior prevalência é em gênero feminino, com proporção de 3:1. O aumento da prevalência na população nos últimos anos provavelmente está relacionado ao número maior de pessoas com doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, principalmente o papilomavírus humano (tipos 16 e 18, mais comumente e/ou o vírus da imunodeficiência humana. O diagnóstico é feito a partir de achados clínicos somados ao exame anatomopatológico. O tratamento de escolha baseia-se na radioquimioterapia, sendo a cirurgia de resgate com amputação abdominoperineal utilizada para casos de recidiva ou persist

  14. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Lim, C. Y.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, changes of international nuclear energy policy environment and trends of nuclear technology development was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy environment surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) themes to analyze trends of nuclear policies: nuclear Renaissance and forecast for nuclear power plant, International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies in GIF, INPRO and I-NERI, The present situation and outlook for world uranium market (2) themes to develop of nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies: The mid-term strategy plan of the KAERI, The technological innovation case of the KAERI

  15. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J.; Lim, C. Y.; Yang, M. H. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, changes of international nuclear energy policy environment and trends of nuclear technology development was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy environment surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) themes to analyze trends of nuclear policies: nuclear Renaissance and forecast for nuclear power plant, International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies in GIF, INPRO and I-NERI, The present situation and outlook for world uranium market (2) themes to develop of nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies: The mid-term strategy plan of the KAERI, The technological innovation case of the KAERI.

  16. The impact of policy guidelines on hospital antibiotic use over a decade: a segmented time series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith J Chandy

    Full Text Available Antibiotic pressure contributes to rising antibiotic resistance. Policy guidelines encourage rational prescribing behavior, but effectiveness in containing antibiotic use needs further assessment. This study therefore assessed the patterns of antibiotic use over a decade and analyzed the impact of different modes of guideline development and dissemination on inpatient antibiotic use.Antibiotic use was calculated monthly as defined daily doses (DDD per 100 bed days for nine antibiotic groups and overall. This time series compared trends in antibiotic use in five adjacent time periods identified as 'Segments,' divided based on differing modes of guideline development and implementation: Segment 1--Baseline prior to antibiotic guidelines development; Segment 2--During preparation of guidelines and booklet dissemination; Segment 3--Dormant period with no guidelines dissemination; Segment 4--Booklet dissemination of revised guidelines; Segment 5--Booklet dissemination of revised guidelines with intranet access. Regression analysis adapted for segmented time series and adjusted for seasonality assessed changes in antibiotic use trend.Overall antibiotic use increased at a monthly rate of 0.95 (SE = 0.18, 0.21 (SE = 0.08 and 0.31 (SE = 0.06 for Segments 1, 2 and 3, stabilized in Segment 4 (0.05; SE = 0.10 and declined in Segment 5 (-0.37; SE = 0.11. Segments 1, 2 and 4 exhibited seasonal fluctuations. Pairwise segmented regression adjusted for seasonality revealed a significant drop in monthly antibiotic use of 0.401 (SE = 0.089; p<0.001 for Segment 5 compared to Segment 4. Most antibiotic groups showed similar trends to overall use.Use of overall and specific antibiotic groups showed varied patterns and seasonal fluctuations. Containment of rising overall antibiotic use was possible during periods of active guideline dissemination. Wider access through intranet facilitated significant decline in use. Stakeholders and policy

  17. Evaluating pharmaceutical policies using cross-national comparisons and time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santa Ana Tellez, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effects of different pharmaceutical policies on the use of medicines (e.g. antibiotics). These policies were evaluated using diverse data sources from the public and private sector in countries in Africa, Latin America, and Western Europe. In addition, the

  18. Soutien institutionnel à African Technology Policy Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au départ la division tanzanienne du Réseau d'études sur la politique technologique en Afrique (African Technology Policy Studies Network), et ce, depuis 1984, ATPS-Tanzania est devenu autonome à titre d'organisation non gouvernementale en 2001. Lorsque ATPS-Tanzania recevait un financement stable du siège de ...

  19. A study on the nuclear foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byungwook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Noh, B. C.

    2008-12-01

    This study addresses four arenas to effectively assist national nuclear foreign policies under international nuclear nonproliferation regimes and organizations. Firstly, this study analyzes the trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime, and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Secondly, this study analyzes the trends of international nuclear organizations, which include the IAEA as a central body of international nuclear diplomacy and technical cooperation and the OECD/NEA as a intergovernmental organization to consist of nuclear advanced countries. Thirdly, this study predicts the nuclear foreign policy of Obama Administration and reviews U. S.-India nuclear cooperation. Lastly, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and current issues for regulation of nuclear materials.

  20. Urban containment policies and physical activity. A time-series analysis of metropolitan areas, 1990-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytur, Semra A; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Evenson, Kelly R; Catellier, Diane J

    2008-04-01

    Urban containment policies attempt to manage the location, character, and timing of growth to support a variety of goals such as compact development, preservation of greenspace, and efficient use of infrastructure. Despite prior research evaluating the effects of urban containment policies on land use, housing, and transportation outcomes, the public health implications of these policies remain unexplored. This ecologic study examines relationships among urban containment policies, state adoption of growth-management legislation, and population levels of leisure and transportation-related physical activity in 63 large metropolitan statistical areas from 1990 to 2002. Multiple data sources were combined, including surveys of urban containment policies, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the U.S. Census of Population, the National Resources Inventory, and the Texas Transportation Institute Urban Mobility Study. Mixed models were used to examine whether urban containment policies and state adoption of growth-management legislation were associated with population levels of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and walking/bicycling to work over time. Strong urban containment policies were associated with higher population levels of LTPA and walking/bicycling to work during the study period. Additionally, residents of states with legislation mandating urban growth boundaries reported significantly more minutes of LTPA/week compared to residents of states without such policies. Weak urban containment policies showed inconsistent relationships with physical activity. This study provides preliminary evidence that strong urban containment policies are associated with higher population levels of LTPA and active commuting. Future research should examine potential synergies among state, metropolitan, and local policy processes that may strengthen these relationships.

  1. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Eom, T. Y.; Ham, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Lee, B. O.; Yun, S. W.

    1997-01-01

    Work scopes and major contents carried out by nuclear technology policy analysis project in 1996, are as follows: First, reviews and provisions of recommendations for the revision draft of Atomic Energy Act, the national long-tem plan of use and development of nuclear technologies forward the 21st century, and KAERI vision for the next 10 years have been undertaken as parts of division`s role to support the implementation and set-up of national nuclear policy. Second, the trends of nuclear policy, research and development activities of nuclear institutes and the nuclear industries of the major advanced countries, were analyzed. Nuclear development trends in the East-Asia region emerging as a new nuclear market in the near future, were also analyzed including China. Finally, as the research works for the development of nuclear technology policy, a comparative analyses of the forecasted future nuclear technologies of nuclear advanced countries and a study for the improvement of spin-off effectiveness of nuclear research and development activities were undertaken respectively. (author). 19 refs., 29 tabs., 19 figs.

  2. 'Bodies Are Dangerous': Using Feminist Genealogy as Policy Studies Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, Wanda

    2003-01-01

    Explores implications of paying attention to the body, literally and figuratively, in policy analysis and policy theory. Building from recent critical, feminist, and post-structural work in policy studies, develops what is termed a feminist genealogy to aid in an analysis of policy studies. Provides example of feminist genealogical analysis…

  3. Mexico: Neighbor in Transition. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 267.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter H.

    One of a series of booklets on world issues, this five-part document presents information about Mexico. Part one examines Mexican history from Cortez to Madero. Emphasis is placed on the revolution era (1910-1920) and the creation of two political parties: the Partido de la Revolucion Mexicana (Mexican Revolutionary Party or PRM) and the Partido…

  4. Learning from the Past for Future Policy: Approaches to Time-series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliable time-series catch and effort data are fundamental for fisheries assessment and management; however, such data are usually not readily available. The Food and Agricultrual Organization (FAO) compiles statistical reports from its member countries, but their reliability is questionable. Several approaches were ...

  5. The Atlantic Alliance at 35. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 268.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePorte, A. W.

    One in a series of booklets whose purpose is to stimulate greater and more effective understanding of world affairs among Americans, this six-chapter report examines the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's (NATO) first 35 years and probes the extent to which the alliance can find common ground on the perennial issues of military doctrine,…

  6. Guiding Urban Growth: Policy Issues and Demographic Constraints. Paper Series No. 5212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Peter A.

    It is proposed in this document that the selectivity of migration, in terms of both people and places become a more imposing influence in urbanization as the role of natural increase as a source of urban growth diminishes. Recent U.S. growth policy proposals have frequently been marked by a simplistic view of how urban growth works, compounded by…

  7. The New Education Philanthropy: Politics, Policy, and Reform. Educational Innovations Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M., Ed.; Henig, Jeffrey R., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Philanthropic foundations play an increasingly influential role in education research, policy, and practice--yet this sector has been subject to little research-informed analysis. In "The New Education Philanthropy," Frederick M. Hess and Jeffrey R. Henig convene a diverse group of scholars and analysts to examine the shifting role of…

  8. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  9. Course Placement Series: Spotlight on High School Math Course Enrollment. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Tennessee Department of Education explored course enrollment patterns in an effort to better understand in which courses students are enrolling and whether course enrollment policies and procedures are promoting students' interests. This report focuses on math course enrollment patterns throughout high school by following the 2013-14 twelfth…

  10. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers. Policy Issue Series No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Scott; McCarthy, Martha

    The first section of this policy paper provides an overview of the historical development of early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs), the legal status of ERIPs under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), cost/benefit analyses involving ERIPs, and consideration of ERIPs in Indiana. The second section contains a brief synopsis of…

  11. Policy Patrons: Philanthropy, Education Reform, and the Politics of Influence. Educational Innovations Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins-Stange, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    "Policy Patrons" offers a rare behind-the-scenes view of decision making inside four influential education philanthropies: the Ford Foundation, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation. The outcome is an intriguing, thought-provoking look at the impact of current…

  12. Affirmative Action in Antidiscrimination Law and Policy: An Overview and Synthesis. SUNY Series in American Constitutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Samuel; Leiter, William M.

    This book focuses on the legal and ideological controversy over the application of affirmative action policy to combat discrimination based on race, national origin/ethnicity, and gender. After the introduction, seven chapters discuss (2) "The Roots of Affirmative Action, the Women's Movement, and the Groups Covered by Affirmative…

  13. Nutritional Problems and Policy in Tanzania. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 7 (1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaza, Olyvia

    This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…

  14. U.S. Foreign Policy and the UN System. Special Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    John "Vienna and Beyond: U.S. Human Rights Diplomacy in the Post Cold War World," DISAM Journal 16.2 (Winter 1993-94): 79-84. Sikkink , Kathryn ...Downgraded." Foreign Policy Bulleti 4.4 & 5 (Jan.-Apr. 1994): 43-58. Sikkink , Kathryn "Human Rights, Principled Issue-Networks, and Sovereignty in Latin

  15. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S

    2007-12-15

    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society.

  16. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S.

    2007-12-01

    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society

  17. A Study of Philippine Monetary and Banking Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Ernesto D.

    1992-01-01

    This study assesses the Philippine monetary and banking policies with the view of identifying preferred policy options and features of a monetary and banking policy program supportive of overall economic growth and agro-industrial development. It describes the following: the impact of existing monetary and banking policy on short- and long-term economic development and the legislative and administrative measures required to adopt and implement such a monetary and banking policy. It also ident...

  18. Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies. Journal Home > Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: About this ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: About this journal. Journal Home > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Partner Country Series: Understanding Energy Challenges in India - Policies, Players and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    A combination of rapidly increasing energy demand and fuel imports plus growing concern about economic and environmental consequences is generating growing calls for effective and thorough energy governance in India. Numerous policy reforms over the past 20 years have shifted the country’s energy sector from a state-dominated system towards one that is based on market principles. However, with the reform process left unfinished, India now finds itself trapped halfway along the transition to an open and well-performing energy sector. India suffered from the largest power outage ever in late July 2012, affecting nearly half of the population. While this incident highlights the importance of modern and smart energy systems, it indicates that the country is increasingly unable to deliver a secure supply of energy to its population, a quarter of which still lacks access to electricity. Understanding Energy Challenges in India aims to provide an informative and holistic understanding of India’s energy sector to stakeholders in India as well as the broad public. The publication explores in detail the policies, players and issues of the country’s power, coal, oil and gas, renewables and nuclear sectors. It also highlights the key challenges India faces, challenges that must be resolved for the evolution of the fast-growing country’s energy sector towards a sustainable energy future and eventually critical for the prospects of the Indian and global economies.

  3. A study on the nuclear foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze and foresee the international trends related to nuclear activities, especially nuclear non-proliferation activities among others, and to suggest desirable policy direction so as to mitigate hurdles that may hinder the expansion of utilization and development of nuclear energy in Korea. This study approaches the trends of international nuclear arena in five aspects as follows. First, this study analyzes the trends of the global multilateral nuclear non-proliferation regime in Chapter II, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international export control regime, the CTBT, and the treaties on nuclear weapon-free zone. Second, this study analyzes the trends of various international nuclear organizations in Chapter III, which include IAEA, OECD/NEA, and CTBTO. Third, this study reviews and analyzes regional situations in the northeast Asia surrounding Korea in Chapter IV, inter alia, pending concerns over the North Korean nuclear activities and proposed Northeast Asian nuclear cooperatively bodies such as ASIATOM, etc. Fourth, in Chapter V, this study analyzes issues concerning bilateral nuclear relationship. Especially this study analyzes nuclear cooperating agreements in general, and suggests a model agreement for the government to use when negotiating nuclear cooperation agreements with other countries. Furthermore, this study analyzes the trends of bilateral cooperation with the U.S., Canada, and Australia focusing on the standing bilateral nuclear committees. Fifth, Chapter VI especially deals with the framework of the U. S.'s nuclear non-proliferation policy, focusing on the issues such as the disposition of weapons-usable excess plutonium and the nuclear cooperation with China. (author). 44 refs., 15 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Generalized fourier series for the study of limit cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Margallo, J.; Bejarano, J. Diaz; Yuste, S. Bravo

    1988-08-01

    The approximate solution, to first order, of non-linear differential equations is studied using the method of harmonic balance with generalized Fourier series and Jacobian elliptic functions. As an interesting use of the series, very good analytic approximations to the limit cycles of Liénard's ordinary differential equation (ODE), Ẍ + g(X) = f(X) Ẋ, are presented. Specifically, it is shown that, contrary to an opinion given in a well-known textbook on non-linear oscillations, g( X) not only modifies the period but influences the topology. In the generalized van der Pol equation with f( X) = ɛ(1- X2) and g( X) = AX + 2 BX3 for ɛ < 0·1, the presence of zero, one, or three limit cycles is found to depend on the value of {A}/{B}.

  5. Travel, Sabbatical, and Study Leave Policies in College Libraries. CLIP Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Carolyn, Comp.; Morrill, Allen S., Comp.

    The "College Library Information Packet (CLIP) Note" series is known for providing college and university libraries with reviews and current documentation on library practices and procedures of relevance to them. This "CLIP Note" provides information and sample policies on travel, sabbaticals, and study leaves of absence in small academic…

  6. Earthquake forecasting studies using radon time series data in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Arvind; Fu, Ching-Chou; Lin, Shih-Jung; Chou, Kuang-Wu; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Cheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    For few decades, growing number of studies have shown usefulness of data in the field of seismogeochemistry interpreted as geochemical precursory signals for impending earthquakes and radon is idendified to be as one of the most reliable geochemical precursor. Radon is recognized as short-term precursor and is being monitored in many countries. This study is aimed at developing an effective earthquake forecasting system by inspecting long term radon time series data. The data is obtained from a network of radon monitoring stations eastblished along different faults of Taiwan. The continuous time series radon data for earthquake studies have been recorded and some significant variations associated with strong earthquakes have been observed. The data is also examined to evaluate earthquake precursory signals against environmental factors. An automated real-time database operating system has been developed recently to improve the data processing for earthquake precursory studies. In addition, the study is aimed at the appraisal and filtrations of these environmental parameters, in order to create a real-time database that helps our earthquake precursory study. In recent years, automatic operating real-time database has been developed using R, an open source programming language, to carry out statistical computation on the data. To integrate our data with our working procedure, we use the popular and famous open source web application solution, AMP (Apache, MySQL, and PHP), creating a website that could effectively show and help us manage the real-time database.

  7. A study on nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Kim, H. S.

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out as a part of institutional activities of KAERI. Major research area are as follows; Future directions and effects for national nuclear R and D to be resulted from restructuring of electricity industry are studied. Comparative study was carried out between nuclear energy and other energy sources from the point of views of environmental effects by introducing life cycle assessment(LCA) method. Japanese trends of reestablishment of nuclear policy such as restructuring of nuclear administration system and long-term plan of development and use of nuclear energy are also investigated, and Russian nuclear development program and Germany trends for phase-out of nuclear electricity generation are also investigated. And trends of the demand and supply of energy in eastern asian countries in from the point of view of energy security and tension in the south china sea are analyzed and investigation of policy trends of Vietnam and Egypt for the development and use of nuclear energy for the promotion of nuclear cooperation with these countries are also carried out. Due to the lack of energy resources and high dependence of imported energy, higher priority should be placed on the use of localized energy supply technology such as nuclear power. In this connection, technological development should be strengthened positively in order to improve economy and safety of nuclear energy and proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle and wide ranged use of radiation and radioisotopes and should be reflected in re-establishment of national comprehensive promotion plan of nuclear energy in progress

  8. THE ROMANIAN ASPECT OF THE E.U. GOVERNANCE CASE STUDIES: EDUCATUION POLICY AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-ANDREEA ION

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper belongs to the domestic studies which try to connect the Romanian research to the current debates within the EU studies. The authors' aim is to analyze the aspects and the implications of the EU governance at the Member States' domestic policies level, as most of these policies are currently facing the challenges brought by the Europeanization process. Therefore, the theoretical framework selected is the theory of governance, focusing on the explanatory and analytical opportunities of two components – multi-level governance and governance networks; in this way, it is underlined the separation from the classic model of relation between the (multiplied levels of political authority (supranational, national, subnational and the exponential increase in the number and types of actors participating at the decisional process and implementation of European public policy. Within the selected case studies (environmental policy and education policy, the authors advance a research structure with the aims (a to identify the relevant actors involved in the policy-making process of these policies, at all stages of its cycle; (b to offer an explanation of the types of interactions between these actors, and (c to identify the influence these interactions exert on the communitarization pronounced tendency of some EU policy sectors. The analysis is performed in terms of the Treaty of Lisbon (the selected policies being part of distinct categories of the Union competences and it is oriented towards the national level of the making process of these policies.

  9. Tumors of the Major Salivary Glands. A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordany Boza Mejías

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of salivary gland neoplasms is one of the most complex issues of cancer of the head and neck. Objective: to determine the behavior of tumors of the major salivary glands. Method: an observational-descriptive-retrospective case series in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía of Cienfuegos, in the period from January 2000 through December 2009. Results: tumors of the major salivary glands occurred in the study population with a similarity between the sexes, with a slight predominance in males. The parotid gland was the most affected (93,55 %, pleomorphic adenoma was the most represented the benign tumor (58,06 %, while within the most frequent malignant adenocarcinoma (3,23 %. The most common surgical technique was subtotal parotidectomy. The (85,5 % of clinical diagnoses corresponded with histopathological and the type of tumor is found that of the 51 benign lesions (82,26 % are the largest percentage of agreement presented. In the present series were 61 patients (98,39 % alive without disease, only 1 patient (1,61 % had recurrence of their disease. We found no patient died during the study period. Conclusions: salivary gland tumors in the parotid gland predominate and are the most common benign tumors usually occur in adults.

  10. A study on nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. Acknowledging the importance of the relationship between the external environment and the national nuclear R and D strategic planning, this study focused on the two major subjects: (1) the international environmental and technological change attached to the development of nuclear power; (2) the direction and strategy of nuclear R and D to improve effectiveness through national R and D programs as role of electricity in the future society, strategic environment of nuclear use and R and D in the future society, energy environment and nuclear technology development scenario in the future, strategic study on future vision of KAERI and technological road-mapping of national nuclear R and D for enhancing competitiveness

  11. A Descriptive Study of Music Teacher Educators' Beliefs about Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Carla E.; Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2016-01-01

    While policies at all levels affect music educators, and music education researchers have called for increased attention to policy issues, few have explored preservice music teacher educators' beliefs about policy. This study examined music teacher educators' (N = 81) familiarity with and attitudes toward contemporary education and music education…

  12. The Politics of Educational Policy Studies: A Preliminary Analysis of Leading Educational Policy Journal Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the content, analytical approaches and institutional affiliations of authors of articles published in the latest issues of two leading educational policy studies journals provide useful insights into the contested nature of educational policy studies. The paper draws upon a selection of articles published in 2007/08 issues…

  13. Postpartum coccydynia: a case series study of 57 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maigne, J-Y; Rusakiewicz, F; Diouf, M

    2012-09-01

    Although childbirth is a well-known cause of coccydynia, this condition has not been studied previously. To explore the characteristics of postpartum coccydynia and identify risk factors. A case series study. A specialist coccydynia clinic in a department of physical medicine in a university hospital. A series of 57 women suffering from postpartum coccydynia was analyzed and compared with a control group of 192 women suffering from coccydynia due to other causes. Dynamic radiography enabled a comparison of the coccygeal mobility in the two groups. 7.3% of the cases of coccydynia in female patients seen in our clinic were related to childbirth. The pain appeared as soon as the patient adopted the sitting position after delivery. The deliveries had often been performed with instruments (forceps deliveries: 50.8%; vacuum-assisted deliveries: 7.0%) or were spontaneous but described as "difficult" (12.3%). Luxation of the coccyx was observed in 43.9% of the cases and 17.0% of the controls. Fracture of the coccyx was involved in 5.3% of the cases. A body mass index >27 and ≥2 vaginal deliveries were associated with a higher prevalence of luxation of the coccyx. Postpartum coccydynia is often associated with a difficult delivery, with the use of forceps in 50.8% of cases. Luxation and fracture of the coccyx are the two most characteristic lesions. Our results bring a better knowledge and should allow a better management of this specific etiology of coccydynia.

  14. Evaluating the impact of abrupt changes in forest policy and management practices on landscape dynamics: analysis of a Landsat image time series in the Atlantic Northern Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaard, Kasey R; Sader, Steven A; Simons-Legaard, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable forest management is based on functional relationships between management actions, landscape conditions, and forest values. Changes in management practices make it fundamentally more difficult to study these relationships because the impacts of current practices are difficult to disentangle from the persistent influences of past practices. Within the Atlantic Northern Forest of Maine, U.S.A., forest policy and management practices changed abruptly in the early 1990s. During the 1970s-1980s, a severe insect outbreak stimulated salvage clearcutting of large contiguous tracts of spruce-fir forest. Following clearcut regulation in 1991, management practices shifted abruptly to near complete dependence on partial harvesting. Using a time series of Landsat satellite imagery (1973-2010) we assessed cumulative landscape change caused by these very different management regimes. We modeled predominant temporal patterns of harvesting and segmented a large study area into groups of landscape units with similar harvest histories. Time series of landscape composition and configuration metrics averaged within groups revealed differences in landscape dynamics caused by differences in management history. In some groups (24% of landscape units), salvage caused rapid loss and subdivision of intact mature forest. Persistent landscape change was created by large salvage clearcuts (often averaging > 100 ha) and conversion of spruce-fir to deciduous and mixed forest. In groups that were little affected by salvage (56% of landscape units), contemporary partial harvesting caused loss and subdivision of intact mature forest at even greater rates. Patch shape complexity and edge density reached high levels even where cumulative harvest area was relatively low. Contemporary practices introduced more numerous and much smaller patches of stand-replacing disturbance (typically averaging Management regimes impacted different areas to different degrees, producing different trajectories

  15. Policy Implementation beyond the Management of Change: A Case Study in Managing the Policy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, John; Evans, Jennifer

    Using the 1981 Education Act of England and Wales as a case study, this paper develops a conceptual framework of education legislation as a significant reference point in the process of negotiation and bargaining that initiates legislation and continues throughout the period of policy implementation. A model of the policy process and the…

  16. Environmental Pricing: Studies in Policy Choices and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Environmental taxes can be efficient tools for successful environmental policy. Their use, however, has been limited in many countries. This thoughtful book explores the scope of environmental pricing and examines a variety of national experiences in environmental policy integration, to identify...... the most effective use of taxation and policy for environmental sustainability. Environmental taxes are seldom implemented in isolation and are applied in combination with other regulatory instruments. At issue is the critical lack of knowledge on how different policy instruments and taxes interact...... areas of current practice that must be addressed. Empirical studies of policy strategies are discussed to illustrate the extent to which current climate change policy is integrated against the proposed successful policy combinations that are presented in this insightful book. Environmental pricing...

  17. The Costs of Online Learning. Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning: A Working Paper Series from the Thomas B. Fordham Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglino, Tamara Butler; Haldeman, Matt; Laurans, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The latest installment of the Fordham Institute's "Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning" series investigates one of the more controversial aspects of digital learning: How much does it cost? In this paper, the Parthenon Group uses interviews with more than fifty vendors and online-schooling experts to estimate today's average…

  18. Social implications of the Human Genome Project: Policy roundtable series and journals. Final progress report, March 15, 2001 - March 15, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiguer, Erica

    2002-12-30

    This report reflects the activities of the Harvard Health Caucus at Harvard Medical School that were supported, in part, by the Department of Energy. The following policy roundtables and panels were held: Spring 2001 Policy Roundtable Series: The social implications of the Human Genome Project; Spring 2002 Policy Roundtable Series: Managing globalization to improve health; 13 February 2002 Keynote Address: The globalization of health; 25 February 2002 Healthier or Wealthier: Which comes first in the new global era?; 28 February 2002 The crisis of neglected diseases: Creating R&D incentives for diseases of developing countries; 7 March 2002 Health care education in the developing world: Bridging global and local health care practices; 20 March 2002 Building a legal framework for global health: How can the US and UN work to reduce global disparities?; 25 April 2002 The role of mass media and tobacco control efforts. Caucus organizational information is also included.

  19. Monitoring Quarry Area with Landsat Long Time-Series for Socioeconomic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoteng Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quarry sites result from human activity, which includes the removal of original vegetation and the overlying soil to dig out stones for building use. Therefore, the dynamics of the quarry area provide a unique view of human mining activities. Actually, the topographic changes caused by mining activities are also a result of the development of the local economy. Thus, monitoring the quarry area can provide information about the policies of the economy and environmental protection. In this paper, we developed a combined method of machine learning classification and quarry region analysis to estimate the quarry area in a quarry region near Beijing. A temporal smoothing based on the classification results of all years was applied in post-processing to remove outliers and obtain gently changing sequences along the monitoring term. The method was applied to Landsat images to derive a quarry distribution map and quarry area time series from 1984 to 2017, revealing significant inter-annual variability. The time series revealed a five-stage development of the quarry area with different growth patterns. As the study region lies on two jurisdictions—Tianjin and Hebei—a comparison of the quarry area changes in the two jurisdictions was applied, which revealed that the different policies in the two regions could impose different impacts on the development of a quarry area. An analysis concerning the relationship between quarry area and gross regional product (GRP was performed to explore the potential application on socioeconomic studies, and we found a strong positive correlation between quarry area and GRP in Langfang City, Hebei Province. These results demonstrate the potential benefit of annual monitoring over the long-term for socioeconomic studies, which can be used for mining decision making.

  20. NASBE Study Group Surveys State Leadership Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bobbi; Hull, Robert

    2015-01-01

    State board members, working in partnership with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted an in-depth study of states' school leadership development policies and practices. Data from this study are being analyzed to determine ways that states can create systems and structures for…

  1. Drug and Alcohol Studies (Volume 4: Policy approaches)

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, S; Thom, B

    2014-01-01

    VOLUME FOUR: POLICY APPROACHES Preface Robert MacCoun and Peter Reuter The Varieties of Drug Control at the Dawn of the 21st Century Comparative Analysis of Alcohol Control Policies in 30 Countries Donald Brand et al A Comparative Study of 38 European Countries Limited Rationality and the Limits of Supply Reduction Jonathan Caulkins and Robert MacCoun The Limited Relevance of Drug Policy Craig Reinerman, Peter Cohen and Hendrien Kaal Cannabis in Amsterdam and San Francisco AIDS and Injecting ...

  2. Spherical hohlraum energetics studies on the SG series laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wenyi; Li, Zhichao; Xie, Xufei; Chen, Yaohua; Ren, Guoli; Liu, Jie; Lan, Ke

    2017-10-01

    The integrated experiments at the National Ignition Facility indicates that the radiation asymmetry control in the cylindrical hohlraums is an extremely challenging problem in achieving ignition by using indirect drive. Recently, Lan et al. proposed the octahedral spherical hohlraum which has the natural superiority in providing high radiation symmetry. As new and promising hohlraums, the performance of spherical hohlraum attracts much research interests. Hohlraum energetics is one of the fundamental problems in indirect drive inertial confinement study. We report on the spherical hohlraum experiments performed at the SG series laser facility. At the SGIII-prototype laser facility, we performed the first spherical energetics experiment. The radiation temperature is measured by using an array of flat-response x-ray detectors through a laser entrance hole at different angles. The radiation temperature and M-ban fraction inside the hohlraum are determined by the shock wave technique. At the SGIII laser facility, we performed the first octahedral spherical hohlraum energetics experiment. The 32 of 48 laser beams enter the hohlraum through six laser entrance holes. The radiation flux is measured by 5 FXRDs at different angles. And the radiation temperature inside the hohlraum is determined by the shock wave technique. The repetition of the experimental results is excellent.

  3. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  4. Decoupling among CSR policies, programs, and impacts : An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few empirical studies on the impacts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and programs. This article addresses the research gap by analyzing the incidence of, and the conditions that affect, decoupling (defined as divergence) among CSR policies, implementation of

  5. State policy and teen childbearing: a review of research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Martha A; Sacks, Vanessa H; Moore, Kristin A; Terzian, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Teen childbearing is affected by many individual, family, and community factors; however, another potential influence is state policy. Rigorous studies of the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates are few in number but represent a body of knowledge that can inform policy and practice. This article reviews research assessing associations between state-level policies and teen birth rates, focusing on five policy areas: access to family planning, education, sex education, public assistance, and access to abortion services. Overall, several studies have found that measures related to access to and use of family planning services and contraceptives are related to lower state-level teen birth rates. These include adolescent enrollment in clinics, minors' access to contraception, conscience laws, family planning expenditures, and Medicaid waivers. Other studies, although largely cross-sectional analyses, have concluded that policies and practices to expand or improve public education are also associated with lower teen birth rates. These include expenditures on education, teacher-to-student ratios, and graduation requirements. However, the evidence regarding the role of public assistance, abortion access, and sex education policies in reducing teen birth rates is mixed and inconclusive. These conclusions must be viewed as tentative because of the limited number of rigorous studies that examine the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates over time. Many specific policies have only been analyzed by a single study, and few findings are based on recent data. As such, more research is needed to strengthen our understanding of the role of state policies in teen birth rates. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Authors@UF Campus Conversation Series: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The Authors@UF program series emerged to showcase the scholarship and creativity of faculty, creating an intellectual forum within the academic library, and providing informal, extra-curriculum, academic engagement between students and faculty outside the classroom. This article identifies steps to launch an author program, and considerations in…

  7. Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

  8. Seasonal time series forecasting: a comparative study of arima and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the concerns of Faraway and Chatfield (1998) who questioned the forecasting ability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). In particular the paper compares the performance of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and ARIMA models in forecasting of seasonal (monthly) Time series. Using the Airline data ...

  9. Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change: C - Case Study of India. Asian Population Studies Series No. 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    This report, the third in a series of five reports of the Comparative Study of Population Growth and Agricultural Change, describes a study of the two states of India (Punjaband and Orissa) which attempted to clarify the relationship between population pressure and agricultural change through a time series analysis. This study: (1) outlines trends…

  10. COMPETITIVENESS ASSESSMENT OF THE REWARD POLICY: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarchuk M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Competitive wage policy is considered as the main tool for solving the problem of attracting, retaining and promoting qualified personnel, which is relevant for domestic organizations. The article defines the main stages and purposes of evaluation of the competitiveness of the wage policy. The authors studied the use of an estimation of the wage policy competitiveness by the Russian organizations and identified practical need for and methods of assessing the competitiveness of the wage policy. Objective and subjective factors influencing the direction of the wage policy are identified, as well as the trends in wages under the influence of the crisis conditions. The main indicators of mobility and personnel turnover, the average wage in the Irkutsk region are considered. The description of the external conditions of functioning of the organizations in the Irkutsk region is presented.

  11. Ethics policy review: a case study in quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolic, Andrea Nadine; Drolet, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    Policy work is often cited as one of the primary functions of Hospital Ethics Committees (HECs), along with consultation and education. Hospital policies can have far reaching effects on a wide array of stakeholders including, care providers, patients, families, the culture of the organisation and the community at large. In comparison with the wealth of information available about the emerging practice of ethics consultation, relatively little attention has been paid to the policy work of HECs. In this paper, we hope to advance the development of best practices in HEC policy work by describing the quality improvement process that we undertook at Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In the first section of the paper we describe the context of our HEC policy work, and the shortcomings of our historical review process. In subsequent sections, we detail the quality improvement project we undertook in 2010, the results of the project and the specific tools we developed to enhance the quality of HEC policy work. Our goal in sharing this organisational case study is to prompt other HECs to publish qualitative descriptions of their policy work, in order to generate a body of knowledge that can inform the development of best practices for ethics policy review.

  12. Nutrition policy in whose interests? A New Zealand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Gabrielle; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2012-08-01

    In the context of the global obesity epidemic, national nutrition policies have come under scrutiny. The present paper examines whose interests - industry or public health - are served by these policies and why. Using an exemplary case study of submissions to an inquiry into obesity, the research compared the positions of industry and public health groups with that taken by government. We assessed whether the interests were given equal consideration (a pluralist model of influence) or whether the interests of one group were favoured over the other (a neo-pluralist model). 2006 New Zealand Inquiry into Obesity. Food and advertising industry and public health submitters. The Government's position was largely aligned with industry interests in three of four policy domains: the national obesity strategy; food industry policy; and advertising and marketing policies. The exception to this was nutrition policy in schools, where the Government's position was aligned with public health interests. These findings support the neo-pluralist model of interest group influence. The dominance of the food industry in national nutrition policy needs to be addressed. It is in the interests of the public, industry and the state that government regulates the food and advertising industries and limits the involvement of industry in policy making. Failure to do so will be costly for individuals, in terms of poor health and earlier death, costly to governments in terms of the associated health costs, and costly to both the government and industry due to losses in human productivity.

  13. Area Handbook Series: Saudi Arabia. A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    balancing the demands of modernists and traditionalists domesti- cally and in pursuing a policy of moderation internationally. Some observers wondered...Chinese, or haute cuisine ; and amusement centers with separate hours for male and female patrons dotted the urban landscape. Suburban neighborhoods with...little result. Some potential for social instability arose from the modernists ’ belief that the ruling family remained too deferential to traditional

  14. Russia Foreign Policy In Latin America - Case Study Of Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    RUSSIA FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA — CASE STUDY OF NICARAGUA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Russia Foreign Policy In Latin America — Case Study Of Nicaragua 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...open arctic channel in the North and in reviving diplomatic contacts and military exercises in Latin America. In Central America specifically, Russia

  15. Current Practice in Research Ethics: Global Trends and New Opportunities for African Universities. Research and Innovation Policy Series. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Liam

    2007-01-01

    Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…

  16. Cogeneration using small sized series connected units: Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondelli, F.; Bergamini, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper evidences the technical/economic feasibility of the use of methane fuelled modular cogeneration systems based on small series connected Otto or Diesel cycle engines delivering from 20 to 90 kW of power. Ample reference is made to the successful application of modular cogeneration systems to supply low temperature thermal energy to hospitals, hotels, food processing firms, etc., in Italy. The cost benefit analysis covers many aspects: design, manufacturing, operation, performance, maintenance and safety. Suggestions are also made as to optimum contractual arrangements for equipment service and maintenance, as well as, for the exchange of power with local utilities

  17. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  18. Studies in Astronomical Time Series Analysis. VI. Bayesian Block Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Norris, Jay P.; Jackson, Brad; Chiang, James

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and characterizing local variability in time series and other forms of sequential data. The goal is to identify and characterize statistically significant variations, at the same time suppressing the inevitable corrupting observational errors. We present a simple nonparametric modeling technique and an algorithm implementing it-an improved and generalized version of Bayesian Blocks [Scargle 1998]-that finds the optimal segmentation of the data in the observation interval. The structure of the algorithm allows it to be used in either a real-time trigger mode, or a retrospective mode. Maximum likelihood or marginal posterior functions to measure model fitness are presented for events, binned counts, and measurements at arbitrary times with known error distributions. Problems addressed include those connected with data gaps, variable exposure, extension to piece- wise linear and piecewise exponential representations, multivariate time series data, analysis of variance, data on the circle, other data modes, and dispersed data. Simulations provide evidence that the detection efficiency for weak signals is close to a theoretical asymptotic limit derived by [Arias-Castro, Donoho and Huo 2003]. In the spirit of Reproducible Research [Donoho et al. (2008)] all of the code and data necessary to reproduce all of the figures in this paper are included as auxiliary material.

  19. Studies in Astronomical Time Series Analysis. VI. Bayesian Block Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Norris, Jay P.; Jackson, Brad; Chiang, James

    2013-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and characterizing local variability in time series and other forms of sequential data. The goal is to identify and characterize statistically significant variations, at the same time suppressing the inevitable corrupting observational errors. We present a simple nonparametric modeling technique and an algorithm implementing it—an improved and generalized version of Bayesian Blocks—that finds the optimal segmentation of the data in the observation interval. The structure of the algorithm allows it to be used in either a real-time trigger mode, or a retrospective mode. Maximum likelihood or marginal posterior functions to measure model fitness are presented for events, binned counts, and measurements at arbitrary times with known error distributions. Problems addressed include those connected with data gaps, variable exposure, extension to piecewise linear and piecewise exponential representations, multivariate time series data, analysis of variance, data on the circle, other data modes, and dispersed data. Simulations provide evidence that the detection efficiency for weak signals is close to a theoretical asymptotic limit derived by Arias-Castro et al. In the spirit of Reproducible Research all of the code and data necessary to reproduce all of the figures in this paper are included as supplementary material.

  20. Determinants of pharmaceutical expenditures of urban households: A time series study in Kermanshah province (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Behzad Karami; Azami, Saeed Reza; Mahmoudi, Saeid; Rezaei, Satar; Shaahmadi, Faramarz; Karyani, Ali Kazemi

    2015-11-01

    In recent decades, the development of medical and pharmaceutical science has led to a heavy financial burden on the government, insurance companies, and the general population. Due to the increasing the cost of pharmaceutical products in the Kermanshah Province, policy makers have tried to identify the factors that resulted in the increases. The aim of this study was to determine the main factors that affect the expenditures for pharmaceutical products by urban households in Kermanshah Province, Iran. This analytical-descriptive study was conducted using time series method. The study population was urban households of Kermanshah Province from 1991 to 2013. The explanatory variables of the log-log model were drug price index (LnDPI), the average income of urban households (LnINC), the number of physicians per 1,000 people (LnPH), and the number of hospital beds per 1,000 people (LnBE).The required data were acquired from the Statistical Center of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The unit root was evaluated by the Dickey-Fuller test. Stata v.11 software was used for the statistical analysis. Coefficients of LnDPI and LnPH were 0.97 and 0.77, respectively, and they were statistically significant (p 0.05). The results showed that drugs are non-elastic and essential for households. It should be noted that the health policy makers in Iran should conduct appropriate planning to ensure both the physical and financial accessibility to drugs by urban households. The development of basic and supplementary health insurance coverage, especially for poor populations and urban areas where there are patients with chronic diseases, can be a suitable solution to reduce barriers to acquiring the required drugs.

  1. A study of weeding policies in eleven TALON resource libraries.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, C H

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of the weeding policies and practices of eleven TALON resource libraries. The results indicated that although weeding, or collection evaluation as it is also known, was performed by most of the libraries, few had a written policy. The reasons for weeding and the types of weeding done by the libraries are described. A discussion of the prevalent means of disposition of withdrawn materials and of the obstacles to cooperative weeding is included.

  2. A study of weeding policies in eleven TALON resource libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, C H

    1981-07-01

    A study was made of the weeding policies and practices of eleven TALON resource libraries. The results indicated that although weeding, or collection evaluation as it is also known, was performed by most of the libraries, few had a written policy. The reasons for weeding and the types of weeding done by the libraries are described. A discussion of the prevalent means of disposition of withdrawn materials and of the obstacles to cooperative weeding is included.

  3. A study of weeding policies in eleven TALON resource libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, C H

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of the weeding policies and practices of eleven TALON resource libraries. The results indicated that although weeding, or collection evaluation as it is also known, was performed by most of the libraries, few had a written policy. The reasons for weeding and the types of weeding done by the libraries are described. A discussion of the prevalent means of disposition of withdrawn materials and of the obstacles to cooperative weeding is included. PMID:7248594

  4. Case study of Chinese policies on female employees’ work life balance and the effectiveness on companies

    OpenAIRE

    LIN, WEI

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to learn the relevant Chinese policies on women’s work-life balance and their effectiveness on companies. The study is based on the research method of case study. Secondary data are main resources in the findings. Demographic conditions from National Bureau of China indicate a continuous increase in women’s employment with a higher level of women’s education. Due to the increased rate of women participate in workplaces, Chinese government issues a series of laws a...

  5. A study on the application of prone compression study for obese patients in upper gastrointestinal series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Soon Yong; Jung, Hong Ryang

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the application of prone compression study using compression paddle for obese patients in upper gastrointestinal series. Prone compression study using compression paddle was performed in fifty patients, who were not examined completely erect compression study for obesity. The radiographs of stomach were classified into the lower, middle, and high body, and then we gave five points included 'very poor', 'poor', 'suspicious', 'good', and 'complete' according to level of detection for area gastric and mucosal fold. Statistic analysis was performed using T-test and ANOVA, and confidence rate was fixed in 95%(P 0.05). As these results, the prone compression study in upper gastrointestinal series seem to be an useful study for obese patients, because it decreases pain and the feeling of uneasiness, and improve compression efficiency remarkably

  6. Experimental Study of Open Water Non-Series Marine Propeller Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Elghorab; A. Abou El-Azm Aly; A. S. Elwetedy; M. A. Kotb

    2013-01-01

    Later marine propeller is the main component of ship propulsion system. For a non-series propeller, it is difficult to indicate the open water marine propeller performance without an experimental study to measure the marine propeller parameters. In the present study, the open water performance of a non-series marine propeller has been carried out experimentally. The geometrical aspects of a commercial non-series marine propeller have been measured for a propeller blade ar...

  7. Ghana Journal of Development Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GJDS is a journal of the Faculty of Integrated Development Studies of University for Development Studies, Ghana. The GJDS is peer-reviewed by Ghanaian scholars of varied disciplinary orientations. Mission To provide on a regular and sustainable basis, an excellent scholarly journal for reporting empirical research ...

  8. International Journal of Humanistic Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Humanistic Studies is an annual peer-reviewed Journal. It focuses on every aspect of Humanistic Studies and has a strong interdisciplinary thrust. Contributions are accepted from the fields of Philosophy, English Language, Literature, History, Theatre Arts, Music, Communication Arts, Anthropology, ...

  9. Let's dance: Organization studies, medical sociology and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Graeme; Dingwall, Robert; Kitchener, Martin; Waring, Justin

    2012-02-01

    This Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine investigates the potential for positive inter-disciplinary interaction, a 'generative dance', between organization studies (OS), and two of the journal's traditional disciplinary foundations: health policy and medical sociology. This is both necessary and timely because of the extent to which organizations have become a neglected topic within medical sociology and health policy analysis. We argue there is need for further and more sustained theoretical and conceptual synergy between OS, medical sociology and health policy, which provides, on the one-hand a cutting-edge and thought-provoking basis for the analysis of contemporary health reforms, and on the other hand, enables the development and elaboration of theory. We emphasize that sociologists and policy analysts in healthcare have been leading contributors to our understanding of organizations in modern society, that OS enhances our understanding of medical settings, and that organizations remain one of the most influential actors of our time. As a starting point to discussion, we outline the genealogy of OS and its application to healthcare settings. We then consider how medical sociology and health policy converge or diverge with the concerns of OS in the study of healthcare settings. Following this, we focus upon the material environment, specifically the position of business schools, which frames the generative dance between OS, medical sociology and health policy. This sets the context for introducing the thirteen articles that constitute the Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-06-01

    To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia's five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011.

  11. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and panels. This volume contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.). Individual papers in this volume were abstracted and indexed for the database

  12. Policy Research Environment and Policy Research Organizations in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to better understand the nature of policy research organizations in South Asia. It will do so through a series of studies, analyses and roundtables with leading researchers, and a survey of policy research institutions. The idea is to generate an understanding of the policy research environment with a view to ...

  13. Climate policy studies by the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, ECON and Energy Data:10 Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, S.; Eikeland, P.O.; Eleri, E.O.; Fermann, G.; Fredriksen, O.; Halseth, A.; Hansen, S.; Haugland, T.; Malnes, R.; Skjaerseth, J.B.; Ottosen, R.

    1993-01-01

    The overall focus is the relation between energy, environment and development on the national level and international co-operation concerning sustainable energy management and global environmental change. A series of country studies analyses the economic, political and institutional factors influencing energy, environment and climate policies. The role of non-state actors like NGOs and the energy industries in international environmental affairs is also closely examined. Strategies to enhance energy efficiency are studied with a particular focus on identifying and overcoming barriers to policy implementation. The ways in which developments in international energy markets affect the potential and scope of international environmental agreements are analysed, as are the impacts of different international environmental regimes on energy markets. Particular attention is paid on the opportunities and limitations of international institutions like the European Community, the United Nations, the multilateral development banks and GATT, in promoting international co-operation on energy and environmental issues. Strategies to overcome North/South conflicts over global environmental issues are examined, including issue linkages in international negotiations and North/South transfer of resources and technology. Another important area of sustainable production and consumption of energy in developing countries. Project titles are: 1) ''Leader'' and ''entrepreneur'' in international negotiations . A conceptual analysis. 2) Choosing climate policy. Decision theoretical premises. 3) Japan in the greenhouse responsibilities, policies and prospects for combating global warming. 4) Impacts on developing economies from changing trade regimes and growing international environmental concerns. 5) US energy policy in the greenhouse from the North slope forests to the Gulf Stream waters - this land was made for fossil fuels. 6) The climate policy of the EC - too hot to handle. 7) US climate

  14. Climate policy studies by the Fridtjof Nansen Institute, ECON and Energy Data:10 Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, S.; Eikeland, P.O.; Eleri, E.O.; Fermann, G.; Fredriksen, O.; Halseth, A.; Hansen, S.; Haugland, T.; Malnes, R.; Skjaerseth, J.B.; Ottosen, R

    1993-07-01

    The overall focus is the relation between energy, environment and development on the national level and international co-operation concerning sustainable energy management and global environmental change. A series of country studies analyses the economic, political and institutional factors influencing energy, environment and climate policies. The role of non-state actors like NGOs and the energy industries in international environmental affairs is also closely examined. Strategies to enhance energy efficiency are studied with a particular focus on identifying and overcoming barriers to policy implementation. The ways in which developments in international energy markets affect the potential and scope of international environmental agreements are analysed, as are the impacts of different international environmental regimes on energy markets. Particular attention is paid on the opportunities and limitations of international institutions like the European Community, the United Nations, the multilateral development banks and GATT, in promoting international co-operation on energy and environmental issues. Strategies to overcome North/South conflicts over global environmental issues are examined, including issue linkages in international negotiations and North/South transfer of resources and technology. Another important area of sustainable production and consumption of energy in developing countries. Project titles are: 1) ''Leader'' and ''entrepreneur'' in international negotiations . A conceptual analysis. 2) Choosing climate policy. Decision theoretical premises. 3) Japan in the greenhouse responsibilities, policies and prospects for combating global warming. 4) Impacts on developing economies from changing trade regimes and growing international environmental concerns. 5) US energy policy in the greenhouse from the North slope forests to the Gulf Stream waters - this land was made for fossil fuels. 6) The climate policy of

  15. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 1: introduction: two historical lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Røttingen, John-Arne; Rockers, Peter; Shemilt, Ian; Tugwell, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to contrast the historical development of experiments and quasi-experiments and provide the motivation for a journal series on quasi-experimental designs in health research. A short historical narrative, with concrete examples, and arguments based on an understanding of the practice of health research and evidence synthesis. Health research has played a key role in developing today's gold standard for causal inference-the randomized controlled multiply blinded trial. Historically, allocation approaches developed from convenience and purposive allocation to alternate and, finally, to random allocation. This development was motivated both by concerns for manipulation in allocation as well as statistical and theoretical developments demonstrating the power of randomization in creating counterfactuals for causal inference. In contrast to the sequential development of experiments, quasi-experiments originated at very different points in time, from very different scientific perspectives, and with frequent and long interruptions in their methodological development. Health researchers have only recently started to recognize the value of quasi-experiments for generating novel insights on causal relationships. While quasi-experiments are unlikely to replace experiments in generating the efficacy and safety evidence required for clinical guidelines and regulatory approval of medical technologies, quasi-experiments can play an important role in establishing the effectiveness of health care practice, programs, and policies. The papers in this series describe and discuss a range of important issues in utilizing quasi-experimental designs for primary research and quasi-experimental results for evidence synthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Journal of Cultural Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While it could be of natural relevance for scholars in Literary Studies, Sociology, History, Political Science, Anthropology, Fine Art, Religion and Philosophy, Linguistics, et cetera, to make contributions, it does also acknowledge that various disciplines within the sciences - management, environmental, engineering, medical, ...

  17. Review of Southern African Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Board. Prof. R.C. Leduka Institute of Southern African Studies, NUL. Dr. F. Baffoe Baffoe and Associates, Maseru. Prof. Q. Chakela National University of Lesotho. Prof. L.B.B.J. Machobane Machobane and Associates, Maseru. Prof. E.M. Sebatane National University of Lesotho. Dr. E. Obioha National University of ...

  18. Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews studies which have addressed agricultural policy research in relation to Tanzania during and after economic structural adjustment, with some cross reference for studies within Africa and globally. The studies are reviewed to cover: factor markets; product markets; and macro-economic management in ...

  19. Evaluation of School Uniform Policy in Turkey: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinoglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of current school uniform policies according to views of stakeholders. Descriptive case study method was used for this study to understand the concerns of the stakeholders about school uniforms. Data was collected through interviews with stakeholders and also reviewing the documents in TOKI…

  20. Community referral in home management of malaria in western Uganda: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsungwa-Sabiiti Jesca

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Home Based Management of fever (HBM was introduced as a national policy in Uganda to increase access to prompt presumptive treatment of malaria. Pre-packed Chloroquine/Fansidar combination is distributed free of charge to febrile children Methods A case-series study was performed during 20 weeks in a West-Ugandan sub-county with an under-five population of 3,600. Community drug distributors (DDs were visited fortnightly and recording forms collected. Referred children were located and primary caretaker interviewed in the household. Referral health facility records were studied for those stating having completed referral. Results Overall referral rate was 8% (117/1454. Fever was the main reason for mothers to seek DD care and for DDs to refer. Twenty-six of the 28 (93% "urgent referrals" accessed referral care but 8 (31% delayed >24 hours. Waiting for antimalarial drugs to finish caused most delays. Of 32 possible pneumonias only 16 (50% were urgently referred; most delayed ≥ 2 days before accessing referral care. Conclusion The HBM has high referral compliance and extends primary health care to the communities by maintaining linkages with formal health services. Referral non-completion was not a major issue but failure to recognise pneumonia symptoms and delays in referral care access for respiratory illnesses may pose hazards for children with acute respiratory infections. Extending HBM to also include pneumonia may increase prompt and effective care of the sick child in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Preliminary Study on the Revision of Nuclear Safety Policy Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. E.; Lee, S. H.; Chang, H. S.; Choi, K. S.; Jung, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear safety policy in Korea is currently declared in the Nuclear Safety Charter as the highest tier document and safety principles and directions are announced in the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement. As the circumstances affecting on the nuclear safety policy change, it needs to revise the Statement. This study aims to develop the revised Nuclear Safety Policy Statement to declare that securing safety is a prerequisite to the utilization of nuclear energy, and that all workers in nuclear industry and regulatory body must adhere to the principle of priority to safety. As a result, two different types of revision are being prepared as of August. One is based on the spirit of Nuclear Safety Charter as well as the direction of future-oriented safety policies including the changes in the environment after declaration of the Statement. The other is to declare the fundamental safety objective and safety principles as the top philosophy of national nuclear safety policy by adopting the '10 Safety Principles in IAEA Safety Fundamental' instead of the current Charter. Both versions of revision are subject to further in-depth discussion. However once the revision is finalized and declared, it would be useful to accomplish effectively the organizational responsibilities and to enhance the public confidence in nuclear safety by performing the regulatory activities in a planned and systematic manner and promulgating the government's dedication to priority to safety

  2. Study of Track Irregularity Time Series Calibration and Variation Pattern at Unit Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaolong Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on problems existing in track irregularity time series data quality, this paper first presents abnormal data identification, data offset correction algorithm, local outlier data identification, and noise cancellation algorithms. And then proposes track irregularity time series decomposition and reconstruction through the wavelet decomposition and reconstruction approach. Finally, the patterns and features of track irregularity standard deviation data sequence in unit sections are studied, and the changing trend of track irregularity time series is discovered and described.

  3. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S

    2004-12-15

    It is of the utmost importance in the peaceful use and development of nuclear energy to respond in a timely manner to the changes of international nuclear communities. This study were carried focused on the trends of international movements related to nuclear non-proliferation regime and major trends in the international bi- or multi-lateral technical cooperation activities. This study investigates the major changes of international technical cooperation focusing on nuclear functional organizations, IAEA and OECD/NEA which become competent and important in the international technical cooperation. 9.11 terror and international illegal trafficking of A. Q. Khan network caused the strengthening of international nonproliferation regimes and international efforts and measures against threat of nuclear terror and this movement will kept in the international communities afterwards with GTRI, G8 action plan, UN resolution of WMD and ratification and application of additional protocol of IAEA safeguards agreement into member countries. Upgrade of nuclear diplomatic and technical networks and activities are required to secure the national rights and dignity in the international communities in effective and systematic manners through the enlarged participation and contribution of the national experts to working groups activities of IAEA and OECD/NEA together.

  4. The intervention effect of local alcohol licensing policies on hospital admission and crime: a natural experiment using a novel Bayesian synthetictime-series method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, Frank; Tilling, Kate; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Angus, Colin; Egan, Matt; Brennan, Alan; Campbell, Rona; Hickman, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Control of alcohol licensing at local government level is a key component of alcohol policy in England. There is, however, only weak evidence of any public health improvement. We used a novel natural experiment design to estimate the impact of new local alcohol licensing policies on hospital admissions and crime. We used Home Office licensing data (2007-2012) to identify (1) interventions: local areas where both a cumulative impact zone and increased licensing enforcement were introduced in 2011; and (2) controls: local areas with neither. Outcomes were 2009-2015 alcohol-related hospital admissions, violent and sexual crimes, and antisocial behaviour. Bayesian structural time series were used to create postintervention synthetic time series (counterfactuals) based on weighted time series in control areas. Intervention effects were calculated from differences between measured and expected trends. Validation analyses were conducted using randomly selected controls. 5 intervention and 86 control areas were identified. Intervention was associated with an average reduction in alcohol-related hospital admissions of 6.3% (95% credible intervals (CI) -12.8% to 0.2%) and to lesser extent with a reduced in violent crimes, especially up to 2013 (-4.6%, 95% CI -10.7% to 1.4%). There was weak evidence of an effect on sexual crimes up 2013 (-8.4%, 95% CI -21.4% to 4.6%) and insufficient evidence of an effect on antisocial behaviour as a result of a change in reporting. Moderate reductions in alcohol-related hospital admissions and violent and sexual crimes were associated with introduction of local alcohol licensing policies. This novel methodology holds promise for use in other natural experiments in public health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-22

    Jul 22, 2005 ... Lindert (1991) defines agricultural policy as “all agricultural initiatives affecting the ... Tanzania during and after economic structural adjustment, with some cross reference for studies within Africa and globally. The studies are reviewed ...... Endogenous Soil Fertility. Statistics Norway,. Research Department.

  6. Qualitative methods for the study of policy diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    to discriminate between mechanisms of diffusion, on the other? I argue, first, that there are three distinct qualitative techniques that can be used, namely cross-case analysis (often based on systematic case selection), within-case process tracing, and counterfactual reasoning. I demonstrate how these techniques...... can be adapted to the study of policy diffusion. Second, a combination of these methods is the best practice, since they are largely complementary in terms of the twin challenge of diffusion. The discussion draws on numerous illustrations from recent qualitative policy diffusion studies. The article...

  7. Tobacco smoking policy and indoor air quality: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadud, M.A. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Architectural Engineering Dept.); Rock, B.A. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Architectural Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Policy on environmental tobacco smoke and its effect on indoor air quality are discussed in this paper. Passive (secondhand) smoke is examined in aspects ranging from health effects to laws surrounding smoking within public buildings in the United States. Engineering and administrative solutions to these indoor air quality problems are considered. A case study of a smoking area within an institutional building is presented and potential improvements and administrative actions are discussed. The results of this study should be helpful to those faced with or anticipating technical and legal indoor air quality problems and policy decisions. (orig.)

  8. Raise the Flag for Mountains: Enhancing Policy Dialogue and Knowledge Sharing through the World Mountain Forum Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Wehrli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As a mountain country, Switzerland has an intrinsic interest and a proven track record in sustainable mountain development (SMD. Many Swiss stakeholders, including the federal and cantonal administrations, universities, and nongovernmental organizations, actively contribute to global SMD in many ways. Switzerland, with its extensive operational experience in mountainous countries around the world, has been one of the driving forces promoting policy dialogue and knowledge management among different actors to support SMD on various levels. This is reflected in its support for the United Nations’ Agenda 21 and the recent Agenda 2030. Still, after close to 25 years of global policy engagement, the voice of the mountains has not yet gained sufficient momentum and needs further strengthening.

  9. A Study of Terrorism Emergency Preparedness Policies in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is a concern in public facilities including schools. This study focused on school districts in a southwestern state. Terrorism emergency preparedness policies are well-documented as measures to protect students and staff in school districts from terrorism threats and vulnerabilities. However, those threats and…

  10. Studying Alcohol Pricing and Taxation Policies in India | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Studying Alcohol Pricing and Taxation Policies in India. India is the third largest market for alcoholic beverages in the world. As many as 32% of Indians consume alcohol, with 4% to 13% consuming it daily. While per capita alcohol consumption has fallen since 1980 in most developed countries, it has risen over 115% in ...

  11. Financial Inclusion and Monetary Policy: A Review of Recent Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... between financial inclusion and monetary policy has been studied in few instances and through models that estimate a direct relationship. ... by financial innovation. Financial innovation can be defined as the act of creating and then popularising ...... endogenous growth. Journal of Financial Intermediation, ...

  12. Construction Policies on Campus An Analytical Study of the Policy of Construction Planning on Kufa Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Hamid Altalib

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available University Campuses, as any lively physical entity, is subject to continuous variation due to . growth, development and change. This reality covers the existing or futuristic additives or additions, consecutively these changes may have a strong sensation of disorientation as a result of formatic changes in buildings, or in movement paths. And it epitomized the research problem to "the need for knowledge to clarify the impact of intellectual and executive policy in achieving coherence, functional and space organization of the elements of the university urban environment and in the stages of future growth and change," the search targeted "to highlight the study of constraction politics on campus Bmqomadtha intellectual and executive , as well as clarify the role of the executive policy in the application of thought, "and formulated the hypothesis search " urban policy affect Bmqomadtha (intellectual and executive on the process of organizing and homogeneity of the university urban environment to make them adapted to future changes, "the University of Kufa it was chosen as the campus to represent the experimental field of research.

  13. How to determine life expectancy change of air pollution mortality: a time series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau PYK

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on life expectancy (LE change is of great concern for policy makers, as evidenced by discussions of the "harvesting" (or "mortality displacement" issue, i.e. how large an LE loss corresponds to the mortality results of time series (TS studies. Whereas loss of LE attributable to chronic air pollution exposure can be determined from cohort studies, using life table methods, conventional TS studies have identified only deaths due to acute exposure, during the immediate past (typically the preceding one to five days, and they provide no information about the LE loss per death. Methods We show how to obtain information on population-average LE loss by extending the observation window (largest "lag" of TS to include a sufficient number of "impact coefficients" for past exposures ("lags". We test several methods for determining these coefficients. Once all of the coefficients have been determined, the LE change is calculated as time integral of the relative risk change after a permanent step change in exposure. Results The method is illustrated with results for daily data of non-accidental mortality from Hong Kong for 1985 - 2005, regressed against PM10 and SO2 with observation windows up to 5 years. The majority of the coefficients is statistically significant. The magnitude of the SO2 coefficients is comparable to those for PM10. But a window of 5 years is not sufficient and the results for LE change are only a lower bound; it is consistent with what is implied by other studies of long term impacts. Conclusions A TS analysis can determine the LE loss, but if the observation window is shorter than the relevant exposures one obtains only a lower bound.

  14. Alternative policy study. Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios. GEO 2000 alternative policy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Bakkes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associated with nuclear power generation. The analysis includes the effects on biodiversity and population health. It considers the question of what can be achieved by moderate measures, and whether this will be enough. Similar Geo-2000 region-specific studies on alternative policies have been compiled other world regions. This report outliners the general methodology for these reports

  15. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  16. Determinants of Private Investment in Ethiopia: A Time Series Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of little improvement in the post‐socialist era, the share of private investment in GDP has never been above 6 percent even until 2003. Yet, the reasons behind the weak performance have not been well studied. Hence, investigating the performance trend and maim constraints of private investment in Ethiopia ...

  17. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  18. Newton series, coinductively : a comparative study of composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basold, Henning; Hansen, H.H.; Pin, Jean Éric; Rutten, Jan

    We present a comparative study of four product operators on weighted languages: (i) the convolution, (ii) the shuffle, (iii) the infiltration and (iv) the Hadamard product. Exploiting the fact that the set of weighted languages is a final coalgebra, we use coinduction to prove that an operator of

  19. Case series and descriptive cohort studies in neurosurgery: the confusion and solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esene, Ignatius N; Ngu, Julius; El Zoghby, Mohamed; Solaroglu, Ihsan; Sikod, Anna M; Kotb, Ali; Dechambenoit, Gilbert; El Husseiny, Hossam

    2014-08-01

    Case series (CS) are well-known designs in contemporary use in neurosurgery but are sometimes used in contexts that are incompatible with their true meaning as defined by epidemiologists. This inconsistent, inappropriate and incorrect use, and mislabeling impairs the appropriate indexing and sorting of evidence. Using PubMed, we systematically identified published articles that had "case series" in the "title" in 15 top-ranked neurosurgical journals from January 2008 to December 2012. The abstracts and/or full articles were scanned to identify those with descriptions of the principal method as being "case series" and then classified as "true case series" or "non-case series" by two independent investigators with 100 % inter-rater agreement. Sixty-four articles had the label "case series" in their "titles." Based on the definition of "case series" and our appraisal of the articles using Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines, 18 articles (28.13 %) were true case series, while 46 (71.87 %) were mislabeled. Thirty-five articles (54.69 %) mistook retrospective (descriptive) cohorts for CS. CS are descriptive with an outcome-based sampling, while "descriptive cohorts" have an exposure-based sampling of patients, followed over time to assess outcome(s). A comparison group is not a defining feature of a cohort study and distinguishes descriptive from analytic cohorts. A distinction between a case report, case series, and descriptive cohorts is absolutely necessary to enable the appropriate indexing, sorting, and application of evidence. Researchers need better training in methods and terminology, and editors and reviewers should scrutinize more carefully manuscripts claiming to be "case series" studies.

  20. Area Handbook Series: South Korea: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Park Chung Hee government’s campaign for filial piety and loyalty in the 1970s or in occasional public seminars or newspaper editorials through the...society. Righteousness toward the sovereign, filial piety , deference to older 19 South Korea. A Country Study and superior persons, and benevolence to...of filial piety still were strong. At the same time, contemporary social values were influenced by traditional but non-Confucian Korean values, 69

  1. Effects of temperature on mortality in Chiang Mai city, Thailand: a time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming; Punnasiri, Kornwipa; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-09

    The association between temperature and mortality has been examined mainly in North America and Europe. However, less evidence is available in developing countries, especially in Thailand. In this study, we examined the relationship between temperature and mortality in Chiang Mai city, Thailand, during 1999-2008. A time series model was used to examine the effects of temperature on cause-specific mortality (non-external, cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and respiratory) and age-specific non-external mortality ( =85 years), while controlling for relative humidity, air pollution, day of the week, season and long-term trend. We used a distributed lag non-linear model to examine the delayed effects of temperature on mortality up to 21 days. We found non-linear effects of temperature on all mortality types and age groups. Both hot and cold temperatures resulted in immediate increase in all mortality types and age groups. Generally, the hot effects on all mortality types and age groups were short-term, while the cold effects lasted longer. The relative risk of non-external mortality associated with cold temperature (19.35°C, 1st percentile of temperature) relative to 24.7°C (25th percentile of temperature) was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.44) for lags 0-21. The relative risk of non-external mortality associated with high temperature (31.7°C, 99th percentile of temperature) relative to 28°C (75th percentile of temperature) was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24) for lags 0-21. This study indicates that exposure to both hot and cold temperatures were related to increased mortality. Both cold and hot effects occurred immediately but cold effects lasted longer than hot effects. This study provides useful data for policy makers to better prepare local responses to manage the impact of hot and cold temperatures on population health.

  2. [Striatopallidodentate calcinosis, hypoparathyroidism and neurological features: a case series study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Otmani, H; Lahlou, I; Raji, L; Omari, S; Belmansour, Y; Moutaouakil, F; Boulaajaj, F-Z; Mouden, M; Gam, I; Hakim, K; El Moutawakil, B; Rafai, M-A; Fadel, H; Slassi, I

    2013-01-01

    The respective roles of hypocalcemia and intracerebral calcifications in the occurrence of various neurological manifestations in hypoparathyroidism is not entirely clear. Nevertheless, therapeutic and prognostic implications are important. We analyze the neurological clinical aspects observed in hypoparathyroidism and correlate them to the biological calcium abnormality and radiological CT scan findings. We also compare these results with data reported in the idiopathic form of striatopallidodentate calcinosis. The neurological clinical, CT scan findings and outcome have been retrospectively studied in patients recruited during 13 years (2000-2012) for neurological features associated with hypoparathyroidism or pseudohypoparathyroidism. Twelve patients with primary hypoparathyroidism (n=5), secondary to thyroidectomy (n=4) and pseudohypoparathyroidism (n=3) were studied. The sex-ratio was 1 and mean age was 39 years. All patients had a tetany, 60% had epilepsy, associated in one patient with "benign" intracranial hypertension; 50% had behavioral changes. Response to calcium therapy was excellent for all these events. Moderate cognitive deficit was noted in three patients (25%), parkinsonism in two patients and hyperkinetic movement disorders in one other. These events were not responsive to calcium therapy and were more common in cases of extensive brain calcifications and in patients who had pseudohypoparathroidism. This study suggests that, in patients with hypoparathyroidism, epilepsy and psychiatric disorders are induced by hypocalcemia and reversible after its correction. Cognitive and extrapyramidal impairment seem to be related to the progressive extension of intracerebral calcification, particularly in patients with a late diagnosis. In patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism, this finding is different because of the contribution of other factors, specific to this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  4. Assessing the Short-Term Effects on Output of Changes in Federal Fiscal Policies (Working Paper Series)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Journal: Economic Policy, 4 (2): 28–45. Chari, V. V., Patrick J. Kehoe, and Ellen R. McGrattan. 2009. “New Keynesian Models: Not Yet Useful for...Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 4 (1): 22–68. Cogan, John F., Tobias Cwik, John B. Taylor, and Volker Wieland. 2010. “New Keynesian Versus Old... Keynesian Government Spending Multipliers.” Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 34 (3): 281–295. Cogan, John F. and John B. Taylor. 2010. “What

  5. Avoiding diagnostic errors in psychosomatic medicine: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Atsuko; Ohtake, Yoichi; Yasuda, Kanae; Sakai, Kiyohiro; Sakamoto, Ryo; Matsuoka, Hiromichi; Okumi, Hirokuni; Yasuda, Toshiko

    2018-01-01

    Non-organic lesions or diseases of unknown origin are sometimes misdiagnosed as "psychogenic" disorders or "psychosomatic" diseases. For the quality of life and safety of patients, recent attention has focused on diagnostic error. The aim of this study was to clarify the factors that affected misdiagnoses in psychosomatic medicine by examining typical cases and to explore strategies that reduce diagnostic errors. The study period was from January 2001 to August 2017. The data of patients who had visited the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Kindai University Hospital and its branches, Sakai Hospital and Nihonbashi Clinic, were collected. All patients were aged 16 years or over. Multiple factors, such as age, sex, presenting symptoms, initial diagnosis, final diagnosis, sources of re-diagnosis and types of diagnostic errors were retrospectively analyzed from the medical charts of 20 patients. Among them, four typical cases can be described as follows. Case 1; a 79-year-old woman, initially diagnosed with psychogenic vomiting due to depression that was changed to gastric torsion as the final diagnosis. Case 2; a 24-year-old man, diagnosed with an eating disorder that was later changed to esophageal achalasia. Case 10; a 60-year-old woman's diagnosis changed from conversion disorder to localized muscle atrophy. Case 19; a 68-year-old man, appetite loss from depression due to cancer changed to secondary adrenal insufficiency, isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD). This study showed that multiple factors related to misdiagnoses were combined and had a mutual influence. However, they can be summarized into two important clinical observations, diagnostic system-related problems and provider issues. Provider issues contain mainly cognitive biases such as Anchoring, Availability, Confirmation bias, Delayed diagnosis, and Representativeness. In order to avoid diagnostic errors, both a diagnostic system approach and the reduction of cognitive biases are needed. Psychosomatic

  6. Case studies in rural recycling. Public service report series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosper, S.D.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.

    1994-02-01

    Due to state planning requirements and federal landfill regulations, solid waste management in rural areas (particularly recycling) has received much attention in recent years. The growth of recycling during the 1980s occurred mainly in urban and suburban areas. Therefore, rural recycling is still a relatively new enterprise. This report presents several rural recycling case studies from Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Tennessee, and Ontario, Canada to provide examples of successes and problems. This report also discusses the current issues of cooperative marketing of recyclables and municipal solid waste flow control. With respect to recycling, a rural region does not have ready access to markets for collected materials and has difficulty in generating easily marketable quantities of recyclables. (Copyright (c) 1994 The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois.)

  7. Osseointegrated implants and auricular defects: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert F; Zemnick, Candice; Wazen, Jack J; Asher, Eric

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to report on the survival rate of 16 patients treated with extraoral implants in the auricular region, analyze treatment outcomes, and discuss important clinical variables encountered during treatment. Sixteen patients who received extraoral dental implants to retain auricular prostheses between 1987 and 2003 were followed retrospectively. The variables recorded were gender, initial diagnosis, number and size of implants, implant placement date, age at implant placement, history of radiation to the treated field, abutment size, design of initial prosthesis, age of initial prosthesis (when a remake was indicated), date of prosthesis delivery, soft tissue response, grafting procedure, date of last follow-up, and complications. All patients were thoroughly evaluated presurgically by the reconstruction team, which consisted of prosthodontists, a facial prosthetist, and an otolaryngologist. Surgical templates were used for all patients. The criteria for success of the prostheses included marginal accuracy, overall stability and function, symmetry/position, texture, color stability, and patient acceptance. Thirty-nine implants were placed in 16 patients. All 16 patients were completely satisfied with their reconstructions. No surgical complications, implant failures, or prosthetic failures were encountered. Therefore, the survival rate was 100%. Three patients (18.75%) had grade 0, seven (43.75%) had grade 1, five (31.25%) had grade 2, and one (6.25%) had grade 3 soft tissue inflammation. The inflammation completely resolved in 7 of the 13 patients (54%) with hygiene reinforcement or soft tissue reduction. The survival rate for bone-anchored titanium implants and prostheses was 100%. Bone-anchored titanium implants provided the 16 patients in this study with a safe, reliable, adhesive-free method to anchor auricular prostheses with recovery of normal appearance. Under the guidance of an appropriate implant team, proper positioning of

  8. Sudden Death Following Exercise; a Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Najari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural and unexpected death that happens within less than one hour of first symptom occurrence is called sudden death. Cardiovascular diseases are the main known reason of sudden death and more than 75% of sudden deaths in athletes are assigned to it. Here we reported the autopsy results of all cases with sudden death following exercise that were referred to forensic center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014. Methods: In this cross sectional study all subjects who were registered to forensic medicine center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014, as a case of sudden death following exercise were evaluated. Demographic data and medical history as well as autopsy and toxicology findings were retrospectively gathered using profiles of the deceased. Results were reported using descriptive analysis. Results: 14 cases were registered as sudden death following exercise in forensic medicine profiles during the study period. Exploring the files of the mentioned deceased, revealed five non-compatible cases in this regard. Finally, 9 eligible cases were enrolled (88.9% male. The mean age of the deceased was 28.66 ± 10.86 years (range: 7 – 40. Toxicological tests were available for 7 cases, one of which was positive for tramadol. Sudden death following football was reported most frequently (44.4%. Only 3 (33.3% cases had herald signs such as chest pain, syncope, or loss of consciousness. 1 case (11.11% had a positive history of sudden death in relatives. Conclusion: Although most sudden death victims are asymptomatic until the event, all those who suffer from symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, fatigue and irregular heart rate during physical activities, should be screened regarding common probable causes of sudden death.

  9. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 7: assessing the assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Oldenburg, Catherine; Tugwell, Peter; Bommer, Christian; Ebert, Cara; Barreto, Mauricio; Djimeu, Eric; Haber, Noah; Waddington, Hugh; Rockers, Peter; Sianesi, Barbara; Bor, Jacob; Fink, Günther; Valentine, Jeffrey; Tanner, Jeffrey; Stanley, Tom; Sierra, Eduardo; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Atun, Rifat; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Quasi-experimental designs are gaining popularity in epidemiology and health systems research-in particular for the evaluation of health care practice, programs, and policy-because they allow strong causal inferences without randomized controlled experiments. We describe the concepts underlying five important quasi-experimental designs: Instrumental Variables, Regression Discontinuity, Interrupted Time Series, Fixed Effects, and Difference-in-Differences designs. We illustrate each of the designs with an example from health research. We then describe the assumptions required for each of the designs to ensure valid causal inference and discuss the tests available to examine the assumptions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  11. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents

  12. What Shapes Policy Formation in China? A Study of National Student Nutrition Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    This article juxtaposes "world culture" and "policy borrowing and lending" literatures to understand policy formation in China. Through reviewing China's student nutrition policy evolution since the International Conference on Nutrition in 1992 to the launch of China's landmark national rural student nutrition program in 2011,…

  13. On the Science-Policy Bridge: Do Spatial Heat Vulnerability Assessment Studies Influence Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Wolf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human vulnerability to heat varies at a range of spatial scales, especially within cities where there can be noticeable intra-urban differences in heat risk factors. Mapping and visualizing intra-urban heat vulnerability offers opportunities for presenting information to support decision-making. For example the visualization of the spatial variation of heat vulnerability has the potential to enable local governments to identify hot spots of vulnerability and allocate resources and increase assistance to people in areas of greatest need. Recently there has been a proliferation of heat vulnerability mapping studies, all of which, to varying degrees, justify the process of vulnerability mapping in a policy context. However, to date, there has not been a systematic review of the extent to which the results of vulnerability mapping studies have been applied in decision-making. Accordingly we undertook a comprehensive review of 37 recently published papers that use geospatial techniques for assessing human vulnerability to heat. In addition, we conducted an anonymous survey of the lead authors of the 37 papers in order to establish the level of interaction between the researchers as science information producers and local authorities as information users. Both paper review and author survey results show that heat vulnerability mapping has been used in an attempt to communicate policy recommendations, raise awareness and induce institutional networking and learning, but has not as yet had a substantive influence on policymaking or preventive action.

  14. Democratic Model of Public Policy Accountability. Case Study on Implementation of Street Vendors Empowerment Policy in Makassar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulinawaty Kasmadsi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Policy accountability is a form of manifestation of public officials responsible to the people. One form of policy accountability that is discussed here is street vendors policy accountability, because they are a group of citizens who have the economic activities in public spaces. The existence of this policy how-ever, the number of street vendors from year to year increase in Makassar City. Therefore, this study seeks to uncover and explain the democratic policy ac-countability through the street vendors’ responses and expectations to the implementation of street ven-dors empowerment policy in Makassar City; and to uncover and explain the democratic policy account-ability through the stakeholders’ responses and ex-pectations to the implementation of street vendors empowerment policy in Makassar City. To achieve these objectives, the study uses democracy theory, in which this theory focuses on togetherness in dis-cussing solutions to the various problems of street vendors and in the policy implementation as well.This study used a qualitative design and case studies strat-egy. Data collection techniques used was observa-tion, interview, and documentation. Data were ana-lyzed with case description its settings. The results of this study pointed out that the interests and needs of the street vendors are not met through the empow-erment policies vendors. This is caused by the ab-sence of accountability forum as a place of togeth-erness all of street vendors empowerment stakehold-ers’. Street vendors empowerment policy in Makassar City are designed base on a top-down approach, so they are considered as objects, which must accept all government programs aimed at them.

  15. Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Brøgger, Katja; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    Studying Policy Transfer through the Lens of Social Network Analysis The panelists present the findings of a joint empirical research project carried out at Aarhus University (DPU/Copenhagen) and at Teachers College, Columbia University (New York). The research project succeeded to identify...... discursive networks of political stakeholders and policy advisors that were considered key actors in the Danish school reform. The research team investigated how these networks interrelate, change over time, and represent different constituents (government, academe, business), at times contradicting...... or collaborating with each other, respectively. Against the backdrop of globalization studies in comparative education, the research project attempted to identify borrowers, translators, and brokers of educational reform drawing on a complementary set of expertise from social network analysis methodology (Oren...

  16. A scalable database model for multiparametric time series: a volcano observatory case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, Placido; Aliotta, Marco; Cassisi, Carmelo; Prestifilippo, Michele; Cannata, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The variables collected by a sensor network constitute a heterogeneous data source that needs to be properly organized in order to be used in research and geophysical monitoring. With the time series term we refer to a set of observations of a given phenomenon acquired sequentially in time. When the time intervals are equally spaced one speaks of period or sampling frequency. Our work describes in detail a possible methodology for storage and management of time series using a specific data structure. We designed a framework, hereinafter called TSDSystem (Time Series Database System), in order to acquire time series from different data sources and standardize them within a relational database. The operation of standardization provides the ability to perform operations, such as query and visualization, of many measures synchronizing them using a common time scale. The proposed architecture follows a multiple layer paradigm (Loaders layer, Database layer and Business Logic layer). Each layer is specialized in performing particular operations for the reorganization and archiving of data from different sources such as ASCII, Excel, ODBC (Open DataBase Connectivity), file accessible from the Internet (web pages, XML). In particular, the loader layer performs a security check of the working status of each running software through an heartbeat system, in order to automate the discovery of acquisition issues and other warning conditions. Although our system has to manage huge amounts of data, performance is guaranteed by using a smart partitioning table strategy, that keeps balanced the percentage of data stored in each database table. TSDSystem also contains modules for the visualization of acquired data, that provide the possibility to query different time series on a specified time range, or follow the realtime signal acquisition, according to a data access policy from the users.

  17. Experimental Study on Series Operation of Sliding Vane Pump and Centrifugal Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Li; Weiming Zhang; Ming Jiang; Zhengyang Li

    2013-01-01

    A platform for sliding vane pump and centrifugal pump tests is installed to study the series operation of them under different characteristics of pipeline. Firstly, the sliding vane pump and the centrifugal pump work independently, and the performance is recorded. Then, the two types of pumps are combined together, with the sliding vane pump acting as the feeding pump. Comparison is made between the performance of the independently working pump and the performance of series operation pump. Re...

  18. Greenhouse policy studies by ECON and the Fridtjof Nansen Institute. 13 abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, Kjell; Sydnes, Anne Kristin

    1991-01-01

    The main focus of the programme is the relationship between energy, environment and development in the Third World and international co-operation in relation to global climate change. A series of working papers and reports will primarily review and analyse energy strategies in developing countries and the political, institutional and economic factors which have an impact on current and future energy supply and demand. Energy market structures and energy policies of selected countries will be studies in light of global environmental problems and the recommendations from the World Commission on Environment and Development. Attention will be given to North/South conflicts in relation to the challenge of global climate change. Institutional and financial mechanisms to promote transfer of resources to developing countries will be discussed. EED is a professionally independent research programme, financially supported by the Norwegian Research Council for Applied Social Science (NORAS), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Environment and Statoil. The project titles are: 1) The North/South dimension in global greenhouse policies. Conflicts, dilemma, solutions. 2) Energy - a growth limiting factor. 3) Environment, security and politicians., Do they really mean (and know) what they are saying. 4) The Soviet Union and climatic changes: Heading for the eternal summer. 5) EC greenhouse policy. 6) Brazilian energy policy. Self-sufficiency and states intervention. 7) Mexico - a country in economic and ecological crisis. 8) Energy, environment and development in China. 9) Energy, environment and economic growth in a developing country perspective. 10) Stabilising CO 2 emissions by carbon taxes- a viable option. 11) Developing countries in global climate negotiations. 12) US greenhouse policy: Reactionary or realistic. 13) Effective verification of international greenhouse agreements: Technically feasible, but politically complicated. Report abstracts are included in

  19. Greenhouse policy studies by ECON and the Fridtjof Nansen Institute. 13 abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, Kjell; Sydnes, Anne Kristin

    1991-07-01

    The main focus of the programme is the relationship between energy, environment and development in the Third World and international co-operation in relation to global climate change. A series of working papers and reports will primarily review and analyse energy strategies in developing countries and the political, institutional and economic factors which have an impact on current and future energy supply and demand. Energy market structures and energy policies of selected countries will be studies in light of global environmental problems and the recommendations from the World Commission on Environment and Development. Attention will be given to North/South conflicts in relation to the challenge of global climate change. Institutional and financial mechanisms to promote transfer of resources to developing countries will be discussed. EED is a professionally independent research programme, financially supported by the Norwegian Research Council for Applied Social Science (NORAS), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Environment and Statoil. The project titles are: 1) The North/South dimension in global greenhouse policies. Conflicts, dilemma, solutions. 2) Energy - a growth limiting factor. 3) Environment, security and politicians., Do they really mean (and know) what they are saying. 4) The Soviet Union and climatic changes: Heading for the eternal summer. 5) EC greenhouse policy. 6) Brazilian energy policy. Self-sufficiency and states intervention. 7) Mexico - a country in economic and ecological crisis. 8) Energy, environment and development in China. 9) Energy, environment and economic growth in a developing country perspective. 10) Stabilising CO{sub 2} emissions by carbon taxes- a viable option. 11) Developing countries in global climate negotiations. 12) US greenhouse policy: Reactionary or realistic. 13) Effective verification of international greenhouse agreements: Technically feasible, but politically complicated. Report abstracts are

  20. A Case Study in Coastal Transport and Sewage Treatment Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudaback, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Huntington Beach, California, is a popular surfing beach near Los Angeles. In July, 1999, the State of California instituted new beach cleanliness standards: beaches should be closed when bacterial concentrations exceed a certain amount. The beach promptly closed for two months. Local environmentalists blamed a nearby sewage outfall, prompting several million dollars worth of studies. How would you figure out whether the outfall was to blame, and what would you do about it?" From this starting point, my undergraduates work through the scientific, regulatory and policy issues involved in a decision about upgrading a coastal sewage outfall. They learn to interpret complex scientific data, discuss the role of science in policy and also reflect on their own priorities and decision-making processes. I will give a brief summary of my teaching methods, and provide CDs with HTML-based educational resources.

  1. Curriculum Policies and Discourse Theory: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Jonko Araujo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study which discusses the new meanings produced in the Federal Institute Sul-rio-grandense (IFSul curriculum policies. The use of Policy Cycle, as proposed by Ball, and the Discourse Theory (DT by Laclau, strengthened the analysis of meanings in a non-hierarchical way between the different contexts involved in the construction of such policies. In the process of analysing the MEC and IFSul official documents and interviews with managers and teachers from the institution, we decided to identify, assisted by the tool WordSmitht, meanings and displacements around the signifiers: teaching, research, extension and articulation. In this study, by exemplifying the DT concepts potential, the analysis of the signifier „extension‟ was carried out, which resulted in the perception that there is some difficulty to the fixation of meaning to this education dimension and that the managers‟ expectations, understood by the teachers, is that the latter are able to accomplish their tasks and achieve their objectives.

  2. Impact of the PROCESS guideline on the reporting of surgical case series: A before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, R A; Borrelli, M R; Farwana, R; Kusu-Orkar, T; Millip, M C; Thavayogan, R; Garner, J; Darhouse, N; Orgill, D P

    2017-09-01

    The PROCESS guideline was developed in 2016 through expert Delphi consensus. It aimed to improve the quality of reporting of surgical case series. This study assessed the impact of the introduction of the PROCESS guideline on reporting for surgical case series submitted to three journals. 20 case series published in the International Journal of Surgery Case Reports (IJSCR), the International Journal of Surgery (IJS) or the Annals of Medicine and Surgery (AMS) in September to December 2016, prior to the introduction of the PROCESS guideline (the pre-PROCESS period), were randomly identified and scored against the PROCESS criteria. Two authors independently scored each article a total score out of 29, the 'PROCESS score' (expressed as a percentage). Scores for the two researchers were compared and consensus was reached to achieve a final score set. The process was repeated for the January 2017 to April 2017 issues of the three journals, post PROCESS implementation (the post-PROCESS period). The mean PROCESS score was 80% (range 66-90%) for the pre-PROCESS period and 84% (range 72-95%) for the post-PROCESS period, a 4% relative increase [STATS]. The Cohen's Kappa score between researchers was 0.907 implying very substantial agreement. Implementation of the PROCESS guideline resulted in a 5% improvement in the reporting quality of surgical case series published in three journals. Further research is needed to identify and successfully navigate existing barriers to greater compliance. Authors, reviewers and editors should adhere to the guidelines to boost reporting quality. Journals should develop their policies and guide for authors to incorporate the guideline and mandate compliance. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. National health policies: sub-Saharan African case studies (1980-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbatey, K

    1999-07-01

    Four countries, Botswana, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Zimbabwe, were chosen as cases to study the impact of national health policies on national health status in sub-Saharan Africa. Through a conceptual framework that covers health problem identification, policy formulation and implementation procedures, the study examined national translations of Primary Health Care (PHC) and Health for All by the Year 2000 (HFA/2000) strategies. A series of government measures, taken between 1980-1986 for health policy development and implementation in these countries, were treated as policy determinants of national health outcomes for the period ending 1990. The impact of these determinants on national health status was then analyzed through a comparative description and documentation of observable patterns and trends in infant mortality rates (IMR), under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) and life expectancy. Policy guidelines from PHC and HFA/2000 were used in conjunction with the respective per capita Gross National Products to categorize the four cases. Based on these guidelines, Botswana was ranked high, both in terms of policy development and the level of economic development, while Zimbabwe ranked high in terms of policy development but relatively low in economic terms. Cote d'Ivoire ranked high on economic development but low with regard to its policy framework. Ghana was at the other end of the spectrum, ranking low both in terms of its policy development and its economic performance. The comparative analysis revealed that Botswana and Zimbabwe performed better than Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana on the three outcome indicators. Despite Cote d'Ivoire's superior level of economic development, its health status fell behind that of Zimbabwe and even Ghana. The study concluded that policies formulated and implemented in accordance with key PHC principles could account for improvements in national health status. Since the end of the study period (1990), there have been significant political

  4. Does ICT policy improve interorganisational ICT for SMEs? A Dutch policy evaluation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.; Hertog, P. den

    2011-01-01

    Interorganisational ICT has become critical for the performance of both small and large organisations. SMEs however, traditionally lag behind in the uptake of these systems. In many countries, various policy programmes are initiated to improve ICT uptake by SMEs and support them in digital linking throughout their value chain. In the Netherlands, a nationwide policy programme was in place between 2002 and 2007 that is a prominent example of this type of policy initiatives. In this paper we pr...

  5. A study on the nuclear foreign policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Cho, I. H.; Ko, H. S.

    1996-12-01

    This study aims to analyses recent trends of international situation relating to nuclear non-proliferation and the adverse conditions in Korea's pursuing self-support of such technology, so that it may map out effective strategies for the promotion of nuclear energy. This study analyses developments of international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which plays a main role in preventing the international proliferation of nuclear weapons. This study includes NPT, IAEA safeguards system, international export control regimes, CTBT, and NWFZs as the subjects of analysis. Second theme is international organizations concerning nuclear activities. This study mainly analyses IAEA activities which pursues the promotion of peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation simultaneously as a pivotal body of international nuclear cooperation. Third focus of this study is Northeast Asian circumstances pertaining to nuclear non-proliferation. The study looks into the DPRK nuclear issues, and reviews the developments of the proposed regional body for nuclear cooperation and the discussion on the Northeast Asian NWFZ. Fourth, but the most influential to Korean nuclear activities, is the U. S. nuclear policy, since U. S. takes the overwhelming initiative in the field of international nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, this study gives much weight in analyzing the structure, procedures, recent trend, and pending issues of U. S. nuclear policy. (author). 78 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  6. [Agricultural policies and farming systems: A case study of landscape changes in Shizuitou Village in the recent four decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-jun; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yan-bin; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural policy in China's rural heartland is driving profound changes to traditional farming systems. A case study covering four decades mapped and recorded farming patterns and processes in Shizuitou Village, a rural village in northwest Shanxi. An integrated geospatial methodology from geography and anthropology was employed in the case study to record the changing dynamics of farming systems in Shizuitou Village to discover the long-term impacts of China's agricultural policies on village farming systems. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural policies on village farming systems were mapped, inventoried and evaluated using Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS). The results revealed traditional polycultures are being gradually replaced by industrialized monocultures. The driving forces behind these farming changes come from a series of government agricultural policies aiming at modernization of farming systems in China. The goal of these policies was to spur rapid development of industrial agriculture under the guise of modernization but is leading to the decay of traditional farming systems in the village that maintained local food security with healthy land for hundreds of years. The paper concluded with a recommendation that in future, agricultural policy makers should strike a more reasonable balance between short-term agricultural profits and long-term farming sustainability based on the principles of ecological sustainable development under the context of global changes.

  7. Teasing apart "the tangled web" of influence of policy dialogues: lessons from a case study of dialogues about healthcare reform options for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvale, Gillian; McRae, Samantha A; Milicic, Sandra

    2017-07-28

    The knowledge exchange literature suggests that policy dialogues are intended to enhance short-, medium- and long-term capacities of individuals, organizations and health systems to use evidence to inform policy-making. Key features of effective dialogues have been suggested, but the linkages between these features and the realization of improved capacities for evidence-informed policy-making among dialogue attendees and the subsequent influence on policy-making activities are not well understood. We conducted a qualitative case study of a series of four policy dialogues that were convened in Canada among national, provincial and regional stakeholders on topics pertaining to healthcare financing and funding in 2011. Data sources included videos of participant perspectives captured during or immediately following each event and follow-up key informant interviews among dialogue participants held 4 years later in 2015. Three conceptual frameworks pertaining to (i) policy dialogues and capacities for evidence use, (ii) factors shaping policy-making across the policy cycle and (iii) factors shaping implementation of evidence guided the thematic analysis. We then synthesized the findings across the three frameworks. The results suggest the potential benefits of policy dialogues described in the literature were developed among the participants at these dialogues. Informants elaborated on how dialogue features influenced their capacities to use evidence, the ideas, interests and institutions during the agenda-setting and policy formulation stages of policy-making and how implementation was affected by characteristics of policy options, individuals, organizations, the external environment and processes. We present a conceptual framework that furthers our understanding of the potential influence of policy dialogues on the content and mechanisms of policy development and illustrate pathways of influence on various stages of the policy cycle from agenda setting through

  8. Effects of temperature on mortality in Chiang Mai city, Thailand: a time series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yuming

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between temperature and mortality has been examined mainly in North America and Europe. However, less evidence is available in developing countries, especially in Thailand. In this study, we examined the relationship between temperature and mortality in Chiang Mai city, Thailand, during 1999–2008. Method A time series model was used to examine the effects of temperature on cause-specific mortality (non-external, cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and respiratory and age-specific non-external mortality ( =85 years, while controlling for relative humidity, air pollution, day of the week, season and long-term trend. We used a distributed lag non-linear model to examine the delayed effects of temperature on mortality up to 21 days. Results We found non-linear effects of temperature on all mortality types and age groups. Both hot and cold temperatures resulted in immediate increase in all mortality types and age groups. Generally, the hot effects on all mortality types and age groups were short-term, while the cold effects lasted longer. The relative risk of non-external mortality associated with cold temperature (19.35°C, 1st percentile of temperature relative to 24.7°C (25th percentile of temperature was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.16, 1.44 for lags 0–21. The relative risk of non-external mortality associated with high temperature (31.7°C, 99th percentile of temperature relative to 28°C (75th percentile of temperature was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.24 for lags 0–21. Conclusion This study indicates that exposure to both hot and cold temperatures were related to increased mortality. Both cold and hot effects occurred immediately but cold effects lasted longer than hot effects. This study provides useful data for policy makers to better prepare local responses to manage the impact of hot and cold temperatures on population health.

  9. Rethinking Study and Management of Agricultural Systems for Policy Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Baumgärtner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a concern that agriculture will no longer be able to meet, on a global scale, the growing demand for food. Facing such a challenge requires new patterns of thinking in the context of complexity and sustainability sciences. This paper, focused on the social dimension of the study and management of agricultural systems, suggests that rethinking the study of agricultural systems entails analyzing them as complex socio-ecological systems, as well as considering the differing thinking patterns of diverse stakeholders. The intersubjective nature of knowledge, as studied by different philosophical schools, needs to be better integrated into the study and management of agricultural systems than it is done so far, forcing us to accept that there are no simplistic solutions, and to seek a better understanding of the social dimension of agriculture. Different agriculture related problems require different policy and institutional approaches. Finally, the intersubjective nature of knowledge asks for the visualization of different framings and the power relations taking place in the decision-making process. Rethinking management of agricultural systems implies that policy making should be shaped by different principles: learning, flexibility, adaptation, scale-matching, participation, diversity enhancement and precaution hold the promise to significantly improve current standard management procedures.

  10. Process, paper policy and practice : a case study of the introduction of a formal extension policy in Queensland, Australia 1987 - 1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutts, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This study explores the policy element of public sector agricultural extension. It was contended that this policy element lacked an adequate framework. Without such a framework, there was a risk that major policy - or operational - issues would be neglected in policy formulation. The study

  11. Energy Policy Case Study - Texas: Wind, Markets, and Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    This document presents a case study of energy policies in Texas related to power system transformation, renewable energy and distributed energy resources (DERs). Texas has experienced a dramatic increase in installed wind capacity, from 116 MW in 2000 to over 15,000 MW in 2015. This achievement was enabled by the designation of Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZs) and new transmission lines that transmit wind to load centers. This report highlights nascent efforts to include DERs in the ERCOT market. As costs decline and adoption rates increase, ERCOT expects distributed generation to have an increasing effect on grid operations, while bringing potentially valuable new resources to the wholesale markets.

  12. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time-series of idle agriculture lands: A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaiphasa, C.; Piamduaytham, S.; Vaiphasa, T.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the NDVI time-series collected from the study area between year 2003 and 2005 of all land cover types are plotted and compared. The study area is the agricultural zones in Banphai District, Khonkean, Thailand. The LANDSAT satellite images of different dates were first transformed into

  13. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  14. Trigonometric series adapted for the study of Neumann boundary-value problems of Lame systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakeur Merouani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the solutions to Neumann boundary-value problems of Lame system in a sectorial domains. We study directly this problem, by using trigonometric series, without going through the Airy functions. Results using the Airy function are given in [11].

  15. Interorganizational Policy Studies: Lessons Drawn from Implementation Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1993-01-01

    Contingency approaches to organizing suggest that policy objectives are more likely to be achieved if the structures employed for implementation mesh with the policy objectives being sought. Interorganizational arrangements are used increasingly in carrying out public programs, and contingency logic

  16. Ministry of health on facebook: an information policy case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Moraes Moreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growth of social networks on the internet is visible. Everywhere people use these tools on various places, either via desktop, laptop, tablet or smartphone. In Brazil, the most prominent network in recent years is Facebook, which reached 76 million users in June 2013, an unprecedented number in the country. The growth allowed governments to perceive this virtual space as a potential place to present their work and communicate with society. Objectives: The study goal is to observe how information has been publicized by the Ministry of Health through Facebook since 2010 (year of creation of the page until October 2013, taking as an analytical category the implemented information policy, in order to propose a discussion about democratization of access to health information. Methodology: case study; Non-participant observation, data collection and documental analysis. Results: The main issues addressed by the Ministry of Health on Facebook are organizational actions and government programs instead of posts with guidance for a healthy living style. Also noteworthy is the low interaction of the Ministry page moderators with the users profile. The study showed most of the questions and comments made by the public are not answered by the institutional body. Conclusions: Need of strengthening the mediaton process of the information policies from the Ministry of Health on Facebook.

  17. Maximizing the Policy Impacts of Public Engagement : A European Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, Steven B.; Mulder, Henk A.J.; Frewer, Lynn J

    There is a lack of published evidence which demonstrates the impacts of public engagement (PE) in science and technology policy. This might represent the failure of PE to achieve policy impacts or indicate a lack of effective procedures for discerning the uptake by policy makers of PE-derived

  18. A Case Study of Gender Neutral Policies in University Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chave, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Gender neutral housing is an innovative new policy being developed in colleges around the country. One reason to create these policies is an attempt to meet the unique needs and challenges of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students. As the number of gender neutral housing policies in the United States continues to rise, research has been…

  19. Active Aging Policies between Individual Needs and Collective Goods. A Study of Active Aging Policies and Practices in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Midtsundstad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A main objective of European governments is to reduce the number of early retirees, either by reforming pension systems or promoting active aging in working life. The importance of formulating a coherent personnel policy for all age groups is increasingly recognized by employers. However, there is still a lack of knowledge as how to strategically cope with an aging labor force. The aim of this article is to define and discuss a number of challenges arising from workplace-related active aging policies. We in particular discuss how an emphasis on economic incentives and gains (“senior goods” may give rise to unanticipated side effects for the employers as well as the employees. The article is based on results from two recent studies: one study examining six Norwegian municipalities with seemingly good practices in work-related old age policies, and another examining such policies in eight establishments in four different industries.

  20. A Descriptive-Evaluative Study of a Saudi EFL Textbook Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Ahlam

    2015-01-01

    This study employs checklists from Williams (1983) and Keban, Muhtar, and Zen (2012) to evaluate the "Flying High for Saudi Arabia" series, which is currently taught in high schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, to ensure it can achieve their pedagogical goals. Different results were obtained from each checklist. Keban et al.'s…

  1. Moving up: applying aggregate level time series analysis in the study of media coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the advantages of aggregate level time series analysis for the study of media coverage are discussed. This type of analysis offers the opportunity to answer questions relating to causes and effects of media attention for issues and all kind of other content characteristics. Data that

  2. Application of a self-controlled case series study to a database study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Hanae; Hinotsu, Shiro; Tanaka, Shiro; Urushihara, Hisashi; Nakamura, Masaki; Nakamura, Yuji; Kawakami, Koji

    2014-04-01

    Post-marketing surveillance activities are particularly important for safety issues in children, the elderly, and patients with severe comorbidities since these populations are usually excluded from clinical trials. In addition, using electronic databases for monitoring of safety of marketed products has been of considerable interest. This study aimed to clarify the advantages and difficulties of the self-controlled case series method relative to cohort studies in pharmacoepidemiological studies in children, using an administrative database, and to explore the impact on results of handling the period eligible for analysis and recurrent events in different ways. Datasets of only individuals who had the outcome of interest were derived from an anonymized hospital administrative database in Japan from April 2003 through August 2011. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the risks of diarrhea, bronchitis, and eczema related to palivizumab treatment in young children. The analysis included 'first diagnosed' events or 'multiple' events during an eligible period. An eligible period was defined in two ways: first-time inpatient periods of more than 3 continuous days (EPA); and a continuous period in cases where the interval between visits was below the 75th percentile of the interval between visits for patients with the same diagnosis (EPB). We extracted data for 70,771 patients and identified 641 who were exposed to palivizumab. The age-adjusted IRRs for diarrhea, bronchitis, and eczema were 3.0 (95 % CI 1.7-5.4), 10.3 (95 % CI 8.0-13.2), and 16.9 (95 % CI 12-23), respectively, in multiple events and the EPB eligible period. The IRRs varied greatly between the two eligible periods. This method could be a useful tool in pharmacoepidemiological studies in children. Careful consideration in the handling of inpatient and outpatient periods, including sensitivity analyses, is necessary because this method is a within

  3. STUDY ON COMPANY SECURITY POLICIES FROM DIGITAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA-MARIA RĂDULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet development has brought both new opportunities and risks for either retailers or consumers. For example, electronic commerce is much faster and less expensive, but this openness makes it difficult to secure. People are aware of the fact that online businesses collecting, process and distribute enormous amounts of personal data and therefore, are concerned about their unauthorized use or their use in other purposes than intended by third parties in order to gain unauthorized access to them. There are more examples of cyber criminal activities, such as: hacking, software piracy, passwords attack, service prohibition attacks, scamming, etc. Such fears led to the editing of protection policies meant to secure personal data and to develop some mechanisms to ensure the reliability and confidentiality of electronic information. Security measures include access control devices, installation of firewalls and intrusion detection devices, of some security procedures to identify and authenticate authorized users of network systems. Such mechanisms constitute the core of this study. We will also analyze security and confidentiality policy of personal data of Google Inc.

  4. A study on the denuclearization policy in Korean peninsular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, I. J.; Park, D. K.; Choi, Y. S.

    2001-01-01

    The prime ministers of North Korea and South Korea adopted 'Joint Declaration of the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsular' (Joint Declaration) on December 31, 1991. Unprecedented as an agreement between two political powers of a divided country, this Joint Declaration is important for its historical significance. To analyze the denuclearization policy in the Korean peninsular, this dissertation suggests a framework which can be established on the factors facilitating the denuclearization both on the level of international politics and on the politics of a divided country. A substantial nuclear proliferation theory should be based on the study in detail of the nuclear proliferation cases of about 40 individual countries. This dissertation may be meaningful as a concrete study of the denuclearzation in the Korean peninsular on theoretical and practical basis

  5. Study on management policy of Biocides in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Kyu; Cho, Young Hee [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In the advanced countries, there are active studies on biocide, implying non-agricultural pesticides, at present with increasing interests on this. Among the advanced countries, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are managing biocides the most systematically and have very clear regulations and roles of relevant departments. In addition to efforts of each country, the international organizations are emphasizing the need of biocides management. EU already announced Biocidal Products Directive(BPD) in 1998 and is urging to implement regulations within a guidebook in member countries from 2000. Furthermore, OECD is well aware of biocides management trend of each member country and is planning to set up a specific management guide based on this. In this study, it recommends a biocides management policy in Korea with regulations, relevant departments, and regulation contents of biocides implemented in the advanced countries and regulation trend of biocides in Korea. 47 refs., 27 tabs.

  6. Education Policy Outlook: Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Golden, Gillian; Giovinazzo, Manon; Peterka, Judith; Ullmann, Marie

    2017-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Austria is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  7. The Study on Policy Options for Siting Hazardous Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Oh [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    The problem of site allocation on locally unwanted land uses related to energy utilities that extended most recently is becoming a new energy policy issue due to the improvement of national standard of living and livelihood quality. Residents do not generally agree on establishing the construction of public energy utilities in their village due to NIMBY syndrome while they basically agree to have them. These circumstances made a big problem against mass production of industry society and the improvement of the national welfare. Locally unwanted land use related to energy utilities includes waste incineration system, nuclear power plant, coal fired power plant, oil and Gas storage tank, briquette manufacturing plant and etc. Opportunity for SOC projects carried out by central and local government is lost because of the regional egoism. The site dispute between government and residents obstructs optimal energy supply to be necessary for industry growth and the national welfare. The main objective of this study is to propose the policy option for finding a solution after surveying theory and background of site troubles and dispute factors. Final results of this study propose a solution on structural and institutional dispute. The former introduces three kinds of approaches such as tradition, compensation and negotiation. The transition of an environmentally sound energy consumption pattern and the improvement of energy efficiency could be carried out by traditional approaches. To claim the damage and offer the accommodation facilities could be settled by compensational approaches. The establishment of regional decentralization on NIMBY facilities could be settled by negotiatory approaches through fair share criteria. The latter proposes 1) 'polluter pays principle', 2) internalization of social cost and benefit on air or water pollution, 3) the behind - the - scene negotiation in a bid to settle a site dispute, 4) and supporting system for peripheral areas

  8. Tobacco Control Policy Adoption Dynamics: A Case Study of Missouri Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Kevin D; Chadwick, Ginny; Cowan, Stanley R; Kinkade, Emily

    2018-03-12

    Tobacco control policies reduce the health and economic burden caused by tobacco. With over half of the United States communities lacking adequate protective policies, an examination of policy adoption factors can provide insights to facilitate policy adoption. A case study approach examines the rate of adoption, prominent media frames, policy leaders' perceptions and coalition activities for smokefree and Tobacco 21 policies adopted in Missouri. Findings show compared to smokefree policy, Tobacco 21 requires a considerably shorter timeframe and fewer resources for adoption. Tobacco 21 coalitions target a small group of stakeholders compared to smokefree coalitions' emphasis on broad community engagement. Both policies are formally opposed, but elected officials perceive less political risk supporting Tobacco 21. As a new tobacco control policy tool, Tobacco 21 has relative advantage that should be considered by community health advocates.

  9. Energy Policy in the Baltics: A Study of Regional Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jessica Annette

    Regionalism, especially in the form of macro-regions, has emerged as a force of cooperation and integration within the European Union. The Baltic states, who have cooperated more closely since acceding to the EU, provide an effective case study for testing the unifying power of regionalism. As small states that have shared a damaging dependence on Russian energy imports, the three Baltic states share the incentive to cooperate as a region and develop their internal gas, oil, and electricity capacities. The Baltic states have displayed uneven tendencies of cooperation when it comes to energy, however. After presenting an overview of regionalism in the EU, this paper examines EU policy regarding energy in the Baltics, energy ties between the Baltics and other countries, and specific energy projects in the Baltics to show that while the Baltics do not yet have a strong tradition of cooperation in the energy sector, they have laid the groundwork to strengthen future ties.

  10. Innovation Policies: A comparative study Between Brazil and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Dias Coelho Jones

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a comparison between the main actions promoted to encourage innovation by France, as well as the current stage of research and development initiatives (R&D, in relation to Brazil. Is a qualitative study that the procedures for its development ranks as literature and documents. The data collection technique was documentary and had as a data source primary and secondary documents, coming from public archives and statistical sources. For the survey of brazilian data for the development of this study, it was used as informational basis the fifth edition of the Innovation Research (PINTEC 2011. The data from France raised through the use of OECD year Report 2014 " Reviews of Innovation Policy France in 2014."  For the presentation of the study results comparative charts and tables were used. As the present study results can be highlighted, among others: France is a country with a long scientific tradition and technique, and plays a significant role in the world in this area. On the other hand, Brazil has one of the lowest proportions of R&D and export of high technology to GDP. The completion of this study brought an important diagnosis: there is a wide and interesting research topic that is still little explored by Brazilian researchers.

  11. Does ICT Policy Improve Interorganisational ICT for SMEs? A Dutch Policy Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.; Den Hertog, P.

    2011-01-01

    Interorganisational ICT has become critical for the performance of both small and large organisations. SMEs however, traditionally lag behind in the uptake of these systems. In many countries, various policy programmes are initiated to improve ICT uptake by SMEs and support them in digital linking

  12. Does ICT policy improve interorganisational ICT for SMEs? A Dutch policy evaluation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.; Hertog, P. den

    2011-01-01

    Interorganisational ICT has become critical for the performance of both small and large organisations. SMEs however, traditionally lag behind in the uptake of these systems. In many countries, various policy programmes are initiated to improve ICT uptake by SMEs and support them in digital linking

  13. The impact of alcohol and road traffic policies on crash rates in Botswana, 2004-2011: a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebego, Miriam; Naumann, Rebecca B; Rudd, Rose A; Voetsch, Karen; Dellinger, Ann M; Ndlovu, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    In Botswana, increased development and motorization have brought increased road traffic-related death rates. Between 1981 and 2001, the road traffic-related death rate in Botswana more than tripled. The country has taken several steps over the last several years to address the growing burden of road traffic crashes and particularly to address the burden of alcohol-related crashes. This study examines the impact of the implementation of alcohol and road safety-related policies on crash rates, including overall crash rates, fatal crash rates, and single-vehicle nighttime fatal (SVNF) crash rates, in Botswana from 2004 to 2011. The overall crash rate declined significantly in June 2009 and June 2010, such that the overall crash rate from June 2010 to December 2011 was 22% lower than the overall crash rate from January 2004 to May 2009. Additionally, there were significant declines in average fatal crash and SVNF crash rates in early 2010. Botswana's recent crash rate reductions occurred during a time when aggressive policies and other activities (e.g., education, enforcement) were implemented to reduce alcohol consumption and improve road safety. While it is unclear which of the policies or activities contributed to these declines and to what extent, these reductions are likely the result of several, combined efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Widening educational inequalities in adolescent smoking following national tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003: a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Nagelhout, Gera E; Willemsen, Marc C; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, the Netherlands introduced tobacco control policies, including bans on tobacco sales to minors, advertising and sponsoring and tobacco sales in government institutions. We examined the extent to which these policies were associated with a change in educational inequalities in adolescent smoking. Repeated cross-sectional survey. The Netherlands, 1992-2011. A total of 43 527 14-19-year-old adolescents. Data were obtained from the national Youth Smoking Monitor. We used logistic regression analyses to model the immediate change in daily smoking prevalence in 2003, the trends and the changes in trends. Models included interactions between educational level (high versus low, based on the educational track of the respondent) and, respectively, period (after versus before 2003), time and time × period. Before 2003 the smoking trend declined slightly, and the decline was comparable for students of both high and low educational levels. Immediately after tobacco policies were introduced, daily smoking prevalence dropped for the total population [regression coefficient (β) = -0.340, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.445; -0.236]. This drop was larger for high educational level compared to low educational level (β interaction = -0.400, 95% CI = -0.623; -0.176). After 2003, trends in educational inequalities in smoking stabilized. Following the introduction of new tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003, smoking prevalence rates decreased among adolescents of both higher and lower educational levels. However, socio-economic inequalities in adolescent smoking increased. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 2: Papers and presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and panels. This volume contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.). Individual papers in this volume were abstracted and indexed for the database.

  16. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 1, Introduction and summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, R.L. [ed.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies or exercise. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. This volume, Volume 1, contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and discussion panels. Volume 2 contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.).

  17. [Short-term relationships between urban atmospheric pollution and respiratory mortality: time series studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filleul, L; Zeghnoun, A; Declercq, C; Le Goaster, C; Le Tertre, A; Eilstein, D; Medina, S; Saviuc, P; Prouvost, H; Cassadou, S; Pascal, L; Quénel, P

    2001-09-01

    Time series studies conducted in the field of air pollution aim at testing and quantifying short-term relations which can exist between daily air pollution levels and daily health effects. The method used for this type of survey has sometimes been misunderstood mainly because individual factors and indoor exposure to air pollutants were not taken into account. The adjustment on these individual confounding factors commonly used in classic epidemiologic studies (case-control studies, cohort studies) is not adequate to times series studies which are based on aggregate data. This is different for those factors that change over time according to the levels of air pollution (meteorological conditions, influenza epidemics, trend of health cases) which, when being analysed, must be taken into account either indirectly through time modelling or directly through non-linear modelling processes. During this last decade, numerous studies using the time series method have been published and have found short-term associations between daily levels of air pollution commonly observed and daily respiratory mortality. The consistency of the numerous results published in the international literature are more arguments in favour of non-confounding short-term relations between air pollution and respiratory mortality.

  18. Study on Formulating Policy and Strategies for IAEA TC Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Lee, M. K.; Shin, J. Y.

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study is to provide recommendations for formulating adequate policy and strategies for IAEA-TC programme as being of a donor Member State and to guide directions to facing the challenges of changing the status from IAEA-TC recipient to donor country. In addition, this study gives recommendations and feedbacks to the IAEA-TC programmer: how it has contributed to nation's nuclear technology development in the past on one hand and how the country has contributed to it on the other. Besides, this study also conducted to identify the following impacts expected: termination of on-going National TC projects, discontinuation of TC-based technical advices, sponsored fellowship and scientific visits for capacity building opportunities, and limitation in participations of various regional projects due to termination of IAEA financial support. In terms of financial aspect, this study has also performed to assess the nation's annual financial contribution (Technical Cooperation (TC) Fund: 1,67 million dollars in 2008) by comparing the experiences of other OECD countries cases. In conclusion, it is expected that the results of this study will contribute to develop appropriate measures in order to maximize the benefits for future national nuclear technology development and in addition, to explore the possibilities to extend the nuclear technology export market potentials

  19. Art and technology: A comparative study of policy legitimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Wijnberg (Nachoem)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe legitimation of technology policy is discussed from the point of view of the neoclassical and of the dynamic, Schumpeterian, approach. The results are presented, using the traditional categories of policy legitimation in welfare theory: public goods, externalities, and merit goods.

  20. Evaluation of energy efficiency policy instruments effectiveness : case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukarica, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical basis for evaluating energy efficiency policy in the Republic of Croatia and corroborated it with the analysis of energy efficiency market development and transformation. The current status of the market was evaluated and policy instruments were adapted to achieve optimal results. In particular, the energy efficiency market in Croatia was discussed in terms of micro and macro environment factors that influence policy making processes and the choice of policy instruments. The macro environment for energy efficiency market in Croatia is the process of European Union pre-integration with all related national and international legislation, political and economical factors and potential to use financial funds. The micro environment consists of government institutions, local financing institutions and a range of market players on the supply and demand side. Energy efficiency is the most powerful and cost-effective way for achieving goals of sustainable development. Policy instruments developed to improve energy efficiency are oriented towards a cleaner environment, better standard of living, more competitive industry and improved security of energy supply. Energy efficiency is much harder to implement and requires policy interventions. In response to recent trends in the energy sector, such as deregulation and open competition, policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency should shift from an end-users oriented approach towards a whole market approach. The optimal policy instruments mix should be designed to meet defined targets. However, market dynamics must be taken into consideration. 9 refs., 4 figs

  1. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Studying Climate Change Policies: Insights from the Case Study of Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Sian Ng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The world decided in December 2015 to take actions to reduce global warming. To contribute toward this goal, this research examines possible policy levers for inclusion in the climate change ratification plan. A case study of the measures taken by the Republic of Singapore, a low-lying 719.2 km2 island without natural resources in Asia, is conducted. Being vulnerable to climate change impact and yet having to balance her people’s needs and economic progress with limited resources, the measures taken by this small country could offer policy insights for small states and states without access to alternative energy sources. This research analyzes the online policy documents posted by eleven organizations to answer the main research question of identifying policy levers as theoretical constructs to form a framework that can be used to study climate change policies. A qualitative data analysis software, QSR NVivo 10, is used to classify the proposed nodes developed by the researchers using a system perspective integrating the insights from the key international climate change frameworks with the theoretical concepts from the model of pro-environmental behavior. The findings can offer insights toward developing a new contextual influence framework, which can help strengthen policy development and outcome measurement.

  2. A Comparative Study of Portmanteau Tests for Univariate Time Series Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Time series model diagnostic checking is the most important stage of time series model building. In this paper the comparison among several suggested diagnostic tests has been made using the simulation time series data.

  3. Engaging Actors for Integrating Health Policy and Systems Research into Policy Making: Case Study from Haryana State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Good examples of evidence generation using Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR in low and middle income countries (LMIC; and its application in policy making are scarce. In this paper, we describe the experience of establishing a system of HPSR from the Haryana state in India, outline how the HPSR is being utilized for policy making and programmatic decision making, and analyse the key factors which have been critical to the implementation and uptake of HPSR. Methods: Multiple methods are employed in this case study, ranging from unstructured in-depth interviews, review of the program and policy documents, and participatory notes from the meetings. The steps towards creation of a knowledge partnership between stakeholders are outlined. Four case studies i.e. development of a plan for universal health care (UHC, nutrition policy, centralized drug procurement system and use of RAPID appraisal method highlight the use of research evidence in agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation respectively. Results: Our analysis shows that the most important factor which contributed to Haryana model of HPSR was the presence of a dedicated and motivated team in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM at state level, many of whom were researchers by previous training. Overall, we conclude by highlighting the need for establishing an institutional mechanism at Central and State level where health service administrators and managers, academicians and researchers working in the field of health system from medical colleges, public health schools, management and technology institutions and social science universities can identify health system research priorities. Increased budgetary allocation for HPSR is required.

  4. Applying Critical Discourse Analysis in Health Policy Research: Case Studies in Regional, Organizational, and Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Johnson, Susan; Liu, Fuqin; Boutain, Doris M

    2016-08-01

    Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a promising methodology for policy research in nursing. As a critical theoretical methodology, researchers use CDA to analyze social practices and language use in policies to examine whether such policies may promote or impede social transformation. Despite the widespread use of CDA in other disciplines such as education and sociology, nursing policy research employing CDA methodology is sparse. To advance CDA use in nursing science, it is important to outline the overall research strategies and describe the steps of CDA in policy research. This article describes, using exemplar case studies, how nursing and health policy researchers can employ CDA as a methodology. Three case studies are provided to discuss the application of CDA research methodologies in nursing policy research: (a) implementation of preconception care policies in the Zhejiang province of China, (b) formation and enactment of statewide asthma policy in Washington state of the United States, and (c) organizational implementation of employee antibullying policies in hospital systems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Each exemplar details how CDA guided the examination of policy within specific contexts and social practices. The variations of the CDA approaches in the three exemplars demonstrated the flexibilities and potentials for conducting policy research grounded in CDA. CDA provides novel insights for nurse researchers examining health policy formation, enactment, and implementation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Evidence-informed policy formulation and implementation: a comparative case study of two national policies for improving health and social care in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlenert, H; Richter-Sundberg, L; Nyström, M E; Hasson, H

    2015-12-08

    Evidence has come to play a central role in health policymaking. However, policymakers tend to use other types of information besides research evidence. Most prior studies on evidence-informed policy have focused on the policy formulation phase without a systematic analysis of its implementation. It has been suggested that in order to fully understand the policy process, the analysis should include both policy formulation and implementation. The purpose of the study was to explore and compare two policies aiming to improve health and social care in Sweden and to empirically test a new conceptual model for evidence-informed policy formulation and implementation. Two concurrent national policies were studied during the entire policy process using a longitudinal, comparative case study approach. Data was collected through interviews, observations, and documents. A Conceptual Model for Evidence-Informed Policy Formulation and Implementation was developed based on prior frameworks for evidence-informed policymaking and policy dissemination and implementation. The conceptual model was used to organize and analyze the data. The policies differed regarding the use of evidence in the policy formulation and the extent to which the policy formulation and implementation phases overlapped. Similarities between the cases were an emphasis on capacity assessment, modified activities based on the assessment, and a highly active implementation approach relying on networks of stakeholders. The Conceptual Model for Evidence-Informed Policy Formulation and Implementation was empirically useful to organize the data. The policy actors' roles and functions were found to have a great influence on the choices of strategies and collaborators in all policy phases. The Conceptual Model for Evidence-Informed Policy Formulation and Implementation was found to be useful. However, it provided insufficient guidance for analyzing actors involved in the policy process, capacity-building strategies

  6. Why study EU foreign policy at all? A response to Keuleers, Fonck, and Keukeleire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Hylke; Vanhoonacker - Kormoss, Sophie

    In an important article on the state of EU foreign policy research, Keuleers, Fonck and Keukeleire show that academics prefer the study of the EU foreign policy system and EU implementation over the consequences of EU foreign policy for recipient countries. While the article is empirical, based on a

  7. National policy for integration of ICT: a comparative study between Brazil and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    José GOMES DA SILVA; Maria NEIDE SOBRAL

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to present the results of a comparative study of national educative policies for integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) used in basic education schools in Brazil and Spain. In general terms, this article intends to examine possible convergences and divergences in objectives presented by these policies. The time frame was between 1997 and 2010, when these policies and the launch of new transnational policies for ICT integration began. The research has...

  8. A study on the fractal characteristics of displacement time-series during the evolution of landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are one of the major natural disasters that are frequently occurring in southwestern China. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between failure of landslide and fractal dimension using displacement time-series. Taking two slopes in southwestern China as examples, we estimate the fractal parameters of displacement time-series and analyze the relationship between fractal dimension and the stability of the slope during the evolution of landslides. The result shows that the fractal dimension increases when a landslide undergoes a transition from stability to failure, but decreases during the evolution from active to stable. Fractal dimension has a critical value of 1.10 in the transition between active and stable, which indicates that fractal dimension is an important nonlinear parameter in the evaluation of the stability of landslides, although more studies and in situ data are required for validation.

  9. Comparative studies and healthcare policy: learning and mislearning across borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okma, Kieke G H; Marmor, Theodore R

    2013-10-01

    This article addresses the vocabulary of cross-national analysis and commentary about health care, health policy and health politics. We conclude there is a large gap between promise and performance in comparative policy commentary and point to major sources of confusion, such as the lack of generally agreed vocabulary, vague language and the use of faddish and misleading terms and aspirational labels (illustrated by a selection of widely used expressions in comparative reports). We next examine the basic purposes of international policy comparison, distinguish three useful and two misleading approaches and frame defensible ground rules for comparative work.

  10. Trends in the utilization of dental outpatient services affected by the expansion of health care benefits in South Korea to include scaling: a 6-year interrupted time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Jung; Lee, Jun Hyup; Park, Sujin; Kim, Tae-Il

    2018-02-01

    This study utilized a strong quasi-experimental design to test the hypothesis that the implementation of a policy to expand dental care services resulted in an increase in the usage of dental outpatient services. A total of 45,650,000 subjects with diagnoses of gingivitis or advanced periodontitis who received dental scaling were selected and examined, utilizing National Health Insurance claims data from July 2010 through November 2015. We performed a segmented regression analysis of the interrupted time-series to analyze the time-series trend in dental costs before and after the policy implementation, and assessed immediate changes in dental costs. After the policy change was implemented, a statistically significant 18% increase occurred in the observed total dental cost per patient, after adjustment for age, sex, and residence area. In addition, the dental costs of outpatient gingivitis treatment increased immediately by almost 47%, compared with a 15% increase in treatment costs for advanced periodontitis outpatients. This policy effect appears to be sustainable. The introduction of the new policy positively impacted the immediate and long-term outpatient utilization of dental scaling treatment in South Korea. While the policy was intended to entice patients to prevent periodontal disease, thus benefiting the insurance system, our results showed that the policy also increased treatment accessibility for potential periodontal disease patients and may improve long-term periodontal health in the South Korean population.

  11. Closing the Achievement Gap Series: Part I. Is Indiana Ready for State-Sponsored Prekindergarten Programs? Education Policy Brief. Volume 4, Number 7, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn-Powers, Michael; Cross, Alice F.; Zapf, Jason S.

    2006-01-01

    In this Education Policy Brief, Indiana University's Center for Evaluation and Education Policy and Indiana Institute on Disability and Community tackle major policy questions regarding publicly-funded prekindergarten programs: Why should Indiana invest in prekindergarten? Who should be served? What should prekindergarten look like in Indiana? And…

  12. Geo hazard studies and their policy implications in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    Nicaragua, situated at the Central American Subduction zone and placed in the trajectory of tropical storms and hurricanes, is a frequent showplace of natural disasters which have multiplied the negative effects of a long term socioeconomic crisis leaving Nicaragua currently as the second poorest country of the Americas. In the last years, multiple efforts were undertaken to prevent or mitigate the affectation of the natural phenomena to the country. National and local authorities have become more involved in disaster prevention policy and international cooperation boosted funding for disaster prevention and mitigation measures in the country. The National Geosciences Institution (INETER) in cooperation with foreign partners developed a national monitoring and early warning system on geological and hydro-meteorological phenomena. Geological and risk mapping projects were conducted by INETER and international partners. Universities, NGO´s, International Technical Assistance, and foreign scientific groups cooperated to capacitate Nicaraguan geoscientists and to improve higher education on disaster prevention up to the master degree. Funded by a World Bank loan, coordinated by the National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Attention (SINAPRED) and scientifically supervised by INETER, multidisciplinary hazard and vulnerability studies were carried out between 2003 and 2005 with emphasis on seismic hazard. These GIS based works provided proposals for land use policies on a local level in 30 municipalities and seismic vulnerability and risk information for each single building in Managua, Capital of Nicaragua. Another large multidisciplinary project produced high resolution air photos, elaborated 1:50,000 vectorized topographic maps, and a digital elevation model for Western Nicaragua. These data, integrated in GIS, were used to assess: 1) Seismic Hazard for Metropolitan Managua; 2) Tsunami hazard for the Pacific coast; 3) Volcano hazard for Telica

  13. Climate Change, Public Health, and Policy: A California Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Chandrakala; Smith, Jason A

    2017-10-26

    Anthropogenic activity will bring immediate changes and disruptions to the global climate with accompanying health implications. Although policymakers and public health advocates are beginning to acknowledge the health implications of climate change, current policy approaches are lagging behind. We proposed that 4 key policy principles are critical to successful policymaking in this arena: mainstreaming, linking mitigation and adaptation policy, applying population perspectives, and coordination. We explored California's progress in addressing the public health challenges of climate change in the San Joaquin Valley as an example. We discussed issues of mental health and climate change, and used the San Joaquin Valley of California as an example to explore policy approaches to health issues and climate change. The California experience is instructive for other jurisdictions. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 26, 2017: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304047).

  14. Study of the U and Th series in Crassostrea mangle shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Wellington M.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Simone, Luiz R.L.; Amaral, Vanessa S.

    2015-01-01

    Foraminifera, corals and mollusks shells have been used as proxies for environmental, paleoenvironmental and climatic change studies in marine system by using elemental and isotopic ratios as recorder of such events. Nevertheless, there is little information available on the U and Th radionuclides decay series applied on those fields. In this sense, the objective of this paper was to evaluate the activity concentrations of the U and Th nuclide decay series in Crassostrea mangle shell samples as a function of the geographic location. Samples from Sao Paulo, Parana, Alagoas, Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco states were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis and Gross Alpha and Beta Counting. Statistical analysis applied to the obtained results allowed differencing samples coming from Sao Paulo from that coming from Parana. (author)

  15. Testing independence between two Poisson-generated multinomial variables in case-series and cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocine, Mounia; Guillemot, Didier; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Moreau, Thierry

    2005-12-30

    In case-series or cohort studies, we propose a test of independence between the occurrences of two types of recurrent events (such as two repeated infections) related to an intermittent exposure (such as an antibiotic treatment). The test relies upon an extension of a recent method for analysing case-series data, in the presence of one type of recurrent event. The test statistic is derived from a bivariate Poisson generated-multinomial distribution. Simulations for checking the validity of the test concerning the type I error and the power properties are presented. The test is illustrated using data from a cohort on antibiotics bacterial resistance in schoolchildren. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Study of the U and Th series in Crassostrea mangle shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Wellington M.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Silva, Paulo S.C., E-mail: wellington.m@usp.br, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Simone, Luiz R.L.; Amaral, Vanessa S., E-mail: lrsimone@usp.br, E-mail: vanessamolusco@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (MZ/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Museu de Zoologia

    2015-07-01

    Foraminifera, corals and mollusks shells have been used as proxies for environmental, paleoenvironmental and climatic change studies in marine system by using elemental and isotopic ratios as recorder of such events. Nevertheless, there is little information available on the U and Th radionuclides decay series applied on those fields. In this sense, the objective of this paper was to evaluate the activity concentrations of the U and Th nuclide decay series in Crassostrea mangle shell samples as a function of the geographic location. Samples from Sao Paulo, Parana, Alagoas, Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco states were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis and Gross Alpha and Beta Counting. Statistical analysis applied to the obtained results allowed differencing samples coming from Sao Paulo from that coming from Parana. (author)

  17. Modified Policy-Delphi study for exploring obesity prevention priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Emily; Palermo, Claire; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2016-09-06

    Until now, industry and government stakeholders have dominated public discourse about policy options for obesity. While consumer involvement in health service delivery and research has been embraced, methods which engage consumers in health policy development are lacking. Conflicting priorities have generated ethical concern around obesity policy. The concept of 'intrusiveness' has been applied to policy decisions in the UK, whereby ethical implications are considered through level of intrusiveness to choice; however, the concept has also been used to avert government regulation to address obesity. The concept of intrusiveness has not been explored from a stakeholder's perspective. The aim is to investigate the relevance of intrusiveness and autonomy to health policy development, and to explore consensus on obesity policy priorities of under-represented stakeholders. The Policy-Delphi technique will be modified using the James Lind Alliance approach to collaborative priority setting. A total of 60 participants will be recruited to represent three stakeholder groups in the Australian context: consumers, public health practitioners and policymakers. A three-round online Policy-Delphi survey will be undertaken. Participants will prioritise options informed by submissions to the 2009 Australian Government Inquiry into Obesity, and rate the intrusiveness of those proposed. An additional round will use qualitative methods in a face-to-face discussion group to explore stakeholder perceptions of the intrusiveness of options. The novelty of this methodology will redress the balance by bringing the consumer voice forward to identify ethically acceptable obesity policy options. Ethical approval was granted by the Bond University Health Research Ethics Committee. The findings will inform development of a conceptual framework for analysing and prioritising obesity policy options, which will be relevant internationally and to ethical considerations of wider public health issues

  18. Architecture as a Primary Source for Social Studies. How To Do It Series, Series 2, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Daniel C.

    Designed for elementary and secondary use in the social studies, this guide provides activities for learning the basic elements and the history of architecture. Through this study, students develop critical observation skills and investigate buildings as manifestations of religious, social, and personal values. The historical overview traces the…

  19. Education in the New Latino Diaspora: Policy and the Politics of Identity. Sociocultural Studies in Educational Policy Formation and Appropriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Stanton, Ed.; Murillo, Enrique G., Jr., Ed.; Hamann, Edmund T., Ed.

    Many immigrant Latino families are settling in U.S. communities that previously had little Latino presence. Through case studies of such communities in Georgia, North Carolina, Maine, Colorado, Illinois, and Indiana, this book describes relations between host communities and newcomers, with particular focus on educational policy formation and…

  20. Investigation of Sustainable Energy Policy: Nairobi Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengyuan, Y.; Habiyaremye, J. F. L.; Yingying, W.

    2017-07-01

    A plan for actively achieving green energy obligation is a strategic tool for policies that point forward the diminution of the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) in conformity with the Paris environment-friendly accords (COP21) and updates of other ecosystem agreements. To achieve the concrete implementation of the sustainable energy strategy (SES) and to accomplish its objectives, an investigation is a critical factor. SES investigation has to consider both the advancement of each particular action and its wide-ranging green effect, which necessitates multiple levels of improvement. In this study, a consolidated eco strategy for evaluating, monitoring and handling the SES via investigation and execution process is established. The city of Nairobi was used as one of the geographical positions to test the effectiveness of this approach and to investigate its robust and weak points. Specifically, benefit-cost analysis, reliability, peer review and general level of participation were renowned as vital tools for attaining a functional SES investigation and for then drafting successful energy guidelines. Some suggestions were put forward to highlight the research and execution methods and to draw a road map of how SES can be strategically placed into practice.

  1. NIH initiative to balance sex of animals in preclinical studies: generative questions to guide policy, implementation, and metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In May of 2014, the NIH Director together with the Director of the Office of Research on Women’s Health announced plans to take a multi-dimensional approach to address the over reliance on male cells and animals in preclinical research. The NIH is engaging the scientific community in the development of policies to improve the sex balance in research. The present, past, and future presidents of the Organization for the Study of Sex Differences, in order to encourage thoughtful discussion among scientists, pose a series of questions to generate ideas in three areas: 1. research strategies, 2. educational strategies, and 3. strategies to monitor effectiveness of policies to improve the sex balance in research. By promoting discussion within the scientific community, a consensus will evolve that will move science forward in a productive and effective manner. PMID:25780556

  2. A Review of Concepts from Policy Studies Relevant for the Analysis of EFA in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Marie

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to give an introduction to the central concepts and the literature of Policy Studies in education. The first part of the paper addresses the questions of what policy is. How is it made and why is it relevant? It looks in particular at the role of the state and the Policy cycle framework which is an analytical tool that helps to analyse how policy is made and later implemented. The second part then focuses on the central concepts. The two main paradigms of education policy stud...

  3. Evaluating School Obesity-related Policies Using Surveillance Tools: Lessons from The ScOPE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nanney, Marilyn S.; Nelson, Toben F.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Coulter, Sara; Davey, Cynthia S.; MacLehose, Richard; Rode, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The evidence evaluating the association between school obestiy prevention policies and student weight is mixed. The lack of consistent findings may result, in part, from limited evaluation approaches. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the use of surveillance data to address methodological gaps and opportunities in the school policy evaluation literature using lessons from the School Obesity-related Policy Evaluation (ScOPE) study. The ScOPE study uses a repeated, cross-sectional study ...

  4. Toward Cultural Policy Studies on Mobility: Reflections on a Study of the Hong Kong Working Holiday Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Ho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultural policy is predominantly, and practically, considered the sum of a government’s activities with respect to the arts, humanities and heritage. Thus, cultural policy encompasses a much broader range of activities than was traditionally associated with an arts policy. Critical cultural policy studies, then, sees a distinction between ‘explicit’ cultural policies that are manifestly labelled as ‘cultural’, and ‘implicit’ cultural policies that are not labelled as such, but that work to shape cultural experiences. This article considers this explicit/implicit cultural policy distinction through John Urry’s idea of ‘social as mobility’, suggesting that some public policies regarding mobility (such as immigration, international trade and labour policy have led to specific cultural consequences and therefore qualify as implicit cultural policy. Using Hong Kong’s working holiday scheme as a case study, this article explores how an economic policy on temporary immigrant labour involves a deliberate cultural agenda as well as ‘unintentional’ cultural consequences and problematises the fact that cultural policy studies are largely framed by the idea of ‘social as society’.

  5. Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigozi Fred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.

  6. Antipsychotic drugs and risks of myocardial infarction: a self-controlled case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Ruth; Smeeth, Liam; Anaya-Izquierdo, Karim; Timmis, Adam; Denaxas, Spiros C; Farrington, C Paddy; Whitaker, Heather; Hemingway, Harry; Douglas, Ian

    2015-04-21

    Antipsychotics increase the risk of stroke. Their effect on myocardial infarction remains uncertain because people prescribed and not prescribed antipsychotic drugs differ in their underlying vascular risk making between-person comparisons difficult to interpret. The aim of our study was to investigate this association using the self-controlled case series design that eliminates between-person confounding effects. All the patients with a first recorded myocardial infarction and prescription for an antipsychotic identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project were selected for the self-controlled case series. The incidence ratio of myocardial infarction during risk periods following the initiation of antipsychotic use relative to unexposed periods was estimated within individuals. A classical case-control study was undertaken for comparative purposes comparing antipsychotic exposure among cases and matched controls. We identified 1546 exposed cases for the self-controlled case series and found evidence of an association during the first 30 days after the first prescription of an antipsychotic, for first-generation agents [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-3.99] and second-generation agents (IRR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.18-5.32). Similar results were found for the case-control study for new users of first- (OR: 3.19, 95% CI: 1.9-5.37) and second-generation agents (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 0.93-7.01) within 30 days of their myocardial infarction. We found an increased risk of myocardial infarction in the period following the initiation of antipsychotics that was not attributable to differences between people prescribed and not prescribed antipsychotics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  7. How Nutrition Sensitive Are the Nutrition Policies of New Zealand Food Manufacturers? A Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition sensitive policy addresses the underlying determinants of nutrition-related disease and is a powerful tool in reducing the incidence of non-communicable disease. Some members of the food industry have long standing commitments to health-oriented nutrition policies. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a balanced scorecard of nutrition sensitive indicators to the policies of influential New Zealand food and beverage manufacturers and explore factors affecting policy processes. Results: The average nutrition sensitivity score of the twenty influential manufacturers policies was 42 against a benchmark of 75. Some manufacturers performed well whilst others had substantial scope for improvement, the largest variation was in policy development and implementation, whereas nutrition quality was relatively consistent. Manufacturers with written policy (n = 11) scored on average three times higher than their counterparts with verbal policy. The value a manufacturer placed on nutrition influenced whether formal nutrition policies were developed. The reputational risk of failing to deliver on publicly declared nutrition commitments acted as an informal accountability mechanism. We conclude the balanced scorecard offers a useful tool for assessing the nutrition sensitivity of influential food and beverage manufacturers’ policies. Our results provide a baseline for repeat assessments of the nutrition sensitivity of food manufacturers’ policies. PMID:29257049

  8. How Nutrition Sensitive Are the Nutrition Policies of New Zealand Food Manufacturers? A Benchmarking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Doonan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition sensitive policy addresses the underlying determinants of nutrition-related disease and is a powerful tool in reducing the incidence of non-communicable disease. Some members of the food industry have long standing commitments to health-oriented nutrition policies. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a balanced scorecard of nutrition sensitive indicators to the policies of influential New Zealand food and beverage manufacturers and explore factors affecting policy processes. Results: The average nutrition sensitivity score of the twenty influential manufacturers policies was 42 against a benchmark of 75. Some manufacturers performed well whilst others had substantial scope for improvement, the largest variation was in policy development and implementation, whereas nutrition quality was relatively consistent. Manufacturers with written policy (n = 11 scored on average three times higher than their counterparts with verbal policy. The value a manufacturer placed on nutrition influenced whether formal nutrition policies were developed. The reputational risk of failing to deliver on publicly declared nutrition commitments acted as an informal accountability mechanism. We conclude the balanced scorecard offers a useful tool for assessing the nutrition sensitivity of influential food and beverage manufacturers’ policies. Our results provide a baseline for repeat assessments of the nutrition sensitivity of food manufacturers’ policies.

  9. Interactions between particulate air pollution and temperature in air pollution mortality time series studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Steven

    2004-01-01

    In many community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution is modeled additively. In this study, we investigated the interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature in Cook County, Illinois and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using data for the period 1987-1994. This was done through the use of joint particulate air pollution-temperature response surfaces and by stratifying the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality by temperature. Evidence that the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality may depend on temperature is found. However, the results were sensitive to the number of degrees of freedom used in the confounder adjustments, the particulate air pollution exposure measure, and how the effects of temperature on mortality are modeled. The results were less sensitive to the estimation method used--generalized linear models and natural cubic splines or generalized additive models and smoothing splines. The results of this study suggest that in community particulate air pollution mortality time series studies the possibility of an interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature should be considered

  10. Cyber-Surveillance: A Case Study in Policy and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Richard S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines the historical development of surveillance, electronic surveillance, and cyber-surveillance from colonial times in the United States to the present. It presents the surveillance laws, technologies and policies as a balance between national security and privacy. To examine more recent developments, the dissertation…

  11. Accountability Policies at Schools: A Study of Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdag, Coskun

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is now on its way to reforming compulsory education and having a more effective and efficient education system by creating more accountable schools. This research has been designed in a causative pattern to discover the effects of external academic performance pressures on school accountability policies and school accountability responses…

  12. Health care practitioners: an Ontario case study in policy making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Reilly, Patricia Louise

    2000-01-01

    ... Legislation Review of 1983-9. This policy process, which highlighted the relationships that practitioners hold with each other, with the state, and with the public, is placed in both ideational and institutional contexts. O'Reilly contrasts health-sector principles of self-governance, rationality, science, and technology with ideationa...

  13. Comparative Study on Rural Electrification Policies in Emerging Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Brazil, China, India and South Africa have each worked to improve access to electricity services. While many of the challenges faced by these countries are similar, the means of addressing them varied in their application and effectiveness. This report analyses the four country profiles, determining the pre-requisites to successful rural electrification policies.

  14. CASE STUDY: Tanzania — Competition policy spurs economy-wide ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... “Competition policy is critical to any development process to ensure the effective utilization of resources, as well as the proper allocation, marketing, and pricing of those resources,” Kahyarara says. “This research showed how fair competition was key in influencing the performances of enterprises in an ...

  15. Case Study; »Could Happen to You« Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Montazer Ghaem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering perennial relation of the masses with concepts of determinism and free will, the intrinsic importance of these concepts in the area of religion, as well as regarding the ability of media in constructing the masses’ narrative of existence and also taking into account relations between religion, state and television in Iran, this study seeks to answer the question raised in the sample case study of a religious serial concerning representation of free will to its audiences. Hence, a brief introduction of the concept in Islamic thought and its implications has offered at first, to recognize the implied conflict between absolute determinism and absolute discretion in the practical part of this research. Adopting representational theory approach, we have used a combination of discourse analysis approaches and Greimas actantial model to analyze the serial dialogs about free will and underlying structure of activism, respectively. In this study we have shown that the series inspires deterministic-oriented discourse, by drawing actors’ charts of opening and final sequences as well as their schematic diagram. Type of narrative sequences and activity pattern also are deterministic, and the series is based on retributive nature of difficulties and reward-oriented character of pleasures. Two signifiers of fatalism and dreamful are attracted in its discourse area and influencing of social structures is rejected.

  16. A study on the migration policy in ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y

    1995-01-01

    During the Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang, neighboring minority groups were forced to migrate to less settled areas of China. During the Song dynasty (960-1279) the Han government lost control of neighboring ethnic groups. Ethnically dominated states on their own expanded to the hinterlands, formed the national governments of Yuan and Qing, and established the local power of Liao and Jin in Han-dominated areas. During the Han dynasty the movement of minorities fulfilled the purpose of helping cultivate undeveloped land. The Han governments of feudal China held compulsory migration policies and policies encouraging minorities to move to less inhabited places. Han governments prior to the Tang and Song dynasties held policies favorable to minority settlements. During the Tang dynasty land was given to minority settlers. During the Song dynasty the Han government held a policy which prohibited taxation and harassment of new minority settlers. Minorities gained improved living conditions and the government achieved pacification. Resettlement of minorities either from forced or voluntary migration facilitated communication with the Han and promoted the exchange of culture, but also intensified ethnic conflict. The reason for the ethnic conflict was a question of control. Ethnic governments encouraged in-migration and adopted policies of compulsory and voluntary migration. Ethnic minorities in the north and west practiced mainly compulsory migration. Ethnic conflict in the Qin and Han dynasties occurred between the Han and the Huns. During the Eastern Jin and Northern dynasties minority governments captured Han and other ethnic groups. The rule of minority government was strengthened by voluntary migration. The frequent power shifts in ancient China contributed to the blending of Chinese nationalities.

  17. Impact of pharmaceutical policy interventions on utilization of antipsychotic medicines in Finland and Portugal in times of economic recession : interrupted time series analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, Christine; Zhang, Fang; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266775098; Vogler, Sabine; Valkova, Silvia; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wagner, Anita K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze the impacts of pharmaceutical sector policies implemented to contain country spending during the economic recession--a reference price system in Finland and a mix of policies including changes in reimbursement rates, a generic promotion campaign and discounts granted to the

  18. Widening educational inequalities in adolescent smoking following national tobacco control policies in the Netherlands in 2003: a time-series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2003, the Netherlands introduced tobacco control policies, including bans on tobacco sales to minors, advertising and sponsoring and tobacco sales in government institutions. We examined the extent to which these policies were associated with a change in educational inequalities in adolescent

  19. Mobilization and Defense Management Technical Reports Series. The Ability of the Industrial Base to Mobilize - Historical Lessons Applied to Contemporary Policies and Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    HISTORICAL LESSONS APPLIED TO CONTEMPORARY POLICIES AND ORGANIZATION .,• Ls•EC’TE -wit Li-- C-:) EL , F\\ EB 2, a;I . INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE OF THE ARMED FORCES o...conflict, to lend credibility to national strategic policy, and to respond to national securitý emergencies. It is inmortant for this nation to have

  20. Scoping Study. Linking RE Promotion Policies with International Carbon Trade (LINK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Paula; Hayashi, Daisuke; Kristiansen, Kjell Olav; Michaelowa, Axel; Stadelmann, Martin

    2011-06-15

    Implementing national policies may threaten the eligibility of renewable energy projects for Clean Development Mechanism/Joint Implementation (CDM/JI), thus reducing international development financing. Countries hence need to be very careful when crafting their national promotion policies. The objectives of the Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) project were to perform a scoping study on the interplay between national Renewable Energy (RE) promotion policies and international carbon trade. The study summarizes the ongoing discussion, describes the main barriers that may hinder -- or at least not sufficiently support -- the implementation of national RE promotion policies, and provides suggestions for removing these barriers.

  1. The 2002 results of the second series of follow-up studies on Japanese Thorotrast patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, F. [Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Mori, T. [Yokohama City Univ. School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Hirota, Y. [National Higashi-Nagoya Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Kyosawa, K. [Shinshu Univ. Medical School (Japan); Hayashi, S. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kido, C. [Kido Hospital, Toyohashi (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The second series (Aichi series) of Japanese follow-up studies on thorotrast patients started in 1979 based on the results of a nation-wide X-ray survey on the upper abdomen of ex-serviceman who were war-wounded during the Manchurian campaign to world war II (1931-1945). The survey planned by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japanese Government was performed between 1975 and 1978 i.e. about 33-47 years after the injection of thorotrast into blood vessels. It aimed to detect the deposited thorotrast in the liver and spleen of war-wounded ex-servicemen. The thorotrast group in the second series consisted of 156 war-wounded ex-servicemen treated by intravascular route with thorotrast. Control patients were selected matching the 5-year-age-classes of thorotrast patients among ex-servicemen who were wounded by almost the same kind of wounds in these wars. The first survey in this second series of our follow-up studies was performed on January 1, 1979. The second and third survey performed in 1995 and 1998, respectively. This fourth 2002 survey was performed 23 years after the first 1979 survey. It revealed that only 8 (5.1%) of 156 thorotrast patients were alive and remaining 148 (94.9%) had died. Of the 915 controls, 264 (28.9%) were still alive and 651 (71.1%) had died. In spite of this second follow-up study began 25 years after the starting of the first follow-up study, the life span of thorotrast patients in the 2002 survey, 23 years after the beginning of this study, revealed significantly shorter period than that of controls [{chi} {sup 2} test (P <0, 001)]. The main causes of death of thorotrast patients in the 2002 survey were; liver malignancies (73 cases; 46.8%), liver cirrhosis (7 cases; 4.5%), cancer of the extrahepatic bile duct (5 cases; 3.2%), hematopoietic malignancies (6 cases; 3.8%), hemangiosarcoma of the spleen (3 cases; 1.9%) and lung cancer (7 cases; 4.5%). Among the controls, there were 20 cases (2.2%) of hepatic malignancies, 11 cases (1

  2. The impact of monetisation policy on public service: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of monetisation policy on the performance of the public service. A case study of Nigerian Copyright Commission, a public service was carried out, with a view to examining the thrust, implementation, prospects and challenges of the policy. Primary data was gathered through a structured ...

  3. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Alcohol- or Other Drug-Use Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports the results of the study in the area of alcohol- or other drug-use prevention, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education;…

  4. Currency crises and monetary policy : A study on advanced and emerging economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Karatas, B.

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding the appropriate monetary policy response in defending the domestic currency following a currency crisis do not gather around a robust answer. This study tries to emphasize the notion that there is no single policy applicable for all currency crises happened and happening in the

  5. Homework policy review: A case study of a public school in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A key concern today is the question of homework in our nation's public schools. In this study, an investigation was conducted with the first no-homework policy, which has been introduced in one of the primary schools in the Western Cape. This study seeks to determine whether a no-homework policy will validate a positive ...

  6. Homework Policy Review: A Case Study of A Public School in the Western Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verbra

    2018-01-01

    A key concern today is the question of homework in our nation's public schools. In this study, an investigation was conducted with the first no-homework policy, which has been introduced in one of the primary schools in the Western Cape. This study seeks to determine whether a no-homework policy will validate a positive or negative effect on…

  7. Comparative Analysis of Institutional Policy Definitions of Plagiarism: A Pan-Canadian University Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This article shares the findings of a study investigating institutional policy definitions of plagiarism at twenty English-speaking Canadian universities. The types of primary sources consulted for this study included: (1) university academic calendars for 2016-2017, (2) institutional policies on academic misconduct, and (3) student academic codes…

  8. Smoking Among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment: A Study of Programs, Policy, and Prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, JongSerl; Guydish, Joseph; Chan, Ya-Fen

    2007-01-01

    The study was designed to: (1) identify smoking policies and interventions in adolescent residential treatment settings; (2) examine the prevalence of smoking among adolescents in these settings; and (3) assess relationships between program-level smoking policies and client-level smoking. The Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded 17 sites to evaluate the effectiveness of Adolescent Residential Treatment (ART) programs for substance abuse. To describe program smoking policies and interve...

  9. Green electricity policies in the United States: case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C.

    2005-01-01

    While there has been interest in promoting the use of renewable energy in electricity production for a number of years in the United States, the market share of non-hydro renewable energy sources in electricity production has remained at about 2 percent over the past decade. The paper reviews the principal energy resources used for electricity production, considers the changing regulatory environment for the electricity industry, and describes government policies that have been used to promote green electricity in the United States, with an emphasis on measures adopted by state governments. Factors influencing the development of green power markets are also discussed, including underlying economic issues, public policy measures, the regulatory environment, external costs, and subsidies. Without significant increases in fossil fuel prices, much more stringent environmental regulations, or significant changes in electricity customer preferences, green electricity markets are likely to develop slowly in the United States

  10. Studying Alcohol Pricing and Taxation Policies in India | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The controlled analysis will include a series of state-level and household-level confounders (extraneous or hidden variables). They will collect data from multiple ... Un débat d'experts organisé par le CRDI s'attaque au mariage précoce lors du forum sur la condition des femmes à l'ONU. Des chercheurs appuyés par le ...

  11. Hanford site: A guide to record series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-06

    The primary purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records which pertains to studies of worker health and mortality funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford site. Additionally, the guide provides information on the location and classification of the records and how they may be accessed. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of the DOE and the Hanford site, and Hanford`s organizational structure. It provides information on the methodology used to inventory and describe pertinent records stored in various onsite offices, in Hanford`s Records Holding Area (RHA), and at the Seattle Federal Records Center (SFRC). Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the record Series descrimations, and information on accessing records repositories.

  12. ZWD time series analysis derived from NRT data processing. A regional study of PW in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, Christos; Balidakis, Kyriakos; Katsougiannopoulos, Symeon

    2015-04-01

    ZWD (Zenith Wet/non-hydrostatic Delay) estimates are routinely derived Near Real Time from the new established Analysis Center in the Department of Geodesy and Surveying of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (DGS/AUT-AC), in the framework of E-GVAP (EUMETNET GNSS water vapour project) since October 2014. This process takes place on an hourly basis and yields, among else, station coordinates and tropospheric parameter estimates for a network of 90+ permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) stations. These are distributed at the wider part of Hellenic region. In this study, temporal and spatial variability of ZWD estimates were examined, as well as their relation with coordinate series extracted from both float and fixed solution of the initial phase ambiguities. For this investigation, Bernese GNSS Software v5.2 was used for the acquisition of the 6 month dataset from the aforementioned network. For time series analysis we employed techniques such as the Generalized Lomb-Scargle periodogram and Burg's maximum entropy method due to inefficiencies of the Discrete Fourier Transform application in the test dataset. Through the analysis, interesting results for further geophysical interpretation were drawn. In addition, the spatial and temporal distributions of Precipitable Water vapour (PW) obtained from both ZWD estimates and ERA-Interim reanalysis grids were investigated.

  13. The Study of Time Series Using the DMA Methods and Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Agayan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discrete mathematical analysis (DMA is a series of algorithms aimed at the solution of basic problems of data analysis: clustering and tracing in multidimensional arrays, morphological analysis of reliefs, search for anomalies and trends in records etc. All the DMA algorithms are of universal nature, joined by the same formal foundation, based, in its turn, on fuzzy logic (FL and fuzzy mathematics (FM. The current study finalizes the search for the anomalies in one-dimensional time series within the scope of DMA: here the initial concept of an interpreter’s logic gets its additional development. First, the formal expert’s opinions are more fully expressed, and this is realized with the more complex measures of activity (the concept of straightenings (Gvishiani et al. 2003; Gvishiani et al. 2004; Zlotnicki et al. 2005 is replaced by the measures of activity which come to the fore: second, for the junction of anomalies, a recently created DPS (Discrete Perfect Sets algorithm is used DPS (Discrete Perfect Sets (Agayan et al. 2011; Agayan et al. 2014.

  14. Bifurcation of Health Policy Regimes: A Study of Sleep Apnea Care and Benefits Coverage in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory P; Beck, Caroline A; Katapally, Tarun R; Abonyi, Sylvia; Dosman, James A; Episkenew, Jo-Ann

    2017-05-01

    A complex, poorly understood bifurcated health policy regime exists for Canada's First Nations people for extended health benefits coverage. This research adds to a small body of literature on the regime's impact on access and quality of care and its role in perpetuating health inequities in First Nations populations. Using a case study of sleep apnea care in Saskatchewan, we identified issues of health service access and coverage through a literature review of extended benefits programs, legislation and policies and through 10 key informant interviews with federal and provincial extended benefit program administrators and sleep medicine physicians. Important access and coverage differences were found for First Nations populations, many of which were recognized by federal and provincial policy makers. Despite these, government respondents recommended few policy ameliorations, perhaps due to system complexities, constitutional constraints or political sensitivities. We suggest three policy options to ameliorate current hardships wrought by this policy bifurcation. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  15. Local Management of National Cluster Policies: Comparative Case Studies of Japanese, German, and French Biotechnology Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Okamuro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cluster policies have attracted increasing attention worldwide, but only a few studies have focused on their management by local cluster organizations. We investigate the relationship between national cluster policies and their management by local cluster organizations from a comparative perspective. For this purpose, we provide a detailed comparison of national cluster policies in Japan, Germany, and France as well as six prominent biotechnology clusters in these countries. Information on the focal clusters and on the management of cluster policies was obtained using semi-structured interviews with cluster managers. We find that national cluster policies considerably differ among these countries according to basic conditions of clusters and that the patterns of national cluster policy are closely related to those of local cluster management, despite some differences between clusters in the same country caused by various regional characteristics.

  16. Study of US/EU National Innovation Policies Based on Nanotechnology Development, and Implications for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, Jung Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently US/EU governments are utilizing nanotechnology as a key catalyst to support national innovation policies with economic recovery goals. US/EU nano policies have been serving as a global model to various countries, including Korea. So the authors initially seek to understand US/EU national innovation policy interconnections, and then find the role of nanotechnology development within. To strengthen national policy coherence, nanotechnology development strategies are under evolution as an innovation catalyst for promoting commercialization. To strategically support nano commercialization, EHS (Environmental, Health, Safety and informatics are invested as priority fields to strengthen social acceptance and sustainability of nano enabled products. The current study explores US/EU national innovation policies including nano commercialization, EHS, and Informatics. Then obtained results are utilized to analyze weaknesses of Korean innovation systems of connecting creative economy and nanotechnology development policies. Then ongoing improvements are summarized focusing on EHS and informatics, which are currently prominent issues in international nanotechnology development.

  17. Evaluating Evaluation Systems: Policy Levers and Strategies for Studying Implementation of Educator Evaluation. Policy Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlach, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation studies can provide feedback on implementation, support continuous improvement, and increase understanding of evaluation systems' impact on teaching and learning. Despite the importance of educator evaluation studies, states often need support to prioritize and fund them. Successful studies require expertise, time, and a shared…

  18. Family Language Policy--The Critical Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolsky, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Introducing a pioneering series of studies of family language policy and management, this paper points out that classic language policy dealt almost entirely with the nation-state, although it did recognise the critical role of the family in determining natural intergenerational transmission of a variety. After arguing for the need to look at each…

  19. Low utilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran, despite their affordability (2000-2012): a time-series and benchmarking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2014-10-16

    Diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited data exist on the status of access to diabetes medicines in LMICs. We assessed the utilisation and affordability of diabetes medicines in Iran as a middle-income country. We used a retrospective time-series design (2000-2012) and assessed national diabetes medicines' utilisation using pharmaceuticals wholesale data. We calculated defined daily dose consumptions per population days (DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day; DIDs) indicator. Findings were benchmarked with data from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We also employed Drug Utilization-90% (DU-90) method to compare DU-90s with the Essential Medicines List published by the WHO. We measured affordability using number of minimum daily wage required to purchase a treatment course for 1 month. Diabetes medicines' consumption increased from 4.47 to 33.54 DIDs. The benchmarking showed that medicines' utilisation in Iran in 2011 was only 54% of the median DIDs of 22 OECD countries. Oral hypoglycaemic agents consisted over 80% of use throughout the study period. Regular and isophane insulin (NPH), glibenclamide, metformin and gliclazide were the DU-90 drugs in 2012. Metformin, glibenclamide and regular/NPH insulin combination therapy were affordable throughout the study period (∼0.4, ∼0.1, ∼0.3 of minimum daily wage, respectively). While the affordability of novel insulin preparations improved over time, they were still unaffordable in 2012. The utilisation of diabetes medicines was relatively low, perhaps due to underdiagnosis and inadequate management of patients with diabetes. This had occurred despite affordability of essential diabetes medicines in Iran. Appropriate policies are required to address the underutilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  20. Acute effects of ambient air pollution on lower respiratory infections in Hanoi children: An eight-year time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Schindler, Christian; Dien, Tran Minh; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino

    2018-01-01

    Lower respiratory diseases are the most frequent causes of hospital admission in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Daily levels of air pollution are associated with lower respiratory diseases, as documented in many time-series studies. However, investigations in low-and-middle-income countries, such as Vietnam, remain sparse. This study investigated the short-term association of ambient air pollution with daily counts of hospital admissions due to pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma among children aged 0-17 in Hanoi, Vietnam. We explored the impact of age, gender and season on these associations. Daily ambient air pollution concentrations and hospital admission counts were extracted from electronic databases received from authorities in Hanoi for the years 2007-2014. The associations between outdoor air pollution levels and hospital admissions were estimated for time lags of zero up to seven days using Quasi-Poisson regression models, adjusted for seasonal variations, meteorological variables, holidays, influenza epidemics and day of week. All ambient air pollutants were positively associated with pneumonia hospitalizations. Significant associations were found for most pollutants except for ozone and sulfur dioxide in children aged 0-17. Increments of an interquartile range (21.9μg/m 3 ) in the 7-day-average level of NO 2 were associated with a 6.1% (95%CI 2.5% to 9.8%) increase in pneumonia hospitalizations. These associations remained stable in two-pollutant models. All pollutants other than CO were positively associated with hospitalizations for bronchitis and asthma. Associations were stronger in infants than in children aged 1-5. Strong associations between hospital admissions for lower respiratory infections and daily levels of air pollution confirm the need to adopt sustainable clean air policies in Vietnam to protect children's health. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative study of commercial building energy-efficiency retrofit policies in four pilot cities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Jing; Liu, Yisheng; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Nan; Feng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The energy efficiency of existing commercial buildings is more challenging to regulate and improve than the energy efficiency of new constructions. In 2011 and 2012, the Chinese Government selected four cities- Shanghai, Tianjin, Shenzhen, and Chongqing- to implement pilot commercial building energy efficiency retrofit program. Based on site surveys and expert interviews in these pilot cities, this research conducted a comparative analysis on incentive policies of local city level. The analysis results show that policy designs of existing commercial buildings should be further improved. The aspects that influence the implementation effect in the future, such as subsidy level, installments, and business model promotion, should be specified in the policy clauses. Referring to the technical solution and cost-benefit in Chongqing, we found that lighting system is the most common retrofit objects while envelope system is the least common one. And the subsidy incentive is greatest for educational buildings, followed by office buildings. In the end, we further discussed the problems and obstacles in commercial building retrofit market, and provided a series of recommendations. - Highlights: • Data and information were collected through site surveys to the four pilot cities. • Policy design and effectiveness in four cities were comparatively analyzed. • Well-designed policy increases market response, energy savings and EMC adoption. • Lighting is the most common retrofit while envelope is the least common one. • Subsidy incentive is greatest for educational buildings due to the utility tariff.

  2. REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS AND COMPETITION POLICY. CASE STUDY: EU, ASEAN AND NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fora Andreea-Florina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The large number of regional trade agreements notified to the World Trade Organization (WTO significantly influenced the flow of world trade. By April 2014 there had been notified 583 regional trade agreements to the WTO, of which only 379 are in force. The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of regional trade agreements in world trade, especially the importance of establishing a regional competition policy in these agreements. The research methodology used is the analysis of legislation governing preferential trade agreements at the level of WTO, the collection and interpretation of statistical data provided by the WTO Secretariat, the case study, namely the study of literature. The paper is structured in three parts. The first part of the paper examines the basic laws based on which regional trade agreements are notified to the WTO and the evolution of these agreements in the period 1958-2013. The second part of the paper is devoted to the analysis of competition policy in regional trade agreements. In this part of the paper, to highlight the patterns of competition policy adopted under these agreements was analyzed by three case studies of competition policy in the EU, ASEAN and NAFTA. The three case studies have revealed that the three preferential trade agreements present regional competition policies with varying degrees of integration. The most complex form of competition policy is found in the European Union, because we are talking about a centralized model of competition policy. ASEAN presents a partially decentralized model, while NAFTA scrolls with a decentralized model of competition policy. The last part of the paper presents the characteristics of the four models of competition policy identified in the preferential trade agreements in force. It should be emphasized that if the initial preferential trade agreements have not put a great emphasis on the rules of competition policy, practice has shown the importance

  3. Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstov, Georgi P

    1962-01-01

    Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie

  4. A Study on establishment of air preservation policy strategy in 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin; Kang, Kwang Kyu; Yoon, Jung Im [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    For the air preservation and entire global environmental preservation in 21st century, it was implemented as a pre-work to maintain clean and clear air quality and to prepare a preventive air preservation policy. This study was focused on proposing the basic strategy of air preservation policy by deriving problems and evaluating actual results. 34 refs., 2 figs., 43 tabs.

  5. Determinants of health policy impact: comparative results of a European policymaker study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rütten, A.; Lüschen, G.; Lengerke, T. von; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article will use a new theoretical framework for the analysis of health policy impact introduced by Rutten et al. (2003). In particular, it will report on a comparative European study of policymakers' perception and evaluation of specific determinants of the policy impact, both in

  6. Policies Related to Active Transport to and from School: A Multisite Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Doescher, Mark P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fesperman, Carrie E.; Litt, Jill S.; Pluto, Delores; Steinman, Lesley E.; Terpstra, Jennifer L.; Troped, Philip J.; Schmid, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Active transportation to and from school (ATS) is a viable strategy to help increase physical activity among youth. ATS can be challenging because initiatives require transdisciplinary collaboration, are influenced by the built environment and are affected by numerous policies. The purpose of this study is to identify policies and factors that…

  7. Coordination between Education and Population Policies--A Case Study of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, S. P.

    Population and educational policies of the government of India since 1950 are reviewed. A major objective of the study is to take stock of accomplishments and problems in the two policy areas so that policymakers will have up to date information upon which to base future planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I offers an…

  8. Policy Studies in Asia--the Training of Educational Personnel: India, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Five study papers by educators from India, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand focus on: (1) policies and strategies in the implementation of universalization of education; (2) current policies and strategies in the preparation of teachers; and (3) recommendations for teachers in the universalization of education. Each of these elements…

  9. Big Business as a Policy Innovator in State School Reform: A Minnesota Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Tim L.; Clugston, Richard M., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Minnesota Business Partnership (MBP) was studied as a policy innovator in state school reform (for kindergarten through grade 12) in relation to agenda setting, alternative formulation, and authoritative enactment. Focus is on the MBP's policy-making involvement during the 1985 state legislative session. Overall, the MBP's influence was…

  10. Gender Equality in Media Content and Operations: Articulating Academic Studies and Policy--A Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Mirta Edith

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Mirta Lourenço explains the prospects when higher education studies interface with UNESCO for policy change. The baseline is that education institutions' articulation with media organizations, media professionals, policy-makers, and civil society groups is essential to achieve gender equality in and through media.

  11. Young Children as Language Policy-Makers: Studies of Interaction in Preschools in Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sally; Huss, Leena

    2017-01-01

    This special issue has as its focus the agency of young children in relation to language policy and practice in bi- and multilingual preschools in Finland and Sweden. Studies of language policy in practice in early childhood education and care (ECEC) in these two countries can be particularly relevant even to those in other contexts, because they…

  12. Education Policy in Poland: The Impact of PISA (and Other International Studies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialecki, Ireneusz; Jakubowski, Maciej; Wisniewski, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the PISA study on Polish education policy has been significant, but probably different from any other country. Poland has not experienced the so-called "PISA shock," but its education system has been benefiting considerably from PISA. For experts and policy makers, it has been a useful and reliable instrument that has made…

  13. Re-Defining "Learning about Religion" and "Learning from Religion": A Study of Policy Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancourt, Nigel Peter Michell

    2015-01-01

    The study of how policy processes shape religious education as a curriculum subject, rather than within faith schooling, is relatively unexplored. This paper applies a policy analysis perspective to an important distinction in non-confessional English religious education, which has also been adopted internationally: "learning about…

  14. Migration Studies and Academic Research on International Migration Policies in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Domenech

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the historical development of the field of migratory studies in Argentina and makes a review of the academic production around the so - called "migratory policies." The systematization of these studies, historically placed on migration policies, aims to highlight some of the most significant contributions of the research during the last 30 years, to understand or explain various aspects and dimensions of the Argentinean migration policy. To achieve this, texts were selected that derived from empirical research that explicitly assume the migratory policies as the object of study, or whose themes and research problems adopt as a framework for discussion the policies and practices aimed at regulating migration and mobility in Argentina. The organization and presentation of these selected texts consider issues related to the interests and thematic concerns, disciplinary and analytical approaches, distinct periods, scales of analysis and sources of information.

  15. Optical studies on a series of AlAs/GaAs short period superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, M S; Kim, Y D; Woo, D H; Koh, E H; Kim, S H; Kang, K N; Rhee, S J; Woo, J C

    1999-01-01

    We present optical studies of a series of GaAs/AlAs short period superlattices (SLs) grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). The structural properties were examined by X-ray diffraction measurements. Quantum confinement of the electronic states was observed in the low temperature photoluminescence (PL). Spectroscopic ellipsometric (SE) measurements were also performed to determine energies of the interband transitions at room temperature. As n increase, we found that the lower transition energies (below 4.0 eV) decrease. The results are compared with low temperature photoluminescence measurements. We found a new structure at the lower E sub 2 peak, which demonstrates the best resolution of the E sub 2 structure in these SLs so far obtained by SE.

  16. [Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease present in the population: A time series study in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Lozano, Meztli; Rodríguez-Reyes, Erika Judith; Sánchez-Zamorano, Luisa María

    2015-01-01

    To determinate the relationship of human brucellosis incidence in Mexico during 2000-2011 in relation with domestic ruminant brucellosis. An ecological time series study was analyzed using multilevel poisson multiple regression, the incidence of human brucellosis during 2000-2011 and incidence in ruminants and human development index. The high incidence of bovine brucellosis increased 19% the incidence of human brucellosis. The high incidence of caprine brucellosis increase 17% the incidence of human brucellosis. The presence of new cases of ovine brucellosis increased 13% the incidence rates of human brucellosis. Brucellosis is a public health problem in Mexico, the presence of brucellosis in domestic ruminants and the level of disease control in them affects the presence of the disease in humans.

  17. Aspects of uranium/thorium series disequilibrium applications to radionuclide migration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovich, M.

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the contribution which the uranium/thorium series disequilibrium concept can make to understanding the retardation and transport of radionuclides in the far-field of a radioactive waste repository. In principle, naturally occurring isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium can be regarded as geochemical analogues of the divalent radionuclides and multivalent actinides expected to be present in the radioactive waste inventory. The study of their retardation and/or transport in real rock/water systems which have taken place over geological timescales, can make an important contribution to establishing a rational basis for long-term predictive modelling of radionuclide transport required for safety assessments. (author)

  18. U-Series Transport Studies at the Pena Blanca, Mexico Natural Analog Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Simmons; M. T. Murrell

    2001-05-31

    Natural analogs provide a line of evidence that supports the understanding of how natural and engineered processes would occur over long time frames and large spatial scales at a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Studies of U-series disequilibria within and around uranium deposits can provide valuable information on the timing of actinide mobility and hence the stability of a potential repository over geologic time scales. The Nopal I uranium deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, is situated in unsaturated tuff that is similar in composition to the Topopah Spring Tuff of Yucca Mountain and closely matches other evaluation criteria for suitable natural analogs. By modeling the observed radioactive isotope disequilibria at Nopal I, we can estimate the rates of sorption-desorption and dissolution-precipitation of the radionuclides over time. Such information is vital to the testing or validation of performance assessment models for geologic nuclear waste disposal.

  19. Montreal Accord on Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) use series - Paper 8: patient-reported outcomes in electronic health records can inform clinical and policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sara; Ware, Patrick; Gardner, William; Witter, James; Bingham, Clifton O; Kairy, Dahlia; Bartlett, Susan J

    2017-09-01

    Given that the goal of health care systems is to improve and maintain the health of the populations they serve, the indicators of performance must include outcomes that are meaningful to patients. The growth of health technologies provides an unprecedented opportunity to integrate the patient voice into clinical care by linking electronic health records (EHRs) to patient-reported outcome (PRO) data collection. However, PRO data must be relevant, meaningful, and actionable for those who will have to invest the time and effort to collect it. In this study, we highlight opportunities to integrate PRO data collection into EHRs. We consider how stakeholder perspectives should influence the selection of PROs and ways to enhance engagement in and commitment to PRO implementation. We propose a research and policy agenda to address unanswered questions and facilitate the widespread adoption of PRO data collection into EHRs. Building a learning health care system that gathers PRO data in ways that can inform individual patient care, quality improvement, and comparative effectiveness research has the potential to accelerate the application of new evidence and knowledge to patient care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Schema therapy for patients with chronic depression: a single case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malogiannis, Ioannis A; Arntz, Arnoud; Spyropoulou, Areti; Tsartsara, Eirini; Aggeli, Aikaterini; Karveli, Spyridoula; Vlavianou, Miranda; Pehlivanidis, Artemios; Papadimitriou, George N; Zervas, Iannis

    2014-09-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of schema therapy (ST) for patients with chronic depression. Twelve patients with a diagnosis of chronic depression participated. The treatment protocol consisted of 60 sessions, with the first 55 sessions offered weekly and the last five sessions on a biweekly basis. A single case series A-B-C design, with 6 months follow-up was used. Baseline (A) was a wait period of 8 weeks. Baseline was followed by introduction to ST and bonding to therapist (phase B) with individually tailored length of 12-16 sessions, after which further ST was provided (phase C) up to 60 sessions (included the sessions given as introduction). Patients were assessed with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression three times during baseline, at the end of phase B, then every 12 weeks until the end of treatment and at 6 months follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and the Young Schema Questionnaire. At the end of treatment 7 patients (approximately 60%) remitted or satisfactorily responded. The mean HRSD dropped from 21.07 during baseline to 9.40 at post-treatment and 10.75 at follow-up. The effects were large and the gains of treatment were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Only one patient dropped out for reasons not related to treatment. The lack of control group, the small sample and the lack of a multiple baseline case series. This preliminary study supports the use of ST as an effective treatment for chronic depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Path Dependence and Foreign Policy: A Case Study of United States Policy toward Lebanon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reyes, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    ... there. What has often been overlooked is the historical legacy of a tiny nation in the Levant: Lebanon. Many studies show Lebanon as a viable democracy prior to the start of its civil war in 1975...

  2. Essential Study Skills: The Complete Guide to Success at University. Second Edition. Sage Study Skills Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Tom; Sinfield, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The eagerly-awaited new edition of the successful "Essential Study Skills" continues to provide a truly practical guide to achieving success at university. Whether you are going to university straight from school, a mature student, or an overseas student studying in the UK for the first time, this is the book that will help you to better…

  3. Social Studies K-6. Urban Studies Program. (Part Two of a Two part series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    The social studies curriculum guide for levels K-6 focuses on urban studies emphasizing the effect of urban living on a multi-ethnic population. The ultimate program goal is to develop children who will become action-oriented and responsible decision makers. An inquiry method of teaching is used throughout the course. The foci for grades K-6 are…

  4. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy: the Role of Concepts in European Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from the literature, it is shown that the concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor that are not met by most other international actors and that this curtails analysis of EU foreign policy......This book argues that theories of European foreign policy are performative: they create the objects they analyse.The book first outlines the performativity approach to the role of theories based on the work of Derrida. It then examines the performative role of Christopher Hill's concept....... It then demonstrates that the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap’ in different forms affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR....

  5. National policy for integration of ICT: a comparative study between Brazil and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José GOMES DA SILVA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the results of a comparative study of national educative policies for integration of information and communication technologies (ICT used in basic education schools in Brazil and Spain. In general terms, this article intends to examine possible convergences and divergences in objectives presented by these policies. The time frame was between 1997 and 2010, when these policies and the launch of new transnational policies for ICT integration began. The research has a qualitative approach and a descriptive and documentary procedure, through the comparative study method. The sources were laws, resolutions, regulations, decrees, regulatory guidelines, official informs, official communications and technical reports. So, on the whole, we ascertained that these policies seek an educational quality, aligned by the market logic, with constitutive elements of the recommendations of international organisations, and they are directed to the technological development and economic growth, thus legitimizing the hegemonic discourse of globalization.

  6. An Adaptive Density-Based Time Series Clustering Algorithm: A Case Study on Rainfall Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomi Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current time series clustering algorithms fail to effectively mine clustering distribution characteristics of time series data without sufficient prior knowledge. Furthermore, these algorithms fail to simultaneously consider the spatial attributes, non-spatial time series attribute values, and non-spatial time series attribute trends. This paper proposes an adaptive density-based time series clustering (DTSC algorithm that simultaneously considers the three above-mentioned attributes to relieve these limitations. In this algorithm, the Delaunay triangulation is first utilized in combination with particle swarm optimization (PSO to adaptively obtain objects with similar spatial attributes. An improved density-based clustering strategy is then adopted to detect clusters with similar non-spatial time series attribute values and time series attribute trends. The effectiveness and efficiency of the DTSC algorithm are validated by experiments on simulated datasets and real applications. The results indicate that the proposed DTSC algorithm effectively detects time series clusters with arbitrary shapes and similar attributes and densities while considering noises.

  7. The Logic of Policy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Nedergaard, Peter

    Since the 1980s, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has been subject to a series of reform attempts, namely in 1984, 1988, 1992, 1999 and 2003. Numerous studies have sought to explain the causes and consequences of these reforms. The studies can broadly categorised de...

  8. Acute kidney injury in cats and dogs: A proportional meta-analysis of case series studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legatti, Sabrina Almeida Moreira; Legatti, Emerson; Botan, Andresa Graciutti; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Agarwal, Arnav; Barretti, Pasqual; Paes, Antônio Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Risk of mortality in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cats and dogs remains unclear. Objectives To evaluate the incidence of mortality in cats and dogs with AKI based on etiology (i.e. infectious versus non-infectious; receiving dialysis versus conservative treatment). Materials and methods Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and LILACS were searched up to July 2016. Articles were deemed eligible if they were case series studies evaluating the incidence of all-cause mortality in cats and dogs with AKI, regardless of etiology or the nature of treatment. Results Eighteen case series involving 1,201animalsproved eligible. The pooled proportions for overall mortality were: cats53.1% [95% CI 0.475, 0.586; I2 = 11,9%, p = 0.3352]; dogs 45.0% [95% CI 0.33, 0.58; I2 = 91.5%, P dogs, 19.2% [95% CI 0.134, 0.258; I2 = 37.7%, P = 0.0982]; AKI due non-infectious etiology for cats and dogs, 59.9% [95% CI 0.532, 0.663; I2 = 51.0%, P = 0.0211]. Conclusion Our findings suggest higher rates of overall mortality in cats and dogs with AKI due to non-infectious etiologies relative to infectious etiologies, and showed non-significant differences in terms of higher rates associated with dialysis compared to conservative management. Further investigations regarding optimal time to initiate dialysis and the development of clinical models to prognosticate the course of disease and guide optimal treatment initiation for less severe cases of AKI in cats and dogs is warranted. PMID:29370180

  9. Acute kidney injury in cats and dogs: A proportional meta-analysis of case series studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legatti, Sabrina Almeida Moreira; El Dib, Regina; Legatti, Emerson; Botan, Andresa Graciutti; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Agarwal, Arnav; Barretti, Pasqual; Paes, Antônio Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Risk of mortality in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cats and dogs remains unclear. To evaluate the incidence of mortality in cats and dogs with AKI based on etiology (i.e. infectious versus non-infectious; receiving dialysis versus conservative treatment). Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and LILACS were searched up to July 2016. Articles were deemed eligible if they were case series studies evaluating the incidence of all-cause mortality in cats and dogs with AKI, regardless of etiology or the nature of treatment. Eighteen case series involving 1,201animalsproved eligible. The pooled proportions for overall mortality were: cats53.1% [95% CI 0.475, 0.586; I2 = 11,9%, p = 0.3352]; dogs 45.0% [95% CI 0.33, 0.58; I2 = 91.5%, P cats and dogs, 19.2% [95% CI 0.134, 0.258; I2 = 37.7%, P = 0.0982]; AKI due non-infectious etiology for cats and dogs, 59.9% [95% CI 0.532, 0.663; I2 = 51.0%, P = 0.0211]. Our findings suggest higher rates of overall mortality in cats and dogs with AKI due to non-infectious etiologies relative to infectious etiologies, and showed non-significant differences in terms of higher rates associated with dialysis compared to conservative management. Further investigations regarding optimal time to initiate dialysis and the development of clinical models to prognosticate the course of disease and guide optimal treatment initiation for less severe cases of AKI in cats and dogs is warranted.

  10. Evaluating school obesity-related policies using surveillance tools: lessons from the ScOPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben F; Kubik, Martha Y; Coulter, Sara; Davey, Cynthia S; MacLehose, Richard; Rode, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    The evidence evaluating the association between school obestiy prevention policies and student weight is mixed. The lack of consistent findings may result, in part, from limited evaluation approaches. The goal of this article is to demonstrate the use of surveillance data to address methodological gaps and opportunities in the school policy evaluation literature using lessons from the School Obesity-Related Policy Evaluation (ScOPE) study. The ScOPE study uses a repeated, cross-sectional study design to evaluate the association between school food and activity policies in Minnesota and behavioral and weight status of youth attending those schools. Three surveillance tools are used to accomplish study goals: Minnesota School Health Profiles (2002-2012), Minnesota Student Survey (2001-2013), and National Center for Educational Statistics. The ScOPE study takes two broad steps. First, we assemble policy data across multiple years and monitor changes over time in school characteristics and the survey instrument(s), establish external validity, and describe trends and patterns in the distribution of policies. Second, we link policy data to student data on health behaviors and weight status, assess nonresponse bias, and identify cohorts of schools. To illustrate the potential for program evaluators, the process, challenges encountered, and solutions used in the ScOPE study are presented. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  11. The 2002 results of the first series of follow-up studies on Japanese Thorotrast patients and their relationships to autopsy series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Aoki, I. [Yokohama City Univ. School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Machinami, R. [Kawakita General Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Hatakeyama, S. [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Fukutomi, K. [National Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Kato, Y.; Akashi, M. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Fukumoto, M. [Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    In 1963, a follow-up study was started on 262 war-wounded Japanese ex-servicemen who had been injected with thorotrast into blood vessels between 1931 and 1945. This first series of our follow-up studies on thorotrast patients covered a total of 71 years from 1931 to the present 2002 survey. It was supplemented in 1979 by another follow-up study called the second or Aichi series performed on other thorotrast-injected war-wounded persons. The 2002 survey of the first series indicated that 5 (1.9%) of 262 thorotrast cases were still alive, while 257 (98.1%) had died. Among 1,630 control war-wounded persons not treated with thorotrast, 348 (21.3%) were still alive and 1,282 (78.7%) had died. In an age-matched control population of 3,999,000 persons, 837,175 (20.9%) were alive and 3,161,825 (79.1%) had died. The life span of thorotrast patients was; thus, markedly shorten (about 18 years, P< 0.001) than that of controls. The main causes of death in the thorotrast patients were: 81 liver malignancies (30.9%), 19 liver cirrhoses (7.3%), 5 cancers of the extrahepatic bile duct (1.9%), 11 hematopoietic malignancies (4.2%). Statistical analyses by the {chi} {sup 2} test showed that the incidence of these disorders was significantly higher in the thorotrast group than the control group. From 1945 to 2002, autopsies have been performed on 404 thorotrast-treated-patients - 392 injected with thorotrast by vascular route and 12 injected by other routes. In vascularly injected autopsy cases, 266 liver malignancies (67.9%), 28 liver cirrhoses (7.1%), 12 cancers of extrahepatic bile duct (3.1%), 30 hematopoietic malignancies (7.7%); 2 bone sarcomas (0.5%), 16 lung cancers (4.1%), one hemangiosarcoma of the spleen (0.3%), 4 malignant peritoneal tumors (1.0%), and 7 sarcomas at the injection site (1.8%) were found. The relative risk estimate of liver malignancies and hematopoietic malignancies was significantly higher in the autopsied thorotrast patients than in the autopsied

  12. Electoral impact of public policies Case Study: Elections as an instrument of civic participation in public policies in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Ibrahim Gashi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Being aware of the role of electoral systems as the most important mechanisms of fostering political interaction in a political system of a certain democratic society, it is our intention to study and theoretically and practically analyze the establishment and functioning of the electoral system in Kosovo, in the temporal context of the last decade. Before that thought, several standard theoretical modalities attributable to electoral systems are to be set, with a view of explaining the role and functions of the electoral systems in consolidating basic attributes of a mature democracy. In our case studies, amongst the most important attributes under analysis are: elections, as an instrument of civil participation in public policies. Furthermore, in studying the function of elections, we shall make efforts to elaborate on the level of political culture in Kosovo, creation of authority and legitimacy, and the extent of maturity of Kosovar society itself. Since Kosovo has been under international administration for more than ten years, the analysis of the electoral system in Kosovo is found to be sui generis, and this fact allows for an extraordinary understanding of the role of elections as an instrument of citizens for participating in public policies and public life in Kosovo. In attaining such goals, we shall focus on the analysis of all cycles of elections held in Kosovo since 2001, and up to the constitutional reforms ongoing related to electoral reforms in Kosovo.

  13. Meditation and the Classroom: Contemplative Pedagogy for Religious Studies. SUNY Series in Religious Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer-Brown, Judith, Ed.; Grace, Fran, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Meditation and the Classroom" inventively articulates how educators can use meditation to educate the whole student. Notably, a number of universities have initiated contemplative studies options and others have opened contemplative spaces. This represents an attempt to address the inner life. It is also a sign of a new era, one in…

  14. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 9: collecting data from quasi-experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloe, Ariel M; Becker, Betsy Jane; Duvendack, Maren; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Shemilt, Ian; Waddington, Hugh

    2017-09-01

    To identify variables that must be coded when synthesizing primary studies that use quasi-experimental designs. All quasi-experimental (QE) designs. When designing a systematic review of QE studies, potential sources of heterogeneity-both theory-based and methodological-must be identified. We outline key components of inclusion criteria for syntheses of quasi-experimental studies. We provide recommendations for coding content-relevant and methodological variables and outlined the distinction between bivariate effect sizes and partial (i.e., adjusted) effect sizes. Designs used and controls used are viewed as of greatest importance. Potential sources of bias and confounding are also addressed. Careful consideration must be given to inclusion criteria and the coding of theoretical and methodological variables during the design phase of a synthesis of quasi-experimental studies. The success of the meta-regression analysis relies on the data available to the meta-analyst. Omission of critical moderator variables (i.e., effect modifiers) will undermine the conclusions of a meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands: A Google Trends Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troelstra, Sigrid A; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; de Boer, Michiel R; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-01-01

    The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the rate of searching for information on smoking cessation, using Google Trends search query data. An interrupted time series analysis was used to examine the effect of two types of policies (smoke-free legislation and reimbursement of smoking cessation support (SCS)) on Google searches for 'quit smoking'. Google Trends data were seasonally adjusted and analysed using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling. Multiple effect periods were modelled as dummy variables and analysed simultaneously to examine the magnitude and duration of the effect of each intervention. The same analysis was repeated with Belgian search query data as a control group, since Belgium is the country most comparable to the Netherlands in terms of geography, language, history and culture. A significant increase in relative search volume (RSV) was found from one to four weeks (21-41%) after the introduction of the smoking ban in restaurants and bars in the Netherlands in 2008. The introduction of SCS reimbursement in 2011 was associated with a significant increase of RSV (16-22%) in the Netherlands after 3 to 52 weeks. The reintroduction of SCS in 2013 was associated with a significant increase of RSV (9-21%) in the Netherlands from 3 to 32 weeks after the intervention. No effects were found in the Belgian control group for the smoking ban and the reintroduction of SCS in 2013, but there was a significant increase in RSV shortly before and after the introduction of SCS in 2011. These findings suggest that these tobacco control policies have short-term or medium-term effects on the rate of searching for information on smoking cessation, and therefore potentially on smoking cessation rates.

  16. How do researchers influence decision-makers? Case studies of Mexican policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostle, J; Bronfman, M; Langer, A

    1999-06-01

    Though the problems translating or applying research in policy-making are legion, solutions are rare. As developing countries increase their capacities to develop effective local solutions to their health problems, they confront the research/policy dilemma. Yet few descriptive studies of research-policy links can be found from developing countries, and the relevance of European and North American models and data is questionable. We report the results of a descriptive study from Mexico of the relationship between health research and policy in four vertical programmes (AIDS, cholera, family planning, immunization). We interviewed 67 researchers and policy-makers from different institutions and levels of responsibility. We analyzed interviewee responses looking for factors that promoted or impeded exchanges between researchers and policy-makers. These were, in turn, divided into emphases on content, actors, process, and context. Many of the promoting factors resembled findings from studies in industrialized countries. Some important differences across the four programmes, which also distinguish them from industrialized country programmes, included extent of reliance on formal communication channels, role of the mass media in building social consensus or creating discord, levels of social consensus, role of foreign donors, and extent of support for biomedical versus social research. We recommend various ways to increase the impact of research on health policy-making in Mexico. Some of the largest challenges include the fact that researchers are but one of many interest groups, and research but one input among many equally legitimate elements to be considered by policy-makers. Another important challenge in Mexico is the relatively small role played by the public in policy-making. Further democratic changes in Mexico may be the most important incentive to increase the use of research in policy-making.

  17. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 6: risk of bias assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Hugh; Aloe, Ariel M; Becker, Betsy Jane; Djimeu, Eric W; Hombrados, Jorge Garcia; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George; Reeves, Barney

    2017-09-01

    Rigorous and transparent bias assessment is a core component of high-quality systematic reviews. We assess modifications to existing risk of bias approaches to incorporate rigorous quasi-experimental approaches with selection on unobservables. These are nonrandomized studies using design-based approaches to control for unobservable sources of confounding such as difference studies, instrumental variables, interrupted time series, natural experiments, and regression-discontinuity designs. We review existing risk of bias tools. Drawing on these tools, we present domains of bias and suggest directions for evaluation questions. The review suggests that existing risk of bias tools provide, to different degrees, incomplete transparent criteria to assess the validity of these designs. The paper then presents an approach to evaluating the internal validity of quasi-experiments with selection on unobservables. We conclude that tools for nonrandomized studies of interventions need to be further developed to incorporate evaluation questions for quasi-experiments with selection on unobservables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metacognition Modules: A Scaffolded Series of Online Assignments Designed to Improve Students’ Study Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A. Cardinale

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many first-year biology students begin college with high aspirations but limited skills in terms of those needed for their success. Teachers are increasingly focused on students’ lack of metacognitive awareness combined with students’ inability to self-regulate learning behaviors. To address this need, we have designed a series of out-of-class assignments to provide explicit instruction on memory and learning. Our metacognition modules consist of six video assignments with reflective journaling prompts, allowing students to explore the relationship between the learning cycle, neuroplasticity, memory function, expert and novice thinking, and effective study strategies. By setting lessons on improving study behavior within a biological context, we help students grasp the reason for changing their behavior based on an understanding of biological functions and their application to learning. Students who complete these scaffolded journaling assignments show a shift toward a growth mindset and a consistent ability to evaluate the efficacy of their own study behaviors. In this article, we discuss the modules and student assignments, as well as provide in depth support for faculty who wish to adopt the modules for their own courses.

  19. Metacognition Modules: A Scaffolded Series of Online Assignments Designed to Improve Students' Study Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Jean A; Johnson, Bethany C

    2017-01-01

    Many first-year biology students begin college with high aspirations but limited skills in terms of those needed for their success. Teachers are increasingly focused on students' lack of metacognitive awareness combined with students' inability to self-regulate learning behaviors. To address this need, we have designed a series of out-of-class assignments to provide explicit instruction on memory and learning. Our metacognition modules consist of six video assignments with reflective journaling prompts, allowing students to explore the relationship between the learning cycle, neuroplasticity, memory function, expert and novice thinking, and effective study strategies. By setting lessons on improving study behavior within a biological context, we help students grasp the reason for changing their behavior based on an understanding of biological functions and their application to learning. Students who complete these scaffolded journaling assignments show a shift toward a growth mindset and a consistent ability to evaluate the efficacy of their own study behaviors. In this article, we discuss the modules and student assignments, as well as provide in depth support for faculty who wish to adopt the modules for their own courses.

  20. Metacognition Modules: A Scaffolded Series of Online Assignments Designed to Improve Students’ Study Skills†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Jean A.; Johnson, Bethany C.

    2017-01-01

    Many first-year biology students begin college with high aspirations but limited skills in terms of those needed for their success. Teachers are increasingly focused on students’ lack of metacognitive awareness combined with students’ inability to self-regulate learning behaviors. To address this need, we have designed a series of out-of-class assignments to provide explicit instruction on memory and learning. Our metacognition modules consist of six video assignments with reflective journaling prompts, allowing students to explore the relationship between the learning cycle, neuroplasticity, memory function, expert and novice thinking, and effective study strategies. By setting lessons on improving study behavior within a biological context, we help students grasp the reason for changing their behavior based on an understanding of biological functions and their application to learning. Students who complete these scaffolded journaling assignments show a shift toward a growth mindset and a consistent ability to evaluate the efficacy of their own study behaviors. In this article, we discuss the modules and student assignments, as well as provide in depth support for faculty who wish to adopt the modules for their own courses. PMID:28904648

  1. A Study of Incentive Policies for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Technology in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aotian Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Installing sustainable and renewable energy systems is a promising way of relieving Hong Kong’s dependence on imported fossil fuels. Solar photovoltaic (PV technology is a perfect solution for Hong Kong as it fits the economic and geographic situation. Through a review of the PV development history of five leading PV countries, Germany, Japan, Italy, Mainland China, and the USA, this paper serves as a useful policy toolbox to aid PV development. Based on the forerunners’ successful PV industry experiences and Hong Kong’s unique local situations, a series of incentive strategies were proposed for Hong Kong to help promote the utilization of solar PV systems by reducing the initial investment and providing reasonable subsidies at the initial stages and during the operation period of the PV systems. These results could be a practical reference for promoting renewable energy applications for local policy-makers.

  2. Policy Formation and Implementation in Secondary Education Reform: The Case of Chile at the Turn of the Century. Education Working Paper Series. Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    The Education Working Paper Series is produced by the Education Unit at the World Bank (HDNED). It provides an avenue for World Bank staff to publish and disseminate preliminary education findings to encourage discussion and exchange ideas within the World Bank and among the broader development community. Throughout the 1990s and into the…

  3. Novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity for use in complex system behavior studies and time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Dragutin T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose novel metrics based on the Kolmogorov complexity for use in complex system behavior studies and time series analysis. We consider the origins of the Kolmogorov complexity and discuss its physical meaning. To get better insights into the nature of complex systems and time series analysis we introduce three novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity: (i the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum, (ii the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum highest value and (iii the overall Kolmogorov complexity. The characteristics of these measures have been tested using a generalized logistic equation. Finally, the proposed measures have been applied to different time series originating from: a model output (the biochemical substance exchange in a multi-cell system, four different geophysical phenomena (dynamics of: river flow, long term precipitation, indoor 222Rn concentration and UV radiation dose and the economy (stock price dynamics. The results obtained offer deeper insights into the complexity of system dynamics and time series analysis with the proposed complexity measures.

  4. Novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity for use in complex system behavior studies and time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Mimić, Gordan; Nikolić-Djorić, Emilija; Arsenić, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    We propose novel metrics based on the Kolmogorov complexity for use in complex system behavior studies and time series analysis. We consider the origins of the Kolmogorov complexity and discuss its physical meaning. To get better insights into the nature of complex systems and time series analysis we introduce three novel measures based on the Kolmogorov complexity: (i) the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum, (ii) the Kolmogorov complexity spectrum highest value and (iii) the overall Kolmogorov complexity. The characteristics of these measures have been tested using a generalized logistic equation. Finally, the proposed measures have been applied to different time series originating from: a model output (the biochemical substance exchange in a multi-cell system), four different geophysical phenomena (dynamics of: river flow, long term precipitation, indoor 222Rn concentration and UV radiation dose) and the economy (stock price dynamics). The results obtained offer deeper insights into the complexity of system dynamics and time series analysis with the proposed complexity measures.

  5. Local government alcohol policy development: case studies in three New Zealand communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Room, Robin; Langley, John

    2013-01-01

    Aims Local alcohol policies can be effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. The aim of this study was to examine local government responses to alcohol-related problems and identify factors influencing their development and adoption of alcohol policy. Designsettings and participants Case studies were used to examine local government responses to alcohol problems in three New Zealand communities: a rural town, a provincial city and a metropolitan city. Newspaper reports, local government documents and key informant interviews were used to collect data which were analysed using two conceptual frameworks: Kingdon's Streams model and the Stakeholder model of policy development. Measurements Key informant narratives were categorized according to the concepts of the Streams and Stakeholder models. Findings Kingdon's theoretical concepts associated with increased likelihood of policy change seemed to apply in the rural and metropolitan communities. The political environment in the provincial city, however, was not favourable to the adoption of alcohol restrictions. The Stakeholder model highlighted differences between the communities in terms of power over agenda-setting and conflict between politicians and bureaucrats over policy solutions to alcohol-related harm. These differences were reflected in the ratio of policies considered versus adopted in each location. Decisions on local alcohol policies lie ultimately with local politicians, although the policies that can be adopted by local government are restricted by central government legislation. Conclusions The adoption of policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm may be better facilitated by an agenda-setting process where no ‘gate-keepers’ determine what is included into the agenda, and community mobilization efforts to create competitive local government elections around alcohol issues. Policy adoption would also be facilitated by more enabling central government legislation. PMID:23130762

  6. Integrating Faith-Based Organizations into State-Funded Pre-K Programs: Resolving Constitutional Conflict. Pre-K Policy Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dan; Boylan, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This policy brief addresses federal and state constitutional issues that arise when faith-based organizations participate in state prekindergarten (pre-k) programs and recommends safeguards to ensure that public funding of those programs complies with constitutional principles respecting the separation of church and state and freedom of religion.…

  7. TANF and the Status of Teen Mothers Under Age 18. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies, Series A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acs, Gregory; Koball, Heather

    This brief uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort to profile teen mothers under welfare reform policies. Initially, it assesses the extent to which teen childbearing among 15- to 17-year-old girls has changed between the start of federal welfare reform in 1997 and 2000. Then, it examines changes in teen mothers'…

  8. Improving PICC use and outcomes in hospitalised patients: an interrupted time series study using MAGIC criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Lakshmi; Flanders, Scott; Rogers, Mary; Calleja, Yvonne; Snyder, Ashley; Thyagarajan, Rama; Bercea, Priscila; Chopra, Vineet

    2018-04-01

    Although important in clinical care, reports of inappropriate peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) use are growing. To test whether implementation of the Michigan Appropriateness Guide for Intravenous Catheters (MAGIC) can improve PICC use and patient outcomes. Quasi-experimental, interrupted time series design at one study site with nine contemporaneous external controls. Ten hospitals participating in a state-wide quality collaborative from 1 August 2014 to 31 July 2016. 963 hospitalised patients who received a PICC at the study site vs 6613 patients at nine control sites. A multimodal intervention (tool, training, electronic changes, education) derived from MAGIC. Appropriateness of PICC use and rates of PICC-associated complications. Segmented Poisson regression was used for analyses. Absolute rates of inappropriate PICC use decreased substantially at the study site versus controls (91.3% to 65.3% (-26.0%) vs 72.2% to 69.6% (-2.6%); PPICC use occurred at the study site (incidence rate ratio 0.86 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; P=0.048)); no change was observed at control sites. While the incidence of all PICC complications decreased to a greater extent at the study site, the absolute difference between controls and intervention was small (33.9% to 26.7% (-7.2%) vs 22.4% to 20.8% (-1.6%); P=0.036). Non-randomised design limits inference; the most effective component of the multimodal intervention is unknown; effects following implementation were modest. In a multihospital quality improvement project, implementation of MAGIC improved PICC appropriateness and reduced complications to a modest extent. Given the size and resources required for this study, future work should consider cost-to-benefit ratio of similar approaches. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Uranium series disequilibrium: application to studies of the groundwater regime of the Harwell region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovich, M.; Alexander, J.

    1985-03-01

    Regional groundwater systems incorporating argillaceous formations beneath the Harwell site have been studied as part of a national research programme of investigation into the feasibility of disposal of low and intermediate radioactive wastes into argillaceous rocks. The principal aim of the programme is to establish the groundwater flow patterns using hydrogeological and geochemical methods in association with isotope contents and uranium series disequilibrium and thus provide an independent approach to the study of effective permeabilities of clay lithologies in a sedimentary sequence. Thirty four groundwater samples derived from the high permeability formations in the Harwell region have been analysed for uranium and thorium content and 234 U/ 238 U, 230 Th/ 234 U and 230 Th/ 232 Th activity ratios. The uranium isotopic signatures have been interpreted in terms of the regional groundwater circulation and mixing patterns. The most significant zones of groundwater mixing determined from uranium isotopic data are situated just beneath the edge of the confined strata. These zones coincide with the locations of hydraulic lows in the Great Oolite and the Corallian formations towards which the regional groundwaters move. It is concluded that the uranium isotopic signatures can be used to identify water masses and to evaluate mixing of groundwaters in a sedimentary sequence on a regional scale. (author)

  10. Graphical representations of a television series: a study with deaf and hearing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Cristina; Leal, Aurora; Silvestre, Núria

    2010-11-01

    The understanding of a television story can be very different depending on the age of the viewer, their background knowledge, the content of the programme and the way in which they combine the information gathered from linguistic, audio and visual elements. This study explores the different ways of interpreting an audiovisual document considering that, due to a hearing impaired, visual, audio and linguistic information could be perceived very differently to the way it is by hearing people. The study involved the participation of 20 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents, aged 12 to 19 years who, after watching a fragment of a television series, were asked to draw a picture of what had happened in the story. The results show that the graphical representation of the film is similar for both groups in terms of the number of scenes, but there is greater profusion, in the deaf group, of details about the context and characters, and there are differences in their interpretations of some of the sequences in the story.

  11. The effect of the Swedish bicycle helmet law for children: an interrupted time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonander, Carl; Nilson, Finn; Andersson, Ragnar

    2014-12-01

    Previous population-based research has shown that bicycle helmet laws can reduce head injury rates among cyclists. According to deterrence theory, such laws are mainly effective if there is a high likelihood of being apprehended. In this study, we investigated the effect of the Swedish helmet law for children under the age of 15, a population that cannot be fined. An interrupted time series design was used. Monthly inpatient data on injured cyclists from 1998-2012, stratified by age (0-14, 15+), sex, and injury diagnosis, was obtained from the National Patient Register. The main outcome measure was the proportion of head injury admissions per month. Intervention effect estimates were obtained using generalized autoregressive moving average (GARMA) models. Pre-legislation trend and seasonality was adjusted for, and differences-in-differences estimation was obtained using adults as a non-equivalent control group. There was a statistically significant intervention effect among male children, where the proportion of head injuries dropped by 7.8 percentage points. There was no evidence of an intervention effect on the proportion of head injuries among female children. According to hospital admission data, the bicycle helmet law appears to have had an effect only on male children. This study, while quasi-experimental and thus not strictly generalizable, can contribute to increased knowledge regarding the effects of bicycle helmet laws. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struelens, M.J.; Wagner, D.; Bruce, J.; MacKenzie, F.M.; Cookson, B.; Voss, A.; Broek, P.J.J.A. van den; Gould, I.

    2006-01-01

    Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and

  13. Energy efficiency policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector

  14. Energy efficient policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector. (author)

  15. Industrial energy policy: a case study of demand in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony Nagy

    2006-01-01

    The purpose behind building the industrial energy demand model was to enable assessment of the impact of potential policy options and to forecast future energy demand under various assumptions, including the impact of the possible removal of energy subsidies in accordance with the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. The results of the model, based on three scenarios, underline several important issues: With nominal energy prices staying the same (the status quo) and with inflation and economic growth continuing to expand (i.e. baseline scenario), it is expected that industrial demand will grow. In this sector, energy consumption is projected to grow at an annual growth rate of about 3.5 per cent throughout the forecast period. In the moderate scenario, however, this drops to 1.9 per cent and when all energy subsidies are removed as in the case of the extreme scenario, the energy consumption is projected to grow by only 1.5 per cent annually throughout the same period. Moreover, with regards to inter-fuel substitution, the model forecast indicates that electricity and natural gas consumption will decline, while the consumption of oil products will increase in all scenarios. The results of the model also indicate that the changing price structure of energy resources should be done in a comprehensive manner. In other words, electricity prices should be adjusted upwards instantly with the adjustment of oil products' prices and natural gas otherwise, a massive inter-fuel substitution will occur within the various consuming industries. (author)

  16. Study of cross-spectra of velocity components and temperature series in a nocturnal boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Viñas, Carmen; Viana, Samuel; Yagüe, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The main characteristic of the Planetary Boundary Layer is the turbulent flow that can be understood as the motions of many superimposed eddies with different scales, which are very irregular and produce mixing among the atmospheric properties. Spectral analysis is a widely used statistical tool to know the size of eddies into the flow. The Turbulent Kinetic Energy is split in fractions for each scale of eddy by mean the power spectrum of the wind velocity components. Also, the fluctuation of the other variables as temperature, humidity, gases concentrations or material particles presents in the atmosphere can be divided according to the importance of different scales in a similar way than the wind. A Cross-spectrum between two time series is used in meteorology to know their correlation in frequency space. Specially, coespectrum, or real part of cross-spectrum, amplitud and coherence give us many information about the low or high correlation between two variables in a particular frecuency or scale (Stull, 1988). In this work we have investigated cross-spectra of velocity components and temperature measured along the summer 2009 at the CIBA, Research Centre for the Lower Atmosphere, located in Valladolid province (Spain), which is on a quite flat terrain (Cuxart et al., 2000; Viana et al., 2009). In these experimental dataset, among other instrumentation, two sonic anemometers (20 Hz, sampling rate) at 1.5 m and 10 m height are available. Cross-spectra between variables of the two levels, specially, wind vertical component and sonic temperature, under stable stratification are studied in order to improve the knowledge of the proprieties of the momentum and heat fluxes near the ground in the PBL. Nevertheless, power spectral of horizontal components of the wind, at both levels, have been also analysed. The spectra and cross-spectra were performed by mean the Blackman-Tukey method, widely utilised in the time series studies (Blackman & Tukey, 1958) and, where it is

  17. Visualizing and Forecasting Box-Office Revenues: A Case Study of the James Bond Movie Series

    OpenAIRE

    Petrosyan, Vahan

    2014-01-01

    This Master's report deals with the visualization and forecasting of the box-office revenues and some related variables from the James Bond movie Series. Visualization techniques such as time series plots, scatterplot matrices, dotplots, boxplots, histograms, normal quantile plots, parallel coordinates plots, heatmaps, mosaic plots, association plots, and choropleth maps are used to provide some deeper insights into the given dataset. Additionally, the results from an article published in 199...

  18. Are shunt series and shunt patency studies useful in patients with shunted idiopathic intracranial hypertension in the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ann; Elder, Benjamin D; Sankey, Eric W; Goodwin, C Rory; Jusué-Torres, Ignacio; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2015-11-01

    Shunt series and shunt patency studies can be performed in the emergency department (ED) to evaluate for shunt malfunction in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Here, we examine the utility of these studies in this specific patient population. We retrospectively reviewed the ED visits of all shunted patients diagnosed with IIH from 2003 to 2014. ED visits for symptoms not related to the patient's IIH were excluded from the study. Collected variables included demographics, symptoms, IIH diagnosis and treatment history, imaging findings, and management changes. Twenty-five (81%) patients had a total of 105 visits involving a shunt series, with four (3.9%) showing problems with the catheter. The majority of shunt series (n=101, 96%) showed no catheter pathology. Based on results of the shunt series alone, in 3 instances, management changes in the form of shunt revision or shunt reprogramming occurred. Of the 105 visits with a shunt series, 17 (16%) resulted in a change in management as compared to 12 out of 66 (18%) visits without a shunt series (p=0.83). Nine patients had a total of 10 visits involving a shunt patency study: five were normal, four were abnormal, and one was inconclusive. Based on findings on the shunt patency study alone, changes in management leading to shunt adjustment or revision occurred in 4 instances. Of the 10 visits with shunt patency studies, 5 resulted in a change in management as compared to 24 out of 161 visits without a shunt patency study (p=0.014). Shunt series detected catheter pathology only 3.9% of the time, and there was no difference in the rate of management changes between those patients who underwent a shunt series and those who did not. There was a significant difference in the rate of management changes in patients who received shunt patency studies as compared to those who did not. Shunt series may not be a useful screening tool to be used universally to diagnose shunt malfunction in IIH patients in

  19. Equity in Elementary Science Education: A Study of Institutional and Policy Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kathryn N.

    Despite recognition that the foundation for interest in science is laid down at the elementary level (Tai, et al., 2006), in the last ten years elementary science instruction time has declined in K-6 schooling (Center on Education Policy, 2007). A lack of access to excellent science education is exacerbated for low-income students, prompting significant questions regarding inequities within the science education pipeline (Maulucci, 2010). The critical factors needed to address these inequities include teacher preparation, access to resources, and instructional leadership, as well as a supportive policy and institutional milieu. However, although the former three have been studied extensively, the role of policy and institutions in creating the conditions for equity in science education are little understood despite their likely significant role (Lemke, 2001). This mixed methods study addressed this gap by examining the role the policy and institutional milieu play in constraining or supporting equitable elementary science education. Institutional theory provides the framework for understanding how various institutional logics and regulatory pressures permeate schools and districts across contexts, influencing science education implementation (Scott, 2014). Two distinct approaches were used to first quantitatively examine the predictors of differentiation in elementary science education instructional time and methods, and second qualitatively analyze the nature and process by which these mechanisms exert influence. Data for the first two papers was derived from a case study of a purposively sampled district, including surveys of 200 teachers and embedded case studies of four schools. Analysis consisted of multi-level models of teacher attributes and school and policy factors in predicting differential distribution of science education instructional time and methods (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002). Data for the third paper arose out of a series of principal, administrator

  20. An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension Service, USDA. Volume II: Report of the Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Sydelle Stone; And Others

    Conducted on over 3,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in six states, this study documents changes in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors which can be related to participating in the Mulligan Stew television series. This volume is a detailed elaboration of the study findings as well as a description of the study design,…

  1. Policy Implementation Study on Spatial Planning for Environmental Conflict (Study Location: Rembang Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusyuniadi, Indraya

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to see the impact and benefits as an outcome of a policy, where this policy is in the form of spatial planning (Regional Planning). As known RTRW is a product that can be regarded as "the book of development" in every region both in the provincial and regional levels. One of them is as a decision tool for investors (investors) in increasing local development investment, spatial planning (RTRW) is also expected to maintain the environment, in order to support the sustainability of regional development. In reality, there are still many conflicts of interest in the implementation process of regional development, especially between economic and environmental interests. Often the interests of regional sustainability are placed at a lower level (less priority) than investment / economy. Land conversion that is inconsistent with district / city spatial planning RTRW is relatively still occurring, especially for economic purposes. Lack of policy called spatial plan in this case RTRW Province and Regency in responding to existing condition in field. How can a product that is said to be "Scripture" a regional planning is powerless in fulfilling the space for investment in the form of industry, commercial, housing and so forth. There are several results that can be concluded in this study. Basically, the importance of the environment at least can be used as the basis or priority of the main decision makers above economic interests and other politic interests. The current Spatial Plan / RTRW document still holds a big question whether at the time of compilation it follows the norms and rules in a plan (data accuracy, through input process from the community).

  2. SRNL PHASE II SHELF LIFE STUDIES - SERIES 1 ROOM TEMPERATURE AND HIGH RELATIVE HUMIDITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Duffey, J.

    2012-09-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Phase II, Series 1 shelf-life corrosion testing for the Department of Energy Standard 3013 container is presented and discussed in terms of the localized corrosion behavior of Type 304 stainless steel in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures and the potential impact to the 3013 inner container. This testing was designed to address the influence of temperature, salt composition, initial salt moisture, residual stress and type of oxide/salt contact on the relative humidity inside a 3013 container and the initiation and propagation of localized corrosion, especially stress corrosion cracking. The integrated plan is being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory and SRNL. SRNL is responsible for conducting a corrosion study in small scale vessels containing plutonium oxide and chloride salts under conditions of humidity, temperature and oxide/salt compositions both within the limits of 3013 storage conditions as well as beyond the 3013 storage requirements to identify margins for minimizing the initiation of stress corrosion cracking. These worst case conditions provide data that bound the material packaged in 3013 containers. Phase I of this testing was completed in 2010. The Phase II, Series 1 testing was performed to verify previous results from Phase I testing and extend our understanding about the initiation of stress corrosion cracking and pitting that occur in 304L under conditions of room temperature, high humidity, and a specific plutonium oxide/salt chemistry. These results will aid in bounding the safe storage conditions of plutonium oxides in 3013 containers. A substantial change in the testing was the addition of the capability to monitor relative humidity during test exposure. The results show that under conditions of high initial moisture ({approx}0.5 wt%) and room temperature stress corrosion cracking occurred in 304L teardrop coupons in contact with the oxide/salt mixture at times

  3. Study on electric energy consumed in intermittent series-parallel elastic actuators (iSPEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Glenn; Furnémont, Raphaël; Verstraten, Tom; Espinoza, Cyprian; Beckers, Simon; Lefeber, Dirk; Vanderborght, Bram

    2017-04-06

    On compliant actuators, intermittent series-parallel elastic actuators (iSPEA) can reduce motor load by variable load cancellation through recruitment of parallel springs by a single motor. However, the potential to reduce electric energy consumed, compared to a traditional stiff driven joint has not yet been evaluated thoroughly both in simulations and experiments. We have developed a 1DOF MACCEPA-based iSPEA test bench with a self-closing intermittent mechanism. An iSPEA driven warehouse robot is used as a case study in simulation. A method to compare iSPEA and traditional actuators is proposed. This paper shows a match between our simulations and experimental results regarding electric energy consumed. Although the chosen gear ratio shows to be detrimental for both the stiff actuator and the iSPEA, the electric energy consumed by the iSPEA is about 25% to 67% of the stiff actuator, for a warehouse robot placing 3 objects on a shelf.

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SIMULATION AND TIME SERIES MODEL IN QUANTIFYING BULLWHIP EFFECT IN SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. O. Fabson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bullwhip (or whiplash effect is an observed phenomenon in forecast driven distribution channeland careful management of these effects is of great importance to managers of supply chain.Bullwhip effect refers to situations where orders to the suppliers tend to have larger variance thansales to the buyer (demand distortion and the distortion increases as we move up the supply chain.Due to the fact that demand of customer for product is unstable, business managers must forecast inorder to properly position inventory and other resources. Forecasts are statistically based and in mostcases, are not very accurate. The existence of forecast errors made it necessary for organizations tooften carry an inventory buffer called “safety stock”. Moving up the supply chain from the end userscustomers to raw materials supplier there is a lot of variation in demand that can be observed, whichcall for greater need for safety stock.This study compares the efficacy of simulation and Time Series model in quantifying the bullwhipeffects in supply chain management.

  5. Treacher Collins syndrome: a clinical and molecular study based on a large series of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Marie; Geneviève, David; Ostertag, Agnès; Marlin, Sandrine; Lacombe, Didier; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Coubes, Christine; David, Albert; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Vilain, Catheline; Dieux-Coeslier, Anne; Manouvrier, Sylvie; Isidor, Bertrand; Jacquemont, Marie-Line; Julia, Sophie; Layet, Valérie; Naudion, Sophie; Odent, Sylvie; Pasquier, Laurent; Pelras, Sybille; Philip, Nicole; Pierquin, Geneviève; Prieur, Fabienne; Aboussair, Nisrine; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Baujat, Geneviève; Blanchet, Patricia; Blanchet, Catherine; Dollfus, Hélène; Doray, Bérénice; Schaefer, Elise; Edery, Patrick; Giuliano, Fabienne; Goldenberg, Alice; Goizet, Cyril; Guichet, Agnès; Herlin, Christian; Lambert, Laetitia; Leheup, Bruno; Martinovic, Jelena; Mercier, Sandra; Mignot, Cyril; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Perez, Marie-José; Pinson, Lucile; Puechberty, Jacques; Willems, Marjolaine; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Szakszon, Kateline; Szaskon, Kateline; Toutain, Annick; Verloes, Alain; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Sanchez, Elodie; Sarda, Pierre; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Collet, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Treacher Collins/Franceschetti syndrome (TCS; OMIM 154500) is a disorder of craniofacial development belonging to the heterogeneous group of mandibulofacial dysostoses. TCS is classically characterized by bilateral mandibular and malar hypoplasia, downward-slanting palpebral fissures, and microtia. To date, three genes have been identified in TCS:,TCOF1, POLR1D, and POLR1C. We report a clinical and extensive molecular study, including TCOF1, POLR1D, POLR1C, and EFTUD2 genes, in a series of 146 patients with TCS. Phenotype-genotype correlations were investigated for 19 clinical features, between TCOF1 and POLR1D, and the type of mutation or its localization in the TCOF1 gene. We identified 92/146 patients (63%) with a molecular anomaly within TCOF1, 9/146 (6%) within POLR1D, and none within POLR1C. Among the atypical negative patients (with intellectual disability and/or microcephaly), we identified four patients carrying a mutation in EFTUD2 and two patients with 5q32 deletion encompassing TCOF1 and CAMK2A in particular. Congenital cardiac defects occurred more frequently among patients with TCOF1 mutation (7/92, 8%) than reported in the literature. Even though TCOF1 and POLR1D were associated with extreme clinical variability, we found no phenotype-genotype correlation. In cases with a typical phenotype of TCS, 6/146 (4%) remained with an unidentified molecular defect.

  6. A Comparative Study of the Photodegradation of Two Series of Cyclic Olefin Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario H. Gutiérrez-Villarreal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of commercial cyclic olefin copolymers (COC, namely, ethylene-norbornene (E-NB and ethylene-tetracyclododecene (E-TD, were processed as thin films with thicknesses of 25 μm by an extrusion process. The photodegradation of neat and formulated films with different metal stearates (Fe, Co, and Mn was investigated using an ultraviolet (UV light lamp (340 nm for a period of 30 days in an accelerated weathering tester model QUV from Q-LAB according to the ASTM D 5208-01 standard practice. Changes in carbonyl index (CI and tensile properties were used to evaluate the photodegradation of the films and other properties, such as Tg variation by DSC, were also analyzed. The present study reveals that (E-NB copolymers show higher sensitivity to photodegradation than (E-TD resins, in the absence and presence of metal stearates. We also find that the Fe salt shows the highest oxidative activity.

  7. A combined teamwork training and work standardisation intervention in operating theatres: controlled interrupted time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lauren; Pickering, Sharon P; Hadi, Mohammed; Robertson, Eleanor; New, Steve; Griffin, Damian; Collins, Gary; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Catchpole, Ken; McCulloch, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Teamwork training and system standardisation have both been proposed to reduce error and harm in surgery. Since the approaches differ markedly, there is potential for synergy between them. Controlled interrupted time series with a 3 month intervention and observation phases before and after. Operating theatres conducting elective orthopaedic surgery in a single hospital system (UK Hospital Trust). Teamwork training based on crew resource management plus training and follow-up support in developing standardised operating procedures. Focus of subsequent standardisation efforts decided by theatre staff. Paired observers watched whole procedures together. We assessed non-technical skills using NOTECHS II, technical performance using glitch rate and compliance with WHO checklist using a simple quality tool. We measured complication and readmission rates and hospital stay using hospital administrative records. Before/after change was compared in the active and control groups using two-way ANOVA and regression models. 1121 patients were operated on before and 1100 after intervention. 44 operations were observed before and 50 afterwards. Non-technical skills (p=0.002) and WHO compliance (pteamwork and system improvement causes marked improvements in team behaviour and WHO performance, but not technical performance or outcome. These findings are consistent with the synergistic hypothesis, but larger controlled studies with a strong implementation strategy are required to test potential outcome effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Uranium-series disequilibrium studies in phosphorite nodules from the west coast of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Veeh, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    Sedimentary phosphorites occurring on the sea floor off Peru and Chile have been analyzed for U and Th isotopes, to establish their ages and hence obtain clues for their mode of formation. Fission-track distribution studies indicate that the U is primarily associated with the apatite fraction. Uranium-series disequilibrium methods, therefore, should be applicable, if the U incorporation is syngenetic with the apatite. The fractionation of U isotopes between oxidation states in the relatively young phosphorites from South America is low compared to that in older deposits. This supports the contention of Kolodny et al., (Geochim.Cosmochim.Acta;34:3 (1970)) that the major mechanism of 234 U/ 238 U fractionation is displacement of 234 U atoms into sites where they are more 'oxidizable' than the 238 U parent. Age estimates based on 234 U(IV) and 230 Th contents are internally consistent and range from late Pleistocene to Recent. The results indicate that marine phosphorites are currently forming in this area of intense oceanic upwelling. The age pattern during the last 150,000 yr suggests a correlation with eustatic high sea level stands and implies that conditions were more favourable for apatite genesis in this area during interglacials rather than during glacial times. (author)

  9. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 2: complementary approaches to advancing global health knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2017-09-01

    Quasi-experiments have been infrequently used in the health sciences. Focusing on health systems implementation research, this article details key advantages of quasi-experiments and argues that they can complement (but not replace) randomized evaluations. Specifically, it may be possible to use a quasi-experiment to study the causal effect of an intervention that cannot feasibly be randomized or that would be unethical (e.g., because the intervention has become the standard of care) to test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In addition, because they usually take advantage of routinely collected data, quasi-experiments may be feasible when it is too costly (either financially or in terms of the required time) to carry out a RCT - an important advantage in research on health systems, which vary widely between settings. Nonetheless, we argue that RCTs will continue to be indispensable for implementation research because i) the assumptions needed to establish causality with a quasi-experiment are often unverifiable, ii) available data frequently do not allow for a rigorous quasi-experiment, and iii) randomized designs tend to lend themselves more to informing policy makers of causal effects prior to (or during) the full-scale rollout of an intervention than quasi-experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vancomycin Utilization Evaluation in a teaching hospital: A case- series study in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanak Fahimi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing antimicrobial resistance is now a critical point of human being in the world. Especially wide spectrum antibiotics resistance germs like vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE should be dealt as soon as possible as an emergency conflict. Our study tries to reveal the amount of irrational use of vancomycin in a teaching hospital in Iran.Methods: We elected the whole inpatients that received vancomycin between February 2007 and May 2008.Results: Forty four out of those 45 patients had inappropriate indication and dosing regimen of vancomycin (97.7%. The most use of vancomycin was recorded in hematology – oncology ward and then Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Culture responses were negative despite great clinical evidence of infection.Conclusion: Vancomycin irrational use was high compared to other countries and it could be concerned as a major health problem by health policy makers and physicians to deal. However more detailed researches are needed to reveal the other aspects of this problem. Implementation of antibiotic protocols and standard treatment guidelines are recommended.

  11. OnabotulinumtoxinA in urinary incontinence: Prospective Study of a Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martínez, A; Fernández-Mederos, A; García-Hernández, J Á

    2017-09-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of a single intravesical injection of onabotulinumtoxinA (OnaBTA) for treating urge urinary incontinence (UUI) in women. We performed a prospective case-series study of consecutive patients with refractory UUI treated with an intravesical injection of OnaBTA. The patients were administered 100 units of OnaBTA injected into the bladder wall following 4 weeks of flushing with anticholinergic agents or beta 3 agonists. The urodynamic and clinical endpoints were evaluated before and 6 months after the injection of OnaBTA. The primary study endpoint was the number of episodes of urinary leakage. A total of 204 of the 210 selected patients conducted a valid visit 6 months after the therapeutic application. At 6 months of treatment with OnaBTA, 110 (53.9%) patients remained continent and were considered a success. However, 57 (27.9%) patients experienced one episode of urinary leakage per day, and 37 (18.2%) had 2 or more. In terms of the urodynamic parameters, we observed the following changes: increase in maximum bladder capacity (P<.0001) and reduced maximum pressure of the detrusor (P<.0001). In terms of the safety profile, 8 (3.9%) patients had self-limiting haematuria during the procedure, which resolved spontaneously, and 9 (4.4%) patients had acute urinary retention that required intermittent catheterisation. This study supports the use of OnabotulinumtoxinA in patients with urge urinary incontinence that does not respond to medical treatment. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Tuberculosis incidence correlates with sunshine: an ecological 28-year time series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C K W Koh

    Full Text Available Birmingham is the largest UK city after London, and central Birmingham has an annual tuberculosis incidence of 80 per 100,000. We examined seasonality and sunlight as drivers of tuberculosis incidence. Hours of sunshine are seasonal, sunshine exposure is necessary for the production of vitamin D by the body and vitamin D plays a role in the host response to tuberculosis.We performed an ecological study that examined tuberculosis incidence in Birmingham from Dec 1981 to Nov 2009, using publicly-available data from statutory tuberculosis notifications, and related this to the seasons and hours of sunshine (UK Meteorological Office data using unmeasured component models.There were 9,739 tuberculosis cases over the study period. There was strong evidence for seasonality, with notifications being 24.1% higher in summer than winter (p<0.001. Winter dips in sunshine correlated with peaks in tuberculosis incidence six months later (4.7% increase in incidence for each 100 hours decrease in sunshine, p<0.001.A potential mechanism for these associations includes decreased vitamin D levels with consequent impaired host defence arising from reduced sunshine exposure in winter. This is the longest time series of any published study and our use of statutory notifications means this data is essentially complete. We cannot, however, exclude the possibility that another factor closely correlated with the seasons, other than sunshine, is responsible. Furthermore, exposure to sunlight depends not only on total hours of sunshine but also on multiple individual factors. Our results should therefore be considered hypothesis-generating. Confirmation of a potential causal relationship between winter vitamin D deficiency and summer peaks in tuberculosis incidence would require a randomized-controlled trial of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on future tuberculosis incidence.

  13. Exposure to statins and risk of common cancers: a series of nested case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coupland Carol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available 1 Abstract Background Many studies and meta-analyses have investigated the effects of statins on cancer incidence but without showing consistent effects. Methods A series of nested case-control studies was conducted covering 574 UK general practices within the QResearch database. Cases were patients with primary cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2008. The associations between statin use and risk of ten site-specific cancers were estimated with conditional logistic regression adjusted for co-morbidities, smoking status, socio-economic status, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and aspirin. Results 88125 cases and 362254 matched controls were analysed. The adjusted odds ratio for any statin use and cancer at any site were 1.01 (95%CI 0.99 to 1.04. For haematological malignancies there was a significant reduced risk associated with any statin use (odds ratio 0.78, 95%CI 0.71 to 0.86. Prolonged (more than 4 years use of statins was associated with a significantly increased risk of colorectal cancer (odds ratio 1.23, 95%CI 1.10 to 1.38, bladder cancer (odds ratio 1.29, 95%CI 1.08 to 1.54 and lung cancer (odds ratio 1.18, 95%CI 1.05 to 1.34. There were no significant associations with any other cancers. Conclusion In this large population-based case-control study, prolonged use of statins was not associated with an increased risk of cancer at any of the most common sites except for colorectal cancer, bladder cancer and lung cancer, while there was a reduced risk of haematological malignancies.

  14. State Policy Initiatives for Reducing Teen and Adult Nonmarital Childbearing: Family Planning to Family Caps. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies, Series A, No. A-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Richard; Jager, Justin; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    This paper presents data from a survey of all 50 states that examined specific programs and policies being pursued at the state level to discourage teenage and nonmarital childbearing. Overall, the teen childbearing rate has continued to fall, and in 1999 it was the lowest on record. Some research points to a relationship between welfare policies…

  15. Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Georgina; Bowen, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1) the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2) the context within which the policy was developed; 3) the relevant processes; and 4) the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should also be revised to consider climate change and its impact on human

  16. Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Morrow

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Objective: The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. Design: The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1 the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2 the context within which the policy was developed; 3 the relevant processes; and 4 the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. Results: The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. Conclusions: The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should

  17. Bringing the Low-Carbon Agenda to China: A Study in Transnational Policy Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hofem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study traces the transnational interactions that contributed to introducing the low-carbon economy agenda into Chinese policymaking. A microprocessual two-level analysis (outside-in as well as inside-access is employed to analyse transnational and domestic exchanges. The study provides evidence that low-carbon agenda-setting – introduced by transnational actors, backed by foreign funding, promoted by policy entrepreneurs from domestic research institutes, propelled by top-level attention, but only gradually and cautiously adopted by the government bureaucracy – can be considered a case of effective transnational diffusion based on converging perceptions of novel policy challenges and options. Opinion leaders and policy-brokers from the government-linked scientific community functioned as effective access points to the Chinese government’s policy agenda.

  18. Public policy influence on renewable energy investments—A panel data study across OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzin, Friedemann; Migendt, Michael; Täube, Florian A.; Flotow, Paschen von

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of public policy measures on renewable energy (RE) investments in electricity-generating capacity made by institutional investors. Using a novel combination of datasets and a longitudinal research design, we investigate the influence of different policy measures in a sample of OECD countries to suggest an effective policy mix which could tackle failures in the market for clean energy. The results call for technology-specific policies which take into account actual market conditions and technology maturity. To improve the conditions for institutional investments, advisable policy instruments include economic and fiscal incentives such as feed-in tariffs (FIT), especially for less mature technologies. Additionally, market-based instruments such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trading systems for mature technologies should be included. These policy measures directly impact the risk and return structure of RE projects. Supplementing these with regulatory measures such as codes and standards (e.g. RPS) and long-term strategic planning could further strengthen the context for RE investments. - Highlights: • Panel data study on the effectiveness of policies to induce RE investments. • Novel combination of datasets (BNEF/IEA) in solar, wind and biomass sectors. • FIT proves to be more effective than subsidies for less mature technologies. • RPS and tradable permit systems seem more effective for mature technologies. • A long-term strategic planning framework is useful to attract institutional investors

  19. Uranium-series comminution ages of continental sediments: Case study of a Pleistocene alluvial fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Victoria E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

    2010-04-30

    Obtaining quantitative information about the timescales associated with sediment transport, storage, and deposition in continental settings is important but challenging. The uranium-series comminution age method potentially provides a universal approach for direct dating of Quaternary detrital sediments, and can also provide estimates of the sediment transport and storage timescales. (The word"comminution" means"to reduce to powder," reflecting the start of the comminution age clock as reduction of lithic parent material below a critical grain size threshold of ~;;50 mu m.) To test the comminution age method as a means to date continental sediments, we applied the method to drill-core samples of the glacially-derived Kings River Fan alluvial deposits in central California. Sediments from the 45 m core have independently-estimated depositional ages of up to ~;;800 ka, based on paleomagnetism and correlations to nearby dated sediments. We characterized sequentially-leached core samples (both bulk sediment and grain size separates) for U, Nd, and Sr isotopes, grain size, surface texture, and mineralogy. In accordance with the comminution age model, where 234U is partially lost from small sediment grains due to alpha recoil, we found that (234U/238U) activity ratios generally decrease with age, depth, and specific surface area, with depletions of up to 9percent relative to radioactive equilibrium. The resulting calculated comminution ages are reasonable, although they do not exactly match age estimates from previous studies and also depend on assumptions about 234U loss rates. The results indicate that the method may be a significant addition to the sparse set of available tools for dating detrital continental sediments, following further refinement. Improving the accuracy of the method requires more advanced models or measurements for both the recoil loss factor fa and weathering effects. We discuss several independent methods for obtaining fa on individual samples

  20. Sleep-potentiated epileptiform activity in early thalamic injuries: Study in a large series (60 cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, Emma; Battaglia, Domenica; Chieffo, Daniela; Raponi, Matteo; Ranalli, Domiziana; Contaldo, Ilaria; Giansanti, Cristina; De Clemente, Valentina; Quintiliani, Michela; Antichi, Eleonora; Verdolotti, Tommaso; de Waure, Chiara; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Mercuri, Eugenio; Guzzetta, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The study aims at a better definition of continuous spike-waves during sleep (CSWS) with an early thalamic lesion, focusing on various grades of sleep-potentiated epileptiform activity (SPEA). Their possible relationship with different clinical features was studied to try to define prognostic factors of the epileptic disorder, especially relating to behavior/cognitive outcome, in order to improve prevention and treatment strategies. Sixty patients with early thalamic injury were followed since the first registration of SPEA with serial neurological, long term EEG monitoring and neuropsychological examinations, as well as neuroimaging and a detailed clinical history. They were classified in three different groups according to the sleep spike-waves (SW) quantification: electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES), more than 85% of slow sleep; overactivation between 50% and 85% and simple activation between 10 and 50%). Results were then examined also with a statistical analysis. In our series of CSWS occurring in early brain injured children with unilateral thalamic involvement there is a common neuropathologic origin but with various grades of SPEA severity. Statistical analysis showed that patients evolving toward ESES presented more commonly the involvement of the mediodorsal part of thalamus nuclei and a bilateral cortico-subcortical brain injury, epilepsy was more severe with a delayed onset; moreover, in the acute stage .ESES patients presented the worst behavior/cognitive performances. As to cognitive and behavior outcome, longer SPEA duration as well as bilateral brain injury and cognitive/behavior impairment in acute phase appear linked to a poor outcome; some particular neuropathology (ischemic stroke and haemorrhagic infarction) as well as hydrocephalus shunting are associated with behavior disorders. Discrete features seem to support different underlying mechanisms in ESES patients in comparison with less severe SPEA; they represent negative

  1. Policies and Practices for Improving Student Bus Behavior: A Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cornett, Joshua Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Students' behavior on buses continues to be an issue that requires administrators to spend significant time investigating and applying consequences for the behavior (Neatrour, 1994; Pattington, 1945; Putnam, Handler, Ramirez-Plat, and Luiselli, 2003). The purpose of this study was to identify policies and practices that may improve student bus behavior. Two research questions were addressed: (a) What policies could school districts implement to facilitate the improvement of student bus beh...

  2. Advancing science and policy through a coordinated international study of physical activity and built environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F; Owen, Neville

    2013-01-01

    National and international strategies to increase physical activity emphasize environmental and policy changes that can have widespread and long-lasting impact. Evidence from multiple countries using comparable methods is required to strengthen the evidence base for such initiatives. Because some...... environment and policy changes could have generalizable effects and others may depend on each country's context, only international studies using comparable methods can identify the relevant differences....

  3. Open Access Policies of Research Funders: The Case Study of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)

    OpenAIRE

    Tonto, Yaşar; Doğan, Güleda; Al, Umut; Madran, Orçun

    2015-01-01

    The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) is the main funder for basic research in Austria. FWF has been instrumental in promoting Open Access in Austria and elsewhere and possesses a strong Open Access policy for the research it funds. This case study presents FWF as a good practice of an effective funder policy on account of its comprehensive strategy and multi-faceted approach for implementing and supporting it.

  4. An Evaluation of the Mulligan Stew 4-H Television Series for Extension Service, USDA. Volume III: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    Conducted on over 3,000 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children in six states, this study documents changes in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors which can be related to participating in the Mulligan Stew television series. The case studies which comprise this volume function as a brief organizational analysis of the Mulligan Stew effort at…

  5. Study of the relationship between chemical structure and antimicrobial activity in a series of hydrazine-based coordination compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrova, B N; Dimoglo, A S; Chumakov, Y M

    2000-08-01

    The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the structure of compounds is studied in a series of compounds based on hydrazine coordinated with ions of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pd(II). The study has been carried out by means of the original electron-topological method developed earlier. A molecular fragment has been found that is only characteristic of biologically active compounds. Its spatial and electron parameters have been used for the quantitative assessment of the activity in view. The results obtained can be used for the antimicrobial activity prediction in a series of compounds with similar structures.

  6. What's So Special About Policy Networks? An Exploration of the Concept and Its Usefulness in Studying European Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja A. Börzel

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A 'Babylonian' variety of policy network concepts and applications can be found in the literature. Neither is there a common understanding of what a policy networks actually is, nor has it been agreed upon whether policy networks constitute a mere metaphor, a method, an analytical tool or a proper theory. The aim of this paper is to review the state of the art in the field of policy networks and to explore their usefulness in studying European policy-making and European governance. It is argued that policy networks are more than an analytical tool box for studying these phenomena. What is so special then about policy networks? They constitute arenas for non-strategic, communicative action providing solutions for collective action problems and accounting for more efficient and legitimate policy-making. Yet, a theoretically ambitious policy network approach has to, first, show that policy networks do not only exist but are relevant for policy process and policy outcome, and second, tackle the problem of the ambiguity of policy networks, which can do both enhance and reduce the efficiency and legitimacy of policy-making.

  7. What's So Special About Policy Networks? – An Exploration of the Concept and Its Usefulness in Studying European Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja A. Börzel

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A 'Babylonian' variety of policy network concepts and applications can be found in the literature. Neither is there a common understanding of what a policy networks actually is, nor has it been agreed upon whether policy networks constitute a mere metaphor, a method, an analytical tool or a proper theory. The aim of this paper is to review the state of the art in the field of policy networks and to explore their usefulness in studying European policy-making and European governance. It is argued that policy networks are more than an analytical tool box for studying these phenomena. What is so special then about policy networks? They constitute arenas for non-strategic, communicative action providing solutions for collective action problems and accounting for more efficient and legitimate policy-making. Yet, a theoretically ambitious policy network approach has to, first, show that policy networks do not only exist but are relevant for policy process and policy outcome, and second, tackle the problem of the ambiguity of policy networks, which can do both enhance and reduce the efficiency and legitimacy of policy-making.

  8. Infinite series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students presents a rigorous approach that also emphasizes applications. Encompassing more than the usual amount of material on the problems of computation with series, the treatment offers many applications, including those related to the theory of special functions. Numerous problems appear throughout the book.The first chapter introduces the elementary theory of infinite series, followed by a relatively complete exposition of the basic properties of Taylor series and Fourier series. Additional subjects include series of functions and the app

  9. The Global Politics of Policy Circulation in Higher Education: A Case Study of Paraguay 1998-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britez, Rodrigo Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the idea of global policy transfer, as it has increasingly appeared in the literature of policy studies, and has been used to understand recent educational policy transformations around the world. To carry out this investigation, I have conducted a case study of higher education in Paraguay in order to determine…

  10. Mapping Impervious Surface Expansion using Medium-resolution Satellite Image Time Series: A Case Study in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; DeColstoun, Eric Brown; Ma, Ronghua; Weng, Qihao; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Chen, Jin; Pan, Yaozhong; Song, Conghe

    2012-01-01

    Cities have been expanding rapidly worldwide, especially over the past few decades. Mapping the dynamic expansion of impervious surface in both space and time is essential for an improved understanding of the urbanization process, land-cover and land-use change, and their impacts on the environment. Landsat and other medium-resolution satellites provide the necessary spatial details and temporal frequency for mapping impervious surface expansion over the past four decades. Since the US Geological Survey opened the historical record of the Landsat image archive for free access in 2008, the decades-old bottleneck of data limitation has gone. Remote-sensing scientists are now rich with data, and the challenge is how to make best use of this precious resource. In this article, we develop an efficient algorithm to map the continuous expansion of impervious surface using a time series of four decades of medium-resolution satellite images. The algorithm is based on a supervised classification of the time-series image stack using a decision tree. Each imerpervious class represents urbanization starting in a different image. The algorithm also allows us to remove inconsistent training samples because impervious expansion is not reversible during the study period. The objective is to extract a time series of complete and consistent impervious surface maps from a corresponding times series of images collected from multiple sensors, and with a minimal amount of image preprocessing effort. The approach was tested in the lower Yangtze River Delta region, one of the fastest urban growth areas in China. Results from nearly four decades of medium-resolution satellite data from the Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) and China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) show a consistent urbanization process that is consistent with economic development plans and policies. The time-series impervious spatial extent maps derived

  11. Policy Forum: Studying Eyewitness Investigations in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Robyn; Jacoby, Larry L.; Kahneman, Daniel; Lempert, Richard; Roediger, Henry L.; Rosenthal, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article considers methodological issues arising from recent efforts to provide field tests of eyewitness identification procedures. We focus in particular on a field study (Mecklenburg 2006) that examined the “double blind, sequential” technique, and consider the implications of an acknowledged methodological confound in the study. We explain why the confound has severe consequences for assessing the real-world implications of this study. PMID:17610149

  12. Follow-up brain imaging of 37 children with congenital Zika syndrome: case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petribu, Natacha Calheiros de Lima; Aragao, Maria de Fatima Vasco; van der Linden, Vanessa; Parizel, Paul; Jungmann, Patricia; Araújo, Luziany; Abath, Marília; Fernandes, Andrezza; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra; Holanda, Arthur; Mello, Roberto; Sarteschi, Camila; Duarte, Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra

    2017-10-13

    Objective  To compare initial brain computed tomography (CT) scans with follow-up CT scans at one year in children with congenital Zika syndrome, focusing on cerebral calcifications. Design  Case series study. Setting  Barão de Lucena Hospital, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Participants  37 children with probable or confirmed congenital Zika syndrome during the microcephaly outbreak in 2015 who underwent brain CT shortly after birth and at one year follow-up. Main outcome measure  Differences in cerebral calcification patterns between initial and follow-up scans. Results  37 children were evaluated. All presented cerebral calcifications on the initial scan, predominantly at cortical-white matter junction. At follow-up the calcifications had diminished in number, size, or density, or a combination in 34 of the children (92%, 95% confidence interval 79% to 97%), were no longer visible in one child, and remained unchanged in two children. No child showed an increase in calcifications. The calcifications at the cortical-white matter junction which were no longer visible at follow-up occurred predominately in the parietal and occipital lobes. These imaging changes were not associated with any clear clinical improvements. Conclusion  The detection of cerebral calcifications should not be considered a major criterion for late diagnosis of congenital Zika syndrome, nor should the absence of calcifications be used to exclude the diagnosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. [Relationship between particulate matters and cardio-cerebrovascular mortality in Ningbo: a time-series study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, X J; Shen, Y P; He, T F; Xu, G Z; Gu, S H

    2016-06-01

    To explore the short-term effect of particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 10 μg (PM10) and aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 μg (PM2.5) on cardio-cerebrovascular mortality in Ningbo city. Daily cardio-cerebrovascular mortality data from 2011 to 2014 in Ningbo city were collected and the time series study using a semi-parametric generalized additive model were used to evaluate the relationship between the mortality of cardio-cerebrovascular disease and particulate matters after adjustment for the long-term trend of death,weather conditions, "days of the week" and other confounding factors. In single-pollutant model, the short-term effects of particulate matter on cardio-cerebrovascular mortality was strongest in lagged 2 days in Ningbo city, and an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in moving average concentrations (lagged 2-3 days and lagged 2-4 days) of PM2.5 and PM10 could increase the cardio-cerebrovascular mortality by 0.55% (0.23%-0.87%) and 0.53% (0.28%-0.78%), respectively. In multi-pollutant models, PM10 did remain robust after being adjusted for PM2.5 with 0.58% (0.09%-1.07%) increase in cardio-cerebrovascular mortality. The effect of PM2.5 had no statistical significantce after being adjusted for other co-pollutants. These findings suggested that the concentrations of ambient particulate matters were associated with an increased risk of daily cardio-cerebrovascular mortality in Ningbo city.

  14. Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in U.S. swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Brian J; Haley, Charles; Rovira, Albert; Main, Rodger; Zhang, Yan; Barder, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the United States (US) in February 2014. This was the second novel swine enteric coronavirus detected in the US since May 2013. In this study, we conducted retrospective testing of samples submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories where qualifying biological samples were derived from previously submitted diagnostic case submissions from US commercial swine farms with a clinical history of enteric disease or from cases that had been previously tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus, PEDV, or rotavirus. Overall, 2286 banked samples were tested from 27 States. Samples were collected in 3 separate years and in 17 different months. Test results revealed 4 positive samples, 3 collected in August 2013 and 1 collected in October 2013. In addition, a case series including 42 operations in 10 States was conducted through administration of a survey. Survey data collected included information on characteristics of swine operations that had experienced PDCoV clinical signs. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining descriptive estimates of biosecurity practices and disease status over time of each operation. Clinical signs of PDCoV were reported to be similar to those of PEDV. The average number of animals on each operation exhibiting clinical signs (morbidity) and the average number of case fatalities was greatest for suckling and weaned pigs. Average operation-level weaned pig morbidity was greatest in the first week of the outbreak while average operation-level suckling pig case fatality was greatest in the second week of the outbreak. The survey included questions regarding biosecurity practices for visitors and operation employees; trucks, equipment and drivers; and feed sources. These questions attempted to identify a likely pathway of introduction of PDCoV onto the operations surveyed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Impact of bariatric surgery on clinical depression. Interrupted time series study with matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Helen; Khan, Omar; Prevost, A Toby; Reddy, Marcus; Charlton, Judith; Gulliford, Martin C

    2015-03-15

    Obesity is associated with depression. This study aimed to evaluate whether clinical depression is reduced after bariatric surgery (BS). Obese adults who received BS procedures from 2002 to 2014 were sampled from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. An interrupted time series design, with matched controls, was conducted from three years before, to a maximum of seven years after surgery. Controls were matched for body mass index (BMI), age, gender and year of procedure. Clinical depression was defined as a medical diagnosis recorded in year, or an antidepressant prescribed in year to a participant ever diagnosed with depression. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were estimated. There were 3045 participants (mean age 45.9; mean BMI 44.0kg/m(2)) who received BS, including laparoscopic gastric banding in 1297 (43%), gastric bypass in 1265 (42%), sleeve gastrectomy in 477 (16%) and six undefined. Before surgery, 36% of BS participants, and 21% of controls, had clinical depression; between-group AOR, 2.02, 95%CI 1.75-2.33, P<0.001. In the second post-operative year 32% had depression; AOR, compared to time without surgery, 0.83 (0.76-0.90, P<0.001). By the seventh year, the prevalence of depression increased to 37%; AOR 0.99 (0.76-1.29, P=0.959). Despite matching there were differences in depression between BS and control patients, representing the highly selective nature of BS. Depression is frequent among individuals selected to undergo bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery may be associated with a modest reduction in clinical depression over the initial post-operative years but this is not maintained. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility of multi-sector policy measures that create activity-friendly environments for children: results of a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarts Marie-Jeanne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although multi-sector policy is a promising strategy to create environments that stimulate physical activity among children, little is known about the feasibility of such a multi-sector policy approach. The aims of this study were: to identify a set of tangible (multi-sector policy measures at the local level that address environmental characteristics related to physical activity among children; and to assess the feasibility of these measures, as perceived by local policy makers. Methods In four Dutch municipalities, a Delphi study was conducted among local policy makers of different policy sectors (public health, sports, youth and education, spatial planning/public space, traffic and transportation, and safety. In the first Delphi round, respondents generated a list of possible policy measures addressing three environmental correlates of physical activity among children (social cohesion, accessibility of facilities, and traffic safety. In the second Delphi round, policy makers weighted different feasibility aspects (political feasibility, cultural/community acceptability, technical feasibility, cost feasibility, and legal feasibility and assessed the feasibility of the policy measures derived from the first round. The third Delphi round was aimed at reaching consensus by feedback of group results. Finally, one overall feasibility score was calculated for each policy measure. Results Cultural/community acceptability, political feasibility, and cost feasibility were considered most important feasibility aspects. The Delphi studies yielded 16 feasible policy measures aimed at physical and social environmental correlates of physical activity among children. Less drastic policy measures were considered more feasible, whereas environmental policy measures were considered less feasible. Conclusions This study showed that the Delphi technique can be a useful tool in reaching consensus about feasible multi-sector policy measures. The

  17. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in

  18. African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The "African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies" is an international scientific journal published by the African Centre for Research and Information on Substance Abuse (CRISA). The Journal publishes original research, evaluation studies, case reports, review articles and book reviews of high scholarly ...

  19. Developing Public Policies for New Welfare Technologies – A Case Study of Telemedicine and Telehomecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    and communication-based technologies (ICT) for homecare and monitoring (telemedicine, telehomecare). Despite major investments and national commitment, public policies have not yet found a general approach to move from technological and clinical opportunity and into large-scale regular use of the technology...... (normalisation). This article provides two case studies from Denmark; one case with hypertension monitoring at a local level and another case on national policy implementation through funding of selected demonstration projects. Among the findings are that policy-making processes certainly face major challenges...... in capturing research and development for the transition of technologies into working practice. Furthermore, policy approaches of supporting experimentation and demonstration are found inadequate in promoting technology into a level of normalisation in highly cross-organisational operational environments...

  20. European wine policy and perceptions of Moravian winemakers: a pilot study in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Koráb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European wine policy is a significant factor influencing winemakers in the European Union. This paper examines perception of this policy by winemakers and other persons working in Czech wine sector on the sample of respondents. Methodological triangulation consisting of non-structured interview and semantic differential was chosen. Field research was carried out, therefore the study uses primary data. Application of the methodology along with the method of evaluation of data creates an original approach which may be applied on several other research questions. General perception of European Wine Policy is complemented with its impact on competitiveness, practical running of vineyards and winery and on future development of winery. Data is statistically evaluated within categories of respondents. Special emphasis is placed on direct payments as a controversial factor of the policy. The policy is perceived as bureaucratic (“all respondents” x = 4.56, and among micro winemakers discriminating (x = 4.5, selfish (x = 4.5 and malfunctioning (x = 3.5. “Professional” winemakers perceive the impact on competitiveness in the Czech market as rather positive (x = 2.67. This study represents pilot research on perception of European Wine Policy by owners of wineries, viticulturists, micro winemakers, a sommelier and a representative of marketing-supporting institution, conducted in the Czech Republic. The author also outlines further direction of research, as the topic is not paid enough scientific attention.

  1. Policy and practice of occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong and Guangzhou--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kan Kam

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare social policy on occupational rehabilitation services in two mega industrial cities in southern China: Hong Kong and Guangzhou. Comparative policy study was employed as the research and analytical method in this paper. Aim, finance, target, coverage, organization and administration, service delivery and provision of the occupational rehabilitation policy and its linkages with industrial injury compensation system and re-employment policy in the two cities were critically reviewed and compared. The results of the study reflect that the Guangzhou policy is more aggressive and more tailor-made to the specific needs of occupational rehabilitation compared to the Hong Kong policy, whereas occupational rehabilitation in Hong Kong has long been developed and knowledge and skills in the occupational rehabilitation service are more mature and fruitful. Based on the research findings, it is concluded that through experience sharing and exchange, there will be more mutual understanding regarding the system, practice, success, faults and limitations in the two cities, as well as awareness of alternative courses of action. These will help in the better development of occupational rehabilitation services with the aims to safeguard the rights and wellbeing of workers in both cities.

  2. Synthesis and SAR study of a novel series of dopamine receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, R.; Jensen, M.; Jørgensen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a novel series of dopamine receptor agonists are described as well as their in vitro potency and efficacy on dopamine D and D receptors. This series was designed from pergolide and (4aR,10aR)-1-propyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,10,10a-octahydro-benzo[g]quinolin-6-ol (PHBQ) and resulted in the ...... in the synthesis of (2R,4aR,10aR)-2-methylsulfanylmethyl-4-propyl-3,4,4a,5,10,10a-hexahydro-2H-naphtho[2,3-b][1,4]oxazin-9-ol (compound 27), which has a D and D receptor profile similar to that of the most recently approved drug for Parkinson's disease, rotigotine.......The synthesis of a novel series of dopamine receptor agonists are described as well as their in vitro potency and efficacy on dopamine D and D receptors. This series was designed from pergolide and (4aR,10aR)-1-propyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,10,10a-octahydro-benzo[g]quinolin-6-ol (PHBQ) and resulted...

  3. Health and Social Services among International Labor Migrants: A Comparative Perspective. CMAS Border & Migration Studies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Antonio, Ed.; Cardenas, Gilberto, Ed.

    Eleven papers from a workshop titled "International Migration: Health and Social Policies" focus on common concerns and problems in providing social and health services to labor migrants and immigrants in the United States and the European Union. Following an introduction (Antonio Ugalde, Gilberto Cardenas), the papers are: (1)…

  4. Characteristics of Articles About Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Japanese Newspapers: Time-Series Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Nao; Yokouchi, Ryoki; Onoda, Taro; Ogihara, Atsushi

    2017-12-19

    Media coverage and reports have a major influence on individual vaccination and other health-related activities. People use the media to seek information and knowledge on health-related behaviors. They obtain health-related information from media such as television and newspapers, and they trust such information. While several studies have examined the relation between media coverage and individual health, there is a lack of studies that have analyzed media reports of health information. In particular, we have found no analyses related to cervical cancer (human papillomavirus [HPV]) vaccine. This study aimed to identify mentions of cervical cancer vaccine in Japan's printed news media and to determine their characteristics. We used the archival databases of 2 Japanese newspapers, Yomiuri Shimbun (Yomidasu Rekishikan) and Asahi Shimbun (Kikuzo II Visual), for text mining. First, we created a database by extracting articles published between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2014, that matched the terms "cervical cancer" AND "vaccination" in a keyword search. Then, we tallied the extracted articles based on the month of publication and number of characters in order to conduct a time-series analysis. We extracted a total of 219 articles. Of these, 154 (70.3%) were positive and 51 (23.3%) were negative toward HPV vaccination. Of the 51 negative articles, 4 (7.8%) were published before June 2013, when routine vaccination was temporarily discontinued due to concerns regarding side effects, and 47 (92.2%) were published since then. The negative reports commonly cited side effects, although prior to June 2013, these issues were hardly mentioned. Although foreign media reports mentioned side effects before routine vaccination was temporarily discontinued, fewer articles mentioned side effects than recommendations for vaccination. Furthermore, on June 13, 2013, the World Health Organization's advisory body Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety issued a statement

  5. A comparative study of shallow groundwater level simulation with three time series models in a coastal aquifer of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Delgado, J.

    2017-05-01

    Accurate and reliable groundwater level forecasting models can help ensure the sustainable use of a watershed's aquifers for urban and rural water supply. In this paper, three time series analysis methods, Holt-Winters (HW), integrated time series (ITS), and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA), are explored to simulate the groundwater level in a coastal aquifer, China. The monthly groundwater table depth data collected in a long time series from 2000 to 2011 are simulated and compared with those three time series models. The error criteria are estimated using coefficient of determination ( R 2), Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient ( E), and root-mean-squared error. The results indicate that three models are all accurate in reproducing the historical time series of groundwater levels. The comparisons of three models show that HW model is more accurate in predicting the groundwater levels than SARIMA and ITS models. It is recommended that additional studies explore this proposed method, which can be used in turn to facilitate the development and implementation of more effective and sustainable groundwater management strategies.

  6. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 3: Papers by Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, R.L. [ed.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process-and how-would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and discussion panels. Volume 2 contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. This volume contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.).

  7. Impact of STROBE Statement Publication on Quality of Observational Study Reporting: Interrupted Time Series versus Before-After Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Sbidian, Emilie; Gaudy-Marqueste, Caroline; Ferrat, Emilie; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Richard, Marie-Aleth; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence; Bouwes Bavinck, Jan Nico; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Diepgen, T.L.; Elsner, Peter; Garcia-Doval, Ignacio; Grob, J.J.; Langan, Sinead; Naldi, L.

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:In uncontrolled before-after studies, CONSORT was shown to improve the reporting of randomised trials. Before-after studies ignore underlying secular trends and may overestimate the impact of interventions. Our aim was to assess the impact of the 2007 STROBE statement publication on the quality of observational study reporting, using both uncontrolled before-after analyses and interrupted time series.Methods:For this quasi-experimental study, original articles reporting...

  8. Demand for ground transportation fuel and pricing policy in Asian tigers: A comparative study of Korea and Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaszak, S.; Chakravorty, U.; Leung, P.S.

    1999-07-01

    This paper examines the demand for gasoline and diesel in the ground transportation sectors of South Korea and Taiwan, comparing the effects of their different pricing policies and stages of economic growth. To account for substitutability between the two fuels, the model proposed here uses a system of equations estimated simultaneously with time-series data from 1973--1992. Results yield demand elasticities that confirm previous research showing that oil product demand is generally price inelastic, which income elasticities (reflecting a longer period of economic growth than previous studies in the Asian region) are lower than those previously reported. The estimated demand functions are then used to generate forecasts for both countries and, in particular, for an assumed reduction in a 180% tax on gasoline in Korea. Forecasted increases in demand by the year 2010 range from 40 to 180%, while the tax analysis suggests that Korea's pricing policy has reduced total demand and promoted the use of diesel over gasoline.

  9. Credible baseline analysis for multi-model public policy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, S.C.; Gass, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The nature of public decision-making and resource allocation is such that many complex interactions can best be examined and understood by quantitative analysis. Most organizations do not possess the totality of models and needed analytical skills to perform detailed and systematic quantitative analysis. Hence, the need for coordinated, multi-organization studies that support public decision-making has grown in recent years. This trend is expected not only to continue, but to increase. This paper describes the authors' views on the process of multi-model analysis based on their participation in an analytical exercise, the ORNL/MITRE Study. One of the authors was the exercise coordinator. During the study, the authors were concerned with the issue of measuring and conveying credibility of the analysis. This work led them to identify several key determinants, described in this paper, that could be used to develop a rating of credibility.

  10. Energy policy study. Volume 10. Nuclear power regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Reynolds, A.W.; Clark, R.G.

    1980-05-01

    This report examines the programs for regulating the safety, design, and operation of domestic nuclear power plants. The first part of the study describes the Federal and State regulatory procedures. It describes the legal foundations for the Federal licensing process and the associated State regulatory activities. It then analyzes the aspects of these procedures that affect the cost and supply of nuclear-generated electricity. The second part of this study examines the effects of nuclear safety regulations on the planning and construction lead time for nuclear power stations, the cost of nuclear power, and, ultimately, the decision to invest in nuclear power

  11. Reducing US cardiovascular disease burden and disparities through national and targeted dietary policies: A modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard

    2017-06-01

    % SSB tax. Neither the MMC nor the individual national economic policies would significantly reduce CVD socio-economic disparities. However, the SNAP-targeted intervention might potentially reduce CVD disparities between SNAP participants and SNAP-ineligible individuals, by approximately 8% (10 DPPs per 100,000 population. The combined policy approach might save more lives than any single policy studied (approximately 230,000 DPPs by 2030 while also significantly reducing disparities, by approximately 6% (7 DPPs per 100,000 population. Limitations include our effect estimates in the model; these estimates use interventional and prospective observational studies (not exclusively randomised controlled trials. They are thus imperfect and should be interpreted as the best available evidence. Another key limitation is that we considered only CVD outcomes; the policies we explored would undoubtedly have additional beneficial effects upon other diseases. Further, we did not model or compare the cost-effectiveness of each proposed policy.Fiscal strategies targeting diet might substantially reduce CVD burdens. A national 10% F&V subsidy would save by far the most lives, while a 30% F&V subsidy targeting SNAP participants would most reduce socio-economic disparities. A combined policy would have the greatest overall impact on both mortality and socio-economic disparities.

  12. Annals of Humanities and Development Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of Humanities and Development Studies publishes papers in all aspects of humanities and rural, social and cultural development, including peace and ... The Editorial Board bears the heaviest burden for the review process but outside reviewers may be selected in the field of the submitted manuscript.

  13. Financial Inclusion and Monetary Policy: A Review of Recent Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Researchers have mostly modeled that, growth in financial innovation, financial development and financial inclusion on their own, do individually enhance growth in total factor productivity. These studies however do not explore the possible mediating effects of these factors on another in maximising their effects. Innovation ...

  14. Smoke-Free Public Policies and Voluntary Policies in Personal Settings in Tbilisi, Georgia: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Smith, Samantha A; Bascombe, Ta Misha; Maglakelidze, Nino; Starua, Lela; Topuridze, Marina

    2016-01-25

    Georgia has limited tobacco control policies, particularly in the area of smoke-free public policies, which may influence the adoption of smoke-free home rules. We qualitatively examined knowledge about and reactions to public and personal smoke-free policies among Tbilisi residents. In Spring 2014, we conducted six focus groups among 47 total participants--two among male smokers, one among male nonsmokers, two among female smokers, and one among female nonsmokers. Our sample was 48.9% male and 70.2% past 30-day smokers. Most believed that SHS was dangerous, with particular concern regarding the impact of SHS on children and pregnant women. Many had misconceptions about how to protect others from SHS and the effectiveness of some approaches. Many indicated that they had some type of home rules, but few reported a complete ban on smoking in the home. Even when some restrictions were in place, they rarely were effective or enforced. Common concerns about the partial smoke-free public policy in Georgia included its economic impact, perceived discrimination among smokers, and the policy being against the Georgian culture. These concerns were heightened when participants were asked about the possible implementation of a complete smoke-free policy. Educational programs are needed to promote smoke-free policies in Georgia.

  15. Time-series studies of drainage pattern and morphological features along the Leitha river (Eastern Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámolyi, A.; Draganits, E.; Doneus, M.; Fera, M.; Griebl, M.

    2009-04-01

    Geomorphologic mapping and drainage network analysis was conducted in the Southern Vienna Basin on the Leitha and Fischa rivers. The study area belongs to an active pull-apart basin between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians that started to subside in Karpatian times (~ 17 Ma), but with still active faults, proven by fault scarps and earth quakes. The investigated rivers are important tributaries to the Danube river and run through a region that has been subject to settlement since Neoltihic times. Thus, interaction between land use, settlement pattern and river dynamics can be studied. Several datasets are integrated to perform a comprehensive overview of geomorphological, as well as river dynamic changes in the landscape. During an earlier stage of this investigation a map of paleochannel distribution including the location and shape of the paleochannels was extracted from color-infrared and RGB digital orthophotos. Based on this map the location, character and shape of palaeomeanders is studied on different georeferenced historic maps (Timár et al., 2006; Biszak et al., 2007) in order to derive a time-series study. The paleochannels extracted from the digital orthophotos show a good coincidence with the depicted rivers on the historic maps. This partly allows quite well constrained age estimates of the paleochannel sections. The investigated maps are the Walter maps, the First, Second and Third Military Survey of the Habsburg/Austro-Hungarian Empire. Mapping of the Walter maps was conducted 1754-56 (Ulbrich, 1952), the First, Second and Third Military Surveys were mapped in this area in the time-span of 1782-1785, 1819-1869, and 1872-1873, respectively (Kretschmer et al., 2004). This sequence of georeferenced historical maps allows to study only a very short time-span (1755 - 1873) compared to the geological time scale. However, the characteristics of river dynamics special for the study area can be derived and, considering certain assumptions, extrapolated

  16. Single Restorations in the Resorbed Posterior Mandible Supported by 6-mm Implants : A 1-Year Prospective Case Series Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulje, Felix L.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this prospective case series study was to assess the clinical performance of single restorations in the posterior mandible supported by 6-mm implants. Materials and MethodsTwenty-one consecutive patients with one or more missing premolars or molars in the posterior mandible and

  17. Can a Television Series Change Attitudes about Death? A Study of College Students and "Six Feet Under"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiappa, Edward; Gregg, Peter B.; Hewes, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series "Six Feet Under" to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the Death Attitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the…

  18. Advantages of the Multiple Case Series Approach to the Study of Cognitive Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towgood, Karren J.; Meuwese, Julia D. I.; Gilbert, Sam J.; Turner, Martha S.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    In the neuropsychological case series approach, tasks are administered that tap different cognitive domains, and differences within rather than across individuals are the basis for theorising; each individual is effectively their own control. This approach is a mainstay of cognitive neuropsychology, and is particularly suited to the study of…

  19. A preliminary study of the metabolic stability of a series of benzoxazinone derivatives as potent neuropeptide Y5 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordal, Alberto; Lipkin, Mike; Macritchie, Jackie; Mas, Josep; Port, Adriana; Rose, Sally; Salgado, Leonardo; Savic, Vladimir; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Serafini, Maria Teresa; Spearing, William; Torrens, Antoni; Yeste, Sandra

    2005-08-15

    The metabolic stability of benzoxazinone derivatives, a potent series of NPY Y5 antagonists, has been investigated. This study resulted in the identification of the structural moieties prone to metabolic transformations and which strongly influenced the in vitro half-life. This provides opportunities to optimize the structure of this new class of NPY Y5 antagonists.

  20. Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent

  1. State of Data Guidance in Journal Policies: A Case Study in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah H. Charbonneau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a study examining the state of data guidance provided to authors by 50 oncology journals. The purpose of the study was the identification of data practices addressed in the journals’ policies. While a number of studies have examined data sharing practices among researchers, little is known about how journals address data sharing. Thus, what was discovered through this study has practical implications for journal publishers, editors, and researchers. The findings indicate that journal publishers should provide more meaningful and comprehensive data guidance to prospective authors. More specifically, journal policies requiring data sharing, should direct researchers to relevant data repositories, and offer better metadata consultation to strengthen existing journal policies. By providing adequate guidance for authors, and helping investigators to meet data sharing mandates, scholarly journal publishers can play a vital role in advancing access to research data.

  2. Cluster Policy in the Light of Institutional Context—A Comparative Study of Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Lehmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The business environment in transition countries is often extraordinarily challenging for companies. The transition process these countries find themselves in leads to constant changes in the institutional environment. Hence, institutional voids prevail. These institutional voids cause competitive disadvantages for small and medium enterprises. Cluster policy can address these competitive disadvantages. As cluster policy generally aims at supporting companies’ competitive advantage by spurring innovation and productivity, it can help to bridge institutional voids. This article’s research question aims at analyzing and comparing cluster policies in the institutional context of two transition countries (Serbia and Tunisia and analyzes to what extent cluster policies in these two countries are adapted to institutional voids prevailing there. The case studies offer insights into apparent difficulties of clusters in bridging formal institutional voids, as well as, notably, into the informal void of skill mismatches in the labor market. Still, for some specific voids, clusters do at least implicitly assume a bridging role. While the cluster policies examined do not explicitly target the institutional voids identified, cluster management can—in the course of time—align its service offering more closely with these voids. Bottom-up designed cluster policies can play an especially important role in such an evolution towards bridging institutional voids.

  3. Empirical evidence in the analysis of the environmental and energy policies of a series of industrialised nations, during the period 1960-1997, using widely employed macroeconomic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focacci, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    This article underlines the main implications of the interrelations between the energy problem and that of environmental pollution, using the most widely used macroeconomic indicators in the field of policy analysis. In fact, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission intensity and energy intensity trends may be used to highlight the most important features of economic development over a given time scale in a variety of different countries. The empirical analysis proposed here--covering a time-span of some 40 years in a number of the most highly industrialised nations--seems to be useful if we are to understand the main similarities and differences in the interaction between the energy choices made by different countries and their respective environmental effects. Moreover, by using PPPs, it has been possible to propose a more detailed cross-country analysis for the different international situations

  4. The Crucial Role of Educational Stakeholders in the Appropriation of Foreign Language Education Policies: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Oscar; Usma, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the concept of policy appropriation, this study investigates how different education stakeholders in a rural region of Colombia perceive foreign language education policies, and how these perceptions shape the way they recreate these reforms at the ground level. Contributing to the field of language policy analysis in Colombia and…

  5. Bilingual Education in English-Only: A Qualitative Case Study of Language Policy in Practice at Lincoln Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Ingrid; Heineke, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative case study, we investigate teachers' appropriation of language policy at one urban elementary school in Illinois. Recognizing classroom teachers' central role in the education of English learners, we probe teachers' policy appropriation, or how bilingual educators take state-, district-, and school-level policies and…

  6. Feasibility of multi-sector policy measures that create activity-friendly environments for children : Results of a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although multi-sector policy is a promising strategy to create environments that stimulate physical activity among children, little is known about the feasibility of such a multi-sector policy approach. The aims of this study were: to identify a set of tangible (multi-sector) policy

  7. A study on the establishment of national nuclear foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Kwang Suk; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Byung Woon; Choi, Yung Lok; Koh, Han Suk

    1994-12-01

    This study is composed mainly of the current status of international non-proliferation, the NPT extension, IAEA Status, the circumstances of nuclear export control system, and the Vienna convention and London convention. The recent circumstances of the NPT have been analyzed. We established counter measures and strategies on the NPT extension conference. After reviewing the international export control system of NSG members, we suggested the factors which should be involved in the nuclear export control system. Also, U.S. systems on retransferring were intensively reviewed. In connection with the challenges coped with by the IAEA, several agenda have been reviewed and analyzed: the financing status of the Agency; the program 93+2 for the strengthening of effectiveness and improving of efficiency in the safeguards system. In connection with the amendment work of the Vienna Convention, we studied the major contents of four proposals which were suggested. In the case of the London Convention, the causes of maritime pollution and the kinds of sea dumping material were investigated. 3 figs, 13 tabs, 66 refs. (Author)

  8. Unconventional monetary policy at the zero nominal bound : a case study of United States, United Kingdom and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hatleskog, Anne; Lappi, Henna

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess unconventional monetary policy at the zero nominal bound: First, we assemble a framework for implementing and evaluating unconventional monetary policy. Second, we use the framework to conduct three detailed case studies on unconventional policy responses in Japan, United States and United Kingdom. Third, we make a cross-country analysis of the development in key macroeconomic variables after the adaption of unconventional monetary policies. We find...

  9. Sample correlations of infinite variance time series models: an empirical and theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Cohen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available When the elements of a stationary ergodic time series have finite variance the sample correlation function converges (with probability 1 to the theoretical correlation function. What happens in the case where the variance is infinite? In certain cases, the sample correlation function converges in probability to a constant, but not always. If within a class of heavy tailed time series the sample correlation functions do not converge to a constant, then more care must be taken in making inferences and in model selection on the basis of sample autocorrelations. We experimented with simulating various heavy tailed stationary sequences in an attempt to understand what causes the sample correlation function to converge or not to converge to a constant. In two new cases, namely the sum of two independent moving averages and a random permutation scheme, we are able to provide theoretical explanations for a random limit of the sample autocorrelation function as the sample grows.

  10. Energy policy on the spot - a site study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, B.

    1982-01-01

    This site study aims to inform on energy-political programmes of the government and opposition, to contribute to unemotional balancing of the pro against the con and to convey possibilities of reducing, or compensating, the disadvantages contingent on large-scale technological schemes. It moreover indicates what possibilities of information and participation are or should be open to citizens before and during the licensing procedure. The reason for dealing in this brochure at particular length with nuclear energy and its facilities for spent-fuel disposal is not its current importance to our energy supply but the complexity of its problems and the intensity that characterizes its discussion in the public. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Detection of Fractal Behavior in Temporal Series of Synaptic Quantal Release Events: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Lamanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneering work of Fatt and Katz at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ, spontaneous synaptic release (minis, that is, the quantal discharge of neurotransmitter molecules which occurs in the absence of action potentials, has been unanimously considered a memoryless random Poisson process where each quantum is discharged with a very low release probability independently from other quanta. When this model was thoroughly tested, for both population and single-synapse recordings, some clear evidence in favor of a more complex scenario emerged. This included short- and long-range correlation in mini occurrences and divergence from mono-exponential inter-mini-interval distributions, both unexpected for a homogeneous Poisson process, that is, with a rate parameter that does not change over time. Since we are interested in accurately quantifying the fractal exponent α of the spontaneous neurotransmitter release process at central synaptic sites, this work was aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of the most established methods available, such as the periodogram, the Allan, factor and the detrended fluctuation analysis. For this analysis we matched spontaneous release series recorded at individual hippocampal synapses (single-synapse recordings to generate large collections of simulated quantal events by means of a custom algorithm combining Monte Carlo sampling methods with spectral methods for the generation of 1/f series. These tests were performed by varying separately: (i the fractal exponent α of the rate driving the release process; (ii the distribution of intervals between successive releases, mimicking those encountered in single-synapse experimental series; (iii the number of samples. The aims were to provide a methodological framework for approaching the fractal analysis of single-unit spontaneous release series recorded at central synapses.

  12. A 20-year study of wintering common crane fluctuations using time series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Luis M.; Alonso López, Juan C.; Alonso López, Javier A.

    1992-01-01

    The numbers of common cranes (Grus grus) staging and wintering at Gallocanta lake, northeastern Spain, have increased throughout the period 1970-90. Consequently, we modelled the use of this area by cranes using Box-Jenkins Time Series Analysis to evaluate the influence of local food availability, duck hunting, and habitat and food conditions at other more traditional crane wintering areas in southwestern Spain on Gallocanta crane numbers. Food availability was not correlated with crane numbe...

  13. Project ATTACK and Project VISTA: Benchmark studies on the road to NATO's early TNF policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrity, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with those studies and analyses that affected early NATO nuclear policy and force structure. The discussion focuses specifically on two open-quotes benchmarkclose quotes activities. Project VISTA and Project ATTACK. These two studies were chosen less because one can document their direct impact on NATO nuclear policy and more because they capture the state of thinking about tactical nuclear weapons at a particular point of time. Project VISTA offers an especially important benchmark in this respect. Project ATTACK is a rather different kind of benchmark. It is not a pathbreaking study. It is much narrower and more technical than VISTA. It appears to have received no public attention. Project ATTACK is interesting because it seems to capture a open-quotes nuts-and-boltsclose quotes feel for how U.S. (and thereby NATO) theater nuclear policy was evolving prior to MC 48. The background and context for Project VISTA and Project ATTACK are presented and discussed

  14. Air pollution and health studies in China--policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Jiang, Songhui; Hong, Chuanjie

    2011-11-01

    During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the world level. Less information is available regarding changes in national levels of other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MOEP) set an index for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" to evaluate the efficacy of air pollution control strategy in the country. Total SO2 emissions declined for the first time in 2007. Chinese epidemiologic studies evidenced adverse health effects of ambient air pollution similar to those reported from developed countries, though risk estimates on mortality/morbidity per unit increase of air pollutant are somewhat smaller than those reported in developed countries. Disease burden on health attributable to air pollution is relatively greater in China because of higher pollution levels. Improving ambient air quality has substantial and measurable public health benefits in China. It is recommended that the current Chinese air quality standards be updated/revised and the target for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" be maintained and another target for "reducing total NO2 emissions" be added in view of rapid increase in motor vehicles. Continuous and persistent efforts should be taken to improve ambient air quality.

  15. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; MNV

    2000-01-01

    Deze GEO-2000 studie naar alternatief beleid voor Europa en Centraal Azie is gericht op energie als een belangrijke kracht achter milieuproblemen in de hele regio. De studie heeft betrekking op klimaatverandering, verzuring, zomersmog, stedelijke luchtverontreiniging en het risico op dodelijke

  16. A dawning demand for a new cannabis policy: A study of Swedish online drug discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Josefin

    2014-07-01

    This study examines how online discussions on drug policy are formulating an oppositional cannabis discourse in an otherwise prohibitionist country like Sweden. The focus of the paper is to identify demands for an alternative cannabis policy as well as analysing how these demands are linked to governance. The empirical material is 56 discussion-threads from the online message-board Flashback Forum that were active during the first eight months of 2012. Discourse theory was used to locate the discourse, and governmentality theory was used to locate the political belonging of the discourse. On Flashback Forum demands for a new cannabis policy are articulated in opposition to Swedish prohibitionist discourse. The oppositional discourse is constructed around the nodal points cannabis, harm, state and freedom that fill legalisation/decriminalisation/liberalisation with meaning. The nodal points are surrounded by policy demands that get their meaning through the particular nodal. These demands originate from neo-liberal and welfarist political rationalities. Neo-liberal and welfarist demands are mixed, and participants are simultaneously asking for state and individual approaches to handle the cannabis issue. Swedish online discourse on cannabis widens the scope beyond the confines of drug policy to broader demands such as social justice, individual choice and increased welfare. These demands are not essentially linked together and many are politically contradictory. This is also significant for the discourse; it is not hegemonised by a political ideology. The discourse is negotiated between the neo-liberal version of an alternative policy demanding individual freedom, and the welfarist version demanding social responsibility. This implies the influence of the heritage from the social-democratic discourse, centred on state responsibility, which have been dominating Swedish politics in modern times. Consequently, this study refutes that the demand for a new cannabis

  17. The role of municipal public policies in oral health socioeconomic inequalities in Brazil: A multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Violeta Rodrigues; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Celeste, Roger Keller

    2017-12-07

    It is known that fluoridation has a contextual effect on oral health socioeconomic inequalities, but broad public policies have not been investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of municipal public policies on oral health across different social strata. This was a cross-sectional study with 7328 12-year-old children and 5445 15-19-year-old adolescents from 177 Brazilian municipalities. Information at municipal level was collated for dental services, educational services, sanitation and water fluoridation. The main individual-level exposure was the disposable equivalent household income. The dichotomous outcomes were as follows: untreated dental caries (≥1 tooth), missing teeth (≥1 tooth) and filled teeth (≥1 tooth). Analyses were carried out using multilevel logistic regression. Interaction terms were tested between individual-level income and policy variables. The prevalence of untreated dental caries, missing and filled teeth was 47.0%, 15.1% and 47.5%, respectively. There was no significant interaction between income and policy indicators. Individuals living in municipalities with no water fluoridation had 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08-1.86) higher odds of having untreated dental caries; the odds ratio (OR) for those in municipalities with less education policies was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.07-1.73); those in municipalities with less sanitation had OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.78-1.40); and those in municipalities with less dental care had OR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.02-1.80). Fluoridation and policies about sanitation, education and dental care were similarly associated with oral health in different social strata. Other policies on social and economic fields may be further explored. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Conveying campus sexual misconduct policy information to college and university students: Results from a 7-campus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S J; Edwards, K M; Banyard, V L; Stapleton, J G; Demers, J M; Moynihan, M M

    2016-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of different methods (ie, in-class policy reading; in-class policy reading and discussion; no reading or discussion) to deliver campus sexual misconduct policy information to students on 7 campuses. A total of 1,195 participants at 7 colleges and universities participated in the study from August to October 2014. Participants were randomly assigned at the class level and completed pretest and posttest surveys assessing knowledge of campus policy and resources and confidence to seek help for sexual assault. Students exposed to a larger dosage of material (in-class policy reading plus discussion) showed greater positive changes in attitudes and knowledge than students who did not receive information or were only read the policy. However, on some indices, students who were only read the policy showed positive outcomes compared with students receiving no intervention. Colleges and universities must use engaging methods to disseminate campus sexual misconduct policies to students.

  19. Dell Hymes and the New Language Policy Studies: Update from an Underdeveloped Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Collins, James; Hopson, Rodney K.

    2011-01-01

    This essay updates Dell Hymes's "Report from an Underdeveloped Country" (the USA), positioning our analysis in the New Language Policy Studies. Taking up Hymes's call for comparative, critical studies of language use, we examine three cases, organizing our analysis around Hymes's questions: What "counts" as a language, a language problem, and…

  20. Impact of change in climate and policy from 1988 to 2007 on environmental and microbial variables at the time series station Boknis Eck, Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, H.-G.; Giesenhagen, H. C.; Koppe, R.; Hansen, H.-P.; Gocke, K.

    2013-07-01

    Phytoplankton and bacteria are sensitive indicators of environmental change. The temporal development of these key organisms was monitored from 1988 to the end of 2007 at the time series station Boknis Eck in the western Baltic Sea. This period was characterized by the adaption of the Baltic Sea ecosystem to changes in the environmental conditions caused by the conversion of the political system in the southern and eastern border states, accompanied by the general effects of global climate change. Measured variables were chlorophyll, primary production, bacteria number, -biomass and -production, glucose turnover rate, macro-nutrients, pH, temperature and salinity. Negative trends with time were recorded for chlorophyll, bacteria number, bacterial biomass and bacterial production, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate, silicate, oxygen and salinity while temperature, pH, and the ratio between bacteria numbers and chlorophyll increased. Strongest reductions with time occurred for the annual maximum values, e.g. for chlorophyll during the spring bloom or for nitrate during winter, while the annual minimum values remained more stable. In deep water above sediment the negative trends of oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and bacterial variables as well as the positive trend of temperature were similar to those in the surface while the trends of salinity, ammonia and silicate were opposite to those in the surface. Decreasing oxygen, even in the surface layer, was of particular interest because it suggested enhanced recycling of nutrients from the deep hypoxic zones to the surface by vertical mixing. The long-term seasonal patterns of all variables correlated positively with temperature, except chlorophyll and salinity. Salinity correlated negatively with all bacterial variables (as well as precipitation) and positively with chlorophyll. Surprisingly, bacterial variables did not correlate with chlorophyll, which may be inherent with the time lag between the peaks of phytoplankton and

  1. New Housing in the Municipal Land-Use Policy Context - Lodz Agglomeration Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Milewska-Osiecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Local spatial policy in Poland is based on the obligatory document, which is a study of conditions and directions of spatial management. In this document, particular communities define land use forms according to specific functions. One of the fundamental functions, which appear in the study, is housing. Communities assign various, usually very big, percentage of their areas for housing. The research conducted by the author was aimed at answering the question: what is the connection between pro-housing policy in particular municipalities and the actual new housing investments? This problem was analysed on the example of communities in Łódź agglomeration.

  2. What's in a Name? The Incorrect Use of Case Series as a Study Design Label in Studies Involving Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M; Cullen, J N; Makielski, K M; Jones-Bitton, A

    2017-07-01

    Study design labels are used to identify relevant literature to address specific clinical and research questions and to aid in evaluating the evidentiary value of research. Evidence from the human healthcare literature indicates that the label "case series" may be used inconsistently and inappropriately. Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of studies in the canine and feline veterinary literature labeled as case series that actually corresponded to descriptive cohort studies, population-based cohort studies, or other study designs. Our secondary objective was to identify the proportion of case series in which potentially inappropriate inferential statements were made. Descriptive evaluation of published literature. One-hundred published studies (from 19 journals) labeled as case series. Studies were identified by a structured literature search, with random selection of 100 studies from the relevant citations. Two reviewers independently characterized each study, with disagreements resolved by consensus. Of the 100 studies, 16 were case series. The remaining studies were descriptive cohort studies (35), population-based cohort studies (36), or other observational or experimental study designs (13). Almost half (48.8%) of the case series or descriptive cohort studies, with no control group and no formal statistical analysis, included inferential statements about the efficacy of treatment or statistical significance of potential risk factors. Authors, peer-reviewers, and editors should carefully consider the design elements of a study to accurately identify and label the study design. Doing so will facilitate an understanding of the evidentiary value of the results. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Changing policy framing as a deliberate strategy for public health advocacy: a qualitative policy case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-06-01

    Scotland is the first country in the world to pass legislation introducing a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol in an attempt to reduce consumption and associated harms by increasing the price of the cheapest alcohol. We investigated the competing ways in which policy stakeholders presented the debate. We then established whether a change in framing helped explain the policy's emergence. We conducted a detailed policy case study through analysis of evidence submitted to the Scottish parliament, and in-depth, one-to-one interviews (n = 36) with politicians, civil servants, advocates, researchers, and industry representatives. Public- and voluntary-sector stakeholders tended to support MUP, while industry representatives were more divided. Two markedly different ways of presenting alcohol as a policy problem were evident. Critics of MUP (all of whom were related to industry) emphasized social disorder issues, particularly among young people, and hence argued for targeted approaches. In contrast, advocates for MUP (with the exception of those in industry) focused on alcohol as a health issue arising from overconsumption at a population level, thus suggesting that population-based interventions were necessary. Industry stakeholders favoring MUP adopted a hybrid framing, maintaining several aspects of the critical framing. Our interview data showed that public health advocates worked hard to redefine the policy issue by deliberately presenting a consistent alternative framing. Framing alcohol policy as a broad, multisectoral, public health issue that requires a whole-population approach has been crucial to enabling policymakers to seriously consider MUP, and public health advocates intentionally presented alcohol policy in this way. This reframing helped prioritize public health considerations in the policy debate and represents a deliberate strategy for consideration by those advocating for policy change around the world and in other public health areas. © 2014

  4. Examining the policy climate for HIV prevention in the Caribbean tourism sector: a qualitative study of policy makers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Connolly, Maureen; Natsui, Shaw; Puello, Adrian; Chapman, Helena

    2012-05-01

    The Caribbean has the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS outside sub-Saharan Africa, and a broad literature suggests an ecological association between tourism areas and sexual vulnerability. Tourism employees have been shown to engage in high rates of sexual risk behaviours. Nevertheless, no large-scale or sustained HIV prevention interventions have been conducted within the tourism industry. Policy barriers and resources are under-studied. In order to identify the policy barriers and resources for HIV prevention in the tourism sector, our research used a participatory approach involving a multisectoral coalition of representatives from the tourism industry, government, public health and civil society in the Dominican Republic. We conducted 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with policy makers throughout the country focusing on: prior experiences with HIV prevention policies and programmes in the tourism sector; barriers and resources for such policies and programmes; and future priorities and recommendations. Findings suggest perceptions among policy makers of barriers related to the mobile nature of tourism employees; the lack of centralized funding; fear of the 'image problem' associated with HIV; and the lack of multisectoral policy dialogue and collaboration. Nevertheless, prior short-term experiences and changing attitudes among some private sector tourism representatives suggest emerging opportunities for policy change. We argue that the time is ripe for dialogue across the public-private divide in order to develop regulatory mechanisms, joint responsibilities and centralized funding sources to ensure a sustainable response to the HIV-tourism linkage. Policy priorities should focus on incorporating HIV prevention as a component of occupational health; reinforcing workers' health care rights as guaranteed by existing law; using private sector tourism representatives who support HIV prevention as positive role models for national campaigns; and

  5. Changing Policy Framing as a Deliberate Strategy for Public Health Advocacy: A Qualitative Policy Case Study of Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-01-01

    Context Scotland is the first country in the world to pass legislation introducing a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol in an attempt to reduce consumption and associated harms by increasing the price of the cheapest alcohol. We investigated the competing ways in which policy stakeholders presented the debate. We then established whether a change in framing helped explain the policy's emergence. Methods We conducted a detailed policy case study through analysis of evidence submitted to the Scottish parliament, and in-depth, one-to-one interviews (n = 36) with politicians, civil servants, advocates, researchers, and industry representatives. Findings Public- and voluntary-sector stakeholders tended to support MUP, while industry representatives were more divided. Two markedly different ways of presenting alcohol as a policy problem were evident. Critics of MUP (all of whom were related to industry) emphasized social disorder issues, particularly among young people, and hence argued for targeted approaches. In contrast, advocates for MUP (with the exception of those in industry) focused on alcohol as a health issue arising from overconsumption at a population level, thus suggesting that population-based interventions were necessary. Industry stakeholders favoring MUP adopted a hybrid framing, maintaining several aspects of the critical framing. Our interview data showed that public health advocates worked hard to redefine the policy issue by deliberately presenting a consistent alternative framing. Conclusions Framing alcohol policy as a broad, multisectoral, public health issue that requires a whole-population approach has been crucial to enabling policymakers to seriously consider MUP, and public health advocates intentionally presented alcohol policy in this way. This reframing helped prioritize public health considerations in the policy debate and represents a deliberate strategy for consideration by those advocating for policy change around the world and in

  6. case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Conclusions: The concept of “case series” is not well defined in the literature and does not reflect a specific research design. We suggest that a case series should have more than four patients while four paitents or less should be reported individually as case reports. Key words: Case report, case series, concept analysis, ...

  7. Bridging environmental and financial cost of dairy production: A case study of Irish agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-02-15

    The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production. This study used 2013 Irish dairy farming as a baseline, and defined 'bottom', 'target' and 'optimum' scenarios, according to the change of elementary inputs required to meet agricultural policy ambitions. The study demonstrated that the three monetization methods, Stepwise 2006, Eco-cost 2012 and EPS 2000, could be used for aggregating different environmental impacts into monetary unit, and to provide an insight for evaluating policy related to total environmental performance. The results showed that the total environmental cost of Irish milk production could be greater than the financial cost (up to €0.53/kg energy corrected milk). The dairy expansion policy with improved herbage utilization and fertilizer application could reduce financial cost and minimize the total environmental cost of per unit milk produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...

  9. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...

  10. Effects of hammock positioning in behavioral status, vital signs, and pain in preterms: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Valdecira Rodrigues de; Oliveira, Pricila Mara Novais de; Azevedo, Vivian Mara Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2018-03-15

    The hammock positioning within the incubators simulates the intrauterine environment, however, there is little evidence of its benefits and possible risks. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of hammock positioning on behavioral status, vital signs, and pain in very low birth weight preterm newborns. This is a quasi-experimental/case series study in which premature infants (Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards understanding the drivers of policy change: a case study of infection control policies for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Trust; Salie, Faatiema; Douglas, Tania S

    2017-05-30

    Explaining policy change is one of the central tasks of contemporary policy analysis. In this article, we examine the changes in infection control policies for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in South Africa from the time the country made the transition to democracy in 1994, until 2015. We focus on MDR-TB infection control and refer to decentralised management as a form of infection control. Using Kingdon's theoretical framework of policy streams, we explore the temporal ordering of policy framework changes. We also consider the role of research in motivating policy changes. Policy documents addressing MDR-TB in South Africa over the period 1994 to 2014 were extracted. Literature on MDR-TB infection control in South Africa was extracted from PubMed using key search terms. The documents were analysed to identify the changes that occurred and the factors driving them. During the period under study, five different policy frameworks were implemented. The policies were meant to address the overwhelming challenge of MDR-TB in South Africa, contextualised by high prevalence of HIV infection, that threatened to undermine public health programmes and the success of antiretroviral therapy rollouts. Policy changes in MDR-TB infection control were supported by research evidence and driven by the high incidence and complexity of the disease, increasing levels of dissatisfaction among patients, challenges of physical, human and financial resources in public hospitals, and the ideologies of the political leadership. Activists and people living with HIV played an important role in highlighting the importance of MDR-TB as well as exerting pressure on policymakers, while the mass media drew public attention to infection control as both a cause of and a solution to MDR-TB. The critical factors for policy change for infection control of MDR-TB in South Africa were rooted in the socioeconomic and political environment, were supported by extensive research, and can be framed

  12. A character network study of two Sci-Fi TV series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M. S. A.; Ujum, E. A.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-03-01

    This work is an analysis of the character networks in two science fiction television series: Stargate and Star Trek. These networks are constructed on the basis of scene co-occurrence between characters to indicate the presence of a connection. Global network structure measures such as the average path length, graph density, network diameter, average degree, median degree, maximum degree, and average clustering coefficient are computed as well as individual node centrality scores. The two fictional networks constructed are found to be quite similar in structure which is astonishing given that Stargate only ran for 18 years in comparison to the 48 years for Star Trek.

  13. A Spatial Data Infrastructure Integrating Multisource Heterogeneous Geospatial Data and Time Series: A Study Case in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Bordogna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the best practice to support land planning calls for the development of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI capable of integrating both geospatial datasets and time series information from multiple sources, e.g., multitemporal satellite data and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI. This paper describes an original OGC standard interoperable SDI architecture and a geospatial data and metadata workflow for creating and managing multisource heterogeneous geospatial datasets and time series, and discusses it in the framework of the Space4Agri project study case developed to support the agricultural sector in Lombardy region, Northern Italy. The main novel contributions go beyond the application domain for which the SDI has been developed and are the following: the ingestion within an a-centric SDI, potentially distributed in several nodes on the Internet to support scalability, of products derived by processing remote sensing images, authoritative data, georeferenced in-situ measurements and voluntary information (VGI created by farmers and agronomists using an original Smart App; the workflow automation for publishing sets and time series of heterogeneous multisource geospatial data and relative web services; and, finally, the project geoportal, that can ease the analysis of the geospatial datasets and time series by providing complex intelligent spatio-temporal query and answering facilities.

  14. Atmospheric Pressure and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture: Results From a Time Series Analysis and Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning de Vries, Bas B L; Kolkert, Joé L P; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2017-10-01

    Associations between atmospheric pressure and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk have been reported, but empirical evidence is inconclusive and largely derived from studies that did not account for possible nonlinearity, seasonality, and confounding by temperature. Associations between atmospheric pressure and AAA rupture risk were investigated using local meteorological data and a case series of 358 patients admitted to hospital for ruptured AAA during the study period, January 2002 to December 2012. Two analyses were performed-a time series analysis and a case-crossover study. Results from the 2 analyses were similar; neither the time series analysis nor the case-crossover study showed a significant association between atmospheric pressure ( P = .627 and P = .625, respectively, for mean daily atmospheric pressure) or atmospheric pressure variation ( P = .464 and P = .816, respectively, for 24-hour change in mean daily atmospheric pressure) and AAA rupture risk. This study failed to support claims that atmospheric pressure causally affects AAA rupture risk. In interpreting our results, one should be aware that the range of atmospheric pressure observed in this study is not representative of the atmospheric pressure to which patients with AAA may be exposed, for example, during air travel or travel to high altitudes in the mountains. Making firm claims regarding these conditions in relation to AAA rupture risk is difficult at best. Furthermore, despite the fact that we used one of the largest case series to date to investigate the effect of atmospheric pressure on AAA rupture risk, it is possible that this study is simply too small to demonstrate a causal link.

  15. An ecological time-series study of heat-related mortality in three European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Europe has experienced warmer summers in the past two decades and there is a need to describe the determinants of heat-related mortality to better inform public health activities during hot weather. We investigated the effect of high temperatures on daily mortality in three cities in Europe (Budapest, London, and Milan, using a standard approach. Methods An ecological time-series study of daily mortality was conducted in three cities using Poisson generalized linear models allowing for over-dispersion. Secular trends in mortality and seasonal confounding factors were controlled for using cubic smoothing splines of time. Heat exposure was modelled using average values of the temperature measure on the same day as death (lag 0 and the day before (lag 1. The heat effect was quantified assuming a linear increase in risk above a cut-point for each city. Socio-economic status indicators and census data were linked with mortality data for stratified analyses. Results The risk of heat-related death increased with age, and females had a greater risk than males in age groups ≥65 years in London and Milan. The relative risks of mortality (per °C above the heat cut-point by gender and age were: (i Male 1.10 (95%CI: 1.07–1.12 and Female 1.07 (1.05–1.10 for 75–84 years, (ii M 1.10 (1.06–1.14 and F 1.08 (1.06–1.11 for ≥85 years in Budapest (≥24°C; (i M 1.03 (1.01–1.04 and F 1.07 (1.05–1.09, (ii M 1.05 (1.03–1.07 and F 1.08 (1.07–1.10 in London (≥20°C; and (i M 1.08 (1.03–1.14 and F 1.20 (1.15–1.26, (ii M 1.18 (1.11–1.26 and F 1.19 (1.15–1.24 in Milan (≥26°C. Mortality from external causes increases at higher temperatures as well as that from respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There was no clear evidence of effect modification by socio-economic status in either Budapest or London, but there was a seemingly higher risk for affluent non-elderly adults in Milan. Conclusion We found broadly consistent

  16. Modulation of Donor-Acceptor Distance in a Series of Carbazole Push-Pull Dyes; A Spectroscopic and Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Sutton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of eight carbazole-cyanoacrylate based donor-acceptor dyes were studied. Within the series the influence of modifying the thiophene bridge, linking donor and acceptor and a change in the nature of the acceptor, from acid to ester, was explored. In this joint experimental and computational study we have used electronic absorbance and emission spectroscopies, Raman spectroscopy and computational modeling (density functional theory. From these studies it was found that extending the bridge length allowed the lowest energy transition to be systematically red shifted by 0.12 eV, allowing for limited tuning of the absorption of dyes using this structural motif. Using the aforementioned techniques we demonstrate that this transition is charge transfer in nature. Furthermore, the extent of charge transfer between donor and acceptor decreases with increasing bridge length and the bridge plays a smaller role in electronically mixing with the acceptor as it is extended.

  17. Implementation of Compulsory Study 12 Year Policy to Increase Education Quality in Kudus Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asih Widi Lestari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Education is an important instrument in improving the human resources quality. Kudus Regency has implemented compulsory study since 2010 through Kudus Regency Regional Regulation Number 2/ 2010 about Compulsory Study 12 (Twelve Years. While, Central Government issued compulsory study 12 year policy in June 2013 through Ministry of Education and Culture Regulation Number 80/2013 about Universal Secondary Education. Obviously, this is a bold step of Kudus Regency Government in improving the education quality at Kudus Regency. The research objectives are: to know, analyze, and describe about Implementation of compulsory study 12 years policy to increase education in Kudus Regency; and to know, analyze, and describe about supporting and inhibiting factors toward implementation of compulsory study 12 years policy to increase education quality in Kudus Regency. This research resulted that the implementation compulsory study 12 years policy in Kudus Regency has been successfully, viewed from the actor that completely carry out their duties and responsibilities; the existence of funding and programs from Kudus Regency Government and Central Government is supporting the mechanism implementation in accordance with the provisions. The compulsory study 12 years policy in Kudus Regency had positive impact in improving the education quality at Kudus Regency, it is seen from the increase of Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER for secondary education from 60% in 2008 to 80,59% in 2013. The success in improving the education quality is also seen from achievement of Kudus Regency in obtained champions in various championships. The supporting factors are The content of the Kudus Regency Regional Regulation Number 2/ 2010 about Compulsory Study 12 Years and the Minister of Education and Culture Regulation Number 80/ 2013 about Universal Secondary Education which clear and easy to understand; the willingness of Kudus Society in receiving the compulsory study 12 years policy

  18. Convergence, Creative Industries and Civil Society Towards a New Agenda for Cultural Policy and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Mercer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article I start with a personal experience "cameo" from 1996 in Australia and extrapolate from that some issues that remain relevant in the sometimes trou-bled relationship between cultural studies and cultural policy. These are encapsu-lated in the three "cs" of convergence, creative industries and civil society which provide a new context for both new research and new policy settings. The argu-ment is developed and situated in historical terms by examining the "cultural technologies", especially the newspaper, and subsequently print media in the 19th century, electronic media in the 20th century and digital media in the 21st century which provide the content, the technologies and the rituals for "imagining" our sense of place and belonging. This is then linked to ways of understanding culture and cultural technologies in the context of governmentality and the emergence of culture as a strategic object of policy with the aim of citizen- and population for-mation and management. This argument is then linked to four contemporary "testbeds" - cultural mapping and planning, cultural statistics and indicators, cul-tural citizenship and identity, and research of and for cultural policy - and priori-ties for cultural policy where cultural studies work has been extremely enabling and productive. The article concludes with an argument, derived from the early 20th century work of Patrick Geddes of the necessity of linking, researching, un-derstanding and operationalising the three key elements and disciplines of Folk (anthropology, Work (economics, and Place (geography in order to properly situate cultural policy, mapping and planning and their relationship to cultural studies and other disciplines.

  19. Addressing refugee health through evidence-based policies: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Ingleby, J David; Pottie, Kevin; Tchangalova, Nedelina; Allen, Sophia I; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Hidalgo, Bertha

    2017-05-12

    The cumulative total of persons forced to leave their country for fear of persecution or organized violence reached an unprecedented 24.5 million by the end of 2015. Providing equitable access to appropriate health services for these highly diverse newcomers poses challenges for receiving countries. In this case study, we illustrate the importance of translating epidemiology into policy to address the health needs of refugees by highlighting examples of what works as well as identifying important policy-relevant gaps in knowledge. First, we formed an international working group of epidemiologists and health services researchers to identify available literature on the intersection of epidemiology, policy, and refugee health. Second, we created a synopsis of findings to inform a recommendation for integration of policy and epidemiology to support refugee health in the United States and other high-income receiving countries. Third, we identified eight key areas to guide the involvement of epidemiologists in addressing refugee health concerns. The complexity and uniqueness of refugee health issues, and the need to develop sustainable management information systems, require epidemiologists to expand their repertoire of skills to identify health patterns among arriving refugees, monitor access to appropriately designed health services, address inequities, and communicate with policy makers and multidisciplinary teams. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boezeman, Daan; Leroy, Pieter; Maas, Rob; Kruitwagen, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

  1. Policy Model of Sustainable Infrastructure Development (Case Study : Bandarlampung City, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persada, C.; Sitorus, S. R. P.; Marimin; Djakapermana, R. D.

    2018-03-01

    Infrastructure development does not only affect the economic aspect, but also social and environmental, those are the main dimensions of sustainable development. Many aspects and actors involved in urban infrastructure development requires a comprehensive and integrated policy towards sustainability. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate an infrastructure development policy that considers various dimensions of sustainable development. The main objective of this research is to formulate policy of sustainable infrastructure development. In this research, urban infrastructure covers transportation, water systems (drinking water, storm water, wastewater), green open spaces and solid waste. This research was conducted in Bandarlampung City. This study use a comprehensive modeling, namely the Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) with Rapid Appraisal of Infrastructure (Rapinfra), it uses of Analytic Network Process (ANP) and it uses system dynamics model. The findings of the MDS analysis showed that the status of Bandarlampung City infrastructure sustainability is less sustainable. The ANP analysis produces 8 main indicators of the most influential in the development of sustainable infrastructure. The system dynamics model offered 4 scenarios of sustainable urban infrastructure policy model. The best scenario was implemented into 3 policies consist of: the integrated infrastructure management, the population control, and the local economy development.

  2. A study of methyl group dynamics and barrier heights in a homologous series of unbranched ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. M.; Horsewill, A. J.

    The temperature dependence of the nuclear (proton) spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, has been measured in the range 10-300 K for the following series of unbranched ketones; 2-butanone to 2-nonanone, 3-pentanone to 3-octanone and 4-heptanone. This data has been analysed to provide estimates for the magnitudes of the three-fold potential barriers to reorientation of all methyl groups in these materials. The corresponding methyl tunnel splittings have also been predicted. Measurements of six tunnel splittings in four of the samples encompassing an energy range of four orders of magnitude confirm these predictions to be accurate and provide refined values for the barrier heights. The tunnelling spectroscopy was performed using the techniques of high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering, field-cycling level-crossing N.M.R. spectroscopy and double sideband irradiation N.M.R. spectroscopy. The observed trends in barrier height within the series of materials have been rationalized in terms of the known molecular structure and inter- and intra-molecular contributions have been separately identified and accounted for. The four measured barrier heights in 2-pentanone have been employed to model the temperature dependence of T1 using Clough et al.'s single parameter theory for methyl dynamics. The agreement with experiment is very good.

  3. The role of welfare state principles and generosity in social policy programmes for public health: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Olle; Yngwe, Monica Aberg; Stjärne, Maria Kölegård; Elstad, Jon Ivar; Ferrarini, Tommy; Kangas, Olli; Norström, Thor; Palme, Joakim; Fritzell, Johan

    2008-11-08

    Many important social determinants of health are also the focus for social policies. Welfare states contribute to the resources available for their citizens through cash transfer programmes and subsidised services. Although all rich nations have welfare programmes, there are clear cross-national differences with respect to their design and generosity. These differences are evident in national variations in poverty rates, especially among children and elderly people. We investigated to what extent variations in family and pension policies are linked to infant mortality and old-age excess mortality. Infant mortality rates and old-age excess mortality rates were analysed in relation to social policy characteristics and generosity. We did pooled cross-sectional time-series analyses of 18 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries during the period 1970-2000 for family policies and 1950-2000 for pension policies. Increased generosity in family policies that support dual-earner families is linked with lower infant mortality rates, whereas the generosity in family policies that support more traditional families with gainfully employed men and homemaking women is not. An increase by one percentage point in dual-earner support lowers infant mortality by 0.04 deaths per 1000 births. Generosity in basic security type of pensions is linked to lower old-age excess mortality, whereas the generosity of earnings-related income security pensions is not. An increase by one percentage point in basic security pensions is associated with a decrease in the old age excess mortality by 0.02 for men as well as for women. The ways in which social policies are designed, as well as their generosity, are important for health because of the increase in resources that social policies entail. Hence, social policies are of major importance for how we can tackle the social determinants of health.

  4. Polarization reversal, migration related shifts in human resource profiles, and spatial growth policies: a Venezuelan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L A; Lawson, V A

    1989-01-01

    "This article examines polarization reversal in terms of changing human resource profiles related to migration and to national policies affecting the spatial pattern of economic growth. It first demonstrates the relationship between these elements through a review that integrates three distinct themes in earlier research. Attention then turns to an empirical study of human resource variation among eight urban districts and the rest of Venezuela treated as a single unit. This comparison utilizes age, gender, educational attainment, and occupational status variables provided by individual records of Venezuela's 1971 Population Census. A concluding section relates empirical findings to policy alternatives." excerpt

  5. Comparative study of water resource management policies between China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Liya; Christensen, Per; Liu, Jingling

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares water resource policies and management practices in China and Denmark. It takes two vulnerable water ecosystems as case studies: Baiyangdian wetland in China and Mariager fjord in Denmark. Based on the theories of the commons, this article explores the similarities...... due to the complicated administrative structure in China and clearer goals and better resources in Denmark. Denmark has also accomplished a large degree of environmental policy integration (EPI), which is not the case in China. But China has recently put environmental concerns high on the agenda...

  6. Observed and projected trends in paediatric health resources and services in China between 2003 and 2030: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Yu; Gao, Ying; Li, Chang-Ping; Zheng, Rong-Xiu; Chen, Jie-Li; Zhao, Lin; Wang, You-Fa; Wang, Yao-Gang

    2017-06-24

    The two-child policy took effect in China on 1 January 2016, thus officially ending the one-child policy. The resultant growth in the population will create a considerable demand for public services such as paediatric healthcare, even while there are limited paediatric resources. We estimated the relationship between paediatric health resources and services and child mortality to determine the degree of the deficiency of such resources in China. Projecting the quantity of paediatric health resource allocation and service supply through 2030 will help provide data reference for future policy decision making. Time-series study. The People's Republic of China. Paediatric patients whose data were recorded between 2003 and 2012 from the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. Child mortality and paediatric health resources and services data were entered into a cubic polynomial regression model to project paediatric health resources and services to 2030. Child mortality decreased throughout the past decade. Furthermore, the number of paediatric beds, paediatricians and nurses increased between 2003 and 2012, although the proportions increased rather slowly. Both the number and proportion of paediatric outpatients and inpatients increased rapidly. The observed and model-predicted values matched well (adjusted R 2 =93.8% for paediatric beds; adjusted R 2 =96.6% for paediatric outpatient visits). Overall, the projection indicated that paediatric beds, paediatricians and nurses will reach 460 148, 233 884 and 184 059 by 2030, respectively. Regarding paediatric services, the number of paediatric outpatient visits and inpatients is expected to reach upwards of 449.95 million and 21.83 million by 2030, respectively. Despite implementation of the two-child policy, resource allocation in paediatrics has many deficiencies. Proper measures should be taken to actively respond to the demand for paediatric health services. © Article

  7. Pharmaceutical companies' policies on access to trial data, results, and methods: audit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldacre, Ben; Lane, Síle; Mahtani, Kamal R; Heneghan, Carl; Onakpoya, Igho; Bushfield, Ian; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-07-26

    Objectives  To identify the policies of major pharmaceutical companies on transparency of trials, to extract structured data detailing each companies' commitments, and to assess concordance with ethical and professional guidance. Design  Structured audit. Setting  Pharmaceutical companies, worldwide. Participants  42 pharmaceutical companies. Main outcome measures  Companies' commitments on sharing summary results, clinical study reports (CSRs), individual patient data (IPD), and trial registration, for prospective and retrospective trials. Results  Policies were highly variable. Of 23 companies eligible from the top 25 companies by revenue, 21 (91%) committed to register all trials and 22 (96%) committed to share summary results; however, policies commonly lacked timelines for disclosure, and trials on unlicensed medicines and off-label uses were only included in six (26%). 17 companies (74%) committed to share the summary results of past trials. The median start date for this commitment was 2005. 22 companies (96%) had a policy on sharing CSRs, mostly on request: two committed to share only synopses and only two policies included unlicensed treatments. 22 companies (96%) had a policy to share IPD; 14 included phase IV trials (one included trials on unlicensed medicines and off-label uses). Policies in the exploratory group of smaller companies made fewer transparency commitments. Two companies fell short of industry body commitments on registration, three on summary results. Examples of contradictory and ambiguous language were documented and summarised by theme. 23/42 companies (55%) responded to feedback; 7/1806 scored policy elements were revised in light of feedback from companies (0.4%). Several companies committed to changing policy; some made changes immediately. Conclusions  The commitments made by companies to transparency of trials were highly variable. Other than journal submission for all trials within 12 months, all elements of best practice

  8. An empirical study of dividend policy of quoted companies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempt to evaluate the observed dividend policy of a cross section of 27 Nigeria quoted companies using theories tested to explain dividend behavior of those firms. These theories which are several and varied; even contradict each other and considerable doubt exist as to which theory best represent the ...

  9. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L. M.; Berentzen, C. A.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university

  10. Universities' Expectations for Study-Abroad Programs Fostering Internationalization: Educational Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take, Hiroko; Shoraku, Ai

    2018-01-01

    Because internationalization in higher education has recently received significant attention within the context of globalization, universities in Japan have begun to develop study-abroad programs to support their students in gaining international experience. This article explores those university policies designed to support the…

  11. Making or breaking climate targets : The AMPERE study on staged accession scenarios for climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Riahi, Keywan; Bauer, Nico; Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Petermann, Nils; Bosetti, Valentina; Marcucci, Adriana; Otto, Sander; Paroussos, Leonidas; Rao, Shilpa; Arroyo Currás, Tabaré; Ashina, Shuichi; Bollen, Johannes; Eom, Jiyong; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Longden, Thomas; Kitous, Alban; Méjean, Aurélie; Sano, Fuminori; Schaeffer, Michiel; Wada, Kenichi; Capros, Pantelis; P. van Vuuren, Detlef; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    This study explores a situation of staged accession to a global climate policy regime from the current situation of regionally fragmented and moderate climate action. The analysis is based on scenarios in which a front runner coalition - the EU or the EU and China - embarks on immediate ambitious

  12. Critical Discourse Analysis in Comparative Education: A Discursive Study of "Partnership" in Tanzania's Poverty Reduction Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrus, Frances; Seghers, Maud

    2010-01-01

    The study of policy in comparative education has been approached using methods associated with the principal social science disciplines that have informed the field since its inception. In particular, the disciplines of history, political science, sociology, and anthropology have had a significant influence on determining the acceptable methods…

  13. Corporal Punishment in the State of Louisiana: A Descriptive Study of Policies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Mary R.

    2014-01-01

    Louisiana is currently one of the 19 states in the United States that still allow the use of corporal punishment in public schools. The research questions that drove this study explored Louisiana-published court cases involving corporal punishment in public schools, district policies regarding the use of corporal punishment, reported instances of…

  14. Ideologies, Gender and School Policy: A Comparative Study of Two Swiss Regions (1860-1930)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praz, Anne Francoise

    2006-01-01

    Switzerland provides an interesting case study for the development of educational policies. As a result of federalism, each state--called a canton--worked out its own school system in relative independence. How can various political and religious environments generate different educational systems according to gender? Which factors promote or…

  15. Policy alienation of public professionals: A comparative case study of insurance physicians and secondary school teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor); A.J. Steijn (Bram)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, there is an intense debate on the pressures facing public professionals in service delivery. Several studies show increasing discontent among professionals toward policies they have to implement. In this article, we aim to contribute to this topic by analyzing this discontent

  16. Why Are Studies of Neighborhoods and Communities Central to Education Policy and Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    To understand the long shadow of education policy and reform in the United States, especially in the urban core, requires a full and elaborate understanding of the neighborhoods and communities that have transformed in the last 20 or 30 years. Studying classrooms and educational spaces without concomitant understanding of the dynamics and facets…

  17. Public Health Knowledge Utilisation by Policy Actors: An Evaluation Study in Midden-Holland, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Joyce; Steenkamer, Betty; Treurniet, Henriëtte; Putters, Kim; van Oers, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive report has been prepared on the state of public health and healthcare in the Midden-Holland region of the Netherlands. This study describes the development of the report and the mechanisms behind public health knowledge utilisation by three groups of health policy actors: local authorities, public health professionals and regional…

  18. A Qualitative Study of Autism Policy in Canada: Seeking Consensus on Children's Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Cody A.; Waddell, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Canadian autism policy has been unusually contentious, with parents resorting to litigation to secure services for their children in several provinces. To ascertain whether consensus was possible on improving services, we conducted an in-depth qualitative interview study with 39 parents, policymakers and researchers across the country. Parents…

  19. An Operations Research Study of a Variable Loan and Duplication Policy at the University of Lancaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Michael K.

    1972-01-01

    The variable" loan and duplication policy which was developed is described and also the considerable impact of implementation. The work is presented as a case study in library O.R. The great importance of analyzing the structure of problems is stressed and the nature and usefulness of models is described. (9 references) (Author/NH)

  20. Assessing Patient Organization Participation in Health Policy: A Comparative Study in France and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Souliotis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Even though there are many patient organizations across Europe, their role in impacting health policy decisions and reforms has not been well documented. In line with this, the present study endeavours to fill this gap in the international literature. To this end, it aims to validate further a previously developed instrument (the Health Democracy Index - HDI measuring patient organization participation in health policy decision-making. In addition, by utilizing this tool, it aims to provide a snapshot of the degree and impact of cancer patient organization (CPO participation in Italy and France. Methods A convenient sample of 188 members of CPOs participated in the study (95 respondents from 10 CPOs in Italy and 93 from 12 CPOs in France. Participants completed online a self-reported questionnaire, encompassing the 9-item index and questions enquiring about the type and impact of participation in various facets of health policy decisionmaking. The psychometric properties of the scale were explored by performing factor analysis (construct validity and by computing Cronbach α (internal consistency. Results Findings indicate that the index has good internal consistency and the construct it taps is unidimensional. The degree and impact of CPO participation in health policy decision-making were found to be low in both countries; however in Italy they were comparatively lower than in France. Conclusion In conclusion, the HDI can be effectively used in international policy and research contexts. CPOs participation is low in Italy and France and concerted efforts should be made on upgrading their role in health policy decision-making.

  1. Nursing education reform in South Africa--lessons from a policy analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2014-01-01

    Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions responsible for the leadership and governance of nursing in South Africa, which

  2. Assessing Patient Organization Participation in Health Policy: A Comparative Study in France and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Agapidaki, Eirini; Evangelia Peppou, Lily; Tzavara, Chara; Varvaras, Dimitrios; Buonomo, Oreste Claudio; Debiais, Dominique; Hasurdjiev, Stanimir; Sarkozy, Francois

    2018-01-01

    Background: Even though there are many patient organizations across Europe, their role in impacting health policy decisions and reforms has not been well documented. In line with this, the present study endeavours to fill this gap in the international literature. To this end, it aims to validate further a previously developed instrument (the Health Democracy Index - HDI) measuring patient organization participation in health policy decision-making. In addition, by utilizing this tool, it aims to provide a snapshot of the degree and impact of cancer patient organization (CPO) participation in Italy and France. Methods: A convenient sample of 188 members of CPOs participated in the study (95 respondents from 10 CPOs in Italy and 93 from 12 CPOs in France). Participants completed online a self-reported questionnaire, encompassing the 9-item index and questions enquiring about the type and impact of participation in various facets of health policy decisionmaking. The psychometric properties of the scale were explored by performing factor analysis (construct validity) and by computing Cronbach α (internal consistency). Results: Findings indicate that the index has good internal consistency and the construct it taps is unidimensional. The degree and impact of CPO participation in health policy decision-making were found to be low in both countries; however in Italy they were comparatively lower than in France. Conclusion: In conclusion, the HDI can be effectively used in international policy and research contexts. CPOs participation is low in Italy and France and concerted efforts should be made on upgrading their role in health policy decision-making. PMID:29325402

  3. Assessing Patient Organization Participation in Health Policy: A Comparative Study in France and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Agapidaki, Eirini; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Tzavara, Chara; Varvaras, Dimitrios; Buonomo, Oreste Claudio; Debiais, Dominique; Hasurdjiev, Stanimir; Sarkozy, Francois

    2017-04-15

    Even though there are many patient organizations across Europe, their role in impacting health policy decisions and reforms has not been well documented. In line with this, the present study endeavours to fill this gap in the international literature. To this end, it aims to validate further a previously developed instrument (the Health Democracy Index - HDI) measuring patient organization participation in health policy decision-making. In addition, by utilizing this tool, it aims to provide a snapshot of the degree and impact of cancer patient organization (CPO) participation in Italy and France. A convenient sample of 188 members of CPOs participated in the study (95 respondents from 10 CPOs in Italy and 93 from 12 CPOs in France). Participants completed online a self-reported questionnaire, encompassing the 9-item index and questions enquiring about the type and impact of participation in various facets of health policy decisionmaking. The psychometric properties of the scale were explored by performing factor analysis (construct validity) and by computing Cronbach α (internal consistency). Findings indicate that the index has good internal consistency and the construct it taps is unidimensional. The degree and impact of CPO participation in health policy decision-making were found to be low in both countries; however in Italy they were comparatively lower than in France. In conclusion, the HDI can be effectively used in international policy and research contexts. CPOs participation is low in Italy and France and concerted efforts should be made on upgrading their role in health policy decision-making. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

  4. Nursing education reform in South Africa – lessons from a policy analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Blaauw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. Objective: We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. Design: We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. Results: The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. Conclusions: The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions

  5. A scan statistic for identifying optimal risk windows in vaccine safety studies using self-controlled case series design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Stanley; Hambidge, Simon J; McClure, David L; Daley, Matthew F; Glanz, Jason M

    2013-08-30

    In the examination of the association between vaccines and rare adverse events after vaccination in postlicensure observational studies, it is challenging to define appropriate risk windows because prelicensure RCTs provide little insight on the timing of specific adverse events. Past vaccine safety studies have often used prespecified risk windows based on prior publications, biological understanding of the vaccine, and expert opinion. Recently, a data-driven approach was developed to identify appropriate risk windows for vaccine safety studies that use the self-controlled case series design. This approach employs both the maximum incidence rate ratio and the linear relation between the estimated incidence rate ratio and the inverse of average person time at risk, given a specified risk window. In this paper, we present a scan statistic that can identify appropriate risk windows in vaccine safety studies using the self-controlled case series design while taking into account the dependence of time intervals within an individual and while adjusting for time-varying covariates such as age and seasonality. This approach uses the maximum likelihood ratio test based on fixed-effects models, which has been used for analyzing data from self-controlled case series design in addition to conditional Poisson models. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Alignment between chronic disease policy and practice: case study at a primary care facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A Draper

    Full Text Available Chronic disease is by far the leading cause of death worldwide and of increasing concern in low- and middle-income countries, including South Africa, where chronic diseases disproportionately affect the poor living in urban settings. The Provincial Government of the Western Cape (PGWC has prioritized the management of chronic diseases and has developed a policy and framework (Adult Chronic Disease Management Policy 2009 to guide and improve the prevention and management of chronic diseases at a primary care level. The aim of this study is to assess the alignment of current primary care practices with the PGWC Adult Chronic Disease Management policy.One comprehensive primary care facility in a Cape Town health district was used as a case study. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews (n = 10, focus groups (n = 8 and document review. Participants in this study included clinical staff involved in chronic disease management at the facility and at a provincial level. Data previously collected using the Integrated Audit Tool for Chronic Disease Management (part of the PGWC Adult Chronic Disease Management policy formed the basis of the guide questions used in focus groups and interviews.The results of this research indicate a significant gap between policy and its implementation to improve and support chronic disease management at this primary care facility. A major factor seems to be poor policy knowledge by clinicians, which contributes to an individual rather than a team approach in the management of chronic disease patients. Poor interaction between facility- and community-based services also emerged. A number of factors were identified that seemed to contribute to poor policy implementation, the majority of which were staff related and ultimately resulted in a decrease in the quality of patient care.Chronic disease policy implementation needs to be improved in order to support chronic disease management at this facility. It is possible

  7. Towards a structured approach to Strategic Environmental Assessment: A case study of Canadian energy policy alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram F.

    Considerable attention has been given to the role of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in policy, plan and program (PPP) assessment; however, there is still very little consensus on appropriate methodologies for SEA. Despite calls for SEA to develop more independently of project-level assessment, existing SEA methodologies still tend to be based on project-level EIA principles, rather than also on a trickling down of objectives of broader environmental policy. This thesis argues that if SEA is to advance in application and effectiveness then a different, but structured methodological framework is required. While SEA can perhaps utilize many of the existing methods and techniques from project-level assessment, the types of questions being addressed in strategic assessment are inherently different from those in project-level assessment. Accordingly, a different methodological assessment framework is required for SEA. The emphasis of strategic assessment is on the development of an appropriate strategy for action, addressing alternative courses of action, rather than the assessment of the potential impacts of a pre-determined option. In order to accomplish this, SEA methodology must be more broad brush than project-level assessment in order to allow the assessment of both the more general policy issues and the more technical plan and program issues. Similar to project-level assessment, however, a structured framework is desired in order to facilitate a more systematic and replicable assessment process. This thesis develops a structured, generic seven-phase assessment framework to guide SEA application. The framework is demonstrated through a case study SEA of potential Canadian energy policy alternatives. Through the use of a modified policy-type Delphi and multi-criteria analytical methods, alternative options for Canadian energy policy are evaluated and the 'best practicable environmental option' is determined. While the geographic scale of the case study and

  8. Alignment between chronic disease policy and practice: case study at a primary care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Claire A; Draper, Catherine E; Bresick, Graham F

    2014-01-01

    Chronic disease is by far the leading cause of death worldwide and of increasing concern in low- and middle-income countries, including South Africa, where chronic diseases disproportionately affect the poor living in urban settings. The Provincial Government of the Western Cape (PGWC) has prioritized the management of chronic diseases and has developed a policy and framework (Adult Chronic Disease Management Policy 2009) to guide and improve the prevention and management of chronic diseases at a primary care level. The aim of this study is to assess the alignment of current primary care practices with the PGWC Adult Chronic Disease Management policy. One comprehensive primary care facility in a Cape Town health district was used as a case study. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews (n = 10), focus groups (n = 8) and document review. Participants in this study included clinical staff involved in chronic disease management at the facility and at a provincial level. Data previously collected using the Integrated Audit Tool for Chronic Disease Management (part of the PGWC Adult Chronic Disease Management policy) formed the basis of the guide questions used in focus groups and interviews. The results of this research indicate a significant gap between policy and its implementation to improve and support chronic disease management at this primary care facility. A major factor seems to be poor policy knowledge by clinicians, which contributes to an individual rather than a team approach in the management of chronic disease patients. Poor interaction between facility- and community-based services also emerged. A number of factors were identified that seemed to contribute to poor policy implementation, the majority of which were staff related and ultimately resulted in a decrease in the quality of patient care. Chronic disease policy implementation needs to be improved in order to support chronic disease management at this facility. It is possible that similar

  9. Human Resources for Industrial Development; Some Aspects of Policy and Planning. Studies and Reports, New Series, No. 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Major manpower and social problems encountered by developing countries in the process of industrial development, and action to be taken both at the national and international levels comprise the substantive focus of this document. The document is a collection of papers prepared by the International Labor Office. Part I, "Manpower for Industry,"…

  10. Mobilization and Defense Management Technical Reports Series. Mobilization Studies Program Report: Coordinated Policy for the Aircraft Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    perhaps characterized more by their negative impact than anything else. Laws governing such matters as collective bargaining, right-to-work, union shop...Acoustics Robotics RPVs Materials Lasers Composites, Metal Matrix Experimental Techniques Structural Concepts. Stealth Navigation Processing...ts pln facilities-. Cne of The larzest plant-s stil1 owned by the £oerment is ;ir-Force Plant oo. " in Fc.rt Wor-ch, Texas. ThIe -0 year -- :. facili

  11. Preliminary Study of Soil Available Nutrient Simulation Using a Modified WOFOST Model and Time-Series Remote Sensing Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqiang Cheng; Jihua Meng; Yanyou Qiao; Yiming Wang; Wenquan Dong; Yanxin Han

    2018-01-01

    The approach of using multispectral remote sensing (RS) to estimate soil available nutrients (SANs) has been recently developed and shows promising results. This method overcomes the limitations of commonly used methods by building a statistical model that connects RS-based crop growth and nutrient content. However, the stability and accuracy of this model require improvement. In this article, we replaced the statistical model by integrating the World Food Studies (WOFOST) model and time seri...

  12. EGFR status in oral squamous cell carcinoma: comparing immunohistochemistry, FISH and CISH detection in a case series study

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes, Vanessa F?tima; Gleber-Netto, Frederico Omar; de Sousa, S?lvia Ferreira; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; de Aguiar, Maria C?ssia Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) with the gene amplification evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and their association with clinicopathological parameters. Additionally, we tested the sensibility and specificity of CISH in comparison with FISH. Design Case series study Setting Oral surgery and pathology department in ...

  13. Chart Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) offers several different Chart Series with data on beneficiary health status, spending, operations, and quality...

  14. SERIES ARTICLES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ensis fruit. 4. SERIES ARTICLES. Evolution of the Atmosphere and Oceans: Evidence from Geological Records. Evolution of the Early Atmosphere. P V Sukumaran. 11 Electrostatics in Chemistry. Electrostatic Models for Weak Molecular ...

  15. SERIES ARTICLES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    347 Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and. Biological Sciences. Chemistry Nobel Prize – 2013. Saraswathi Vishveshwara. SERIES ARTICLES. 368 Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives. A Physicist's Perspective on Ecology. Vishwesha Guttal. 310. 368 ...

  16. [Orbit evisceration: retrospective study on a consecutive series of 10 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, I; Szabo, Bianca; Popescu, Livia Adriana; Petrescu, Magda

    2013-01-01

    Exenteration of the orbit is challenging in its anatomical, surgical and postsurgical management-related issues. We describe a surgical series of 65 patients diagnosed at Neurosurgery and Ophthal-mology departments; between 2003 and 2012, 65 cases with intraorbital tumors were identified and underwent partial or total exenteration of the orbit. The most frequent dignosticated tumor which underwent exenteration were spinous and basal carcinoma of the orbit (41.5 %) followed by neurofibroma The most common preoperative sign was proptosis (100%), followed by ocular and orbital pain (6.1%) and visual acuity loss (3.07%). Preoperatively signs included alteration of the facial aspect (96.9%), behavioural, emotional and social difficulties, especially in young people (6,9%). Although there is an extremely mutilant surgical procedure, pain is often relieved. Therefore, the surgical aim should be life preserving and relief of leading symptoms; estetic aspect of the patients was also one of postoperative aims.

  17. Study on Individual Traffic Police On-Duty Behavior Analysis Method with Time Series Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-jun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional traffic police scheduling and dispatching, the applications of the position information are restricted. This paper presented a model of the traffic police on-duty behavior analysis based on time series, in order to improve the efficiency of traffic police scheduling and dispatching system. Firstly, it proposes the steps for the behavior analysis of individual traffic police on-duty. Secondly, it elaborates division method of individual traffic police on-duty behavior from background element definition and semantic concept description. Thirdly the paper builds a model concerning individual traffic police on duty behavior by applying state automaton. Finally it describes the implementation methods of key technologies on individual traffic police on duty behavior.

  18. Safety Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management in Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Policies, a Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad Allah, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing demand of energy worldwide, and due to the depletion of conventional natural energy resources, energy policies in many countries have been devoted to nuclear energy option. On the other hand, adopting a safe and reliable nuclear fuel cycle concept guarantees future nuclear energy sustain ability is a vital request from environmental and economic point of views. The safety aspects of radioactive waste management in the nuclear fuel cycle is a topic of great importance relevant to public acceptance of nuclear energy and the development of nuclear technology. As a part of nuclear fuel cycle safety evaluation studies in the department of nuclear fuel cycle safety, National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), this study evaluates the radioactive waste management policies and radiological safety aspects of three different nuclear fuel cycle policies. The once-through fuel cycle (OT- fuel cycle) or the direct spent fuel disposal concept for both pressurized light water reactor ( PWR) and pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR or CANDU) systems and the s elf-generated o r recycling fuel cycle concept in PWR have been considered in the assessment. The environmental radiological safety aspects of different nuclear fuel cycle options have been evaluated and discussed throughout the estimation of radioactive waste generated from spent fuel from these fuel cycle options. The decay heat stored in the spent fuel was estimated and a comparative safety study between the three fuel cycle policies has been implemented

  19. Using Landsat image time series to study a small water body in Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao Rodríguez, Y; el Anjoumi, A; Domínguez Gómez, J A; Rodríguez Pérez, D; Rico, E

    2014-06-01

    Ramsar Convention and EU Water Framework Directive are two international agreements focused on the conservation and achievement of good ecological and chemical status of wetlands. Wetlands are important ecosystems holding many plant and animal communities. Their environmental status can be characterised by the quality of their water bodies. Water quality can be assessed from biophysical parameters (such as Chlorophyll-a concentration ([Chla]), water surface temperature and transparency) in the deeper or lacustrine zone, or from bioindicators (as submerged aquatic vegetation) in the shallow or palustrine zone. This paper proves the use of Landsat time series to measure the evolution of water quality parameters and the environmental dynamics of a small water body (6.57 ha) in a Ramsar wetland (Arreo Lake in the North of Spain). Our results show that Landsat TM images can be used to describe periodic behaviours such as the water surface temperature or the phenologic state of the submerged vegetation (through normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI) and thus detect anomalous events. We also show how [Chla] and transparency can be measured in the lacustrine zone using Landsat TM images and an algorithm adjusted for mesotrophic Spanish lakes, and the resulting values vary in time in accordance with field measurements (although these were not synchronous with the images). The availability of this algorithm also highlights anomalies in the field data series that are found to be related with the concentration of suspended matter. All this potential of Landsat imagery to monitor small water bodies in wetlands can be used for hindcasting of past evolution of these wetlands (dating back to 1970s) and will be also useful in the future thanks to the Landsat continuity mission and the Operational Land Imager.

  20. Impact of different troposphere modelling methods on ZTD time series: case study of mountainous GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, Katarzyna; Klos, Anna; Bock, Olivier; Bogusz, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    GNSS Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) data is useful for numerical weather forecasting and climate analysis. Considering the fact that tropospheric delays over the mountainous areas are the most difficult to be modelled, we explored the influence of different troposphere models in Precise Point Positioning (PPP) mode. We used GPS data from 2008 to 2014 at 28 permanent EUPOS (European Position Determination System) stations, including 9 EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) ones, located in the Sudeten and Carpathians. The GPS data was processed in PPP mode using Bernese 5.2 GNSS software with the final IGS (International GNSS Service) orbits and clocks. Different processing variants were tested implying the newest mapping functions (Global Mapping Function - GMF, and Vienna Mapping Function - VMF1) as well as different time resolutions and constraints on estimated parameters (ZTD and gradients). Median trends and amplitudes of annual/semi-annual oscillations for ZTD series were determined with Weighted Least Squares Estimation (WLSE) obtaining 0.1±0.5 mm/year and 44.7 / 7.2 ± 5 mm, respectively. Power Spectral Densities (PSDs) were estimated using Lomb-Scargle method for each of individual variants. PSDs showed, except oscillations of year and half a year, many other significant peaks in ZTD time series at higher frequencies, about 60, 30, 24, 20, 15, 12, 10, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4 and 3 cpy. The proper subtraction of the periodicities is crucial, because they will make stochastic part appear to be artificially autocorrelated. In order to recognized the periodicities in the ZTD signal, we analyzed the ZTD differences between GPS-derived delays and ERA-Interim reanalysis. The results of analysis showed the significant change from station to station and between variants. According to these results the authors will indicate an optimal processing strategy concerning troposphere modelling.

  1. Studies on the replacement policies in dairy cattle II.Optimum policy and influence of changes in production and prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A dynamic programming model was developed to determine the optimum replacement policy of dairy cows. In the model cows were described in terms of lactation number, stage of lactation and the level of milk production during the previous and present lactations. The objective in determining the optimum

  2. Effectiveness of water protection policy in China: a case study of Jiaxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weiyun

    2010-01-15

    The rapid economic growth in China has caused ever-increasing pollution and gradual deterioration of surface water quality over the whole territory of China since 1978. Along with it, there have been 130 environmental protection policies publicized and enacted. Unfortunately, even though these contradictory phenomena have coexisted for almost three decades, the cause analysis and the effective evaluation of policy measures are still rare. The Jiaxing region, a lowland located at the Taihu Lake watershed, is a typical representative of this dilemma and was proposed as a case study area for an assessment on the effectiveness of the environmental policy measures mentioned above. The pollutant loads originating from point pollution sources were discharged into rivers at fixed in-stream sites, while pollutant loads from non-point pollution sources in rural areas were assumed to be rushed into rivers by stormwater runoff. The environmental policy measures concerning water quality in the Jiaxing region were specified quantitatively as parameters for estimating the variation of pollutant loads. The base case and other three cases with the effects of policy measures were then simulated by the surface water quality models. The results show that a significant improvement of the surface water quality can be achieved by controlling the non-point pollution in rural areas and the point pollution over the whole area, if the water protection policies are sustainable and executed completely, and if the local government is active in their administrative, supervising and educational responsibilities and the farmers assume voluntary activities on rural pollution control. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Approaches to developing the capacity of health policy analysis institutes: a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To review and assess (i the factors that facilitate the development of sustainable health policy analysis institutes in low and middle income countries and (ii the nature of external support for capacity development provided to such institutes. Methods Comparative case studies of six health policy analysis institutes (3 from Asia and 3 from Africa were conducted. In each region an NGO institute, an institute linked to government and a university based institute were included. Data collection comprised document review, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and discussion of preliminary findings with institute staff. Findings The findings are organized around four key themes: (i Financial resources: three of the institutes had received substantial external grants at start-up, however two of these institutes subsequently collapsed. At all but one institute, reliance upon short term, donor funding, created high administrative costs and unpredictability. (ii Human resources: the retention of skilled human resources was perceived to be key to institute success but was problematic at all but one institute. In particular staff often moved to better paid positions elsewhere once having acquired necessary skills and experience, leaving remaining senior staff with heavy workloads. (iii Governance and management: board structures and roles varied according to the nature of institute ownership. Boards made important contributions to organizational capacity through promoting continuity, independence and fund raising. Routine management systems were typically perceived to be strong. (iv Networks: linkages to policy makers helped promote policy influences. External networks with other research organizations, particularly where these were longer term institutional collaborations helped promote capacity. Conclusions The development of strong in-country analytical and research capacity to guide health policy development is critical, yet

  4. Implementation of public policy on alcohol and other drugs in Brazilian municipalities: comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Daniela Belchior; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges with respect to public health and the abuse of alcohol and other drugs is to implement policies in support of greater co-ordination among various levels of government. In Brazil, policies are formulated by the Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas (SENAD - State Department for Policies on Drugs) and the Ministério da Saúde (MS - Ministry of Health). This study aims to compare implementation of policies adopted by SENAD and MS at the municipal level. Three municipalities were intentionally selected: Juiz de Fora having a larger network of treatment services for alcohol and drug users; Lima Duarte, a small municipality, which promotes the political participation of local actors (COMAD - Municipal Council on Alcohol and Drugs); and São João Nepomuceno, also a small municipality, chosen because it has neither public services specialised to assist alcohol and other drugs users, nor COMAD. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants (n = 19) and a review of key documents concerned with municipal policies. Data analysis was performed using content analysis. In Juiz de Fora, there are obstacles regarding the integration of the service network for alcohol and other drug users and also the articulation of local actors, who are predominant in the mental health sector. In Lima Duarte, while there is a link between local actors through COMAD, their actions within the local service network have not been effective. In São João Nepomuceno, there were no public actions in the area of alcohol and drugs, and consequently insufficient local debate. However, some voluntary, non-governmental work has been undertaken. There were weaknesses in the implementation of national-level policies by SENAD and the MS, due to the limited supply of available treatment, assistance and the lack of integration among local actors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Korean public opinion on alcohol control policy: a cross-sectional International Alcohol Control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seonwha; Chun, Sungsoo; Newell, Maxine; Yun, Mieun

    2015-01-01

    To examine Korean public opinions toward alcohol control measures on availability, advertisement, drink-driving and pricing policy, and how the views on alcohol control policy vary by demographics, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments. The study used national-based, cross-sectional data collected in 2012 as part of the International Alcohol Control study. 2510 people (M: 1163, F: 1261) aged 15-65 and living in geographically diverse regions of Korea completed the questionnaire asking the support of 12 alcohol control measures. Generally, targeted measures (purchase age of 20 and drink-driving) were more popular than universal (availability, advertisement and price) among Koreans. Gender, age, marital status, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments related to alcohol use of young and heavy drinkers were strong predictors of the opinions on most of the alcohol control measures. It was daily/weekly drinkers who opposed most restrictions on alcohol availability and price and the support from individuals who are more aware of problems with drinking in public place was outstanding in every control measure. These findings should be taken into account by Korean policy-makers as they formulate an alcohol policy for the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miaomiao; Huang, Yining; Hiscock, Rosemary; Li, Qin; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L; Sabel, Clive E

    2016-03-21

    As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn't been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763) from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i) Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health), psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience) and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen) were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii) None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high-tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use) and one adaption policy (increasing resilience) brought positive co-benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered.

  7. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn’t been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763 from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health, psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high–tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use and one adaption policy (increasing resilience brought positive co–benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered.

  8. Attitudes towards the Government’s Remembrance Policy in Poland: Results of an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawrzyński Patryk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental study of Polish students’ attitudes towards their government’s remembrance policy (or, in other words, the intentional narration and interpretation of the past by the government. It includes four parts: a justification of why remembrance is a significant political asset in post-Communist Poland; a classification of remembrance policy instruments; a presentation of general results of the study; and a discussion of participants’ attitudes to particular policy instruments. In our assessment of the general results, we discuss three types of collected data: the results of the initial measurement of attitudes; the results of measurement after the manipulation of emotions (neutral vs. positive vs. negative and commitment (no commitment vs. low commitment; and the results in terms of attitude change. In the section on attitudes to particular instruments, we compare participants’ support for different commemorative actions with their support for the governments’ dominant role in the popularising of remembrance narratives. The study’s results lead us to formulate three conclusions about the relationships between attitudes to the policy and Polish political culture.

  9. A study on the effects of exchange rate and foreign policies on Iranians dates export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khalighi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was studying the impact of exchange rate on date export as one of the most important and greatest foreign currency income earned horticultural products in agriculture sector in Iran. Selected time period in this study was chosen between 1991 and 2011. For this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS method has used to estimate the relationships between the value of date export and the variables taken from stationary tests. Library research method has used for the analysis. In this regard, required data have collected from various scientific and research resources. The results indicated that, exchange rate is a crucial factor for dates export and also for exporters. In addition, other factors specially government policies have been placed in export model. In this field, short-term outsourcing foreign policy has decreased the export value. Results also showed that, applying exchange rate unification policy without an appropriate exchange rate to encourage exporters has negative impact on dates export. Therefore, by applying exchange rate stabilization policy, according to inflation in the country, the potential exporters’ income has reduced and production costs have increased alternately.

  10. Policy Mixes to Achieve Absolute Decoupling: A Case Study of Municipal Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Montevecchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying the effectiveness of environmental policies is of primary importance to address the unsustainable use of resources that threatens the entire society. Thus, the aim of this paper is to investigate on the effectiveness of environmental policy instruments to decouple waste generation and landfilling from economic growth. In order to do so, the paper analyzes the case study of the Slovakian municipality of Palarikovo, which has drastically improved its waste management system between 2000 and 2012, through the utilization of differentiated waste taxes and awareness-raising and education campaigns, as well as targeting increased recycling and municipal composting. We find evidence of absolute decoupling for landfilled waste and waste generation, the latter being more limited in time and magnitude. These policy instruments could therefore play an important role in municipalities that are still lagging behind in waste management. More specifically, this policy mix was effective in moving away from landfilling, initiating recycling systems, and to some extent decreasing waste generation. Yet, a more explicit focus on waste prevention will be needed to address the entirety of the problem effectively.

  11. Simulation of Farmers’ Response to Irrigation Water Pricing and Rationing Policies (Case Study: Zabol City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abouzar parhizkari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering that agricultural sector is the largest consumer of water, presenting integrated management for water resources and formulating effective policies to increase water productivity in this sector is essential. Therefore, using economic modeling , this study simulated the farmers’ responses to irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city. To achieve the study purpose, the State Wide Agricultural Production Model and Positive Mathematical Programming were applied. The required data for the years 2010-2011 was collected by completing questionnaires and collecting data sets from the relevant agencies of Zabol city in personal attendance. The results showed that imposing irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city leads to a reduction in the total cultivated area by 9/54 and 5/14 percent and a reduction in the water consumption by 6/23 and 7/01 percent, compared to the base year. Ultimately, irrigation water rationing policy, considering frugality of 18/9 million m3 of water, as the appropriate solution for the sustainability of water resources of Zabol city was proposed.

  12. Comparative study on Climate Change Policies in the EU and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, M.; Han, D.

    2012-04-01

    environment change, formation mechanism and prediction theory of major climate and weather disasters in China, technologies of efficient use of clean energy, energy conservation and improvement of energy efficiency, development and utilisation technology of renewable energy and new energy. The EU recognises that developing countries, such as China and India, need to strengthen their economies through industrialisation. However this needs to be achieved at the same time as protecting the environment and sustainable use of energy. The EU has committed itself to assisting developing countries to achieve their goals in four priority areas: 1) raising the policy profile of climate change; 2) support for adaption to climate change; 3) support for mitigation of climate change; and 4) capacity development. This comparative study is part of the EU funded SPRING project which seeks to understand and assess Chinese and European competencies, with the aim of facilitating greater cooperation in future climate and environment research.

  13. A Case Study of Policies and Procedures to Address Cyberbullying at a Technology-Based Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Bettina Polite

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored the policies and procedures used to effectively address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school. The purpose of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of policies and procedures used to address cyberbullying at a technology-based middle school in the southern United States. The study sought…

  14. Impact of policies regulating foreign physician migration to Switzerland: a modelling case study in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Guy; Combescure, Christophe; Mamie, Chantal; Zoccatelli, Davide; Clergue, François

    2015-05-22

    Several countries have developed policies that restrict or limit duration of stay, clinical privileges or the number of residency permits allocated to migrating physicians. Switzerland is currently preparing a new law limiting overall foreign immigration. The impact of such restrictive policies is currently unknown. In a case study of anaesthesia care in Switzerland we modelled, trends in the size of physicians' workforce until 2024, following the implementation of a strict quota policy for foreign medical trainees. We developed a computer-based Markov model with Monte-Carlo simulations to project, in the context of a strict quota policy for foreign trainees, supply and demand for anaesthesia positions until 2024. We used data from a cross-sectional study performed in the French- and Italian-speaking cantons of Switzerland and the Health dataset from the OECD. With 8 to 12 (95% CI 4-20) anaesthetists retiring per year, the implementation of strict quotas of foreign graduates would result in a 38% decrease in the number of anaesthetists in intermediary (senior registrars) positions by 2024. This decrease would be particularly important in district hospitals where nearly half (49%) of the non-Swiss anaesthetists are practising. Swiss graduates are unlikely to balance the shortage. Despite efforts by Swiss universities to increase the number of medical graduates, their number has dropped from 10.5 to 9.7/100 000 inhabitants between 2000 and 2012, due to the growth of the population. This case study in Latin Switzerland shows that a restrictive policy limiting foreign immigration of trainees would result in a major deficit in the number of anaesthetists available to meet population needs. These aspects should be carefully considered when countries develop restrictions and limitations of foreign immigration.

  15. Reconstructing land use history from Landsat time-series. Case study of a swidden agriculture system in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, Loïc P.; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Latifah, Siti H.; Kooistra, Lammert

    2016-05-01

    We developed a method to reconstruct land use history from Landsat images time-series. The method uses a breakpoint detection framework derived from the econometrics field and applicable to time-series regression models. The Breaks For Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) framework is used for defining the time-series regression models which may contain trend and phenology, hence appropriately modelling vegetation intra and inter-annual dynamics. All available Landsat data are used for a selected study area, and the time-series are partitioned into segments delimited by breakpoints. Segments can be associated to land use regimes, while the breakpoints then correspond to shifts in land use regimes. In order to further characterize these shifts, we classified the unlabelled breakpoints returned by the algorithm into their corresponding processes. We used a Random Forest classifier, trained from a set of visually interpreted time-series profiles to infer the processes and assign labels to the breakpoints. The whole approach was applied to quantifying the number of cultivation cycles in a swidden agriculture system in Brazil (state of Amazonas). Number and frequency of cultivation cycles is of particular ecological relevance in these systems since they largely affect the capacity of the forest to regenerate after land abandonment. We applied the method to a Landsat time-series of Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) spanning the 1984-2015 period and derived from it the number of cultivation cycles during that period at the individual field scale level. Agricultural fields boundaries used to apply the method were derived using a multi-temporal segmentation approach. We validated the number of cultivation cycles predicted by the method against in-situ information collected from farmers interviews, resulting in a Normalized Residual Mean Squared Error (NRMSE) of 0.25. Overall the method performed well, producing maps with coherent spatial patterns. We identified

  16. Reconstructing Land Use History from Landsat Time-Series. Case study of Swidden Agriculture Intensification in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, L.; Jakovac, C. C.; Siti, L. H.; Kooistra, L.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a method to reconstruct land use history from Landsat images time-series. The method uses a breakpoint detection framework derived from the econometrics field and applicable to time-series regression models. The BFAST framework is used for defining the time-series regression models which may contain trend and phenology, hence appropriately modelling vegetation intra and inter-annual dynamics. All available Landsat data are used, and the time-series are partitioned into segments delimited by breakpoints. Segments can be associated to land use regimes, while the breakpoints then correspond to shifts in regimes. To further characterize these shifts, we classified the unlabelled breakpoints returned by the algorithm into their corresponding processes. We used a Random Forest classifier, trained from a set of visually interpreted time-series profiles to infer the processes and assign labels to the breakpoints. The whole approach was applied to quantifying the number of cultivation cycles in a swidden agriculture system in Brazil. Number and frequency of cultivation cycles is of particular ecological relevance in these systems since they largely affect the capacity of the forest to regenerate after abandonment. We applied the method to a Landsat time-series of Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) spanning the 1984-2015 period and derived from it the number of cultivation cycles during that period at the individual field scale level. Agricultural fields boundaries used to apply the method were derived using a multi-temporal segmentation. We validated the number of cultivation cycles predicted against in-situ information collected from farmers interviews, resulting in a Normalized RMSE of 0.25. Overall the method performed well, producing maps with coherent patterns. We identified various sources of error in the approach, including low data availability in the 90s and sub-object mixture of land uses. We conclude that the method holds great promise for

  17. Time Series Analysis OF SAR Image Fractal Maps: The Somma-Vesuvio Volcanic Complex Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Antonio; De Luca, Claudio; Di Martino, Gerardo; Iodice, Antonio; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Pepe, Susi; Riccio, Daniele; Ruello, Giuseppe; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana

    2016-04-01

    The fractal dimension is a significant geophysical parameter describing natural surfaces representing the distribution of the roughness over different spatial scale; in case of volcanic structures, it has been related to the specific nature of materials and to the effects of active geodynamic processes. In this work, we present the analysis of the temporal behavior of the fractal dimension estimates generated from multi-pass SAR images relevant to the Somma-Vesuvio volcanic complex (South Italy). To this aim, we consider a Cosmo-SkyMed data-set of 42 stripmap images acquired from ascending orbits between October 2009 and December 2012. Starting from these images, we generate a three-dimensional stack composed by the corresponding fractal maps (ordered according to the acquisition dates), after a proper co-registration. The time-series of the pixel-by-pixel estimated fractal dimension values show that, over invariant natural areas, the fractal dimension values do not reveal significant changes; on the contrary, over urban areas, it correctly assumes values outside the natural surfaces fractality range and show strong fluctuations. As a final result of our analysis, we generate a fractal map that includes only the areas where the fractal dimension is considered reliable and stable (i.e., whose standard deviation computed over the time series is reasonably small). The so-obtained fractal dimension map is then used to identify areas that are homogeneous from a fractal viewpoint. Indeed, the analysis of this map reveals the presence of two distinctive landscape units corresponding to the Mt. Vesuvio and Gran Cono. The comparison with the (simplified) geological map clearly shows the presence in these two areas of volcanic products of different age. The presented fractal dimension map analysis demonstrates the ability to get a figure about the evolution degree of the monitored volcanic edifice and can be profitably extended in the future to other volcanic systems with

  18. Acetaminophen administration and the risk of acute kidney injury: a self-controlled case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiragi S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shusuke Hiragi,1,2 Hiroyuki Yamada,1 Tatsuo Tsukamoto,1,3 Kazuki Yoshida,4,5 Naoya Kondo,1 Takeshi Matsubara,1 Motoko Yanagita,1 Hiroshi Tamura,2 Tomohiro Kuroda2 1Department of Nephrology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 2Division of Medical Informatics and Administration Planning, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, 3Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, Kitano Hospital, Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Epidemiology, 5Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Background: Acetaminophen (APAP is frequently used for analgesia and is considered safer than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs for the kidneys. However, there is little epidemiological evidence of the association between APAP and acute kidney injury (AKI.Objectives: To examine the association between APAP and AKI using the self-controlled case series (SCCS method, which is a novel strategy to control between-person confounders by comparing the risk and reference periods in each patient.Methods: We performed SCCS in 1,871 patients (39.9% female who were administered APAP and subsequently developed AKI, by reviewing electronically stored hospital information system data from May 2011 to July 2016. We used conditional Poisson regression to compare each patient’s risk and reference period. As a time-varying confounder, we adjusted the status of liver and kidney functions, systemic inflammation, and exposure to NSAIDs.Results: We identified 5,650 AKI events during the 260,549 person-day observation period. The unadjusted incidences during the reference and exposure periods were 2.01/100 and 3.12/100 person-days, respectively. The incidence rate ratio adjusted with SCCS was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95–1.12. When we restricted endpoints as stage 2 AKI- and stage 3 AKI-level creatinine elevations, the incidence rate ratios were 1.20 (95% CI 0.91–1.58 and 1.20 (95% CI 0

  19. Policy entrepreneurs and change strategies : Lessons from sixteen case studies of water transitions around the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Sander; Huitema, Dave

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of policy entrepreneurs in realizing water policy transitions. The central questions are to what extent have policy entrepreneurs played a role in realizing major change in water policies, who are these policy entrepreneurs, and what strategies have they used to bring

  20. Manchester iStent study: early results from a prospective UK case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ilesh; de Klerk, Timothy A; Au, Leon

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the 6-month efficacy and safety of the iStent microtrabecular bypass stent in patients with open-angle glaucoma. A prospective, uncontrolled, interventional case series. Forty-four eyes with open-angle glaucoma were reported. All subjects underwent ab interno implantation of a single iStent together with (n = 40) or without (n = 4) cataract surgery. Patients were assessed at postoperative week 1, months 1 and 3, and quarterly, thereafter. Data collected included visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann tonometry, number of glaucoma medications, and number and type of complications. The mean age of the sample was 76.8 years. The mean duration since glaucoma diagnosis was 5.3 years (standard deviation 2.9 years). The mean visual acuity was 0.53 logMAR at baseline that improved to 0.23 at 6 months postoperatively. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 21.1 mmHg, and this decreased significantly to 16.7 mmHg at 6 months (P control. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  1. Kinetic study of the gas-phase reaction of atomic chlorine with a series of aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of Cl atoms with a series of unsaturated aldehydes have been investigated for the first time using a relative method. In order to obtain additional information for a qualitative structure versus reactivity discussion, we have also determined the rate coefficients for the reactions of atomic chlorine with their respective saturated aldehydes. These relative measurements were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure of air and N2, by using ethane, propene and 1-butene as reference compounds. The weighted average relative rate constants obtained, kCl±2σ (in units of cm3 molecule−1 s−1 were: trans-2-pentenal (1.31±0.19×10−10; trans-2-hexenal (1.92±0.22×10−10; trans-2-heptenal (2.40±0.29×10−10; n-pentanal (2.56±0.27×10−10; n-hexanal (2.88±0.37×10−10; n-heptanal (3.00±0.34×10−10. Finally, results and atmospheric implications are discussed and compared with the reactivity with OH and NO3 radicals.

  2. Effectiveness of speed enforcement through fixed speed cameras: a time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana M; Pérez, Katherine; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Tobías, Aurelio

    2010-02-01

    To assess the effectiveness of speed cameras in reducing the numbers of crashes and people injured on the arterial roads of Barcelona, and to assess their long-term effectiveness on the beltway. Time series analyses were performed separately for the arterial roads and the beltway. The stretches of arterial roads encompassing 500 m before and after the location of a speed camera were considered the enforced stretches, the remaining stretches of arterial roads being considered the comparison group. The outcome measures were the numbers of crashes and of people injured. Quasi-Poisson regression models were fitted, controlling for time trend, seasonality and implementation of other road safety measures. Both on the enforced and non-enforced arterial road stretches, the risks of crashes and people injured were similar in the two periods. On the beltway, reductions of 30% (95% CI 38% to 20%) and 26% (95% CI 36% to 14%) were observed, respectively. Speed cameras do not reduce the numbers of crashes or people injured on the arterial roads of Barcelona. However, they are effective in the short and in the long-term on the beltway. Speed enforcement through fixed speed cameras is thus effective in medium-high-speed roads, although effectiveness could not be generalised to roads with lower speed limits and traffic lights.

  3. Testing Homeopathy in Mouse Emotional Response Models: Pooled Data Analysis of Two Series of Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bellavite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s. in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here. Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C, a placebo (solvent vehicle, and the reference drugs diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight or buspirone (5 mg/kg body weight were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD choice test and the open-field (OF exploration test. Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter “time spent in central area” and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters “time spent in lit area” and “number of light-dark transitions,” without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion. This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization.

  4. Study of the repeatability of histone genes in the ploidy series of wheat and Aegilops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhitov, V.A.; Kulikov, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The hDNA content and number of histone genes in the genomes of different wheat and Aegilops species have been determined by molecular hybridization of DNA with 125 I-histone DNA of Drosophila (L-repeat) on nitrocellulose filters. It has been demonstrated that the proportion of hDNA in the total DNA of diploid and polyploid wheat species is (1.3-7.7) x 10 -3 % (57-850 genes), and in the ploidy series of Aegilops species (2.0-8.0) x 10 -3 % (89-780 genes). The repeatability of the histone genes generally increases at each ploidy level in the species with higher DNA content. At the same time, it has been demonstrated that the DNA content is not the only factor determining repeatability of the histone genes, as some diploid and allopolyploid species have similar number of these genes. It has been concluded that genetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of the number of histone genes

  5. Hybrid renewable energy support policy in the power sector: The contracts for difference and capacity market case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onifade, Temitope Tunbi

    2016-01-01

    The article employs qualitative methods in contextualizing and conceptualizing the hybrid renewable energy support policy. It claims that hybrid policies may combine distinct mechanisms to drive desirable objectives better than traditional policies. A policy cycle helps to frame the United Kingdom's Contracts for Difference and Capacity Market (CFD & CM) scheme as a case study. The CFD & CM policy emerged to address environmental and energy challenges through the deployment of renewable energy (RE) in a low-carbon economy, employing liberalization: Environmental protection is foremost in this scheme. The policy combines and improves on the elements of feed-in tariff (FIT) and quota obligation (QO), and strives to solve the problems of these traditional policies. It addresses regulatory uncertainty under FIT by employing private law mechanics to guarantee above-loss reward for low carbon generation, and addresses market uncertainty under QO by incentivizing the capacity to supply future low carbon energy based on projected demand, hence creating a predictable and stable market. It also accommodates other important commitments. Overall, the CFD & CM scheme is a hybrid policy that engages the energy market mainly for advancing the end goal of environmental protection. To thrive however, it needs to meet private sector interests substantially. - Highlights: •The hybrid support policy combines traditional support systems. •Hybrid policies may drive objectives better than traditional policies. •The UK's contract for difference and capacity market system is a hybrid policy. •Environmental protection is foremost in the UK's hybrid policy. •To thrive, the UK's hybrid policy should address private sector interests.

  6. The effect of local policy actions on mortality among homeless people: a before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slockers, Marcel T; Nusselder, Wilma J; Looman, Caspar W N; Slockers, Colette J T; Krol, Luuk; van Beeck, Ed F

    2015-04-01

    Homeless people have a 3-5-fold increased risk of mortality compared with general populations. After 2005, policy actions being implemented in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, have improved the living conditions of this group. This study examines the effect of policies aimed at improving living conditions on mortality risks of the homeless. Register-based 10-year follow-up study of homeless in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The participants are homeless adults (aged 18+ years) who visited one or more services for homeless people in Rotterdam in 2001. The intervention of local policies after 2005 was to get homeless people into housing, increase their participation in employment and other regular daytime activities, and controlling drug and alcohol addictions. The main outcome measure is mortality rate ratios calculated using Poisson regression. Differences in mortality between the periods 2001-05 vs. 2006-10 were assessed. The cohort of homeless adults in 2001 consisted of 1870 men and 260 women, with a mean age of 40.3 years. During the 10 years of follow-up, 265 persons (232 male and 33 female) died. Adjusted for age and sex, no significant difference in mortality was observed between the periods 2001-05 and 2006-10 (P = 0.9683). A different splitting in periods did not change the results. Five years of local policy efforts improved their living conditions, but left the mortality rate of a homeless cohort unchanged. Incomplete reach of the program and long previous histories of homelessness ask for additional policies beyond the provision of housing and other services. Attention to the prevention of homelessness seems needed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-Country Evidence on Teacher Performance Pay. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    The general-equilibrium effects of performance-related teacher pay include long-term incentive and teacher-sorting mechanisms that usually elude experimental studies but are captured in cross-country comparisons. Combining country-level performance-pay measures with rich PISA-2003 international achievement microdata, this paper estimates…

  8. BUDGETARY POLICY - A TOOL FOR MITIGATING CYCLIC FLUCTUATIONS. STUDY CASE FOR ROMANIA, 1996-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PITORAC RUXANDRA IOANA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of a broader work, the object of this article is the study of budgetary policy, as a tool formitigating cyclic fluctuations in the economy. The following analysis indicators were used: public spending foreconomic actions, the real Gross Domestic Product and the structural budget deficit, on the basis of which thetype of budgetary policy adopted in Romania between 1996 and 2011 was established. The economic spendingand the GDP are expressed in millions of RON, comparable prices, the switch to current prices was achievedwith the aid of the Consumer Price Index, with 2012 as the baseline year, and the structural budget deficit isexpressed as a percentage of the GDP and were taken from the database of the National Statistics Institute andof the European Commission. The research carries out a review of the literature regarding budgetary policy, theway in which this contributes to the mitigation of cyclic fluctuations and identifies the budget measures taken inRomania between 1996 and 2011, with an emphasis on analysing public spending for economic actions. Then,through a quantitative analysis and an econometric model, it underlines the influence of public spending foreconomic actions on the Romania's real GDP and identifies the budgetary policy implemented by Romania. Theresults of the research emphasize Romania's economic condition, as well as the measures taken by thegovernment authorities in view of mitigating the cyclic fluctuations in the economy.

  9. Pricing Policy on Business Performance: A Study on Organizational Strategy Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Alvarenga Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the relationship between different pricing policies and the results obtained with them within on Business Games. Beginning from a theoretical review that seeks to reunite concepts about pricing, policy and price definitions, it is proposed a model analysis of pricing decisions made by teams that participate in a Business Game. From the applying of this model on data collected in the game, it seeks to classify the pricing policies applied by the teams. Then the results are discussed and its relationship to literature is referred. There are also comments on the decision make default demonstrated by the teams participating in the game. The results obtained here confirm the literature, indicating the price policy as a helpful and valid tool to support marketing strategies. They also show the adhesion between the simulated environment in a Business Game and the features found in the real world, confirming the trend toward adoption of organizational strategy simulators as instruments in teaching and research in Administration.

  10. WHO policy development processes for a new vaccine: case study of malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie; Cárdenas, Vicky; Cheyne, James; Brooks, Alan

    2010-06-24

    , the lead-time between the date of product regulatory approval and a recommendation for its use in developing countries is decreasing. This study presents approaches to define in advance core data needs to support evidence-based decisions, to further decrease this lead-time, accelerating the availability of a malaria vaccine. Specific policy areas for which information should be collected are defined, including studying its use within the context of other malaria interventions.

  11. A LEGISLATIVE CASE STUDY OF THE EVOLUTION OF POLYVICTIMIZATION RESEARCH AND POLICY IMPLEMENTATION: MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS' DUTY TO ENGAGE IN PUBLIC POLICY ADVOCACY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyba, Alison Journey; Patton, William Wesley

    2016-01-01

    One reason that scientific research takes so long to reach patients is that medical researchers and practitioners often lack training in public policy implementation theory and strategy. General medical and specific psychiatric ethical precepts in the United States and in international ethics codes invest public policy duties in psychiatric researchers and individual clinicians. This essay discusses those medical ethical rules and suggests means for training psychiatrists to meet their public health policy duties in legal fora. The discussion presents a case study of the evolution of polyvictimization research, its initial lack of implementation in clinical practice and public policy debates, and a detailed demonstration of the incorporation of polyvictimization research in informing legislative action. Through systematic efforts to expand training and involvement of psychiatrists, we can expedite the implementation of psychiatric research by marshalling individual psychiatrists to affect decisions in legislative, executive, and judicial proceedings. These individual efforts can occur synergistically with ongoing psychiatric and psychological organizations' efforts to better effect timely incorporation of evidence-based policies to improve mental health at the local, state, national, and international levels.

  12. Diode laser to treat small oral vascular malformations: A prospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Christian; Sacchetto, Luca; Zanette, Gastone; Sivolella, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    The current work examined a consecutive series of patients presenting vascular malformations (VMs) and venous lakes (VLs) of the lip and oral mucosa who were treated with transmucosal diode laser applications and assessed over a 1 year period. Fifty-nine patients (31 males and 28 females) presenting low-flow VMs or VLs of the oral cavity were treated transmucosally using a diode laser (with an 830 nm operating wavelength and 1.6 W output power) with a 320 µm diameter flexible fiber. All the lesions were assessed 7 days, 30 days, and 1 year after the laser treatment, and the lesion reduction percentage was scored on a one to five scale. The patients were also asked to assess their pain perception daily during the 7 days following the treatment using a visual analog scale (VAS). There were no procedure-related intra- or post-operative complications; only modest pain intensity was reported. Thirty days after the treatment, lesion reduction was described as excellent or good in 52 cases; it was fair or poor in 7. Six patients (F:M ratio 2:4) required a second diode laser application. At the 1 year follow-up, volume reduction was complete in 48 out of 59 patients; there were five recurrences (F:M ratio 3:2). No relevant gender-related differences were noted. The use of diode laser application to treat small oral VMs and VLs was associated to shorter operating times and fewer postoperative complications with respect to the scapel surgery approach. More than one session may nevertheless be required if the anomaly is larger than 10 mm. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:111-116, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A Time Series Analysis of Global Soil Moisture Data Products for Water Cycle Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, X.; Yin, J.; Liu, J.; Fang, L.; Hain, C.; Ferraro, R. R.; Weng, F.

    2017-12-01

    Water is essential for sustaining life on our planet Earth and water cycle is one of the most important processes of out weather and climate system. As one of the major components of the water cycle, soil moisture impacts significantly the other water cycle components (e.g. evapotranspiration, runoff, etc) and the carbon cycle (e.g. plant/crop photosynthesis and respiration). Understanding of soil moisture status and dynamics is crucial for monitoring and predicting the weather, climate, hydrology and ecological processes. Satellite remote sensing has been used for soil moisture observation since the launch of the Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on NASA's Nimbus-7 satellite in 1978. Many satellite soil moisture data products have been made available to the science communities and general public. The soil moisture operational product system (SMOPS) of NOAA NESDIS has been operationally providing global soil moisture data products from each of the currently available microwave satellite sensors and their blends. This presentation will provide an update of SMOPS products. The time series of each of these soil moisture data products are analyzed against other data products, such as precipitation and evapotranspiration from other independent data sources such as the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Temporal characteristics of these water cycle components are explored against some historical events, such as the 2010 Russian, 2010 China and 2012 United States droughts, 2015 South Carolina floods, etc. Finally whether a merged global soil moisture data product can be used as a climate data record is evaluated based on the above analyses.

  14. Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands: A Google Trends Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, Sigrid A.; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the

  15. Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands : A Google Trends Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, Sigrid A; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; de Boer, Michiel R; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the

  16. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Foods and Beverages Sold Outside of the School Meals Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the area of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meals program. (Contains 3 tables, 1 figure, and 2…

  17. The Teacher as a "Colony": A Case Study of Agentive Responses to "Colonising" Education Policy in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eisuke; Atencio, Matthew; Khong, Thi Diem Hang; Takasawa, Naomi; Murase, Masatsugu; Tsukui, Atsushi; Sato, Manabu

    2018-01-01

    Neo-liberal educational policies that are being implemented globally work to foster competition among schools and teachers, as well as among children. In this situation, teachers must often come to accept the dominant representations of curricular policy developed by higher authorities. In this study, a case study design is used to describe how…

  18. Distributional effects of climate policies. Studies on households and countries in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about inequitable distributions of burdens among and within countries are a serious barrier for the implementation of climate policies. Insight into such distributional effects is highly relevant for adequate action by policy-makers. The aim of this thesis is to examine the possible distributional effects of climate policies among and within European countries. First, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of household consumption in different income groups and countries are quantified, taking into account the life-cycle of goods and services. Additionally, the cost distributions of economic instruments are considered. The findings show that the variation in household GHG emissions among countries and income groups depends on both (1) the household consumption level and pattern, and (2) the life-cycle GHG emissions of basic and luxury goods. The Dutch case studies show that the share of GHG emissions from basic goods, such as food and housing, is larger than the share of GHG emissions from luxury goods. Accordingly, low-income households will carry a relatively higher burden in the case of a CO2 tax than high-income households. This unequal distribution of costs may be diminished by extending the scope op the tax with non-CO2 GHG, like methane and nitrous oxide. Climate policies will probably have similar effects in the UK. In contrast, climate policies will probably lead to a relatively higher burden for high-income households in Sweden and Norway. These national differences can be partly explained by differences in national conditions, like energy supply and population density

  19. Distributional effects of climate policies. Studies on households and countries in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, A.

    2009-09-18

    Concerns about inequitable distributions of burdens among and within countries are a serious barrier for the implementation of climate policies. Insight into such distributional effects is highly relevant for adequate action by policy-makers. The aim of this thesis is to examine the possible distributional effects of climate policies among and within European countries. First, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of household consumption in different income groups and countries are quantified, taking into account the life-cycle of goods and services. Additionally, the cost distributions of economic instruments are considered. The findings show that the variation in household GHG emissions among countries and income groups depends on both (1) the household consumption level and pattern, and (2) the life-cycle GHG emissions of basic and luxury goods. The Dutch case studies show that the share of GHG emissions from basic goods, such as food and housing, is larger than the share of GHG emissions from luxury goods. Accordingly, low-income households will carry a relatively higher burden in the case of a CO2 tax than high-income households. This unequal distribution of costs may be diminished by extending the scope op the tax with non-CO2 GHG, like methane and nitrous oxide. Climate policies will probably have similar effects in the UK. In contrast, climate policies will probably lead to a relatively higher burden for high-income households in Sweden and Norway. These national differences can be partly explained by differences in national conditions, like energy supply and population density.

  20. Good governance in national solid waste management policy (NSWMP) implementation: A case study of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Seow Ta; Abas, Muhamad Azahar; Mohamed, Sulzakimin; Chen, Goh Kai; Zainal, Rozlin

    2017-10-01

    The National Solid Waste Management Policy (NSWMP) was introduced in 2007 under the Act 672. The execution of NSWMP involves stakeholders from various government agencies and a collaboration with the private sectors. Despite the initiatives taken by the stakeholders, the objectives of NSWMP failed to materialise. One of the major constraints is weak governance among stakeholders with regards to the NSWMP implementation. This paper will explore the good governance practices implemented by the stakeholders. Identifying the current good governance practices implemented by the stakeholders is crucial as it will serve as a guideline to improve good governance practice in the future. An exploratory research approach is applied in this study through in-depth interviews with several government agencies and concessionaires involved in the NSWMP implementation. A total of six respondents took part in this study. The findings of this study show that there are several good governance practices implemented in policy promotion, participation of stakeholders, and capacity enhancement programme for the staff. This study also proposed some points on good governance practices in the context of policy promotion and staff development. A paradigm shift by the stakeholders is imperative so as to enhance the good governance practice in NSWMP implementation towards an efficient solid waste management in Malaysia.