WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy research matter

  1. Does relevance matter in academic policy research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....

  2. Does relevance matter in academic policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter...

  3. Why Advocacy and Policy Matter: Promoting Research and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen V. Sigal, PhD, is Chairperson and Founder of Friends of Cancer Research (Friends), a think tank and advocacy organization based in Washington, DC. Friends drives collaboration among partners from every healthcare sector to power advances in science, policy and regulation that speed life-saving treatments to patients. During the past 20 years, Friends has been instrumental in the creation and implementation of policies ensuring patients receive the best treatments in the fastest and safest way possible. Dr. Sigal is Chair of the inaugural board of directors of the Reagan-Udall Foundation, a partnership designed to modernize medical product development, accelerate innovation and enhance product safety in collaboration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. She serves on the Board of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, where she chairs its Public Private Partnerships Committee. In 2001, Dr. Sigal was appointed to a six-year term on the Board of Governors of the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) as a representative of patients and health consumers. Additionally, in 2016 Dr. Sigal was named to Vice President Biden’s Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel, to the Parker Institute for Immunotherapy Advisory Group and joined the inaugural board of advisors for the George Washington University’s Milken Institute of Public Health. She also holds leadership positions with a broad range of cancer advocacy, public policy organizations and academic health centers including: MD Anderson Cancer Center External Advisory Board, the Duke University Cancer Center Board of Overseers, and The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center Advisory Council.

  4. Policy research programme on particulate matter. Main results and policy consequences; Beleidsgericht onderzoeksprogramma fijn stof. Resultaten op hoofdlijnen en beleidsconsequenties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthijsen, J.; Koelemeijer, R.B.A.

    2010-06-15

    The Policy-Oriented Research on Particulate Matter (BOP) programme aimed at increasing knowledge on particulate matter so that future policy can be supported adequately. The main research objectives of BOP were to improve knowledge of the PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations, composition and sources of particulate matter; Increasing the understanding of the behavior of particulate matter in the urban area; Determining the trends in concentrations of particulate matter and its components; and Clarify the impact of policies in the past and the future of PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations. The first part of this study presents the main findings of the study, discussing the (chemical) composition of particulate matter, concentration trends, expected developments, health impacts, policy implications, and how to proceed with the particulate matter dossier. In the second part of the study the underlying analysis are elaborated. [Dutch] Het Beleidsgericht Onderzoeksprogramma Particulate Matter (BOP) had als doel om de kennis over fijn stof te vergroten, zodat beleidsvorming in de toekomst adequater ondersteund kan worden. De belangrijkste onderzoeksdoelstellingen van BOP waren: Verbeteren van de kennis over de PM10- en PM2,5-concentraties, de samenstelling en de bronnen van fijn stof; Vergroten van het inzicht in het gedrag van fijn stof in het stedelijke gebied; Bepalen van de trends in fijnstofconcentraties en de bestanddelen ervan; Verduidelijken van de invloed van beleidsmaatregelen in het verleden en de toekomst op de PM10- en PM2,5-concentraties. Het eerste deel van deze studie, de Bevindingen, presenteert de belangrijkste uitkomsten van het onderzoek. Hierbij komen achtereenvolgens aan de orde: de (chemische) samenstelling van fijn stof, trends in concentraties, verwachte ontwikkelingen, gezondheidseffecten, beleidsconsequenties en hoe nu verder te gaan met het dossier fijn stof. In het tweede deel van de studie, de Verdieping, staat de verantwoording en worden de

  5. Management Matters. Selection Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important policy documents for a school library media center is the selection policy or the collection development policy. A well-developed selection policy provides a rationale for the selection decisions made by the school library media specialist. A selection policy represents the criteria against which a challenged book is…

  6. Prevention Research Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Prevention Research Matters is a series of one-on-one interviews with researchers from 26 university prevention research centers across the country. Their work focuses on preventing and controlling chronic diseases like obesity, cancer, and heart disease.

  7. Federal research policy 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The report covers several separate parts dealing with the following: Orientation and perspectives of the Federal Government's research policy; resources available for science, research and development; fields of main interest in R and D work sponsored by the Government; research and technology policy of the Lands; international and national research and technology policy; organisations promoting and establishment doing research work in the FRG; statistics. The guidelines and principles of research policy are given: freedom of science and research; restraint from governmental influence within the meaning of the subsidiarity principle; positive attitude to scientific and technical progress; investigation of long-term perspectives and options; fostering joint responsibility of the Federal Government and the Lands; development of international cooperation. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Yes, research matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari L Shinohara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available My father was diagnosed with stomach cancer recently. Luckily, it was still at an early stage, and endoscopic surgery successfully took care of it. My father was fortunate; since people with stomach cancer do not show clear symptoms in the early stages, the disease is often not diagnosed until it becomes advanced. In his case, the diagnosis started from a suggestion by his doctor to check whether he had a gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial species found in the digestive tract. In Japan, where he lives, a majority of gastric cancer patients (more than 99% have been infected with H. pylori [1], and the causative role of this bacterial species in promoting gastric cancer is very well established. Now, scientific understanding connecting gastric cancer to H. pylori is saving the lives of many people, including my father. Thinking about this recent personal experience, I wonder if the connection between bacteria and cancer might have been considered a crazy idea decades ago. Research makes it possible to connect seemingly unrelated matters. My laboratory works on seemingly unrelated research topics, such as fungal infections and autoimmunity. However, my question is the same whatever the topic: How do leukocytes elicit and regulate inflammation when they detect infections or endogenous signals? In fact, host receptors detecting pathogens can induce autoimmunity, and autoimmunity alters host sensitivity to pathogens due to the imbalance in the immune system. We are beginning to gain some insight into this question, as revealed by some of our recent studies. For example, the NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome, which is known to sense a wide variety of pathogens, can also change the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. In particular, our study suggested that disease treatment approaches need to be changed based on the activation status of the NLRP

  9. can Money Matter for Interest Rate Policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brueckner, M.; Schabert, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that money can matter for macroeconomic stability under interest rate policy when transactions frictions are non-negligible. We develop a sticky price model with a shopping time function, which induces the marginal utility of consumption to depend on the (predetermined)

  10. Environmental education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    in the areas of Environmental Education (EE), Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education. It especially makes a case for two kinds of research on EE policy: (1) a multi-sited approach to empirical documentation and theory development which explores the relationships between...

  11. Making Research Matter Comment on "Public Spending on Health Service and Policy Research in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States: A Modest Proposal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David J; Frank, John

    2017-08-13

    We offer a UK-based commentary on the recent "Perspective" published in IJHPM by Thakkar and Sullivan. We are sympathetic to the authors' call for increased funding for health service and policy research (HSPR). However, we point out that increasing that investment - in any of the three countries they compare: Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom- will ipso facto not necessarily lead to any better use of research by health system decision-makers in these settings. We cite previous authors' descriptions of the many factors that tend to make the worlds of researchers and decision-makers into "two solitudes." And we call for changes in the structure and funding of HSPR, particularly the incentives now in place for purely academic publishing, to tackle a widespread reality: most published research in HSPR, as in other applied fields of science, is never read or used by the vast majority of decision-makers, working out in the "real world. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  12. Rescuing policy in tourism network research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Networks provide a powerful lens to understand complex relational entanglements that are transforming social, economic and political life. Through a discussion of the various streams of network research in tourism, this paper argues that policy matters run across and throughout these strands....... Rather than arguing for increased interest in tourism policy network research as a separate subfield, the paper argues for deeper theoretical engagement with the policy dimension in tourism network research. Researchers adopting a network ontology could gain considerable insights and open up new lines...

  13. Making organization research matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Aristotle and Machiavelli to Max Weber and Pierre Bourdieu. Finally, we must effectively and dialogically communicate the results of our research to our fellow citizens and carefully listen to their feedback. If we do this – focus on specific values and interests in the context of particular power relations...

  14. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  15. Do behavioural insights matter for competition policy?

    OpenAIRE

    CIRIOLO Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural insights make use of behavioural economics and psychology to analyse how humans behave when adopting economic decisions. The use of behavioural insights to improve policy-making is becoming increasing popular all over the world. Pensions, taxes, unemployment, energy efficiency, adult education, charitable giving and, of course, competition policy have benefitted from the application of behavioural insights. Emanuele Ciriolo, from the European Commission Joint Research Centre, expl...

  16. Accelerators for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for high energy, high luminosity beams has stimulated the science and engineering of accelerators to a point where they open up opportunities for new areas of scientific application to benefit from the advances driven by particle physics. One area of great importance is the use of electron or positron storage rings as a source of intense VUV or X-ray synchrotron radiation. An accelerator application that has grown in prominence over the last 10 years has been spallation neutron sources. Neutrons offer an advantage over X-rays as a condensed matter probe because the neutron energy is usually of the same order as the room temperature thermal energy fluctuations in the sample being studied. Another area in which accelerators are playing an increasingly important role in condensed matter research concerns the use of Mu mesons, Muons, as a probe. This paper also presents a description of the ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. The design and status of the facility are described, and examples are given of its application to the study of condensed matter. (N.K.)

  17. Policy Matters: De/Re/Territorialising Spaces of Learning in Victorian Government Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to augment an emerging interest in education policy research in enactment theorising, to explicitly consider the role and contribution of materiality in this theorising. Guided by the notion of policy "matters," the article takes as its empirical context a major policy initiative, the Building the Education Revolution…

  18. Bilingualism: Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Bilingualism, commonplace throughout the world, is not well accepted or supported in many parts of the United States. Education policies and practices regarding bilingualism are often based on myths and attitudes rather than facts, despite scientific evidence on both the disadvantages and advantages of bilingualism. Based on a brief overview of…

  19. Collaboration in Australian condensed matter physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushion, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This year marks the 'coming of age' of the annual Condensed Matter Physics Meetings which has constituted possibly the most successful physics series which has been run in Australia and New Zealand. The conferences have become colloquially known as the 'Wagga conferences' to the community, leading to such strange but interpretable phrases as 'Wagga is in New Zealand this year'. It seems an appropriate time to take stock of some of the changes which have taken place in Australian condensed matter physics research over the past 21 years. Statistics will be presented on some of the trends over this time, using the Wagga abstract books as the data source. Particular emphasis will be placed on the increase in collaborative research which has occurred, fuelled by a combination of government policies, reduction in resources and increasing complexity of some of the research projects. Collaborative papers now frequently include authors from more than one university as well as from CSIRO, ANSTO/AINSE, other government and semi-government laboratories and private industry. None of these occurred in the 'early days' but most would agree that the health of the discipline has been improved by the change. It is also appropriate to point out the role of the Wagga conferences in fostering these collaborations by bringing together the groups so that they could meet, interact and discover which people had the missing expertise to make a particular project viable

  20. Energy, emissions and emergency medical services: Policy matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lawrence H.; Blanchard, Ian E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the energy consumption and emissions associated with health services is important for minimizing their environmental impact and guiding their adaptation to a low-carbon economy. In this post-hoc analysis, we characterize the energy burden of North American emergency medical services (EMS) agencies and estimate the potential marginal damage costs arising from their emissions as an example of how and why health services matter in environmental and energy policy, and how and why environmental and energy policy matter to health services. We demonstrate EMS systems are energy intensive, and that vehicle fuels represent 80% of their energy burden while electricity and natural gas represent 20%. We also demonstrate that emissions from EMS operations represent only a small fraction of estimated health sector emissions, but for EMS systems in the United States the associated marginal damage costs are likely between $2.7 million and $9.7 million annually. Significant changes in the supply or price of energy, including changes that arise from environmental and energy policy initiatives designed to constrain fossil fuel consumption, could potentially affect EMS agencies and other health services. We encourage cross disciplinary research to proactively facilitate the health system's adaptation to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: ► Estimated EMS-related emissions less than 1% of health sector emissions. ► Damage costs of U.S. EMS-related emissions estimated at $2.7 to $9.7 million. ► EMS energy burden is approximately 442 MJ per ambulance response. ► Approximately 80% of EMS energy burden is vehicle fuels. ► Energy supply, price and policy could impact EMS (and other health) services. ► Research needed to facilitate health services’ adaptation to a low carbon economy.

  1. Australia's national men's health policy: masculinity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Margo; Peerson, Anita

    2009-08-01

    The development of Australia's first national men's health policy provides an important opportunity for informed discussions of health and gender. It is therefore a concern that the stated policy appears to deliberately exclude hegemonic masculinity and other masculinities, despite evidence of their major influence on men's health-related values, beliefs, perspectives, attitudes, motivations and behaviour. We provide an evidence-based critique of the proposed approach to a national men's health policy which raises important questions about whether the new policy can achieve its aims if it fails to acknowledge 'masculinity' as a key factor in Australian men's health. The national men's health policy should be a means to encourage gender analysis in health. This will require recognition of the influence of hegemonic masculinity, and other masculinities, on men's health. Recognising the influence of 'masculinity' on men's health is not about 'blaming' men for 'behaving badly', but is crucial to the development of a robust, meaningful and comprehensive national men's health policy.

  2. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  3. Manual on service business for policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The contents of this book are summary of service business for policy research : conception classification and ways of service business for policy research, propel procedure of service business for policy research on system of committee, management, choice, contract, evaluation and post management, related regulation on service business for policy research : management regulation on service business for policy research, guide of evaluation for service business for policy research, estimation standard of policy research cost, law arrangement of national contract, required document on service business for policy research, and application manual for PRISM.

  4. Renewable resource policy when distributional impacts matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, R.D.; Shortle, J.S.; Bulte, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    The standard assumption in bioeconomic resource models is that optimal policies maximize the present value of economic surplus to society. This assumption implies that regulatory agencies should not be concerned with the distributional consequences of management strategies. Both contemporary welfare-theoretic and rent-seeking approaches suggests distributional issues are important in designing resource management policies. This paper explores resource management when the managing agency has preferences defined over the economic welfare of various groups with a direct economic interest in the use of resources. Policy schemes consistent with this approach are derived and compared with standard results. 42 refs

  5. Tendencies in applied policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sophie Danneris; Jensen, Tanja Dall

    2018-01-01

    incentives to the more vulnerable groups of unemployed individuals; of New Public Management (NMP) focused on increasing efficiency and lowering expenditures through performance measurement and standardization of procedures, and; of evidence based policy research (EBPR) that seek to support policy efforts...... of existing research around these three strands and outline an alternative approach to conducting research that capture the complexities of the field of long-term unemployment and support meaningful application of research in practice. Specifically we introduce the concept of relational causality as a tool...... to understanding and facilitating knowledge production and application. We provide three cases from different international contexts to exemplify how this can be done and conclude by discussing the normative implications of doing research within a highly politicised area....

  6. Policy Research: Good or Bad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Canada went through a tough discussion in July 2013 when it was revealed that between 1942 and 1952 unethical and harmful research was conducted on Aboriginal peoples, most of whom were children. Beyond simply condemning unethical research with Indigenous populations, we need to examine why this happened and understand what the implications and lessons are for "policy research" moving forward. Policy research is a powerful tool when conducted in the proper way. We must never lose sight of the reason we are engaged in the activity: to improve well-being through the improvement of understanding that leads to change. The research process must, itself, be part of the positive process.

  7. Provincial resource development research policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flock, D L

    1976-01-01

    In Alberta, there is an abundance of oil, natural gas, and coal. But only a small portion of the Alberta oil sands and coal resources are commercially accessible to surface-mining techniques. It is quite apparent that some in-situ technological breakthrough will be required, which will mean a concerted research effort at the provincial level. It is the purpose of this paper to present certain concepts and recommendations for a coordinated provincial resource development research policy for the Province of Alberta. Research as discussed in this paper covers basic and applied research and development. (MCW)

  8. Reflection on penal policy in nuclear matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisse, A.

    1996-01-01

    This document expresses ethical reflexions as far as nuclear energy development is concerned. The potential diversion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy results in the necessity of a criminal policy which would control the nuclear regulations. For each potential nuclear infringement, systems of laws are established either to prevent damages or to penalize them. (TEC)

  9. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  10. The new materialism: A matter of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.

    The material cost of a human life is astronomically more than that of the substances the body contains. The residents of industrial societies are voracious consumers of chemicals, metals, paper, and other materials. Those materials in term may take thousands of times their weight in raw materials and vast quantities of energy to produce. This article describes the problem of a society based on the policy of materialism and discusses the following topics: the need for huge reduction in materials consumption; Turning incentives around so prices tell the ecological truth; Investment in smarter designs including the first step of economic incentives for efficient use of materials; Truth in labeling about the environmental costs; the money to make a start and where it can come from; beyond the virgin materials addiction.

  11. Research as if relevance mattered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziman, J [University of Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1978-12-15

    The agenda of next year's UN Conference on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) is all intellectual abstractions and institutional frameworks. It has no words for the people through whom science and technology will flow. The primary resource for development is skilled engineers, doctors, agriculturalists and other technically qualified people to carry out a multitude of constructive tasks. The training and appropriate employment of such people should be a major theme of the conference. Technical training is education in what is already known, research is the generation of new knowledge. The research scientist is an indispensable person in the development process. But what exactly is his role? The introduction of advanced science into the less developed countries (LDCs) has disappointed many high hopes, especially among the scientists themselves. Not only is their research hobbled by poverty of facilities, geographical isolation, social incomprehension and political harassment, they are uneasily aware that they have a negligible influence on the welfare of their fellow countrymen, and live largely by promises of vague benefits that are unlikely to be fulfilled.

  12. Research as if relevance mattered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziman, J.

    1978-01-01

    The agenda of next year's UN Conference on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD) is all intellectual abstractions and institutional frameworks. It has no words for the people through whom science and technology will flow. The primary resource for development is skilled engineers, doctors, agriculturalists and other technically qualified people to carry out a multitude of constructive tasks. The training and appropriate employment of such people should be a major theme of the conference. Technical training is education in what is already known, research is the generation of new knowledge. The research scientist is an indispensable person in the development process. But what exactly is his role? The introduction of advanced science into the less developed countries (LDCs) has disappointed many high hopes, especially among the scientists themselves. Not only is their research hobbled by poverty of facilities, geographical isolation, social incomprehension and political harassment, they are uneasily aware that they have a negligible influence on the welfare of their fellow countrymen, and live largely by promises of vague benefits that are unlikely to be fulfilled

  13. Gender Equality Matters: Empowering Women through Literacy Programmes. UIL Policy Brief 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The third in UIL's current series of policy briefs, titled "Gender equality matters: Empowering women through literacy programmes," offers research-informed analysis and action-oriented recommendations for local and national governments, providers of literacy programmes and educators on how to reduce the gender gap in adult literacy.…

  14. Environment, sustainability, and education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, Marcia; Rickinson, Mark; Bengtssen, Stefan

    Introduction: This session is a two part symposium on the topic of environment and sustainability in relation to educational policy development, enactment, and analysis. This format is modeled on similar formats used in other international conferences, such as the Association of American...... and methodological approaches to policy and policy research. Some key questions to be addressed include:- What kinds of understandings of policy and policy research are informing work in environmental and sustainability education?- Are there interdisiplinary approaches to policy research that can be useful...... for furthering critical education policy analysis?- What are the relationships between policy development and its enactment or implementation? - To what extent has the environmental education field researched policy development and/or enactment?- What might environmental education research have to offer...

  15. Training young researchers to influence telecommunications policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-02

    May 2, 2016 ... Communication Policy Research: south (CPRsouth) conferences showcase ... The potential for these scholars to shape appropriate policies is significant. ... of Microbusinesses: Evidence from the Peruvian Case (2007–2010) ...

  16. Networking to Improve Nutrition Policy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sonia A; Blanck, Heidi M; Cradock, Angie; Gortmaker, Steven

    2015-09-10

    Effective nutrition and obesity policies that improve the food environments in which Americans live, work, and play can have positive effects on the quality of human diets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) conducts transdisciplinary practice-based policy research and evaluation to foster understanding of the effectiveness of nutrition policies. The articles in this special collection bring to light a set of policies that are being used across the United States. They add to the larger picture of policies that can work together over time to improve diet and health.

  17. Networking to Improve Nutrition Policy Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sonia A.; Blanck, Heidi M.; Cradock, Angie; Gortmaker, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Effective nutrition and obesity policies that improve the food environments in which Americans live, work, and play can have positive effects on the quality of human diets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) conducts transdisciplinary practice-based policy research and evaluation to foster understanding of the effectiveness of nutrition policies. The articles in this special collection bring to light a...

  18. Research, Boundaries, and Policy in Networked Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents cutting-edge, peer reviewed research on networked learning organized by three themes: policy in networked learning, researching networked learning, and boundaries in networked learning. The "policy in networked learning" section explores networked learning in relation to policy...... networks, spaces of algorithmic governance and more. The "boundaries in networked learning" section investigates frameworks of students' digital literacy practices, among other important frameworks in digital learning. Lastly, the "research in networked learning" section delves into new research methods...

  19. Do family policy regimes matter for children's well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Daniel; Stensöta, Helena Olofsdotter

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the impact of different welfare state regimes, and particularly family policy regimes, on gender equality. Very little research has been conducted, however, on the association between different family policy regimes and children's well-being. This article explores how the different family policy regimes of twenty OECD countries relate to children's well-being in the areas of child poverty, child mortality, and educational attainment and achievement. We focus specifically on three family policies: family cash and tax benefits, paid parenting leaves, and public child care support. Using panel data for the years 1995, 2000, and 2005, we test the association between these policies and child well-being while holding constant for a number of structural and policy variables. Our analysis shows that the dual-earner regimes, combining high levels of support for paid parenting leaves and public child care, are strongly associated with low levels of child poverty and child mortality. We find little long-term effect of family policies on educational achievement, but a significant positive correlation between high family policy support and higher educational attainment. We conclude that family policies have a significant impact on improving children's well-being, and that dual-earner regimes represent the best practice for promoting children's health and development.

  20. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and policy coordination - first annual report, June 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This is the first annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, by Dr. George A. Keyworth, II, Science Advisor to the President and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). CIRRPC replaced the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET). Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy

  1. Making health policy: networks in research and policy after 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    Science and policy in health and medicine have interacted in new ways in Britain since 1945. The relationship between research and policy has a history. The changing role of social medicine, the rise of health services research and "customer contractor" policies in government have been important. The relationship between research and policy has been analysed by different schools of thought. This chapter categorises them as several groups: "evidence-based", "journalism", "sociology of scientific knowledge" and "science policy studies". The chapters in the book illuminate aspects of these changing relationships. The role of chronic disease epidemiology, of new networks in public health, of media-focussed activism, and of health technology and its advocates have been more important than political interest.

  2. An Assessment of Educational Policy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1980-01-01

    The last 25 years of education policy research in the areas of finance, economics, and law were appraised. Effectiveness was assessed in terms of research contributions to progress on three public policy value dimensions: equality, efficiency, and liberty. (Author/RL)

  3. Post Colonial Perspectives on Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Gert J.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the role and contribution of policy research in contexts of social transformation. With reference to education transformation policies in post-apartheid South Africa, the argument is developed that research studies vary in their contribution to change, as a function of the paradigmatic assumptions and methodological…

  4. Global change research: Science and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change

  5. Kennedy: Future Academic Research Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The president of Stanford University discusses his views on problems facing research universities, including research secrecy, ethics, and economics of proprietary knowledge generated in the university, faculty conflict of interest, place of humanities in a society driven by technology, and decline of government support for academic research.…

  6. Top 10 Higher Education State Policy Issues for 2011. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Presented here are the top 10 issues most likely to affect public higher education across the 50 states in 2011, in the view of the state policy staff at the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). This listing is informed by an environmental scan of the economic, political and policy landscape surrounding public higher…

  7. Intersectionality in Transnational Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sarah A.; Yu, Min

    2018-01-01

    This review assesses intersectionality as a theoretical and methodological approach to transnational education policy research. In particular, we are concerned with how the concept is translated and interpreted to interrogate globally circulating education policies and how that transformation might inform the concept within Western and Northern…

  8. Educational research and knowledge policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2009-01-01

    The paper is structured in three main sections. The first is a general description of educational research in Denmark and the types of quality assessment used. The second is a discussion of a particular instance of quality assessment, the 2004 OECD review of educational research in Denmark and its...... consequences. The third is a critical discussion of some influential current notions about quality in educational research.   ...

  9. Research Scholars and Federal Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Ian

    1980-01-01

    The National Academy of Education is described as a loose federation of prominent educational and social science researchers, which has never pretended to be a think tank or a lobbying organization. Its influence is indirectly felt through the prestige and quality research of its members. (MLW)

  10. Animal Research International: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal Research International is an online Journal inaugurated in University of Nigeria to meet the growing need for an indigenous and authoritative organ for the dissemination of the results of scientific research into the fauna of Africa and the world at large. Concise contributions on investigations on ...

  11. Linking Emerging Infectious Diseases Research and Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In China and Southeast Asia, the lack of policy or regulation enforcements means that the use of antibiotics ... Building on past research on avian influenza and ongoing ... Chinese Academy of Sciences. Pays d' institution. China. Site internet.

  12. Research Award: Policy and Evaluation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    holders to pursue their research goals and work in one of IDRC's dynamic program or division ... strategic scanning and analysis, advances the relationship between IDRC and the federal ... Strong communication and interpersonal skills; and.

  13. Decision Strategy Research: Policy Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to perform research on relevant topics that might have an important impact on decision making related to nuclear applications, including social and economic sciences. Main achievements in this area in 1999 are described

  14. Social Science Research and School Diversity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sheneka M.; McDermott, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, policy makers, advocates, and researchers have been engaged in efforts to make educational opportunity more equal for students from different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. A great deal of research has been conducted on their efforts; however, there is some disagreement on the extent to which the research has been…

  15. Global Journal of Engineering Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Global Journal of Engineering Research is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Engineering Research including Mechanical, Civil, Electrical, Chemical, Electronics, Geological etc. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed. Publication ...

  16. A Collaboratively-Derived Science-Policy Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J.; Bellingan, Laura; Bellingham, Jim R.; Blackstock, Jason J.; Bloomfield, Robert M.; Bravo, Michael; Cadman, Victoria M.; Cleevely, David D.; Clements, Andy; Cohen, Anthony S.; Cope, David R.; Daemmrich, Arthur A.; Devecchi, Cristina; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Denegri, Simon; Doubleday, Robert; Dusic, Nicholas R.; Evans, Robert J.; Feng, Wai Y.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Harris, Paul; Hartley, Sue E.; Hester, Alison J.; Holmes, John; Hughes, Alan; Hulme, Mike; Irwin, Colin; Jennings, Richard C.; Kass, Gary S.; Littlejohns, Peter; Marteau, Theresa M.; McKee, Glenn; Millstone, Erik P.; Nuttall, William J.; Owens, Susan; Parker, Miles M.; Pearson, Sarah; Petts, Judith; Ploszek, Richard; Pullin, Andrew S.; Reid, Graeme; Richards, Keith S.; Robinson, John G.; Shaxson, Louise; Sierra, Leonor; Smith, Beck G.; Spiegelhalter, David J.; Stilgoe, Jack; Stirling, Andy; Tyler, Christopher P.; Winickoff, David E.; Zimmern, Ron L.

    2012-01-01

    The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy. PMID:22427809

  17. A research on EU trade policy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sitong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest trade group, occupying an important position in the world trade in goods and services, especially in the field of service trade. The EU trade in services exports and imports are higher than the United States and Japan, and the EU is the world’s largest capital output and input group, and the world’s largest foreign aid providers. With the deepening of the European integration process, Europe’s position in the world economy and trade is on the rise. Therefore, the EU’s trade policy has increasingly become the focus of attention. From the vertical point of view, research directions can be divided into trade in goods policy, trade in services policy, international direct investment policy, trade-related intellectual property policy four field. In this paper, the four vertical areas are illustrated as the focus of the study.

  18. Trade Union Participation in University Research Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    1984-01-01

    The recent development of Dutch research coordination agencies, the Science Shops, forms the context for a description of the relationship between university research and policy at Amsterdam University and the national trade union organization. Management tools such as project financing and other elements of this system are discussed. (MSE)

  19. Opportunities for scientists to influence policy: When does radiation metrology matter in development of national policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursey, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurements of radiation and radioactivity rarely rise to the level of national policy. The things that matter most to ordinary citizens do not normally include questions of science and technology. Citizens are more often concerned with issues close to home relating to commerce, health, safety, security and the environment. When questions of confidence in measurements arise, they are first directed to the ministry that has responsibilities in that area. When the required uncertainty in field measurements challenges the capability of the regulatory authorities, the National Metrology Institute may be asked to develop transfer standards to enhance the capabilities of the ministry with the mission lead. In this paper, we will consider eight instances over the past nine decades in which questions in radiation and radionuclide metrology in the US did rise to the level that they influenced decisions on national policy. These eight examples share some common threads. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation are useful tools in many disciplines, but can often represent potential or perceived threats to health and public safety. When unforeseen applications of radiation arise, or when environmental radioactivity from natural and man-made sources presents a possible health hazard, the radiation metrologists may be called upon to provide the technical underpinning for policy development. - Highlights: • We review instances in which accurate measurements of radiation influence policy. • Heads of state rely on senior science advisors to frame policy decisions. • Metrologists support federal agencies that have mission leads in different fields. • Metrologists are called on when other agencies lack requisite expertise. • Radionuclide metrologists must recognize and accept challenges

  20. Preferred conservation policies of shark researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, David S; Hammerschlag, Neil

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing concern about the conservation status of sharks. However, the presence of numerous different (and potentially mutually exclusive) policies complicates management implementation and public understanding of the process. We distributed an online survey to members of the largest professional shark and ray research societies to assess member knowledge of and attitudes toward different conservation policies. Questions covered society member opinions on conservation and management policies, personal histories of involvement in advocacy and management, and perceptions of the approach of conservation nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to shark conservation. One hundred and two surveys were completed (overall response rate 21%). Respondents considered themselves knowledgeable about and actively involved in conservation and management policy; a majority believed scientists have a responsibility to advocate for conservation (75%), and majorities have sent formal public comments to policymakers (54%) and included policy suggestions in their papers (53%). They believe sustainable shark fisheries are possible, are currently happening today (in a few places), and should be the goal instead of banning fisheries. Respondents were generally less supportive of newer limit-based (i.e., policies that ban exploitation entirely without a species-specific focus) conservation policy tools, such as shark sanctuaries and bans on the sale of shark fins, than of target-based fisheries management tools (i.e., policies that allow for sustainable harvest of species whose populations can withstand it), such as fishing quotas. Respondents were generally supportive of environmental NGO efforts to conserve sharks but raised concerns about some NGOs that they perceived as using incorrect information and focusing on the wrong problems. Our results show there is an ongoing debate in shark conservation and management circles relative to environmental policy on target-based natural

  1. Improving biomedical journals' ethical policies: the case of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Scientific journals may incur scientific error if articles are tainted by research misconduct. While some journals' ethical policies, especially those on conflicts of interest, have improved over recent years, with some adopting a uniform approach, only around half of biomedical journals, principally those with higher impact factors, currently have formal misconduct policies, mainly for handling allegations. Worryingly, since a response to allegations would reasonably require an a priori definition, far fewer journals have publicly available definitions of misconduct. While some journals and editors' associations have taken significant steps to prevent and detect misconduct and respond to allegations, the content, visibility of and access to these policies varies considerably. In addition, while the lack of misconduct policies may prompt and maintain a de novo approach for journals, potentially causing stress, publication delays and even legal disputes, the lack of uniformity may be a matter of contention for research stakeholders such as editors, authors and their institutions, and publishers. Although each case may need an individual approach, I argue that posting highly visible, readily accessible, comprehensive, consistent misconduct policies could prevent the publication of fraudulent papers, increase the number of retractions of already published papers and, perhaps, reduce research misconduct. Although legally problematic, a concerted approach, with sharing of information between editors, which is clearly explained in journal websites, could also help. Ideally, journals, editors' associations, and publishers should seek consistency and homogenise misconduct policies to maintain public confidence in the integrity of biomedical research publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic Policy Research Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Economic Policy Research Centre ... the Economic Policy Research Centre's (EPRC) role as a credible public policy institution in ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  3. Accrediting Professional Education: Research and Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Robert H.; Florio, David H.

    Research and legal issues that relate to accreditation policy questions for schools, colleges, and departments of education are reviewed, and strategies for integrating empirical information and social/professional values are presented. The discussion divides into three sections: (1) information concerning a variety of contextual issues that…

  4. Successful Attendance Policies and Programs. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    What steps can be taken to assure that High School students have the best attendance possible? It is commonly believed and well supported by research that students who attend school regularly are more successful than those who do not. The challenge for high schools is to design and implement attendance policies and programs that monitor,…

  5. Turning health research into policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    His principal research interests include knowledge transfer and exchange in public policy-making environments and the politics of healthcare systems. Lavis wrote the report that ... and new members of the Board of Governors. IDRC's Board of Governors congratulates Jean Lebel on his appointment as President and CEO.

  6. Policy Implications of Research on School Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin

    1983-01-01

    The allocation and use of time are considered important in the context of learning because time can be manipulated, measured, and applied to the design of instructional programs. After a clarification of terminology, an overview of current research on time is offered and policy recommendations discussed. (MJL)

  7. Government Research and Development Policy for Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Linda

    This paper investigates how recent changes in the telecommunications industry are likely to affect government research and development policies by analyzing how changes in the market structure--in particular, increased competition in the industry due to domestic deregulation and international competition--change the political economy of government…

  8. Economic growth and mortality: do social protection policies matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Usama; Cooper, Richard; Abreu, Francis; Nau, Claudia; Franco, Manuel; Glass, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    In the 20th century, periods of macroeconomic growth have been associated with increases in population mortality. Factors that cause or mitigate this association are not well understood. Evidence suggests that social policy may buffer the deleterious impact of economic growth. We sought to explore associations between changing unemployment (as a proxy for economic change) and trends in mortality over 30 years in the context of varying social protection expenditures. We model change in all-cause mortality in 21 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data from the Comparative Welfare States Data Set and the WHO Mortality Database were used. A decrease in the unemployment rate was used as a proxy for economic growth and age-adjusted mortality rates as the outcome. Social protection expenditure was measured as percentage of gross domestic product expended. A 1% decrease in unemployment (i.e. the proxy for economic growth) was associated with a 0.24% increase in the overall mortality rate (95% confidence interval: 0.07;0.42) in countries with no changes in social protection. Reductions in social protection expenditure strengthened this association between unemployment and mortality. The magnitude of the association was diminished over time. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that social protection policies that accompany economic growth can mitigate its potential deleterious effects on health. Further research should identify specific policies that are most effective. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  9. Using Qualitative Research to Bridge Research, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.; Flood, Julee T.

    2012-01-01

    Too often, researchers get a bad name for engaging in inquiry that is inaccessible to the practitioner and policy communities who could most benefit from it. Although speaking to others in the scholarly community is important, researchers must also be able to translate their results into more accessible language for multiple audiences. This…

  10. Annual report 1987 Foundation for fundamental research on matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, H.; Benschop, H.; Ebbing, G.

    1988-01-01

    The Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research of Matter (FOM) makes it her aim to stimulate the fundamentally scientific research of matter in the Netherlands. She attempts to obtain this by coordinating of existing research projects and by involving her institutes and research groups in the education of yound physicists. The research groups are classified in eight socalled research communities: nuclear physics, atomic physics, metals, semiconductors, solid state, thermonuclear research and plasma physics, theoretical high-energy physics. This annual report accounts for the management, financial and personnel affairs, and professional/organizational reports of the aforementioned research communities and corresponding research groups. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  11. The tension between research of policy and research for policy in an era of transnational education policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    of implications for education policy-making processes and not least it has had an impact on who conducts policy studies and how. This book brings together a variety of contributions which explore recent political economic changes affecting education policy-making processes including the ascension of neo-liberalism......As national governments reform their educational systems to meet the challenges of living in a globalised world, the agenda setting power of transnational organizations like the OECD and the EU have become more transparent in the last decade. The phenomenon of globalization has a number...... and the transnationalization of education policy-making, as well as the tension between research of policy and research for policy. Working from different perspectives, the authors help to provide a better understanding of these two important sets of issues which the field of education must contend with today....

  12. Telerehabilitation: Policy Issues and Research Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine D. Seelman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of public policy as a complementary framework for telehealth, telemedicine, and by association telerehabilitation, has been recognized by a number of experts. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on telerehabilitation (TR policy and research methodology issues in order to report on the current state of the science and make recommendations about future research needs. An extensive literature search was implemented using search terms grouped into main topics of telerehabilitation, policy, population of users, and policy specific issues such as cost and reimbursement. The availability of rigorous and valid evidence-based cost studies emerged as a major challenge to the field. Existing cost studies provided evidence that telehomecare may be a promising application area for TR. Cost studies also indicated that telepsychiatry is a promising telepractice area. The literature did not reference the International Classification on Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Rigorous and comprehensive TR assessment and evaluation tools for outcome studies are tantamount to generating confidence among providers, payers, clinicians and end users. In order to evaluate consumer satisfaction and participation, assessment criteria must include medical, functional and quality of life items such as assistive technology and environmental factors. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehomecare, Telepsychiatry, Telepractice

  13. Disparate foundations of scientists' policy positions on contentious biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Achim; Moody, James; Light, Ryan

    2017-06-13

    What drives scientists' position taking on matters where empirical answers are unavailable or contradictory? We examined the contentious debate on whether to limit experiments involving the creation of potentially pandemic pathogens. Hundreds of scientists, including Nobel laureates, have signed petitions on the debate, providing unique insights into how scientists take a public stand on important scientific policies. Using 19,257 papers published by participants, we reconstructed their collaboration networks and research specializations. Although we found significant peer associations overall, those opposing "gain-of-function" research are more sensitive to peers than are proponents. Conversely, specializing in fields directly related to gain-of-function research (immunology, virology) predicts public support better than specializing in fields related to potential pathogenic risks (such as public health) predicts opposition. These findings suggest that different social processes might drive support compared with opposition. Supporters are embedded in a tight-knit scholarly community that is likely both more familiar with and trusting of the relevant risk mitigation practices. Opponents, on the other hand, are embedded in a looser federation of widely varying academic specializations with cognate knowledge of disease and epidemics that seems to draw more heavily on peers. Understanding how scientists' social embeddedness shapes the policy actions they take is important for helping sides interpret each other's position accurately, avoiding echo-chamber effects, and protecting the role of scientific expertise in social policy.

  14. Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce financement contribuera à renforcer le rôle de la Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research Organization (STIPRO) en tant qu'organisme crédible de recherche sur les politiques publiques en Tanzanie, en améliorant sa capacité à fournir des recherches de qualité supérieure, influentes et utiles en matière de ...

  15. Annual report '84 Foundation for fundamental research on matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooren, M.J.H. van; Miltenburg, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research of Matter (FOM) makes it her aim to stimulate the fundamentally scientific research of matter in the Netherlands. She attempts to obtain this by coordinating of existing research projects and by involving her institutes and research groups in the education of young physicists. The research groups are classified in eight socalled research communities: nuclear physics, atomic physics, metals, semiconuctors, solid state, thermonuclear research and plasma physics, theoretic high-energy physics. Besides accounts of the management, financial and personnel affairs, and professional/organizational reports of the aforementioned research communities and corresponding research groups, this annual report presents a number of trend articles of which three are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with the experimental deiscovery of intermediate vector bosons at CERN, the study of macroscopic properties of nuclear matter by collision experiments of high-energetic nuclei, and how atoms can be made 'visible' by atomic-collision experiments. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  16. Policy analysis and recommendations for the DCM research data exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report is a policy analysis and set of recommendations regarding open data policies and policies for new, transformative data environments that are being developed as part of the Connected Vehicle research program. It is presented in three secti...

  17. Conceptualizing Policy Work as Activity and Field of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kohoutek; Martin Nekola; Vilém Novotný

    2013-01-01

    The area of policy work and policy workers within government bureaucracies is encompassing a large field of activities and research. This article aims to provide a synthesised perspective on policy work in relating theoretical and empirical accounts of policy workers, identifying points of convergence and linking them to essential assumptions on research in policy work. We conceptualize policy work as activity within government bureaucracies from three interrelated perspectives: the professio...

  18. Denmark lacks coherent policy on basic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibba, Michael; Bentin, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    suggest that more critical problems exist that must be addressed immediately to ensure the long-term health of Danish science. Chief among these are a poorly funded and misdirected policy on basic research funding, and conditions of employment that restrict the research opportunities of young scientists...... unattractive, with limited long-term prospects. This situation is only alleviated by the benefaction of senior scientists and charitable foundations, and occasional directives in selected areas which allow young scientists to develop independent research. Further obstacles exist in the recruitment process: new...... positions are often focused on narrow research areas and only advertised locally (in Danish). Recent well-intentioned legislative changes have not fully addressed these problems. Such an inflexible system (which often obliges scientists to spend their entire career in the same institute) is ill...

  19. Research chief wants to make science matter

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1999-01-01

    The new research chief of the European Union, Phillippe Busquin wants to move science into the heart of EU decision-taking. He would like to make European research more 'cohesive, focused, mobile and multilateral' (2 pages).

  20. Science Matters Podcast: Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listen to a podcast with Dr. Andy Miller, the Associate Director for Climate for the Agency's Air, Climate, and Energy Research Program, as he answers questions about climate change research, or read some of the highlights from the conversation here.

  1. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability: Does Labour Market Policy Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of unemployment insurance generosity and active labour market policy on reemployment stability in Europe. Using EU‐SILC and OECD data, we conduct discrete time survival analyses with shared frailty specification to identify policy effects at the micro and macro level....... These results point to a policy trade‐off between the well‐confirmed disincentive and locking‐in effect of unemployment benefits and ALMP programmes on the one hand, and their positive effect on reemployment stability on the other hand....

  2. Linking African Researchers with Adaptation Policy Spaces | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Linking African Researchers with Adaptation Policy Spaces. Poor understanding of policy processes tends to reduce the value of research results and the ability of researchers to influence policy. One of the main goals of IDRC's Climate Change Adaptation in Africa (CCAA) program is to build the capacity of researchers to ...

  3. Knowledge Activism: Bridging the Research/Policy Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald

    2014-01-01

    How research can better inform policy and how policy can have a better research base are longstanding issues both in educational research and across public policy generally. Drawing on the work of Hannah Arendt, this article argues that progress in increasing the impact of research can be made through a clearer understanding of the nature of…

  4. Militarism and American Foreign Policy: A Matter of Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fila, Brian D

    2000-01-01

    How could any serious student at the National War College assert that militarism is on the rise in American foreign policy in today's political environment characterized by military overutilization...

  5. Examining the volatility of exchange rate: Does monetary policy matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Shu Yi; Sek, Siok Kun

    2014-01-01

    We conduct empirical analysis on examining the changes in exchange rate volatility under two monetary policy regimes, i.e. the pre- and post- inflation targeting (IT) regimes. In addition, we also investigate if the monetary decisions can have impacts on the volatility of exchange rate. The study is focused in four Asian countries that experienced drastic in the switch of monetary policy from the rigid exchange rate to flexible exchange rate and inflation targeting after the Asian financial c...

  6. Annual report'81 Foundation for fundamental research on matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijn, J.; Hooren, M.J.H. van

    1982-01-01

    The Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research of Matter (FOM) makes it her aim to stimulate the fundamentally scientific research of matter in the Netherlands. She attempts to obtain this by coordinating of existing research projects and by involving her institutes and research groups in the education of young physicists. The research groups are classified in eight so-called research communities: nuclear physics, atomic physics, metals, semiconductors, solid state, thermonuclear research and plasma physics, theoretic high-energy physics. Besides accounts of the management, financial and personnel affairs, and professional/organizational reports of the aforementioned research communities and corresponding research groups, this annual report presents a number of trend articles of which two are in INIS scope, entitled respectively: Non-perturbative methods in field theory; Balance between bulk and beam studies in atomic collision research. (H.W.) refs.; figs.; tabs

  7. Setting the scene: Why research matters

    OpenAIRE

    Vossler, Andreas; Moller, Naomi; Cooper, Mick

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces the current field of research in counselling and psychotherapy. It first takes a historical perspective in describing the strong move in British psychotherapy and counselling towards ‘evidence-based’ practice. This shift is illustrated through a discussion of the focus on therapies that are evidence-based in the NICE guidelines and the NHS/IAPT context. The increasing emphasis on research in training curricula for counselling and psychotherapy programmes is considered ...

  8. City scale climate change policies: Do they matter for wellbeing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Asikainen, Arja; Tuomisto, Jouni; Jantunen, Matti; Pärjälä, Erkki; Sabel, Clive E

    2017-06-01

    Climate change mitigation policies aim to reduce climate change through reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions whereas adaption policies seek to enable humans to live in a world with increasingly variable and more extreme climatic conditions. It is increasingly realised that enacting such policies will have unintended implications for public health, but there has been less focus on their implications for wellbeing. Wellbeing can be defined as a positive mental state which is influenced by living conditions. As part of URGENCHE, an EU funded project to identify health and wellbeing outcomes of city greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, a survey designed to measure these living conditions and levels of wellbeing in Kuopio, Finland was collected in December 2013. Kuopio was the northmost among seven cities in Europe and China studied. Generalised estimating equation modelling was used to determine which living conditions were associated with subjective wellbeing (measured through the WHO-5 Scale). Local greenspace and spending time in nature were associated with higher levels of wellbeing whereas cold housing and poor quality indoor air were associated with lower levels of wellbeing. Thus adaption policies to increase greenspace might, in addition to reducing heat island effects, have the co-benefit of increasing wellbeing and improving housing insulation.

  9. Privacy and policy for genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCew, Judith Wagner

    2004-01-01

    I begin with a discussion of the value of privacy and what we lose without it. I then turn to the difficulties of preserving privacy for genetic information and other medical records in the face of advanced information technology. I suggest three alternative public policy approaches to the problem of protecting individual privacy and also preserving databases for genetic research: (1) governmental guidelines and centralized databases, (2) corporate self-regulation, and (3) my hybrid approach. None of these are unproblematic; I discuss strengths and drawbacks of each, emphasizing the importance of protecting the privacy of sensitive medical and genetic information as well as letting information technology flourish to aid patient care, public health and scientific research.

  10. Annual report '82 Foundation for fundamental research on matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooren, M.J.H. van; Miltenburg, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research of Matter (FOM) makes it her aim to stimulate the fundamentally scientific research of matter in the Netherlands. She attempts to obtain this by coordinating of existing research projects and by involving her institutes and research groups in the education of young physicists. The research groups are classified in eight so-called research communities: nuclear physics, atomic physics, metals, semiconductors, solid state, thermonuclear research and plasma physics, theoretic high-energy physics. Besides accounts of the management, financial and personnel affairs, and professional/organizationa reports of the aforementioned research communities and corresponding research groups, this annual report presents a number of trend articles one of them being in INIS scope, discusses some experiments with the 500 MeV electron accelerator MEA. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  11. Annual report '85 Foundation for fundamental research on matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, J.J.H.; Hofman, E.A.E.; Zwaan, B.E. van der

    1986-01-01

    The Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research of Matter (FOM) makes it her aim to stimulate the fundamentally scientific research of matter in the Netherlands. She attempts to obtain this by coordinating of existing research projects and by involving her institutes and research groups in the education of young physicists. The research groups are classified in eight socalled research communities: nuclear physics, atomic physics, metals, semiconductors, solid state, thermonuclear research and plasma physics, theoretic high-energy physics. Besides accounts of the management, financial and personnel affairs, and professional/organizational reports of the aformentioned research communities and corresponding research groups, this annual report presents a number of trend articles one of which being in INIS scope, dealing with the evidence of non-nucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei from 500 MeV electroscattering experiments at NIKHEF-K. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  12. Annual report '83 Foundation for fundamental research on matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooren, M.J.H. van; Miltenburg, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research of Matter (FOM) makes it her aim to stimulate the fundamentally scientific research of matter in the Netherlands. She attempts to obtain this by coordinating of existing research projects and by involving her institutes and research groups in the education of young physicists. The research groups are classified in eight so-called research communities: nuclear physics, atomic physics, metals, semiconductors, solid state, thermonuclear research and plasma physics, theoretic high-energy physics. Besides accounts of the management, financial and personnel affairs, and professional/organizational reports of the aforementioned research communities and corresponding research groups, this annual report presents a number of trend articles of which three are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with study of atomic collisions in electromagnetic-radiation fields, 3 He studies at extremely low temperatures, and a diagnostic system for measuring the electron temperature in a JET-plasma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  13. Annual report 1986 Foundation for fundamental research on matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, J.J.H.; Ebbing, G.E.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Dutch Foundation for Fundamental Research of Matter (FOM) makes it her aim to stimulate the fundamentally scientific research of matter in the Netherlands. She attempts to obtain this by coordinating of existing research projects and by involving her institutes and research groups in the education of young physicists. The research groups are classified in eight socalled research communities: nuclear physics, atomic physics, metals, semiconductors, solid state, thermonuclear research and plasma physics, theoretic high-energy physics. Besides accounts of the management, financial and personnel affairs, and professional/organizational reports of the aforementioned research communities and corresponding research groups, this annual report presents a number of trend articles of which one, treating superstring theory, is in INIS scope. (H.W.) refs.; figs.; tabs

  14. Blazing New Trails: Strengthening Policy Research in Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Makel, Matthew C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Peters, Scott J.; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    Policy research in gifted education has occurred at much lower rates than other areas of research within the field, such as identification and talent development. However, without changes and implementation of these policies, systematic change is unlikely to occur. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to argue that policy research should be a…

  15. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Centre for Policy Research | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CPR is an independent, non-partisan research institute focused on improving policy-making and management, and promoting national development in India. CPR's research covers ... For CPR, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. Policy influence in India

  16. Animal coloration research: why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Tim; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Stuart-Fox, Devi

    2017-07-05

    While basic research on animal coloration is the theme of this special edition, here we highlight its applied significance for industry, innovation and society. Both the nanophotonic structures producing stunning optical effects and the colour perception mechanisms in animals are extremely diverse, having been honed over millions of years of evolution for many different purposes. Consequently, there is a wealth of opportunity for biomimetic and bioinspired applications of animal coloration research, spanning colour production, perception and function. Fundamental research on the production and perception of animal coloration is contributing to breakthroughs in the design of new materials (cosmetics, textiles, paints, optical coatings, security labels) and new technologies (cameras, sensors, optical devices, robots, biomedical implants). In addition, discoveries about the function of animal colour are influencing sport, fashion, the military and conservation. Understanding and applying knowledge of animal coloration is now a multidisciplinary exercise. Our goal here is to provide a catalyst for new ideas and collaborations between biologists studying animal coloration and researchers in other disciplines.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. The Black-White achievement gap: Do state policies matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry I. Braun

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding issue in American education is the gap in academic achievement between majority and minority students. The goal of this study is to accumulate and evaluate evidence on the relationship between state education policies and changes in the Black-White achievement gap, while addressing some of the methodological issues that have led to differences in interpretations of earlier findings. To that end, we consider the experiences of ten states that together enroll more than forty percent of the nation's Black students. We estimate the trajectories of Black student and White student achievement on the NAEP 8th grade mathematics assessment over the period 1992 to 2000, and examine the achievement gap at three levels of aggregation: the state as a whole, groups of schools (strata within a state defined by the SES level of the student population, and within schools within a stratum within a state. From 1992 to 2000, at every level of aggregation, mean achievement rose for both Black students and White students. However, for most states the achievement gaps were large and changed very little at every level of aggregation. The gaps are pervasive, profound and persistent. There is substantial heterogeneity among states in the types of policies they pursued, as well as the coherence and consistency of those policies during the period 1988-1998. We find that states' overall policy rankings (based on our review of the data correlate moderately with their record in improving Black student achievement but are somewhat less useful in predicting their record with respect to reducing the achievement gaps. States' rankings on commitment to teacher quality correlate almost as well as did the overall policy ranking. Thus, state reform efforts are a blunt tool, but a tool nonetheless. Our findings are consistent with the following recommendations: states' reform efforts should be built on broad-based support and buffered as much as possible from changes in

  18. Policy Diffusion and Policy Transfer in Comparative Welfare State Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    existing theoretical concepts and quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches that enable the analysis of interdependencies between countries. Moreover, we summarize the empirical findings of quantitative and qualitative studies on the diffusion and transfer of social policy, from some...

  19. History of Geoscience Research Matters to You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    The geosciences have a long, distinguished, and very useful history Today's science is tomorrow's history of science. If we don't study the past, then every decision we face will seem unprecedented. If we don't study the history of science and apply its lessons, then I don't think we can say we really understand science. Actual research results and ongoing programs will be highlighted, with a focus on public understanding and support for atmospheric science and global change.

  20. Rwandan teachers as educational researchers: why it matters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user17

    for teaching would be grown so expansively that it cannot be mastered and ..... guage-in-education policy of using English as the only medium of instruction in ..... Teachers as researchers: advantages, disadvantages and challenges for ...

  1. Educational research in Sweden: Reform strategies and research policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Inger

    1981-06-01

    Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour

  2. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-07

    Oct 7, 2009 ... ... pillar of Latin America's development strategy into the 21st century. ... and policy advisors involved in trade negotiations and the formulation of trade policy. ... Expanding women's financial inclusion: A win-win for women and ...

  3. Do parties matter for local revenue policies? A comparison of Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Monkerud, Lars Christian; Sørensen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of party ideology on revenue politics. Theoretically, claims can be made that party ideology should matter for revenue policies. First, leftist governments are more favorable towards government intervention and a large public sector. To accomplish this, leftist...... governments need more revenue than bourgeois governments. Second, revenue policy is a redistributive policy area well suited for ideological positioning. However, the claim that party ideology does not matter can also be made since raising revenue is unpopular, and politicians may shy away from new...... initiatives. Empirically, the question is unsettled. The paper investigates the problem by looking at three revenue policy areas (income and property taxation and user charges) in two countries (Denmark and Norway). It uses data from the municipal level and thus has several hundreds of units to compare...

  4. Do parties matter for local revenue policies? A comparison of Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom-Hansen, Jens; Monkerud, Lars Christian; Sørensen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    initiatives. Empirically, the question is unsettled. The paper investigates the problem by looking at three revenue policy areas (income and property taxation and user charges) in two countries (Denmark and Norway). It uses data from the municipal level and thus has several hundreds of units to compare......This paper investigates the impact of party ideology on revenue politics. Theoretically, claims can be made that party ideology should matter for revenue policies. First, leftist governments are more favorable towards government intervention and a large public sector. To accomplish this, leftist...... governments need more revenue than bourgeois governments. Second, revenue policy is a redistributive policy area well suited for ideological positioning. However, the claim that party ideology does not matter can also be made since raising revenue is unpopular, and politicians may shy away from new...

  5. When Politics Matters: The Impact of Politicians' and Bureaucrats' Policy Preferences on Salient and Nonsalient Policy Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Martin; Blom-Hansen, Jens; Serritzlew, Søren

    2015-01-01

    whether politics still matters when bureaucratic preferences are taken into account. We do this in a simultaneous test of political and bureaucratic influences on public budgets, a policy measure often studied in the ‘politics matters’ literature. We find that political preferences trump bureaucratic ones...... in policy areas salient to the public, but not in less salient areas. This might be comforting news from a democratic perspective. However, since public budgets represent an easy case for political influence, it is food for thought that political preferences do not always prevail....

  6. It Matters Who You Are: Indigenous Knowledge Research and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Moyra; Khupe, Constance; Muza, Blessings

    2016-01-01

    It is common for researchers in Indigenous Knowledge (IK) in science education research to draw on aspects of the scientific paradigm from their science training. The consequent research seeks to be objective. This paradigm is not necessarily appropriate for IK research. While there have been calls for IK-aligned methodologies (Chilisa 2012; Keane…

  7. Challenges in Education Research in Taiwan: Research Institutes and Organizations, Research Policies, and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, many education researchers and policy makers worldwide have reviewed education research to attempt to provide strategies to improve the quality of such research in their countries. Taiwan’s government has launched policies and funded support to set the benchmark for Taiwan’s leading universities in international academic competition. The external environment of global competition based on research policy influences the ecosystem of social science research production. To assure the quality of education policy, peer review from within the education community is one approach to supplementing the government’s governance, including the establishment of research institutes, promotion, rewards, and research value. This study tracked the mode of academic research and provides an overview of the status of academic education research in Taiwan. Because education research is part of the humanities and social sciences fields, this study identified the challenges in educational research by examining the trend of social science research and by analyzing research organizations, policy, and the evaluation of research performance. Due to the environment of education research in Taiwan is not friendly to education researcher to accumulate papers in SSCI or international journal, additional concerns entail how education research communities can develop and agree on its quality.

  8. The policy relevance of global environmental change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnal, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Many scientists are striving to identify and promote the policy implications of their global change research. Much basic research on global environmental change cannot advance policy directly, but new projects can determine the relevance of their research to decision makers and build policy-relevant products into the work. Similarly, many ongoing projects can alter or add to the present science design to make the research policy relevant. Thus, this paper shows scientists working on global change how to make their research policy relevant. It demonstrates how research on physical global change relates to human dimensions studies and integrated assessments. It also presents an example of how policy relevance can be fit retroactively into a global change project (in this case, SRBEX-the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment) and how that addition can enhance the project's status and science. The paper concludes that policy relevance is desirable from social and scientific perspectives

  9. Research That Counts: OECD Statistics and "Policy Entrepreneurs" Impacting on Australian Adult Literacy and Numeracy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Stephen; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses research that has impacted on Australia's most recent national policy document on adult literacy and numeracy, the National Foundation Skills Strategy (NFSS). The paper draws in part on Lingard's 2013 paper, "The impact of research on education policy in an era of evidence-based policy", in which he outlines the…

  10. Evidence-Informed Health Policies in Eastern Mediterranean Countries: Comparing Views of Policy Makers and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Lavis, John N.; Jamal, Diana; Ataya, Nour; Dimassi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to conduct comparative analysis about the views and practices of policy makers and researchers on the use of health systems evidence in policy making in selected Eastern Mediterranean countries. We analysed data from two self-reported surveys, one targeted at policy makers and the other at researchers. Results show a…

  11. Aging in Romania: research and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodogai, Simona I; Cutler, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    Romania has entered a period of rapid and dramatic population aging. Older Romanians are expected to make up more than 30% of the total population by 2050. Yet, gerontological research is sparse and the few studies of older Romanians that exist are not well used by policy makers. Much of the research is descriptive and focused on needs assessments. Most databases created from studies of older adults are not available for secondary analysis, nor is Romania among the countries included in the Survey of Health and Retirement in Europe. The pension and health insurance systems and the system of social welfare services address the specific needs of older Romanians, but comparing the social protection systems in the European Union with those in Romania suggests the existence of a development lag. The relevant legislation exists but there are still issues regarding the implementation of specially developed social services for older persons. As a result, there are major inadequacies in the organization of the social service system: too few public services, insufficient budget funds, insufficient collaboration between public and private services, and frequently overlapping services.

  12. 48 CFR 810.001 - Market research policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market research policy... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH 810.001 Market research policy. When conducting market research, VA contracting teams shall use the VIP database, at http://www.VetBiz.gov, in addition to other...

  13. Navigating the science-policy spectrum: Opportunities to work on policies related to your research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licker, R.; Ekwurzel, B.; Goldman, G. T.; DeLonge, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many scientists conduct research with direct policy relevance, whether it be producing sea-level projections that are taken-up by local decision-makers, or developing new agricultural technologies. All scientists are affected by policies made by their respective local, regional, and federal governments. For example, budgets affect the grant resources available to conduct research and policies on visas influence the accessibility of new positions for foreign scientists. As a result, many scientists would like to engage with the policy domain, and either bring their science to bear on new policies that are in the works (science-for-policy) or inform policies on the scientific research enterprise (policy-for-science). Some scientists prefer to engage and be neutral to the policy outcome, serving primarily as an information resource. Many may choose to also advocate for a particular outcome based on their expertise and experience. Research shows that policy decisions benefit greatly from the input of scientific experts. We explore the spectrum between informing policies in a "non-prescriptive" manner to working on policies in an advocacy space. We highlight tips for successful engagement along this spectrum. Finally, we review current science-for-policy and policy-for-science issues of relevance to the geophysical sciences.

  14. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. European health inequality through the 'Great Recession': social policy matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Saltkjel, Therese; Chen, Wen-Hao; Dahl, Espen; Halvorsen, Knut

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the association between the Great Recession and educational inequalities in self-rated general health in 25 European countries. We investigate four different indicators related to economic recession: GDP; unemployment; austerity and a 'crisis' indicator signifying severe simultaneous drops in GDP and welfare generosity. We also assess the extent to which health inequality changes can be attributed to changes in the economic conditions and social capital in the European populations. The paper uses data from the European Social Survey (2002-2014). The analyses include both cross-sectional and lagged associations using multilevel linear regression models with country fixed effects. This approach allows us to identify health inequality changes net of all time-invariant differences between countries. GDP drops and increasing unemployment were associated with decreasing health inequalities. Austerity, however, was related to increasing health inequalities, an association that grew stronger with time. The strongest increase in health inequality was found for the more robust 'crisis' indicator. Changes in trust, social relationships and in the experience of economic hardship of the populations accounted for much of the increase in health inequality. The paper concludes that social policy has an important role in the development of health inequalities, particularly during times of economic crisis. © 2018 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  16. The application of contrast explanation to energy policy research: UK nuclear energy policy 2002–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffron, Raphael J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances the application of the methodology, contrast explanation, to energy policy research. Research in energy policy is complex and often involves inter-disciplinary work, which traditional economic methodologies fail to capture. Consequently, the more encompassing methodology of contrast explanation is assessed and its use in other social science disciplines explored in brief. It is then applied to an energy policy research topic—in this case, nuclear energy policy research in the UK. Contrast explanation facilitates research into policy and decision-making processes in energy studies and offers an alternative to the traditional economic methods used in energy research. Further, contrast explanation is extended by the addition of contested and uncontested hypotheses analyses. This research focuses on the methods employed to deliver the new nuclear programme of the UK government. In order to achieve a sustainable nuclear energy policy three issues are of major importance: (1) law, policy and development; (2) public administration; and (3) project management. Further, the research identifies that policy in the area remains to be resolved, in particular at an institutional and legal level. However, contrary to the literature, in some areas, the research identifies a change of course as the UK concentrates on delivering a long-term policy for the nuclear energy sector and the overall energy sector. - Highlights: ► Energy policy research is interdisciplinary and needs additional methodological approaches. ► New method of contrast explanation advanced for energy policy research. ► This methodology is based on dialectical learning which examines conflict between sources of data. ► Research example used here is of UK nuclear energy policy. ► Major issues in UK nuclear energy policy are planning law, public administration, and project management

  17. Foreign Policy Involvement Matters: Towards an Analytical Framework Examining the Role of the Media in the Making of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Schulz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Foreign policy processes have long played a minor role in the study of political communication. There is a broad consensus that the media is the central mediating actor and primary conduit between political decision-makers and the public. However, the media’s influence on foreign policy remains contingent across various processes and phases of foreign policy making; it is dynamic and multi-directional. Considering that the public sphere is essential for the legitimacy of foreign policy making, there is a demand for further research on the media’s performance in the making of foreign policy. Based on secondary research, this paper proposes an analytical framework for the systematic analysis of media–foreign policy relations by integrating foreign-policy context conditions as a research variable. The framework is based on the assumption that the role of the media varies across diverse foreign policy contexts depending on the intensity of governmental involvement in foreign affairs. The intensity is distinguished according to three dimensions: no involvement, indirect involvement and direct involvement. Finally, a case study is suggested in order to demonstrate the framework’s explanatory power: the German media coverage of Russia.

  18. The Impact of the Physical Activity Policy Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteiga, Alicia M; Eyler, Amy A; Valko, Cheryl; Brownson, Ross C; Evenson, Kelly R; Schmid, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Lack of physical activity is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. The Physical Activity Policy Research Network (PAPRN) is a thematic network established in 2004 to identify determinants, implementation, and outcomes of policies that are effective in increasing physical activity. The purpose of this study is to describe the products of PAPRN and make recommendations for future research and best practices. A mixed methods approach was used to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data on the network. First, in 2014, PAPRN's dissemination products from 2004 to 2014 were extracted and reviewed, including 57 publications and 56 presentations. Next, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 key network participants from 17 locations around the U.S. The transcripts were transcribed and coded. The results of the interviews indicated that the research network addressed several components of its mission, including the identification of physical activity policies, determinants of these policies, and the process of policy implementation. However, research focusing on physical activity policy outcomes was limited. Best practices included collaboration between researchers and practitioners and involvement of practitioners in research design, data collection, and dissemination of results. PAPRN is an example of a productive research network and has contributed to both the process and content of physical activity policy research over the past decade. Future research should emphasize physical activity policy outcomes. Additionally, increased partnerships with practitioners for collaborative, cross-sectoral physical activity policy research should be developed. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. THE CONTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC INTEREST RESEARCH TO TRANSPORTATION POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto ITOH

    2003-01-01

    Established in 1995 with the basic philosophy of serving as a bridge between research and practice, the Institute for Transport Policy Studies conducts activities in support of transportation policy research in the public interest. This paper aims to describe the contribution of public interest research to transportation policy as seen in the Institute's activities. Touching first on the context and events leading to its establishment, the paper then describes the Institute's guiding principl...

  20. Institutional Support to South Asian Policy Research Organizations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There are very few policy research organizations in South Asia outside India. Those that exist are fragile due to little demand for policy research, limited if no funding from local sources, and an often insecure political climate. This grant will strengthen the ability of the seven selected research institutions in Bangladesh, Nepal ...

  1. Implementation as transfer between policy, research and practice in care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Niet, A. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health Services Research is policy related and results have an impact on practices. Implementation of research output into practices is performed with a variety of strategies. Type of policy intentions and research output create a specific context for implementation. The main question

  2. Responding to "Crisis": Education Policy Research in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadou, Nafsika

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of international and transnational developments for education policy research, with a focus on the European Union. The rise of policy projects at the EU level since 2000, has altered the relationships between the state, EU institutions and education policy, in terms of the definition of values, purposes, and…

  3. Considering Critical Turns in Research on Educational Leadership and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Sarah; Young, Michelle D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of critical policy analysis (CPA) in the fields of educational leadership and policy. In addition to exploring how CPA compares to traditional research approaches in educational leadership and policy, the authors consider the influence of long-established ways of knowing, why scholars choose…

  4. Coping with System Failure: Why Connectivity Matters to Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot

    2015-01-01

    system to create new institutional structures in the economy. A major social network analysis examines how connectivity in two specific European ‘technology’ platforms’ networks has changed and evolved in relation to researching the solutions to solving major societal problems, and therefore has also...... it to reach its climate goals for 2020. The chapter’s research strategy stresses the importance of relations rather than the determinism of technology or ideas. As a result, the chapter’s structural analysis shows how firms in the modern European economy work, on a collective level, from within the political...... driven innovation towards new business opportunities. The analysis shows how connectivity and network relations play an important role in innovation, as opposed to arm-length anonymous interactions as presumed in mainstream economic thinking....

  5. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, No. 236

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    This report contains information concerning the telecommunications policy, research and development of the following countries: (1) Australia, (2) Argentina, (3) Madagascar, (4) South Africa, (5) Zaire, (6...

  6. Condensed matter research using pulsed neutron sources: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildner, D.F.R.; Stirling, G.C.

    1976-05-01

    This report is an updated revision of RL-75-095 'Condensed Matter Research Using Pulsed Neutron Sources: A Bibliography'. As before, the survey lists published papers concerning (a) the production of high intensity neutron pulses suitable for thermal neutron scattering research, (b) moderating systems for neutron thermalization and pulse shaping, (c) techniques and instrumentation for diffraction and inelastic scattering at pulsed sources, and (d) their application to research problems concerning the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matter. Papers which deal with the white beam time-of-flight technique at steady state reactors have also been included. A number of scientists have brought to the author's attention papers which have been published since the previous edition. They are thanked and encouraged to continue the cooperation so that the bibliography may be updated periodically. (author)

  7. Science Policy Research Unit annual report 1984/1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The report covers the principal research programmes of the Unit, and also describes its graduate and undergraduate teaching, (listing subjects of postgraduate research) and library services. A list of 1984 published papers and staff is presented. The principle research programmes include: the setting up of the Designated Research Centre on Science, Technology and Energy Policy in British Economic Development; policy for technology and industrial innovation in industrialised countries; energy economics, technology and policy (with a sub-section on coal); European science and industrial policy; science policy and research evaluation; technical change and employment opportunities in the UK economy; new technology, manpower and skills; technology and social change; science and technology policy in developing countries; military technology and arms limitation. Short-term projects and consultancy are also covered.

  8. Researcher Creations? The Positioning of Policy Texts in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Paul; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article we explore the way in which policy texts are positioned in a selection of higher education journal articles. Previous research has suggested that policy implementation studies have taken an uncritical approach to researching policies. Based on an analysis of articles published in higher education and policy journals in 2011, we…

  9. Gun policy and serious mental illness: priorities for future research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L

    2014-01-01

    In response to recent mass shootings, policy makers have proposed multiple policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns. The political debate about these proposals is often uninformed by research. To address this gap, this review article summarizes the research related to gun restriction policies that focus on serious mental illness. Gun restriction policies were identified by researching the THOMAS legislative database, state legislative databases, prior review articles, and the news media. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched for publications between 1970 and 2013 that addressed the relationship between serious mental illness and violence, the effectiveness of gun policies focused on serious mental illness, the potential for such policies to exacerbate negative public attitudes, and the potential for gun restriction policies to deter mental health treatment seeking. Limited research suggests that federal law restricting gun possession by persons with serious mental illness may prevent gun violence from this population. Promotion of policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns does not seem to exacerbate negative public attitudes toward this group. Little is known about how restricting gun possession among persons with serious mental illness affects suicide risk or mental health treatment seeking. Future studies should examine how gun restriction policies for serious mental illness affect suicide, how such policies are implemented by states, how persons with serious mental illness perceive policies that restrict their possession of guns, and how gun restriction policies influence mental health treatment seeking among persons with serious mental illness.

  10. Policy Analyst | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... reviews the plans produced to ensure that they are of the highest possible quality. ... The Policy Analyst plays a key role in information management. ... discussion and decision-making; prepares guidelines on issues relating to processes, ...

  11. International Development Research Centre Corporate Policy Travel

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    put in place procedures to issue advances to employees entitled to receive them; ... recover Canadian tax credits where expense reports include Canadian ... Any instances of abuse, fraud, or non-compliance with the IDRC travel policy will be ...

  12. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 The Management of Knowledge in Trade Policy: The Case of Uruguay ...... or from a prime trading partner (as with the United States in Ecuador's case) so that they could ...... Foreign Ministry, Economy, Industry, Livestock, Tourism Ministries.

  13. Hydropedology as a powerful tool for environmental policy research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.

    2006-01-01

    Rather than produce clear-cut answers to well-defined problems, research on future environmental policy issues requires a different approach whereby researchers are partners in joint learning processes among stakeholders, policy makers, NGOs (Non-Governmental Organisations) and industry. This

  14. Knowledge to Policy: Making the Most of Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 avr. 2009 ... A major contribution to an understudied, poorly understood, but critical aspect of development. — John Young, Director of Programmes, Research and Policy in Development Group (RAPID), Overseas Development Institute, London. Does research influence public policy and decision-making and, if so, ...

  15. 75 FR 15756 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RIN 3244-AF61 Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Final Amendments to Policy Directive. SUMMARY: This document announces a final amendment to the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR...

  16. 77 FR 46805 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Vol. 77 Monday, No. 151 August 6, 2012 Part II Small Business Administration 13 CFR Chapter I Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive; Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology...

  17. Policy Research and Analysis Organizations: An Account of Recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    policy research organizations operate, and touches on the negligible influence that the latter have ... organizations under considerations. The interviews were ... Drawing from the theoretical and empirical literatures, the next section sets ... institutionalizing policy research and analysis, however, politicians and bureaucrats ...

  18. Strengthening Research Capacity and Evidence-Based Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... wider Central Asian region lack capacity to conduct empirical analysis and create policies based on research evidence. To address government priorities, the region needs quality research driven by local demands and analytical skills that can inform effective development responses through policy. This 39-month project, ...

  19. Adaptation Finance: Linking Research, Policy, and Business | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adaptation Finance: Linking Research, Policy, and Business. This project will train up to 36 emerging climate change leaders in the field of adaptation finance, which funds efforts to adapt to climate change impacts. The goal is to bring together participants from research, policy, and private sector backgrounds to equip them ...

  20. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  1. Researching Early Childhood Policy and Practice. A Critical Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the renewed interest in early childhood education and care in European politics, and the implications for research in changing policy contexts. Based on the policy analysis, it argues for a radical reconceptualisation of how, with and for whom, and to what end we design, conduct and interpret research in early childhood in…

  2. Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Open data ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Open data platforms for ... This exercise will provide the opportunity to raise awareness of the SGDs and the ... IDRC is supporting research that studies the most effective ways to empower ...

  3. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Centre for Policy Research | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India ... women, prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for ...

  4. Conceptualising the policy practice and behavioural research relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeatman Heather

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy is frequently identified in the behavioural nutrition and physical activity research literature as a necessary component of effective research and practice. The purpose of this commentary is to promote a dialogue to contribute towards the further development of conceptual understandings and theories of the relationship between policy practice and behavioural research and how these two activities might work synergistically to improve public health outcomes. Methods Drawing on policy and public health literature, this commentary presents a a conceptual model of the interaction and mediation between nutrition and physical activity-relevant policy and behavioural nutrition and physical activity research, environments, behaviours and public health implications. The selling of food in school canteens in several Australian states is discussed to illustrate components of the relationship and the interactions among its components. Results The model depicts a relationship that is interdependent and cyclic. Policy contributes to the relationship through its role in shaping environmental and personal-cognitive determinants of behaviours and through these determinants it can induce behaviour change. Behavioural research describes behaviours, identifies determinants of behaviour change and therefore helps inform policy development and monitor and evaluate its impact. Conclusion The model has implications for guiding behavioural research and policy practice priorities to promote public health outcomes. In particular, we propose that policy practice and behavioural research activities can be strengthened by applying to each other the theories from the scientific disciplines informing these respective activities. Behavioural science theories can be applied to help understand policy-making and assist with disseminating research into policy and practice. In turn, policy science theories can be applied to support the 'institutionalisation

  5. An Overview of DoD Policy for and Administration of Independent Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    1969-1970) The Congress became directly involved in IR&D policy matters during the floor debate on the FY 1970 Military Procurement Act. This...trial period the’data bank was restricted to DlOD usirs. However, in December 1974 NASA was granted ’access "to the IR&D Data Dank :. 3,4. IM~D DatA...Subject Matter of S3003," Washington, D. C., 11 February 1970. 54. Deputy Secretary of Defense, "Independent Research and Development/Bid and

  6. Managing Conflict: Policy and Research Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Sandra V.; Boardman, Susan K.

    1994-01-01

    Highlights the importance of constructive conflict management in resolving disagreements arising from diversity. The authors discuss policy recommendations for implementing conflict-management programs in schools, training individuals in nonschool settings, and designing cross-cultural programs for high-risk inner-city youth. Procedural…

  7. The dynamics of energy policy in Lebanon when research, politics, and policy fail to intersect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodr, Hiba; Uherova Hasbani, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an exploratory study on energy policymaking in Lebanon aiming at investigating the contributing factors to the absence of evidence-informed policy by analyzing the relation between energy-related research and policy. It uses a qualitative approach in which two complementary types of data sources are employed. Data was mainly obtained from in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with 40 key stakeholders. The data was further enhanced by an extensive review of related documents available in the public domain as well as research-related activities. Data were analyzed using iterative thematic content analysis which findings served to illustrate the theoretical perspectives in the relevant prevailing literature on linking policy and research. This paper suggests that the politicization of energy policy, the nature of the generated evidence and the lack of communication of evidence among policy actors as well as the weak and non-institutionalized links between researchers and policymakers have posed as an obstacle to an effective, efficient and evidence-based policy. There is a dearth of academic studies that have investigated this issue from a policy perspective. The analysis lays the foundation for much needed future studies on the country's energy policy by identifying the participants, mapping out the process and providing policy recommendations. - Highlights: • We study energy policymaking in Lebanon. • We analyze the relation between research and policy. • We identify contributing factors to the absence of evidence-informed policy. • The politicization of policy and nature of research have posed as obstacles. • Evidence of non-institutionalized links between researchers and policymakers

  8. Policy Implications of Air Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, C.

    2004-12-01

    While an integrated assessment approach will be required to achieve and sustain improvements in the air quality of Mexico City Metropolitan Area's (MCMA), policy strategies must be based on a solid understanding of the pollutant emissions and atmospheric processes that lead to unacceptable levels of air pollution. The required level of understanding can only be achieved by comprehensive atmospheric measurements followed by a coordinated atmospheric modeling program. The innovative, two-phase atmospheric measurement program, which was a collaborative effort between Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Mexican Metropolitan Environmental Commission, with exploratory measurements in February 2002 and extensive measurements from late March through early May of 2003, was an important step towards meeting these requirements. Although the extensive data sets from the two measurement programs are still being analyzed by the investigators, their preliminary analysis efforts have yielded important insights into the nature and extent of air pollution problem in the MCMA, which in turn will have important policy implications.

  9. Implementation as transfer between policy, research and practice in care.

    OpenAIRE

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Niet, A. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health Services Research is policy related and results have an impact on practices. Implementation of research output into practices is performed with a variety of strategies. Type of policy intentions and research output create a specific context for implementation. The main question here is: what combinations of background factors and implementation strategies lead to successful implementations in health care? Methods: Sources for this study are evaluations of 72 completed imple...

  10. African Journal of Management Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topics and themes appropriate for African Journal of Management Research will ... African Journal of Management Research maintains a 2-3 month turnaround time from submission to decision. ... Emeritus Professor, Goldsmiths College, UK.

  11. Research award: Policy and Evaluation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-14

    Jan 14, 2018 ... We offer a number of research awards providing a unique ... What frameworks and methodologies present opportunities for ... How are governments and organizations identifying and addressing critical research gaps in ...

  12. Research award: Policy and Evaluation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to ... What frameworks and methodologies present opportunities for strengthening the ... and organizations identifying and addressing critical research gaps in relation to the ...

  13. Bridging the Gap between Climate Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M.; Lambert, K. F.; Buonocore, J.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    The weak link between science and policy jeopardizes the wellbeing of people and the planet. Climate change is a pressing example of this disconnect. Policies are not keeping pace with the best of our knowledge from climate change research. We are working to bridge the science-policy divide and advance climate solutions by focusing on the positive health, ecosystem, and economic benefits of policy action. In 2013, we brought together an interdisciplinary team to estimate the co-benefits of U.S. power plant carbon standards for air quality and health, plus the economic value of the benefits. The results demonstrate that strong carbon standards with flexible compliance options can change the power sector, yielding substantial air quality and health benefits nationwide. The results also show that the economic value of these benefits outweighs the costs nationally and regionally. We advanced the policy applications of this research through a strategic campaign with three key elements: media communication, targeted outreach, and information for policymakers. Our strategy was to build widespread awareness of the research outcomes via media engagement, amplify our message via targeted outreach to citizens groups, and inform policy solutions by sharing research results with decision makers. The research was reported in more than 600 unique news stories in mainstream media outlets and received social media posts by members of Congress and senior White House officials. We amplified the messages via 14 webinars for citizens groups. We also held 16 briefings for policymakers and the public, in addition to meetings with relevant policy staff. Regional, state and federal policy leaders have used the research to understand air quality and health benefits of power plant carbon standards. This model of pairing research with media communication, targeted outreach, and information for policymakers is effective for bridging the gap between climate research and policy, and can be

  14. Research Award: Policy and Planning Group (PPG) Deadline: 12 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... mentorship in research, research management, and grant administration allows research awardees to pursue their research goals in a dynamic team environment in one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. The Policy and Planning Group (PPG) is responsible for ...

  15. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination second annual report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, A.L.

    1996-06-30

    This is the second annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, to replace the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy. During CIRRPC`s second year, the member agencies have called upon this interagency resource to assist in coordinating science and policy issues and to provide a vehicle to accomplish multiagency tasks.

  16. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination second annual report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    This is the second annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, to replace the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy. During CIRRPC's second year, the member agencies have called upon this interagency resource to assist in coordinating science and policy issues and to provide a vehicle to accomplish multiagency tasks

  17. At the Policy-Research Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry; Dolin, Jens

    development on how best to impact policy and practice. In this paper, we report on a method to map out networks of relevant stakeholders and use Social Network Analysis to select key stakeholders to invite to National Stakeholder Panels in seven European countries. Our analysis shows that size and coherency...... of networks are crucial factors when project partners use Social Network Analysis reports to select members to invite to National Stakeholder Panels. Other factors, such as perceived bias in the kinds of stakeholders and lag of knowledge of stakeholders in the networks are also important. The results...

  18. Recapitalization, Implications for Educational Policy and Practice and Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    In this concluding chapter conclusions are drawn, and the relevance of the results for educational science and policy and practice are discussed. Illustrations are provided that were drawn from the exploration of policy and practices in the Netherlands. Synthetic answers to the three research

  19. Policy research and analysis organizations: an account of recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing from interviews, archival documents and a range of other sources, this article takes stock of key public policy research and analysis organizations in Ethiopia. It sheds light on the significance of professionalization of policy analysis and its contributions to closing the gap between knowledge and policymaking, offers ...

  20. Health policy, health systems research and analysis capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis (HPSR&A) is an applied science that deals with complexity as it tries to provide lessons, tools and methods to understand and improve health systems and health policy. It is defined by the kinds of questions asked rather than a particular methodology.

  1. Research and Policy in Education: Evidence, Ideology and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) tells us that 90 per cent of education reforms are not properly evaluated. So it seems that governments have not lived up to their own ideals of evidence-informed policymaking. "Research and Policy in Education" argues that education policy is as often driven by political…

  2. Starting the Conversation: University-Wide Research Data Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erway, Ricky

    2013-01-01

    This call for action addresses the high-level benefits of adopting a university-wide policy regarding research data management. It identifies the various university stakeholders and suggests that the library initiate a conversation among them in order to get buy-in for a proactive, rather than reactive, high-level policy for responsible data…

  3. Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This is one of four pilot projects exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, ... Based on the national studies, a regional analysis will be generated and published ... to announce that the first call for applications for the new Early Career Women. ... policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage.

  4. Innovation policy & labour productivity growth: Education, research & development, government effectiveness and business policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Raee, Mueid; Ritzen, Jo; Crombrugghe, Denis de

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between labour productivity growth in non-traditional sectors and "innovation policy" for a cross-section of countries. Innovation policy is characterised by investments in tertiary education and research and development as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product

  5. Designing Research in Environmental Education Curriculum Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing dissatisfaction at many levels with existing environmental education curricula in southern Africa. The resulting change and innovation is opening up possibilities for innovative research into the construction, conceptualisation and implementation of the curriculum. However, researching the curriculum ...

  6. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is an Open Access international ... Although primarily devoted to original research papers, the journal ... know so that we can keep the authors informed and, where necessary, find alternatives. ..... An example of how a search strategy should be presented can be seen in the ...

  7. Decision Strategy Research and Policy Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies and policy support is: (1) to investigate the decision making process, with all its relevant dimensions, in the context of radiation protection or other nuclear issues (with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness); (2) to disseminate knowledge on decision making and nuclear emergencies, including the organisation of training courses, the contribution to manuals or guidelines, the participation in working groups or discussion forums; (3) to assist the authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available; (4) to participate in and contribute to initiatives related to social sciences and their implementation into SCK-CEN; (5) to co-ordinate efforts of SCK-CEN related to medical applications of ionising radiation. Principal achievements in 2001 are described

  8. Decision Strategy Research and Policy Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, F

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies and policy support is: (1) to investigate the decision making process, with all its relevant dimensions, in the context of radiation protection or other nuclear issues (with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness); (2) to disseminate knowledge on decision making and nuclear emergencies, including the organisation of training courses, the contribution to manuals or guidelines, the participation in working groups or discussion forums; (3) to assist the authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available; (4) to participate in and contribute to initiatives related to social sciences and their implementation into SCK-CEN; (5) to co-ordinate efforts of SCK-CEN related to medical applications of ionising radiation. Principal achievements in 2001 are described.

  9. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, Arja R.; Bertram, Maja; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures...... and the initial results of the first phase of six European countries in a five-year research project (2011-2016), REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity (REPOPA). REPOPA is programmatic research; it consists of linked studies; the first phase studied the use of evidence in 21 policies in implementation...... to learn more in depth from the policy making process and carried out 86 qualitative stakeholder interviews. The second, ongoing phase builds on the central findings of the first phase in each country; it consists of two sets of interventions: game simulations to study cross-sector collaboration...

  10. Institutional Support to South Asian Policy Research Organizations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There are very few policy research organizations in South Asia outside India. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  11. Building policy research capacity in Myanmar | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Senior faculty from universities in Thailand (the Asian Institute of Technology and ... (the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning-McGill University and the ... mentoring through the supervision of individual policy research projects.

  12. Social Science Research Findings and Educational Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to raise several distinctions regarding the presumed relationship of social science research findings to social policy making. The distinctions are made using Glymour's critique of the Bell Curve. An argument is made that (1 social science models and research findings are largely irrelevant to the actual concerns of policy makers and (2 what is relevant, but overlooked by Glymour, is how ideological factors mediate the process. The forms that ideological mediation may take are indicated.

  13. Research in Hospitality Management: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research in Hospitality Management is a peer-reviewed journal publishing papers that ... financial management, marketing, strategic management, economics, ... Articles covering social theory and the history and politics of the hospitality ...

  14. Research Award: Policy and Evaluation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet ... research skills and gain a fresh perspective on crucial development issues. ... What is cutting-edge practice for evaluating the building of leaders?

  15. Social and Economic Policies Matter for Health Equity: Conclusions of the SOPHIE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmusi, Davide; Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme

    2018-01-01

    Since 2011, the SOPHIE project has accumulated evidence regarding the influence of social and economic policies on population health levels, as well as on health inequalities according to socioeconomic position, gender, and immigrant status. Through comparative analyses and evaluation case studies across Europe, SOPHIE has shown how these health inequalities vary according to contexts in macroeconomics, social protection, labor market, built environment, housing, gender equity, and immigrant integration and may be reduced by equity-oriented policies in these fields. These studies can help public health and social justice advocates to build a strong case for fairer social and economic policies that will lead to the reduction of health inequalities that most governments have included among their policy goals. In this article, we summarize the main findings and policy implications of the SOPHIE project and the lessons learned on civil society participation in research and results communication.

  16. Research and Policy on Parallel Courses

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    Despite its still considerable economic and social problems ... Some 80% of the Viet Nam's 80 million citizens live in rural ... successor, the five-year Viet Nam Economic and .... system and was therefore in need of research to guide its reforms.

  17. Animal Production Research Advances: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal production research advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal ...

  18. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 oct. 2009 ... The editor. Mercedes Botto is Senior Researcher at FLACSO, the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Contenus connexes. Politiques d'innovation régionales dans la zone Mercosur - obstacles et possibilités. Cette subvention soutiendra l'exécution d'une étude des ...

  19. Palestinian Refugee Research Policy Papers | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    EASF closed in March 2008, although IDRC has continued to finance some key follow-up activities and is fundraising for continued programming in this area. Over its 15 years of ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South.

  20. CCAA research-to-policy links

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    interaction with policymaking bodies at the local, national or regional level. In some ... Monitoring Centre in Harare which serves the Southern African Development Community). • Local or ... Agricultural Research Corporation. Ethiopia .... Urban Interactions: the Case Study of Aba ... Network to Pioneer Climate Adaptation.

  1. Interdisciplinary Research: Performance and Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Frederick A.; Porter, Alan L.

    1981-01-01

    Successful interdisciplinary research performance, it is suggested, depends on such structural and process factors as leadership, team characteristics, study bounding, iteration, communication patterns, and epistemological factors. Appropriate frameworks for socially organizing the development of knowledge such as common group learning, modeling,…

  2. Public health: disconnections between policy, practice and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health includes policy, practice and research but to sufficiently connect academic research, practice and public health policy appears to be difficult. Collaboration between policy, practice and research is imperative to obtaining more solid evidence in public health. However, the three domains do not easily work together because they emanate from three more or less independent 'niches'. Work cycles of each niche have the same successive steps: problem recognition, approach formulation, implementation, and evaluation, but are differently worked out. So far, the research has focused on agenda-setting which belongs to the first step, as expressed by Kingdon, and on the use of academic knowledge in policy makers' decision-making processes which belongs to the fourth step, as elaborated by Weiss. In addition, there are more steps in the policy-making process where exchange is needed. Method A qualitative descriptive research was conducted by literature search. We analyzed the four steps of the policy, practice and research work cycles. Next, we interpreted the main conflicting aspects as disconnections for each step. Results There are some conspicuous differences that strengthen the niche character of each domain and hamper integration and collaboration. Disconnections ranged from formulating priorities in problem statements to power roles, appraisal of evidence, work attitudes, work pace, transparency of goals, evaluation and continuation strategies and public accountability. Creating awareness of these disconnections may result in more compatibility between researchers, policy makers and practitioners. Conclusion We provide an analysis that can be used by public health services-related researchers, practitioners and policy makers to be aware of the risk for disconnections. A synthesis of the social, practical and scientific relevance of public health problems should be the starting point for a dialogue that seeks to

  3. The value of integrating policy people and space in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Louise; Birla, Ravi K

    2009-03-01

    In this article, we address several tangible and intangible factors, which are difficult to quantify and often overlooked yet are crucial for research success. We discuss three dimensions which encompass: (1) policy, (2) people, and (3) space. Policies, such as rules and regulations, define the culture of any research program/initiative. Governing rules and regulations defined within these policies are dictated by cultural values. Individuals who exhibit strong leadership, promote innovation, and exercise strategic planning often determine the governing policies. People are the most valuable asset available to any institution. Ensuring the professional growth (personal and scientific) and creating an environment which supports collaborative and collegial research through teamwork are factors that are important for individuals. Space, the physical work environment, is the third dimension of our model and is often an underutilized resource. In addition to the physical layout and design of the space, creating a positive work atmosphere which supports research initiatives is equally important and can create valuable momentum to research efforts. Collectively, these three dimensions (policy, people, and space) have a significant impact on the success of any research initiative. The primary objective of this article is to create awareness and emphasize the importance of implementing these variables within research initiatives in academic settings.

  4. From Good Governance to Developmental Governance - How Policies, Institutions and Politics Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Laurids Sandager

    2012-01-01

    The present global financial and economic crisis offers an opportunity to rethink the relative roles of state and market as well as of globalisation and national development strategies in the political economy of development. It has become more difficult to argue that globalisation has rendered...... national development strategies and in particular industrial policies superfluous. The crisis also calls for a rethinking of the prevailing standard recipes for development and of the ‘institutional therapy’ that has been driven by the international development establishment. The article seeks to identify...... and outline a heterodox view on how policies, institutions and politics matter for latecomer development, and does that by juxtaposing it with the orthodox view. The central argument of the article is that the orthodox view has serious weaknesses, and that a heterodox approach – developmental governance...

  5. The European Social Survey and European research policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the history of the European Social Survey (ESS) and its relationship to changes in European research policy, using Bourdieu’s field-analytical approach. It argues that the success of the ESS relied on three interwoven processes that we can understand theoretically in terms...... of the establishment of homological structures and the formation of conjunctural alliances between the field of European social-scientific research and the field of European policy. The three interwoven processes that I depict are: first, the production of a European field of social research, connected to both...... European and national scientific institutions; second, the establishment of European Union (EU) institutions and organisations that were able to identify and link up with social researchers; and third, the formation of conjunctural alliances between the two fields (social science and EU research policy...

  6. Multimethod research into policy changes in the pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to explain the nature of multimethod studies and to illustrate their role in pharmaceutical policy research. In the field of pharmaceutical policy research, methodological and theoretically sound evaluation is the main goal. Reflexive learning is required in order to address...... and resolve one of the important paradoxes of late modern societies, which is that while the increasing complexity of social systems progressively undermines notions of certainty in social knowledge, it simultaneously raises the stakes in relation to rational guidance of those systems. By reflecting over our...... own research processes, we identified the strengths and weaknesses of multimethod research. We present our research methods and the experiences of pharmaceutical policy changes from two separate evaluation studies, one from Iceland and the other from Denmark. In addition, examples from a third study...

  7. Internet Research Ethics and the Policy Gap for Ethical Practice in Online Research Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, Jacqueline G.; Jacobsen, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of education and social science researchers design and conduct online research. In this review, the Internet Research Ethics (IRE) policy gap in Canada is identified along with the range of stakeholders and groups that either have a role or have attempted to play a role in forming better ethics policy. Ethical issues that current…

  8. Making the Most of Obesity Research: Developing Research and Policy Objectives through Evidence Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; Aicken, Catherine; Arai, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Drawing lessons from research can help policy makers make better decisions. If a large and methodologically varied body of research exists, as with childhood obesity, this is challenging. We present new research and policy objectives for child obesity developed by triangulating user involvement data with a mapping study of interventions aimed at…

  9. Case study of information product for strategy research, planning research, and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yujun; Zou Lin; Liu Qun; Wang Yongping

    2010-01-01

    Soft science research is significant and can directly support the decision-making and development. The strategy research, planning research, and policy research each play an important role in soft science research. As the National Strategy of Informatization being implemented and advanced, some progress are made and some special information tools are produced in the process of strengthening the development research with information technologies. At first, the article introduced some cases of information products application, such as the domestic and overseas information products for energy strategy research and planning research and policy research, the governmental management information system for planning and investment, examination and approval and permission system for the planning of the land for construction, China agriculture decision support system and so on, and also gave a brief analysis on the theories and methods, main functions and application status. And then, with a analysis on the features of the works of development planning of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) development, this article gave some suggestions on how to strengthen the development of information system for the development planning of the CNNC. (authors)

  10. State policy and teen childbearing: a review of research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Martha A; Sacks, Vanessa H; Moore, Kristin A; Terzian, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Teen childbearing is affected by many individual, family, and community factors; however, another potential influence is state policy. Rigorous studies of the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates are few in number but represent a body of knowledge that can inform policy and practice. This article reviews research assessing associations between state-level policies and teen birth rates, focusing on five policy areas: access to family planning, education, sex education, public assistance, and access to abortion services. Overall, several studies have found that measures related to access to and use of family planning services and contraceptives are related to lower state-level teen birth rates. These include adolescent enrollment in clinics, minors' access to contraception, conscience laws, family planning expenditures, and Medicaid waivers. Other studies, although largely cross-sectional analyses, have concluded that policies and practices to expand or improve public education are also associated with lower teen birth rates. These include expenditures on education, teacher-to-student ratios, and graduation requirements. However, the evidence regarding the role of public assistance, abortion access, and sex education policies in reducing teen birth rates is mixed and inconclusive. These conclusions must be viewed as tentative because of the limited number of rigorous studies that examine the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates over time. Many specific policies have only been analyzed by a single study, and few findings are based on recent data. As such, more research is needed to strengthen our understanding of the role of state policies in teen birth rates. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Policy Use of Environmental Indicators - Learning from Evaluation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    indicators and monitoring systems are increasingly used, but what does the use of indicators mean for policymaking? The article exploits indicator theory and the evaluation research literature to develop an analytical framework so as to study the policy uses of indicators. The paper then provides...... system and partly to the lack of accountability mechanisms. The article concludes that the analytical framework and the concepts derived from evaluation research are useful starting points, but that further research should extend the analysis to other policy contexts (national or local) and broaden...

  12. Communication for Policy Research (CPR) South-South | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of telecom researchers : measures and messages relevant to CPRsouth. Download PDF. Reports. CPRafrica 2010-2012 : a comparative analysis vis-í -vis TPRC, EuroCPR, and CPRsouth/africa. Download PDF. Reports. Communication for Policy Research Africa (CPRafrica) (South-South in contract) : final technical and ...

  13. Educational Research, Policy and Practice in an Era of Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation includes not only the changes brought about by the opening up of markets and communication technology, but also those set in motion by shifts in policy relating to the responsibilities of government and the role of research and innovation in development. This paper examines the impact of globalisation on education research, policy…

  14. Research Policy and Academic Performativity: Compliance, Contestation and Complicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwood, Carole; Read, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Research, a major purpose of higher education, has become increasingly important in a context of global economic competitiveness. In this paper, we draw on data from email interviews with academics in Britain to explore responses to current research policy trends. Although the majority of academics expressed opposition to current policy…

  15. From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to Sustainable Agriculture. Research on climate change and its impact on the ... Outputs. Journal articles. Factors affecting households vulnerability to climate change in Swaziland : a case of Mpolonjeni Area Development Programme (ADP). Download PDF ...

  16. Institutional Support : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2006 the Government of Kenya passed an Act of Parliament making the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) the government's lead socioeconomic research institute. The Act exerts enormous demands on KIPPRA at a time when it is trying to recover from the senior staff turnover suffered in ...

  17. African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Health Economics and Policy Research Capacity Building and Dissemination. As African countries move toward universal health coverage, it is clear there is a shortage of African experts with applied research skills in health financing such as fiscal space analysis, needs-based resource allocation methods, and ...

  18. Research Network on Regional Economic and Policy History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, A.M.; van der Zwet, Arno

    2017-01-01

    In the spring of 2017, the Research Network on Regional Economic and Policy History organised its inaugural workshop in London. The network aims to stimulate research in relation to regional economic development and planning challenges, by exploring the importance of historical approaches and

  19. Gambling in Taiwan: problems, research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Harry Yi-Jui

    2013-03-01

    This study provides a systematic review of existing research that has evaluated unique gambling experiences in Taiwan. A comprehensive review of electronic databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Chinese Electronic Periodical Services and the Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature System, was conducted to identify evaluations of gambling experiences in Taiwan. Studies that met inclusion criteria were synthesized and assessed. Various types of gambling are prevalent in Taiwan, even though the laws of Taiwan forbid illegal gambling. Both traditional and novel types of gambling have brought adverse impacts to Taiwanese people in multiple aspects of everyday life. The strategies and attitudes of the government towards gambling have been forced to change as gambling has flourished. Various types of gambling have developed in Taiwan in response to social, economic and cultural changes over time. The psychological aspects of gambling, however, need further study to provide fundamental information for developing intervention models for pathological gambling. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. The New Federalism: State Policies Regarding Embryonic Stem Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Nefi D; Golub, Sidney H

    2016-09-01

    Stem cell policy in the United States is an amalgam of federal and state policies. The scientific development of human pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) triggered a contentious national stem cell policy debate during the administration of President George W. Bush. The Bush "compromise" that allowed federal funding to study only a very limited number of ESC derived cell lines did not satisfy either the researchers or the patient advocates who saw great medical potential being stifled. Neither more restrictive legislation nor expansion of federal funding proved politically possible and the federal impasse opened the door for a variety of state-based experiments. In 2004, California became the largest and most influential state venture into stem cell research by passing "Prop 71," a voter initiative that created a new stem cell agency and funded it with $3 billion. Several states followed suit with similar programs to protect the right of investigators to do stem cell research and in some cases to invest state funding in such projects. Other states devised legislation to restrict stem cell research and in five states, criminal penalties were included. Thus, the US stem cell policy is a patchwork of multiple, often conflicting, state and federal policies. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  1. Current state of seagrass ecosystem services: Research and policy integration

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz-Frau, A.

    2017-10-12

    Seagrasses contribute to the maintenance of human wellbeing. However certain aspects of their role as ecosystem service (ES) providers remain understudied. Here, we synthesise the state of seagrass ES (SGES) research and policy implications. Additionally, we recommend ways in which SGES research can be integrated in to policy design, by drawing lessons from the case of Blue Carbon (BC). SGES research suffers from three main biases: a geographical bias, SGES has been restricted to chartered seagrass areas; a type of service research bias, provisioning and regulating services have received extensive attention while cultural services remain understudied; a type of discipline bias, the ecological aspects of SGES have been well documented while economic and social aspects remain in comparison understudied. These are particularly important, as an understanding of the social and economic considerations of the provision of ES is fundamental to facilitate its integration into policy frameworks. Lessons drawn from the operationalization process of BC show the reoccurrence of certain aspects that have enabled the integration of BC into policy. These aspects are grouped under 4 different categories. From the analysis of these elements we draw lessons that could facilitate the operationalization of other ecosystem services and their incorporation into management policy frameworks.

  2. The development of a research data policy at Wageningen University & Research: best practices as a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeland, van Hilde; Ringersma, J.

    2017-01-01

    The current case study describes the development of a Research Data Management policy at Wageningen University & Research, the Netherlands. To develop this policy, an analysis was carried out of existing frameworks and principles on data management (such as the FAIR principles), as well as of

  3. Policy challenges for cancer research: a call to arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R

    2007-01-01

    Research has delivered remarkable benefits for cancer patients and their families since James Watson and Francis Crick wrote the now immortal line, 'We wish to propose a structure for the salt of deoxyribonucleic acid' thus setting the molecular foundations for the modern era of cancer control. The pace of technological innovation from fundamental scientific discoveries to the policy impact of huge population studies has been breathtaking. One has only to contrast a paper on the treatment of solid epithelial cancers written by Henri Tagnon and colleagues in 1966 (Eur J Cancer2 51-7) with the myriad of chemotherapeutic approaches at the oncologists disposal today. Inevitably, as the tide of research has risen so it has bought the flotsam and jetsam of regulations and policies. Some have been helpful, many pointless and too many actually harmful. Naturally, some of these regulatory and general policies (by this I mean those concerned with funding, structure and organization) have been specifically targeted at cancer research, e.g. US National Cancer Act 1971, whilst others have been a product of the general regulatory environment with indirect consequences for cancer research, e.g. EU Data Protection Directive 1995. Policy issues thus cover a vast terrain criss-crossed by complex interdependencies between scientific areas, countries S&T policies and socio-political constructs. Unfortunately, there has been little attention paid to the consequences of these policy issues from which the research community has, by and large, been passenger rather than driver.Global investment in cancer research is now at unprecedented levels. The recently published report by the European Cancer Research Managers Forum has found some 14 billion euros being annually spent worldwide on cancer research (this figure includes industry but overall probably underestimates spend by at least one billion [2]). With the ageing demographics of developed countries and the catch-up effect in

  4. Implementation research evidence uptake and use for policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panisset Ulysses

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major obstacle to the progress of the Millennium Development Goals has been the inability of health systems in many low- and middle-income countries to effectively implement evidence-informed interventions. This article discusses the relationships between implementation research and knowledge translation and identifies the role of implementation research in the design and execution of evidence-informed policy. After a discussion of the benefits and synergies needed to translate implementation research into action, the article discusses how implementation research can be used along the entire continuum of the use of evidence to inform policy. It provides specific examples of the use of implementation research in national level programmes by looking at the scale up of zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea in Bangladesh and the scaling up of malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. A number of tested strategies to support the transfer of implementation research results into policy-making are provided to help meet the standards that are increasingly expected from evidence-informed policy-making practices.

  5. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  6. [Research on brain white matter network in cerebral palsy infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Yuanjun; Nie, Shengdong

    2017-10-01

    Present study used diffusion tensor image and tractography to construct brain white matter networks of 15 cerebral palsy infants and 30 healthy infants that matched for age and gender. After white matter network analysis, we found that both cerebral palsy and healthy infants had a small-world topology in white matter network, but cerebral palsy infants exhibited abnormal topological organization: increased shortest path length but decreased normalize clustering coefficient, global efficiency and local efficiency. Furthermore, we also found that white matter network hub regions were located in the left cuneus, precuneus, and left posterior cingulate gyrus. However, some abnormal nodes existed in the frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal lobes of cerebral palsy infants. These results indicated that the white matter networks for cerebral palsy infants were disrupted, which was consistent with previous studies about the abnormal brain white matter areas. This work could help us further study the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy infants.

  7. The Centers of Strategic Research of Foreign Policy of the Republic of Turkey: the General Characteristic and Stages of Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алим Видадиевич Сулейманов

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes and complication of an existing international political situation provide new challenges for diplomacy of every state. During making of foreign policy decisions complete and deep understanding of a subject of policy is required. Because of this matter in many countries of the world there are special nongovernmental organizations that provide the qualitative analysis of internal and foreign politics situation. In the given article the centers of strategic research which are carrying out the analysis of foreign policy of Turkish Republic are characterized. Their structure, level and scale of expertise and also stages of functioning are analyzed.

  8. The legal aspects of expedited partner therapy practice: do state laws and policies really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Leichliter, Jami S; Stenger, Mark R; Loosier, Penny S; Slive, Lauren

    2013-08-01

    Expedited partner therapy (EPT) is a potential partner treatment strategy. Significant efforts have been devoted to policies intended to facilitate its practice. However, few studies have attempted to evaluate these policies. We used data on interviewed gonorrhea cases from 12 sites in the STD Surveillance Network in 2010 (n = 3404). Patients reported whether they had received EPT. We coded state laws relevant to EPT for gonorrhea using Westlaw legal research database and the general legal status of EPT in STD Surveillance Network sites from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web site in 2010. We also coded policy statements by medical and other boards. We used χ tests to compare receipt of EPT by legal/policy variables, patient characteristics, and provider type. Variables significant at P < 0.10 in bivariate analyses were included in a logistic regression model. Overall, 9.5% of 2564 interviewed patients with gonorrhea reported receiving EPT for their partners. Receipt of EPT was significantly higher where laws and policies authorizing EPT existed. Where EPT laws for gonorrhea existed and EPT was permissible, 13.3% of patients reported receiving EPT as compared with 5.4% where there were no EPT laws and EPT was permissible, and 1.0% where there were no EPT laws and EPT was potentially allowable (P < 0.01). Expedited partner therapy was higher where professional boards had policy statements supporting EPT (P < 0.01). Receipt of EPT did not differ by most patient characteristics or provider type. Policy-related findings were similar in adjusted analyses. Expedited partner therapy laws and policies were associated with higher reports of receipt of EPT among interviewed gonorrhea cases.

  9. A Space For Critical Research on Education Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    of educational research. Since most network activity is focused around the yearly conferences, the first part of the article discusses the conference session space, its forms and its links to the broader community of educational researchers. The second part of the article traces the origin and development......The activities of EERA and the yearly ECER conferences are mainly organized in standing networks. Through the example of the network on Policy Studies and Politics of Education, this article takes a closer look at network activity and the ways in which it contributes to the development...... of the network on Policy Studies and Politics of Education, emphasizing how the network has provided a space for critical analysis and discussion of education policies and forms of governance being pursued by national and trans-national actors in and beyond Europe....

  10. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... a review of traditional research designs in ENP research, through a systematic meta-analysis of a selection of the most-cited articles on the ENP. Inspired by earlier work on awareness of research design in EU studies, ENP research is categorised according to typical choices of research design in the form...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  11. Conclusions, Reflections, and Prospects for Future Research, Policy, and Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Kazak, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the…

  12. Minority Language Researchers and Their Role in Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Durk

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the role of researchers in the development of language policies for European minority languages. This question is placed in the context of a long-standing debate in sociology to which several authors have contributed; among them are Max Weber, Howard Becker and Alvin Gouldner. This article also briefly refers to the European…

  13. Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab World. While the Arab World has enjoyed substantial economic progress, there has been little improvement in ensuring equitable access to health care. In most countries, the majority of people have limited access to basic health services. These are ...

  14. An Interview with Food Policy Researcher Caitlin Boon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    From safety to nutrition, food policy researchers work to improve what we eat. They examine evidence found by experts in food science, consumer behavior, taste perception, nutrition, and many other related fields. Using this information, these scientists help the food industry, government, and public improve the quality, safety, and sustainability…

  15. GRACEnet: addressing policy needs through coordinated cross-location research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawson, Michael D.; Walthall, Charles W.; Shafer, Steven R.; Liebig, Mark; Franzluebbers, Alan J.; Follett, Ronald F.

    2012-01-01

    GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) was conceived to build upon ongoing USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) research to improve soil productivity, while addressing the challenges and opportunities of interest in C sequestration from a climate change perspective. The vision for GRACEnet was and remains: Knowledge and information used to implement scientifically based agricultural management practices from the field to national policy scales on C sequestration, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and environmental benefits. The national focus of GRACEnet uses a standardized approach by ARS laboratories and university and land manager (e.g. farmer and rancher) cooperators to assess C sequestration and GHG emission from different crop and grassland systems. Since 2002, GRACEnet has significantly expanded GHG mitigation science and delivered usable information to agricultural research and policy organizations. Recent developments suggest GRACEnet will have international impact by contributing leadership and technical guidance for the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases.

  16. Advancing research collaborations among agencies through the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee: A necessary step for linking science to policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaValley, M.; Starkweather, S.; Bowden, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is changing rapidly as average temperatures rise. As an Arctic nation, the United States is directly affected by these changes. It is imperative that these changes be understood to make effective policy decisions. Since the research needs of the Arctic are large and wide-ranging, most Federal agencies fund some aspect of Arctic research. As a result, the U.S. government regularly works to coordinate Federal Arctic research in order to reduce duplication of effort and costs, and to enhance the research's system perspective. The government's Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) accomplishes this coordination through its policy-driven five-year Arctic Research Plans and collaboration teams (CTs), which are research topic-oriented teams tasked with implementing the plans. The policies put forth by IARPC thus inform science, however IARPC has been less successful of making these science outcomes part of an iterative decision making process. IARPC's mandate to facilitate coordinated research through information sharing communities can be viewed a prerequisite step in the science-to- decision making process. Research collaborations and the communities of practice facilitated by IARPC allow scientists to connect with a wider community of scientists and stakeholders and, in turn, the larger issues in need of policy solutions. These connections help to create a pathway through which research may increasingly reflect policy goals and inform decisions. IARPC has been growing into a more useful model for the science-to-decision making interface since the publication of its Arctic Research Plan FY2017-2021, and it is useful to evaluate how and why IARPC is progressing in this realm. To understand the challenges facing interagency research collaboration and the progress IARPC has made, the Chukchi Beaufort and Communities CTs, were evaluated as case studies. From the case studies, several recommendations for enhancing collaborations across Federal

  17. Resolution on the problems and prospects of common research policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The European Parliament sets priorities for future research policy; it supports e.g.: the Europeanization of large-scale research because it shall facilitate the combination of the research and financing potential. It also secures a wide adaptation of the knowledge achieved by the joint financial efforts of all member states. The demander made for a joint research project are: that the next programme for several years of the joint research project may launch its position and special qualification as a safety research centre for industrial activities of high risks (nuclear energy sector, chemistry, biology) and that the joint research project may be organized as independently as possible. Moreover, the European Parliament demands that the member states increase their research budgets to at least 2.5% of the gross national product. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Policy indicators for health and nature. 25 years of international research and policy on acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hinsberg, A.; Van der Hoek, D.C.J.; Wiertz, J.; Van Bree, L.

    2004-01-01

    25 years of international cooperation between research and policy resulted in effect indicators for health and nature by means of which environmental targets can be adjusted. At the same time those indicators increased the coherence of targets in the field of nature and health [nl

  19. Policy for Research and Innovation in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Bastos, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Latin America (LAC) is renewing efforts to build-up research and innovation (R&I) capacities, guided by policies that consider the need to transform the traditional science system into a more dynamic entity. Policies permitted the generation of new spaces to develop science, strengthen scientific communities, improve university-enterprise linkages, establish common agendas between public and private sectors, earmark special budgets, build new infrastructure, and improve the number and quality of scientific publications. In spite of much progress, LAC lags much behind developed countries, their universities rank lower than their international counterparts, the number of researchers is small and funding is below an appropriate threshold. Some countries have innovated in few economic sectors, while others remain technologically underdeveloped and much of the countries' innovative capacities remain untapped. It is believed that policies still have little influence on social and economic development and there exists dissatisfaction in the academic and entrepreneurial sectors with their quality and relevance or with the political will of governments to execute them. On the other hand, in the past decades, the complexity of innovation systems has increased considerably, and has yet to be taken fully into account in LAC policy definitions. The situation calls for decision makers to shape new framework conditions for R&I in a way that both processes co-evolve and are stimulated and guided on solutions to the major problems of society. Considering the main features of complex systems, self- organization, emergence and non-linearity, R&I policy measures need to be seen as interventions in such a system, as the use of traditional leverage effects used in the past for policy decisions are more and more obsolete. Policies must now use ``weak coordination mechanisms,'' foresight, mission statements, and visions. It is obvious that due to nonlinearities in the system, adaptive

  20. Family care work: a policy-relevant research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; DePasquale, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    This article addresses the need for policy-relevant research agendas on family care in transaction with formal care and public as well as organisational norms and policies in light of the crisis in caregiving for older adults. We propose a combined institutional and life-course theoretical approach, suggesting seven ways of organising scholarly enquiry to promote understanding of the changing nature of family care in the 21st century, inform policymakers' efforts at supporting family caregivers and improve caregivers' and care recipients' quality of life. These include: (1) moving beyond snapshots of individuals; (2) conducting comparative cross-cultural and crosscohort analyses; (3) documenting social heterogeneity, vulnerability and inequality; (4) capturing individuals' and families' adaptive strategies and cycles of control during the caregiving process; (5) investigating policy innovations and natural experiments; (6) assessing third parties as mediating institutions between regulatory environments and caregiving families; and (7) attending to the subjective meanings of care.

  1. Dark Matter: The "Gravitational Pull" of Maternalist Discourses on Politicians' Decision Making for Early Childhood Policy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The article reports on a study investigating influences on Australian politicians' decision making for early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy. The astronomical concept of dark matter is utilised as a metaphor for considering normalising, and therefore frequently difficult to detect and disrupt, influences implicated in politicians'…

  2. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    will discuss some of the key elements of successful interactions between science and policy, as well as some specifics for the carbon management context. I will draw on case studies of previous monitoring efforts developed for policy and illustrate some of the key elements to be considered as well as lessons learned. The paper will also examine how the carbon context may be different from other contexts we have encountered in the past. Finally, I will conclude with some implications for structuring decision support science policies within the U.S. Global Change Research Program and other related programs.

  3. Translating research for health policy: researchers' perceptions and use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, David; Gollust, Sarah E; Pany, Maximilian; Seymour, Jane; Goss, Adeline; Kilaru, Austin; Meisel, Zachary

    2014-07-01

    As the United States moves forward with health reform, the communication gap between researchers and policy makers will need to be narrowed to promote policies informed by evidence. Social media represent an expanding channel for communication. Academic journals, public health agencies, and health care organizations are increasingly using social media to communicate health information. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now regularly tweets to 290,000 followers. We conducted a survey of health policy researchers about using social media and two traditional channels (traditional media and direct outreach) to disseminate research findings to policy makers. Researchers rated the efficacy of the three dissemination methods similarly but rated social media lower than the other two in three domains: researchers' confidence in their ability to use the method, peers' respect for its use, and how it is perceived in academic promotion. Just 14 percent of our participants reported tweeting, and 21 percent reported blogging about their research or related health policy in the past year. Researchers described social media as being incompatible with research, of high risk professionally, of uncertain efficacy, and an unfamiliar technology that they did not know how to use. Researchers will need evidence-based strategies, training, and institutional resources to use social media to communicate evidence. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. American Legal Realism: Research Programme and Policy Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses two questions:1. Can Legal Realism be seen as a scientific research programme enabling growth of knowledge? To answer that question, the author uses Lakatos’s  work on the methodology of scientific research programmes as a frame of reference.2. What has been the role of American Legal Realism during the first part of the 20th century in helping to develop and implement the New Deal policy vis-à-vis its scientific work?After outlining some characteristics of American Legal Realism and Lakatos’s concept, the author studies LR from this perspective and concludes that LR can at the maximum be seen as a research programme of a very rudimentary nature with largely only a focus on procedures/methods. Despite this conclusion, LR has been important in stimulating questions in which social science research and law came together. Next, the professor-realist-relationship that helped President Roosevelt to have his New Deal developed and implemented is also discussed. A downside of this ‘professor-realist-advisor-partnership’ may have been that a LR scientific research programme has not been developed. Given the increased visibility of New Legal Realism, the paper finally stresses the relevance of working with scientific research programmes and the importance of being on the alert when linking research to (legal policies.

  5. Knowledge Translation Research: The Science of Moving Research into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hayden, Jill A.; Campbell, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research findings will not change health outcomes unless health care organizations, systems, and professionals adopt them in practice. Knowledge translation research is the scientific study of the methods to promote the uptake of research findings by patients, health care providers, managers, and policy makers. Many forms of enquiry addressing…

  6. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Block Miguel A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is

  7. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. In an Age of Open Access to Research Policies: Physician and Public Health NGO Staff Research Use and Policy Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Laura L; Holzmeyer, Cheryl; Maggio, Lauren A; Steinberg, Ryan M; Willinsky, John

    2015-01-01

    Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of the health sciences literature is being made open access. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields. A sample of physicians (N=336) and public health non-governmental organization (NGO) staff (N=92) were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the point-of-care service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of web-log data. The physicians also participated in a one-month trial of relatively complete or limited access. The study found that participants' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor, in the case of the physicians, by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, while two-thirds of the public health NGO staff viewed more than three articles a week. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles. Those working in health fields will utilize more research in the course of their work as a result of (a) increasing open access to research, (b) improving awareness of and preparation for this access, and (c) adjusting public and open access policies to maximize the extent of potential access, through reduction in embargo periods and access to pre-policy literature.

  9. Research Update: Computational materials discovery in soft matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Bereau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft matter embodies a wide range of materials, which all share the common characteristics of weak interaction energies determining their supramolecular structure. This complicates structure-property predictions and hampers the direct application of data-driven approaches to their modeling. We present several aspects in which these methods play a role in designing soft-matter materials: drug design as well as information-driven computer simulations, e.g., histogram reweighting. We also discuss recent examples of rational design of soft-matter materials fostered by physical insight and assisted by data-driven approaches. We foresee the combination of data-driven and physical approaches a promising strategy to move the field forward.

  10. Contrastive Research on Domestic and Foreign Ecological Agriculture Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianwei; Qi, Yan-bin; Zhao, Yufeng

    2010-01-01

    In the first place, the definitions of ecological agriculture defined by scholars both at home and abroad are introduced. In the second place, the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture policies are expounded. Through contrastive research on the domestic and foreign ecological agriculture polices, the problems in the development of ecological agriculture in China are found. By mirroring the western experiences in developing ecological agriculture, the countermeasures and relevant suggest...

  11. Hedgsim routines for Leadtime Variability Inventory Policy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    inventory policy research concerning the impacts of lead time variability upon D062 Economic Order Quantity Items. The subroutines are designed to...1680 1)Ie=IRM(I, 1M)- I R( I-I, I M) Icoo IR=|RO(I-IIM) IFIX(RPPRO*I)RC-DPPOa+.5) DEMPR3.S * -. :0: 1 /0rd 0I GETREQ " 110 END /I h, C0 MPU I i ;IA14l1

  12. Soutien institutionnel à l'Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC) est un organisme autonome et à but non lucratif voué à la recherche dans le domaine des politiques qui a été établi en 1993 avec le soutien du gouvernement de l'Ouganda, de bailleurs de fonds et d'instituts de recherche étrangers. Il était prévu que l'EPRC fonctionne en ...

  13. Diversity and equity in science education research, policy, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Okhee

    2010-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-field analysis of current trends in the research, policy, and practice of science education. It offers valuable insights into why gaps in science achievement among racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic groups persist, and points toward practical means of narrowing or eliminating these gaps. Lee and Buxton examine instructional practices, science-curriculum materials, assessment, teacher education, school organization, and home-school connections.

  14. Inclusive research: making a difference to policy and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelley; Minogue, Gerard; Hopklins, Rob

    2014-01-01

    While inclusive research has become an important stream in research with people with intellectual disabilities, there is a tension between the possibly empowering research process and the strength of the research itself to make social change happen. In this paper, we explore the contribution of two inclusive qualitative research studies in Australia and the Republic of Ireland to change in policy and legislation. Both studies used qualitative methods including life stories and focus groups to explore the issue of sexuality and relationships. In both studies, people with intellectual disabilities were actively involved in undertaking the research. Both studies revealed that it was difficult for people with intellectual disabilities to express their sexuality openly or to form adult relationships. Both studies were used by people with intellectual disabilities and their supporters to promote change in which they had a heard voice. This paper is about how people with intellectual disabilities and their supporters can use research which they have done to change policies and laws that affect them. When people with intellectual disabilities are doing research it is called inclusive research.We write about two research studies which were about the sexual lives and relationships of people with intellectual disabilities. One research study was in Australia and one was in the Republic of Ireland.In the Australian study, Living Safer Sexual Lives, 25 people with intellectual disabilities told their life stories and talked about sexuality and relationships.In the Irish study people with intellectual disabilities told life stories and talked with other people with intellectual disabilities about their sexuality and relationships in groups. These are called focus groups.In this paper we explore 4 questions that arose from these studies. Question 1. What impact does doing research have on the people who are involved in it? People with intellectual disabilities in Australia were

  15. Consumer energy management: policy implications of research. 2 Vols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1982-12-01

    This report provides a framework for understanding the practical implications of consumer energy conservation research in Canada. A review of such research was undertaken to determine its implications for increasing the effectiveness of Canadian conservation policies and programs. The major conclusions and recommendations were as follows. Conservation has been acknowledged as the single most important element in solving Canada's petroleum shortfall in the 1980s. An analytic approach to the formulation of energy policies and the design of conservation programs will be essential if meaningful energy savings in the consumer sector are to be realized. Prior to designing any conservation program, it is essential that the components of consumer energy policy be understood. In order to assess the effectiveness of conservation efforts, it is necessary to assign relative priorities to the criteria of probable energy savings, cost effectiveness, impact by fuel type, impact on consumers, enforceability, and institutional considerations. Conservation efforts aimed at consumers must be based on understanding the basic processes which underlie how they perceive and respond to various types of conservation initiatives. This understanding is gained through consumer impact analysis and program research. The latter action attempts to analyze the effectiveness and acceptability of programs involving information, financial incentives, energy standards, and energy usage restrictions. Conservation programs must ensure that barriers to adoption, such as lack of time and knowledge, financial resources, and lifestyle impacts, will be minimized. 93 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Eric; King, Romaine; Mohan, Helen M; Gavin, Blanaid; McNicholas, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking. Our aim was to examine REC policies, experiences and concerns with respect to the payment of participants in research projects in Ireland. Postal survey of all RECs in Ireland. Response rate was 62.5% (n=50). 80% of RECs reported not to have any established policy on the payment of research subjects while 20% had refused ethics approval to studies because the investigators proposed to pay research participants. The most commonly cited concerns were the potential for inducement and undermining of voluntary consent. There is considerable variability among RECs on the payment of research participants and a lack of clear consensus guidelines on the subject. The development of standardised guidelines on the payment of research subjects may enhance recruitment of research participants.

  17. Responding to Changes in HIV Policy: Updating and Enhancing the Families Matter! Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kim S; Winskell, Kate; Berrier, Faith L

    2016-06-01

    The past decade has seen changes in US HIV policy in sub-Saharan Africa in response to a new Administration and far-reaching technical, scientific and programmatic developments. These include: dramatically increased access to life-saving ART and related services; the roll-out of voluntary medical male circumcision; and growing sensitivity to gender-based violence, including child sexual abuse, and to its role in increasing vulnerability to HIV. The Families Matter! Program (FMP) is an intervention for parents and caregivers of 9-12 year-olds that promotes effective parent-child communication about sexuality and sexual risk reduction. FMP was adapted from a US evidence-based intervention in 2003-4 and is now implemented in eight African countries. In 2012-13, the FMP curriculum was updated and enhanced to respond to new US Government priorities. Enhancements to the curriculum drew on the results of Violence Against Children surveys, on a review of existing literature, on feedback from the field on the existing curriculum, and on stories written by young people across Africa for scriptwriting competitions. We updated FMP with scientific content and stronger linkages to services. We also intensified our focus on structural determinants of risk. This contextualisation of sexual risk-taking within structural constraints led us to place greater emphasis on gendered vulnerability and the diverse pressures children face, and to intensify our situation-based pedagogical approach, drawing on the authentic youth-authored narratives. We describe these changes as an illustration of and source of insight into much-needed programmatic adaptation in response to evolving HIV policy.

  18. A Collaborative Approach to Bridging the Research-Policy Gap through the Development of Policy Advice Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Barry John; Lay-Yee, Roy; McLay, Jessica; Tobias, Martin; Tuohy, Pat; Armstrong, Ann; Lynn, Robert; Pearson, Janet; Mannion, Oliver; Davis, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a software-based tool to support a dynamic micro-simulation model of life-course development (to age 13) as an aid to policy makers assessing the impact of policies affecting children. We demonstrate how this approach bridges the research-policy gap by creating: (1) an easy transfer of evidence in a form that policymakers can use…

  19. The utilization of research evidence in Health Workforce Policies: the perspectives of Portuguese and Brazilian National Policy-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craveiro, Isabel; Hortale, Virginia; Oliveira, Ana Paula Cavalcante de; Dal Poz, Mario; Portela, Gustavo; Dussault, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    The production of knowledge on Human Resources for Health (HRH) issues has increased exponentially since 2000 but integration of the research in the policy-making process is often lagging. We looked at how research on HRH contributes or not to inform policy decisions and interventions affecting the health workforce in Portugal and Brazil. We designed a comparative case study of semi-structured interviews with present and past national decision-makers, policy advisors and researchers. Issues explored included the existence of a national HRH policy and the use, or non-use, of research evidence by policy makers and reasons to do so. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, anonymized and analysed thematically. Policy-makers in Brazil recognize a greater use of evidence in the process of defining HRH policy when compared to Portugal's. But the existence of formal instruments to support policy development is not sufficient to ensure that policies are informed by evidence. In both countries the importance of the use of evidence in the formulation of policies was recognized by policy-makers. However, the influence of other factors, such as political pressures from various lobby groups and from the media and the policy short timeframe which requires rapid responses, is predominant.

  20. Why media representations of corporations matter for public health policy: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Weishaar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Media representations play a crucial role in informing public and policy opinions about the causes of, and solutions to, ill-health. This paper reviews studies analysing media coverage of non-communicable disease (NCD debates, focusing on how the industries marketing commodities that increase NCD risk are represented. Methods A scoping review identified 61 studies providing information on media representations of NCD risks, NCD policies and tobacco, alcohol, processed food and soft drinks industries. The data were narratively synthesized to describe the sample, media depictions of industries, and corporate and public health attempts to frame the media debates. Results The findings indicate that: (i the limited research that has been undertaken is dominated by a focus on tobacco; (ii comparative research across industries/risk-factors is particularly lacking; and (iii coverage tends to be dominated by two contrasting frames and focuses either on individual responsibilities (‘market justice’ frames, often promoted by commercial stakeholders or on the need for population-level interventions (‘social justice’ frames, frequently advanced by public health advocates. Conclusions Establishing the underlying frameworks is crucial for the analysis of media representation of corporations, as they reflect the strategies that respective actors use to influence public health debates and decision making. The potential utility of media research lies in the insights that it can provide for public health policy advocates about successful framing of public health messages and strategies to counter frames that undermine public health goals. A better understanding of current media debates is of paramount importance to improving global health.

  1. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  2. Energy, innovation, and microprocessors: continuity in the research policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauff, V [Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie, Bonn-Bad Godesberg (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-07-01

    The present West German Minister for Research and Technology took up his official duties three months ago. So Umschau asked some questions concerning his future policies. First, the minister confirmed the continuity of the existing science policies. In the field of energy he claimed that efficient and frugal use of energy is the priority. The second priority concerns the utilization of domestic coal. No hindrances in the further development of fast breeder reactors and nuclear recycling are expected. The Minister layed stress on the encouragement of technological innovations, which are indispensable for economic growth, given the present worldwide structural change in the division of labor; the country must search for very new products. Microelectronics will play a major role in future developments. The Minister gave some examples of new fields that present chances for innovative endeavors. Another field of interest is the forecasting models.

  3. Gender, citizenship and dementia care: a scoping review of studies to inform policy and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Ruth; Gjernes, Trude; Lotherington, Ann-Therese; Obstefelder, Aud

    2018-01-01

    Gender is a neglected dimension in public discourse related to people with dementia. Those living with this condition are typically portrayed in policies and strategies in gender neutral terms as 'people with dementia' and 'family carers' as if gender does not matter, when clearly it does. The purpose of this scoping review was to take stock of knowledge about gender differences in relation to dementia care to inform policy and future research. The work is grounded in a feminist perspective to citizenship, as this provide a lens with which to expose and examine gendered assumptions within dementia studies. A search of four databases, including CINAHL, Web of Science, Medline and Cochrane was conducted using systematic techniques between May and July 2014. A repeat search was conducted in February 2015. We found a significant amount of valuable research concerned with gender differences in relation to dementia care published from 1990 to 2014; the majority of which lacks a feminist citizenship perspective. Moreover, a disproportionate number of studies focused solely on caregivers rather than citizens with dementia. As such, questions about gender equality are not being raised and the voices of men and women with dementia are silent. Thus we argue for increased gender-sensitivity in policy making and recommend that social scientists inject a feminist citizenship perspective into their work. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Exploring matter with neutrons. highlights in research at the ILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Neutrons are excellent probes of all kinds of matter. They are more penetrating than X-rays and provide complementary information on structure and dynamics. There are many variations of the neutron scattering process which gives the technique its wide applicability to many kinds of materials. This report briefly reviews the latest uses of this technique applied to: (i) Biology (cellulose, biological membranes and lipid membranes), (ii) Soft matter (ultrathin polymer films, the flowing of detergents and pastes), (iii) Liquids and glasses (glass transition, sound propagation in water), (iv) Chemistry and structure (the many phases of water), (v) Materials (alloys, helium bubbles in steel), (vi) Thin films (magnetic spirals in very thin films, giant magnetoresistance), (vii) Magnetism (molecular magnets, magnetic phase transitions, glassy magnets), and (viii) superfluid helium in porous media. (A.C.)

  5. Exploring matter with neutrons. highlights in research at the ILL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Neutrons are excellent probes of all kinds of matter. They are more penetrating than X-rays and provide complementary information on structure and dynamics. There are many variations of the neutron scattering process which gives the technique its wide applicability to many kinds of materials. This report briefly reviews the latest uses of this technique applied to: i) Biology (cellulose, biological membranes and lipid membranes), ii) Soft matter (ultrathin polymer films, the flowing of detergents and pastes), iii) Liquids and glasses (glass transition, sound propagation in water), iv) Chemistry and structure (the many phases of water), v) Materials (alloys, helium bubbles in steel), vi) Thin films (magnetic spirals in very thin films, giant magnetoresistance), vii) Magnetism (molecular magnets, magnetic phase transitions, glassy magnets), and viii) superfluid helium in porous media. (A.C.)

  6. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  7. Advanced spallation neutron sources for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.; Stirling, G.C.

    1984-03-01

    Advanced spallation neutron sources afford significant advantages over existing high flux reactors. The effective flux is much greater than that currently available with reactor sources. A ten-fold increase in neutron flux will be a major benefit to a wide range of condensed matter studies, and it will realise important experiments that are marginal at reactor sources. Moreover, the high intensity of epithermal neutrons open new vistas in studies of electronic states and molecular vibrations. (author)

  8. Linking international trademark databases to inform IP research and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, P.

    2016-07-01

    Researchers and policy makers are concerned with many international issues regarding trademarks, such as trademark squatting, cluttering, and dilution. Trademark application data can provide an evidence base to inform government policy regarding these issues, and can also produce quantitative insights into economic trends and brand dynamics. Currently, national trademark databases can provide insight into economic and brand dynamics at the national level, but gaining such insight at an international level is more difficult due to a lack of internationally linked trademark data. We are in the process of building a harmonised international trademark database (the “Patstat of trademarks”), in which equivalent trademarks have been identified across national offices. We have developed a pilot database that incorporates 6.4 million U.S., 1.3 million Australian, and 0.5 million New Zealand trademark applications, spanning over 100 years. The database will be extended to incorporate trademark data from other participating intellectual property (IP) offices as they join the project. Confirmed partners include the United Kingdom, WIPO, and OHIM. We will continue to expand the scope of the project, and intend to include many more IP offices from around the world. In addition to building the pilot database, we have developed a linking algorithm that identifies equivalent trademarks (TMs) across the three jurisdictions. The algorithm can currently be applied to all applications that contain TM text; i.e. around 96% of all applications. In its current state, the algorithm successfully identifies ~ 97% of equivalent TMs that are known to be linked a priori, as they have shared international registration number through the Madrid protocol. When complete, the internationally linked trademark database will be a valuable resource for researchers and policy-makers in fields such as econometrics, intellectual property rights, and brand policy. (Author)

  9. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Bucher-Zimmermann, Claudia [eds.

    1999-09-01

    As a consequence of a major reorganisation at PSI, a new department has been formed with the groups focussing on research of condensed matter. The activities of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zuerich), the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, are described in this annual report figs., tabs., refs.

  10. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Bucher-Zimmermann, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    As a consequence of a major reorganisation at PSI, a new department has been formed with the groups focussing on research of condensed matter. The activities of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zuerich), the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, are described in this annual report

  11. The role of research in the radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacq, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The author offered an institutional perspective, by drawing on the experience of Andra the implementing agency in France. His presentation addressed the role of research. Research is an asset, for policy, but science does not necessarily impose 'truth' or consensus in society. Research considered as an essential component of RWM projects, it is not with the objective of imposing solutions, but rather to provide quality responses that provide us with flexibility. The example was provided of reversibility, as a feature considered in some repository concepts. Reflecting on the discussions of the role of R and D in building public confidence, he noted that there is a long-term involvement of science and research in implementation in radioactive waste programs. The presentation emphasized the need for sharing amongst science and society. A viable and robust system is required to connect science and social environments. The process through which science and society collaboratively review research is also important. In this regard, adoption of 'stretching' to consider issues and research questions from many perspectives is key. Scientific proof is necessary, but there is also need to question how research is conducted. The presentation continued with observations from the experience of Andra, regarding the processes followed within the institution for setting directions, organizing and executing research

  12. Priority setting and health policy and systems research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sara C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health policy and systems research (HPSR has been identified as critical to scaling-up interventions to achieve the millennium development goals, but research priority setting exercises often do not address HPSR well. This paper aims to (i assess current priority setting methods and the extent to which they adequately include HPSR and (ii draw lessons regarding how HPSR priority setting can be enhanced to promote relevant HPSR, and to strengthen developing country leadership of research agendas. Priority setting processes can be distinguished by the level at which they occur, their degree of comprehensiveness in terms of the topic addressed, the balance between technical versus interpretive approaches and the stakeholders involved. When HPSR is considered through technical, disease-driven priority setting processes it is systematically under-valued. More successful approaches for considering HPSR are typically nationally-driven, interpretive and engage a range of stakeholders. There is still a need however for better defined approaches to enable research funders to determine the relative weight to assign to disease specific research versus HPSR and other forms of cross-cutting health research. While country-level research priority setting is key, there is likely to be a continued need for the identification of global research priorities for HPSR. The paper argues that such global priorities can and should be driven by country level priorities.

  13. School Integration Matters: Research-Based Strategies to Advance Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Erica, Ed.; Garces, Liliana M., Ed.; Hopkins, Megan, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    More than 60 years after the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision declared segregated schooling inherently unequal, this timely book sheds light on how and why U.S. schools are experiencing increasing segregation along racial, socioeconomic, and linguistic lines. It offers policy and programmatic alternatives for advancing equity and…

  14. Research Matters in Governance, Equity and Health - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Centre for Health Science and Social Research (CHESSORE) - Lusaka District. Institution Country ... Institution. Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research ... Institution. Kenya Medical Research Institute ... Journal articles. Tanzania ...

  15. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.

  16. The policy debate over public investment in comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Eugene C

    2009-06-01

    Policy makers across the political spectrum, as well as many clinicians and physician professional associations, have proposed that better information on comparative clinical effectiveness should be a key element of any solution to the US health-care cost crisis. This superficial consensus hides intense disagreements over critical issues essential to any new public effort to promote more comparative effectiveness research (CER). This article reviews the background for these disputes, summarizes the different perspectives represented by policy makers and advocates, and offers a framework to aid both practicing and academic internists in understanding the key elements of the emerging debate. Regarding the fundamental question of "what is CER," disagreements rage over whether value or cost effectiveness should be a consideration, and how specific patient perspectives should be reflected in the development and the use of such research. The question of how to pay for CER invokes controversies over the role of the market in producing such information and the private (e.g., insurers and employers) versus public responsibility for its production. The financing debate further highlights the high stakes of comparative effectiveness research, and the risks of stakeholder interests subverting any public process. Accordingly there are a range of proposals for the federal government's role in prioritization, development, and dissemination of CER. The internal medicine community, with its long history of commitment to scientific medical practice and its leadership in evidence-based medicine, should have a strong interest and play an active role in this debate.

  17. Energy research shows the way to sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatthard, T.

    2000-01-01

    This article takes a look at the work of the Swiss research programme on energy economics basics that aims to provide advice for policy makers. The programme investigates not only the technological but also the social and economic factors to be taken into consideration. In particular, the article reviews the programme's work on promotion strategies for sustainability in the energy area in connection with a proposed levy on energy. Examples are given of possible implementation strategies concerning new and existing buildings. The responsibilities of the parties to be involved in the implementation of promotional measures such as cantonal authorities, professional associations and agencies are discussed

  18. Translating health research evidence into policy and practice in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers and ch...... and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda....

  19. Shaping a Gender Equality Policy in Higher Education: Which Human Capabilities Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Sonja; Walker, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    South African institutions still confront gendered inequalities, irrespective of transformative national policies, compounded by the absence of a national gender equality policy for higher education. We therefore explore the potential of the capabilities approach (CA) to inform policy formation and argue for the development of a policy for higher…

  20. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: research, policy, and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P; Schlesinger, William H; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2009-06-15

    Scientific assessments of agricultural air quality, including estimates of emissions and potential sequestration of greenhouse gases, are an important emerging area of environmental science that offers significant challenges to policy and regulatory authorities. Improvements are needed in measurements, modeling, emission controls, and farm operation management. Controlling emissions of gases and particulate matter from agriculture is notoriously difficult as this sector affects the most basic need of humans, i.e., food. Current policies combine an inadequate science covering a very disparate range of activities in a complex industry with social and political overlays. Moreover, agricultural emissions derive from both area and point sources. In the United States, agricultural emissions play an important role in several atmospherically mediated processes of environmental and public health concerns. These atmospheric processes affect local and regional environmental quality, including odor, particulate matter (PM) exposure, eutrophication, acidification, exposure to toxics, climate, and pathogens. Agricultural emissions also contribute to the global problems caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural emissions are variable in space and time and in how they interact within the various processes and media affected. Most important in the U.S. are ammonia (where agriculture accounts for approximately 90% of total emissions), reduced sulfur (unquantified), PM25 (approximately 16%), PM110 (approximately 18%), methane (approximately 29%), nitrous oxide (approximately 72%), and odor and emissions of pathogens (both unquantified). Agriculture also consumes fossil fuels for fertilizer production and farm operations, thus emitting carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), sulfur oxides (SO(x)), and particulates. Current research priorities include the quantification of point and nonpoint sources, the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia, reduced sulfur

  1. Integrating precision cancer medicine into healthcare—policy, practice, and research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Bertier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Precision medicine (PM can be defined as a predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory healthcare service delivery model. Recent developments in molecular biology and information technology make PM a reality today through the use of massive amounts of genetic, ‘omics’, clinical, environmental, and lifestyle data. With cancer being one of the most prominent public health threats in developed countries, both the research community and governments have been investing significant time, money, and efforts in precision cancer medicine (PCM. Although PCM research is extremely promising, a number of hurdles still remain on the road to an optimal integration of standardized and evidence-based use of PCM in healthcare systems. Indeed, PCM raises a number of technical, organizational, ethical, legal, social, and economic challenges that have to be taken into account in the development of an appropriate health policy framework. Here, we highlight some of the more salient issues regarding the standards needed for integration of PCM into healthcare systems, and we identify fields where more research is needed before policy can be implemented. Key challenges include, but are not limited to, the creation of new standards for the collection, analysis, and sharing of samples and data from cancer patients, and the creation of new clinical trial designs with renewed endpoints. We believe that these issues need to be addressed as a matter of priority by public health policymakers in the coming years for a better integration of PCM into healthcare.

  2. Research of Talent Development Policy of Online Game Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Che Yang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progress of information technology and the development of Internet, the digital content industry has become one of the most promising industries in the 21st century. The rapid growth of the online gaming industry at the turn of the century does not only catch the eyes of the whole world, but also reshape the entire information-related industry. The purpose of this study is to explore issue of the talent development policy of the domestic online game industry. The method of in-depth interview is used in this study, and the research target is chosen to be qualified of speaking for the government, the education institutes, and the private sectors in the industry. The findings of this research suggest that Taiwan's government should take up a more vigorous responsibility. Following the government's leadership, both education institutes and industry private sectors must actively participate in the collaboration and feed back the up-dated information, such as the market trend and most wanted human resources, to the policy makers.[Article content in Chinese

  3. Gaming Research in Policy and Organization: An Assessment from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Caluwe, L.I.A.; Geurts, P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors assess the use of gaming/simulation for research purposes within the organization and policy sciences. They describe three categories of research: (a) gaming/simulation for pure research, (b) gaming/simulation for policy development, and (c) gaming/simulation for policy

  4. The Origin of Invasive Microorganisms Matters for Science, Policy, and Management: The Case of Didymosphenia geminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brad W; Bothwell, Max L

    2014-06-01

    The value of distinguishing native from nonnative invasive species has recently been questioned. However, this dichotomy is important for understanding whether a species' successful dominance is caused by introductions, changing environmental conditions that facilitate an existing population, or both processes. We highlight the importance of knowing the origin of hard-to-detect invasive microorganisms for scientific research, management, and policy using a case study of recent algal blooms of the stalk-producing diatom Didymosphenia geminata. Nuisance blooms have been reported in rivers worldwide and have been hastily attributed to introductions. However, evidence indicates that blooms are probably not caused by introductions but, rather, by environmental conditions that promote excessive stalk production by this historically rare species. Effective responses to invasive microorganisms depend on knowing whether their proliferation is caused by being nonnative or is the result of changing environmental conditions that promote invasive characteristics of native species.

  5. Integrative Research on Organic Matter Cycling Across Aquatic Gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Nicholas D.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Seidel, Michael; Keil, Richard G.; Robinson, Carol

    2017-07-04

    The goal of this research topic was to motivate innovative research that blurs traditional disciplinary and geographical boundaries. As the scientific community continues to gain momentum and knowledge about how the natural world functions, it is increasingly important that we recognize the interconnected nature of earth systems and embrace the complexities of ecosystem transitions. We are pleased to present this body of work, which embodies the spirit of research spanning across the terrestrial-aquatic continuum, from mountains to the sea.

  6. Changing governance of research and technology policy : The European research area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edler, Jakob; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Behrens, Maria

    2003-01-01

    This collection analyses and comments on the development of the ERA, which seeks to coordinate national research and advance European wide projects. The contributors include leading scholars of European integration and technology policy and high-level administrators. They discuss the potential

  7. Egypt's policy concerning food irradiation research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypts' policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  8. PSI condensed matter research and material sciences progress report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the research performed in 1990 at PSI's research department F3 in the fields of muon spectroscopy, neutron scattering, accelerator mass spectroscopy, applied and technical physics, geochemistry, trace elements, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, defect physics, PIREX and spallation neutron source project. figs., tabs., refs

  9. School Autonomy and Accountability in Thailand: Does the Gap between Policy Intent and Implementation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Arcia, Gustavo; Macdonald, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article contrasts policy intent and policy implementation in school autonomy and accountability. The analysis uses a conceptual framework based on the interaction between school autonomy, student assessment, and accountability as elements of a closed system. The article analyzes the implementation of school autonomy and accountability policy,…

  10. Research on taxi software policy based on big data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Daoming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Through big data analysis, statistical analysis of a large number of factors affect the establishment of the rally car index set, By establishing a mathematical model to analyze the different space-time taxi resource “to match supply and demand” degree, combined with intelligent deployment to solve the “taxi difficult” this hot social issues. This article takes Shanghai as an example, the central park, Lu Xun park, century park three areas as the object of study. From the “sky drops fast travel intelligence platform” big data, Extracted passenger demand and the number of taxi Kongshi data. Then demand and supply of taxis to establish indicators matrix, get the degree of matching supply needs of the region. Then through the big data relevant policies of each taxi company. Using the method of cluster analysis, to find the decisive role of the three aspects of the factors, using principal component analysis, compare the advantages and disadvantages of the existing company’s programs. Finally, according to the above research to develop a reasonable taxi software related policies.

  11. Energy policy fundamentals research programme - Activities and projects in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, R.; Previdoli, P.

    2003-01-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy reviews the activities and projects carried out within the Swiss Confederation's Energy Policy Fundamentals Research programme during 2002. The programme's main centres of activity are described, including projects involving the acquisition of data on indicators of selected cantonal energy saving measures, the possibility of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by influencing fuel prices, new construction instead of refurbishment of buildings, internalisation of risks involved with nuclear power and the marginal costs of intensified energy-efficiency measures. In the technology monitoring area, the results of studies concerning combined heat and power systems, heat pumps and fuel cells are reviewed. Further projects are described in the building and fuel supply areas and the influence of wind power on European peak power requirements is examined. Marketing aspects concerning the thermal use of solar energy and low energy consumption housing are discussed, as is the promotion of energy efficiency in housing and industry. Also local and regional efforts being made in the energy policy area are described. The report is rounded off with a list of the various projects mentioned in the report and appropriate contact information

  12. Why sex and gender matter in implementation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Tannenbaum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a recent swell in activity by health research funding organizations and science journal editors to increase uptake of sex and gender considerations in study design, conduct and reporting in order to ensure that research results apply to everyone. However, examination of the implementation research literature reveals that attention to sex and gender has not yet infiltrated research methods in this field. Discussion The rationale for routinely considering sex and gender in implementation research is multifold. Sex and gender are important in decision-making, communication, stakeholder engagement and preferences for the uptake of interventions. Gender roles, gender identity, gender relations, and institutionalized gender influence the way in which an implementation strategy works, for whom, under what circumstances and why. There is emerging evidence that programme theories may operate differently within and across sexes, genders and other intersectional characteristics under various circumstances. Furthermore, without proper study, implementation strategies may inadvertently exploit or ignore, rather than transform thinking about sex and gender-related factors. Techniques are described for measuring and analyzing sex and gender in implementation research using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Summary The present paper describes the application of methods for integrating sex and gender in implementation research. Consistently asking critical questions about sex and gender will likely lead to the discovery of positive outcomes, as well as unintended consequences. The result has potential to strengthen both the practice and science of implementation, improve health outcomes and reduce gender inequities.

  13. Why sex and gender matter in implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Greaves, Lorraine; Graham, Ian D

    2016-10-27

    There has been a recent swell in activity by health research funding organizations and science journal editors to increase uptake of sex and gender considerations in study design, conduct and reporting in order to ensure that research results apply to everyone. However, examination of the implementation research literature reveals that attention to sex and gender has not yet infiltrated research methods in this field. The rationale for routinely considering sex and gender in implementation research is multifold. Sex and gender are important in decision-making, communication, stakeholder engagement and preferences for the uptake of interventions. Gender roles, gender identity, gender relations, and institutionalized gender influence the way in which an implementation strategy works, for whom, under what circumstances and why. There is emerging evidence that programme theories may operate differently within and across sexes, genders and other intersectional characteristics under various circumstances. Furthermore, without proper study, implementation strategies may inadvertently exploit or ignore, rather than transform thinking about sex and gender-related factors. Techniques are described for measuring and analyzing sex and gender in implementation research using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The present paper describes the application of methods for integrating sex and gender in implementation research. Consistently asking critical questions about sex and gender will likely lead to the discovery of positive outcomes, as well as unintended consequences. The result has potential to strengthen both the practice and science of implementation, improve health outcomes and reduce gender inequities.

  14. Dismissive reviews in education policy research: A list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Phelps

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Included in these web pages are the statements—the dismissive reviews—of some prominent education policy researchers. Most of their statements are inaccurate; it is possible that all of them are. Certainly, all of them are misleading. Each linked file includes the dismissive statements, the names of the lead authors (in bold when known and co-authors, title, source, date, and, page numbers for the statement and hyperlink to the source, when available, all listed in reverse chronological order. “Dismissive review” is the general term. In the “type” column of the files, a finer distinction is made among simply “dismissive”—meaning a claim that there is no or little previous research, “denigrating”—meaning a claim that previous research exists but is so inferior it is not worth even citing, and “firstness”—a claim to be the first in the history of the world to ever conduct such a study. For the most part, I have included statements made by “serial dismissers”, researchers who dismiss repeatedly on a variety of topics. This is done to help counter the argument that they might be innocent, actually did make an effort to look for previous research, and simply could not find it. In most cases they dismiss a research literature that is hundreds or thousands of studies deep. And, when they do that repeatedly across a variety of topics, the odds that their dismissive behavior could be innocent fade to minuscule. - See more at: http://nonpartisaneducation.org/Review/Resources/DismissiveList.htm#sthash.TXzlmZhZ.dpuf

  15. Examining the Impact of Corporate Dividend Policy On Stock Price Volatility In Singapore : Does Financial Crisis Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Muhammad Asjad

    2016-01-01

    One of the most puzzling and widely researched topics in the field of corporate finance is corporate dividend policy and the probable impact it has on firms’ stock price volatility. Despite years of research and extensive empirical examination of the dividend policy-stock price volatility linkage, conflicting evidence across a multitude of studies implies that no solid conclusion regarding the veracity and validity of this relationship has yet been reached. Furthermore, there is a dearth of s...

  16. Prevention Research Matters-Communities Working to Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-15

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.  Created: 2/15/2018 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/15/2018.

  17. Data Resources for Conducting Health Services and Policy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Lynn A; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Turner, Joanna; Hest, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Rich federal data resources provide essential data inputs for monitoring the health and health care of the US population and are essential for conducting health services policy research. The six household surveys we document in this article cover a broad array of health topics, including health insurance coverage (American Community Survey, Current Population Survey), health conditions and behaviors (National Health Interview Survey, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), health care utilization and spending (Medical Expenditure Panel Survey), and longitudinal data on public program participation (SIPP). New federal activities are linking federal surveys with administrative data to reduce duplication and response burden. In the private sector, vendors are aggregating data from medical records and claims to enhance our understanding of treatment, quality, and outcomes of medical care. Federal agencies must continue to innovate to meet the continuous challenges of scarce resources, pressures for more granular data, and new multimode data collection methodologies.

  18. European meteorological data: contribution to research, development, and policy support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavetti, Irene; Karetsos, Sotiris; Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Panagos, Panos

    2014-08-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed Interpolated Meteorological Datasets available on a regular 25x25km grid both to the scientific community and the general public. Among others, the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets include daily maximum/minimum temperature, cumulated daily precipitation, evapotranspiration and wind speed. These datasets can be accessed through a web interface after a simple registration procedure. The Interpolated Meteorological Datasets also serve the Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS) at European level. The temporal coverage of the datasets is more than 30 years and the spatial coverage includes EU Member States, neighboring European countries, and the Mediterranean countries. The meteorological data are highly relevant for the development, implementation and assessment of a number of European Union (EU) policy areas: agriculture, soil protection, environment, agriculture, food security, energy, climate change. An online user survey has been carried out in order to assess the impact of the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets on research developments. More than 70% of the users have used the meteorological datasets for research purposes and more than 50% of the users have used those sources as main input for their models. The usefulness of the data scored more than 70% and it is interesting to note that around 25% of the users have published their scientific outputs based on the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets. Finally, the user feedback focuses mostly on improving the data distribution process as well as the visibility of the web platform.

  19. Interorganizational Policy Studies: Lessons Drawn from Implementation Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1993-01-01

    Contingency approaches to organizing suggest that policy objectives are more likely to be achieved if the structures employed for implementation mesh with the policy objectives being sought. Interorganizational arrangements are used increasingly in carrying out public programs, and contingency logic

  20. Knowledge to Policy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In development research, getting a new discovery into policy and practice is just as ... As a matter of principle, moreover, people have a right to participate in the ...... environmental practices, tax law, competition policy, and much else besides), ...... with 80 researchers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines.

  1. Data Speak: Influencing School Health Policy through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Keller, Teresa; Hine, Beverly; Christeson, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    School nurses occupy a unique position in relation to school health policy. In addition to facing the demands of promoting and maintaining the health of students, they collect the information that is used to document the implementation of school health policy. Effective school health policy is guided by reliable, credible data regarding what…

  2. Principles and Policies for International Coordination of Research Data Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Mokrane, M.; Sorvari, S.; Treloar, A.; Smith, C.

    2017-12-01

    International data networks enable the sharing of data within and between scientific disciplines and countries and thus provide the foundation for Open Science. Developing effective and sustainable international research data networks is critical for progress in many areas of research and for science to address complex global societal challenges. However, the development and maintenance of effective networks is not always easy, particularly in a context where public resources for science are limited and international cooperation is not a priority for many countries. The global landscape for data sharing in science is complex; many international data networks already exist and have highly variable structures. Some are linked to large intergovernmental research infrastructures, have highly developed centralized services and deal mainly with the data needs of single disciplines. Some are highly distributed, have much less rigid governance structures and provide access to data from many different domains. Most are somewhere between these two extremes and they cover different geographic regions, from regional to global. All provide a mix of data and associated data services which meets the needs of the research community to various extents and this provision depends on a mix of hardware, software, standards and protocols and human skills. These come together, working across national boundaries, in technical and social networks. In all of this, what makes a network function effectively or not is unclear. This means that there is also no simple answer to what can usefully be done at the policy level to promote the development of effective and sustainable data networks. Hence the rational for the present project - to study a variety of currently successful networks, explore the challenges that they are facing and the lessons that can be learned from confronting these challenges, and, where applicable, to translate this analysis into potential policy actions. Detailed

  3. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  4. Why School Librarians Matter: What Years of Research Tell Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Kachel, Debra E.

    2018-01-01

    Since 1992, a growing body of research known as the school library impact studies has consistently shown positive correlations between school librarians and library programs and student achievement. The authors review the findings from these studies and discuss how school leaders can ensure they are making the best use of their librarians'…

  5. Consumption: Why Does It Matter in Cultural Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimburley Wing Yee Choi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Prompted by the opening of Hong Kong Disneyland, journalists from different countries interviewed Hong Kong scholars about their views on the project. The first question that all these journalists asked was, what is the cultural impact of Disneyland on Hong Kong? The author uses this case to explore the role of consumption within cultural research.

  6. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, Gail [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Schaefer, Thomas [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The major accomplishments of the research activity at NC State during the five years were: to determine the effects and signatures of turbulence in supernova, to calculate r-process and supernova nucleosynthesis, and to determine the neutrino scattering and flavor transformation that occurs in black hole accretion disks. This report goes into more detail on them.

  7. Government policy, research and stakeholder confidence - Current Trends in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, Carmel

    2006-01-01

    The author addressed the topic of government Policy, research and stakeholder Confidence from the perspective of government policy makers in Canada. The presentation reviewed the question: why carry out more research into methods of long-term management of nuclear fuel waste? In addressing this question, the author provided some perspectives that were expressed by the Canadian public, since reflected in the Final Study of management approaches led by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), an organization set up by the nuclear industry to study options for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. The Final Study was submitted to the federal Minister of Natural Resources in November 2005 as required under the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act. The NWMO's Final Study emphasized the important role of continuous learning, a key element in the NWMO's recommendation of Adaptive Phased Management. It was reported that the NWMO work had identified many reasons to carry out further research. Regardless of the management approach adopted, activities to manage radioactive waste will continue for a very long time. Any management program could be expected to apply the best practice available at the time. A program that will evolve over a long period of time will have many opportunities for improvements to increase performance, enhance effectiveness, and address rising societal concerns. It was suggested that, to realize these benefits, there needs to be a vibrant and robust research and development effort during management program development and execution, a period that will last many generations, and enable implementers to adapt to a changing environment. Among the reasons put forward for continuing research were, to: - Embody the principles of continuous learning which encourages standards of excellence and integrity; - Prepare for facility siting, design, licensing, development and operations to improve designs, minimize costs, enhance schedules, and reduce

  8. Toward Reproducible Computational Research: An Empirical Analysis of Data and Code Policy Adoption by Journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Stodden

    Full Text Available Journal policy on research data and code availability is an important part of the ongoing shift toward publishing reproducible computational science. This article extends the literature by studying journal data sharing policies by year (for both 2011 and 2012 for a referent set of 170 journals. We make a further contribution by evaluating code sharing policies, supplemental materials policies, and open access status for these 170 journals for each of 2011 and 2012. We build a predictive model of open data and code policy adoption as a function of impact factor and publisher and find higher impact journals more likely to have open data and code policies and scientific societies more likely to have open data and code policies than commercial publishers. We also find open data policies tend to lead open code policies, and we find no relationship between open data and code policies and either supplemental material policies or open access journal status. Of the journals in this study, 38% had a data policy, 22% had a code policy, and 66% had a supplemental materials policy as of June 2012. This reflects a striking one year increase of 16% in the number of data policies, a 30% increase in code policies, and a 7% increase in the number of supplemental materials policies. We introduce a new dataset to the community that categorizes data and code sharing, supplemental materials, and open access policies in 2011 and 2012 for these 170 journals.

  9. Toward Reproducible Computational Research: An Empirical Analysis of Data and Code Policy Adoption by Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Victoria; Guo, Peixuan; Ma, Zhaokun

    2013-01-01

    Journal policy on research data and code availability is an important part of the ongoing shift toward publishing reproducible computational science. This article extends the literature by studying journal data sharing policies by year (for both 2011 and 2012) for a referent set of 170 journals. We make a further contribution by evaluating code sharing policies, supplemental materials policies, and open access status for these 170 journals for each of 2011 and 2012. We build a predictive model of open data and code policy adoption as a function of impact factor and publisher and find higher impact journals more likely to have open data and code policies and scientific societies more likely to have open data and code policies than commercial publishers. We also find open data policies tend to lead open code policies, and we find no relationship between open data and code policies and either supplemental material policies or open access journal status. Of the journals in this study, 38% had a data policy, 22% had a code policy, and 66% had a supplemental materials policy as of June 2012. This reflects a striking one year increase of 16% in the number of data policies, a 30% increase in code policies, and a 7% increase in the number of supplemental materials policies. We introduce a new dataset to the community that categorizes data and code sharing, supplemental materials, and open access policies in 2011 and 2012 for these 170 journals.

  10. To what extent are Canadian second language policies evidence-based? Reflections on the intersections of research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    THE PAPER ADDRESSES THE INTERSECTIONS BETWEEN RESEARCH FINDINGS AND CANADIAN EDUCATIONAL POLICIES FOCUSING ON FOUR MAJOR AREAS: (a) core and immersion programs for the teaching of French to Anglophone students, (b) policies concerning the learning of English and French by students from immigrant backgrounds, (c) heritage language teaching, and (d) the education of Deaf and hard-of hearing students. With respect to the teaching of French, policy-makers have largely ignored the fact that most core French programs produce meager results for the vast majority of students. Only a small proportion of students (languages, preferring instead to leave uncorrected the proposition that acquisition of languages such as American Sign Language by young children (with or without cochlear implants) will impede children's language and academic development. The paper reviews the kinds of policies, programs, and practices that could be implemented (at no additional cost) if policy-makers and educators pursued evidence-based educational policies.

  11. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware ....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  12. Economic instruments and clean water: Why institutions and policy design matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2001-01-01

    Since market-like policy instruments are usually applied within existing rules, institutions, and policy processes, the policy and administrative contexts in which they operate become important. These contexts are quite different from country to country, often more so than policymakers are aware ....... The national style of policymaking depends on the constitutional framework, the infrastructure of public authorities as well as the historical and cultural heritage, which are basic institutional premises that vary tremendously even between neighbouring western european countries....

  13. The “geotoxicology” of airborne particulate matter: implications for public health, public policy, and environmental security (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been documented and hypothesized as the cause of a wide variety of adverse health effects. Most attention has focused on potential health effects of occupational and environmental exposures to many types of anthropogenic PM, such as mineral dusts or combustion byproducts of fossil fuels. However, geogenic PM (produced from the Earth by natural processes) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources but modified by human activities) are also increasingly of concern as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Geotoxicology can be defined as the study of the toxicological characteristics and potential health effects of geogenic and geoanthropogenic earth materials. Acute exposures to high PM concentrations are associated with exacerbated asthma, other pulmonary inflammatory responses, cardiovascular problems, and other issues. Some diseases can result from inhalation of dust-borne pathogens. PM can contain bioaccessible (readily dissolved in the body’s fluids) contaminants that, if absorbed in sufficient doses, can trigger toxicity. Acutely bioreactive PM, such as alkaline wildfire ash or acidic volcanic fog, can trigger acute irritation or damage of the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Biodurable PM such as asbestos fibers and crystalline silica are poorly cleared by lung macrophages, do not readily dissolve in the fluids lining the lungs, and can therefore persist in the lungs for decades. In sufficient dose, pneumoconioses can result from exposure to biodurable minerals, and chronic fluid-mineral reactions in the body (such as redox cycling and formation of free radicals) are thought to help promote cancers such as lung cancer and (in the case of asbestos) mesothelioma. Many key research questions remain, such as the exact mechanisms by which many types of PM cause disease, or the levels of exposure above which various types of PM begin to pose a

  14. Trade transport and environment linkages at the U.S.-Mexico border: which policies matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Linda; Das, Monica

    2011-03-01

    We apply a fixed-effects model to examine the impact of trade and environmental policies on air quality at ports along the U.S.-Mexico border. We control for other factors influencing air quality, such as air quality of cities near the border, volume of traffic flows and congestion. Results show the air quality improved after 2004, when the diesel engine policy was applied. We see mixed results for the trade policy, whose implementation time varies across ports along the international border. Controlling for air quality in cities near the border is essential for assessing the policy contributions to air quality. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Do black lives matter in public health research and training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rosenberg

    Full Text Available To examine whether investments made in public health research align with the health burdens experienced by white and black Americans.In this cross-sectional study of all deaths in the United States in 2015, we compared the distribution of potential years of life lost (PYLL across 39 causes of death by race and identified key differences. We examined the relationship between cause-of-death-specific PYLL and key indicators of public health investment (federal funding and number of publications by race using linear spline models. We also compared the number of courses available at the top schools of public health relevant to the top causes of death contributor to PYLL for black and white Americans.Homicide was the number one contributor to PYLL among black Americans, while ischemic heart disease was the number one contributor to PYLL among white Americans. Firearm-related violence accounted for 88% of black PYLL attributed to homicide and 71% of white PYLL attributed to homicide. Despite the high burden of PYLL, homicide research was the focus of few federal grants or publications. In comparison, ischemic heart disease garnered 341 grants and 594 publications. The number of public health courses available relevant to homicide (n = 9 was similar to those relevant to ischemic heart disease (n = 10.Black Americans are disproportionately affected by homicide, compared to white Americans. For both black and white Americans, the majority of PYLL due to homicide are firearm-related. Yet, homicide research is dramatically underrepresented in public health research investments in terms of grant funding and publications, despite available public health training opportunities. If left unchecked, the observed disproportionate distribution of investments in public health resources threatens to perpetuate a system that disadvantages black Americans.

  16. Do black lives matter in public health research and training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Molly; Ranapurwala, Shabbar I; Townes, Ashley; Bengtson, Angela M

    2017-01-01

    To examine whether investments made in public health research align with the health burdens experienced by white and black Americans. In this cross-sectional study of all deaths in the United States in 2015, we compared the distribution of potential years of life lost (PYLL) across 39 causes of death by race and identified key differences. We examined the relationship between cause-of-death-specific PYLL and key indicators of public health investment (federal funding and number of publications) by race using linear spline models. We also compared the number of courses available at the top schools of public health relevant to the top causes of death contributor to PYLL for black and white Americans. Homicide was the number one contributor to PYLL among black Americans, while ischemic heart disease was the number one contributor to PYLL among white Americans. Firearm-related violence accounted for 88% of black PYLL attributed to homicide and 71% of white PYLL attributed to homicide. Despite the high burden of PYLL, homicide research was the focus of few federal grants or publications. In comparison, ischemic heart disease garnered 341 grants and 594 publications. The number of public health courses available relevant to homicide (n = 9) was similar to those relevant to ischemic heart disease (n = 10). Black Americans are disproportionately affected by homicide, compared to white Americans. For both black and white Americans, the majority of PYLL due to homicide are firearm-related. Yet, homicide research is dramatically underrepresented in public health research investments in terms of grant funding and publications, despite available public health training opportunities. If left unchecked, the observed disproportionate distribution of investments in public health resources threatens to perpetuate a system that disadvantages black Americans.

  17. Current Practice in Research Ethics: Global Trends and New Opportunities for African Universities. Research and Innovation Policy Series. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Liam

    2007-01-01

    Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…

  18. Methods That Matter: Integrating Mixed Methods for More Effective Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M. Cameron, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    To do research that really makes a difference--the authors of this book argue--social scientists need questions and methods that reflect the complexity of the world. Bringing together a consortium of voices across a variety of fields, "Methods that Matter" offers compelling and successful examples of mixed methods research that do just…

  19. 75 FR 57080 - In the Matter of Aerotest Operations, Inc. (Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor); Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0178; Docket No. 50-228; License No. R-98] In the Matter of Aerotest Operations, Inc. (Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor); Order Extending the... possession, use, and operation of the Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor (ARRR) located in San Ramon...

  20. 75 FR 39985 - In the Matter of Aerotest Operations, Inc. (Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor); Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0178; Docket No. 50-228; License No. R-98] In the Matter of Aerotest Operations, Inc. (Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor); Order Approving Indirect... of the Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor (ARRR) located in San Ramon, California, under the...

  1. Exploring the use of research evidence in health-enhancing physical activity policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R.; van de Goor, Ien

    2015-01-01

    informed by research evidence compared to others. The aims of the present article are to explore the use of research evidence in health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policies, identify when research evidence was used, and find what other types of evidence were employed in HEPA policymaking. Methods......Background The gaps observed between the use of research evidence and policy have been reported to be based on the different methods of using research evidence in policymaking by researchers and actual policymakers. Some policies and policymaking processes may therefore be particularly well...... Multidisciplinary teams from six EU member states analysed the use of research evidence and other kinds of evidence in 21 HEPA policies and interviewed 86 key policymakers involved in the policies. Qualitative content analysis was conducted on both policy documents and interview data. Results Research evidence...

  2. The Association between Education and Work Stress: Does the Policy Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. Methods We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies (‘Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe’ and the ‘English Longitudinal Study of Ageing’; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) ‘protective’ policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) ‘integrative’ policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Results Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced ‘integrative’ policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Conclusions Our results point to

  3. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Lunau

    Full Text Available Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment.We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695, with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate, and (2 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life. In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education.Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities.Our results point to different types of policies that may help to

  4. The association between education and work stress: does the policy context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Our results point to different types of policies that may help to reduce

  5. Agenda Setting and Evidence in Maternal Health: Connecting Research and Policy in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kayli; Kelly, Paul; Barclay, Lesley; Martins, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    The evidence-based policy (EBP) movement has received significant attention in the scientific literature; however, there is still very little empirical research to provide insight into how policy decisions are made and how evidence is used. The lack of research on this topic in low- and middle-income countries is of particular note. We examine the maternity waiting home policy in Timor-Leste to understand the role of context, policy characteristics, individual actors, and how evidence is used to influence the policy agenda. The research tracked the maternity waiting home policy from 2005 to 2009 and is based on in-depth interviews with 31 senior policy-makers, department managers, non-government organization representatives, and United Nations advisors. It is also informed by direct observation, attendance at meetings and workshops, and analysis of policy documents. The findings from this ethnographic case study demonstrate that although the post-conflict context opened up space for new policy ideas senior Ministry of Health officials rather than donors had the most power in setting the policy agenda. Maternity waiting homes were appealing because they were a visible, non-controversial, and logical solution to the problem of accessing maternal health services. Evidence was used in a variety of ways, from supporting pre-determined agendas to informing new policy directions. In the pursuit of EBP, we conclude that the power of research to inform policy lies in its timeliness and relevance, and is facilitated by the connection between researchers and policy-makers.

  6. The use of evidence in maternal health: Connecting research and policy in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayli Janine Wild

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evidence-based policy (EBP movement has received significant attention in the scientific literature, however, there is still very little empirical research to provide insight into how policy decisions are made and how evidence is used. The lack of research on this topic in low and middle-income countries is of particular note. We examine the maternity waiting home policy in Timor-Leste to understand the role of context, policy characteristics, individual actors and how evidence is used to influence the policy agenda. The research tracked the maternity waiting home policy from 2005 to 2009 and is based on in-depth interviews with 31 senior policy-makers, department managers, non-government organisation (NGO representatives and United Nations (UN advisors. It is also informed by direct observation, attendance at meetings and workshops and analysis of policy documents. The findings from this case study demonstrate the importance of political context, policy characteristics and the power of senior Ministry of Health officials rather than donors in setting the policy agenda. Maternity waiting homes were appealing because they were a visible, non-controversial and logical solution to the problem of accessing maternal health services. Evidence was used in a variety of ways, from supporting pre-determined agendas to informing new policy directions. In the pursuit of EBP, we conclude that the power of research to inform policy lies in its timeliness and relevance, and is facilitated by the connection between researchers and policy-makers.

  7. Advice on cultural policy matters: changing times for the Council for Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveldt, Philomeen; Minnaert, Toine

    The central question is the changing role of advisory councils in Dutch cultural policy and the subsequent change in discourse on culture and the arts within cultural policy. Our working hypothesis is that the role of the Council for Culture (Raad voor Cultuur), the formal advisory council, is

  8. Tobacco control policy development in the European Union: do political factors matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been much variation between European countries in the development of tobacco control policy. Not much is known about the factors that shape this variation. This study aimed to assess the role of political factors in tobacco control policy development. We used data from 11 European

  9. Equality machineries matter: The impact of women's political pressure on European social care policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Roggeband, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of feminist pressure and European Union (EU) policies on national policy changes, such as the introduction or extension of public childcare provision, parental leave, and part-time work legislation. We compared six countries on the basis of Qualitative Comparative

  10. Lost in Translation? On Mind and Matter in Management Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Fendt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Again and again scholars evoke a seriously dysfunctional relationship between management research and education on the one hand, and the practice of management on the other. We share this viewpoint, and with this appraisal intend to (re-open the debate. We expose some views on the intellectual and sociological roots of the malaise, advocating a philosophical stance rooted in pragmatism and particularly in John Dewey’s pragmatic stance. We outline a number of essentially workable, albeit for debate’s sake provocative and unpolished proposals for the redesign of academic institutions and of their publishing process. We sketch out radical redesign of academia—with, inter alia, (a permeable academic and practical careers, so that executives and scholars could move between and act within each others’ realities; (b a focus of management education on post-experience graduate level; and (c an academic publishing process worthy of the real-time era of the Internet.

  11. Models of policy-making and their relevance for drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Bammer, Gabriele

    2010-07-01

    Researchers are often frustrated by their inability to influence policy. We describe models of policy-making to provide new insights and a more realistic assessment of research impacts on policy. We describe five prominent models of policy-making and illustrate them with examples from the alcohol and drugs field, before drawing lessons for researchers. Policy-making is a complex and messy process, with different models describing different elements. We start with the incrementalist model, which highlights small amendments to policy, as occurs in school-based drug education. A technical/rational approach then outlines the key steps in a policy process from identification of problems and their causes, through to examination and choice of response options, and subsequent implementation and evaluation. There is a clear role for research, as we illustrate with the introduction of new medications, but this model largely ignores the dominant political aspects of policy-making. Such political aspects include the influence of interest groups, and we describe models about power and pressure groups, as well as advocacy coalitions, and the challenges they pose for researchers. These are illustrated with reference to the alcohol industry, and interest group conflicts in establishing a Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. Finally, we describe the multiple streams framework, which alerts researchers to 'windows of opportunity', and we show how these were effectively exploited in policy for cannabis law reform in Western Australia. Understanding models of policy-making can help researchers maximise the uptake of their work and advance evidence-informed policy.

  12. Vested interests in addiction research and policy alcohol policies out of context: drinks industry supplanting government role in alcohol policies in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a 'partnership' role with governments to design national alcohol policies. A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study methods. The comparison indicated that the four drafts are almost identical in wording and structure and that they are likely to originate from the same source. The processes and the draft policy documents reviewed provide insights into the methods, as well as the strategic and political objectives of the multi-national drinks industry. This initiative reflects the industry's preferred version of a national alcohol policy. The industry policy vision ignores, or chooses selectively from, the international evidence base on alcohol prevention developed by independent alcohol researchers and disregards or minimizes a public health approach to alcohol problems. The policies reviewed maintain a narrow focus on the economic benefits from the trade in alcohol. In terms of alcohol problems (and their remediation) the documents focus upon individual drinkers, ignoring effective environmental interventions. The proposed policies serve the industry's interests at the expense of public health by attempting to enshrine 'active participation of all levels of the beverage alcohol industry as a key partner in the policy formulation and implementation process'.

  13. Addressing the Challenges in Tonsillectomy Research to Inform Health Care Policy: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, Rishi; Schilder, Anne G M; Dimitriadis, Panagiotis A; Mossialos, Elias

    2017-09-01

    Eighty-five percent of investment in medical research has been wasted, with lack of effect on clinical practice and policy. There is increasing effort to improve the likelihood of research being used to influence clinical practice and policy. Tonsillectomy is one of the most common otorhinolaryngologic surgical procedures, and its frequency, cost, and morbidity create a clear need for evidence-based guidelines and policy. The first systematic review on tonsillectomy was conducted 40 years ago and highlighted the lack of definitive evidence for the procedure. Since that study, the body of evidence has still not been able to sufficiently inform policy. This review provides an overview of the key challenges in research to inform tonsillectomy policy and recommendations to help bridge the evidence-policy gap. The challenges in using research to inform policy can be summarized as 4 main themes: (1) non-policy-focused evidence and lack of available evidence, (2) quality of evidence, (3) communication of research findings, and (4) coordinating time frames. Researchers and decision makers should be aware of the limitations of research designs and conflicts of interest that can undermine policy decisions. Researchers must work with decision makers and patients throughout the research process to identify areas of unmet need and political priority, align research and policy time frames, and disseminate research findings. Incentives for researchers should be reorganized to promote dissemination of findings. It is important to consider why evidence gaps in tonsillectomy research have not been addressed during the past 40 years despite considerable investment in time and resources. These findings and recommendations will help produce research that is more responsive to policy gaps and more likely to result in policy changes.

  14. Opinion: Endogenizing culture in sustainability science research and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Marcellus M.; Sanderson, Matthew R.; Mather, Martha E.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Bergtold, Jason S.; Aistrup, Joseph; Heier Stamm, Jessica L.; Haukos, David A.; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle; Sheshukov, Aleksey Y.; Lopez-Carr, David

    2015-01-01

    Integrating the analysis of natural and social systems to achieve sustainability has been an international scientific goal for years (1, 2). However, full integration has proven challenging, especially in regard to the role of culture (3), which is often missing from the complex sustainability equation. To enact policies and practices that can achieve sustainability, researchers and policymakers must do a better job of accounting for culture, difficult though this task may be.The concept of culture is complex, with hundreds of definitions that for years have generated disagreement among social scientists (4). Understood at the most basic level, culture constitutes shared values, beliefs, and norms through which people “see,” interpret, or give meaning to ideas, actions, and environments. Culture is often used synonymously with “worldviews” or “cosmologies” (5, 6) to explain the patterned ways of assigning meanings and interpretations among individuals within groups. Used in this way, culture has been found to have only limited empirical support as an explanation of human risk perception (7, 8) and environmentalism (9).

  15. A global survey of hydrogen energy research, development and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Banerjee, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    Several factors have led to growing interest in a hydrogen energy economy, especially for transportation. A successful transition to a major role for hydrogen will require much greater cost-effectiveness, fueling infrastructure, consumer acceptance, and a strategy for its basis in renewable energy feedstocks. Despite modest attention to the need for a sustainable hydrogen energy system in several countries, in most cases in the short to mid term hydrogen will be produced from fossil fuels. This paper surveys the global status of hydrogen energy research and development (R and D) and public policy, along with the likely energy mix for making it. The current state of hydrogen energy R and D among auto, energy and fuel-cell companies is also briefly reviewed. Just two major auto companies and two nations have specific targets and timetables for hydrogen fuel cells or vehicle production, although the EU also has an aggressive, less specific strategy. Iceland and Brazil are the only nations where renewable energy feedstocks are envisioned as the major or sole future source of hydrogen. None of these plans, however, are very certain. Thus, serious questions about the sustainability of a hydrogen economy can be raised

  16. CIRRPC (Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination) sixteenth quarterly report, April 1-June 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The document is a summary of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination activities for the period April 1 through June 30, 1988. During the reporting period, the Executive Committee met with the staff concerned with the radiation matters of the Department of the Interior on May 20 and with the Department of Defense on May 23 to review current CIRRPC activities and issues of particular interest to those agencies. The meetings were a part of CIRRPC's program of visits to member agencies on a two-year cycle

  17. Charting the Research on the Policies and Politics of Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Facing relentless pressure to improve student achievement, many states and districts are using coaching as a policy lever to promote changes in practice. This special issue centers on the policies and politics of coaching, and this editorial commentary highlights what we know about the role of coaches and coaching in the field of education. Then I…

  18. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, No. 291

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-24

    Policies (G. H. Altenmueller; VDI NACHRICHTEN , 9 Sep 83) 3U SPAIN Cellular, Fiber Optic Telephone Service in Major Cities by 1986 (EL PAIS...INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY POLICIES Duesseldorf VDI NACHRICHTEN in German 9 Sep 83 p 2 [Article by G. H. Altenmueller: "Joint Action for Information

  19. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. International Comparisons I (Europe) Section. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Three papers consider telecommunications policy in Great Britain and Germany specifically, and the nations of the European Economic Community generally. The first paper, "German Telecommunications Law and Policies" (Ernst-Joachim Mestamacker) outlines the present structure of telecommunications in West Germany, and discusses deregulation…

  20. Virtue and Responsibility in Policy Research and Advice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tholen, J.H.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    This book argues that ethical judgment by individual scientific policy advisors is more important than is often acknowledged. While many scientific policy advisors routinely present themselves as neutral or value free scientists, here is demonstrated that the ideal of scientific integrity as

  1. Businesses' voluntary pro-health tobacco policies: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    Research on the role of businesses in tobacco control has focused primarily on retailers, advertising firms and the hospitality industry, all of which have tended to support tobacco industry interests and resist effective tobacco control policies. However, in several countries, businesses have a history of voluntarily adopting tobacco-related policies that may advance tobacco control objectives. These phenomena have received little research attention. Existing literature on businesses ending tobacco sales, instituting voluntary workplace smoking restrictions and establishing non-smoker only hiring policies was reviewed. A research agenda on voluntary business initiatives would enhance and complement research on mandatory tobacco control policies by identifying new advocacy opportunities; suggesting avenues for strengthening or reinforcing existing policy initiatives; laying the groundwork for new mandatory policies; helping to inform ethical debates about contentious voluntary policies; and contributing to a better understanding of how alliances between the tobacco industry and other businesses might be weakened.

  2. Making the CMS payment policy for healthcare-associated infections work: organizational factors that matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Timothy; Hartmann, Christine W; Soerensen, Christina; Wroe, Peter; Dutta-Linn, Maya; Lee, Grace

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are among the most common adverse events in hospitals, and the morbidity and mortality associated with them are significant. In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented a new financial policy that no longer provides payment to hospitals for services related to certain infections not present on admission and deemed preventable. At present, little is known about how this policy is being implemented in hospital settings. One key goal of the policy is for it to serve as a quality improvement driver within hospitals, providing the rationale and motivation for hospitals to engage in greater infection-related surveillance and prevention activities. This article examines the role organizational factors, such as leadership and culture, play in the effectiveness of the CMS policy as a quality improvement (QI) driver within hospital settings. Between late 2009 and early 2010, interviews were conducted with 36 infection preventionists working at a national sample of 36 hospitals. We found preliminary evidence that hospital executive behavior, a proactive infection control (IC) culture, and clinical staff engagement played a favorable role in enhancing the recognition, acceptance, and significance of the CMS policy as a QI driver within hospitals. We also found several other contextual factors that may impede the degree to which the above factors facilitate links between the CMS policy and hospital QI activities.

  3. Acidification research: evaluation and policy applications; a United Kingdom policy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.G.; Wilson, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The United Kingdom environmental research into the mechanisms of the atmospheric transport and deposition of acidity, to understand the impacts of that acidity on soils, surface waters, forests, crops and the built environment and the consequences for fishery status, freshwater and soil ecosystems. The Critical Loads Approach opens the possibility of more subtle and sensitive ways of tackling the problems of environmental acidification on the European scale. The United Kingdom is contributing vigorously to the Critical Loads Approach through the mapping exercises, the environmental studies that underpin them and the understanding of the driving deposition mechanisms which lead both to pollutant removal and ecosystem contamination. Future progress with the UN ECE Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution and the revision of the NO x , SO 2 and VOC protocols will rest in very large measure on the shared confidence within Europe in the knowledge of the underpinning environmental science. The Critical Loads Approach should provide an important policy focus within the international scientific community to set environmentally-based targets for future co-ordinated emission control programmes

  4. Research-Based Knowledge: Researchers' Contribution to Evidence-Based Practice and Policy Making in Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Erik Hagaseth; Plant, Peter

    2016-01-01

    To present evidence for the outcomes of career guidance is increasingly seen as pivotal for a further professionalization of policy making and service provision. This paper puts an emphasis on researchers' contribution to evidence-based practice and policy making in career guidance. We argue for a broader and more pluralistic research strategy to…

  5. The Interface between Research and Policy--A Note with Potential Relevance for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitzka, Åse

    2013-01-01

    The nexus between research and policy in higher education as in other sectors of society is multimodal and not adequately captured by the notion of a cultural gap between the world of practice and the world of research. Neither can the relationship be seen as unidirectional. This paper sketches out the range of uses of research in policy-making,…

  6. Exploring the use of research evidence in health-enhancing physical activity policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Aro, Arja R; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Jakobsen, Mette Winge; Chereches, Razvan M; Syed, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gaps observed between the use of research evidence and policy have been reported to be based on the different methods of using research evidence in policymaking by researchers and actual policymakers. Some policies and policymaking processes may therefore be particularly well

  7. Increasing Use of Research Findings in Improving Evidence-Based Health Policy at the National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiwita Budiharsana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In February 2016, the Minister of Health decided to increase the use of research findings in improving the quality of the national health policy and planning. The Ministry of Health has instructed the National Institute of Health Research and Development or NIHRD to play a stronger role of monitoring and evaluating all health programs, because “their opinion and research findings should be the basis for changes in national health policies and planning”. Compared to the past, the Ministry of Health has increased the research budget for evidence-based research tremendously. However, there is a gap between the information needs of program and policy-makers and the information offered by researchers. A close dialogue is needed between the users (program managers, policy makers and planners and the suppliers (researchers and evaluators to ensure that the evidence-based supplied by research is useful for programs, planning and health policy.

  8. From Data to Policy: An Undergraduate Program in Research and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Rebecca; Blum, Arlene; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2012-01-01

    To bridge the gap between science and policy, future scientists should receive training that incorporates policy implications into the design, analysis, and communication of research. We present a student Science and Policy course for undergraduate science majors piloted at the University of California, Berkeley in the summer of 2011. During this…

  9. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious “transmission gap” between parental AAI classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology, (b) neurobiology, (c) health and immune function, (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism, (e) school readiness, and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848

  10. Contributions of attachment theory and research: a framework for future research, translation, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-11-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive "working models" and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious "transmission gap" between parental Adult Attachment Interview classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology; (b) neurobiology; (c) health and immune function; (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism; (e) school readiness; and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses.

  11. 19th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Advances in Nanostructured Condensed Matter: Research and Innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 19 th International School on Condensed Matter Physics “Advances in Nanostructured Condensed Matter: Research and Innovations” (19 th ISCMP). The school was held from August 28 th till September 2 nd , 2016 in Varna, Bulgaria. It was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (ISSP-BAS), and took place at one of the fine resorts on the Bulgarian Black Sea “Saints Constantine and Helena”. The aim of this international school is to bring together top experimentalists and theoreticians, with interests in interdisciplinary areas, with the younger generation of scientists, in order to discuss current research and to communicate new forefront ideas. This year special focus was given to discussions on membrane biophysics and quantum information, also not forgotten were some traditionally covered areas, such as characterization of nanostructured materials. Participants from 12 countries presented 28 invited lectures, 12 short oral talks and 44 posters. The hope of the organizing committee is that the 19 th ISCMP provided enough opportunities for direct scientific contacts, interesting discussions and interactive exchange of ideas between the participants. The nice weather certainly helped a lot in this respect. The editors would like to thank all authors for their high-quality contributions and the members of the international program committee for their commitment. The papers submitted for publication in the Proceedings were refereed according to the publishing standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Editorial Committee members are very grateful to the Journal’s staff for the continuous fruitful relations and for giving us the opportunity to present the work from the 19 th ISCMP. Prof. DSc Hassan Chamati, Assist. Prof. Dr. Alexander A. Donkov, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Julia Genova, and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Emilia Pecheva (paper)

  12. What are the key organisational capabilities that facilitate research use in public health policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Campbell, Danielle; Milat, Andrew; Haynes, Abby; Quinn, Emma

    2014-11-28

    Literature about research use suggests that certain characteristics or capabilities may make policy agencies more evidence attuned. This study sought to determine policy makers' perceptions of a suite of organisational capabilities identified from the literature as potentially facilitating research uptake in policy decision making. A literature scan identified eight key organisational capabilities that support research use in policy making. To determine whether these capabilities were relevant, practical and applicable in real world policy settings, nine Australian health policy makers were consulted in September 2011. We used an open-ended questionnaire asking what facilitates the use of research in policy and program decision making, followed by specific questions rating the proposed capabilities. Interviews were transcribed and the content analysed. There was general agreement that the capabilities identified from the literature were relevant to real world contexts. However, interviewees varied in whether they could provide examples of experiences with the capabilities, how essential they considered the different capabilities to be and how difficult they considered the capabilities were to achieve. Efforts to improve the use of research in policy decision making are likely to benefit from targeting multiple organisational capabilities, including staff skills and competence, tools such as templates and checklists to aid evidence use and leadership support for the use of research in policy development. However, such efforts should be guided by an understanding of how policy agencies use evidence and how they view their roles, and external factors such as resource constraints and availability of appropriate research.

  13. International power supply policy and the globalisation of research: the example of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.; Gloede, F.; Lessmann, E.

    2001-01-01

    At the present state of our information, we can affirm that fusion research, as far as the necessary financial expenditures and their political justification are concerned, is a matter of politically controversial debate. In the political arenas, projects like controlled nuclear fusion are discussed primarily with regard to the controllability of complex technical systems and the sustainability of our future supply of electric power. The attempt to discuss this problem will have to consider: (i) on the one hand, already established concepts of sustainability; (ii) and on the other, the - according to the present state of our knowledge - foreseeable characteristics of a system of power generation and supply based on fusion reactors. Not only do the goals of global technology projects have to be embedded in patterns of universally accepted legitimisation (sustainability), but the organisation of research and development is also changing into networks acting globally. In this sense, globalisation means not only the worldwide linking of financial markets and the permanent availability of information and communication networks, but above all the creation of global organisations of research and innovation processes. The globalisation of research and development of technology has several dimensions: (i) the recognition and treatment of global problems; (ii) the transformation and evolution of new forms of organisation and cooperation in a global community of researchers; (iii) the constitution of Global Change Research. Fusion is playing a 'pathfinder role' for these processes and is at the same time itself an expression of the globalisation of the production of technology

  14. Nuclear power and the opting-out policy of the German Government. A matter of responsibility and controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, J.; Voss, A.

    2000-01-01

    The article critically reviews the energy policy of the German Government and the plans for winding down nuclear power generation and instead pursue a policy for a ''green reshufflement'' of generation technologies, providing for incentives to switch to options for decentralized power generation with enhanced use of renewable energy sources. The article explains arguments against the Government's opting-out policy which were laid down in a memorandum presented to the Government by a group of five university professors, among them the authors of this article who, as experts in this domain, are aware of their responsibility as scientists and members of society and therefore explain their view of the policy issues, also referring to a recent expert opinion of the German Wissenschaftsrat (science council), which recommended to continue nuclear energy research programmes and nuclear power generation. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Euro-led research team creates first ever reaction between matter and antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "An EU-funded team of international researchers has produced the first ever reaction between matter and antimatter, creating protonium. Protonium is a unique type of atom that consists of a proton and an antiproton orbiting around each other." (1 page)

  16. Research Self-Efficacy Sources and Research Motivation in a Foreign Language University Faculty in Mexico: Implications for Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cruz, María del Rosario; Perales-Escudero, Moisés Damián

    2016-01-01

    The research self-efficacy and motivation of foreign language (FL) faculty in periphery countries is under-researched, yet there is a need to understand the impact of public policies that drive such faculty to conduct research. This paper reports a qualitative case study investigating research self-efficacy and research motivation in a group of…

  17. Dengue Contingency Planning: From Research to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero; McCall, Philip J.; Sánchez Tejeda, Gustavo; Lloyd, Linda S.; Hakim, Lokman; Bowman, Leigh R.; Horstick, Olaf; Coelho, Giovanini

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is an increasingly incident disease across many parts of the world. In response, an evidence-based handbook to translate research into policy and practice was developed. This handbook facilitates contingency planning as well as the development and use of early warning and response systems for dengue fever epidemics, by identifying decision-making processes that contribute to the success or failure of dengue surveillance, as well as triggers that initiate effective responses to incipient outbreaks. Methodology/Principal findings Available evidence was evaluated using a step-wise process that included systematic literature reviews, policymaker and stakeholder interviews, a study to assess dengue contingency planning and outbreak management in 10 countries, and a retrospective logistic regression analysis to identify alarm signals for an outbreak warning system using datasets from five dengue endemic countries. Best practices for managing a dengue outbreak are provided for key elements of a dengue contingency plan including timely contingency planning, the importance of a detailed, context-specific dengue contingency plan that clearly distinguishes between routine and outbreak interventions, surveillance systems for outbreak preparedness, outbreak definitions, alert algorithms, managerial capacity, vector control capacity, and clinical management of large caseloads. Additionally, a computer-assisted early warning system, which enables countries to identify and respond to context-specific variables that predict forthcoming dengue outbreaks, has been developed. Conclusions/Significance Most countries do not have comprehensive, detailed contingency plans for dengue outbreaks. Countries tend to rely on intensified vector control as their outbreak response, with minimal focus on integrated management of clinical care, epidemiological, laboratory and vector surveillance, and risk communication. The Technical Handbook for Surveillance, Dengue Outbreak

  18. Fostering integrity in postgraduate research: an evidence-based policy and support framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Saadia; Bretag, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Postgraduate research students have a unique position in the debate on integrity in research as students and novice researchers. To assess how far policies for integrity in postgraduate research meet the needs of students as "research trainees," we reviewed online policies for integrity in postgraduate research at nine particular Australian universities against the Australian Code for Responsible Conduct of Research (the Code) and the five core elements of exemplary academic integrity policy identified by Bretag et al. (2011 ), i.e., access, approach, responsibility, detail, and support. We found inconsistency with the Code in the definition of research misconduct and a lack of adequate detail and support. Based on our analysis, previous research, and the literature, we propose a framework for policy and support for postgraduate research that encompasses a consistent and educative approach to integrity maintained across the university at all levels of scholarship and for all stakeholders.

  19. On the use of visual methodologies in educational policy research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methodological and policy implications that could be applied to a variety of ... approach involves the analysis of images, including the context, content, and .... to govern, modern states have participated in shaping and handling the behaviour of ...

  20. Privacy Policy | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The privacy of our users is of utmost importance to Frederick National Laboratory. The policy outlined below establishes how Frederick National Laboratory will use the information we gather about you from your visit to our website. We may coll

  1. Engaging Actors for Integrating Health Policy and Systems Research into Policy Making: Case Study from Haryana State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Good examples of evidence generation using Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR in low and middle income countries (LMIC; and its application in policy making are scarce. In this paper, we describe the experience of establishing a system of HPSR from the Haryana state in India, outline how the HPSR is being utilized for policy making and programmatic decision making, and analyse the key factors which have been critical to the implementation and uptake of HPSR. Methods: Multiple methods are employed in this case study, ranging from unstructured in-depth interviews, review of the program and policy documents, and participatory notes from the meetings. The steps towards creation of a knowledge partnership between stakeholders are outlined. Four case studies i.e. development of a plan for universal health care (UHC, nutrition policy, centralized drug procurement system and use of RAPID appraisal method highlight the use of research evidence in agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation respectively. Results: Our analysis shows that the most important factor which contributed to Haryana model of HPSR was the presence of a dedicated and motivated team in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM at state level, many of whom were researchers by previous training. Overall, we conclude by highlighting the need for establishing an institutional mechanism at Central and State level where health service administrators and managers, academicians and researchers working in the field of health system from medical colleges, public health schools, management and technology institutions and social science universities can identify health system research priorities. Increased budgetary allocation for HPSR is required.

  2. Engaging Actors for Integrating Health Policy and Systems Research into Policy Making: Case Study from Haryana State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Good examples of evidence generation using Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR in low and middle income countries (LMIC; and its application in policy making are scarce. In this paper, we describe the experience of establishing a system of HPSR from the Haryana state in India, outline how the HPSR is being utilized for policy making and programmatic decision making, and analyse the key factors which have been critical to the implementation and uptake of HPSR. Methods: Multiple methods are employed in this case study, ranging from unstructured in-depth interviews, review of the program and policy documents, and participatory notes from the meetings. The steps towards creation of a knowledge partnership between stakeholders are outlined. Four case studies i.e. development of a plan for universal health care (UHC, nutrition policy, centralized drug procurement system and use of RAPID appraisal method highlight the use of research evidence in agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation respectively. Results: Our analysis shows that the most important factor which contributed to Haryana model of HPSR was the presence of a dedicated and motivated team in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM at state level, many of whom were researchers by previous training. Overall, we conclude by highlighting the need for establishing an institutional mechanism at Central and State level where health service administrators and managers, academicians and researchers working in the field of health system from medical colleges, public health schools, management and technology institutions and social science universities can identify health system research priorities. Increased budgetary allocation for HPSR is required.

  3. Alignment of policies to maximize the climate benefits of diesel vehicles through control of particulate matter and black carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minjares, Ray; Blumberg, Kate; Posada Sanchez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Diesel vehicles offer greater fuel-efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions at a time when national governments seek to reduce the energy and climate impacts of the vehicle fleet. Policies that promote diesels like preferential fuel taxes, fuel economy standards and greenhouse gas emission standards can produce higher emissions of diesel particulate matter if diesel particulate filters or equivalent emission control technology is not in place. This can undermine the expected climate benefits of dieselization and increase impacts on public health. This paper takes a historical look at Europe to illustrate the degree to which dieselization and lax controls on particulate matter can undermine the potential benefits sought from diesel vehicles. We show that countries on the dieselization pathway can fully capture the value of diesels with the adoption of tailpipe emission standards equivalent to Euro 6 or Tier 2 for passenger cars, and fuel quality standards that limit the sulfur content of diesel fuel to no greater than 15 ppm. Adoption of these policies before or in parallel with adoption of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas standards can avert the negative impacts of dieselization. - Highlights: ► Preferential tax policies have increased the dieselization of some light-duty vehicle fleets. ► Dieselization paired with lax emission standards produces large black carbon emissions. ► Diesel black carbon undermines the perceived climate benefits of diesel vehicles. ► Stringent controls on diesel particulate emissions will also reduce black carbon. ► Euro 6/VI equivalent emission standards can preserve the climate benefits of diesel vehicles

  4. The Concept of Fear and the Matter of Emotions in Lithuania’s Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunalas Benas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the concept of fear in theories of international relations and foreign policy. The text discusses the concepts of the phenomenon of fear and rational behavior emphasizing that the concept of fear, contrary to the concept of anarchy, has no emotional charge in the theory of international relations. Having surveyed the factor of emotions in the theory of international relations and foreign policy, the author suggests that the emotional meaningful charge be returned to the concept of fear. The study stresses that fear (if treated as an emotion can also have a destructive function disrupting the international system and disturbing the international communication. The third part of the article is devoted to an analysis of the ideas of Lithuania‘s foreign policy. The study explores the idea of Lithuania as a regional leader. The writer claims that the idea was irrational because it was based on the factor of the emotion of fear.

  5. Does Age Matter in HR Decision Making? Four Types of Age Policies in Finnish Work Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pärnänen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension of work careers is one of the key targets of social policy in the EU as well as in Finnish national policy-making. But how is this objective of lengthened work life received at the workplace level? This study examines the aim of extending working careers at an organizational level. The data comprise interviews with human resources managers, shop stewards, and employees reaching the end of their working life, conducted in ten Finnish work organizations. Four different age policy lines can be distinguished from the data. First, the age policy practices of manufacturing enterprises are very much alike in that a clear turn has occurred from favoring the unemployment pension path in the case of dismissals to extending working careers. Second, the age policy of public sector organizations encourages investment in extending the working careers of older employees, though young people are clearly preferred in recruitment. The third line can be found in private service sector enterprises that utilize age segmentation based on the age of their customers – young waiters for young customers, for example – while the fourth can be described by the words ‘situation-specific’ and ‘passive’. No input is made into extending working careers and the unemployment route is used as the means of dismissal where needed. The study reveals that the organizations’ age policies are strategic in nature: longer working careers are supported and older people are hired only if it is strategically sound. It can be said that workplaces currently determine the boundaries of who and at what age people are fit for work and of ‘working age’.

  6. The quartz crystal microbalance in soft matter research fundamentals and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsmann, Diethelm

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the physics of the second-generation quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a fundamental method of analysis for soft matter at interfaces.From a device for measuring film thickness in vacuum, the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) has in the past two decades evolved into a versatile instrument for analyzing soft matter at solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces that found applications in diverse fields including the life sciences, material science, polymer research and electrochemistry. As a consequence of this success, the QCM is now being used by scientists with a wide variety

  7. Condensed matter and materials research using neutron diffraction and spectroscopy: reactor and pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisanti, Paola; Lovesey, S.W.

    1987-05-01

    The paper provides a short, and partial view of the neutron scattering technique applied to condensed matter and materials research. Reactor and accelerator-based neutron spectrometers are discussed, together with examples of research projects that illustrate the puissance and modern applications of neutron scattering. Some examples are chosen to show the range of facilities available at the medium flux reactor operated by Casaccia ENEA, Roma and the advanced, pulsed spallation neutron source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire. (author)

  8. Integrating agricultural research and policy analysis: analytical framework and policy applications for bio-economic modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Moll, H.; Kuyvenhoven, A.

    1998-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approaches to identify suitable incentives for enhancing sustainable natural resource use require an analytical framework that satisfies both practical purposes of policy support and disciplinary requirements regarding the specification of underlying technical and behavioural

  9. Strengthening capacity to apply health research evidence in policy making: experience from four countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Sarah; K Aulakh, Bhupinder; Jadeja, Nidhee; Jimenez, Michelle; Buse, Kent; Anwar, Iqbal; Barge, Sandhya; Odubanjo, M Oladoyin; Shukla, Abhay; Ghaffar, Abdul; Whitworth, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the use of evidence in policy making means strengthening capacity on both the supply and demand sides of evidence production. However, little experience of strengthening the capacity of policy makers in low- and middle- income countries has been published to date. We describe the experiences of five projects (in Bangladesh, Gambia, India and Nigeria), where collaborative teams of researchers and policy makers/policy influencers worked to strengthen policy maker capacity to increase the use of evidence in policy. Activities were focused on three (interlinked) levels of capacity building: individual, organizational and, occasionally, institutional. Interventions included increasing access to research/data, promoting frequent interactions between researchers and members of the policy communities, and increasing the receptivity towards research/data in policy making or policy-implementing organizations. Teams were successful in building the capacity of individuals to access, understand and use evidence/data. Strengthening organizational capacity generally involved support to infrastructure (e.g. through information technology resources) and was also deemed to be successful. There was less appetite to address the need to strengthen institutional capacity—although this was acknowledged to be fundamental to promoting sustainable use of evidence, it was also recognized as requiring resources, legitimacy and regulatory support from policy makers. Evaluation across the three spheres of capacity building was made more challenging by the lack of agreed upon evaluation frameworks. In this article, we propose a new framework for assessing the impact of capacity strengthening activities to promote the use of evidence/data in policy making. Our evaluation concluded that strengthening the capacity of individuals and organizations is an important but likely insufficient step in ensuring the use of evidence/data in policy-cycles. Sustainability of evidence

  10. Every Parent Matters: Reflections from England upon New Labour's Parent Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Howard; Simon, Catherine A.

    2010-01-01

    In England, until May 2010, the New Labour party had been in power for thirteen years. This paper is a reflection back upon its period in office and its strident policies on parents and families. It questions its stance on parental "voice and choice," looks at issues of trust and contract, and considers the idea of "parent…

  11. Application of HTA research on policy decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngkong, Sitaporn

    2014-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the potential uses of health technology assessment (HTA) in health technology or health intervention-related policy decision-making. It summarises the role of HTA in policy planning, health system investment, price negotiation, development of clinical practice guidelines, and communication with health professionals. While the multifaceted nature of HTA means that some aspects of the data can result in conflicting conclusions, the comprehensive approach of HTA is still recommended. To help minimise the potential conflicts within HTA data, a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach is recommended as a way to assess a number of decision criteria simultaneously. A combination of HTA with MCDA allows policy decision-making to be undertaken in an empirically rigorous and rational way. This combination can be used to support policy decision-makers in Thailand and help them prioritise topics for assessment and make informed health benefit package coverage decisions. This approach enhances the legitimacy of policy decisions by increasing the transparency, systematic nature, and inclusiveness of the process.

  12. Two Model-Based Methods for Policy Analyses of Fine Particulate Matter Control in China: Source Apportionment and Source Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions have been controlled in recent years in China to mitigate fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution. Recent studies show that sulfate dioxide (SO2)-only control cannot reduce total PM2.5 levels efficiently. Other species such as nitrogen oxide, ammonia, black carbon, and organic carbon may be equally important during particular seasons. Furthermore, each species is emitted from several anthropogenic sectors (e.g., industry, power plant, transportation, residential and agriculture). On the other hand, contribution of one emission sector to PM2.5 represents contributions of all species in this sector. In this work, two model-based methods are used to identify the most influential emission sectors and areas to PM2.5. The first method is the source apportionment (SA) based on the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) available in the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) driven by meteorological predictions of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. The second method is the source sensitivity (SS) based on an adjoint integration technique (AIT) available in the GEOS-Chem model. The SA method attributes simulated PM2.5 concentrations to each emission group, while the SS method calculates their sensitivity to each emission group, accounting for the non-linear relationship between PM2.5 and its precursors. Despite their differences, the complementary nature of the two methods enables a complete analysis of source-receptor relationships to support emission control policies. Our objectives are to quantify the contributions of each emission group/area to PM2.5 in the receptor areas and to intercompare results from the two methods to gain a comprehensive understanding of the role of emission sources in PM2.5 formation. The results will be compared in terms of the magnitudes and rankings of SS or SA of emitted species and emission groups/areas. GEOS-Chem with AIT is applied over East Asia at a horizontal grid

  13. To What Extent Are Canadian Second Language Policies Evidence-Based? Reflections on the Intersections of Research and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim eCummins

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the intersections between research, ideology, and Canadian educational policies focusing on four major areas: (a core and immersion programs for the teaching of French to Anglophone students, (b policies concerning the learning of English and French by students from immigrant backgrounds, (c heritage language teaching, and (d the education of Deaf and hard-of hearing students. With respect to the teaching of French, policy-makers have largely ignored the fact that most core French programs produce meager results for the vast majority of students. Only a small proportion of students (< 10% attend more effective alternatives (e.g. French immersion and Intensive French programs. With respect to immigrant-background students, a large majority of teachers and administrators have not had opportunities to access the knowledge base regarding effective instruction for these students nor have they had opportunities for pre-service or in-service professional development regarding effective instructional practices. Educational policies have also treated the linguistic resources that children bring to school with, at best, benign neglect. In some cases (e.g., Ontario school systems have been explicitly prohibited from instituting enrichment bilingual programs that would promote students’ bilingualism and biliteracy. Finally, with respect to Deaf students, policy-makers have ignored overwhelming research on the positive relationship between academic success and the development of proficiency in natural sign languages, preferring instead to perpetuate the falsehood that acquisition of languages such as American Sign Language by young children (with or without cochlear implants will impede children’s language and academic development. The paper reviews the kinds of policies, programs, and practices that could be implemented (at no additional cost if policy-makers and educators pursued evidence-based educational policies.

  14. Redesigning School Finance Systems: Lessons from CPRE Research. CPRE Policy Briefs. RB-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2007-01-01

    This policy brief describes how the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) has approached the objectives of educational equity and adequacy over the past decade and a half, and reveals how their current finance research has begun to explicitly link the level and use of resources with strategies that districts and schools can deploy to…

  15. Report on Current Praxis of Policies and Activities Supporting Societal Engagement in Research and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Rainer; Mbungu, Grace; Anderson, Edward; Chonkova, Blagovesta; Damianova, Zoya; Davis, Houda; Dencker, Siri; Jørgensen, Marie-Louise; Kozarev, Ventseslav; Larsen, Gy; Mulder, Henk; Pfersdorf, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the “Engage2020 Project” 1 is to promote the use of engagement methods and policies that support societal engagement in research and innovation by mapping what is practiced and spreading awareness of the opportunities amongst researchers, policy makers, and other interested parties. The

  16. Authorship Policies for the Conduct of Graduate Research in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Portela, Ana L.; Colon-Santaella, Carmen L.; Bonet-Rivera, Ivette

    2011-01-01

    Authorship credit is one of the areas addressed by research integrity. Policies established by graduate academic programs and academic institutions in Puerto Rico are analyzed by describing authorship principles included. Twenty-six percent of the policies specify that students are authors of their research work. Four percent of the policies…

  17. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number CDC-2011-0008] Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health... information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment in public health genomics...

  18. Policy Analysis: The New Reality for Institutional Research. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John D.; Fenske, Robert H.

    The problems and opportunities for institutional research in academe as it becomes increasingly policy analytic in activity and orientation are explored. It is suggested that for the 1980s the most viable and dynamic role for institutional research will be in providing leaders in higher education institutions with policy-relevant knowledge in…

  19. IS Research and Policy: Notes From the 2015 ICIS Senior Scholar’s Forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niederman, Fred; Applegate, Lynda; Beck, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Based on the International Conference on Information Systems’ (ICIS) 2015 senior scholars’ forum, we provide insights on the role and opportunities of IS researchers in shaping policy.......Based on the International Conference on Information Systems’ (ICIS) 2015 senior scholars’ forum, we provide insights on the role and opportunities of IS researchers in shaping policy....

  20. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  1. Putting the Steam Back into Critique? "Gathering" for Critical-Dissensual Collaborations in Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimans, Stephen; Singh, Parlo

    2018-01-01

    Bruno Latour famously asked, "Why has critique run out of steam?". In this paper we draw on his ideas to present some resources for "gathering"--for doing education policy research with others--which we term "critical-dissensual collaboration". We believe that our education policy research "critique from…

  2. Researching implementation of formative assessment in different educational cultures in order to change educational policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports from a four year international research project, Assess Inquiry in Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (ASSIST-ME) involving 10 partners in 8 European countries (http://assistme.ku.dk/), running 2012-2016. The project combines research on implementation of innovative ...... assessment methods with a policy aspect in order to influence educational policy....

  3. Research on the Field of Education Policy: Exploring Different Levels of Approach and Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardes, Jefferson; Tello, César

    2016-01-01

    This paper, of theoretical nature, explores the levels of approach and abstraction of research in the field of education policy: description, analysis and understanding. Such categories were developed based on concepts of Bourdieu's theory and on the grounds of epistemological studies focused on education policy and meta-research. This paper…

  4. Financial Aid Research: The Nexus of Academic, Practitioner, and Policy Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Donald E.

    2017-01-01

    Academic research often does not find its way into the policy arena because of the nature of the work. Policymakers often find journal articles and academic books too long, difficult to understand, and lacking in policy-relevant ideas and recommendations. This article provides suggestions to academic and other researchers on how to make their…

  5. How do researchers influence decision-makers? Case studies of Mexican policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostle, J; Bronfman, M; Langer, A

    1999-06-01

    Though the problems translating or applying research in policy-making are legion, solutions are rare. As developing countries increase their capacities to develop effective local solutions to their health problems, they confront the research/policy dilemma. Yet few descriptive studies of research-policy links can be found from developing countries, and the relevance of European and North American models and data is questionable. We report the results of a descriptive study from Mexico of the relationship between health research and policy in four vertical programmes (AIDS, cholera, family planning, immunization). We interviewed 67 researchers and policy-makers from different institutions and levels of responsibility. We analyzed interviewee responses looking for factors that promoted or impeded exchanges between researchers and policy-makers. These were, in turn, divided into emphases on content, actors, process, and context. Many of the promoting factors resembled findings from studies in industrialized countries. Some important differences across the four programmes, which also distinguish them from industrialized country programmes, included extent of reliance on formal communication channels, role of the mass media in building social consensus or creating discord, levels of social consensus, role of foreign donors, and extent of support for biomedical versus social research. We recommend various ways to increase the impact of research on health policy-making in Mexico. Some of the largest challenges include the fact that researchers are but one of many interest groups, and research but one input among many equally legitimate elements to be considered by policy-makers. Another important challenge in Mexico is the relatively small role played by the public in policy-making. Further democratic changes in Mexico may be the most important incentive to increase the use of research in policy-making.

  6. The politics of carbon taxation - how varieties of policy style matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2018-01-01

    that the share of fossil fuels in the energy mix defines the room for such taxes, nor does it point to a strong role for political partisanship. Rather, it is deep-seated patterns of national policy styles with neo-corporatist traits, providing a protective device for the open economies of small countries, which...... condition the introduction of carbon taxes. The associated routines of decision-making offer coordination mechanisms for proactive macroeconomic policies in which carbon taxation can find a place. Parliamentary democracies with proportional representation, as are common in the smaller countries, provide...... access to the government for political parties that pursue carbon taxation. These in turn sensitise larger political parties to climate concerns, as they benefit from institutionalised practices and routines for problem-solving and consensus-seeking. Carbon taxes tend to get more leeway in coordinated...

  7. Involving Research Stakeholders in Developing Policy on Sharing Public Health Research Data in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Irene; Kombe, Francis; Mwalukore, Salim; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Kamuya, Dorcas; Molyneux, Sassy

    2015-01-01

    Increased global sharing of public health research data has potential to advance scientific progress but may present challenges to the interests of research stakeholders, particularly in low-to-middle income countries. Policies for data sharing should be responsive to public views, but there is little evidence of the systematic study of these from low-income countries. This qualitative study explored views on fair data-sharing processes among 60 stakeholders in Kenya with varying research experience, using a deliberative approach. Stakeholders’ attitudes were informed by perceptions of benefit and concerns for research data sharing, including risks of stigmatization, loss of privacy, and undermining scientific careers and validity, reported in detail elsewhere. In this article, we discuss institutional trust-building processes seen as central to perceptions of fairness in sharing research data in this setting, including forms of community involvement, individual prior awareness and agreement to data sharing, independence and accountability of governance mechanisms, and operating under a national framework. PMID:26297748

  8. Never the twain shall meet?--a comparison of implementation science and policy implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Per; Ståhl, Christian; Roback, Kerstin; Cairney, Paul

    2013-06-10

    Many of society's health problems require research-based knowledge acted on by healthcare practitioners together with implementation of political measures from governmental agencies. However, there has been limited knowledge exchange between implementation science and policy implementation research, which has been conducted since the early 1970s. Based on a narrative review of selective literature on implementation science and policy implementation research, the aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of policy implementation research, analyze key similarities and differences between this field and implementation science, and discuss how knowledge assembled in policy implementation research could inform implementation science. Following a brief overview of policy implementation research, several aspects of the two fields were described and compared: the purpose and origins of the research; the characteristics of the research; the development and use of theory; determinants of change (independent variables); and the impact of implementation (dependent variables). The comparative analysis showed that there are many similarities between the two fields, yet there are also profound differences. Still, important learning may be derived from several aspects of policy implementation research, including issues related to the influence of the context of implementation and the values and norms of the implementers (the healthcare practitioners) on implementation processes. Relevant research on various associated policy topics, including The Advocacy Coalition Framework, Governance Theory, and Institutional Theory, may also contribute to improved understanding of the difficulties of implementing evidence in healthcare. Implementation science is at a relatively early stage of development, and advancement of the field would benefit from accounting for knowledge beyond the parameters of the immediate implementation science literature. There are many common issues in

  9. Never the twain shall meet? - a comparison of implementation science and policy implementation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many of society’s health problems require research-based knowledge acted on by healthcare practitioners together with implementation of political measures from governmental agencies. However, there has been limited knowledge exchange between implementation science and policy implementation research, which has been conducted since the early 1970s. Based on a narrative review of selective literature on implementation science and policy implementation research, the aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of policy implementation research, analyze key similarities and differences between this field and implementation science, and discuss how knowledge assembled in policy implementation research could inform implementation science. Discussion Following a brief overview of policy implementation research, several aspects of the two fields were described and compared: the purpose and origins of the research; the characteristics of the research; the development and use of theory; determinants of change (independent variables); and the impact of implementation (dependent variables). The comparative analysis showed that there are many similarities between the two fields, yet there are also profound differences. Still, important learning may be derived from several aspects of policy implementation research, including issues related to the influence of the context of implementation and the values and norms of the implementers (the healthcare practitioners) on implementation processes. Relevant research on various associated policy topics, including The Advocacy Coalition Framework, Governance Theory, and Institutional Theory, may also contribute to improved understanding of the difficulties of implementing evidence in healthcare. Implementation science is at a relatively early stage of development, and advancement of the field would benefit from accounting for knowledge beyond the parameters of the immediate implementation science literature. Summary

  10. Development, health, and international policy: the research and innovation dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Chamas, Claudia; Faid, Miriam; Morel, Carlos

    2016-11-03

    This text main objective is to discuss development and health from the perspective of the influence of global health governance, using as the tracer the dimension of research, development, and innovation policies in health, which relate to both important inputs for the health system, like drugs and medicines, vaccines, diagnostic reagents, and equipment, and innovative concepts and practices for the improvement of health systems and public health. The authors examine the two main macro-processes that influence development and health: the post-2015 Development Agenda and the process under way in the World Health Organization concerning research and development, intellectual property, and access to health inputs. The article concludes, first, that much remains to be done for the Agenda to truly represent a coherent and viable international political pact, and that the two macro-processes related to innovation in health need to be streamlined. But this requires democratization of participation by the main stakeholders - patients and the general population of the poorest countries - since this is the only way to overcome a "zero sum" result in the clash in the current debates among member State representatives. Resumo: O objetivo central deste texto é discutir desenvolvimento e saúde sob a ótica da influência da governança da saúde global, utilizando como traçador a dimensão das políticas de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação em saúde, que se referem, de um lado, a insumos importantes para o sistema de saúde - como fármacos e medicamentos, vacinas, reativos para diagnóstico e equipamentos e, de outro, a conceitos e práticas inovadoras para o aperfeiçoamento dos sistemas de saúde e da saúde pública. Examina os dois principais macroprocessos que influenciam o desenvolvimento e a saúde: a Agenda do Desenvolvimento para o pós-2015 e o processo sobre pesquisa e desenvolvimento, propriedade intelectual e acesso a insumos em saúde em curso na Organiza

  11. Adaptation Finance: Linking Research, Policy, and Business | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While many developing countries are formulating policies and systems to scale up adaptation initiatives, they have limited knowledge. They do not have the skills to design and implement tailored interventions to mobilize finance for adaptation, and many are not aware of new and innovative approaches to climate financing.

  12. Improving the Science-Policy Interface of Biodiversity Research Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neßhöver, C.; Timaeus, J.; Wittmer, H.; Krieg, A.; Geamana, N.; Van den Hove, S.; Young, J.; Watt, A.

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of a continuing biodiversity loss there is a strong need to improve the interfaces between science and policy. Many approaches for such interfaces exist, the most recent being the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). A less prominent

  13. Tax Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa : ECORYS Research Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkerink, B.S.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181281864

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies tax policies as currently pursued in a number of sub-Saharan African countries against the backdrop of increasing worldwide economic integration and the pressure this puts on revenues from trade taxes and taxes on mobile production factors. This contrasts with existing (growing)

  14. Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This is one of four pilot projects exploring the feasibility of a Think Heath Initiative, a prospective program that would support evidence-based policy engagement on the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The project will undertake seven national SDG scoping studies, one each for Ethiopia, Kenya, ...

  15. Institutional Support : Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant from IDRC's Think Tank Initiative (TTI) will help IPAR address its sustainability issues by offering competitive remuneration packages to reduce staff turnover, recruiting additional staff, training existing staff, improving organizational systems and infrastructure, expanding its policy advocacy work, enhancing the ...

  16. How research can affect policy and programme advocacy: example ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide a basis for continued policy dialogue and reform to address the problem of death due to abortion complications among the ECSA Health Community countries. The anticipated short-term outcome of this study was increased awareness among African health officials about the problem of incomplete ...

  17. The influence of research on Public Policy (2009) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-20

    Oct 20, 2016 ... ... and to examine the factors which affect the extent of policy influence resulting ... by offering feedback on performance and input on the design of the next ... then looks back at the organization's real work to gage whether – i.

  18. On the use of visual methodologies in educational policy research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In so doing, we suggest that the use of visual methodologies can help us to rethink policy, particularly in relation to studying social difference in globalizing ...... Religion, race, rights: Landmarks in the history of modern Anglo-American law. .... Governing the present: Administering economic, social and personal life.

  19. Social Media: Developing an Acceptable Use Policy. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The growing use of social media by students and staff has led many schools to consider developing acceptable use policies. There is tremendous opportunity for improving education through the use of social media. There is also potential risk because social media can be used to access age inappropriate information and to engage in aggressive online…

  20. Public health policy research: making the case for a political science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Nicole F; Clavier, Carole

    2011-03-01

    The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into public policy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of public policy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to public policy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of public policy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to public policy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion.

  1. Research Involving Health Providers and Managers: Ethical Issues Faced by Researchers Conducting Diverse Health Policy and Systems Research in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Sassy; Tsofa, Benjamin; Barasa, Edwine; Nyikuri, Mary Muyoka; Waweru, Evelyn Wanjiku; Goodman, Catherine; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the ethics of Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR), and especially in areas that have particular ethical salience across HPSR. Hyder et al (2014) provide an initial framework to consider this, and call for more conceptual and empirical work. In this paper, we respond by examining the ethical issues that arose for researchers over the course of conducting three HPSR studies in Kenya in which health managers and providers were key participants. All three studies involved qualitative work including observations and individual and group interviews. Many of the ethical dilemmas researchers faced only emerged over the course of the fieldwork, or on completion, and were related to interactions and relationships between individuals operating at different levels or positions in health/research systems. The dilemmas reveal significant ethical challenges for these forms of HPSR, and show that potential 'solutions' to dilemmas often lead to new issues and complications. Our experiences support the value of research ethics frameworks, and suggest that these can be enriched by incorporating careful consideration of context embedded social relations into research planning and conduct. Many of these essential relational elements of ethical practice, and of producing quality data, are given stronger emphasis in social science research ethics than in epidemiological, clinical or biomedical research ethics, and are particularly relevant where health systems are understood as social and political constructs. We conclude with practical and research implications. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination 10th anniversary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Ten years ago, on April 9, 1984, the Science Advisor to the President, and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, established the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) to meet the need for an interagency committee to address Congressionally mandated and agency-identified issues related to radiation research and policy. CIRRPC replaced the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy, a committee of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology, and assumed the responsibilities of the Interagency Radiation Research Committee and the Radiation Policy Council, whose charters had expired. Since then, CIRRPC has been recognized as an effective and respected mechanism for coordinating radiation policy among Federal agencies and as an efficient coordinator and evaluator of Federal efforts on designated radiation research projects. In the last 10 years, CIRRPC has established various Policy and Science Subpanels to undertake the oftentimes difficult task of resolving and coordinating agency policies and responses to issues dealing with radiation. These subpanels addressed such issues as the metrication of radiation units, the policy impact of the radioepidemiological tables, naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials, radon protection and health effects, predisaster planning for human health effects research, and ionizing radiation risk assessment. These subpanels and their work represent CIRRPC's continuing effort to seek a common position on issues of national significance and interest

  3. Why Changes in Price Matter When Thinking About Marijuana Policy: A Review of the Literature on the Elasticity of Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Lundberg, Russell

    Recent debates regarding liberalization of marijuana policies often rest on assumptions regarding the extent to which such policy changes would lead to a change in marijuana consumption and by whom. This paper reviews the economics literature assessing the responsiveness of consumption to changes in price and enforcement risk and explicitly considers how this responsiveness varies by different user groups. In doing so, it demonstrates how most of the research has examined responsiveness to prevalence of use, which is a composite of different user groups, rather than level of consumption among regular or heavy users, which represent the largest share of total quantities consumed. Thus, it is not possible to generate reliable estimates of the impact of liberalizing policies on either tax revenues or harms, as these outcomes are most directly influenced by the amounts consumed by regular or heavy users, not prevalence rates.

  4. Study on interaction of swift cluster ion beam with matter and irradiation effect (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yuichi; Shibata, Hiromi

    2010-07-01

    This review covers results of the 'Study of interaction on swift cluster ion beam with matter and irradiation effect' supported by the Interorganization Atomic Energy Research Program from 2006FY to 2008FY. It is composed of a research abstract for each sub-group with viewgraphs which were presented at the group meeting held on March 2009 or 'Meeting of High LET radiation -From fundamental study among physics, chemistry and biology to medical applications-' sponsored by Japan Society of Radiation Chemistry, cosponsored by this research group. (author)

  5. Policy Implications Analysis: A Methodological Advancement for Policy Research and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madey, Doren L.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    Policy Implications Analysis (PIA) is a tool designed to maximize the likelihood that an evaluation report will have an impact on decision-making. PIA was designed to help people planning and conducting evaluations tailor their information so that it has optimal potential for being used and acted upon. This paper describes the development and…

  6. Practitioner perspectives matter: Public policy and private investment in the U.S. electric power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    This dissertation examines the influence of attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of energy industry practitioners on investment decision-making with regard to fuel choice for new electric power plants. The conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and an extensive online survey I conducted of 600-800 energy professionals in the U.S. power sector. Chapter 1 analyzes the impact of policy uncertainty on investment decision-making in renewable energy, using the federal production tax credit (PTC) and wind energy investment as an example. It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the PTC causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the U.S. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. The widely held belief that the severe downturn in investment during "off" years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC turns out to be unsubstantiated: this chapter demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during "off" years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. This suggests that reducing regulatory uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from my survey, various alternative policy incentives are considered and compared in terms of their perceived reliability for supporting long-term investment. Chapter 2 introduces the concept of expected payment of carbon as a factor in investment decision-making. The notion of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under potential climate change policy) is usually incorporated into

  7. Engaging policy makers in road safety research in Malaysia: a theoretical and contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhan T; Hyder, Adnan A; Kulanthayan, Subramaniam; Singh, Suret; Umar, R S Radin

    2009-04-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a growing public health problem that must be addressed through evidence-based interventions including policy-level changes such as the enactment of legislation to mandate specific behaviors and practices. Policy makers need to be engaged in road safety research to ensure that road safety policies are grounded in scientific evidence. This paper examines the strategies used to engage policy makers and other stakeholder groups and discusses the challenges that result from a multi-disciplinary, inter-sectoral collaboration. A framework for engaging policy makers in research was developed and applied to describe an example of collective road safety research in Malaysia. Key components of this framework include readiness, assessment, planning, implementation/evaluation, and policy development/sustainability. The case study of a collaborative intervention trial for the prevention of motorcycle crashes and deaths in Malaysia serves as a model for policy engagement by road safety and injury researchers. The analytic description of this research process in Malaysia demonstrates that the framework, through its five stages, can be used as a tool to guide the integration of needed research evidence into policy for road safety and injury prevention.

  8. Pathways to Advancing Aging Policy-Relevant Research in Academic Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzman, Kathryn G; Troy, Lisa M; Green, Carmen R; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Policy-level changes have a significant influence on the health and well-being of aging populations. Yet there is often a gap between scientific knowledge and policy action. Although previous research has identified barriers and facilitators to effective knowledge translation, little attention has been given to the role of academic institutions in knowledge generation. This exploratory focus group study examines barriers and pathways to developing and maintaining an aging policy-relevant research agenda in academic settings, and additional challenges associated with minority group membership in this pursuit. Participants were personally committed to conducting policy-relevant research despite institutional barriers such as fewer funding opportunities and less value attributed to their research, particularly in the context of tenure and promotion. Although many viewed their research as an opportunity to make a difference, especially for underserved older adult populations, a number of minority group participants expressed that their policy research interests were marginalized. Participants offer individual and institutional-level strategies for addressing barriers, including collaborating with community members and colleagues and engaging mentors within and outside of their academic institutions. Reframing the valuation of policy research through the diversification of funding and publishing opportunities can better support scholars engaged in aging policy-relevant research.

  9. Policy Level Information on Logistics-Oriented Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Logistics Planann and System Long-Range Management Technology Planning Evaluation of Rold Miasion of Support Organizacion Effective Cross-Service Policies...guidelines, solution procedures, etc. The documentation format (technical report, user’s manual , briefing slides, etc.) also falls into this category...CHECK AT LEAST ONE) PhD Dissertation SMaster’s Thesis 7 Memorandum L Briefing Q Technical Report 7 Software Product O Hardware Product Q7 User’s Manual

  10. The AIR's policy on research involving the irradiation of human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The policy of the Australian Institute of Radiography with regards to the human subject irradiation is outlined. It is stated that members will not irradiate another individual, nor themselves, solely for the purposes of experimentation or research without gaining the prior approval of an institutional ethics committee. Where possible, researchers should consider the use of patient equivalent or human tissue equivalent phantoms. A short list of references has been compiled to assist members in designing research protocols which comply with the stated policy

  11. Access to essential medicines in Pakistan: policy and health systems research concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehla Zaidi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. METHODS: An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder's Roundtable. FINDINGS: A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. CONCLUSION: Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda.

  12. PUBLIC POLICY, CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AND BOYS AT RISK: CHALLENGING, ENDURING AND NECESSARY PARTNERSHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinney, Marvin; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Winn, Donna-Marie; Babcock, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Research findings documenting the issues and challenges of boys prebirth through age 5 years have barely penetrated the arena of public policy making nor has it permeated the public agenda of politicians, government, or other funding stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to articulate pathways for researchers to enter into the policy-making process. We review critical issues related to implementing the process of public policy. We argue that the policy process needs to be informed by more dynamic theoretical models of human development, and that researchers and clinicians need to be exposed more deeply to the processes required to inform and subsequently change public policy. We contend that most quantitative research on boys at risk occurs at the micro- and the mesosystem level rather than at the exo- and the macrosystem levels where structural societal policies embedded in economic and racial inequities contribute to risk. Researchers, clinicians, and policy makers need to create collaborative partnerships designed to develop, advocate, and implement more evidence-based policies designed to enhance the quality of life for boys at risk. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. Research on Climate Change Policies and Rural Development in Latin America: Scope and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Locatelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on climate change policies can contribute to policy development by building an understanding of the barriers faced in policy processes, and by providing knowledge needed throughout policy cycles. This paper explores the thematic coverage of research on climate change policies related to rural areas, rural development, and natural resource management in Latin America. A three-tier framework is proposed to analyse the selected literature. The results show that research studies have focussed on the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from forests, and adaptations to climate change in agriculture. There is little policy research on other vulnerable sectors (e.g., water and health and emitting sectors (e.g., energy and industry in the context of rural development. Our analysis highlights the various research gaps that deserve increased scientific attention, including: cross-sector approaches, multi-level governance, and the stages of policy adoption, implementation and evaluation. In addition, the selected literature has a limited contribution to theoretical discussions in policy sciences.

  14. Research translation to inform national health policies: learning from multiple perspectives in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play a major role in generating research evidence, their strategic approaches to influence health policies and decision making are weak. This study was conducted with the aim of understanding the process of translating research into policy in order to guide the strategic direction of Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS and similar institutions in their quest to influence health outcomes nationally and globally. Methods A case study approach using 30 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in two HIV prevention research project was purposively selected. The study sought to analyze the research-to-policy discourses for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT and safe male circumcision (SMC. The analysis sought to identify entry points, strengths and challenges for research-to-policy processes by interviewing three major groups of stakeholders in Uganda – researchers (8, policy makers (12 and media practitioners (12. Results Among the factors that facilitated PMTCT policy uptake and continued implementation were: shared platforms for learning and decision making among stakeholders, implementation pilots to assess feasibility of intervention, the emerging of agencies to undertake operations research and the high visibility of policy benefits to child survival. In contrast, SMC policy processes were stalled for over two years after the findings of the Uganda study was made public. Among other factors, policy makers demanded additional research to assess implementation feasibility of SMC within ordinary health system context. High level leaders also publicly contested the SMC evidence and the underlying values and messages – a situation that reduced the coalition of policy champions

  15. Health policy--why research it and how: health political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Clavier, Carole; Breton, Eric

    2014-09-23

    The establishment of policy is key to the implementation of actions for health. We review the nature of policy and the definition and directions of health policy. In doing so, we explicitly cast a health political science gaze on setting parameters for researching policy change for health. A brief overview of core theories of the policy process for health promotion is presented, and illustrated with empirical evidence. The key arguments are that (a) policy is not an intervention, but drives intervention development and implementation; (b) understanding policy processes and their pertinent theories is pivotal for the potential to influence policy change; (c) those theories and associated empirical work need to recognise the wicked, multi-level, and incremental nature of elements in the process; and, therefore, (d) the public health, health promotion, and education research toolbox should more explicitly embrace health political science insights. The rigorous application of insights from and theories of the policy process will enhance our understanding of not just how, but also why health policy is structured and implemented the way it is.

  16. Prevention of childhood obesity and food policies in Latin America: from research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Lutter, C K; Rabadan-Diehl, C; Rubinstein, A; Calvillo, A; Corvalán, C; Batis, C; Jacoby, E; Vorkoper, S; Kline, L; Ewart-Pierce, E; Rivera, J A

    2017-07-01

    Addressing childhood obesity in Latin America requires a package of multisectoral, evidence-based policies that enable environments conducive to healthy lifestyles. Identify and examine key elements to translating research into effective obesity policies in Latin America. We examined obesity prevention policies through case studies developed with an expert in the specific policy. Policies were selected based on their level of implementation, visibility and potential impact to reduce childhood obesity. They include: (i) excise taxes on sugar sweetened beverages and energy-dense foods; (ii) front-of-package food label legislation; (iii) trans fatty acids removal from processed foods; and (iv) Ciclovías recreativas or 'open streets'. Case studies were coded to identify components that explained successful implementation and sustainability using the Complex Adaptive Health Systems framework. The analysis identified key elements for effective and sustainable policy, including evidence justifying policy; evidence-based advocacy by civil society; political will; and legislation and skillful negotiations across government, academia, the private sector and civil society. Scientific evidence and evaluation played an important role in achieving tipping points for policies' launch and sustain effective implementation. Well-coordinated, intersectoral partnerships are needed to successfully implement evidence-based anti-obesity policies. Prospective policy research may be useful for advancing knowledge translation. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  17. The International Rare Diseases Research Consortium: Policies and Guidelines to maximize impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmüller, Hanns; Torrent I Farnell, Josep; Le Cam, Yann; Jonker, Anneliene H; Lau, Lilian Pl; Baynam, Gareth; Kaufmann, Petra; Dawkins, Hugh Js; Lasko, Paul; Austin, Christopher P; Boycott, Kym M

    2017-12-01

    The International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC) has agreed on IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines, following extensive deliberations and discussions in 2012 and 2013, as a first step towards improving coordination of research efforts worldwide. The 25 funding members and 3 patient umbrella organizations (as of early 2013) of IRDiRC, a consortium of research funders that focuses on improving diagnosis and therapy for rare disease patients, agreed in Dublin, Ireland in April 2013 on the Policies and Guidelines that emphasize collaboration in rare disease research, the involvement of patients and their representatives in all relevant aspects of research, as well as the sharing of data and resources. The Policies and Guidelines provide guidance on ontologies, diagnostics, biomarkers, patient registries, biobanks, natural history, therapeutics, models, publication, intellectual property, and communication. Most IRDiRC members-currently nearly 50 strong-have since incorporated its policies in their funding calls and some have chosen to exceed the requirements laid out, for instance in relation to data sharing. The IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines are the first, detailed agreement of major public and private funding organizations worldwide to govern rare disease research, and may serve as a template for other areas of international research collaboration. While it is too early to assess their full impact on research productivity and patient benefit, the IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines have already contributed significantly to improving transparency and collaboration in rare disease research.

  18. Institutional Support to Latin American Policy Research Organizations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will strengthen the ability of the 12 selected research institutions to provide, disseminate and communicate high-quality research. This will be achieved through measures aimed at enhancing the ability of staff to conduct sound research, improving organizational governance, and communicating with policymakers.

  19. Education(al) Research, Educational Policy-Making and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Professor Whitty has endorsed the consensus that research into education is empirical social science, distinguishing "educational research" which seeks directly to influence practice, and "education research" that has substantive value but no necessary practical application. The status of the science here is problematic. The positivist approach is…

  20. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  1. The Value of Qualitative Description in Health Services and Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Health services and policy (HSP) researchers have long used qualitative research methodologies to explore health system issues. However, the appropriateness of one approach, qualitative description, for HSP research is still often overlooked. In this article, I discuss the role that qualitative description can play in HSP research, and argue for its greater acceptance as a valid form of academic scholarship. PMID:28277201

  2. Fulfilling the Kyoto protocol in Spain: A matter of economic crisis or environmental policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafrilla, Jorge Enrique; López, Luis Antonio; Cadarso, María Ángeles; Dejuán, Óscar

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, Spain exceeded by 20.9% the CO 2 emissions allowed by the Kyoto Protocol for 2012. The financial and economic crisis has transformed these figures: as production fell so did energy demand and with it CO 2 emissions. Will the Spanish economic crisis allow Spain to fulfill its commitments? With this in mind, we have developed an extended input–output model able to forecast energy demand and compute CO 2 emissions linked to the consumption of energy goods: petroleum products, gas and coal. The results show that the crisis, and in particularly, the stagnation of the construction industry, is only one of the pillars which help to contain these emissions at −6.81%. The possibility of incorporating environmental policies, new technologies and increases in the price of crude oil in these simulations, means an even greater reduction of emissions than the impact of the crisis (−9.76%). The final result of our most pessimistic/realistic scenario is that, in 2012, Spain will exceed its CO 2 emissions, linked to the combustion of energy goods, by only 0.9%. - Highlights: ► We use an extended input–output model to forecast the evolution of CO 2 emissions. We evaluate the economic crisis impact on emissions figures (2008–2012). ► The environmental policies are introduced by considering structural trends. ► In our reference scenario, Spain exceeds Kyoto commitments only by 0.9% in 2012. ► The 16.6% emissions reduction is explained by trends (−9.8%) and crisis (−6,8%).

  3. Organisational capacity and its relationship to research use in six Australian health policy agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Steve R.; Haynes, Abby; Williamson, Anna; Redman, Sally

    2018-01-01

    There are calls for policymakers to make greater use of research when formulating policies. Therefore, it is important that policy organisations have a range of tools and systems to support their staff in using research in their work. The aim of the present study was to measure the extent to which a range of tools and systems to support research use were available within six Australian agencies with a role in health policy, and examine whether this was related to the extent of engagement with, and use of research in policymaking by their staff. The presence of relevant systems and tools was assessed via a structured interview called ORACLe which is conducted with a senior executive from the agency. To measure research use, four policymakers from each agency undertook a structured interview called SAGE, which assesses and scores the extent to which policymakers engaged with (i.e., searched for, appraised, and generated) research, and used research in the development of a specific policy document. The results showed that all agencies had at least a moderate range of tools and systems in place, in particular policy development processes; resources to access and use research (such as journals, databases, libraries, and access to research experts); processes to generate new research; and mechanisms to establish relationships with researchers. Agencies were less likely, however, to provide research training for staff and leaders, or to have evidence-based processes for evaluating existing policies. For the majority of agencies, the availability of tools and systems was related to the extent to which policymakers engaged with, and used research when developing policy documents. However, some agencies did not display this relationship, suggesting that other factors, namely the organisation’s culture towards research use, must also be considered. PMID:29513669

  4. Organisational capacity and its relationship to research use in six Australian health policy agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Steve R; Haynes, Abby; Williamson, Anna; Redman, Sally

    2018-01-01

    There are calls for policymakers to make greater use of research when formulating policies. Therefore, it is important that policy organisations have a range of tools and systems to support their staff in using research in their work. The aim of the present study was to measure the extent to which a range of tools and systems to support research use were available within six Australian agencies with a role in health policy, and examine whether this was related to the extent of engagement with, and use of research in policymaking by their staff. The presence of relevant systems and tools was assessed via a structured interview called ORACLe which is conducted with a senior executive from the agency. To measure research use, four policymakers from each agency undertook a structured interview called SAGE, which assesses and scores the extent to which policymakers engaged with (i.e., searched for, appraised, and generated) research, and used research in the development of a specific policy document. The results showed that all agencies had at least a moderate range of tools and systems in place, in particular policy development processes; resources to access and use research (such as journals, databases, libraries, and access to research experts); processes to generate new research; and mechanisms to establish relationships with researchers. Agencies were less likely, however, to provide research training for staff and leaders, or to have evidence-based processes for evaluating existing policies. For the majority of agencies, the availability of tools and systems was related to the extent to which policymakers engaged with, and used research when developing policy documents. However, some agencies did not display this relationship, suggesting that other factors, namely the organisation's culture towards research use, must also be considered.

  5. Translating childhood tuberculosis case management research into operational policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, N; Hinderaker, S G; Baloch, N A; Enarson, D A; Khan, M A; Morkve, O

    2011-08-01

    The control of childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been of low priority in TB programmes in high-burden settings. The objective of this paper was to describe the development and testing of tools for the management of childhood TB. The Pakistan National TB Control Programme embarked on a number of activities, including the establishment of policy guidelines for the management of childhood TB and later a guidance document, 'Case Management Desk Guide and Structured Monitoring', to demonstrate the implementation of childhood TB interventions in a programme context. Initial results showed improved case finding and treatment outcome in implementation sites compared with control districts. However, further programme attention is required to improve quality.

  6. Migration Studies and Academic Research on International Migration Policies in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Domenech

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the historical development of the field of migratory studies in Argentina and makes a review of the academic production around the so - called "migratory policies." The systematization of these studies, historically placed on migration policies, aims to highlight some of the most significant contributions of the research during the last 30 years, to understand or explain various aspects and dimensions of the Argentinean migration policy. To achieve this, texts were selected that derived from empirical research that explicitly assume the migratory policies as the object of study, or whose themes and research problems adopt as a framework for discussion the policies and practices aimed at regulating migration and mobility in Argentina. The organization and presentation of these selected texts consider issues related to the interests and thematic concerns, disciplinary and analytical approaches, distinct periods, scales of analysis and sources of information.

  7. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  8. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  9. Innovative Approaches for Pharmaceutical Policy Research in Developing Countries: The View Through a Market Lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waning, B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite one-third of the world lacking access to essential medicines, a dearth of pharmaceutical policy research in developing countries has resulted in policy decisions based upon opinion and conventional wisdom rather than evidence. While historical approaches to improve access to medicines

  10. Data-Based Decision Making at the Policy, Research, and Practice Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Ebbeler, J.

    2015-01-01

    Data-based decision making (DBDM) can lead to school improvement. However, schools struggle with the implementation of DBDM. In this symposium, we will discuss research and the implementation of DBDM at the national and regional policy level and the classroom level. We will discuss policy issues

  11. The Politics of Trade: The Role of Research in Trade Policy and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-05-07

    May 7, 2009 ... Drawing on internal political contexts and external influences on the policy ... the Latin American School of Social Sciences, and Senior Research ... call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South. ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work.

  12. Fisheries policy, research and the social sciences in Europe: Challenges for the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symes, D.; Hoefnagel, E.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite evidence of a broadening of the science base for European fisheries policy with the incorporation of an ecosystem approach and increasing use of economic modelling, the contribution of the social sciences to policy related research remains less conspicuous. Progress has occurred in the

  13. Qualitative Research as Policy Knowledge: Framing Policy Problems and Transforming Education from the Ground Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Michael J.; Anderson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    As educational research becomes privatized, commodified and commercialized, research relevance increasingly means being incorporated into neoliberal ideological and economic agendas. Within this social context, qualitative research in particular is often deemed less relevant (if not irrelevant) because it does not provide prescriptions for best…

  14. How do we define the policy impact of public health research? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alla, Kristel; Hall, Wayne D; Whiteford, Harvey A; Head, Brian W; Meurk, Carla S

    2017-10-02

    In order to understand and measure the policy impact of research we need a definition of research impact that is suited to the task. This article systematically reviewed both peer-reviewed and grey literature for definitions of research impact to develop a definition of research impact that can be used to investigate how public health research influences policy. Keyword searches of the electronic databases Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar were conducted between August 2015 and April 2016. Keywords included 'definition' and 'policy' and 'research impact' or 'research evidence'. The search terms 'health', public health' or 'mental health' and 'knowledge transfer' or 'research translation' were used to focus the search on relevant health discipline approaches. Studies included in the review described processes, theories or frameworks associated with public health, health services or mental health policy. We identified 108 definitions in 83 publications. The key findings were that literature on research impact is growing, but only 23% of peer-reviewed publications on the topic explicitly defined the term and that the majority (76%) of definitions were derived from research organisations and funding institutions. We identified four main types of definition, namely (1) definitions that conceptualise research impacts in terms of positive changes or effects that evidence can bring about when transferred into policies (example Research Excellence Framework definition), (2) definitions that interpret research impacts as measurable outcomes (Research Councils UK), and (3) bibliometric and (4) use-based definitions. We identified four constructs underpinning these definitions that related to concepts of contribution, change, avenues and levels of impact. The dominance of bureaucratic definitions, the tendency to discuss but not define the concept of research impact, and the

  15. Converging research needs across framework convention on tobacco control articles: making research relevant to global tobacco control practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan; Backinger, Cathy L

    2013-04-01

    Much of the research used to support the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was conducted in high-income countries or in highly controlled environments. Therefore, for the global tobacco control community to make informed decisions that will continue to effectively inform policy implementation, it is critical that the tobacco control community, policy makers, and funders have updated information on the state of the science as it pertains to provisions of the FCTC. Following the National Cancer Institute's process model used in identifying the research needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's relatively new tobacco law, a core team of scientists from the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco identified and commissioned internationally recognized scientific experts on the topics covered within the FCTC. These experts analyzed the relevant sections of the FCTC and identified critical gaps in research that is needed to inform policy and practice requirements of the FCTC. This paper summarizes the process and the common themes from the experts' recommendations about the research and related infrastructural needs. Research priorities in common across Articles include improving surveillance, fostering research communication/collaboration across organizations and across countries, and tracking tobacco industry activities. In addition, expanding research relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), was also identified as a priority, including identification of what existing research findings are transferable, what new country-specific data are needed, and the infrastructure needed to implement and disseminate research so as to inform policy in LMIC.

  16. Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interface between research and policymaking in low-income countries is highly complex. The ability of health systems research to influence policy processes in such settings face numerous challenges. Successful analysis of the research-policy interface in these settings requires understanding of contextual factors as well as key influences on the interface. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity is a consortium conducting research in six countries in Asia and Africa. One of the three cross-country research themes of the consortium is analysis of the relationship between research (evidence and policy making, especially their impact on the poor; insights gained in the initial conceptual phase of FHS activities can inform the global knowledge pool on this subject. Discussion This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered. Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for

  17. Research Productivity in Top-Ranked Schools in Psychology and Social Work: Research Cultures Do Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holosko, Michael J.; Barner, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We sought the answer to one major research question--Does psychology have a more defined culture of research than social work? Methods: Using "U.S. News and World Report" 2012 and 2013 rankings, we compared psychology faculty (N = 969) from their 25 top ranked programs with a controlled sample of social work faculty (N = 970)…

  18. THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL POLICY IN RESEARCH OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN SCIENTISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kinash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the cultural policies in research of domestic and foreign scientists. It was found that around the world it is a part of social policy and an important tool for development. The role of culture as a powerful means of consolidation of society, strengthening of national identity and patriotism is being determined. Implementation of cultural policy of Ukraine through the idea of national cultural revival and restoration of the unity of the state has been suggested. Keywords: cultural policy models, spirituality, society values, unity, national identity. JEL: Z 10

  19. Communication among scientists, decision makers and society: Developing policy-relevant global climate change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabo, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Defining the research most relevant to policy is not simply a technical task that can be answered by scientists. Decision makers need and value information differently than curiosity-driven scientists. In order to link science more effectively to policy, the two communities must gain a greater mutual understanding. Decision makers must define their needs so that scientists can determine how, and by when, research can address these needs. This vital dialogue between communities typically has been more ad hoc than systematic. The complexity and urgency of the global climate change issue necessitate ongoing communication between scientists and decision makers on the information needed for policy development and what research can provide The results of relevant science policy dialogues are discussed herein. Effective communication between researchers and decision makers is a crucial ingredient for successfully addressing society's pressing environmental concerns. The increase in policy makers' demands for research that is relevant to solving societal issues highlights the communication gap between the technical and policy communities. The gap, largely caused by lack of mutual understanding, results in flawed and inadequate communication that hinders decision making and confuses the public. This paper examines the cause of this communication gap and describes the significance of recent efforts to develop more fruitful science-policy dialogues on the issue of global climate change. First, the post-Cold War shift in government priorities for research funding is described; then the underlying relationship between science and policy is explored to identify key sources of ongoing mis-communication. The paper then explains the importance of defining policy-relevant science questions that research can address. Finally, three projects are described involving the elicitation of decision makers' information needs in The United States, The Netherlands, and internationally

  20. Exploring evidence-policy linkages in health research plans: A case study from six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladepo Oladimeji

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex evidence-policy interface in low and middle income country settings is receiving increasing attention. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity, is a research consortium conducting health systems explorations in six Asian and African countries: Bangladesh, India, China, Afghanistan, Uganda, and Nigeria. The cross-country research consortium provides a unique opportunity to explore the research-policy interface. Three key activities were undertaken during the initial phase of this five-year project. First, key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages in health system research were developed by FHS researchers through workshops and electronic communications. Four key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages are postulated: development context; research characteristics; decision-making processes; and stakeholder engagement. Second, these four considerations were applied to research proposals in each of the six countries to highlight features in the research plans that potentially strengthen the research-policy interface and opportunities for improvement. Finally, the utility of the approach for setting research priorities in health policy and systems research was reflected upon. These three activities yielded interesting findings. First, developmental consideration with four dimensions – poverty, vulnerabilities, capabilities, and health shocks – provides an entry point in examining research-policy interfaces in the six settings. Second, research plans focused upon on the ground realities in specific countries strengthens the interface. Third, focusing on research prioritized by decision-makers, within a politicized health arena, enhances chances of research influencing action. Lastly, early and continued engagement of multiple stakeholders, from local to national levels, is conducive to enhanced communication at the interface. The approach described has four main utilities: first

  1. Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods The TROPIC project draws on the concept of ‘knowledge exchange’ between policy developers (individuals; organisations) and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants’ skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1) develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2) collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative will be evaluated via

  2. The Voice of Women Scientists in EU Research Policy (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia

    2009-04-01

    The European Platform of Women Scientists (www.epws.org) is an umbrella organization bringing together networks of women scientists and organisations committed to gender equality in research in all disciplines all over Europe and the countries associated to the European Union's Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development. The goals of EPWS and its activities are presented.

  3. Bibliometric mapping as a science policy and research management tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noyons, Everard Christiaan Marie

    1999-01-01

    Bibliometric maps of science are landscapes of scientific research fields created by quantitative analysis of bibliographic data. In such maps the 'cities' are, for instance, research topics. Topics with a strong cognitive relation are in each other's vicinity and topics with a weak relation are

  4. From Research to Policy: Roma Participation through Communicative Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munte, Ariadna; Serradell, Olga; Sorde, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, Roma people's social exclusion has been reinforced through research that has legitimized stereotypes rather than helping to overcome them. This has led Roma people to refuse to participate in the kind of research that has contributed to discrimination against them. We describe how the critical communicative methodology, used in the…

  5. Institutional Support : Institute for Policy Analysis and Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant from IDRC's Think Tank Initiative (TTI) will allow IPAR-Rwanda to strengthen its managerial and research capacity by means of a mentoring program for managers, researchers and support staff. This will include formulating a set of organizational goals and establishing a monitoring system to assess progress ...

  6. Research Productivity and Its Policy Implications in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimbo, Maria Ana T.; Sulabo, Evangeline C.

    2014-01-01

    Responding to the Commission on Higher Education's development plan of enhancing research culture among higher education institutions, this study was conducted to analyze the research productivity of selected higher education institutions. It covered five state universities in the Philippines where a total of 377 randomly selected faculty members…

  7. The Open Method of Coordination in Research Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    A report from the Expert Group for the follow-up of the research aspects of the revised Lisbon strategy.......A report from the Expert Group for the follow-up of the research aspects of the revised Lisbon strategy....

  8. The Use of Policy Analysis and Research Project Library in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper gi ves a n historical background of PARP and the library, which e nhances legislative research by supporting her with documents within the frame work of the social sciences. A survey research method is used; questionnaire was designed and distributed among three categories of user of PARP library which ...

  9. Advancing sustainable development in Canada : policy issues and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliadis, P.; Slayen, S.

    2003-11-01

    This paper defined 7 policy-relevant issues that advance sustainable development in Canada. These were; (1) urban redesign, (2) freshwater management, (3) eco-region sustainability, (4) impacts of globalization on sustainable development in Canada, (5) designing signals and incentives that promote sustainable behaviour among citizens, (6) reducing the ecological burden of unsustainable lifestyles, and (7) international engagement in sustainable development. The authors questioned why these issues have not made greater progress, given that they have been on national and international agendas since 1972. They also questioned why it is so difficult to integrate environmental and economic signals. Finally, they examined whether enough ecological and political space can be provided to developing countries to achieve sustainable development while enhancing the standard of living in Canada and not threatening critical global systems. 173 refs

  10. Partnering Healthy@Work: an Australian university-government partnership facilitating policy-relevant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Kim; Venn, Alison; Jarman, Lisa; Seal, Judy; Teale, Brook; Scott, Jennifer; Sanderson, Kristy

    2017-12-01

    Research funding is increasingly supporting collaborations between knowledge users and researchers. Partnering Healthy@Work (pH@W), an inaugural recipient of funding through Australia's Partnership for Better Health Grants scheme, was a 5-year partnership between the Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania and the Tasmanian State Service (TSS). The partnerships purpose was to evaluate a comprehensive workplace health promotion programme (Healthy@Work) targeting 30 000 public sector employees; generating new knowledge and influencing workplace health promotion policy and decision-making. This mixed methods study evaluates the partnership between policy-makers and academics and identifies strategies that enabled pH@W to deliver key project outcomes. A pH@W document review was conducted, two partnership assessment tools completed and semi-structured interviews conducted with key policy-makers and academics. Analysis of the partnership assessment tools and interviews found that pH@W had reached a strong level of collaboration. Policy-relevant knowledge was generated about the health of TSS employees and their engagement with workplace health promotion. Knowledge exchange of a conceptual and instrumental nature occurred and was facilitated by the shared grant application, clear governance structures, joint planning, regular information exchange between researchers and policy-makers and research student placements in the TSS. Flexibility and acknowledgement of different priorities and perspectives of partner organizations were identified as critical factors for enabling effective partnership working and research relevance. Academic-policy-maker partnerships can be a powerful mechanism for improving policy relevance of research, but need to incorporate strategies that facilitate regular input from researchers and policy-makers in order to achieve this. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  11. Open Access Policies of Research Funders: The Case Study of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)

    OpenAIRE

    Tonto, Yaşar; Doğan, Güleda; Al, Umut; Madran, Orçun

    2015-01-01

    The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) is the main funder for basic research in Austria. FWF has been instrumental in promoting Open Access in Austria and elsewhere and possesses a strong Open Access policy for the research it funds. This case study presents FWF as a good practice of an effective funder policy on account of its comprehensive strategy and multi-faceted approach for implementing and supporting it.

  12. Development of a method for research in sports policy in Brazil: an approach to method of mixed research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marinho Mezzadri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method of mixed research for the study of Sport public policy in Brazil. To reach the result, the text was divided into two phases. In the first, it presents a conceptual model for the qualitative analysis of Brazilian public policies directed to the sport. This phase will still be divided into two stages. The first is the construction of a theoretical framework for the interpretation of the study on public policies and the other one demonstrates a conceptual methodological contribution based on the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. In the second phase it is developed an analysis of the quantitative part which aims to interpret the data that were collected in the empirical part of the research. Later, it will be possible to produce a model of assessment, monitoring, and, especially, the improvement of public policies for Brazilian sport.

  13. Knowledge to Policy: Making the Most of Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-04-05

    Apr 5, 2009 ... This book is the most recent to address this question, investigating the effects ... public administration, development studies, and international affairs; ... was a Research Fellow in Sustainability Science at Harvard University's ...

  14. Shaping Public Health Education, Research, and Policy in the Arab ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While the Arab World has enjoyed substantial economic progress, there has been little ... It is coordinating and strengthening two existing research networks: the ... and the impact of war and the regional governance crisis on public health.

  15. Current state of seagrass ecosystem services: Research and policy integration

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz-Frau, A.; Gelcich, S.; Hendriks, I.E.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà , N.

    2017-01-01

    areas; a type of service research bias, provisioning and regulating services have received extensive attention while cultural services remain understudied; a type of discipline bias, the ecological aspects of SGES have been well documented while economic

  16. Impact of research on policy and practice | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... ... food and water, worsening migration pressures and possibly increasing the ... as 'a chaos of purposes and accidents', I prefer to use the terms complex, ... poverty in Uganda found that only 2 of 25 were researchable issues.

  17. Strengthening research's influence on adaptation policies in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    decision-makers about climate change adaptation, and ensure partners' research contributions are taken into account. Our approach to supporting .... locally-based climate information centres improve planning and disaster risk management.

  18. An evaluation of incentives and policies that affect research institutions' knowledge transfer activities at researcher and management level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of incentives and policies on transferring research results from public organisations (e.g. universities, public research centres) to firms. The views in this paper are, for a large part, based on the findings of an extensive survey of academic papers and reports

  19. Port economics, policy and management : review of an emerging research field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallis, A.A.; Vitsounis, T.K.; Langen, de P.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews research in port economics, policy and management during the period 1997-2008. In an increasingly international economy, research interest in ports is gradually emerging. This paper examines the developments, themes and characteristics of this research, by reviewing a

  20. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy: Charlotte J. Patterson

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Charlotte J. Patterson, winner of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, is cited as the world's expert on psychological research on children and youths raised by lesbian and gay parents. Her early analytic syntheses of the literature on the subject greatly influenced other researchers in child and family…

  1. Environmental research organizations and climate change policy analytical capacity : an assessment of the Canadian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, M.; Oliphant, S.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a topic of increasing interest to contemporary decision makers. In order for governments to make informed decisions in climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts, environmental policy makers require strong research and analytical capabilities to design and implement effective policies to deal with wide-ranging and complex policy issues. This articles presented a 7-criteria model of policy analytical capacity (PAC) and applied it to 3 prominent Canadian environmental policy research organizations. The 2 governmental organizations examined in this study were Environment Canada and the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, while the non-government organization was the David Suzuki Foundation. Following the 7 principles that determine the PAC of an organization, each case study examined the education/training of the organization's employees; the types and mix of policy analysis techniques used by the organization; the culture and structure of decision making in the organization; the nature and source of demand for the organization's research; and the organization's access to necessary data and information to conduct work at a high level of competence. Interview data provided information on the status of each organizations' current research capacity and the effect this has on overall government policy-making capability in the face of climate change challenges. 75 refs.

  2. Linking Physical Climate Research and Economic Assessments of Mitigation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainforth, David; Calel, Raphael

    2017-04-01

    Evaluating climate change policies requires economic assessments which balance the costs and benefits of climate action. A certain class of Integrated Assessment Models (IAMS) are widely used for this type of analysis; DICE, PAGE and FUND are three of the most influential. In the economics community there has been much discussion and debate about the economic assumptions implemented within these models. Two aspects in particular have gained much attention: i) the costs of damages resulting from climate change - the so-called damage function, and ii) the choice of discount rate applied to future costs and benefits. There has, however, been rather little attention given to the consequences of the choices made in the physical climate models within these IAMS. Here we discuss the practical aspects of the implementation of the physical models in these IAMS, as well as the implications of choices made in these physical science components for economic assessments[1]. We present a simple breakdown of how these IAMS differently represent the climate system as a consequence of differing underlying physical models, different parametric assumptions (for parameters representing, for instance, feedbacks and ocean heat uptake) and different numerical approaches to solving the models. We present the physical and economic consequences of these differences and reflect on how we might better incorporate the latest physical science understanding in economic models of this type. [1] Calel, R. and Stainforth D.A., "On the Physics of Three Integrated Assessment Models", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, in press.

  3. The research, policy and practice interface: reflections on using applied social research to promote equity in health in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Sally; Nhlema-Simwaka, Bertha

    2008-09-01

    The case for research to promote equity in health in resource poor contexts such as Malawi is compelling. In Malawi, nearly half of all the people with tuberculosis cannot afford to access free tuberculosis services. In this scenario, there is a clear need to understand the multiple barriers poor women and men face in accessing services and pilot interventions to address these in a way that engages policy makers, practitioners and communities. This paper provides a critical reflection on our experience as applied social researchers working at the REACH (Research for Equity and Community Health) Trust in Malawi. Our work largely uses qualitative research methodologies as a tool for applied social research to explore the equity dimensions of health services in the country. We argue that a key strength of qualitative research methods and analysis is the ability to bring the perceptions and experiences of marginalised groups to policy makers and practitioners. The focus of this paper is two-fold. The first focus lies in synthesising the opportunities and challenges we have encountered in promoting the use of applied social research, and in particular qualitative research methods, on TB and HIV in Malawi. The second focus is on documenting and reflecting on our experiences of using applied social research to promote gender equity in TB/HIV policy and practice in Malawi. In this paper, we reflect on the strategic frameworks we have used in the Malawian context to try and bring the voices of poor women and men to policy makers and practitioners and hence intensify the research to policy and practice interface.

  4. The roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Van Poeck, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Education Research has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from...... the past two decades, for three reasons. First, to provide readers with a series of snapshots into the genealogy of ESE policy research in this field. Second, to encourage renewed attention to previously published work. And third, to offer commentary on the evolution of research trends, approaches...

  5. Flood Risk Management Policy in Scotland: Research Questions Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Hastings, Emily; MacDonald, Jannette

    2016-04-01

    Scotland's Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) delivers accessible research and expert opinion to support the Scottish Government and its delivery partners in the development and implementation of water policy. It was established in 2011 by the Scottish Government (Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services) in recognition of a gap in the provision of short term advice and research to policy (development and implementation). Key policy areas include the Water Framework Directive, Floods Directive, Drinking Water Directive, Habitats Directive and Scotland's Hydro Nation Strategy. CREW is unique in its demand-driven and free service for policy makers and practitioners, managing the engagement between scientists, policy makers and practitioners to work effectively across this interface. The users of CREW are the Scottish Government, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Natural Heritage and Scottish Water. CREW has funded around 100 projects relating to water policy since its inception in 2011. Of these, a significant number relate to flood risk management policy. Based on a review of work to date, this poster will give an overview of these projects and a forward look at the challenges that remain. From learning from community led flood risk management to surface water flood forecasting for urban communities, links will be made between sustainable and traditional flood risk management while considering the perceptions of stakeholders to flood risk management. How can we deliver fully integrated flood risk management options? How policy makers, scientists and land managers can better work together will also be explored.

  6. Policy research institutions and the health SDGs: Building ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Each will analyze the presence or absence of civil society engagement and local community-level engagement in the SDGs in the countries, and will offer insights into ... IDRC is supporting research that studies the most effective ways to empower women, prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for ...

  7. Building Policy Research Capacity for Rural Governance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Agent(e) responsable du CRDI. Rodriguez, Mr. Edgard. Financement total. CAD$ 1,450,000. Pays. Asie du sud, Asie centrale, Extrême-Orient, Inde. Chargé(e) de projet. Dr Hari Nagarajan. Institution. National Council of Applied Economic Research. Pays d' institution. India. Site internet. http://www.ncaer.org. Extrants.

  8. Commentary on Sexual Orientation: Research and Social Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the methodology and conclusions reached in the 12 research articles in this issue as they pertain to 3 questions: (1) is homosexuality a choice?; (2) what psychological risks are unique to the mental health and well-being of lesbian and gay youths?; and (3) what are the effects of being raised by homosexual parents? (MDM)

  9. Commentary Health research and policy in the Arab world: dealing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 تشرين الأول (أكتوبر) 2013 ... The Arab World is witnessing critical transitions that will affect the future of our communities. Research and science play an instrumental role in ...

  10. Institutional Support to Policy Research Organizations in India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will do so through measures aimed at enhancing the ability of staff to conduct sound research, improving organizational performance and forging links with ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: ...

  11. Research Policy in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-16

    plasma physics, nuclear physics, space research, astronomy, radioastronomy , solid state physics, meteorology, and social and educational sciences. Most of...fUr Radioastronomie ( radioastronomy ) Max-Planck-Institut fur Str~5mungsforschung (fluid dynamics) Humanities Section Bibliotheca Hertziana (Max-Planck

  12. Using research to change policy and practice: A Canadian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... The study's author, Stacie Travers, also carried out four case studies on ... The study found that the organizations carry out research themselves or in collaboration with others. ... Women in Cities International, for example, partners with the Women and Habitat Network in Argentina to collect data and engage ...

  13. Bilingualism and Cognition: Informing Research, Pedagogy, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Nanez, Jose E., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 7% to 10% of children are raised in bilingual households. Despite inherent advantages to bilingualism, some bilingual children experience a significant lag in academic success relative to other groups. Bridging the fields of cognitive psychology and education, this volume presents research-based knowledge on…

  14. Alcohol industry influence on UK alcohol policy: A new research agenda for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; McCambridge, Jim

    2012-09-01

    The British government has been criticised for according industry interests too much weight in alcohol policy-making. Consequently, it has been argued that alcohol strategy in the UK is built around policies for which the evidence base is weak. This has clear implications for public health. The purpose of this commentary is to map recent developments in UK alcohol policy and related debates within the alcohol policy literature, thus laying the foundations for a systematic examination of the influence of the alcohol industry on alcohol policy. It highlights the changing structure of the industry and summarises what is known about the positions and strategies of industry actors towards alcohol policy. In so doing, it aims to contribute not just to debates about alcohol policy, but to a broader understanding of health policy processes and the relationships between government and other stakeholders. It advances a new research agenda focused on the role of corporate actors in the field of alcohol policy and public health more broadly.

  15. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    OpenAIRE

    Subekti, Ridwan Arief; Hartanto, Agus; Susanti, Vita

    2012-01-01

    The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the probl...

  16. GrOW briefs: From research to policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... ​For access to more GrOW findings and literature, visit the GrOW Research Series. Learn more about the GrOW program. What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox ...

  17. From research to policy: The White Cap Wilderness Fire Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane Smith

    2014-01-01

    On August 18, 1972, an aerial patrol reported a snag burning deep in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness in Idaho. Bob Mutch, then a young research forester, traveled to the site the following day for an on-the-ground assessment. It was, Mutch later recalled, a little "nothing fire" that posed no threat. And he was right. Growing to only 24 feet by 24...

  18. Turning research into policy: a survey on adolescent condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, S R

    1995-01-01

    Results from a 1991-92 survey of the condom use beliefs, attitudes, and practices of 373 US inner-city high school students reveal educational policy implications which would further the goal of encouraging sexually active youth to use condoms. First, the issue of sexual desire must be treated realistically. Many teenage girls, as well as boys, want to fulfill their desires by having sexual intercourse. The standard educational approach to teenage boys also assumes that they are sexual exploiters, but this may also simply be a cultural construct rather than a reality. Addressing physical pleasure issues may be particularly important in encouraging condom use, but it would be inappropriate for such discussions to encourage sexual activity. Adolescent ambivalence towards risk taking and mortality must also be considered. Standard definitions of risk (which exclude the health risk of pregnancy) contain the common perception that adolescent males are greater risk-takers than females. When such definitions exclude certain behaviors, the classification of risk becomes a social construct. Adolescents are not completely unaware of the dangers of risky behavior and may even overestimate their chances of getting pregnant or contracting HIV. Adolescents may find the risk of offending a partner to be more important than the risk of contracting a disease in 10 years. When teenagers believe themselves to be in love, they are less likely to insist on condom use. Educators must deconstruct risks and address each one specifically. High levels of knowledge about HIV transmission fail to predict previous, current, or intended condom use. Thus, while facts are important, teenagers also need to learn the social skills surrounding condom use. Students have easy accessibility to condoms, but embarrassment may pose a barrier to acquisition. This embarrassment, however, showed no correlation to actual or intended condom use. By working within the context of the adolescent mind and world

  19. Examining the use of health systems and policy research in the health policymaking process in Israel: views of researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Moriah E; Lavis, John N; Shemer, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    All too often, health policy and management decisions are made without making use of or consulting with the best available research evidence, which can lead to ineffective and inefficient health systems. One of the main actors that can ensure the use of evidence to inform policymaking is researchers. The objective of this study is to explore Israeli health systems and policy researchers' views and perceptions regarding the role of health systems and policy research (HSPR) in health policymaking and the barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence in the policymaking process. A survey of researchers who have conducted HSPR in Israel was developed. The survey consisted of a demographics section and closed questions, which focused on support both within the researchers' organisations and the broader environment for KTE activities, perceptions on the policymaking process, and the potential influencing factors on the process. The survey was sent to all health systems and policy researchers in Israel from academic institutions, hospital settings, government agencies, the four health insurance funds, and research institutes (n = 107). All responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. For close-ended questions about level of agreement we combined together the two highest categories (agree or strongly agree) for analysis. Thirty-seven respondents participated in the survey. While many respondents felt that the use of HSPR may help raise awareness on policy issues, the majority of respondents felt that the actual use of HSPR was hindered for many reasons. While facilitators do exist to support the use of research evidence in policymaking, numerous barriers hinder the process such as challenges in government/provider relations, policymakers lacking the expertise for acquiring, assessing, and applying HSPR and priorities in the health system drawing attention away from HSPR. Furthermore, it is perceived by a majority of respondents that the health insurance funds

  20. [The legal question of the obtention of human stem cells for biomedical research. Legislation policy considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The future Law on Biomedical Research, whose draft bill has been approved by the Council of Ministers and that will soon begin its parliamentary process of approval, will regulate, among other matters, the research with embryos. Likewise, it will make a pronouncement on the so-called therapeutic cloning. This report makes a detailed analysis of different matters that must be borne in mind by the legislator in order to face the process of evaluation and approval of said Law in relation with the aforementioned matters. It makes a special analysis of the legal texts of an international nature to which Spain is unavoidably subjected to, in such a way that the legislative text that will finally be approved is not contrary to the dispositions that are within such.

  1. Translating Research into Policy: Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Carol Ferrans is internationally recognized for her work in disparities in health care and quality of life outcomes. She has a distinguished record of research that includes major grants funded by three institutes of the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute, National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities, and National Institute for Nursing Research).    Dr. Ferrans’ work has been instrumental in reducing the disparity in breast cancer mortality Chicago, which at its peak was among the worst in the nation.  Efforts led by Dr. Ferrans and colleagues led directly to statewide legislation, to address the multifaceted causes of black/white disparity in deaths from breast cancer.  She was one of the founders of the Metropolitan Chicago Breast Cancer Task Force (MCBCTF), leading the team focusing on barriers to mammography screening, to identify reasons for the growing disparity in breast cancer mortality. Their findings (citing Ferrans’ research and others) and recommendations for action were translated directly into the Illinois Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities Act and two additional laws strengthening the Act.  These laws and other statewide efforts have improved access to screening and quality of mammography throughout the Illinois. In addition, Dr. Ferrans and her team identified cultural beliefs contributing to later stage diagnosis of breast cancer in African American and Latino women in Chicago, and most importantly, showed that these beliefs can be changed.  They reached more than 8,000 African American women in Chicago with a short film on DVD, which was effective in changing beliefs and promoting screening.  Her team’s published findings were cited by the American Cancer Society in their guidelines for breast cancer screening.  The Chicago black/white disparity in breast cancer deaths has decreased by 35% since the MCBCTF first released its report, according to data from the Illinois Department of Public

  2. Advances in high pressure research in condensed matter: proceedings of the international conference on condensed matter under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.; Gupta, Satish C.; Godwal, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The use of pressure as a thermodynamic variable for studying condensed matter has become very important in recent years. Its main effect is to reduce the volume of a substance. Thus, in some sense, it mimics the phenomena taking place during the cohesion of solids like pressure ionization, modifications in electronic properties and phase changes etc. Some of the phase changes under pressure lead to synthesis of new materials. The recent discovery of high T c superconductivity in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 may be indirectly attributed to the pressure effect. In applied fields like simulation of reactor accident, design of inertial confinement fusion schemes and for understanding the rock mechanical effects of shock propagation in earth due to underground nuclear explosions, the pressure versus volume relations of condensed matter are a vital input. This volume containing the proceedings of the International Conference on Condensed Matter Under High Pressure covers various aspects of high pressure pertaining to equations of state, phase transitions, electronic, optical and transport properties of solids, atomic and molecular studies, shock induced reactions, energetic materials, materials synthesis, mineral physics, geophysical and planetary sciences, biological applications and food processing and advances in experimental techniques and numerical simulations. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  3. Health policy and systems research training: global status and recommendations for action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancred, Tara M; Schleiff, Meike; Peters, David H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the characteristics of health policy and systems research training globally and to identify recommendations for improvement and expansion. Methods We identified institutions offering health policy and systems research training worldwide. In 2014, we recruited participants from identified institutions for an online survey on the characteristics of the institutions and the courses given. Survey findings were explored during in-depth interviews with selected key informants. Findings The study identified several important gaps in health policy and systems research training. There were few courses in central and eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa or Latin America. Most (116/152) courses were instructed in English. Institutional support for courses was often lacking and many institutions lacked the critical mass of trained individuals needed to support doctoral and postdoctoral students. There was little consistency between institutions in definitions of the competencies required for health policy and systems research. Collaboration across disciplines to provide the range of methodological perspectives the subject requires was insufficient. Moreover, the lack of alternatives to on-site teaching may preclude certain student audiences such as policy-makers. Conclusion Training in health policy and systems research is important to improve local capacity to conduct quality research in this field. We provide six recommendations to improve the content, accessibility and reach of training. First, create a repository of information on courses. Second, establish networks to support training. Third, define competencies in health policy and systems research. Fourth, encourage multidisciplinary collaboration. Fifth, expand the geographical and language coverage of courses. Finally, consider alternative teaching formats. PMID:27429488

  4. Is Twitter a forum for disseminating research to health policy makers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Julie M; Hensel, Brian; Schnoring, Kyle T

    2015-12-01

    Findings from scientific research largely remain inside the scientific community. Research scientists are being encouraged to use social media, and especially Twitter, for dissemination of evidence. The potential for Twitter to narrow the gap on evidence translated into policy presents new opportunities. We explored the innovative question of the feasibility of Twitter as a tool for the scientific community to disseminate to and engage with health policy makers for research impact. We created a list of federal "health policy makers." In December 2014, we identified members using several data sources, then collected and summarized their Twitter usage data. Nearly all health policy makers had Twitter accounts. Their communication volume varied broadly. Policy makers are more likely to push information via Twitter than engage with constituents, although usage varied broadly. Twitter has the potential to aid the scientific community in dissemination of health-related research to health policy makers, after understanding how to effectively (and selectively) use Twitter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Theoretical research of probability of wedging of particulate matters at polishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Molchanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of formation of mikroprofile of the polished surface is expounded taking into account influence of particulate matters, contained in lubricating-coolings liquids. Probability of wedging of abrasive particles is investigational in the area of contact of diamond-impregnated with the surface of detail. It is set that for determination of probability of event, when a particle, getting together with a liquid in the area of contact, abandons track-scratch on a superficial layer, it is necessary to take into account, that three mutual locations of hard particle are possible in the area of contact of diamond-impregnated with the surface of detail. It is set researches, that a hard particle, getting together with a liquid in the area of contact, abandons track-scratch on-the-spot in that case, when the sizes of particle are equal or a few exceed distance from the surface of detail to the ledges on-the-spot diamond-impregnated. Researches allow mathematically to define probability of wedging of particulate matters in the area of contact of diamond-impregnated with the surface of the polished detail.

  6. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Shea-Braun, Margit [eds.

    2001-07-01

    This year started with a highlight for the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source SINQ located at PSI: The thermal neutron flux exceeded the value of 10{sup 14} n cm{sup -2} s{sup 1} which may be considered as the critical limit for an advanced medium-flux neutron source. The excellent performance attracted a large number of external users to participate at the neutron scattering programme. The major part of this annual report gives an overview on the scientific activities of the staff members of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich). The research topics covered diverse areas such as strongly correlated electron systems including high-temperature superconductors, low-dimensional and quantum magnetism, materials research on soft and hard matter including multilayers. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas as well as the activities of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided.

  7. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 2000. Volume III: Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefer, Juerg; Castellazzi, Denise; Shea-Braun, Margit

    2001-01-01

    This year started with a highlight for the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source SINQ located at PSI: The thermal neutron flux exceeded the value of 10 14 n cm -2 s 1 which may be considered as the critical limit for an advanced medium-flux neutron source. The excellent performance attracted a large number of external users to participate at the neutron scattering programme. The major part of this annual report gives an overview on the scientific activities of the staff members of the Laboratory of Neutron Scattering (jointly operated with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich). The research topics covered diverse areas such as strongly correlated electron systems including high-temperature superconductors, low-dimensional and quantum magnetism, materials research on soft and hard matter including multilayers. Progress in 2000 in these topical areas as well as the activities of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and the Group for Low Temperature Facilities, is described in this report. A list of scientific publications in 2000 is also provided

  8. Proton acceleration experiments and warm dense matter research using high power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Bagnoud, V [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Brown, C R D [Plasma Physics Group, Imperial College London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Chilton, Didcot, OX14 OQX (United Kingdom); Daido, H [Photo Medical Research Center, JAEA, Kizugawa-City, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Geissel, M [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Gregori, G, E-mail: markus.roth@physik.tu-darmstadt.d [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. In this paper we report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore, we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by x-ray Thomson scattering to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  9. Proton acceleration experiments and warm dense matter research using high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K; Bagnoud, V; Brown, C R D; Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B; Daido, H; Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C; Geissel, M; Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S; Gregori, G

    2009-01-01

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. In this paper we report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore, we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by x-ray Thomson scattering to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  10. 23 CFR 420.205 - What is the FHWA's policy for research, development, and technology transfer funding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the FHWA's policy for research, development, and... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING AND RESEARCH PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Research, Development and Technology Transfer Program Management § 420.205 What is the FHWA's policy for research, development, and...

  11. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Enclosed are proceedings of the workshop on Internal Dosimetry held on Atlanta, Georgia in April 1992. The recommendations from the Workshop were considered by the CIRRPC Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research in identifying those areas to be undertaken by individual Federal Agencies or in cooperative efforts. This document presents summaries of the following sessions: A.1 Applications and limitations of ICRP and other metabolic models, A.2 Applications and implementation of proposed ICRP lung model, A.3 Estimates of intake from repetitive bioassay data, A.4 Chelation models for plutonium urinalysis data, B.1 Transuranium/uranium registry data, B.2 Autopsy tissue analysis, B.3 Bioassay / Whole body counting, B.4 Data base formatting and availability, C.1 An overview of calculational techniques in use today, C.2 The perfect code, C.3 Dose calculations based on individuals instead of averages, C.4 From macro dosimetry to micro dosimetry

  12. Topical issues of psychological research materials on matters related to extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekerazh T.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological support psychological and linguistic research "extremist" materials. Presents a comprehensive psycho-linguistic approach to the examination of information materials on matters related to combating extremism and terrorism, and certain provisions of the methodology developed by the Russian federal center of judicial examination of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis of the "verbal" crimes related to criminal legal interpretation of extremism and terrorism, highlighted the types of prohibited public expression of communicative action, corresponding to the seven types of "extremist" values. The article outlines the key features of psychological analysis "extremist" materials research stages. It is shown that the complex (psycho-linguistic approach to the study of materials of extremist orientation, is scientifically sound, methodically proven, appropriate to the needs of law enforcement, judicial and investigative practice.

  13. Ethics policies and ethics work in cross-national genetic research and data sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Tupasela, Aaro; Rasmussen, Malene B.

    2017-01-01

    of scientific work. This paper takes its point of departure in the practices of a Danish laboratory with great experience in international collaboration regarding genetic research. We focus on a simple query, what makes genetic material and health data flow, and which hopes and concerns travel along with them......In recent years, cross-national collaboration in medical research has gained increased policy attention. Policies are developed to enhance data sharing, ensure open-access, and harmonize international standards and ethics rules in order to promote access to existing resources and increase...... scientific output. In tandem with this promotion of data sharing, numerous ethics policies are developed to control data flows and protect privacy and confidentiality. Both sets of policy making, however, pay limited attention to the moral decisions and social ties enacted in the everyday routines...

  14. Conference Report: "Health Policy and Programs Evaluative Research for Social Change". An Ibero-American Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mercado-Martínez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of the "Health Policy and Programs Evaluative Research for Social Change" Ibero-American Symposium held in Guadalajara, Mexico November 1-3, 2006. Attendees represented eight countries, and were associated with NGO's and academic and health services organizations. The most important themes included in the debates were the meaning of qualitative and evaluative health research for social change, the challenges of teaching for change, ethical challenges, and possibilities for making the findings of qualitative research available to different groups or stakeholders (users, policy makers, professionals, and the population as a whole. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802194

  15. Advancing Health Marketing Research and Policy Recommendations by Incorporating Source Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Guadagno, Marie; Champlin, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Communication researchers, recognizing the message sent is not necessarily the same as the message received, have incorporated the perspective of advertising professionals into the study of advertising effects. Health marketing research could similarly benefit from incorporating this largely absent perspective into the academic and policy debate surrounding the impact of advertising on health issues ranging from obesity to alcohol use. This commentary serves as a call to action to stakeholders in this academic and policy debate: focus on the perspective of advertising professionals to enrich health marketing and public health research in which advertising is the delivery vehicle for health messages.

  16. Implementing falls prevention research into policy and practice in Australia: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Stephen R; Sherrington, Catherine; Cameron, Ian D; Close, Jacqueline C T

    2011-12-01

    Falls in older Australians are a significant public health issue with one in three older people falling one or more times each year. Many fall prevention randomized controlled trials have been conducted in Australia as well as across the world. The findings of these studies now constitute a substantial evidence base that can provide direction for health and lifestyle interventions for preventing falls in older people. This research evidence has contributed to health policy in Australia to some extent, but is yet to be widely implemented into practice. This opinion piece overviews previous policy initiatives and describes a new Partnership research program funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), which seeks to further influence health policy and address the ongoing research-practice gap. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy.

  18. Paucity of qualitative research in general medical and health services and policy research journals: analysis of publication rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. Results The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. Conclusions This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood. PMID:21992238

  19. Paucity of qualitative research in general medical and health services and policy research journals: analysis of publication rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Dobrow, Mark J

    2011-10-12

    Qualitative research has the potential to inform and improve health care decisions but a study based on one year of publications suggests that it is not published in prominent health care journals. A more detailed, longitudinal analysis of its availability is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify, count and compare the number of qualitative and non-qualitative research studies published in high impact health care journals, and explore trends in these data over the last decade. A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 20 top general medical and health services and policy research journals from 1999 to 2008. Eligible journals were selected based on performance in four different ranking systems reported in the 2008 ISI Journal Citation Reports. Qualitative and non-qualitative research published in these journals were identified by searching MEDLINE, and validated by hand-searching tables of contents for four journals. The total number of qualitative research articles published during 1999 to 2008 in ten general medical journals ranged from 0 to 41, and in ten health services and policy research journals from 0 to 39. Over this period the percentage of empirical research articles that were qualitative ranged from 0% to 0.6% for the general medical journals, and 0% to 6.4% for the health services and policy research journals. This analysis suggests that qualitative research it is rarely published in high impact general medical and health services and policy research journals. The factors that contribute to this persistent marginalization need to be better understood.

  20. Research on effect of China’s energy saving policy of phase-out incandescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qing; Zhao, Yuejin; Liang, Xiuying; Lin, Ling

    2017-11-01

    China’s energy saving policy of phase-out of incandescent lamps have been introduced and a comprehensive evaluation framework has been put forward. The impact of the implementation of the policy on manufacturing enterprises and places of sale, lighting industry and domestic and foreign markets, as well as the effect of energy conservation and emission reduction have been analyzed from micro, meso and macro layers. The research results show that, under the guidance of the policy, the orderly product mix transformation has been seen in incandescent lamp manufacturing enterprises, incandescent lamps gradually exit the Chinese mainstream lighting product market, and the energy conservation and emission reduction effect is remarkable.

  1. Beyond communication - research as communicating: making user and audience studies matter - paper 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Dervin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is the written version of the keynote address (Making user studies matter: Thank you Mister Feynman and Monsieur Foucault delivered by senior author Dervin. The paper is linked to the Invited Paper in this issue and like that paper, reports on a project involving a dialogue between researchers and practitioners in library and information science, human computer interaction, and communication focusing on gaps in our understandings of users and audiences as well as in our efforts to collaborate with each other to conduct and apply research to the design and implementation of information, library, communication, and media systems. Argument. Our main conclusion in Paper 1 was that the traditional modes used for communication in social science research are not doing the job for user and audience studies. We set out five propositions relating to this conclusion: (1 the traditional modes of communicating in the research enterprise are not working; (2 Do the social sciences matter? Some serious and fundamental attacks; (3 a call to focus on the special problematics of the social sciences: agency, structure, power and the good; (4 eschewing scientific recipes and scholarly creeds and bringing back the joys of adventuring and muddling; (5 the paradox of communicating—freedom is another word for nothing left to lose. Conclusion. We argue for shared dialogue in communicating across the three fields studied here: this will introduce uncertainty, but, rather than relying upon 'authority', the individual will be encouraged through the exploration of that uncertainty, to make their own sense of the offerings of others.

  2. Academics and Advocates: Using Participatory Action Research To Influence Welfare Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoss, Bernita; Cooney, Margaret; Longhurst, Terri

    2000-01-01

    Participatory action research is a useful technique for helping low income groups access postsecondary education. Conducting research involving analysis of the use of surplus welfare funds and federal regulations and advocating policy changes by explaining the benefits of public investment in postsecondary education are two roles for consumer…

  3. Opportunity from Crisis: A Common Agenda for Higher Education and Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Merle; Hellström, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a plea for the construction of a common agenda for higher education and science, technology and innovation (STI) policy research. The public higher education and research sector in all countries is currently in the grip of several challenges arising from increased accountability, internationalization and in some cases dwindling…

  4. Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research: A Systematic Review of Methodological and Thematic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, Kathleen; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review of policy research in the area of environmental and sustainability education. We analyzed 215 research articles, spanning four decades and representing 71 countries, and which engaged a range of methodologies. Our analysis combines quantification of geographic and methodological trends with…

  5. The Roots and Routes of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poeck, Katrien; Lysgaard, Jonas A.

    2016-01-01

    "Environmental Education Research" has developed a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focusing on studies of environmental and sustainability education (ESE) policy. The VSI draws on key examples of research on this topic published in the Journal from the past two decades, for three reasons.…

  6. Education(al) Research and Education Policy Making: Is Conflict Inevitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between research and policy and practice in education is a long-standing issue in many countries. Focusing on the UK Government, which is responsible for education in England, this paper looks at the criticisms of education research that have been made in recent years by government and related non-departmental public bodies and…

  7. Research on Teaching and Teacher Education and Its Influences on Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Using five AERA presidential addresses over the past half century as landmarks, this essay traces the evolution of research on teaching and teacher education as well as some critical impacts the research has had on policy and practice related to teacher education and teacher evaluation in the United States. The discussion shows how these addresses…

  8. Linking Teacher Evaluation to Professional Development: Focusing on Improving Teaching and Learning. Research & Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, Laura; Biggers, Kietha; Croft, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recently, teacher evaluation has become a major focus in educational policy debates and research efforts. This increased attention to teacher evaluation has raised questions about the relationship between evaluation and student outcomes. Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain (2005) and others have demonstrated with value-added research that there are…

  9. Idea Generation and Exploration: Benefits and Limitations of the Policy Delphi Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Kathy K.; Hart, Jan K.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers use the policy Delphi method to explore a complex topic with little historical context that requires expert opinion to fully understand underlying issues. The benefit of this research technique is the use of experts who have more timely information than can be gleamed from extant literature. Additionally, those experts place…

  10. Use and Impacts of Campbell Systematic Reviews on Policy, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Dell, Nathaniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: This study examines use and impacts of systematic reviews produced by the Campbell Collaboration's Social Welfare Coordinating Group (SWCG) on practice, policy, and research. Methods: A mixed-method research design was used to examine impacts of 52 systematic reviews published by the SWCG. We conducted author surveys and retrieved multiple…

  11. Leading Schools to Promote Social Inclusion: Developing a Conceptual Framework for Analysing Research, Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Carlo; Gunter, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Although much research has focussed on how various educational policy initiatives have attempted to improve problems of social exclusion, little research has systematically examined, categorised and synthesised the types of leadership in schools that might assist improving social inclusion. Given the importance of school leadership in New Labour…

  12. Policies and Background Literature for Self-Education on Research Data Management: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goben, Abigail; Raszewski, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Librarians navigating research data management self-education have an increasing body of literature to choose from, which may become overwhelming. This annotated bibliography reviews: (1) U.S. federal policies; (2) articles; and (3) books to assist librarians who are self-educating on research data management or are seeking background reading…

  13. The International Food Policy Research Institute: Sustainable solutions for ending hunger and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record The International Food Policy Research Institute(IFPRI) mainly works for sustainable food security and end of world hunger. The vision of this organization is to make the world free from hunger and malnutrition and where food policy decisions are transparent with participation of consumers and producers. This organization operates in five different regions including North Africa and Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Central Asia, East Asia and Southeast A...

  14. Sylvia Docker lecture: the practice, research, policy nexus in contemporary occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Natasha A

    2014-04-01

    In this era of evidence-based practice, Australian occupational therapists largely accept scientific perspectives of the quality of evidence and 'what makes a strong study'. Yet unequal power relationships are usual between funders who set the research agenda, researchers and people who are the subjects of research. Emerging policy now mandates partnerships with consumers in any health and research projects about them. Are we person-centred in our research practices? What difference would increased consumer direction make to our research methods, scope and outcomes? This lecture describes some of the benefits and challenges of collaborative or inclusive research partnerships with consumers and outlines where this may take occupational therapy in future. The disability community's calls for inclusive research will be contrasted with mainstream research approaches and with occupational therapy's commitment to person-centredness. An example of inclusive research undertaken by the author and colleagues with disabilities which posed the question: 'What difference does assistive technology make to life for people living with impairment?' will be presented. Collaborative research is best conceptualised as a mutually productive journey, with many factors influencing how fully inclusive research principles can be realised. The possibilities and complexities of conducting research which has inclusive credentials are outlined. Inclusive research principles provide a means to enact person-centredness in research as well as practice. Following these principles challenges occupational therapy practitioners and researchers to address nexus issues: that is, intersections between and beyond research, policy and practice. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. Ecosystem services and economic theory: integration for policy-relevant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brendan; Turner, Kerry; Zylstra, Matthew; Brouwer, Roy; de Groot, Rudolf; Farber, Stephen; Ferraro, Paul; Green, Rhys; Hadley, David; Harlow, Julian; Jefferiss, Paul; Kirkby, Chris; Morling, Paul; Mowatt, Shaun; Naidoo, Robin; Paavola, Jouni; Strassburg, Bernardo; Yu, Doug; Balmford, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    It has become essential in policy and decision-making circles to think about the economic benefits (in addition to moral and scientific motivations) humans derive from well-functioning ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed to address this link between ecosystems and human welfare. Since policy decisions are often evaluated through cost-benefit assessments, an economic analysis can help make ecosystem service research operational. In this paper we provide some simple economic analyses to discuss key concepts involved in formalizing ecosystem service research. These include the distinction between services and benefits, understanding the importance of marginal ecosystem changes, formalizing the idea of a safe minimum standard for ecosystem service provision, and discussing how to capture the public benefits of ecosystem services. We discuss how the integration of economic concepts and ecosystem services can provide policy and decision makers with a fuller spectrum of information for making conservation-conversion trade-offs. We include the results from a survey of the literature and a questionnaire of researchers regarding how ecosystem service research can be integrated into the policy process. We feel this discussion of economic concepts will be a practical aid for ecosystem service research to become more immediately policy relevant.

  16. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.

  17. Illustrating the use of concepts from the discipline of policy studies in energy research: An explorative literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; van den Berg, Maya Marieke

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing challenges the energy sector faces, energy policy strategies and instruments are becoming ever more relevant. The discipline of policy studies might offer relevant concepts to enrich multidisciplinary energy research. The main research question of this article is: How can policy

  18. Case study of an organic Rankine cycle applied for excess heat recovery: Technical, economic and policy matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmens, Sanne; Lecompte, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Case study of an organic Rankine cycle for heat recovery from an industrial kiln. • The costs and financial feasibility of the system are discussed in detail. • The cost structure is most defined by the capital costs, annual costs are limited. • The system is financially feasible, but subsidies remain important. • The results are most sensitive to changes in load hours and electricity price. - Abstract: Many industrial processes inevitably produce excess heat as by-product. Recovering this heat is a matter of waste management and provides opportunities to improve the energy use efficiency. The excess heat can be used for heating purposes (e.g., in processes, or delivered to district heating systems or buildings) or to generate electricity. An increasingly applied technology for industrial excess heat recovery is the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), suitable to recover low-grade heat from 90 °C onwards. Although ORCs are studied intensively, few studies have examined the economics of commissioned ORC systems. This paper investigates a 375 kW_g_r_o_s_s ORC system employed for flue gas heat recovery from an industrial kiln in Flanders, Belgium. The purpose of the study is twofold: providing insight into a practical ORC case; and evaluating the financial feasibility while taking the specific policy circumstances into account. The financial appraisal takes account of the specific technical setup, the diverse costs of the system, the external economic parameters, and the policy circumstances in Europe, Belgium and Flanders. A sensitivity analysis illustrates the influence of each parameter on the results. The analysis demonstrates the dominance of the investment costs (4217 €_2_0_1_3/kW_g_r_o_s_s) in the expenses. Under the valid conditions the investment has a positive financial return, but the financial support from the government is indispensable. Finally, the sensitivity analysis reveals the importance of attaining sufficient load hours and the

  19. Research evidence and policy: qualitative study in selected provinces in South Africa and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Celeste E; Zani, Babalwa; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Wiysonge, Charles S; Dudley, Lillian; Kredo, Tamara; Garner, Paul; Young, Taryn

    2015-09-03

    The translation of research into policy and practice is enhanced by policymakers who can recognise and articulate their information needs and researchers that understand the policymakers' environment. As researchers, we sought to understand the policymaking process and how research evidence may contribute in South Africa and Cameroon. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews in South Africa and focus group discussions in Cameroon with purposively sampled subnational (provincial and regional) government health programme managers. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analysed. Participants in both countries described the complex, often lengthy nature of policymaking processes, which often include back-and-forth consultations with many diverse stakeholder groups. These processes may be influenced by political structures, relationships between national and subnational levels, funding and international stakeholder agendas. Research is not a main driver of policy, but rather current contextual realities, costs, logistics and people (clinicians, NGOs, funders) influence the policy, and research plays a part. Research evidence is frequently perceived as unavailable, inaccessible, ill-timed or not applicable. The reliability of research on the internet was questioned. Evidence-informed health decision-making (EIDM) is regarded as necessary in South Africa but is less well understood in Cameroon. Insufficient time and capacity were hindrances to EIDM in both countries. Good relationships between researchers and policymakers may facilitate EIDM. Researchers should have a good understanding of the policymaking environment if they want to influence it. Greater interaction between policymakers and researchers is perceived as beneficial when formulating research and policy questions as it raises researchers' awareness of implementation challenges and enables the design of tailored and focused strategies to respond to policymakers' needs

  20. The concept of 'vulnerability' in research ethics: an in-depth analysis of policies and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Roche, Dearbhail; Bell, Emily; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Racine, Eric

    2017-02-07

    The concept of vulnerability has held a central place in research ethics guidance since its introduction in the United States Belmont Report in 1979. It signals mindfulness for researchers and research ethics boards to the possibility that some participants may be at higher risk of harm or wrong. Despite its important intended purpose and widespread use, there is considerable disagreement in the scholarly literature about the meaning and delineation of vulnerability, stemming from a perceived lack of guidance within research ethics standards. The aim of this study was to assess the concept of vulnerability as it is employed in major national and international research ethics policies and guidelines. We conducted an in-depth analysis of 11 (five national and six international) research ethics policies and guidelines, exploring their discussions of the definition, application, normative justification and implications of vulnerability. Few policies and guidelines explicitly defined vulnerability, instead relying on implicit assumptions and the delineation of vulnerable groups and sources of vulnerability. On the whole, we found considerable richness in the content on vulnerability across policies, but note that this relies heavily on the structure imposed on the data through our analysis. Our results underscore a need for policymakers to revisit the guidance on vulnerability in research ethics, and we propose that a process of stakeholder engagement would well-support this effort.