WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy oriented perspective

  1. Are School Policies Focused on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Associated with Less Bullying? Teachers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Day, Jack K.; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B.

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students’ reports: We examined teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals’ reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3,000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers’ assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. PMID:26790701

  2. Are school policies focused on sexual orientation and gender identity associated with less bullying? Teachers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T; Day, Jack K; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B

    2016-02-01

    Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students' reports: We examined teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals' reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers' assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Policy conflicts : Market-oriented reform in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.; Mcmaster, R.

    From an institutionalist perspective, we identify five sources of policy conflict. Each may explain why policies intended to obtain particular goals for an institutionalized practice may have unintended consequences. We illustrate by analyzing attempts at introducing market-oriented reform in health

  4. [Japan's Oriental medicine policy in colonial Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yunjae

    2008-06-01

    workforces. In early 1930s, a policy supporting usage of Oriental medical herb was selected. However, it does not mean that the change in policy encouraged Oriental medicine since the medical herb that the Japanese Empire supported was those that were organized and categorized according to the principles in Western medicine.

  5. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Editor(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Publisher(s):. IDRC. January 1, 1999. ISBN: Out of print.

  6. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Directeur(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Maison(s) d'édition: IDRC. 1 janvier 1999. ISBN :.

  7. Life-oriented approach for urban policy decision-making: Surveys and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Junyi Zhang; Yubing Xiong; Minh Tu Tran

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose an additional approach, called life-oriented approach, for supporting urban policy decisions. The life-oriented approach argues that people's decisions on various life choices are not independent of each other and that an understanding of life choices should not be constrained by the boundary of any single discipline. People's life choices are closely linked with the quality of life (QOL), which can be roughly captured from the perspective of life domains such as res...

  8. Energy policy in Italy and perspectives for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janot-Giorgetti, M.; Lamquet, O.

    2000-08-01

    In Europe the energy sector is moving to a community policy oriented on the competition opening of the market (Internal Energy Market Program), by national initiatives of liberalization and privatization of the energy production and distribution and also the environmental policy. In this context the italian Government is moving towards a survey and regulation organism and aims today to implement measures allowing a correct and quality operating of the market. This document presents a state of the art of the italian market and the perspectives for 2010. It enhances also the innovative projects according the environmental policy. (A.L.B.)

  9. User oriented perspective of ethnology indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Hederih

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the article is based on an overview of the problems encountered by ethnologists and anthropologists in libraries, followed by a short overview of the special features of ethnological terminology. Different perspectives of indexing with an emphasis on user-oriented ways of indexing follows. The author discusses the exhaustiveness and depth of indexing, the choice of technical versus popular indexes, the consistency in indexing and searching, and the importance of being familiar with the users and their searching behaviour.The second part of the article deals with the same problembymeansof the analysis of an inquiry including ethnologists and non-ethnologists, of the questions of the users of UKM, and of the comparison of indexes used by different libraries for indexing ethnological materials.Suggestions for a more efficient design of information systems, tips for librarians who index ethnological materials, and ethnologists who encounter problems in libraries, as well as for those who do not have ethnological education but are looking for such information, are listed in the text and in the conclusions of the article.

  10. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Eligar

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers an evolutionary perspective of space policy. It is argued that (1) space policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the past fifty years of the space-age; and that (2) space policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. To this end, the paper analyzes space policy at several levels of analysis. This includes: (1) historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes; (2) the symbiotic relationships between policy and space technology; and (3) future space policy trends and developments likely to occur in the 21st century. A "Space Politics and Policy Framework" is developed in this paper to represent the evolution of space policy. Space policy involves both the process of policy formation and policy change over time (e.g., emergence of commercialization) and the courses of action taken to achieve political (and technological) determined outcomes. The evolution of space policy over time takes place through policy change. On this basis, public policy processes over the course of the space-age have involved the mobilization of governmental resources, actors, and institutions. Concomitantly, nongovernmental actors, such as private corporations and commercial enterprises, increasingly play a role in space. As a result, market factors in addition to political forces influence space policy.

  11. American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Generic CMYK printer profile Composite Default screen William B. Ruger Chair of National Security Economics Papers Number 4 American Foreign Policy...American comparative ad- vantage, including the liberalization of textile and agricultural policies in the United States, thereby leveling the playing

  12. New Perspectives on Policy Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Hlatshwayo, Sandile

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the ubiquitous and intensifying nature of economic policy uncertainty has made it a popular explanation for weak economic performance in developed and developing markets alike. The primary channel for this effect is decreased and delayed investment as firms adopt a ``wait and see'' approach to irreversible investments (Bernanke, 1983; Dixit and Pindyck, 1994). Deep empirical examination of policy uncertainty's impact is rare because of the difficulty associated in measuring i...

  13. Practicing natural resource management with a policy orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tim W.

    1992-07-01

    All natural resource managers want to contribute to successful conservation programs. Having and applying an explicit policy orientation is indispensable. The policy sciences are described and a case is made that, if natural resource managers utilize this set of conceptual and applied tools in their natural resource work, their effectiveness could be enhanced. The policy sciences offer a contextual, problem-oriented, and multimethod approach to meeting complex problems. Two kinds of knowledge are needed to solve problems—substantive knowledge about the resource and process knowledge about the decision and policy processes used to derive courses of management action. The interplay of science, analysis, and politics are examined. The wildlife management community is used to illustrate many points, including the important role implementation plays in the overall policy process.

  14. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunn, Simon; Larsen, Jeffrey; Yost, David; Kamp, Karl-Heinz; Edelman, Eric; Valasek, Tomas; Garcia Cantalapiedra, David

    2011-01-01

    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  15. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunn, Simon [Royal United Services Institute for Defense and Security Studies - RUSI, Whitehall, London, SW1A 2ET (United Kingdom); Larsen, Jeffrey [Larsen Consulting Group, 3710 Woodland Dr Ste 2100, Anchorage, AK 99517 (United States); Yost, David [Naval Postgraduate School, 1 University Circle, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Kamp, Karl-Heinz [NATO Defense College, Via Giorgio Pelosi 1, 00143, Roma (Italy); Edelman, Eric [Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments - CSBA, 1667 K Sreet NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC, 20006 (United States); Valasek, Tomas [Centre for European Reform - CER, 14 Great College Street, Westminster, London, SW1P 3RX (United Kingdom); Garcia Cantalapiedra, David [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-05-26

    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  16. Active and Successful Aging: A European Policy Perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, L.; Walker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, “active aging” has emerged in Europe as the foremost policy response to the challenges of population aging. This article examines the concept of active aging and how it differs from that of “successful aging.” In particular, it shows how active aging presents a more holistic, life course–oriented approach than successful aging. We provide a critical perspective on active aging too by, first, tracing its emergence in Europe and then showing how, in practice, it has b...

  17. Classroom-Oriented Research from a Complex Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Bringing a complex systems perspective to bear on classroom-oriented research challenges researchers to think differently, seeing the classroom ecology as one dynamic system nested in a hierarchy of such systems at different levels of scale, all of which are spatially and temporally situated. This article begins with an introduction to complex…

  18. National Language and Terminology Policies — A South African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Terminology plays a pivotal role in language development and the promotion of multilingualism. This article discusses the issue of multilingualism regarding terminology policies as seen from an African perspective. Special emphasis is given to the South African situation regarding language policies and consequential terminology policies in terms of subject-oriented terminography, translation-oriented terminography and linguistic community-oriented terminography.

    OPSOMMING: Nasionale taal- en terminologiebeleid — 'n Suid-Afrikaanse perspektief. Terminologie speel 'n sleutelrol in taalontwikkeling en die bevordering van veeltaligheid. Hierdie artikel bespreek die kwessie van veeltaligheid ten opsigte van terminologiebeleid soos gesien vanuit 'n Afrikaperspektief. Spesiale klem word gelê op die Suid-Afrikaanse situasie rakende taalbeleid en die gevolglike terminologiebeleid in terme van vakgeörienteerde terminografie, vertaalgeörienteerde terminografie en taalgemeenskapgeörienteerde terminografie.

    Sleutelwoorde: MEERTALIGHEID, TAALBELEID, TAALDIVERSITEIT, TAALGEMEENSKAPGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE, TERMINOLOGIEBESTUUR, TERMINOLOGIEONTWIKKELING, VAKGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE, VERTAALGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE

  19. Decision science a human-oriented perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mengov, George

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a new perspective on human decision-making by comparing the established methods in decision science with innovative modelling at the level of neurons and neural interactions. The book presents a new generation of computer models, which can predict with astonishing accuracy individual economic choices when people make them by quick intuition rather than by effort. A vision for a new kind of social science is outlined, whereby neural models of emotion and cognition capture the dynamics of socioeconomic systems and virtual social networks. The exposition is approachable by experts as well as by advanced students. The author is an Associate Professor of Decision Science with a doctorate in Computational Neuroscience, and a former software consultant to banks in the City of London.  .

  20. Systematic perspectives on diverging mathematical orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The popular view that mathematics is “objective” and “neutral” in the sense that it does not know different standpoints is contradicted by the factual state of modern mathematics. In the light of the dominant one-sided trends in the history of mathe-matics, fluctuating between arithmeticism and a geometrisation of this discipline, this article explores some provisional starting-points for a different view. This third option is explored by investigating some features of an acknowledgement of the uniqueness of number and space without neglecting the inter-aspectual connections between these two modal functions. An argument is advanced regarding the inevitability of employing analogical (or elementary basic concepts, and this perspective is articulated in terms of the theory of modal aspects. Numerical and spatial terms are discussed and eventually focused on a deepened understanding of the meaning of infinity. In addition to a brief look at the circularity present in the arithmeticist claim that mathematics could be fully arithmetised (Grünbaum, attention is also asked for the agreement between Aristotle and Cantor regarding the nature of continuity – assessed in terms of the irreducibility of the numerical and spatial aspects of reality. Finally a characterisation is given of the ontological assumpt-ions of intuitionism and axiomatic formalism.

  1. Internet policy and economics challenges and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pupillo, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Presents cutting-edge research, practice, and policy in electronic communications, commerce, and cultureIncludes contributions from leading researchers and industry expertsAddresses such hot-button issues as privacy issues, universal access, cybercrime, intellectual property rights, on-line content, and peer-to-peer networksApplies perspectives from economics, political science, law, business, and communicationsFully updated and revised paperback edition will appeal to practitioners, policymakers, and students

  2. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  3. Coherence in product-oriented policies and environmental management systems in the car industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    Over the last decade, product-oriented policies as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are more and more recognised as a target for both corporate environmental strategy and government environmental policy. These product-oriented policies are distinct from...... more traditional process-oriented policies and are a challenge for companies. The article presents some of the authors  investigations on how the car industry has dealt with both process-oriented and product-oriented policies. [1] EPR refers to extending producer responsibility for products beyond...

  4. BRICS Investment Policies from PFI Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Sakharov 

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD Policy Framework for Investment (PFI contains recommendations and best practices in 12 investment-related policy areas, and is widely regarded as the world’s most comprehensive and authoritative instrument on international investment regulation. The topicality of PFI recommendations for OECD members and other countries, including Russia, is dictated by competition in international investment markets. The instrument’s implementation can significantly boost a national jurisdiction’s attractiveness to investors and thus increase its economic competitiveness. The experience of the BRICS countries as large developing economies involved in collaboration with the OECD could be of great value from the standpoint of PFI implementation in Russia. This article examines investment policies of Brazil, India, China and South Africa from the perspective of PFI recommendations. The analysis is organized around four major themes: the general characteristics of investment regimes and investment stimuli, national investment regulation regimes, trade policies and overcoming structural limitations. The analysis forms the basis for recommendations to improve the investment policy regime in Russia

  5. Military Policy toward Homosexuals: Scientific, Historic, and Legal Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Jeffrey S

    1990-01-01

    This thesis examines military policy toward homosexuals. Scientific, historic, and legal perspectives are reviewed as they relate to current policy and the distinction between homosexual acts and homosexual status...

  6. Disability Policy Implementation From a Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel A; Jenaro, Cristina; Calvo, Isabel; Navas, Patricia

    2017-07-01

    Implementation of disability policy is influenced by social, political, and cultural factors. Based on published work, this article discusses four guidelines considered critical for successful policy implementation from a cross-cultural perspective. These guidelines are to: (a) base policy implementation on a contextual analysis, (b) employ a value-based approach, (c) align the service delivery system both vertically and horizontally, and (d) engage in a partnership in policy implementation. Public policy should be understood from a systems perspective that includes cross-cultural issues, such as how different stakeholders are acting and the way they plan and implement policy.

  7. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusko Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims – subjects – objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  8. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims - subjects - objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  9. Active and successful aging: a European policy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Liam; Walker, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Over the past two decades, "active aging" has emerged in Europe as the foremost policy response to the challenges of population aging. This article examines the concept of active aging and how it differs from that of "successful aging." In particular, it shows how active aging presents a more holistic, life course-oriented approach than successful aging. We provide a critical perspective on active aging too by, first, tracing its emergence in Europe and then showing how, in practice, it has been dominated by a narrow economic or productivist perspective that prioritizes the extension of working life. It has also been gender blind. Nonetheless, it is argued that an active aging approach has the potential to enable countries to respond successfully to the challenges of population aging because of its comprehensive focus and emphasis on societal as well as individual responsibility. Finally, we set out the basic principles that need to be followed if the full potential of active aging is to be achieved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Disability Policy Implementation from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel A.; Jenaro, Cristina; Calvo, Isabel; Navas, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Implementation of disability policy is influenced by social, political, and cultural factors. Based on published work, this article discusses four guidelines considered critical for successful policy implementation from a cross-cultural perspective. These guidelines are to: (a) base policy implementation on a contextual analysis, (b) employ a…

  11. Measurement Error and Environmental Epidemiology: A Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessie K.; Keil, Alexander P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Measurement error threatens public health by producing bias in estimates of the population impact of environmental exposures. Quantitative methods to account for measurement bias can improve public health decision making. Recent findings We summarize traditional and emerging methods to improve inference under a standard perspective, in which the investigator estimates an exposure response function, and a policy perspective, in which the investigator directly estimates population impact of a proposed intervention. Summary Under a policy perspective, the analysis must be sensitive to errors in measurement of factors that modify the effect of exposure on outcome, must consider whether policies operate on the true or measured exposures, and may increasingly need to account for potentially dependent measurement error of two or more exposures affected by the same policy or intervention. Incorporating approaches to account for measurement error into such a policy perspective will increase the impact of environmental epidemiology. PMID:28138941

  12. Russia: Development Aid Policies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beletskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After more than twenty years of independence, Russia has recovered from economic and political shocks and demonstrates its commitment to gain new political and economic role in the global development aid architecture. International development assistance provided by Russia to other countries has increased from USD 100 million in 2004 to USD 610 million in 2013. The Concept of Russia's participation in the international development assistance, approved in 2007 and updated in 2014, outlines Russia’s priorities in the international aid sphere. Based on review of this concept, available official statistics and expert estimates, this paper provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamics and perspectives of Russia’s transformation from the international aid recipient into one of the donor countries. The results indicate that there is a large gap between Russia’s political ambitions and actual development aid policies; moreover, there is a shift towards a “soft power” concept in political decision making. At the same time, the potential of Russia’s embedding into the international development aid system remains high.

  13. Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of Antidiscrimination Policies on Earnings by Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawitter, Marieka

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the 2000 U.S. Census data to assess the impact of antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation on earnings for gays and lesbians. Using a multilevel model allows estimation of the effects of state and local policies on earnings and of variation in the effects of sexual orientation across local labor markets. The results…

  14. Analyzing social policy: multiple perspectives for critically understanding and evaluating policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen

    2011-01-01

    ... and development to implementation. Approaching the topic from an analytical and research-based perspective, the authors help readers make better, informed choices for successfully dealing with the complexities of social policy...

  15. European Neighbourhood Policy. A Polish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcinkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Before the bing-bang enlargement of the EU in 2004, the Union needed to define a coherent policy towards its new neighbours. The European Neighbourhood Policy was formulated when Poland became a member of the EU. Due to its close ties with the Eastern European countries, Poland tried to shape the EU foreign policy towards its neighbouring countries and became their advocate in Brussels. In 2009 it succeeded in establishing the Eastern Partnership as one of the dimensions of the European Neighbourhood Policy.

  16. Perspectives on bay-delta science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Michael; Dettinger, Michael; Norgaard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on novel conservation approaches. These longer and wider perspectives

  17. Innovating innovation Policy. Rethinking green innovation policy in evolutionary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentsen, Maarten J.; Dinica, V.; Marquart, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced environmental standards such as sustainability require substantial improvements in the environmental performances of present technologies. Governments are faced with the challenge to design green innovation policies able to support producers and users of technologies to comply with such

  18. Ideology, Policy and Implementation: Comparative Perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an exposition and interpretation of the language policies of two African universities, namely the University of Yaoundé 1 in Cameroon and the University of the Western ... Keywords: Language Ideologies, Language Attitudes, Language Policy, University of the Western Cape, University of Yaoundé 1 ...

  19. Post Colonial Perspectives on Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Gert J.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the role and contribution of policy research in contexts of social transformation. With reference to education transformation policies in post-apartheid South Africa, the argument is developed that research studies vary in their contribution to change, as a function of the paradigmatic assumptions and methodological…

  20. Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, Larry; Blodgett, John

    2008-01-01

    The 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change requires that signatories, including the United States, establish policies for constraining future emission levels of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2). The George H. W...

  1. Public policy perspective on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater pollution problems are fundamentally institutional problems. The means for reducing contamination are institutional: the mix of incentives, rights and obligations confronting resource users. Only changes in the rights and obligations of users or the economic and social cost of water use options will reduce groundwater pollution. Policy is the process by which those changes are made. The essential purpose of groundwater quality policy is to change water use behavior. For the most part, people do respond to evidence that a failure to change could be painful. New information can produce the support necessary for regulation or other policy change. It is essential to maintain healthy respect for the rights and intentions of individuals. Improved understanding of human behavior is essential to success in groundwater policy

  2. Students' Views and Qualification Policy Development: Perspectives on Failed Vocationally Related Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that students are often articulate about qualifications policy matters, their perspectives are rarely listened to. This is because governments shape qualifications policy according to pre-set beliefs and are unwilling to countenance dissonant or outsider views. Using the Diploma qualification and inclusion of vocational…

  3. Performance and Mastery Orientation of High School and University/College Students: A Rasch Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Debus, Raymond L.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2008-01-01

    This investigation assesses performance and mastery orientation from a Rasch perspective among high school and university students and provides a complementary approach to the factor analytic methods typical in goal theory research. Data shows that both school and university students are high in mastery orientation relative to performance…

  4. Affordable Housing in transit-oriented developments : impacts on driving and policy approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This paper studies the intersection of policies promoting affordable housing, transit-oriented developments (TODs), and the reduction of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in metropolitan areas. In particular, this paper focuses on the following questions:...

  5. Market orientation seen in a value chain perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne-Mette; Stacey, Julia; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2002-01-01

    Market orientation is regarded as a prerequisite for a company's ability to create customer value and higher profits. Market orientation is usually regarded as something, which characterises a company. However, companies are part of value chains, and a lot of competition taking place...... in international markets is between the different value chains rather than between the individual companies. This is the reason why it makes more sense to look at the degree of market orientation in a complete value chain rather than the degree of market orientation of a single company....

  6. Promoting Children's Public Participation in Policy-Making through Achievement-Oriented Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwandure, Calvin; Mayekiso, Thokozile

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical paper looked at the possibility of incorporating the social learning concept of achievement-oriented behaviour in promoting children's public participation in policy-making in the educational system. The paper highlighted how the concepts of public participation and achievement-oriented education could be used in the governance of…

  7. The European Energy Policy: Building New Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonneuve, Cecile

    2014-04-01

    The origins of Europe's severe energy policy problems lie in a failed economic approach, which itself can be partly explained by political and ideological causes. This study seeks to address these political issues. Energy is not an exclusively economic issue, far from it. Since taxation and diplomacy are key aspects, energy is necessarily a political issue that policy-makers must handle. From this point of view, 2014 has to be seen as a political opportunity: it needs to be a year for re-founding a common policy fundamentally, based on two principles. First is the principle of realism, which implies re-situating energy policy in its international environment and putting the issue of costs back into the heart of political decision-making. The second principle is solidarity, in other words the clear restatement that there is a European general interest... which is not the sum of 28 national interests, but also that energy should be viewed as a system, and not as a collection of local policies and interests. Europe's common energy policy must retain its long term goal of ensuring the energy transition, but it must review the path to achieving this. This transition cannot be a technical, economic and geopolitical bet, which is presently the case. It has to be a controlled undertaking, implying governance and instruments. More generally, the transition requires a very different state of mind (Section III), compared to today's technocratic and non-cooperative approach (Section II), which has led to the prevailing state of energy chaos in Europe (Section I)

  8. Evaluating Program Innovation: A Policy Perspective,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    1979). 11 These are stressed by Nelson and Winter (1977). 12 A ready charge; for instance, see Acland (1979). 13 The distinction is made by Porter and...Climate for Innovation in Industry: The Role of Management Attitudes and Practices," Research Policy, Vol. 11, No. 4 (August), pp. 209-225. Acland

  9. Strategies and Policies for Space - Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturirangan, K.; Sridhara Murthy, K. R.; Sundararmiah, V.; Rao, Mukund

    2002-01-01

    Indian Space Program, which was established as government effort about three decades ago has become a major force in providing vital services for social and economic sectors in India in the fields of satellite telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorological services and remote sensing of natural resources. Capabilities have been developed over the years, following a step-by-step process to develop and operate space infrastructure in India, including state-of-the-art satellites and satellite launch vehicles. In carrying out these developments, Indian Space Research Organisation, which is the national agency responsible for space activities under Government of India, develop policies and programs, which promoted industrial participation in variety of space activities including manufacture of space hardware, conduct of value added activities and provision of services involving space systems. Policy initiatives have also been taken recently to promote private sector participation in the establishment of Indian Satellite Systems for telecommunications. Strategic alliances have also been developed with international space industries for marketing of services such as remote sensing data. The paper traces evaluation of the policies towards development of industrial participation in space and future transition into commercial space enterprise. Policy issues concerning the national requirements vis-à-vis the international environment will also be discussed to analyze the strategies for international cooperation.

  10. A Critique of Botswana's Language Policy from a Translanguaging Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki Mmangaka

    2017-01-01

    This paper critiques the language practices and language-in-education policy of Botswana from a translanguaging perspective. By so doing, it revisits our commonly held perceptions about multilingualism, bilingualism and language and its boundary. We commonly perceive languages as autonomous and as having boundaries and we perceive bilingualism or…

  11. Industrial energy efficiency: A policy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    Policies that promote energy efficiency can work; but potential energy savings are unlikely to be realized without effective policy leadership. This article discusses the opportunities in several countries for increasing energy efficiency. Both ''open'' and centrally planned economies could be much more energy efficient. In the United States, for example, the government needs to stimulate energy efficiency. This could be done by sponsoring research to develop new processes, creating favourable financial conditions for investment in efficiency, and making the advantages of energy efficiency technologies better known. International collaboration in sponsoring research and transfer technologies could be of the greatest importance in improving energy efficiency in countries with centrally planned economies, including the Soviet Union, as well as in developing countries. Favourable conditions for achieving both economic development and environmental protection can be created through cooperation on the international level. (author). 24 refs, 4 tabs

  12. Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    Committee on Science, Space , and Technology, Technologies and Strategies for Addressing Global Climate Change, Hearings, 17 July 1991 (Washington...Generations, Economic Analysis, and the Policy Process,” in U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Science, Space , and Technology, Technologies and...through the ecological lens, lives and such values as intergenerational equity should not be quantified as a commodity.68 What people need are

  13. Health Care Organizations and Policy Leadership: Perspectives on Nonsmoker-Only Hiring Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    To explore employers' decisions to base hiring policies on tobacco or nicotine use and community perspectives on such policies, and analyze the implications for organizational identity, community engagement, and health promotion. From 2013 to 2016, 11 executives from six health care organizations and one non-health-care organization with nonsmoker-only hiring policies were interviewed about why and how their policies were created and implemented, concerns about the policies, and perceptions of employee and public reactions. Focus groups were conducted with community members (n = 51) who lived in or near cities where participating employers were based, exploring participants' opinions about why an employer would stop hiring smokers and their support (or not) for such a policy. Most employers excluded from employment those using all forms of nicotine. Several explained their adoption of the policy as a natural extension of a smoke-free campus and as consistent with their identity as health care organizations. They regarded the policy as promoting health. No employer mentioned engaging in a community dialogue before adopting the policy or reported efforts to track the policy's impact on rejected applicants. Community members understood the cost-saving appeal of such policies, but most opposed them. They made few exceptions for health care organizations. Policy decisions undertaken by health care organizations have influence beyond their immediate setting and may establish precedents that others follow. Nonsmoker-only hiring policies may fit with a health care organization's institutional identity but may not be congruent with community values or promote public health.

  14. Perspectives on Bay–Delta Science and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art6The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on

  15. Russian oil policy under Putin in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiaud, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article intends to explain and evaluate the interactions between the three developments which have structured the Russian oil industry since the beginning of V. Putin's second presidential term of office: the slowing down in production growth as well as the absolute decline of the latter observed in 2008, the reorganization of this industry marked by the increasing role of public oil companies and, finally, the adjustments made to the contractual arrangements surrounding the activities of the upstream oil sector. It has shown, on one hand, that the decline in current production is the result of the exhaustion of short term strategies by private Russian companies, and on the other hand, that the contract adjustments are insufficient to allow the Russian companies to adjust to more long term strategies. From this perspective, the increased role played by public oil companies can be analysed as an organisational response to this institutional dead-end. (author)

  16. Project network-oriented materials management policy for complex projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixit, Vijaya; Srivastava, Rajiv K; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2015-01-01

    This work devises a materials management policy integrated with project network characteristics of complex projects. It proposes a relative quantitative measure, overall criticality (OC), for prioritisation of items based on penalty incurred due to their non-availability. In complex projects...... managerial tacit knowledge which provides them enough flexibility to provide information in real form. Computed OC values can be used for items prioritisation and as shortage cost coefficient in inventory models. The revised materials management policy was applied to a shipbuilding project. OC values were...... analysed to justify the importance of incorporating project network characteristics and potential cost savings were calculated...

  17. Mathematical Processes: A Viewpoint-oriented Manipulation Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2008-01-01

    View-point oriented manipulation of concepts can be helpful for generating new ideas in basic sciences and in the meantime, justifying the processes that are principally meaningful to the related disciplines. Mathematics, as a major ground for basic sciences, seems to be an appropriate exemplar...... consistent. In this paper, having reviewed the principles of view-point oriented manipulation, mathematical processes will then be discussed in this regard and an example will be presented showing the way it works for transforming a formalism into a new one....

  18. In Defense of Language Rights: Rethinking the Rights Orientation from a Political Economy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses language rights as a legitimate political tool for language policy scholarship and activism. The article begins by engaging several critiques of language rights. It analyzes Ruiz's language-as-right orientation to language policy, and then reviews recent scholarship challenging language rights from poststructural and…

  19. Consumer-Oriented Policy towards Diffusion of Electric Vehicles: City-Level Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Public policy is crucial for the diffusion of green innovation, and debates exist about the effects of different policies. This paper explores appropriate types of policy instruments by explaining the quick rise in sales of electric vehicles (EVs in China. Based on a three-year longitudinal dataset across 88 cities, the study shows that consumer-oriented policies are able to significantly promote EV diffusion. Consumer-oriented policies target consumers to facilitate their usage of cars and lower the lifecycle cost, and typical examples include electricity charging and traffic management. This paper contributes to the literature of clean technology policy in two ways. Firstly, it reveals and empirically tests the importance of consumer-oriented policy instruments for the deployment of green innovation. Secondly, it is one of very few scholarly works offering a detailed review of city-level policies in China’s EV industry, which will be useful for scholars who are also interested in similar topics.

  20. Mathematical Processes: A Viewpoint-oriented Manipulation Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2008-01-01

    View-point oriented manipulation of concepts can be helpful for generating new ideas in basic sciences and in the meantime, justifying the processes that are principally meaningful to the related disciplines. Mathematics, as a major ground for basic sciences, seems to be an appropriate exemplar t...

  1. What model of science? Towards a sociologically oriented science policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Jedlikowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary global world the various models of making and distributing science are cultivated. The particular model of institutionalized science can significantly determine the quality of working both as a scientist and as a student. Research upon science environment in the meaning of investigation the framework of science influences for example the system of communication between different actors engaged in science, good practices, possibilities offered by particular context of science and facilities of acquiring the scientific knowledge etc. It this view the presented paper finds its justification directing analysis towards the quality of making science. Hence the paradigm of sociological science policy is strongly needed. The paper is going to reconstruct the key models which recognize contexts of making science and its numerous dimensions. The research is based on the set of literature founded through the digital key words searching process. The chosen literature recalls the most significant research based on science policy. Consequently the described models tend towards the most globalized and open models of making science to show the path of required changes into still founded coercive science structures mostly institutionalized by long-lasting tradition. The final conclusion states that more concrete steps in reformulating the science policy are required to obtain the desirable model of open science and at the same time to develop the high standing scientific priorities.

  2. Time Perspective, Life Satisfaction and Social Comparison Orientation in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Nazmiye ÇİVİTCİ; Hülya ŞAHİN BALTACI

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the predictive power of time perspective for the life satisfaction and social comparison in university students. The participants (n= 441; 321 female and 120 male) are undergraduate students at a state university. The data of the study were collected through the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, The Satisfaction with Life Scale and IOWA-Netherlands Social Comparison Orientation Measure. In order to determine the prediction power of the time ...

  3. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Preventable Disease: A Fundamental Cause Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Pachankis, John E; Link, Bruce G

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether fundamental cause theory (which posits that, in societal conditions of unequal power and resources, members of higher-status groups experience better health than members of lower-status groups because of their disproportionate access to health-protective factors) might be relevant in explaining health disparities related to sexual orientation. We used 2001 to 2011 morbidity data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort, a representative general population-based study in Sweden. A total of 66 604 (92.0%) individuals identified as heterosexual, 848 (1.2%) as homosexual, and 806 (1.1%) as bisexual. To test fundamental cause theory, we classified diseases in terms of preventability potential (low vs high). There were no sexual orientation differences in morbidity from low-preventable diseases. By contrast, gay or bisexual men (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13, 1.93) and lesbian or bisexual women (adjusted OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.28, 2.10) had a greater risk of high-preventable morbidity than heterosexual men and women, respectively. These differences were sustained in analyses adjusted for covariates. Our findings support fundamental cause theory and suggest that unequal distribution of health-protective resources, including knowledge, prestige, power, and supportive social connections, might explain sexual orientation health disparities.

  4. Re-orienting discussions of scientific explanation: A functional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Andrea I

    2015-08-01

    Philosophy of science offers a rich lineage of analysis concerning the nature of scientific explanation, but the vast majority of this work, aiming to provide an analysis of the relation that binds a given explanans to its corresponding explanandum, presumes the proper analytic focus rests at the level of individual explanations. There are, however, other questions we could ask about explanation in science, such as: What role(s) does explanatory practice play in science? Shifting focus away from explanations, as achievements, toward explaining, as a coordinated activity of communities, the functional perspective aims to reveal how the practice of explanatory discourse functions within scientific communities given their more comprehensive aims and practices. In this paper, I outline the functional perspective, argue that taking the functional perspective can reveal important methodological roles for explanation in science, and consequently, that beginning here provides resources for developing more adequate responses to traditional concerns. In particular, through an examination of the ideal gas law, I emphasize the normative status of explanations within scientific communities and discuss how such status underwrites a compelling rationale for explanatory power as a theoretical virtue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. From the Pews to Policy: Specifying Evangelical Protestantism's Influence on States' Sexual Orientation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheitle, Christopher P.; Hahn, Bryanna B.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed that the religious culture of a state can shape policies within the state, particularly concerning morality issues such as abortion or homosexuality. However, the precise manner in which religion shapes these policies has not been clearly specified. Drawing from social movements and policy literature, we argue that the…

  6. Transformation to a Customer-Oriented Perspective through Action Learning in Product and Service Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Annika

    2007-01-01

    Customer orientation is strongly visible in the visions and strategies of most organizations, but how do these visions and strategies move from intentions to practice? This question provides the focus for this research which aims to acquire deeper insights into this process. The point of departure is the change in perspective from a product to a…

  7. An Object-Oriented Information Model for Policy-based Management of Distributed Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, G.; Gay, V.C.J.; Horlait, E.; Hamza, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an object-oriented information model to support a policy-based management for distributed multimedia applications. The information base contains application-level information about the users, the applications, and their profile. Our Information model is described in details and

  8. Market-oriented institutions and policies and economic growth : A critical survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J; Lundstrom, S; Sturm, JE

    This paper surveys recent evidence suggesting that market-oriented institutions and policies are strongly related to economic growth, focusing on studies using the economic freedom (EF) indicator of the Fraser Institute. This index is critically discussed. Also various serious shortcomings of

  9. Optimal fleet conversion policy from a life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyung Chul Kim; Ross, M.H.; Keoleian, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicles typically deteriorate with accumulating mileage and emit more tailpipe air pollutants per mile. Although incentive programs for scrapping old, high-emitting vehicles have been implemented to reduce urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases, these policies may create additional sales of new vehicles as well. From a life cycle perspective, the emissions from both the additional vehicle production and scrapping need to be addressed when evaluating the benefits of scrapping older vehicles. This study explores an optimal fleet conversion policy based on mid-sized internal combustion engine vehicles in the US, defined as one that minimizes total life cycle emissions from the entire fleet of new and used vehicles. To describe vehicles' lifetime emission profiles as functions of accumulated mileage, a series of life cycle inventories characterizing environmental performance for vehicle production, use, and retirement was developed for each model year between 1981 and 2020. A simulation program is developed to investigate ideal and practical fleet conversion policies separately for three regulated pollutants (CO, NMHC, and NO x ) and for CO 2 . According to the simulation results, accelerated scrapping policies are generally recommended to reduce regulated emissions, but they may increase greenhouse gases. Multi- objective analysis based on economic valuation methods was used to investigate trade-offs among emissions of different pollutants for optimal fleet conversion policies. (author)

  10. Knowledge Management Orientation: An Innovative Perspective to Hospital Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Matina; Ghadiri Nejad, Mazyar; Bagzibagli, Kemal

    2017-12-01

    By considering innovation as a new project in hospitals, all the project management's standard steps should be followed in execution. This study investigated the validation of a new set of measures in terms of providing a procedure for knowledge management-oriented innovation that enriches the hospital management system. The relation between innovation and all the knowledge management areas, as the main constructs of project management, was illustrated by referring to project management standard steps and previous studies. Through consultations and meetings with a committee of professional project managers, a questionnaire was developed to measure ten knowledge management areas in hospital's innovation process. Additionally, a group of experts from hospital managers were invited to comment on the applicability of the questionnaires by considering if the items are measurable in hospitals practically. A close-ended, Likert-type scale items, consisted of ten sections, were developed based on project management body of knowledge thorough Delphi technique. It enables the managers to evaluate hospitals' situation to be aware whether the organization follows the knowledge management standards in innovation process or not. By pilot study, confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were conducted to ensure the validity and reliability of the measurement items. The developed items seem to have a potential to help hospital managers and subsequently delivering new products/services successfully based on the standard procedures in their organization. In all innovation processes, the knowledge management areas and their standard steps help hospital managers by a new tool as questionnaire format.

  11. The Orientation of Visual Space from the Perspective of Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Luke P; Goller, Benjamin; Moore, Bret A; Altshuler, Douglas L; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2018-01-01

    Vision is a key component of hummingbird behavior. Hummingbirds hover in front of flowers, guide their bills into them for foraging, and maneuver backwards to undock from them. Capturing insects is also an important foraging strategy for most hummingbirds. However, little is known about the visual sensory specializations hummingbirds use to guide these two foraging strategies. We characterized the hummingbird visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orientation of the centers of acute vision. Hummingbirds had a relatively narrow binocular field (~30°) that extended above and behind their heads. Their blind area was also relatively narrow (~23°), which increased their visual coverage (about 98% of their celestial hemisphere). Additionally, eye movement amplitude was relatively low (~9°), so their ability to converge or diverge their eyes was limited. We confirmed that hummingbirds have two centers of acute vision: a fovea centralis , projecting laterally, and an area temporalis , projecting more frontally. This retinal configuration is similar to other predatory species, which may allow hummingbirds to enhance their success at preying on insects. However, there is no evidence that their temporal area could visualize the bill tip or that eye movements could compensate for this constraint. Therefore, guidance of precise bill position during the process of docking occurs via indirect cues or directly with low visual acuity despite having a temporal center of acute vision. The large visual coverage may favor the detection of predators and competitors even while docking into a flower. Overall, hummingbird visual configuration does not seem specialized for flower docking.

  12. Energy in perspective: an orientation conference for educators. [28 presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKlveen, J.W. (ed.)

    1976-01-01

    An awareness of energy and the pertinent economic, environmental, and risk/benefit consideration must be presented to the public. A logical beginning point is in the classroom, through knowledgeable and motivated educators. Ms. Carolyn Warner, Superintendent of Public Instruction, State of Arizona, presented the first paper, Energy and the Educator. Papers on all aspects of energy were presented at the conference by experts from throughout the United States. The papers were: Energy Resources: World and U.S.A.; Coal Technology: Mining, Energy Generation, Wastes, and Environmental Considerations; Energy Conservation; Arizona's Energy Resources and Development; Gas and Oil: Natural Gas, S.N.G., Oil, Oil Shale, and Tar Sands; Geothermal Energy Perspective; Solar Energy; Solar Technology; Natural Radiation Environment; Fission Theory; Arizona's Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Complex; Gas Cooled Reactors, Liquid Metal Reactors and Alternatives; Radioactive Wastes: Disposal Alternatives; Reactor Safety; Nuclear Safeguards; Fusion Power; Genetic and Somatic Radiation Effects; Energy Economics; Religion, Philosophy, and Energy; Nuclear Studies in Fine Arts and Archeology; Nuclear Methods Applied to Agriculture and Food Preservation; Nuclear Methods in Criminology; Environmental Impact of Energy Generation; and Risk and Insurance Consideration--Energy for Tomorrow. The tours to energy installations conducted during the conference and demonstration related to energy are cited. (MCW)

  13. The orientation, principles, priorities and aims of the state environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This chapter contains: (A) The orientation and priorities of state environmental policy of the government of the Slovak Republic which were approved 18 November 1993 by the resolution No 339. On the basis of the Strategy, principles and priorities of state environmental policy 70 short-terminable aims up to 1996, next 59 middle-terminable of aims up to years 2000 - 2010 and 33 general and partial long-terminable aims up to 2030 and longer were formulated. The Strategy is determined by next 5 branches oriented priorities: (1) air protection before pollutants and the global environmental safety; (2) organization of sufficiency of drinking water and decreasing of pollution of other waters under permissible limits; (3) soil protection before degeneration and organization of non-defected food-stuffs and other wares; (4) minimization of formation, use and good waste liquidate; (5) preservation of bio-diversity, preservation and rational use of natural reserves and optimization of place structure and use of the country. (B) The principles and priorities of state environmental policy determinate implementation and observance of then principles of the state environmental policy. (C) Total 162 aims of the Strategy of the state environmental policy and next followed programs, projects and measures of the environmental policy of the Slovak Republic can be grouped into 4 blocks: (1) the environmental policy in the protection of air, water and before of risk factors, in the nuclear safety and waste economy (environmental safety; (2) the environmental policy in protection of the nature and the country, protection and use of mineral surroundings, soils and forest;; (3) the environmental policy in the economy; (4) the environmental policy in the guidance, education, public information, organization, control and coordination of the ministration on the environment. These aims are grouped into 10 sectors. (D) The government of the Slovak republic has first National environmental

  14. The Orientation of Visual Space from the Perspective of Hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke P. Tyrrell

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision is a key component of hummingbird behavior. Hummingbirds hover in front of flowers, guide their bills into them for foraging, and maneuver backwards to undock from them. Capturing insects is also an important foraging strategy for most hummingbirds. However, little is known about the visual sensory specializations hummingbirds use to guide these two foraging strategies. We characterized the hummingbird visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orientation of the centers of acute vision. Hummingbirds had a relatively narrow binocular field (~30° that extended above and behind their heads. Their blind area was also relatively narrow (~23°, which increased their visual coverage (about 98% of their celestial hemisphere. Additionally, eye movement amplitude was relatively low (~9°, so their ability to converge or diverge their eyes was limited. We confirmed that hummingbirds have two centers of acute vision: a fovea centralis, projecting laterally, and an area temporalis, projecting more frontally. This retinal configuration is similar to other predatory species, which may allow hummingbirds to enhance their success at preying on insects. However, there is no evidence that their temporal area could visualize the bill tip or that eye movements could compensate for this constraint. Therefore, guidance of precise bill position during the process of docking occurs via indirect cues or directly with low visual acuity despite having a temporal center of acute vision. The large visual coverage may favor the detection of predators and competitors even while docking into a flower. Overall, hummingbird visual configuration does not seem specialized for flower docking.

  15. The perspectives of family policy in Russia amid increasing cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Mitrofanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Russia has long been characterized by early and universal marriage. After the Soviet Union collapse, the average age of marriage has been rising, and cohabitations have become common. Many scholars explain the causes of this trend through the perspective of the Second Demographic Transition. The aim of this research was to define the nature of cohabitations in Russia, reveal the factors of entrance to non-marital unions in order to discuss how and why non-marital union is implicated in recent dialogues about family policy. In order to achieve the aim, such methods as Event History Analysis and Sequence Analysis were used.

  16. Structural patterns in Swedish health policy: a 30-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B

    2015-04-01

    This perspective reviews key institutional and organizational patterns in Swedish health care over the last 30 years, probing the roots of several complicated policy questions that concern present-day Swedish decision-makers. It explores in particular the ongoing structural tension between stability, on the one hand, and the necessary levels of innovation and dynamism demanded by the current period of major clinical, technological, economic, social and supranational (EU) change. Where useful, the article compares Swedish developments with those in the other three European Nordic countries as well as other northern European health systems. Sweden's health sector evolution can provide valuable insight for other countries into the complexity involved in re-thinking tradeoffs between policies that emphasize stability as against those that encourage innovation in health sector governance and provision.

  17. Technology-Critical Elements: Economic and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Critical elements are those that provide essential functionality to modern engineered materials, have few ready substitutes and are subject to supply-chain risks or concerns about long-run availability. This paper provides economic and public-policy perspectives on critical elements. It suggests: that which elements are critical is situational and changes over time; that we are not running out of mineral-derived raw materials in a geologic sense but rather, for some elements, face scarcities that are technological, environmental, political or economic in nature; and that public policy's most important role over the longer term is fostering scientific and technological innovation, especially early stage research, that has the potential to overcome these scarcities.

  18. AN APPROACH TO SOCIAL POLICY IN ROMANIA FROM THE LIFECYCLE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria POENARU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The demographic reality and the changes of population compositions, families and communities from the urban and, respectively, the rural area contain several challenges for reconfiguring the social policies in the future. This study proposes an approach of the Romanian social policy in the context of ageing, of changes and risks it generates from the lifecycle perspective. First, the main arguments are reviewed that motivate such an approach by highlighting the modification trends of risks and opportunities during the individuals’ lifetime. Next, an analysis is realised with respect to the opportunities of adjusting the social policy to the risks associated to the main stages of the lifecycle: years of growing and learning (childhood and adolescence; the period of forming families and the working life years; the post-active period. A special emphasis is laid on taking into account the differences between men and women. The study contains recommendations for policies oriented on diminishing the risks during the lifecycle in the context of ageing.

  19. Technological start-ups in the innovation system: an actor-oriented perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, Sikke Ruurd; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2018-01-01

    The functional approach of the Technological Innovation System (TIS) has become important in innovation theory to understand the dynamics of technological innovations. Until now, TIS has mainly been applied top-down from a policy perspective. The aim of this study was to investigate whether TIS can

  20. Patient perspectives on answering questions about sexual orientation and gender identity: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Bockting, Walter; Dowding, Dawn W

    2017-07-01

    To examine patients' perceptions of being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Health disparities exist in the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population, but further research is needed to better understand these disparities. To address this issue, experts recommend the routine collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data in health care. Nurses on the front line of patient care play a key role in the collection of these data. However, to enable nurses to conduct such assessments it is important to understand the perspective of the patients on being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in a healthcare setting. An integrative review was conducted using the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005, 52, 546). Six electronic databases were searched, and two reviewers independently reviewed papers for inclusion. Papers were included if they were empirical studies, peer-reviewed papers or reports, assessing patient perspectives on discussing sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Twenty-one relevant studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. A majority of the studies indicated patients' willingness to respond to, and a perceived importance of, questions about sexual orientation and gender identity. However, fears of homophobia and negative consequences hindered willingness to disclose this information. This review indicates that in most cases patients are willing to answer routine questions about their sexual orientation in the healthcare setting and perceive them as important questions to ask. The findings of this review have implications for nurses looking to incorporate questions about sexual orientation into their routine patient assessment. The findings indicate that care providers need to be mindful of heteronormative assumptions and take steps to ensure they are knowledgeable about lesbian, gay

  1. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  2. Socialisation active et nouvelles perspectives en psychologie de l’orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumatin, Ania; Baubion-Broye, Alain; Hajjar, Violette

    2013-01-01

    L’article a été élaboré à partir de la publication « Construire sa vie : un paradigme pour l’orientation au 21e siècle ». Il en examine les principaux concepts et les perspectives théoriques et méthodologiques qu’elle définit. Il veut contribuer au débat actuel sur les modèles et les pratiques de l’orientation scolaire, professionnelle, tout au long de la vie. Les auteurs présentent quelques éléments de leur modèle d’analyse qui estime que les situations d’orientation constituent pour la pers...

  3. [Options for a future-oriented innovation policy in the medical devices industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, Michael; Lindner, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    From an innovation systems perspective the performance of the German medical devices industry, future challenges and barriers to innovation are assessed. Current performance indicators (e.g., R&D intensity, export growth rates) paint a favourable picture. Nonetheless, a number of innovation barriers are identified: in particular, insufficient network integration of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and ineffective policy coordination. Finally, recommendations addressing identified future challenges and innovation barriers are developed.

  4. Perspective on the current realities confronting Canadian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oulton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of the Canadian energy sector is indicated by the large proportion of energy investments in the economy, the significant contribution of energy exports to total exports, the major role of the energy sector in Canada's regional economies, the high per-capita energy consumption, and the high contribution of fossil fuels to Canadian greenhouse gas emissions. The history of Canadian energy policy is characterized by three relatively distinct periods: a period of strong growth and development in the energy sector starting in the late 1940s, a crisis management period starting with the oil crises in the 1970s, and a market orientation in the early 1980s which reduced the role of government in the energy sector. Energy policy has generally focused on two main themes: assuring access to competitively priced energy supplies, and ensuring maximum economic benefit from energy developments. A third theme, environmental responsibility, has emerged since the late 1980s. Current pressures on Canadian energy policies include the increasing integration of energy markets in North America, the influence of international conditions on energy prices, and environmental quality concerns relating to the costs and uncertainties of environmental assessment, climate change, and sustainable development. Further constraints and influences on energy policy come from multilateral agreements with other countries and international agencies, and the need for cooperation among the different levels of Canadian governments. Economic regulation has fallen out of favor with most governments, industry, and the public, and the increased use of regulation to pursue environmental goals in the energy sector seems likely to continue

  5. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIO-ORIENTED POLICY IN BANKING INSTITUTIONS OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunkina Tatyana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In today’s globalized conditions, the question of socially responsible business and the formation of an appropriate concept and policies for managing it are more relevant. Scientists are investigating this issue in two aspects, namely, from a theoretical and practical point of view. The first aspect is the study of the essence of CSR, the conduct of entrepreneurial activity, the functioning mechanism of the market principles in this concept, the definition of the place of social orientation in modern conditions. The second aspect is the study of practical positions, the separation of this concept from the standpoint of warning and risk management, assessment of the level of social responsibility and summing up the rating, summarizing all the results, as well as the establishment of a standard that will regulate such relationships. But, in our opinion, the implementation of such socially-oriented moments is not possible without identifying a certain number of indicators, reflecting the real situation and the impact of social factors on the banking institutions. This explains the relevance of studying the assessment of socially-oriented policies of banking institutions. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to determine the approaches to the assessment of socially-oriented policies of banking institutions, as well as to determine the place of rating assessment in the current conditions of the functioning of institutions and organizations. Results. The article describes approaches of socially-oriented banking policy in Ukraine. A quantitative approach is drawn, which directly includes the assessment of the level of social investment through the conduct of socially responsible activities by banking institutions. The qualitative approach according to which social reports and social ratings are compiled is investigated. The social indicators that influence the formation of a socially oriented political management system by business

  6. MIGRATION POLICIES FROM ORIGIN PERSPECTIVE IN THE CASE OF ROMANIA. TESTING A DEFINITION

    OpenAIRE

    Monica SERBAN

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the effort of investigating migration policies and the role they play in international migration development has consistently increased. The most consistent part of this interest is related to immigration and associated policies to manage it. Just few studies approach the issues from the origin side perspective. This paper addresses the gap by discussing how migration policies from the origin perspective may be defined and operationalized and trying to test one such a definition/ope...

  7. From Postcolonial Criticism to Critics on Postcolonial Poetics – Edward Said's Orientalism from an Iconographic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Akira Schickhaus

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Inside and outside the academy, Edward Said's work is both preeminent and controversial. Combining literary theory, the history of ideas, political analysis and the sociology of intellectuals, his groundbreaking book Orientalism has radically transformed the field of Oriental studies, arguably laying the foundation for postcolonial studies. Criticizing the condition of the Palestinian people, Said also has constantly provided a critique of US government policy in the Middle East and has thus proposed a model of intellectual skepticism which deals with political issues. This combination of political and academic interventions is one reason "for Said’s special position in contemporary Western intellectual life" (Kennedy 3. If we look at Said's classic monography as a painting of geographical knowledgelandscapes, an iconographical investigation into the traditions of knowledge and ideological styles becomes possible. This paper will begin by presenting Orientalism's arguments and will then summarize the main critiques aimed at Said. It continues to describe the analytic discourse in Orientalism based on the method of iconographic interpretation as described in Panofsky's collection of essays Meaning in the Visual Arts. This interdisciplinary approach intends to demonstrate the argumentative circularity and self-reflexivity inherent in Said's criticism: by drawing exclusively on Western histories of ideas, the concept Orientalism itself can become the object of postcolonial criticism.

  8. REDD+ policy making in Nepal: toward state-centric, polycentric, or market-oriented governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Bushley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 40 years, Nepal has become renowned for its community-based forestry policies, initiatives, and institutions, characterized by local autonomy in decisions about forest management and use and a gradual shift toward more inclusive national policy processes. In recent years, the government, international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs, donors, and some civil society organizations have instigated policy and piloting initiatives for an international climate change mitigation scheme known as "reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries" (REDD+. Although many people see REDD+ as a means of bolstering forest conservation efforts and enhancing rural livelihoods, its broader implications for decentralized forest governance in Nepal and elsewhere remain uncertain and contested. Using policy network analysis and theories of polycentric and network governance, I examined influence, inclusiveness, and deliberation among actors involved in REDD+ policy making in Nepal. Data were collected between June and December 2011 through a survey of 34 organizations from government, civil society, educational and research institutions, international NGOs and donors, and the private sector. I investigated whether policy processes and the configurations of actors involved reflect state-centric, market-oriented, or polycentric governance, and I discuss the implications for decentralized forest governance in general and for the implementation of REDD+ in particular. Results indicate that REDD+ policy making is dominated by a "development triangle", a tripartite coalition of key government actors, external organizations (international NGOs and donors, and select civil society organizations. As a result, the views and interests of other important stakeholders have been marginalized, threatening recentralized forest governance and hampering the effective implementation of REDD

  9. Examining Massification Policies and Their Consequences for Equality in Chinese Higher Education: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This study extends the theoretical perspectives in policy studies on the issue of educational equality by analyzing the influence of cultural values on policies and policy processes. The present paper first teases out the key cultural values regarding education and equality, and then explores how these values shape the institution and policy…

  10. Strategic interaction between fiscal and monetary policies in an export-oriented economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merzlyakov Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solving the problem of stabilizing the economy is directly tied to the necessity of keeping the main macroeconomic variables stable. However, macroeconomic stability is not in the general case a purely fiscal or a purely monetary problem. How the central bank and the government interact is of principle importance. We investigate the impact of macroeconomic policies on the dynamics of the exchange rate, inflation, output and stabilization fund and consider different forms of strategic interaction between the government and the central bank. In this paper we build a stylized model of an export-oriented economy. We use numerical examples for our analysis and practical conclusions. The effective interaction of fiscal and monetary policies is possible under a cooperative Stackelberg game interaction with the government as leader. It is shown that the independence of the central bank does not play a crucial role.

  11. Selection of Policies on Typhoon and Rainstorm Disasters in China: A Content Analysis Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available China is a country often subjected to severe meteorological disasters. Analyzing the evolution of policies concerning the prevention and reduction of disasters is of great practical significance for the management of such natural events. We focus on typhoons and rainstorms as disaster sources and examine policy documents from two dimensions: basic policy instruments and disaster chains. Results indicate that (1 two levels of government (central and local focus on five policy instruments; namely, they are fund and material input, infrastructure construction and management, information sharing and support, goal programming, and regulations. Other policies, however, such as engineering construction of disaster prevention, or material reserves and international cooperation, are relatively few. (2 At present, both the Central and Local governments prefer both supply-oriented policies and environment-oriented policies to focusing on demand-oriented policies. (3 As for the disaster chains, the typhoon and rainstorm disaster policies are focused on disaster defense, disaster warning, and disaster relief, neglecting disaster evaluation and post-disaster reconstruction. Finally, we put forward suggestions for perfecting the policies of disaster evaluation and post-disaster reconstruction, and point out the importance of demand-oriented policies.

  12. From "Import" to "Import-Export" Oriented Internationalization: The Impact of National Policy on Scholarly Publication in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haiying; Beckett, Gulbahar H.; Huang, Dawang

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of national research policy in China over the past three decades and its recent shift in emphasis from "import" to "import-export" oriented internationalization. Based on a policy review and interviews with three groups of academics--six journal editors in the humanities and social sciences,…

  13. Strategy And Policy Statements On Green ICT: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab A. Hameed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this information and knowledge era; ICT development and industry are growing very fast and associated with huge procurement force. Today, the global society is facing serious challenges in improving environmental performance, particularly with climate change, global warming, and resource management. ICT industry is widely contributing to the global economy associating with innovation, invention and rapid development of almost all the aspect of human life. On other hand; ICT industry is responsible for global CO2 emissions. Global environmental problems are affecting directly many countries' energy and industrial policies. The rapid increasing of ICT usage means more energy consumption and more environmental problems and the estimated ICT consumption of energy will be about 15% of the total consumption worldwide in 2020. Therefore, many countries are establishing Green ICT policies which increase energy efficiency due to correspondence climate change. Therefore, governments especially in developing and Islamic countries need to adopt new strategic policies for efficient energy use in ICT. This study presents the current environmental problems related to green ICT and the efforts to solve it. Several studies have warning from the current energy consumption paradigm, based on newly changed ICT practices. This study provides guidelines for decision makers and ICT professionals to enhance their work toward green ICT and eliminating environmental problems. Islamic viewpoint on environment and its protection is considered since it offers comprehensive, stable, and fair viewpoint that is based on main Islamic sources; Quran and Sunnah. Hundreds of Quranic verses and prophet Hadiths clarify (directly or indirectly the right manner in dealing and protection of environment resources. This paper proposes a framework for strategy and policy statements of green ICT based on Islamic perspective to serve the world especially developing and Islamic countries

  14. THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED MANIPULATION PROJECT: WATERSHED SCIENCE IN A POLICY PERSPECTIVE. (R825762)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Additional renewable energy growth through small-scale community orientated energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hain, J.J.; Ault, G.W.; Galloway, S.J.; Cruden, A.; McDonald, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises the energy policies that the UK Government has enacted in order to achieve its renewable targets by 2010. Current policies are designed primarily to support large-scale renewable projects through Renewable Obligation Certificates, Levy Exemption Certificates and capital grant schemes. Non-profit domestic and non-profit community renewable projects are also eligible for grant support. First-hand experience of privately owned renewable projects indicate that existing renewable policy is insufficient in its support of both small-scale and community-based profit oriented renewable energy (RE) schemes. Primary and secondary survey information suggests that people living in regions where RE will be situated may generally be inclined to support broader uses of renewables in these regions. Small-scale renewables can make a significant cumulative contribution to the RE mix. The results reported in this paper support the contention that the Government could go further towards approaching its targets through rural-focused changes to its energy incentive programmes

  16. 5G Development in China: From Policy Strategy to User-Oriented Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 5G encompasses the development of various key wireless communication technology standards. The development entails both technological advancement and social interaction. This paper analyzes 5G development and its significant shift from a strategy policy to a user-oriented development showing the coplay of technology and society in China. Based on this theory, relevant proposals are recommended for future technical development and industrial regulation. Also, to increase the throughput and spectrum efficiency, channel assignment and load balance are considered. A hybrid routing protocol TOHRP (tree-based and on-demand hybrid routing protocol and a distributed channel assignment algorithm LBCA (Load Based Channel Assignment in the multichannel environment are proposed and they solve the traditional problem of (1 waste of spectrum and (2 self-interference. The computer-simulated experiment shows that the algorithm improves the performance.

  17. State and local policies related to sexual orientation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Hexem, Sarah; LaPollo, Archana; Cuffe, Kendra M; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2017-02-01

    Poorer health suffered by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations may be associated with public policies. We collected the laws that in 2013 prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation from 50 United States (US) states, the District of Columbia (Washington, DC or DC), and the 30 most populous US metropolitan areas. To facilitate future research, we coded certain aspects of these laws to create a dataset. We generated descriptive statistics by jurisdiction type and tested for regional differences in state law using Chi-square tests. Sixteen (31.4 per cent) states prohibited discrimination by all employers based on sexual orientation, 25 states (49.0 per cent) in public employment, 18 states (35.3 per cent) in government contracting, and 21 states (41.2 per cent) in private employment. Twenty-one states prohibited discrimination (41.2 per cent) in housing practices (selling and renting), and 17 (33.3 per cent) in public accommodations. Local (county/city) laws prohibiting discrimination were less common. State laws differed significantly by US census region - West, Midwest, Northeast, and South. Future analyses of these data could examine the impact of these laws on various outcomes, including health among LGB populations.

  18. Motivating systems-oriented research on environmental and policy changes for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskin, L J; Frutchey, R; McDermott, A Y; Esposito, L; Lee, B Y; Kumanyika, S

    2017-06-01

    Research on the types of interventions needed for population-level prevention of childhood obesity in complex societal systems can benefit from greater use of systems-science concepts and tools. We report outcomes of a funding programme promoting incorporation of systems-science approaches into studies of imminent policy or environmental changes potentially impacting childhood obesity. Seven funding cycles over 3 years yielded 172 initial submissions from 29 US states and 25 other countries were analyzed. Submissions focused primarily on aspects of school or child-care settings, parks and recreational settings, or access to healthy food; about half reflected attention to systems perspectives. Analysis of initial submissions as well as the 15 funded projects showed some success in motivating use of systems concepts and tools but suggested the need for a more focused effort to educate and prepare the childhood obesity prevention research community for this potentially crucial type of research. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Advancing Health Marketing Research and Policy Recommendations by Incorporating Source Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Guadagno, Marie; Champlin, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Communication researchers, recognizing the message sent is not necessarily the same as the message received, have incorporated the perspective of advertising professionals into the study of advertising effects. Health marketing research could similarly benefit from incorporating this largely absent perspective into the academic and policy debate surrounding the impact of advertising on health issues ranging from obesity to alcohol use. This commentary serves as a call to action to stakeholders in this academic and policy debate: focus on the perspective of advertising professionals to enrich health marketing and public health research in which advertising is the delivery vehicle for health messages.

  20. Language Policy and Language Ideology: Ecological Perspectives on Language and Education in the Himalayan Foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    Ethnographic research in the Kumaun region of North India highlights different perspectives on this multilingual context and on national-level policies. Language policies that explicitly or implicitly minoritize certain linguistic varieties influence local discourses about language and education but are also interpreted through the lens of local…

  1. Canadian Campus Smoking Policies: Investigating the Gap between Intent and Outcome from a Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Lynne; Callaghan, Doris; Smith, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. Methods: The authors conducted 8 focus groups at…

  2. An Exploration of Linguistic Neo-Colonialism through Educational Language Policy--An Irish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, educational language policy is explored through the lens of linguistic neo-colonialism in Ireland in the case of learners of English as an Additional Language. The perspective of Ireland as a decolonized nation may have an impact on current language policy. Arguments for an additive approach to language and identity, language…

  3. Implementing Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data Collection in Emergency Departments: Patient and Staff Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Danielle; Kodadek, Lisa; Shields, Ryan; Peterson, Susan; Snyder, Claire; Schneider, Eric; Vail, Laura; Ranjit, Anju; Torain, Maya; Schuur, Jeremiah; Lau, Brandyn; Haider, Adil

    2016-12-01

    To identify patient and provider perspectives concerning collection of sexual orientation and gender identity (SO&GI) information in emergency departments (EDs). Semistructured interviews were conducted during the period of 2014-2015 with a diverse purposive sample of patients across the spectrum of sexual orientation and gender identities (n = 53) and ED nurses, physician assistants, physicians, and registrars (n = 38) in a major metropolitan area. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by multiple coders using constant comparative methods. Patients were willing to provide SO&GI information if collected safely and appropriately, and staff described willingness to collect SO&GI information to inform understanding of health disparities. Key themes across respondents were as follows: What will be done with the data? How will it be collected? Who will collect it? Is the environment conducive to safe disclosure? Confidentiality and potential sensitivity; standardized collection emphasizing population health; nurse intake and/or nonverbal data collection; and environmental cues and cultural competency promoting comfort for sexual and gender minorities emerged as critical considerations for effective implementation. Staff and patients are amenable to SO&GI data collection in EDs, but data quality and patient and provider comfort may be compromised without attention to specific implementation considerations.

  4. ICT Policy and Perspectives of Human Development in Latin America: the Peruvian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Ferrer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communications Technology (ICT has been considered as an important element for economic growth and social development. However, no consensus seems to exist about the proper roles and actual effects of information technology in dynamics of socioeconomic development. Many countries around the world have seen great opportunities in implementing initiatives that would increase the ICT adoption in different areas, especially in the government. Developed countries have exploited their ICT infrastructure for implementing success projects, while developing countries are launching their own ICT based initiatives hoping to achieve a considerable impact in the society in a relatively short term. The present research is oriented to study the implications of ICT policies for enhancing the quality of life in developing countries, especially in the Latin American countries. This paper reviews some important efforts in the deployment of ICT initiative in Peru. The contribution from a research perspective is to report on some key lessons learnt and propose a set of recommendations for future implementations in similar developing nations’ environments.

  5. From Rail-Oriented to Automobile-Oriented Urban Development and Back. 100 Years of Paradigm Change and Transport Policy in Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedemann Kunst

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transport and its side effects are major problems in rapidly growing cities. Car traffic dominates these cities and pollutes the environment without being able to sufficiently secure the mobility of the urban population and goods. A paradigm shift in urban and transport policy will be necessary to change this situation. In spite of its different development dynamics, Berlin is an interesting example to discuss development strategies for rapidly growing cities because in the course of more than 100 years, a twofold paradigm shift has occurred in the city both conceptually and practically:  Berlin has shifted from a city dominated by rail traffic  to an automobile-oriented city,  and has then gradually transformed back into a city in which  an intertwined system of public and non-motorized individual means of transport secures the mobility of the urban population. The interdependencies on the conceptual level between urban planning and transport policies as well as on a practical level between urban structures and transport systems can be studied using the example of Berlin. Experiences with the implementation of automobile-oriented planning and the special conditions in the first decade after reunification led to protests, reflection, and a revision of the transport policy. A strategically designed process of integrated planning has brought about a trend reversal, and steered the development of transport in the direction of clearly formulated sustainability-oriented objectives. In this process, the reintegration of transport and spatial planning and a reorganization of institutional structures at the administrative level was of particular importance. Compact, rail-oriented settlement structures like in the metropolitan region of Berlin make it easier to dispense with automobiles than sprawled structures. The residual role that qualitatively improved automobiles will take in the cities of the future will have to be determined by research and

  6. Measuring Sexual Orientation: A Review and Critique of U.S. Data Collection Efforts and Implications for Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Margaret; Wells, Brooke; Ventura-DiPersia, Christina; Renson, Audrey; Grov, Christian

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Healthy People 2020 goals sought to improve health outcomes among sexual minorities; HHS acknowledged that a dearth of sexual orientation items in federal and state health surveys obscured a broad understanding of sexual minority-related health disparities. The HHS 2011 data progression plan aimed to advance sexual orientation data collection efforts at the national level. Sexual orientation is a complex, multidimensional construct often composed of sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, thus posing challenges to its quantitative and practical measurement and analysis. In this review, we (a) present existing sexual orientation constructs; (b) evaluate current HHS sexual orientation data collection efforts; (c) review post-2011 data progression plan research on sexual minority health disparities, drawing on HHS survey data; (d) highlight the importance of and (e) identify obstacles to multidimensional sexual orientation measurement and analysis; and (f) discuss methods for multidimensional sexual orientation analysis and propose a matrix for addressing discordance/branchedness within these analyses. Multidimensional sexual orientation data collection and analysis would elucidate sexual minority-related health disparities, guide related health policies, and enhance population-based estimates of sexual minority individuals to steer health care practices.

  7. AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE AND POLICY IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon; Heon-Goo Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at the current status of Korean social enterprises and their problems and suggested governmental policy implications for enhancing the competitiveness of social enterprises. As the study methods, the current status of social enterprises was analyzed and performance of social enterprise support was examined and then policy implications for promoting the social enterprises were analyzed. First, the direction of governmental policy regarding the promotion of social enterprise s...

  8. Youth unemployment and employment policy: a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    O'Higgins, Niall

    2001-01-01

    This study discusses in depth the youth unemployment "problem" and examines the various policy responses to it, including education and training, and active labour market policy. It emphasizes the need for adequate labour market information, policy monitoring and programme evaluation to help provide more and better-quality jobs for young people - while also offering specific recommendations and guidelines for this age group in industrialized, transition and developing countries, While anal...

  9. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  10. Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, J; Khalil, D

    2015-12-01

    The question of why most health policies do not achieve their intended results continues to receive a considerable attention in the literature. This is in the light of the recognized gap between policy as intent and policy as practice, which calls for substantial research work to understand the factors that improve policy implementation. Although there is substantial work that explains the reasons why policies achieve or fail to achieve their intended outcomes, there are limited case studies that illustrate how to analyze policies from the methodological perspective. In this article, we report and discuss how a mixed qualitative research method was applied for analyzing maternal and child health policies in Malawi. For the purposes of this article, we do not report research findings; instead we focus our dicussion on the methodology of the study and draw lessons for policy analysis research work. We base our disusssion on our experiences from a study in which we analyzed maternal and child health policies in Malawi over the period from 1964 to 2008. Noting the multifaceted nature of maternal and child health policies, we adopted a mixed qualitative research method, whereby a number of data collection methods were employed. This approach allowed for the capturing of different perspectives of maternal and child health policies in Malawi and for strengthening of the weaknesses of each method, especially in terms of data validity. This research suggested that the multidimensional nature of maternal and child health policies, like other health policies, calls for a combination of research designs as well as a variety of methods of data collection and analysis. In addition, we suggest that, as an emerging research field, health policy analysis will benefit more from case study designs because they provide rich experiences in the actual policy context.

  11. Adult Education as Public Policy: A Perspective from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1988-01-01

    Discusses policies concerning adult education which have been designed and carried out in Latin America. Contends that the adult basic education policy does not provide the clientele with better tools to face the challenges of society. Calls for an understanding of the inner rationality of adult education programs. (KO)

  12. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  13. Tradeoffs in Examination Policies: An International Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Harold J.; Eckstein, Max A.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on recent changes in examination policy and practice in China, England and Wales, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Identifies and discusses some significant trade-offs arising from the implementation of examination policy. Discusses four nearly universal dilemmas of…

  14. Danish Cultural Policy in a European and Global Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Danish Cultural policy is undergoing a series of transformations with regard to legislation, culture efficiency of the policy organization and financing, the status and rolle og teh arms length principle, the autonomy and role of arts and culture in society and the weights of different paradigms...

  15. Contrasting perspectives on China's rare earths policies: Reframing the debate through a stakeholder lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes-Labruto, Leslie; Schillebeeckx, Simon J.D.; Workman, Mark; Shah, Nilay

    2013-01-01

    This article critically compares China's rare earth policy with perspectives upheld in the rest of the world (ROW). We introduce rare earth elements and their importance for energy and present how China and the ROW are framing the policy debate. We find strongly dissonant views with regards to motives for foreign direct investment, China's two-tiered pricing structure and its questionable innovation potential. Using the metaphor of “China Inc.”, we compare the Chinese government to a socially responsible corporation that aims to balance the needs of its internal stakeholders with the demands from a resource-dependent world. We find that China's internal stakeholders have more power and legitimacy in the REE debate than the ROW and reconceptualise various possible mitigation strategies that could change current international policy and market dynamics. As such, we aim to reframe the perspectives that seem to govern the West and argue in favor of policy formation that explicitly acknowledges China's triple bottom line ambitions and encourages the ROW to engage with China in a more nuanced manner. - Highlights: • Very different perspectives persist regarding China's rare earth policies. • Scarcity, substitutability and uncertainty drive the divergent perspectives. • We compare China to a socially responsible corporation, “China Inc.”. • China's internal stakeholders have higher salience than ROW. • We propose and reframe policy mitigation strategies

  16. Spent nuclear fuel policies in historical perspective: An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegselius, Per

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain why the world's nuclear power countries differ from each other with respect to their spent nuclear fuel (SNF) policies. The emergence and evolution of three principal SNF approaches are analyzed: direct disposal, reprocessing and SNF export. Five broad explanatory factors are identified and discussed in relation to the observed differences in policy outcomes: military ambitions and non-proliferation, technological culture, political culture and civil society, geological conditions, and energy policy. SNF policy outcomes can generally be seen to result from a complex interaction between these broad factors, but it is also possible to discern a number of important patterns. To the extent that the five factors may undergo far-reaching changes in the future, the historical experience of how they have shaped SNF policies also give a hint of possible future directions in SNF policymaking around the world

  17. Long-term perspectives of European energy policy - the Energy Roadmap 2050 of the European Union; Langfristperspektiven der europaeischen Energiepolitik. Die Energy Roadmap 2050 der Europaeischen Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C. [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Aside from diverse event-related or short or medium-term oriented activities, for the European Union the year 2011 was marked by fundamental work on the long-term perspectives of European energy and climate policy. In the course of the year the European Commission published three so-called roadmaps, all oriented to the time horizon of 2050 and dedicated, amongst other goals, to identifying possible paths of development for the energy markets. This is the first time that a consistent, even if in some points debatable, analysis framework for long-term energy and climate policy in the context of the EU has been presented, and it certainly creates a new basis in qualitative terms.

  18. Perspective of nuclear power policy change and trend of nuclear industry activities from energy policy of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko; Matsuo, Yuji; Nagatomi, Yu

    2009-01-01

    European countries of nuclear power phase-out have changed to commit to the future of nuclear energy due to the intended low-carbon power, the energy security concerns and the need of replacement reactors as current reactors approach the end of operating lives, as Italian government has passed legislation to build new nuclear power plants. This article described the perspective of nuclear power policy changes in UK, Italy an Sweden and the business trend and the SWOT analysis of related electric utilities (EDF, Enel and Vattenfall) and nuclear industries (Areva NP, Sheffield Forgemasters, ENSA and Studsvik). Policy implications obtained from this analysis were commented for Japanese nuclear industry activities. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Domestic petroleum product pricing policy: Old issues in new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    It appears that the economic basis of domestic petroleum product pacing has, hitherto, received inadequate attention from economists. International comparisons of petroleum product pricing show that domestic markets are highly distorted This article argues that despite significant developments in theoretical and applied economics, economic theories do not provide any ready made solutions for energy pricing issues to the policy makers who have to deal with a large set of practical issues. As a result, it is not unusual to encounter gross misapplication of economic rules in petroleum pricing policies. This work also focuses on the possible effects of changing domestic market structure vis-a-vis pricing policies

  20. Evolutionary pattern, operation mechanism and policy orientation of low carbon economy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Dou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The essence of low carbon economy development is a continuous evolution and innovation process of socio-economic system from traditional high carbon economy to new sustainable green low carbon economy to achieve a sustainable dynamic balance and benign interactive development of various elements between society, economy and natural ecosystem. At the current stage, China’s socio-economy is showing the feature of "three high" (high energy consumption, high emissions and high pollution. In this case, quickly to promote the development of green low carbon economy is necessary and urgent. This research indicates that, low carbon economy development is achieved by micro-economic agents such as households, businesses and social intermediary organizations through Government’s guidance and the role of market mechanism. In low carbon economy development, the state (government is a leader and markets are core, while economic agents (e.g., households, businesses and social intermediary organizations are basis. For this reason, it is necessary to build an effective cleaner development and incentive-compatible policy system oriented to end-users.

  1. Layperson's preference regarding orientation of the transverse occlusal plane and commissure line from the frontal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruno Pereira; Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio; Finkel, Sivan; Macias, Inmaculada Redondo; Chu, Stephen J

    2017-04-01

    Facial asymmetries in features such as lip commissure and interpupillary plane canting have been described as common conditions affecting smile esthetics. When presented with these asymmetries, the clinician must choose the reference line with which to orient the transverse occlusal plane of the planned dental restorations. The purpose of the online survey described in this study was to determine lay preferences regarding the transverse occlusal plane orientation in faces that display a cant of the commissure line viewed from the frontal perspective. From a digitally created symmetrical facial model with the transverse occlusal plane and commissure line parallel to the interpupillary line (horizontal) and a model constructed in a previous study (control), a new facial model was created with 3 degrees of cant of the commissure line. Three digital tooth mountings were designed with different transverse occlusal plane orientations: parallel to the interpupillary line (A), parallel to the commissure line (B), and the mean angulation plane formed between the interpupillary and commissure line (C), resulting in a total of 4 images. All images, including the control, were organized into 6 pairs and evaluated by 247 selected laypersons through an online Web site survey. Each participant was asked to choose the more attractive face from each of the 6 pairs of images. The control image was preferred by 72.9% to 74.5% of the participants compared with the other 3 images, all of which represented a commissure line cant. Among the 3 pairs which represent a commissure line cant, 59.1% to 61.1% preferred a transverse plane of occlusion cant (B and C) compared with a plane of occlusion parallel to the interpupillary, line and 61.1% preferred a plane of occlusion parallel to the commissure line (B) compared with the mean angulation plane (C). Laypeople prefer faces with a commissure line and transverse occlusal plane parallel to the horizontal plane or horizon. When faces present a

  2. Collaboration in public policy and practice: perspectives on boundary spanners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Paul

    2012-01-01

    .... It will be of interest to academics, researchers and students interested in this field of study, and provides learning for policy makers and practitioners active in the fields of collaboration...

  3. Abortion politics: public policy in cross-cultural perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stetson, Dorothy M; Githens, Marianne

    1996-01-01

    " ... focuses on current abortion policy and practice in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan and aims to provide a comprehensive, stimulating, and balanced picture of current abortion politics...

  4. JSC “ALFA-BANK” marketing policy. problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillov, A.; Kuznetcova, E.; Martirosian, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the results of JSC “Alfa-Bank” consumers’ segmentation and the following complex marketing research. The article suggests the ways of the bank’s marketing policy improvement.

  5. Automated Vehicle Policy and Regulation: A State Perspective Workshop: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Levine, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A workshop held on May 18, 2016, at the University of Maryland focused on key principles that should govern state policy decisions intended to ensure the safe operation of autonomous vehicles (AVs). The patchwork approach taken by early state adopters had primarily addressed only testing of these vehicles. As uncertainties in technology and business models play out, and in the absence of more suitable policies and regulations, states are relying on laws created for conventional vehicles to govern AV operations. The workshop addressed these challenges with three panel discussions that examined the underpinnings of policy development, factors affecting policy decisions, and the ultimate impact of AVs in a number of areas, including economic competitiveness; quality of mobility, particularly for disabled community; and energy use and emissions.

  6. Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and Policy Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article reviews new research on this topic, emphasizing how it can inform policy debates about the role of marriage in reducing poverty and improving child out...

  7. Policies to sustain the nursing workforce: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, J; Twigg, D; Dussault, G; Duffield, C; Stone, P W

    2015-06-01

    Examine metrics and policies regarding nurse workforce across four countries. International comparisons inform health policy makers. Data from the OECD were used to compare expenditure, workforce and health in: Australia, Portugal, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). Workforce policy context was explored. Public spending varied from less than 50% of gross domestic product in the US to over 80% in the UK. Australia had the highest life expectancy. Portugal has fewer nurses and more physicians. The Australian national health workforce planning agency has increased the scope for co-ordinated policy intervention. Portugal risks losing nurses through migration. In the UK, the economic crisis resulted in frozen pay, reduced employment, and reduced student nurses. In the US, there has been limited scope to develop a significant national nursing workforce policy approach, with a continuation of State based regulation adding to the complexity of the policy landscape. The US is the most developed in the use of nurses in advanced practice roles. Ageing of the workforce is likely to drive projected shortages in all countries. There are differences as well as variation in the overall impact of the global financial crisis in these countries. Future supply of nurses in all four countries is vulnerable. Work force planning is absent or restricted in three of the countries. Scope for improved productivity through use of advanced nurse roles exists in all countries. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Does Customer Value-oriented Management Influence Financial Results? A Supplier’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslier Valenzuela Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research contributes with a theoretical and practical vision of the new perspective of Customer Value Management (cvm and its business implications. In fact, the purpose is to test the influence of cvm on Financial Results through Market Share (ms, Gross Margin (gm and Return on Equity (roe. The approach used to test such influence was an empirical study with data from 107 sales executives at one of the largest banks in Chile. Results support the hypotheses that cvm would have a positive influence on retention rates as well as optimize the costs of acquiring clients and the income generated by customers. The study also establishes the influence cvm has on the financial results of the company. This paper expands existing research by examining the relationship between Customer Value-oriented Management and organizational results. To assess organizational results, relevant financial ratios that are useful when evaluating the financial performance of a company were used. Results also point that in order to maintain a good level of trust, companies need to achieve a good level of communication with their clients, which is particularly important since high cvm might be necessary for a firm to develop long-term relationships with customers and achieve sustainable sales growth.

  9. The Brazilian policy for reduction of accidents and violence aligns with international perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Namie Sakata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed The Brazilian Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence, in the socio-political perspective. We used as a base the chapter “Violence: a global public health problem” from the World Report on Violence and Health. The analysis revealed convergent and divergent elements of the Brazilian Policy in comparison with the international perspectives. We verified that the Brazilian Policy tried to converge to the international policies, however: it emphasizes the health promotion actions, but are limited to the context and behavior of individuals and individual communities; the performance of health professionals is expected without providing more structural investments, as the improvement in work conditions, the increase of financial and material resources; there are few clear definitions of the government and economical sector responsibilities.

  10. Language policies and practices in wholly owned foreign subsidiaries: A recontextualization perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vesa Peltokorpi; Eero Vaara

    2012-01-01

    This study adopts a recontextualization perspective on language policies and practices in wholly owned foreign subsidiaries. Drawing on a field study of 101 subsidiaries in Japan, we develop a contingency model that distinguishes between four different types of recontextualization with characteristic language policies and practices: developing/locally adaptive, developing/globally integrated, established/locally adaptive, and established/globally integrated. Our analysis shows how each of the...

  11. Energy poverty policies in the EU: A critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Petrova, Saska; Sarlamanov, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Once confined to the UK context – where it was struggling to receive political recognition for years – the concept of energy (or fuel) poverty is slowly entering the EU's agenda, where it has crept into a number of regulatory documents and policy proposals. Using evidence gathered from an international workshop and semi-structured interviews with decision-makers, experts and advocacy activists in Brussels and Sofia, this paper explores the adoption of policies aimed at addressing energy poverty within (i) the organisational context of the EU; and (ii) national state institutions in Bulgaria – a member state facing considerable problems at the energy affordability – social inequality nexus. While the former are largely nascent and poorly co-ordinated, the latter have already been implemented de jure to a significant extent. However, many unresolved issues surrounding their de facto implementation remain. At the same time, national policy makers remain largely unaware of the existence of direct energy poverty related initiatives at the EU level. - Highlights: ► This paper explores the adoption of energy poverty policies within the EU and Bulgaria. ► We establish the existence of a range of nascent efforts to address the issue at EU level. ► Bulgaria has been good at implementing EU energy poverty relevant directives. ► However, policy makers speak a different language when it comes to direct energy poverty action.

  12. Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorski MT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mary T Gorski,1 Christina A Roberto2,3 1Interfaculty Initiative in Health Policy, Harvard University, Cambridge, 2Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: There is an urgent need to address unhealthy dietary patterns at the population level. Poor diet and physical inactivity are key drivers of the obesity pandemic, and they are among the leading causes of preventable death and disability in nearly every country in the world. As countries grapple with the growing obesity prevalence, many innovative policy options to reduce overeating and improve diet quality remain largely unexplored. We describe recent trends in eating habits and consequences for public health, vulnerabilities to unhealthy eating, and the role for public health policies. We reviewed recent public health policies to promote healthier diet patterns, including mandates, restrictions, economic incentives, marketing limits, information provision, and environmental defaults. Keywords: food policy, diet, obesity, public health

  13. Perspective: Improving nutritional guidelines for sustainable health policies: Current status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magni, Paolo; Bier, Dennis M; Pecorelli, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    a constructive coalition among scientists, policy makers, and communication professionals for sustainable health and nutritional policies. Currently, a strong rationale and available data support a personalized dietary approach according to personal variables, including sex and age, circulating metabolic...

  14. Mutual perceptions between nuclear plant employees and general public on nuclear policy communication applying the Co-orientation analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Chul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Chung, Woon Kwan [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This study examines mutual perceptions between general public and nuclear plant employees on understanding nuclear policy communication applying the co-orientation model. The total of 414 responses were analyzed including 211 of the general public and 203 of plant employees. Results indicate that agreement between general public and plant employees is relatively high, in that general public tends to have negative evaluation to nuclear policy communication, but plant employees tends to have positive one. In terms of congruence, general public perceive that plant employees might have more positive evaluation than themselves, and nuclear plant employees perceive that general public might have more negative evaluation than themselves. Finally, in terms of accuracy, general public accurately estimate how nuclear plant employees perceive on policy communication, whereas nuclear plant employees unaccurately estimate how general public perceive on policy communication.

  15. Mutual perceptions between nuclear plant employees and general public on nuclear policy communication applying the Co-orientation analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Chul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Chung, Woon Kwan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines mutual perceptions between general public and nuclear plant employees on understanding nuclear policy communication applying the co-orientation model. The total of 414 responses were analyzed including 211 of the general public and 203 of plant employees. Results indicate that agreement between general public and plant employees is relatively high, in that general public tends to have negative evaluation to nuclear policy communication, but plant employees tends to have positive one. In terms of congruence, general public perceive that plant employees might have more positive evaluation than themselves, and nuclear plant employees perceive that general public might have more negative evaluation than themselves. Finally, in terms of accuracy, general public accurately estimate how nuclear plant employees perceive on policy communication, whereas nuclear plant employees unaccurately estimate how general public perceive on policy communication

  16. Policy Trends Impacting Community Colleges: An ECS Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsler, Brian A.; Pingel, Sarah; Anderson, Lexi

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of community and technical colleges to state education attainment and workforce development goals, policy addressing the two-year sector is of critical importance to state policymakers. Analysis of legislative issue trends suggests transfer and articulation, performance-based funding, and financial aid programs are substantial…

  17. Youth Unemployment and Employment Policy: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, Niall

    This book looks at the issue of youth unemployment and examines policy responses. Part I considers the youth unemployment problem. Chapter 1 is an overview, covering size of the problem and the close relationship between youth and adult unemployment. Chapter 2 examines youth unemployment characteristics and distribution of unemployment across…

  18. Colonization and English Ideologies in India: A Language Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Usree

    2017-01-01

    A language policy document on English teaching asserted that in India, "the colonial origins [of English are] now forgotten or irrelevant" (NCERT 2006: 1). Using data obtained in the course of a longitudinal ethnographic investigation into the language and literacy practices of young multilingual boys living at an "anathashram"…

  19. Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…

  20. A state perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the problems he sees with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) program. He labels the problems as: against the law, all the eggs in one basket, acceptance rate, and the MRS program. The author comments of five issues that need to be addressed to right the wrongs of the NWPA program

  1. A Critical Perspective of Contemporary Unemployment Policy and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Medvide, Mary Beth; Wan, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the challenges of unemployment via the lens of critical psychology. The conventional discourse on unemployment is critiqued, revealing ways in which conventional policies and practices serve to further marginalize the lives of the unemployed and impede the development of ethical, effective, and empathic individual…

  2. Higher-Education Policies and Welfare Regimes: International Comparative Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechar, Hans; Andres, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    All Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have experienced an unprecedented expansion in higher education during the second half of the twentieth century. This was only possible because higher education became part of national welfare policies. OECD countries differ, however, with respect to the significance of…

  3. Academic Freedom and University Autonomy: A Higher Education Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kai; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects upon three seminal articles published in "Higher Education Policy" ("HEP") on academic freedom and university autonomy. The reflections indicate that "HEP" research contributes to a sophisticated and systematic understanding of the complexity of academic freedom, addressing both the original…

  4. A Complexity-Theoretic Perspective on Innovation Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.

    2017-01-01

    It is argued that innovation policy based on notions of market failure or system failure is too limited in the context of current societal challenges. I propose a third, complexity-theoretic approach. This approach starts from the observation that most innovations are related to existing activities,

  5. A Complexity-Theoretic Perspective on Innovation Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that innovation policy based on notions of market failure or system failure is too limited in the context of current societal challenges. I propose a third, complexity-theoretic approach. This approach starts from the observation that most innovations are related to existing activities,

  6. A globalization-oriented perspective on health, inequality and socio-economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Arno

    2012-01-01

    There has been an attention to inequality as a causal factor for deficient health in the medical journals over the last decades (Richard G. Wilkinson et al. and Schnell et al.); however, the reasons for inequality and the interactions of the underlying causes of inequality at the level of the world economy have not yet been properly explored in this kind of literature. The aim of this article is to provide a new, globalization-oriented, multi-disciplinary perspective on life expectancy, under-five mortality, inequality and socio-economic development in the world system, compatible with the advances in international sociological research on the subject over the last three decades. Taking up the traditions of quantitative sociology to study the effects of multinational corporation (MNC) penetration as a key determining variable for development outcomes such as socio-economic inequality and infant mortality, this article analyzes from the perspective of quantitative political science and economics this particular role of MNC penetration as the key variable for the determination of health, inequality and socio-economic development in 183 countries of the world system, using international social science standard data. As correctly predicted by quantitative sociology, but largely overlooked by the medical profession, the development style, implied by a high MNC penetration of their host countries, reflects the oligopolistic power, which transnational corporations wield over local economies. We took up an idea from Austro-American economist Joseph Alois Schumpeter (1883-1950), which states that the long-term effects of oligopolistic power are negative and lead toward economic and social stagnation. Our data show that although MNC penetration indeed led to certain short-term growth effects after 1990, today, social polarization and stagnation increase as a consequence of the development model, based on high MNC penetration. There is a negative trade-off between MNC

  7. Discussion: Towards an Educational Perspective in CLIL Language Policy and Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone

    2013-01-01

    This issue includes eight studies on different aspects of language policy, pedagogical practices, and teacher training in school contexts where a foreign language is used to teach curricular content (CLIL). This is a very welcome contribution because it provides additional perspectives to former studies that had focused on the linguistic outcomes…

  8. A Cognitive Perspective on Policy Implementation : Reform Beliefs, Sensemaking, and Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siciliano, Michael D.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing a cognitive perspective, this article examines the social processes through which teachers come to understand the Common Core State Standards. The authors begin by identifying three beliefs that have important implications for policy implementation: self-efficacy, resource adequacy, and

  9. An analysis of trends and perspectives of U.S.'s nuclear policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. W.; Lee, K. S.; Oh, K. B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trends and perspectives of U.S.'s nuclear polices. With the changing of the administration of U.S., certain changes in nuclear policies are foreseen under Bush's new administration. Considering the traditional basis of republicans, somewhat positive impacts on nuclear R and D and nuclear power program are expected

  10. Policy and participant perspectives on the drop-out problem in secondary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette; Rasmussen, Palle

    In this paper we compare the way the drop-out problem in secondary education is constructed in Danish official and public policy discourse with the way it is experiences and interpreted by young people trying to get an education. As regards the student's perspective we will use interviews...

  11. Stakeholder Perspectives on Policies to Support Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Michelle; Pickard, Joseph G.; Rodriguez, Carroll; Shear, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Persons with dementia are often excluded from consumer-directed home- and community-based service programs because they cannot direct their own care. Surrogates are permitted in some states, thereby allowing program participation. This study explored family caregiver perspectives on policies that support family needs related to providing care to…

  12. Principal Perspectives about Policy Components and Practices for Reducing Cyberbullying in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunley-Jenkins, Keisha Janine

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores large, urban, mid-western principal perspectives about cyberbullying and the policy components and practices that they have found effective and ineffective at reducing its occurrence and/or negative effect on their schools' learning environments. More specifically, the researcher was interested in learning more…

  13. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-01-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  14. Discussing dialogue: perspectives on the value of science dialogue events that do not inform policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; McCallie, Ellen; Simonsson, Elin

    2009-01-01

    While theoretical work and empirical research have examined science policy-informing "dialogue events," dialogue events that do not seek to inform public policy are under-theorized and under-researched, even though they are common and growing in popularity in the UK. We describe how, from...... a critical perspective, it may initially appear that such events cannot be justified without returning to the deficit model. But with this paper, we seek to open up a discussion about these non policy-informing events by arguing that there are in fact further ways to understand and frame them. We...

  15. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-07-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  16. Industrial Policy in Export-Oriental Economies: Lessons from the Experiences of Japan, South Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Epictetus E. Patalinghug

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the experiences of Japan, South Korea and Taiwan in their successful export-oriented development. A comparison of industrial policies in these three economies indicates that their governments actively and consciously intervene to in?uence speci?c ?rms and industries. However, most export incentives were administered uniformly across all industries. At the same time, incentives were granted based on output performance within a limited duration in an environment that encoura...

  17. Goal Orientations, Locus of Control and Academic Achievement in Prospective Teachers: An Individual Differences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulus, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the prospective teachers' locus of control in goal orientations and of both orientations in academic achievement. The participants were 270 undergraduate students studying in different majors at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Goal Orientations and Locus of Control Scales were…

  18. Comprehensive perspective on the mechanism of preferred orientation in reactive-sputter-deposited nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajikawa, Yuya; Noda, Suguru; Komiyama, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Texture control of sputter-deposited nitride films has provoked a great deal of interest due to its technological importance. Despite extensive research, however, the reported results are scattered and discussions about the origin of preferred orientation (PO) are sometimes conflicting, and therefore controversial. The aim of this study is to acquire a clear perspective in order to discuss the origin of PO of sputter-deposited nitrides. Among nitrides, we focus on titanium nitride (TiN), aluminum nitride (AlN), and tantalum nitride (TaN), which are three commonly used nitrides. First, we collected reported experimental results about the relation between operating conditions and PO, because PO is considered to be determined by film formation processes, such as surface diffusion or grain growth, which is affected by operating conditions. We also collected reported results about such PO-determining processes. Then, we categorized the PO-determining processes into an initial stage and a growth stage of film deposition, and further categorized each stage into a vapor-solid interface and a solid-solid interface. Then, we related each stage and interface to film morphology and to PO-determining processes. Finally, based on existing results, previous models, and proposed schema, we discuss the origin of PO. Based on previous experimental results on film morphology, PO of nitride films occurred in the growth stage at the vapor-solid interface, where the sticking process of the precursor and the surface diffusion process determine PO, rather than in the initial stage and in the growth stage at the solid-solid interface. TiN (002) PO, however, seems to be caused in the initial stage at the solid-solid interface

  19. Security Policies from a Spatial Perspective: the Case of Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirio del Carmen Gutiérrez Rivera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Public insecurity became a central issue for many Hondurans in the late 1990s, as crime, delinquency and homicide increased significantly in the isthmus. Honduras had the second highest homicide rate (35.1 per 100,000 in the region after El Salvador (50.2. per 100,000 . This social violence triggered insecurity and fear, which was further accompanied by the overall perception that the state was unable of relieving or protecting the population. This article looks at the failed attempts of the Honduran state to stop social violence and to control youth gang expansion by focusing on the security policies Cero Tolerancia (Zero Tolerance, Mano Dura (Iron Fist and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law. It understands security policies as territorial strategies that attempt to reduce social violence and impose control.

  20. NGO and industry perspectives on energy and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper highlighted the clear contradiction between projected business as usual energy development in Canada and its climate change commitments. It was cautioned that these contradictions can only be resolved by actively incorporating climate change considerations into energy policies and by making efforts to promote energy efficiency and investment in renewable energy technologies. Canada's commitments to the Kyoto Protocol seem to be inconsistent with the ongoing policy of exporting greater amounts of oil and gas to the United States. In the short-term, the author advocates the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and supports the debate on how the cost of meeting greenhouse gas commitments should be distributed, and how they can be minimized

  1. What Should Guide Health Policy? A Perspective Beyond Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Darrell G; Ast, Cori

    2017-09-01

    As the U.S. electorate has become increasingly polarized, these divisions are poised to shape legislative and regulatory work in the years ahead. For those whose focus is on the public goods of health care for all, the advancement of science through rigorous research, and the contribution of higher education to the continual improvement of the nation's workforce, there is profound uncertainty about the future. There are several pressing questions facing the nation and academic medicine, including the future of affordable, accessible insurance; acceptance of scientific evidence; sustainable learning and teaching methodologies; and the well-being and preparation of the nation's health workforce to care for an increasingly diverse nation. For those in academic medicine and policy making alike, the authors propose a framework, grounded in scientific evidence and guided by clinical ethics, for designing and evaluating health policy solutions for these and other pressing questions.

  2. Realities and Perspectives on the European Regional Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available EU expansion to 27 Member States has posed challenges in terms of its competitiveness and internal cohesion. The already existing disparities between the Member States and among their regions have deepened. These disparities are generated by the structural deficiencies in key factors of competitiveness, i.e. inadequate staff with physical and human capital (infrastructure and workforce, insufficient capacity for innovation, business support and low level of environmental capital (natural environment and / or urban pollution. The purpose of the cohesion policy is to reduce disparities between EU regions. Therefore in order to achieve this goal of the cohesion policy, the Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and achieve their potential of growth.

  3. Peritoneal dialysis-first policy made successful: perspectives and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Philip Kam-tao; Chow, Kai Ming

    2013-11-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) represents an important but underused strategy for patients who are beginning dialysis treatment worldwide. The development of a health care model that encourages increased use of PD is hampered by a lack of expertise and absence of pragmatic strategies. This article provides a brief review of a PD-first initiative that was implemented in Hong Kong more than 25 years ago and issues related to this policy. Clinical studies and research by the authors' and other teams around the world have shown evidence that, as a home-based dialysis therapy, PD can improve patient survival, retain residual kidney function, lower infection risk, and increase patient satisfaction while reducing financial stress to governments by addressing the burden of managing the growing number of patients with end-stage renal disease. Achieving a successful PD-first policy requires understanding inherent patient factors, selecting patients carefully, and improving technique-related factors by training physicians, nurses, patients, and caregivers better. Dialysis centers have the important role of fostering expertise and experience in PD patient management. Dialysis reimbursement policy also can be helpful in providing sufficient incentives for choosing PD. However, despite successes in improving patient survival, PD treatment has limitations, notably the shortcoming of technique failure. Potential strategies to and challenges of implementing a PD-first policy globally are discussed in this review. We highlight 3 important elements of a successful PD-first program: nephrologist experience and expertise, peritoneal dialysis catheter access, and psychosocial support for PD patients. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding Economic Evaluation: A Policy Perspective for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Giacomini

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhetoric of ‘efficiency’ frames much current debate about how limited health care resources should be used. Clinicians increasingly turn to economic evaluation literature to discern evidence-based claims of ‘efficiency’ or ‘cost effectiveness’ from empty ones. Economic evaluation research is designed to compare health services on the basis of their efficiency (eg, how well they produce health benefits relative to resource costs. Although economic studies appear throughout the respirology literature, relatively few are complete economic evaluations. Economic evaluation studies serve various purposes, including critical evaluation and persuasive marketing, which produce studies that vary in research agendas and scientific rigour. This paper is intended to serve clinicians and consumers of economic evaluation studies by: introducing economic evaluation research information as a policy making tool; describing the three basic elements and three basic types of economic evaluation (cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analyses; and reviewing some limitations of economic evaluation information for policy decision making. The usefulness of economic evaluation research for policy making depends not only on the scientific merit of the analysis but also crucially on whose specific concerns the research questions address.

  5. PROBLEM AND PERSPECTIVE OF ISLAMIC MONETARY POLICY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsuki Marsuki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article would try to explicate several theoretical and practical concepts on the problems and prospectsof Islamic monetary policy in Indonesia using a critical analysis approach, in accordance with standardscientific references, and would be complemented with descriptions and examples of practice. From theseillustrations and analyses, it appeared that on one hand, Islamic monetary policy would find many difficultiesif implemented fully, considering that there were several fundamental obstacles that would have to besurmounted by such an implementation, primarily the fact that Indonesian Constitution (UUD 1945 was notbased on Islamic law or syariah. On the other hand, despite problems and challenges, the existing conditionwas still open for the possibility for partial implementation of Islamic monetary policy. It was because therewere several conditions which were amenable for an implementation, for instance the facts that majority ofIndonesian population was Muslim, the increasing acceptance of the public for the advantages of Islamicmonetary and financial system, and increasing support by stakeholders of the banking system, especiallythe Indonesian central bank (BI. Moreover, there were facts about financial institutions and existingsyariah banking institutions.

  6. For a cyberspace information policy: advances, perspectives and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline Amparo Villota Enríquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is to describe and analyze the policies of information in cyberspace, both global and regionally, in different directions: programs, resolutions, and projects from the information sector. Likewise, an overview of the same is presented in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Through documentary analysis of the literature related to the topic, the article is based on a review of literature raised from scientific materials such as: books, thesis papers, dissertations, texts on internet sites and articles, resolutions, projects and decrees dealing with the same topic. As a result, cyberspace is conceptualized and its elements, dimensions, strategies and variations are characterized, by analyzing the information from cyberspace policy, based on the global stage to relate it, finally, to the region of Latin America and the Caribbean, with the idea of better addressing the problems. The cyberspace information policy experience a minor and slow process in the field of cyber war; resulting from the obstacle of international cooperation defined by the disparate ambitions of the State or region.

  7. The grand coalition's climate policy: retrospective and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bausch, C.; Gorlach, B.

    2008-01-01

    2007 was a year of exceptional importance for Germany, due to the dual presidency and the decision to declare climate change as one of the key issues for both the G8 and the EU Presidency. Supported by public and media interest, climate change was pushed to the top of the international political agenda, at a critical time in the development of the international climate regime. Germany was able to show profile and leadership in international climate policy and Europe was able to set a political agenda and decide on targets, which have shaped European policies and legislative proposals since then, and will continue to do so into the future. In Germany, the Meseberg programme is the main initiative aiming at the implementation of climate policy, while at the European level the heads of states have been able to agree on the widely discussed climate - energy package. The authors provide an overview of the measures taken and assess them in light of the EU self-imposed political targets

  8. Canada's energy perspectives and policies for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Karen; Li, Xianguo

    2009-01-01

    A regression analysis is performed to make projections for the Canadian energy production and consumption. These have been increasing and are projected to increase even further in the near future. The primary energy production and consumption are projected to increase by 52% and 34%, respectively, by 2025 over 2004 if business as usual. The amount of fossil energy resources is finite and the extraction, transportation and combustion of fossil fuels cause environmental pollution and climate change. On the other hand, energy plays an important role in the economic and social development of Canada. Canada can develop further from an energy balance point of view, but this alone cannot be sustainable, because of the negative consequences of the major energy use on the environment. Application of energy localization and diversification is a promising solution, but in order to reach that, better energy efficiency and more use of renewable energy are necessary. Instead of non-compulsory policies Canada's policy approach should have more compulsory policies. Only then Canada can be made to develop further in a sustainable manner. (author)

  9. Perspective of energy policy in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal O.

    2004-01-01

    U.S. National Energy Policy encourages the expanded use of nuclear energy while emphasizing the need for improved safeguards and proliferation resistance. The National Energy Policy, published in May 2001 cites that 'The National Energy Policy Development (NEPD) Group recommends that the President support the expansion of nuclear energy in the United States as a major component of our national energy policy.' However, the U.S. policy also emphasizes that the expansion of nuclear energy must be supported by the development of advanced safeguards and more proliferation resistant technologies. U.S. energy policy promotes emission free energy that is sustainable and economically viable. Current carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere are approaching a record levels Of 380 ppm. It is widely believed that we are quickly approaching a 'carbon wall' when the concentrations reach somewhere between 450 ppm and 750 ppm. Further increases in CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere are likely to result in serious changes in the atmosphere, even though the severity of the consequences may be debatable. Thus, to meet the growing energy demand worldwide, emission free energy sources are needed. At present, nuclear power is the only large-scale energy production technology that is economically competitive with fossil fuels. U.S. energy policy promotes the expansion of nuclear power while continuing research in 'renewable energy' forms. Meeting the growing energy demand of developing nations by clean energy forms is essential for world peace, prosperity and environmental integrity. Energy use will grow as developing countries achieve affluence. Affluence in developing countries will lead to more stable and peaceful world. Note that a world of 10 billion people consuming energy as US citizens do today would raise the world energy demand by 10 fold. Such a growth via the use of fossil fuel will result in resource shortfalls and regional conflicts, and serious environmental

  10. A utility's perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act is especially important to utilities because their customers pay for the disposal program, and the program is vital to nuclear operations and reconsideration of the nuclear option. DOE's accomplishments in implementing the Act are noteworthy, but we are concerned that some of them have been achieved later than specified by the schedule in the Act. We make recommendations regarding disposal fees, defense wastes, and shipping casks. Virginia Power has adopted a three-part strategy relying mainly on developing dry cask storage to solve the company's interim storage problems

  11. Media-Policy Responses to Digitalization: a comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2017-01-01

    of media industries as well as media policy has been guided by a framework of three separate yet co-existing models (McQuail, 2000; Pool, 1983): the free press model (where the practically unlimited space for more publications have meant little or no regulation), the broadcast model (where limited number...... of, e.g., broadcast frequencies give cause for some regulation), and the common carrier model (where the presence of only very few actors in a critical, tele-communicative infrastructure has justified extensive public regulation). This distinction between different sectors and types of media has been...

  12. Energy perspectives of the France by 2020-2050. European orientations; Perspectives energetiques de la France a l'horizon 2020-2050. Orientations europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    The authors recall the absence in 2007 of a real european energy policy and present the new energy Plan of the european commission, fight against the climatic change, reinforce the security of the energy supply, maintain the competitiveness of the european economy. This plan is then discussed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Analyzing social policy: multiple perspectives for critically understanding and evaluating policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen

    2011-01-01

    "This unique volume outlines the different frameworks of policy analysis and explains how readers can use research and critical thinking skills to understand the different models from their formation...

  14. Searching for the new liberalism : perspectives, policies and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aster, H.; Axworthy, T.S. (eds.)

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes how liberalism might be construed as the root cause of surface transportation problems because it guides the practices of transportation policy in Canada. There is no dedicated charge for road use in Canada. Roads are paid for through consolidated revenue funds and general tax revenues. Tolls account for only a small amount of total government revenue. The author argues that governments adopt only a narrow definition of the real costs associated with road-building and maintenance. Currently, they include the cost of construction, maintenance and a portion of the expenses for safety and policy activity. Governments do not factor in the total economic costs of road expenses and they do not include the 'opportunity costs' of the capital invested in highway networks. They also do not consider social costs and externalities. It is estimated that the costs of traffic congestion (extra fuel consumption of idling engines or delayed deliveries) are in the order of $2 billion annually in Toronto and $1.5 billion in Vancouver. Environmental costs include the costs of toxic pollutants, noise, damage to farmland, and greenhouse gases. 24 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Stakeholder perspectives on national policy for regulating the school food environment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity

  16. International Seminar on Nuclear policy in Argentina and the world: present and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The 25 and April 26, 2013 was held in Buenos Aires the International Seminar 'Nuclear Politics in Argentina and the world: present and perspectives', organized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), the National University of San Martin (UNSAM) and University of San Andres (UdeSA). With the main objective of creating an area for reflection and discussion on the state of the global nuclear policy, its impact on the region and in our country, and raised as an area of interaction between the academic and those working in the sector policies. The seminar consisted of six thematic panels, in addition to the opening session, in which academics and researchers exposed renowned in dialogue with officials and professionals of the nuclear sector. In this seminar were presented some papers of the following topics: historical approaches to nuclear policy in emerging contexts; nuclear policy and civil society; discussion and perspectives on proliferation and non-proliferation, security in the post-Fukushima: discussion and perspectives; Argentina-Brazil: from competition to cooperation, present and prospects for the nuclear industry.

  17. Perspectives on African Challenges: Cross Cutting Issues and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    asylum   seekers .  Increasing  state  capacity   should  go  hand  in  hand  with  training  in  international...is  the  author  of  numerous   books  and  articles  on  the  topic  of  food  policy,  including:   The  Human...London:  Zed   Books ,   2008),  and  No  Refuge:  The  Crisis  of  Refugee

  18. The war of watts - Energy policies and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhomme, Jean-Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this book, the author lift the veil of the day-to-day operation of the European power distribution network and the capacities of new energy resources to answer the question: is the 'green' energy transition policy really possible or shall it stay an utopia? The titles of the various chapters are: the choices between transitions; the architecture of the new 'mix'; the economic basis of the mix; fossil hydrocarbons, a Grail quest; electro-coal at the end of the line; water energies, the master of fluxes; electronuclear power amongst the greats; biomass, the living energy; wind power, the key of mix?; ten thousand suns on planet Earth; geothermal energy, the other nuclear

  19. Adherence policy, education and practice – an international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider MP

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonadherence to chronic therapy has become a large burden on the healthcare system of many countries. Community pharmacists are well positioned to address nonadherence as part of their overall patient care activities, and contribute to patients’ quality use of medicines. Between 2008 and 2010, a series of narrative, peer-reviewed articles were published in Pharmacy Practice which focused on community pharmacists’ activities in medication adherence, specifically in the areas of the education they receive, their practice, the research conducted and national or local policies. This editorial aims to summarise the key findings presented in the series, and highlight the pertinent issues and gaps in the literature. There is a need to implement global and long-term objectives focussing on enhancing the quality of education and competencies of community pharmacists and the research conducted in medication adherence, to develop guidelines for pharmacists and enhance the uptake of adherence promoting services in routine care.  

  20. A Systemic Perspective on Innovation from Energy Efficiency Policy efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    the subject of much research in the innovation studies field, where most attention is given towards energy supply technologies and energy end-use technologies tend to be left in the dark. This thesis applies different qualitative and quantitative research methods to analyse how actors are collaborating...... on innovation activities within energy efficiency. It furthermore investigates the long and complex process of innovation activities in energy efficiency with attention to the co-evolutionary dynamics of technology development, policy and market transformation. The findings cover different aspects...... of the research topic. At the cross-sectoral level it contributes with insights into the collaborative RD&D activities in energy efficiency and how the structure of these development activities has an impact on the innovation output of the RD&D projects. It furthermore identifies the driving forces of energy...

  1. A review of the Australian healthcare system: A policy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Murali

    2018-01-01

    This article seeks to review the Australian healthcare system and compare it to similar systems in other countries to highlight the main issues and problems. A literature search for articles relating to the Australian and other developed countries’ healthcare systems was conducted by using Google and the library of Victoria University, Melbourne. Data from the websites of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the Australian Productivity Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Bank have also been used. Although care within the Australian healthcare system is among the best in the world, there is a need to change the paradigm currently being used to measure the outcomes and allocate resources. The Australian healthcare system is potentially dealing with two main problems: (a) resource allocation, and (b) performance and patient outcomes improvements. An interdisciplinary research approach in the areas of performance measurement, quality and patient outcomes improvement could be adopted to discover new insights, by using the policy implementation error/efficiency and bureaucratic capacity. Hospital managers, executives and healthcare management practitioners could use an interdisciplinary approach to design new performance measurement models, in which financial performance, quality, healthcare and patient outcomes are blended in, for resource allocation and performance improvement. This article recommends that public policy implementation error and the bureaucratic capacity models be applied to healthcare to optimise the outcomes for the healthcare system in Australia. In addition, it highlights the need for evaluation of the current reimbursement method, freedom of choice to patients and a regular scrutiny of the appropriateness of care. PMID:29686869

  2. E-cigarette regulation and policy: UK vapers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Hannah

    2016-06-01

    The rapid increase in use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has created an international policy dilemma concerning how to use these products. This study assesses the types of beliefs that e-cigarette users in the United Kingdom may hold concerning regulation. Qualitative thematic analysis of written answers to open-ended questions. United Kingdom, questionnaire conducted by post, 44% recruited from online forums and 56% non-online. Fifty-five UK vapers, 55% male, mean age 46 years, 84% sole users of e-cigarettes, 95% vaping daily. Open-ended questions on regulatory and policy options. 'Protecting youth' was seen as a fundamental regulatory requirement which should be achieved through childproofing, age limits, no advertising aimed at children and health warnings about addictiveness of nicotine, but not the restriction of flavours. There was little support for regulating e-cigarettes as medicines or limiting the strength of nicotine liquids. In terms of public use, participants argued against a blanket ban on public vaping given perceptions of a lack of scientific evidence of harm. However, they supported the principle of autonomy, that individuals and organizations have the right to restrict vaping. Some participants suggested banning vaping in places such as schools, hospitals or around food, in line with current smoking norms. Vapers' regulatory positions were accompanied by political concerns about the use (and misuse) of scientific evidence. With regard to regulation of e-cigarettes, issues that are salient to UK vapers may include the need for youth protection, regulation as medicines, strength of e-liquids, bans on public vaping and concerns about the misuse of scientific evidence. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Integrating science, policy and stakeholder perspectives for water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Emily; Allan, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Lazzar, Attila; Lim, Michelle; Munsur Rahman, Md.

    2015-04-01

    Successful management of water resources requires an integrated approach considering the complex relationships between different biophysical processes, governance frameworks and socio-economic factors. The Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) Deltas project has developed a range of socio-economic scenarios using a participatory approach, and applied these across different biophysical models as well as an integrated environmental, socio-economic model of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta. This work demonstrates a novel approach through the consideration of multiple ecosystem services and related socio-economic factors in the development of scenarios; the application of these to multiple models at multiple scales; and the participatory approach to improve project outcomes and engage national level stakeholders and policy makers. Scenarios can assist in planning for an uncertain future through exploring plausible alternatives. To adequately assess the potential impacts of future changes and management strategies on water resources, the wider biophysical, socio-economic and governance context needs to be considered. A series of stakeholder workshops have been held in Bangladesh to identify issues of main concern relating to the GBM Delta; to iteratively develop scenario narratives for business as usual, less sustainable, and more sustainable development pathways; and to translate these qualitative scenarios into a quantitative form suitable for analysis. The combined impact of these scenarios and climate change on water quantity and quality within the GBM Basin are demonstrated. Results suggest that climate change is likely to impact on both peak and low flows to a greater extent than most socio-economic changes. However, the diversion of water from the Ganges and Brahmaputra has the potential to significantly impact on water availability in Bangladesh depending on the timing and quantity of diversions. Both climate change and socio

  4. The 7 C's for Creating Living Software: A Research Perspective for Quality-Oriented Software Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the 7 C's for realizing quality-oriented software engineering practices. All the desired qualities of this approach are expressed in short by the term living software. The 7 C's are: Concern-oriented processes, Canonical models, Composable models, Certifiable models,

  5. Constructing an Inquiry Orientation from a Learning Theory Perspective: Democratizing Access through Task Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Catherine A.; Greenstein, Steven; Wilstein, Zahava

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted in the mathematics education community that pedagogies oriented toward inquiry are aligned with a constructivist theory of learning, and that these pedagogies effectively support students' learning of mathematics. In order to promote such an orientation, we first separate the idea of inquiry from its conception as a…

  6. Teachers, Sexual Orientation, and the Law in Canada: A Human Rights Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Teacher expression on the subject of sexual orientation is a hotly contested topic that has led to many recent legal challenges in the United States and Canada. The purpose of this article is to offer readers an introduction to Canadian cases regarding teacher expression and sexual orientation and demonstrate how the application of a human rights…

  7. Friends or lovers? Person- and variable-oriented perspectives on dyadic similarity in adolescent romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiffge-Krenke, I.; Burk, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Variable- and person-oriented approaches were used to examine the affiliative and romantic experiences of adolescents in heterosexual romantic relationships and its associations with relationship conflict and jealousy on a sample of 194 romantic partner dyads. Variable-oriented findings indicated

  8. Climate change impacts on urban wildfire and flooding policy in Idaho: a comparative policy network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, E.; Pierce, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous frameworks and models exist for understanding the dynamics of the public policy process. A policy network approach considers how and why stakeholders and interests pay attention to and engage in policy problems, such as flood control or developing resilient and fire resistant landscapes. Variables considered in this approach include what the relationships are between these stakeholders, how they influence the process and outcomes, communication patterns within and between policy networks, and how networks change as a result of new information, science, or public interest and involvement with the problem. This approach is useful in understanding the creation of natural hazards policy as new information or situations, such as projected climate change impacts, influence and disrupt the policy process and networks. Two significant natural hazard policy networks exist in the semi-arid Treasure Valley region of Southwest Idaho, which includes the capitol city of Boise and the surrounding metropolitan area. Boise is situated along the Boise River and adjacent to steep foothills; this physiographic setting makes Boise vulnerable to both wildfires at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and flooding. Both of these natural hazards have devastated the community in the past and floods and fires are projected to occur with more frequency in the future as a result of projected climate change impacts in the region. While both hazards are fairly well defined problems, there are stark differences lending themselves to comparisons across their respective networks. The WUI wildfire network is large and well developed, includes stakeholders from all levels of government, the private sector and property owner organizations, has well defined objectives, and conducts promotional and educational activities as part of its interaction with the public in order to increase awareness and garner support for its policies. The flood control policy network, however, is less defined

  9. Scandinavian perspectives on plant gene technology: applications, policies and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Dennis; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Chawade, Aakash; Holme, Inger B; Hvoslef-Eide, Trine A K; Ritala, Anneli; Teeri, Teemu H; Thorstensen, Tage

    2018-02-01

    Plant research and breeding has a long and successful history in the Scandinavian countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Researchers in the region have been early in adopting plant gene technologies as they developed. This review gives a background, as well as discuss the current and future progress of plant gene technology in these four countries. Country-specific details of the regulation of genetically modified plants are described, as well as similarities and differences in the approach to regulation of novel genome-editing techniques. Also, the development of a sustainable bioeconomy may encompass the application of plant gene technology and we discuss whether or not this is reflected in current associated national strategies. In addition, country-specific information about the opinion of the public and other stakeholders on plant gene technology is presented, together with a country-wise political comparison and a discussion of the potential reciprocal influence between public opinion and the political process of policy development. The Scandinavian region is unique in several aspects, such as climate and certain agriculturally related regulations, and at the same time the region is vulnerable to changes in plant breeding investments due to the relatively small market sizes. It is therefore important to discuss the role and regulation of innovative solutions in Scandinavian plant research and breeding. © 2017 The Authors. Physiologia Plantarum published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  10. State perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of the National Nuclear Policy Act of 1982 on the selection of a location of this nation's first repository for nuclear wastes is discussed. The importance of public understanding of the relationship between the Federal negotiating team, the State of Washington, and the Department of Energy in the selection of a site for the repository in Washington State is stressed. It is pointed out that the preparation and conclusion of the environmental assessment is of great importance to the states since it will provide a basis for further selections of repository sites. The importance of the consultation and cooperation agreement called for in the Act in the negotiation process between representatives of the State of Washington and the US DOE in forging a C and C document that sets forth clear ground rules as to how the repository examination program is to be carried out is emphasized. It is pointed out that the present investigation of the Hanford site must serve as a model for the development of a site for a repository of radioactive wastes and also for public information programs that result in an educated public and eliminate unfounded fears of health hazards from stored wastes

  11. India in the Arctic: Science, Geopolitics and Soft Power - Perspectives on Contemporary Indian Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gewelt, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of contemporary Indian foreign policy from the vantage point of India’s recent engagements in the Arctic. By analysing what is argued to be an ‘Indian Arctic discourse’ that emerged between India’s first expedition to Svalbard in 2007 and the following accession to observer status in the Arctic Council in 2013, this thesis explores how this discourse frames the Arctic within a broader Indian foreign policy perspective. The Indian Arctic discourse establishes India a...

  12. European innovation policies from RIS to smart specialisation - a policy assemblage perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, A.; Varro, K.; Carayannis, E.; Korres, G.

    2013-01-01

    Policy initiatives such as regional innovation strategies are strategically and selectively infused by rationales and imaginaries that resonate with major political and societal shifts. A core example is how the transition from spatial Keynesianism to neoliberal thinking has been accompanied by a

  13. Policies for Migration and Development: A European Perspective. Policy Brief No. 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katseli, Louka T.; Lucas, Robert E. B.; Xenogiani, Theodora

    2006-01-01

    Managing migration has become a priority for policy makers both in developed and developing countries. Large immigration or emigration flows relative to domestic population's impact on almost all aspects of an economy and society: family structures, community life, educational and health systems, labour markets, security systems, governance and…

  14. Smart Specialisation, Entrepreneurship and SMEs : Issues and Challenges for a Results-Oriented EU Regional Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega Argiles, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the ways that European regional policy has been re-shaped in order to build on the role played by entrepreneurship in driving regional innovation. The various lines of re-thinking which have helped to reform the policy draw heavily on modern theories of entrepreneurship and

  15. Land use in Europe : a methodology for policy-oriented future studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latesteijn, van H.C.

    1999-01-01

    The common agricultural policy (CAP) is going through a phase of significant restructuring. The original goals of the policy - already stated in 1957 - were primarily aimed at improving agricultural production and reducing consumer prices for agricultural products. The success of the CAP in

  16. The regional and urban policy of the European Union : Cohesion, results-orientation and smart specialisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The regional and urban development policy of the European Union, or more precisely, EU Cohesion Policy, is undergoing change. This development is driven by the enormous transformations in European regions and by shifts in thinking and analysis. The issues raised by the changes to regional and urban

  17. Solving public passenger transportation problems: a need for policy reorientation. [Brokerage or consumer-oriented approach needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.W. Jr.; Oen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Public transportation has declined because policymakers and outdated regulations have restricted the evolution of transportation systems which more closely reflect the mobility and lifestyles of today. Public policy needs to take a consumer-oriented approach to public transportation by recognizing that all consumers do not have the same transportation needs and that one or two modes of transportation cannot satisfy these needs. This report argues that if public transportation is to become an efficient method of satisfying the transportation needs of a community, a brokerage or consumer-oriented approach should be adopted. The transportation broker will match specific individual needs with a broad array of transportation services, and overcome institutional, legal, and operational barriers to the development of new forms of transportation service. 51 references or footnotes.

  18. [Family caregiver issues: gender, privacy, and public policy perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-04-01

    Due to the phenomenon of Taiwan'saging population has made, long-term care has become an issue of increasingly emphasized importance. According to the statistics, the family takes responsibility for most long-term care duties and more than 70% of primary family caregivers are female. In the past, because of gender-based divisions of labor and gender role expectations made, it was taken for granted that females would be the socially preferred family caregivers. Those men who devoting in themselves to such work were regarded as a rare precious. As such, family care signified entailed different life experiences for males and females. Over the years, amendments to the civil code have recognized family care contributions, and the allowance for caregivers underlines that care responsibilities have shifted away from the family to society. Traditional gender divisions of labor today are significantly more blurred; family structures have become smaller in size; female labor in the workplace has increased; and ten-year long-term care plans and long-term care insurance have been successively implemented. These transformations will make labor outsourcing more and more popular and transform family care from a private problem to a pubic policy issue. In the future, family caregivers require consideration and support on a sustained basis. It is also important to improve and monitor the quality of care services. Nurses, the major professional members of long-term care teams, should be concerned over the issue of family care while providing nursing care. They should include family caregivers in the care plan so that they can make sure that patients receive comprehensive and constant care in order to enhance the overall quality of nursing care.

  19. Comments from a Christian perspective on religion and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruether, R R

    1994-01-01

    Religion was a problem at the Conference on Population and Development. Many people consider religion to be anti-modern or reactionary. The conference document describes a global population policy that assumes underlying ethical values but does not articulate these values. The document does not recognize conflicts between values. Secular rationality is a culture shared by an elite, not the masses. Yet the document is intended for them. It cannot empower women, especially poor or non-elite women, to regulate their fertility, if it cannot connect with their religious cultures. The cultural conflict is not just between religious discourse and secular discourse but a deep conflict within religion itself. This conflict is seething in Catholicism and other major religions and manifested itself at the conference. The opposition at the conference hid internal schisms. Christianity has a deep conflict between norms sacralizing the dominant patriarchal social order as the will of God and the order of creation and the prophetic faith that protests against oppressive social patterns. Christianity has had continual surges of renewal that rekindle the prophetic protest tradition on behalf of the poor and the marginalized. The world is in the midst of such a wave in the forms of liberation and feminist theologies. Deep symbols of justice and protests against injustice are being applied for the first time to women. To affirm women as images of God, one must image God as woman. Women are called into the community of equals. The rediscovery of the meaning of symbols of redemption and applying them to the poor and women is shaking traditional Christianity to its roots. The Vatican's refusal of the conference document is a refusal to discuss the challenge of renewal within its own community. The conflict with the Vatican should be put in the context of a conflict between patriarchy and prophetic faith (women's liberation). The document will fail if it ignores or neutralizes religion.

  20. Optimization of PSA screening policies: a comparison of the patient and societal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Denton, Brian T; Balasubramanian, Hari; Shah, Nilay D; Inman, Brant A

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the benefit of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer from the patient and societal perspectives. A partially observable Markov decision process model was used to optimize PSA screening decisions. Age-specific prostate cancer incidence rates and the mortality rates from prostate cancer and competing causes were considered. The model trades off the potential benefit of early detection with the cost of screening and loss of patient quality of life due to screening and treatment. PSA testing and biopsy decisions are made based on the patient's probability of having prostate cancer. Probabilities are inferred based on the patient's complete PSA history using Bayesian updating. The results of all PSA tests and biopsies done in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1993 to 2005 (11,872 men and 50,589 PSA test results). Patients' perspective: to maximize expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); societal perspective: to maximize the expected monetary value based on societal willingness to pay for QALYs and the cost of PSA testing, prostate biopsies, and treatment. From the patient perspective, the optimal policy recommends stopping PSA testing and biopsy at age 76. From the societal perspective, the stopping age is 71. The expected incremental benefit of optimal screening over the traditional guideline of annual PSA screening with threshold 4.0 ng/mL for biopsy is estimated to be 0.165 QALYs per person from the patient perspective and 0.161 QALYs per person from the societal perspective. PSA screening based on traditional guidelines is found to be worse than no screening at all. PSA testing done with traditional guidelines underperforms and therefore underestimates the potential benefit of screening. Optimal screening guidelines differ significantly depending on the perspective of the decision maker.

  1. Urban health educators' perspectives and practices regarding school nutrition education policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J; Fahlman, Mariane; Shen, Bo

    2012-02-01

    Although nutrition-related health education policies exist at national, state and local levels, the degree to which those policies affect the everyday practices of health education teachers who are charged with executing them in schools is often unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the nutrition-related health education policy matrix that affected one urban school district, the health education teachers' awareness of those policies, the impact of nutrition policies on teachers' instruction and challenges teachers perceived in executing comprehensive nutrition education. The study used interpretive ethnography to examine the educational contexts and perspectives of 27 health educators from 24 middle schools in one urban district in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected through school observations, interviews with key personnel and document collection. We found that a network of nutrition-related education policies governed health education teachers' instruction, but that teachers were uniformly unaware of those policies. Without institutional coherence and clear directives, health education teachers taught little nutrition content, primarily due to poor training, professional development, instructional resources and administrative accountability. The results are discussed in light of the enormous challenges in many urban schools and the need for nutrition education professional development.

  2. New organ transplant policies in Japan, including the family-oriented priority donation clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Kaoruko

    2011-03-15

    The revised Organ Transplant Law in Japan that took effect in July 2010 allows organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, only with family consent. The amended law also allows individuals to prioritize family members to receive their donated organs after death. This policy differs from the prioritization policy in Israel, which provides incentives to individuals who agree to help each other in society and rectifies the problem of free riders, individuals who are willing to accept an organ but refuse to donate. Despite these differences, however, the Japanese and Israeli policies have revealed new ethical dilemmas, including the fear of compromising fairness in organ allocation.

  3. The Management of Innovation Process from Market Orientation Perspective in Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia PANDELICA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marketing and management researchers pointed out, beginning whit ’90s, the benefits of implementation of a new business philosophy – market orientation. Even if, the concept has an interdisciplinary approach, all academics and managers started from the same point – market orientation is a business philosophy, which connects all the functional areas of the organization to environment in which operates and ensures long-term profitability. Even if, the market orientation concept was the topic for many researches, in economic literature any framework model of implementation was not developed. In the article we present a framework model, which will emphasise the steps, and changes that an organization has to do to become market orientated, beginning from the particular case of automobile industry.

  4. A policy-oriented cost model for shipping commodities by truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Surprisingly, transportation planners and policy makers do not have the ability to estimate the cost of shipping a quantity of a commodity between two : locations for broad categories of goods. Costs of shipping are important components in mode, rout...

  5. The role of value orientations in evaluating quality of life consequences of a transport pricing policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.I.M.; Steg, L.

    This study examines relationships between value orientations and perceived quality of life-changes when the cost of car use is doubled. An Internet based survey shows that people expect only minor decreases in overall quality of life when costs of car use increase. People with a strong egoistic

  6. Representations of energy policy and technology in British and Finnish newspaper media: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teräväinen, Tuula

    2014-04-01

    This article analyses media representations of the strengthening technological energy policy orientation in the UK and Finland. Drawing from over 1200 newspaper articles from 1991 to 2006, it scrutinises how energy policy in general and energy technologies in particular have been discussed by the media in these two countries, and how the media representations have changed over time. The results point to the importance of national political, economic and cultural features in shaping media discussions. At the same time, international political events and ideas of technology-driven economic growth have transformed media perceptions of energy technologies. While the British media have been rather critical towards national policies throughout the period of analysis, the Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat has supported successive national governments. In both countries, energy technologies have increasingly become linked to global societal and political questions.

  7. Generalizing Perspective-based Inspection to handle Object-Oriented Development Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Laitenberger, O.; Atkinson, C.

    1998-01-01

    The value of software inspection for uncovering defects early in the development lifecycle has been well documented. Of the various types of inspection methods published to date, experiments have shown perspective-based inspection to be one of the most effective, because of its enhanced coverage of the defect space. However, inspections in general, and perspective-based inspections in particular, have so far been applied predominantly in the context of conventional structured development meth...

  8. Systems, methods and apparatus for modeling, specifying and deploying policies in autonomous and autonomic systems using agent-oriented software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Penn, Joaquin (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, an agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS, is analyzed, flaws in the agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS are corrected, and an implementation is derived from the corrected agent-oriented specification. Described herein are systems, method and apparatus that produce fully (mathematically) tractable development of agent-oriented specification(s) modeled with methodology fragment for analyzing complex multiagent systems (MaCMAS) and policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. The systems, method and apparatus described herein are illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming systems, method and apparatus described herein may provide faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.

  9. Rethinking Social Policy for an Aging Workforce and Society: Insights from the Life Course Perspective. CPRN Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Victor W.; Mueller, Margaret M.

    Canadian population trends were examined from a life course perspective to identify needed social policy changes. First, the following principles underpinning the life course perspective were discussed: (1) aging involves biological, psychological, and social processes; (2) human development and aging are lifelong processes; (3) individuals' and…

  10. Climate change and energy policies in Shanghai: A multilevel governance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francesch-Huidobro, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multilevel governance is a useful framework to understand how resources, tasks and power are distributed for decision making. • Shifts in national climate and energy policy mandate local governments to develop climate change and energy policies. • Local governments have greater autonomy for incorporating climate and energy issues into development goals. • Climate mitigation and energy policy is dominated by hierarchical governance. - Abstract: Despite growing interest in China’s response to climate change and energy security, studies undertaken at the subnational level are rare. In the context of the multilevel governance paradigm, this article examines the governance of climate change and energy policy in Shanghai, a rapidly growing Chinese megacity highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Although the energy and carbon intensity of Shanghai’s economy have fallen significantly since China launched its economic reforms, overall carbon emissions in the municipality continue to rise. Through examining the Shanghai case, this article argues that Chinese subnational climate mitigation policy is dominated by hierarchical governance arrangements. Nevertheless, shifts in national climate and energy policy since 2007 have mandated provincial-level governments, including Shanghai, to develop their own climate and energy policies while offering greater local autonomy for incorporating climate and energy issues into development goals: is this attributable to a decentred form of multilevel governance? The article concludes that Shanghai’s climate mitigation and energy policy is dominated by hierarchical governance whereby policies are ‘downloaded’ from the central government. Perspectives for other cities and insights for policymakers are discussed.

  11. [Indicators of governance in mental health policies and programmes in Mexico: a perspective of key actors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    To analyse the role of Mexico's mental health system governance in the development of mental health policies and programmes, from the perspective of its own actors. A map was developed for identifying the actors in Mexico's mental health system. A guide was designed for in-depth interviews, which were recorded and arranged in categories for their analysis. The Atlas-ti v.7 software was used for the organisation of qualitative data and Policy Maker v.4 was used to determine the position and influence of actors within the health system. The actors were identified according to their level of influence in mental health policies: high, medium and low. Actors with a high level of influence participate in national policies, actors with medium influence are involved in regional or local policies and the participation of actors with a low level of influence is considered marginal. This study facilitated understanding of governance in mental health. The level of influence of the actors directly affects the scope of governance indicators. Relevant data were obtained to improve policies in mental health care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance Orientation for Public Value: Dutch Myths and Realities in an International Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossensteyn, Johan J.; Westerheijden, Donald F.; Pritchard, Rosalind M.O.; Pausits, Attila; Williams, James

    2016-01-01

    Steering relationships and governance instruments are proving to be a dynamic field of policy-making and research in higher education. Governments continuously change policies trying to improve their steering instruments in order to encourage higher education institutions to become more efficient,

  13. Russian oil policy under Putin in perspective; La politique petroliere Russe sous Poutine en perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossiaud, S. [Universite Pierre Mendes-France, Lab. d' Economie de la Production et de l' Integration Internationale, CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2009-07-15

    This article intends to explain and evaluate the interactions between the three developments which have structured the Russian oil industry since the beginning of V. Putin's second presidential term of office: the slowing down in production growth as well as the absolute decline of the latter observed in 2008, the reorganization of this industry marked by the increasing role of public oil companies and, finally, the adjustments made to the contractual arrangements surrounding the activities of the upstream oil sector. It has shown, on one hand, that the decline in current production is the result of the exhaustion of short term strategies by private Russian companies, and on the other hand, that the contract adjustments are insufficient to allow the Russian companies to adjust to more long term strategies. From this perspective, the increased role played by public oil companies can be analysed as an organisational response to this institutional dead-end. (author)

  14. Perspectives on European Governance in Comparative Perspective: Interests, Institutions and Policy-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -making’, at Freie Universität in Berlin on July 4 and 5, 2014. The papers aim at encapsulating the versatility of Adrienne’s scholarship by addressing core themes regarding ‘EU Governance’, ‘Policy Analysis’, and ‘Regulation and Governance’. A number of acknowledgements are appropriate regarding the birthday...... conference and this collection. First, we wish to recognize the team assisting Tanja Börzel who organized the conference and edited the Festschrift. Special thanks go to Luisa Linke and Katja Pomianowicz. Second, we would like to extend our gratitude to the funding bodies which made the event and collection...

  15. A multiple perspective modeling and simulation approach for renewable energy policy evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyamani, Talal M.

    Environmental issues and reliance on fossil fuel sources, including coal, oil, and natural gas, are the two most common energy issues that are currently faced by the United States (U.S.). Incorporation of renewable energy sources, a non-economical option in electricity generation compared to conventional sources that burn fossil fuels, single handedly promises a viable solution for both of these issues. Several energy policies have concordantly been suggested to reduce the financial burden of adopting renewable energy technologies and make such technologies competitive with conventional sources throughout the U.S. This study presents a modeling and analysis approach for comprehensive evaluation of renewable energy policies with respect to their benefits to various related stakeholders--customers, utilities, governmental and environmental agencies--where the debilitating impacts, advantages, and disadvantages of such policies can be assessed and quantified at the state level. In this work, a novel simulation framework is presented to help policymakers promptly assess and evaluate policies from different perspectives of its stakeholders. The proposed framework is composed of four modules: 1) a database that collates the economic, operational, and environmental data; 2) elucidation of policy, which devises the policy for the simulation model; 3) a preliminary analysis, which makes predictions for consumption, supply, and prices; and 4) a simulation model. After the validity of the proposed framework is demonstrated, a series of planned Florida and Texas renewable energy policies are implemented into the presented framework as case studies. Two solar and one energy efficiency programs are selected as part of the Florida case study. A utility rebate and federal tax credit programs are selected as part of the Texas case study. The results obtained from the simulation and conclusions drawn on the assessment of current energy policies are presented with respect to the

  16. Nuclear energy: French government policy; Politique nucleaire et diversification energetique: orientations gouvernementales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-02

    This report presents the French government policy concerning nuclear energy and alternative sources of energy for the next 10 years. This report overviews the situation of Super-Phenix fast reactor and presents the implications of the 30/12/1999 decree (Bataille's law) about the management of radioactive wastes.

  17. Local Social Media Policies Governing Teachers' Professionally Oriented Participation Online: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodesiler, Luke

    2017-01-01

    In light of recent scholarship about teachers leveraging social media to support their continuing professional development, this article documents an investigation of school board policies governing teachers' use of social media. Focusing on 30 traditional public school systems within a 10-county region in the Midwestern United States, the author…

  18. Reflection on the Education Policy Orientation in Post-May 31 Reform in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong Jae; Kim, Yong

    2016-01-01

    For the last 70 years, since the establishment of the Republic of Korea, Korean education has achieved universal expansion of educational opportunity from elementary to secondary to higher education. Planning, centralized policy making, top-down implementation, and administrative control had been the standards of the first few decades of Korean…

  19. Integrated care: a fresh perspective for international health policies in low and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Unger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To propose a social-and-democrat health policy alternative to the current neoliberal one. Context of case: The general failure of neoliberal health policies in low and middle-income countries justifies the design of an alternative to bring disease control and health care back in step with ethical principles and desired outcomes. Data sources: National policies, international programmes and pilot experiments—including those led by the authors—are examined in both scientific and grey literature. Case description: We call for the promotion of a publicly-oriented health sector as a cornerstone of such alternative policy. We define ‘publicly-oriented’ as opposed to ‘private-for-profit’ in terms of objectives and commitment, not of ownership. We classify development strategies for such a sector according to an organisation-based typology of health systems defined by Mintzberg. As such, strategies are adapted to three types of health systems: machine bureaucracies, professional bureaucracies and divisionalized forms. We describe avenues for family and community health and for hospital care. We stress social control at the peripheral level to increase accountability and responsiveness. Community-based, national and international sources are required to provide viable financing. Conclusions and discussion: Our proposed social-and-democrat health policy calls for networking, lobbying and training as a joint effort in which committed health professionals can lead the way.

  20. Consumers' Perspectives on Effective Orientation and Mobility Services for Diabetic Adults Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Kelley, Pat; Matlock, Dwayne; Page, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The authors interviewed and videotaped diabetic adults with visual impairments about their perceptions of orientation and mobility (O&M) services that they had received. The visual impairments of these middle-aged adults ranged from totally blind to low vision. The interview questions focused on demographic information about the interviewees, the…

  1. Orientation and Mobility for Students with Severe Visual and Multiple Impairments: A New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffee, E.; Rikhye, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    A program for teaching orientation and mobility to New York City public school students with severe sensory and cognitive impairments incorporates tactile and tangible communication systems and embeds mobility education in students' daily school and home activities. This paper examines necessary prerequisite concepts and offers planning and…

  2. A Christian educational perspective on the process oriented approach to intrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechaéla Scott

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the classroom context, albeit school or university, intrinsic motivation can effectively be described and changed if a process-oriented approach is employed. The question is posed whether a process-oriented approach to motivation is acceptable to Christian education. To answer this question, intrinsic motivation and the process-oriented approach to motivation are described. A Christian view of self-knowledge and control, which are the main components of a process-oricnted approach to motivation, is subsequently given and the process-oriented approach to motivation is subjected to a Christian evaluation. The conclusions are drawn that this approach can fruitfully be used in Christian education, given that self-knowledge and control arc interpreted within the context of the concept of the student as God’s representative on earth and the fact that God equipped him adequately with cognitive, affective and conative abilities to respond to His call to discover, develop and rule the earth actively.

  3. Perspectives on the Cultural Appropriacy of Hong Kong's Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC) Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, David Robert

    1999-01-01

    Explores the impact of Chinese culture on the school curriculum in Hong Kong. Argues that the Target-Oriented Curriculum (TOC) transplanted from western-based concepts is not commensurate with the local Chinese cultural context, and therefore leads to many problems when being implemented in schools. (Author/VWL)

  4. Student-Customer Orientation at a Higher Education Institution: The Perspective of Undergraduate Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koris, Riina; Örtenblad, Anders; Kerem, Katri; Ojala, Triinu

    2015-01-01

    Existing literature is polarized and primarily conceptual on the topic of student-customer orientation. Research into this phenomenon has failed to realize that higher education as such consists of several different educational experiences and has therefore addressed and studied the issue at too general a level, i.e. at the level of the higher…

  5. Product Innovation in Sustainability-Oriented New Ventures : A Process Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keskin, D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recognition that new ventures are potential candidates of creating innovations necessary for sustainability, little is know on how they actually engage in this journey. Sustainability-oriented new ventures are confronted with high levels of uncertainty that stem from the liabilities of

  6. Calling Orientations of Junior Doctors and Medical Interns in India: Cultural, Occupational and Relational Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the factors that shape calling orientations within the Indian context. Based on the narratives of 72 junior doctors and medical interns, it is found that participants identify with harbouring a calling both prior and subsequent to occupational entry. Although factors such as self-recognition of talent and sensemaking of work as…

  7. Analyzing the Change-Proneness of Service-Oriented Systems from an Industrial Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.

    2013-01-01

    Antipatterns and code smells have been widely proved to affect the change-proneness of software components. However, there is a lack of studies that propose indicators of changes for service-oriented systems. Like any other software systems, such systems evolve to address functional and non

  8. Policy objective of generic medicines from the investment perspective: The case of clopidogrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elek, Péter; Harsányi, András; Zelei, Tamás; Csetneki, Kata; Kaló, Zoltán

    2017-05-01

    The objective of generic drug policies in most countries is defined from a disinvestment perspective: reduction in expenditures without compromising health outcomes. However, in countries with restricted access of patients to original patented drugs, the objective of generic drug policies can also be defined from an investment perspective: health gain by improved patient access without need for additional health budget. This study examines the investment aspect of generic medicines by analyzing clopidogrel utilization in European countries between 2004 and 2014 using multilevel panel data models. We find that clopidogrel consumption was strongly affected by affordability constraints before the generic entry around 2009, but this effect decayed by 2014. After controlling for other variables, utilization had a substantially larger trend increase in lower-income European countries than in the higher-income ones. Generic entry increased clopidogrel consumption only in lower- and average-income countries but not in the highest-income ones. An earlier generic entry was associated with a larger effect. The case of clopidogrel indicates that the entrance of generics may increase patient access to effective medicines, most notably in lower-income countries, thereby reducing inequalities between European patients. Policymakers should also consider this investment aspect of generic medicines when designing pharmaceutical policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The evolution of urban mobility: The interplay of academic and policy perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban mobility in Western countries has evolved substantially over the past fifty years, from an early interest in catering for growing car ownership and use through major road expansion, to the current emphasis on reducing car use and cutting back on road provision, encouraging sustainable travel and promoting liveable cities with a high quality of life. This can be observed in the changing patterns of car use in many European cities over time (i.e. a rapid increase followed by stabilisation and now decline. This evolution can be related to changes in the transport policy paradigm, which has been heavily influenced by the involvement of an increasing range of academic disciplines, many of which have contributed to modifying the supporting data collection, modelling and appraisal methodologies. The paper explores the varying interplay over time between academic/applied research and policy practice, and the methodological legacy left by earlier perspectives on urban mobility. It highlights a recent reinterpretation of mobility provided through taking a 'socio-technical perspective', and speculates on how policy thinking on urban mobility might further evolve over the next forty years.

  10. Exploring qualitative research synthesis: the role of patients' perspectives in health policy design and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Draborg, Eva; Kristensen, Finn Børlum

    2011-01-01

    Health systems are placing more and more emphasis on the design and delivery of services that are focused on the patient, and there is a growing interest in patient involvement in health policy research and health technology assessment (HTA). Furthermore, there is a growing research interest in eliciting patients' views, not only on 'what works' for patients but also on the need for intervention and on factors influencing the implementation of particular health technologies, their appropriateness and acceptability. This article focuses on qualitative research synthesis in eliciting patients' perspectives. Its aim is to bring research closer to policy development and decision making, to facilitate better use of research findings for health and welfare, to generate a body of evidence, and to ensure that effective and appropriate information is used in health policy decision design. A variety of synthesizing approaches in qualitative research are explored, such as meta-synthesis, meta-summary, meta-ethnography, and meta-study, focusing especially on methodology. Meta-synthesis and meta-ethnography are probably the most frequently cited approaches in qualitative research synthesis and have perhaps the most developed methodology. The implications of these various synthesizing approaches in relation to health policy and HTA are discussed, and we suggest that meta-synthesis and meta-summary are particularly useful approaches. They have an explicit focus on 'evidence synthesis', fairly clear methodologies, and they are designed to not only present interpretations of the findings but also integrate research findings. Qualitative research synthesis enables researchers to synthesize findings from multiple qualitative studies on patients' perspectives instead of establishing new, expensive, and perhaps redundant studies that might intrude on the lives of patients. Qualitative research synthesis is highly recommended by decision makers and in health policy research and HTA. In

  11. The Boardroom Perspective: How Does Energy Efficiency Policy Influence Decision Making in Industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report delves into the major factors or driving forces that decision makers within a large industrial company take into account when deciding to make new investments - the so-called {sup b}oardroom perspective{sup .} The rationale for an individual company making an investment that will reduce energy consumption varies considerably and depends on a range of factors. This report explores those factors that influence companies to invest in energy savings and proposes a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of a country's energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation policies mix from this boardroom perspective. This paper is the product of collaboration between the IEA and the Institute of Industrial Productivity (IIP).

  12. An Object-Oriented Approach to Security Policies and their Access Controls for Database Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    access control requiremnts is a messy task. It may result in a system less reliable and secure than building a new system from scratch. Further, we have...means to specify access control requirments for the need-to-know policy. B. Actions as Access Priviledges and Queries in an Object-Class Hierarchy The...database. Access priviledges include read. update. append, delete. etc. An access query is a logical expression of predicates defining the parn of a data

  13. The impact of environmental policy on economic indicators. Moving from global to sectoral and regional perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.

  14. Analyzing Market Economies from the Perspective of Information Production, Policy, and Self-Organized Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C-Rene DOMINIQUE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A modern market economy is an exceedingly complex, infinite-dimensional, stochastic dynamical system. The failure of mainstream economists to characterize its dynamics may well be due to its intractability. This paper argues that the characterization of its dynamics becomes almost trivial when it is analyzed from the perspective of information production. Whether its Jacobian matrix is specifiable or not, a Lyapunov spectrum can be constructed from which the potential Kolmogorov-Sinai or Shannon entropy can be assessed. However, a self-organized equilibrium must first obtain, and for that a suitable policy must be operational.

  15. The future orientation of constructive memory: an evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    We explore a new distinction between the future, prospective memory system being investigated in current neuroscience and the past, retrospective memory system, which was the original theoretical foundation of therapeutic hypnosis, classical psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy. We then generalize a current evolutionary theory of sleep and dreaming, which focuses on the future, prospective memory system, to conceptualize a new evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy. The implication of current neuroscience research is that activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity are the psychobiological basis of adaptive behavior, consciousness, and creativity in everyday life as well as psychotherapy. We summarize a case illustrating how this evolutionary perspective can be used to quickly resolve problems with past obstructive procrastination in school to facilitate current and future academic success.

  16. Is the Perspective of a Closer French Policy toward Russian a threat for Eastern European Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim BELGACEM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current world is not moving as all specialists predicted. Brexit, Trump, everyone was wrong. This paper will have two targets: describing the French policy toward Russia, making a perspective on the future policy, whatever the new French presidency in 2017, Francois Hollande will transmit the key to his successor with new election. He refused to compete for a second mandate. It is good to remind that Hollande was involving in the Ukrainian affairs and had managed with Germany the Minsk I and II agreements. He also had suspended Mistral ships selling and approving sanctions against Russia. How will be the future with François Fillon, Marine Le Pen or other? The analysis will be focusing on the future relationships toward Russia and Eastern European Countries.

  17. Consumption and lifestyles: an alternative perspective on climate change mitigation policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Ghislain; Ceron, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current climate policies were developed from a macro-economic approach in a production perspective, and thus have long neglected the issue of lifestyles. Lifestyles are however the result, and a major factor of greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Their integration in emission inventories, through the deduction of exports and inclusion of imports, along with a better understanding of exchanges between economic branches, allows renewing the analysis framework. This approach helps to envisage climate policies based on a convergence of emissions per capita, expressed in terms of lifestyles, articulated with sectoral production objectives. They also pave the way for tools such as a future 'carbon VAT'. This is however limited by practical constraints and political acceptability. In the short term, dedicated instruments can help raise awareness and involve households, in particular at the local scale. This paper recalls the main elements of these discussions based on recent literature

  18. The environmental policy of companies: evolutions and perspectives; La politique environnementale des entreprises: evolutions et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarq, F.; Martin, V.

    1999-07-01

    This document presents the stakes of the environmental management in French companies and the role played by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME) in adapting the French environmental plan, developed by the public authorities, to the small and medium-size companies and industries. The risks of environmental impact are numerous and linked with a bad mastery of the consumption of raw materials, energy and water and with a bad control of waste effluents (impact on ecosystems and on public health). In order to facilitate the application of the environmental plan, the international standard organization (ISO) has developed the series of ISO 14000 standards. This work was carried out by the technical committee 207 which has developed a common approach for the environmental management of processes and products. This paper focusses on the ISO 14001 standard, on its philosophy and on its accreditation procedure, and on the application of the European eco-audit regulation for the promotion of the continuous improvement of the environmental performances of companies. The Ademe has developed the 'company environment plan' (PEE) in order to define, grade and quantify the objectives of an environmental policy at the scale of companies. Different types of environmental indicators can be defined to characterize the environmental impact of the activities of companies and reported in an 'environmental report' in order to precise the financial effort made by companies to respect the regulations or to evaluate the possible financial consequences of the non-respect of the environmental regulations. (J.S.)

  19. Energy perspectives of the France by 2020-2050. European orientations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    The authors recall the absence in 2007 of a real european energy policy and present the new energy Plan of the european commission, fight against the climatic change, reinforce the security of the energy supply, maintain the competitiveness of the european economy. This plan is then discussed. (A.L.B.)

  20. Where to remove radioactive waste? Perspective for a problem-oriented sociological repository research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocke, P.; Grunwald, A.

    2006-01-01

    The search for a final disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Germany is to characterize as an enduring and politicised conflict causing a blocked process of decision making. A social science based research on final disposals, reflecting this stalemate situation in Germany, did not take place since the middle of the 1980s. This book persues three aims, it analyses the conflict situation in an historical and a systematic view, it discusses the new decision- and participation procedures and it formulates a socio-scientific research perspective on waste disposal. Th volume directs to political decision makers, representants from industry and economy, scientists and actors from the citizen sector. (GL)

  1. Policy, Research and Residents’ Perspectives on Built Environments Implicated in Heart Disease: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stankov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An underrepresentation of stakeholder perspectives within urban health research arguably limits our understanding of what is a multi-dimensional and complex relationship between the built environment and health. By engaging a wide range of stakeholders using a participatory concept mapping approach, this study aimed to achieve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the built environments shaping disease risk, specifically cardiometabolic risk (CMR. Moreover, this study aimed to ascertain the importance and changeability of identified environments through government action. Through the concept mapping process, community members, researchers, government and non-government stakeholders collectively identified eleven clusters encompassing 102 built environmental domains related to CMR, a number of which are underrepresented within the literature. Among the identified built environments, open space, public transportation and pedestrian environments were highlighted as key targets for policy intervention. Whilst there was substantive convergence in stakeholder groups’ perspectives concerning the built environment and CMR, there were disparities in the level of importance government stakeholders and community members respectively assigned to pedestrian environments and street connectivity. These findings support the role of participatory methods in strengthening how urban health issues are understood and in affording novel insights into points of action for public health and policy intervention.

  2. Policy, Research and Residents' Perspectives on Built Environments Implicated in Heart Disease: A Concept Mapping Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Ivana; Howard, Natasha J; Daniel, Mark; Cargo, Margaret

    2017-02-09

    An underrepresentation of stakeholder perspectives within urban health research arguably limits our understanding of what is a multi-dimensional and complex relationship between the built environment and health. By engaging a wide range of stakeholders using a participatory concept mapping approach, this study aimed to achieve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the built environments shaping disease risk, specifically cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Moreover, this study aimed to ascertain the importance and changeability of identified environments through government action. Through the concept mapping process, community members, researchers, government and non-government stakeholders collectively identified eleven clusters encompassing 102 built environmental domains related to CMR, a number of which are underrepresented within the literature. Among the identified built environments, open space, public transportation and pedestrian environments were highlighted as key targets for policy intervention. Whilst there was substantive convergence in stakeholder groups' perspectives concerning the built environment and CMR, there were disparities in the level of importance government stakeholders and community members respectively assigned to pedestrian environments and street connectivity. These findings support the role of participatory methods in strengthening how urban health issues are understood and in affording novel insights into points of action for public health and policy intervention.

  3. Hospital process orientation from an operations management perspective: development of a measurement tool and practical testing in three ophthalmic practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Pedro D; Hagenbeek, Marie Louise; Vissers, Jan M H

    2013-11-13

    Although research interest in hospital process orientation (HPO) is growing, the development of a measurement tool to assess process orientation (PO) has not been very successful yet. To view a hospital as a series of processes organized around patients with a similar demand seems to be an attractive proposition, but it is hard to operationalize this idea in a measurement tool that can actually measure the level of PO. This research contributes to HPO from an operations management (OM) perspective by addressing the alignment, integration and coordination of activities within patient care processes. The objective of this study was to develop and practically test a new measurement tool for assessing the degree of PO within hospitals using existing tools. Through a literature search we identified a number of constructs to measure PO in hospital settings. These constructs were further operationalized, using an OM perspective. Based on five dimensions of an existing questionnaire a new HPO-measurement tool was developed to measure the degree of PO within hospitals on the basis of respondents' perception. The HPO-measurement tool was pre-tested in a non-participating hospital and discussed with experts in a focus group. The multicentre exploratory case study was conducted in the ophthalmic practices of three different types of Dutch hospitals. In total 26 employees from three disciplines participated. After filling in the questionnaire an interview was held with each participant to check the validity and the reliability of the measurement tool. The application of the HPO-measurement tool, analysis of the scores and interviews with the participants resulted in the possibility to identify differences of PO performance and the areas of improvement--from a PO point of view--within each hospital. The result of refinement of the items of the measurement tool after practical testing is a set of 41 items to assess the degree of PO from an OM perspective within hospitals. The

  4. The influence of astrocytes on the width of orientation hypercolumns in visual cortex: A computational perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T Philips

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation preference maps (OPMs are present in carnivores (such as cats and ferrets and primates but are absent in rodents. In this study we investigate the possible link between astrocyte arbors and presence of OPMs. We simulate the development of orientation maps with varying hypercolumn widths using a variant of the Laterally Interconnected Synergetically Self-Organizing Map (LISSOM model, the Gain Control Adaptive Laterally connected (GCAL model, with an additional layer simulating astrocytic activation. The synaptic activity of V1 neurons is given as input to the astrocyte layer. The activity of this astrocyte layer is now used to modulate bidirectional plasticity of lateral excitatory connections in the V1 layer. By simply varying the radius of the astrocytes, the extent of lateral excitatory neuronal connections can be manipulated. An increase in the radius of lateral excitatory connections subsequently increases the size of a single hypercolumn in the OPM. When these lateral excitatory connections become small enough the OPM disappears and a salt-and-pepper organization emerges.

  5. Empathic media and advertising: Industry, policy, legal and citizen perspectives (the case for intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McStay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on interviews with people from the advertising and technology industry, legal experts and policy makers, this paper assesses the rise of emotion detection in digital out-of-home advertising, a practice that often involves facial coding of emotional expressions in public spaces. Having briefly outlined how bodies contribute to targeting processes and the optimisation of the ads themselves, it progresses to detail industrial perspectives, intentions and attitudes to data ethics. Although the paper explores possibilities of this sector, it pays careful attention to existing practices that claim not to use personal data. Centrally, it argues that scholars and regulators need to pay attention to the principle of intimacy. This is developed to counter weaknesses in privacy that is typically based on identification. Having defined technologies, use cases, industrial perspectives, legal views and arguments about jurisprudence, the paper discusses this ensemble of perspectives in light of a nationwide survey about how UK citizens feel about the potential for emotion detection in out-of-home advertising.

  6. Long-term perspective underscores need for stronger near-term policies on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, S. A.; Shakun, J. D.; Clark, P. U.; Mix, A. C.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Goldner, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Despite scientific consensus that substantial anthropogenic climate change will occur during the 21st century and beyond, the social, economic and political will to address this global challenge remains mired in uncertainty and indecisiveness. One contributor to this situation may be that scientific findings are often couched in technical detail focusing on near-term changes and uncertainties and often lack a relatable long-term context. We argue that viewing near-term changes from a long-term perspective provides a clear demonstration that policy decisions made in the next few decades will affect the Earth's climate, and with it our socio-economic well-being, for the next ten millennia or more. To provide a broader perspective, we present a graphical representation of Earth's long-term climate history that clearly identifies the connection between near-term policy options and the geological scale of future climate change. This long view is based on a combination of recently developed global proxy temperature reconstructions of the last 20,000 years and model projections of surface temperature for the next 10,000 years. Our synthesis places the 20th and 21st centuries, when most emissions are likely to occur, into the context of the last twenty millennia over which time the last Ice Age ended and human civilization developed, and the next ten millennia, over which time the projected impacts will occur. This long-term perspective raises important questions about the most effective adaptation and mitigation policies. For example, although some consider it economically viable to raise seawalls and dikes in response to 21st century sea level change, such a strategy does not account for the need for continuously building much higher defenses in the 22nd century and beyond. Likewise, avoiding tipping points in the climate system in the short term does not necessarily imply that such thresholds will not still be crossed in the more distant future as slower components

  7. Power and Agenda-Setting in Tanzanian Health Policy: An Analysis of Stakeholder Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sara Elisa; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin

    2016-02-09

    Global health policy is created largely through a collaborative process between development agencies and aid-recipient governments, yet it remains unclear whether governments retain ownership over the creation of policy in their own countries. An assessment of the power structure in this relationship and its influence over agenda-setting is thus the first step towards understanding where progress is still needed in policy-making for development. This study employed qualitative policy analysis methodology to examine how health-related policy agendas are adopted in low-income countries, using Tanzania as a case study. Semi-structured, in-depth, key informant interviews with 11 policy-makers were conducted on perspectives of the agenda-setting process and its actors. Kingdon's stream theory was chosen as the lens through which to interpret the data analysis. This study demonstrates that while stakeholders each have ways of influencing the process, the power to do so can be assessed based on three major factors: financial incentives, technical expertise, and influential position. Since donors often have two or all of these elements simultaneously a natural power imbalance ensues, whereby donor interests tend to prevail over recipient government limitations in prioritization of agendas. One way to mediate these imbalances seems to be the initiation of meaningful policy dialogue. In Tanzania, the agenda-setting process operates within a complex network of factors that interact until a "policy window" opens and a decision is made. Power in this process often lies not with the Tanzanian government but with the donors, and the contrast between latent presence and deliberate use of this power seems to be based on the donor ideology behind giving aid (defined here by funding modality). Donors who used pooled funding (PF) modalities were less likely to exploit their inherent power, whereas those who preferred to maintain maximum control over the aid they provided (ie, non

  8. Processes and challenges of the interaction betweeen research and policy from the perspective of researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Tuesta, Antonia; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Iturri, José Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Evidence-informed policies can produce social and economic impacts and equity and health benefits. Interaction between researchers in politics depends on the interests of social stakeholders and favorable political environments. This paper seeks to understand the meanings and researchers' perspectives of interaction processes between scientists and decision-makers that would influence the research impact on the health policy. This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted in 2014 to identify the core meanings and relationships between research and politics. The paper builds on the RAPID program approach of the Overseas Development Institute. Fourteen researchers who conducted maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality studies sponsored by the Health Ministry were interviewed. Researchers focused on the production of knowledge, strengthening of research capacities and dissemination of results. On some occasions, researchers also participated in the definition of clinical care policies and performance of health services. They pointed to barriers to interact and produce an impact on politics due to tensions in the political, economic and social context, as well as to institutional and organizational changes in the health sector and to the academic evaluation system.

  9. Perspective of long term demand and supply of energy and general inspection of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil crisis, Japanese energy policy was promoted to get rid of the excess dependence on petroleum and to attain energy security, but energy situation largely changed during the past ten years, and it has become necessary to make general inspection on the long term demand and supply of energy and the energy policy. After the second oil crisis, the worldwide demand of petroleum decreased drastically due to the rapid price rise, and the base price of crude oil was lowered for the first time. It is necessary to positively endeavor to reduce energy cost with new idea. The points of the general inspection are the correspondence of the energy policy to the large structural change of energy, the most desirable system for attaining the optimum structure of energy demand and supply and the utilization of market mechanism as far as possible. This report is the results of discussion held eight times since April, 1983. The change of energy situation in Japan and abroad and the perspective, the new problems in energy countermeasures and the trend of response, the preferential and effective promotion of general energy countermeasures and so on are reported. This report shows the fundamental direction of energy countermeasures hereafter, and the concrete and special examination must be made on many remaining problems. (Kako, I.)

  10. Energy security in western Mediterranean: new factors, new policies. A Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane-Estrada, Aurelia

    2008-01-01

    After having noticed that there are two typical approaches and models to address energy security, policies acting on the supply side and policies based on a market-and-institutions approach (like stated by the European Union), the author outlines the effects of this second approach for countries of the western Mediterranean Sea, and then analyses the evolutions of energetic relationships between Algeria (where the energy sector is the most open, which is the best equipped in terms of gas infrastructures, and which attracts foreign investors) and European countries of the region (France, Italy, Spain and Portugal). Thus, she analyses present exchanges in the region, the dependency of these European countries on Mediterranean producers, and the relationships between involved companies of the region. She discusses the issue of energy security policy for the region from the perspective of the governments of producing countries and of consuming countries, and of companies. She discusses whether the project of Union for the Mediterranean complies with these objectives of energy security

  11. Rethinking policy perspectives on childhood stunting: time to formulate a structural and multifactorial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S V; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Krishna, Aditi

    2016-05-01

    Stunting and chronic undernutrition among children in South Asia remain a major unresolved global health issue. There are compelling intrinsic and moral reasons to ensure that children attain their optimal growth potential facilitated via promotion of healthy living conditions. Investments in efforts to ensure that children's growth is not faltered also have substantial instrumental benefits in terms of cognitive and economic development. Using the case of India, we critique three prevailing approaches to reducing undernutrition among children: an over-reliance on macroeconomic growth as a potent policy instrument, a disproportionate focus on interpreting undernutrition as a demand-side problem and an over-reliance on unintegrated single-factorial (one at a time) approaches to policy and research. Using existing evidence, we develop a case for support-led policy approach with a focus on integrated and structural factors to addressing the problem of undernutrition among children in India. Key messages Eliminating child undernutrition is important from an intrinsic perspective and offers considerable instrumental benefits to individual and society. Evidence suggests that an exclusive reliance on a growth-mediated strategy to eliminate stunting needs to be reconsidered, suggesting the need for a substantial support-led strategy. Interpreting and addressing undernutrition as a demand-side problem with proximal single-factorial interventions is futile. There is an urgent need to develop interventions that address the broader structural and upstream causes of child undernutrition. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Multiple Carrying Capacities from a management-oriented perspective to operationalize sustainable tourism in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Manfredi, Emanuela C; Caroli, Paolo; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni

    2013-10-15

    This article describes how the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity (TCC) has shifted from a uni-dimensional approach to incorporating environmental, social and political aspects. This shift is demonstrated by a study of a large, internationally popular protected area used by trekkers, the Mt. Everest Region, where qualitative data collected from visitors was combined with environmental modeling using a participatory framework. Tourist satisfaction showed positive margins for further tourist industry expansion, but current environmental conditions limit growth and further development. Space and time dimensions were also considered. We observed that the limits on growth and further development can be manipulated, with a certain degree of flexibility, through investments and regulatory measures. We hypothesized that TCC can play an important role in the management of protected areas only if it is viewed as a systematic, strategic policy tool within a planning process rather than as a unique, intrinsic number that is not modifiable. We conclude that to translate the strategy into action using standard measures, further investigation is needed to balance the various TCC components as a part of a decision-making framework that includes the integration of different cultural approaches and policy needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changing patterns of basic household consumption in the Inner Mongolian grasslands: a case study of policy-oriented adoptive changes in the use of grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, B.; Zhen, L.; Groot, de R.S.; Goulden, C.E.; Long, X.; Cao, X.; Wu, R.; Sun, C.

    2014-01-01

    Grassland ecosystems, as the basic natural resources in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, are becoming increasingly sensitive to human intervention, leading to deterioration in fragile ecosystems. The goal of this study was to describe the restoration policy-oriented adoptive changes to basic

  14. The Role Singapore Tourism Board (STB) Plays in Tourism Policy and Planning-Tourism Industry Stakeholder’s Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kun-Chian

    2009-01-01

    This research discusses the roles Singapore Tourism Board (STB) plays in tourism policy and planning from the tourism industry stakeholder’s perspectives. The author conducted interviews with one of the tourism industry stakeholders- travel agency. The finding shows that there are three main roles of STB- enthusiast, decision maker, and dictator in tourism policy and planning . Moreover, the political and social background of Singapore contribute to the main reasons why Singapore can succe...

  15. Flood management in urban Senegal: an actor-oriented perspective on national and transnational adaptation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaer, Caroline; Thiam, Mame Demba; Nygaard, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In Senegal, considerable development assistance has been allocated to addressing the problem of repeated flooding in urban areas, involving changing thematic objectives, from short-term disaster relief to wide-ranging sanitation and drainage programmes. In spite of these numerous flood management...... interventions, the number of flood victims in Senegal’s urban centres has increased steadily since 1999. This article contributes empirically and conceptually to recent studies highlighting poor national disaster risk-management frameworks in West Africa, by investigating how floods have been managed in Senegal...... and why this management has not led to the results expected by the population. The article finds that the configuration of flood management policies and programmes in urban Senegal points towards three key intertwined issues which have influenced the limited achievements of flood management in urban areas...

  16. ‘BORN FREES’, NEGOTIATING THE TERRAIN TOWARDS SELFHOOD AND WELLNESS: A LIFE ORIENTATION PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meahabo Dinah Magano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was contextualised within the Life Orientation subject of ‘Self in Society’. It acknowledges that the present time is uniquely significant in South African history as the generation of youth leaving school are now considered ‘born frees’. This generation is considered to be free from the first-hand trauma that was experienced in the past; they supposedly live in a society free from the shackles of apartheid, and enjoy equality and human rights that affect their entire well-being. ‘Born frees’, it appears, are still negotiating the journey towards a new identity and freedom. The sample size was nine Grade 11 female learners who attend an urban school in Gauteng Province. The school was purposefully chosen because it had a good track record of class attendance and the learners are proficient in English. Questions revolved around the multiple aspects of self and well-being in society. Focus group sessions were held after which six of the learners completed a questionnaire with open-ended questions based on the sub-topics. All ethical considerations were observed. Findings revealed that these youths are in fact traversing a far more complex political, social, psychological, spiritual and economic landscape than that captured in the phrase ‘born frees’.

  17. The Relationship between Manufacturing Integration and Performance from an Activity-Oriented Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Laureano Paiva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing integration with other functional areas and suppliers is a key aspect for achieving sustainable competitive advantage. The objective of this study is to analyze manufacturing integration from an activity-based perspective. We hypothesize that manufacturing integration with suppliers, marketing, and R&D is positively related to profit and sales growth when it occurs simultaneously in key internal activities. We surveyed 366 companies located in the southern region of Brazil, chosen from the SEBRAE(1 database. We used structural equations modeling to address validity and reliability issues. We evaluated common method variance (CMV with the MTMM model and used path analysis to test the structural relations. We found that all manufacturing integration aspects are positively related to sales growth, but only manufacturing-R&D integration is positively related to profitability. Therefore, managers interested in improving the performance of their plants should favor the integration between manufacturing and R&D teams, at all hierarchical levels. We did not find any evidence, however, that direct interaction between manufacturing and marketing improves performance.

  18. How inventory consignment programs can improve supply chain performance: a process oriented perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K. Malhotra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inventory Consignment (IC has largely been viewed as a method of shifting the ownership and cost burden of inventory from buyer to supplier to benefit the buyer. This primarily accounting based viewpoint has largely ignored process changes that can occur for both the buyer and supplier. This study addresses this gap in the extant literature by examining IC from a process perspective by specifically addressing: (1 the implementation issues in an IC program for both buyers and suppliers and (2 the financial and operational benefits from IC for both buyers and suppliers. Using the case study methodology, we examined three firms that had varying degrees of involvement and roles in IC programs. Based on our detailed work with these three firms and their supply chain linkages, we offer a series of propositions to demonstrate that IC is not just an accounting issue, but also a management practice that requires a series of process changes in order to be successful. These process changes in turn provide operational benefits for both buyers and suppliers via the mechanism of increased demand visibility to suppliers. Through this approach, this study makes a contribution beyond what has been examined in the prior literature which has mostly dealt with IC as an accounting based inventory management issue.

  19. 'Wrong parents' and 'right parents': shared perspectives about citizen participation in policy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Deborah Anne

    2010-06-01

    Government policies, both in Europe and the U.S., increasingly mandate that community-based citizens partner with professionals to plan and implement policy-relevant programs. In the U.S., parents of children with serious emotional disturbances may participate in Community Collaboratives which are charged with implementing children's mental health policy in local communities. This qualitative study examined three Community Collaboratives and identified organizational features associated with how the groups prioritized lay involvement, among other competing goals which they legitimately could pursue. Thirty-four key informants participated in in-depth interviews. Although the overall study identified several factors which permitted greater and lesser degrees of family involvement, this paper reports on one: the symbolic meaning shared by members about lay participation in their shared perspectives about "wrong parents" and "right parents." Furthermore, two alternate types of "right parents" identified a psychologized version of parents as consumers, and a civic vision of parents as partners. Results from this study are applicable to a wide array of lay-professional partnerships. This study suggests that in order to foster lay-professional partnerships in policy initiatives, lay participants must possess additional, civic-based skills, beyond those needed in the service delivery arena. Furthermore, organizational and professional change may be required to address professional dominance. Within mental health, lack of acceptance of nationally touted recovery-based models is a significant barrier. Finally, sociological implications of developing a civic-based framework for lay-professional partnerships are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Module 3: Workplace Policy, Practice and Culture--Employer and Employee Perspectives. Work-Family Curriculum Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Leana, Carrie; MacDermid, Shelley; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Raskin, Patricia; Secret, Mary; Sweet, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The contents of this module have been prepared to address some of challenges associated with teaching about work-family issues from a human resource management and employment perspective. The goals of this module are: (1) To develop an understanding that work-family policies are part of a human resource management system and the employment…

  1. Becoming allies: Combining social science and technological perspectives to improve energy research and policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Rick; Moezzi, Mithra

    2002-07-01

    Within the energy research community, social sciences tends to be viewed fairly narrowly, often as simply a marketing tool to change the behavior of consumers and decision makers, and to ''attack market barriers''. As we see it, social sciences, which draws on sociology, psychology, political science, business administration, and other academic disciplines, is capable of far more. A social science perspective can re-align questions in ways that can lead to the development of technologies and technology policy that are much stronger and potentially more successful than they would be otherwise. In most energy policies governing commercial buildings, the prevailing R and D directives are firmly rooted in a technology framework, one that is generally more quantitative and evaluative than that fostered by the social sciences. To illustrate how social science thinking would approach the goal of achieving high energy performance in the commercial building sector, they focus on the US Department of Energy's Roadmap for commercial buildings (DOE 2000) as a starting point. By ''deconstructing'' the four strategies provided by the Roadmap, they set the stage for proposing a closer partnership between advocates of technology-based and social science-based approaches.

  2. Global impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy: A general equilibrium perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel Garner

    The conversion of biomass to energy represents a promising pathway forward in efforts to reduce fossil fuel use in the transportation and electricity sectors. In addition to potential benefits, such as greenhouse gas reductions and increased energy security, bioenergy production also presents a unique set of challenges. These challenges include tradeoffs between food and fuel production, distortions in energy markets, and terrestrial emissions associated with changing land-use patterns. Each of these challenges arises from market-mediated responses to bioenergy production, and are therefore largely economic in nature. This dissertation directly addresses these opportunities and challenges by evaluating the economic impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy, focusing on both existing and future biomass-to-energy pathways. The analysis approaches the issue from a global, economy-wide perspective, reflecting two important facts. First, that large-scale bioenergy production connects multiple sectors of the economy due to the use of agricultural land resources for biomass production, and competition with fossil fuels in energy markets. Second, markets for both agricultural and energy commodities are highly integrated globally, causing domestic policies to have international effects. The reader can think of this work as being comprised of three parts. Part I provides context through an extensive review of the literature on the market-mediated effects of conventional biofuel production (Chapter 2) and develops a general equilibrium modeling framework for assessing the extent to which these phenomenon present a challenge for future bioenergy pathways (Chapter 3). Part II (Chapter 4) explores the economic impacts of the lignocellulosic biofuel production targets set in the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard on global agricultural and energy commodity markets. Part III (Chapter 5) extends the analysis to consider potential inefficiencies associated with policy

  3. Communication-oriented person-organization fit as a key factor of job-seeking behaviors: millennials' social media use and attitudes toward organizational social media policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehee; Park, Dong Jin; Ordonez, Zoa

    2013-11-01

    The main goal of this study was to assess how the millennial generation perceives companies that have different social media policies and how such perception influences key variables for job-seeking behaviors, including perceived person-organization fit (POF), organizational attraction, and job pursuit intention. Results from a univariate general linear model and path analysis supported all of the established hypotheses. In particular, the results revealed that millennials perceived higher POF for a company with organizational policies supporting employees' social media use. Further, organizational attractiveness significantly mediated the relationship between communication-oriented POF and job pursuit intention.

  4. Policy perspectives on post pandemic influenza vaccination in Ghana and Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanson Z. Sambala

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the late 1990s, in the context of renewed concerns of an influenza pandemic, countries such as Ghana and Malawi established plans for the deployment of vaccines and vaccination strategies. A new pandemic was declared in mid-June 2009, and by April 2011, Ghana and Malawi vaccinated 10% of the population. We examine the public health policy perspectives on vaccination as a means to prevent the spread of infection under post pandemic conditions. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 46 policymakers (Ghana, n = 24; Malawi, n = 22, identified through snowballing sampling. Interviews were supplemented by field notes and the analysis of policy documents. Results The use of vaccination to interrupt the pandemic influenza was affected by delays in the procurement, delivery and administration of vaccines, suboptimal vaccination coverage, refusals to be vaccinated, and the politics behind vaccination strategies. More generally, rolling-out of vaccination after the transmission of the influenza virus had abated was influenced by policymakers’ own financial incentives, and government and foreign policy conditionality on vaccination. This led to confusion about targeting and coverage, with many policymakers justifying that the vaccination of 10% of the population would establish herd immunity and so reduce future risk. Ghana succeeded in vaccinating 2.3 million of the select groups (100% coverage, while Malawi, despite recourse to force, succeeded only in vaccinating 1.15 million (74% coverage of select groups. For most policymakers, vaccination coverage was perceived as successful, despite that vaccination delays and coverage would not have prevented infection when influenza was at its peak. Conclusions While the vaccination strategy was problematic and implemented too late to reduce the effects of the 2009 epidemic, policy makers supported the overall goal of pandemic influenza vaccination to interrupt infection

  5. Horizon 2000: Vision of the development of a custom-oriented electric power market in a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-10-01

    After a perspective on the development in the seventies and eighties in chapter one, it is stated that, given the developments in the field of liberalization and the manifest internationalization of the European electricity market (chapter two), the Dutch electricity sector is not yet ready for an open European market (chapter three). A revision of the present electricity model does not seem to be the right method, because of the built-in contradictions and the reactive manner in which new developments can be handled (chapter four). Therefore, at this crossroad a new starting point has to be chosen in order for the Dutch electricity sector to be able to handle the developments in a pro-active way. At the same time this offers a solution to the instability, which threatens to the Dutch electricity market as a result of the fast growth of cogeneration capacity. In the new vision Horizon 2000 (outlined in chapters 5-9) the focus is shifted from central planning and cost pooling to customer-orientation within an open market. The market parties get, on the basis of autonomous responsibilities, multiple buying and selling options. A stepwise implementation of Horizon is explained in chapter 10, while the consequences of the market model Horizon 2000 are indicated as positive in chapter eleven. It must be stressed that this report is meant to be a working paper, open for discussion. Both the vision on the market and its consequences for the organization model have to be elaborated in more detail. 30 figs., 27 tabs.,

  6. Survey of Chinese Medicine Students to Determine Research and Evidence Based Medicine Perspectives at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Belinda J.; Kligler, Benjamin; Cohen, Hillel W.; Marantz, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Context Research literacy and the practice of evidence based medicine (EBM) are important initiatives in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), which requires cultural change within educational institutions for successful implementation. Objective To determine the self-assessed research and EBM perspectives of Chinese medicine Masters degree students at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New York campus (PCOM-NY). Design and Methods A survey with seventeen close-ended questions and one open-ended question was administered through Survey Monkey to students at PCOM-NY. Results The survey was sent to 420 Masters students and 176 (41.9%) responded. Students in all 4 years of the Masters degree indicated a generally high degree interest in, and support for the value of research. However increasing years (1 – 4) in the program was associated with lower interest post-graduation in research participation and entering the doctoral program, and 4th year students reported low levels of interest in having greater research content and training in their Masters degree programs. Students who responded to the open-ended question (23% of respondents) expressed enthusiasm for research and concerns about the relevance of research to Chinese medicine. Conclusions Consistent with findings in similar studies at CAM colleges, interest in research and EBM of the PCOM-NY Masters students appeared to decline with increasing years in the program. Concerns around paradigm and epistemological issues associated with research and EBM among Chinese medicine students and practitioners warrants further investigation, and may be an important challenge for integrative medicine. PMID:27473310

  7. Survey of Chinese Medicine Students to Determine Research and Evidence-Based Medicine Perspectives at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Belinda J; Kligler, Benjamin; Cohen, Hillel W; Marantz, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Research literacy and the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are important initiatives in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), which requires cultural change within educational institutions for successful implementation. To determine the self-assessed research and EBM perspectives of Chinese medicine Masters degree students at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New York campus (PCOM-NY). A survey with 17 close-ended questions and one open-ended question was administered through Survey Monkey to students at PCOM-NY. The survey was sent to 420 Masters students and 176 (41.9%) responded. Students in all four years of the Masters degree indicated a generally high degree of interest in, and support for the value of research. However, increasing years (one to four years) in the program was associated with lower interest in post-graduation research participation and entering the doctoral program, and the fourth year students reported low levels of interest in having greater research content and training in their Masters degree programs. Students who responded to the open-ended question (23% of respondents) expressed enthusiasm for research and concerns about the relevance of research in Chinese medicine. Consistent with findings in similar studies at CAM colleges, interest in research, and EBM of the PCOM-NY Masters students appeared to decline with increasing years in the program. Concerns around paradigm and epistemological issues associated with research and EBM among Chinese medicine students and practitioners warrants further investigation, and may be an important challenge for integrative medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. East to west – The optimal tilt angle and orientation of photovoltaic panels from an electricity system perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartner, Michael; Ortner, André; Hiesl, Albert; Haas, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adjustments of PV installation angles can reduce total electricity generation costs. • However total benefits are small (<1% of total costs) even for high PV shares. • In Austria and Germany adjustments toward east and steeper tilt can be beneficial. • PV market values drop significantly with high PV shares also for adjusted angles. • Also CO 2 reductions decrease but are still high even for a doubling of PV capacity. - Abstract: The integration of photovoltaic as a fluctuating renewable energy source has raised concerns about additional costs for the electricity system due to the variable nature of power output leading to more frequent and steeper ramping of conventional power plants and the need for backup capacity. One way to reduce those costs can be the variation of installation angles of PV panels at different locations to smoothen out the total production from PV in the whole system. To a certain extent steeper tilt angles can shift the production from summer months to winter months and the variation of the azimuth from east to west can partly shift production during the day increasing the production in morning or afternoon hours. However, for fixed mounted PV panels, there is one angle combination that maximizes the total output of the PV panel throughout the year and each deviation from this angle combination results in losses of total output. This paper evaluates the trade-off between annual energy losses and possible electricity generation cost reductions through adapting PV installation angles for the current electricity system and for potentially higher PV penetration levels in the future. A theoretical explanation why the annual maximum output of a PV system is not always the optimal solution from a system perspective is presented. To assess the effects of deviations from output maximizing angles at present, the wholesale market value of PV for various tilt angles and orientations in 23 regions of Austria and Germany using

  9. Renewable energy perspectives in the frame of Turkey’s and the EU’s energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şekercioğlu, Selma; Yılmaz, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined the renewable energy policies of the EU and Turkey in their historical perspectives. ► In the EU there is a progress in renewable energy planning and about support mechanisms. ► In Turkey there is a need for more struggles about increasing the effectiveness of support mechanism. ► The sustainability principle of the EU energy policy has to be a guide for Turkey. - Abstract: Renewable energy as one of the current and substantial issue needs to be investigated in terms of political outlook. So the researches on renewable energy policies under the energy policies of different countries are necessary. The emergence of renewable energy policy was the 20th century but it gained momentum in 21st century. The realization of the polluting nature of the petroleum products, their negative environment effects and the assumptions about the future of non-renewable energy sources were the driving forces behind these politics. The European Union in these conditions tries to play pioneer role. Turkey on the other hand as a candidate country has to harmonize its policies with the Union’s. In this context, objective of this work is to examine the EU and Turkey’s renewable energy policies, make a comparison and as a sustainability of Turkish renewable energy policy construct a future projection in short, medium and long terms.

  10. Planning and costing agriculture's adaptation to climate change: Policy Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Tom; Chambwera, Muyeye; Venton, Courtnay Cabot; Dyszynski, Jillian; Crawford, Victoria

    2011-10-15

    Agriculture has a crucial role to play in meeting development goals – from demand for food as populations grow and become wealthier to maintaining essential ecosystem services, diverse livelihoods, and economic development. Underinvestment over the past 20 years has resulted in a sector that is not adequately prepared for the challenges of climate change. Yet for most developing countries, agriculture has been one of the earliest sectors to be affected by climate change, with negative impacts already apparent and more serious consequences projected for the future. There is increasing recognition by both the climate change and agricultural development communities that agriculture needs to be part of a new global climate change deal. 'No agriculture, no deal' is a clear signal from concerned stakeholders that agriculture will be a key feature of climate change negotiations, both for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and protecting vulnerable populations and economies. There has been a long history of assessments of the impact of climate change on agriculture, and recent international movements to press toward effective action are noteworthy. This Policy Perspectives paper summarises the results from a recent study led by the International Institute for Environment and Development, the Stockholm Environment Institute and the Global Climate Adaptation Partnership, with national teams in five developing countries. The principal conclusions inform policy and planning by addressing the following issues: 1. Framing and methodological development in the assessment of climate adaptation. 2. Assessment of current vulnerabilities, and potential future impacts and costs of adaptation. 3. Identification of strategies and measures considered priorities across regions and types of agriculture in 'pathways of adaptation'.

  11. Social Stigma Toward Persons With Prescription Opioid Use Disorder: Associations With Public Support for Punitive and Public Health-Oriented Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Barry, Colleen L; Gollust, Sarah E; Ensminger, Margaret E; Chisolm, Margaret S; McGinty, Emma E

    2017-05-01

    Prescription opioid use disorder and overdose have emerged as significant public health challenges in the past 15 years. Little is known about public attitudes toward individuals who have developed a prescription opioid use disorder and whether these attitudes affect support for policy interventions. This study examined social stigma toward individuals with prescription opioid use disorder and tested whether stigma was associated with support for various policy interventions. A nationally representative Web-based survey was conducted from January 31 to February 28, 2014. The 1,071 respondents reported on their beliefs about and attitudes toward persons affected by prescription opioid use disorder and rated their support for various policy interventions. Ordered logistic regression models estimated the association between stigma and public support for punitive and public health-oriented policies. Most respondents viewed this disorder as affecting all groups-racial and ethnic, income, and geographic area of residence groups-fairly equally, despite epidemiological data demonstrating that certain populations have been disproportionately burdened. Respondents expressed high levels of stigma toward individuals with prescription opioid use disorder. Levels of stigma were generally similar among those with and without experience with prescription opioid use disorder, either one's own or that of a relative or close friend. Higher levels of stigma were associated with greater support for punitive policies and lower support for public health-oriented policies. Reframing the issue to emphasize the structural factors contributing to prescription opioid use disorder and the barriers to accessing evidence-based treatment might improve support for policies that benefit affected individuals.

  12. Barriers to optimizing investments in the built environment to reduce youth obesity: policy-maker perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jill L; MacKay, Kathryn C; Manuel, Patricia M; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors which limit the ability of local governments to make appropriate investments in the built environment to promote youth health and reduce obesity outcomes in Atlantic Canada. Policy-makers and professionals participated in focus groups to discuss the receptiveness of local governments to introducing health considerations into decision-making. Seven facilitated focus groups involved 44 participants from Atlantic Canada. Thematic discourse analysis of the meeting transcripts identified systemic barriers to creating a built environment that fosters health for youth aged 12-15 years. Participants consistently identified four categories of barriers. Financial barriers limit the capacities of local government to build, maintain and operate appropriate facilities. Legacy issues mean that communities inherit a built environment designed to facilitate car use, with inadequate zoning authority to control fast food outlets, and without the means to determine where schools are built or how they are used. Governance barriers derive from government departments with distinct and competing mandates, with a professional structure that privileges engineering, and with funding programs that encourage competition between municipalities. Cultural factors and values affect outcomes: people have adapted to car-oriented living; poverty reduces options for many families; parental fears limit children's mobility; youth receive limited priority in built environment investments. Participants indicated that health issues have increasing profile within local government, making this an opportune time to discuss strategies for optimizing investments in the built environment. The focus group method can foster mutual learning among professionals within government in ways that could advance health promotion.

  13. Individualism, instrumental reason and policy texts: some considerations from the perspective of contemporary political philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Rita; Martins, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    This article dialogues with Matthew Weinstein's paper named "NGSS, disposability, and the ambivalence of Science in/under neoliberalism", in which he explores the argument that at the same time the NGSS framework is largely identified with neoliberal discourse, it presents points of ambivalence and resistance within. In this dialogue, we focused on two topics that we believe are important for the discussion of the ambivalences highlighted in the author's argument, namely: the the social production of indifference as a consequence of the neoliberal ideology and the production of a version of science streamlined for the neoliberal technoscientific job market within the `neoliberal ecosystem'. Based on the thesis of the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor on ethics and on the concept of hybridism, we linked Weinsteins' analysis to issues related to individualism and instrumental reason, pointing out that it is possible that the ambivalences highlighted by Weinstein are, in fact, a component of neoliberal discourse. Nevertheless we agree that this kind of text presents loopholes that allows practices oriented for social change and for the improvement of democracies in progress. We conclude that for those who dedicate themselves to reflect upon educational strategies to cope with the hegemonic model remains the challenge of finding spaces and times in the curriculum in order to explore the gaps in policy texts and, more important, to promote the experience of democratic practices throughout the school communities.

  14. Health policy as a fuzzy concept: methodological problems encountered when evaluating health policy reforms in an international perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroneman, M.W.; Zee, J. van der

    1997-01-01

    Investigating health policy reforms at a national level is a troublesome task, since it is difficult to establish exactly when a certain policy change took place and it is also difficult to determine the content of the reform. In this paper three main causes are distinguished that contribute to the

  15. Crisis and perspectives on policy change: Swedish counter-terrorism policymaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansén, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    Crisis experience are often said to be catalysts for policy change. A look back at the policy change initiatives in counter-terrorism policy post 9/11, 3/11 and 7/7, suggests a clear pattern. Crises generate policy change. However, prior to these attacks Swedish counter-terrorism policy change

  16. The human right to water and sanitation: a new perspective for public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Colin; Neves-Silva, Priscila; Heller, Léo

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS) by the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010 constituted a significant political measure whose direct consequences are still being assessed. Previous to this date, the HRtWS and its link to a healthy life and adequate standard of living had been recognised in diverse legal and judicial spheres worldwide, in some cases under the pressure of the initiatives of strong social movements. However, while the HRtWS is recognised by the UN State Members, it constitutes a concept in construction that has not been approached and interpreted in consensual ways by all concerned stakeholders. The present article presents a formal definition of this right with a base in human rights regulation. It attempts to dialogue with the different existing perspectives regarding the impact of its international recognition as a human right. It then elucidates the progressive development of the HRtWS in law and jurisprudence. Finally, it considers the urgency and challenge of monitoring the HRtWS and discusses important implications for public policies.

  17. Policy and Prevention Approaches for Disordered and Hazardous Gaming and Internet Use: an International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Doh, Young Yim; Wu, Anise M S; Kuss, Daria J; Pallesen, Ståle; Mentzoni, Rune; Carragher, Natacha; Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Problems related to high levels of gaming and Internet usage are increasingly recognized as a potential public health burden across the developed world. The aim of this review was to present an international perspective on prevention strategies for Internet gaming disorder and related health conditions (e.g., Internet addiction), as well as hazardous gaming and Internet use. A systematic review of quantitative research evidence was conducted, followed by a search of governmental reports, policy and position statements, and health guidelines in the last decade. The regional scope included the USA, UK, Australia, China, Germany, Japan, and South Korea. Prevention studies have mainly involved school-based programs to train healthier Internet use habits in adolescents. The efficacy of selective prevention is promising but warrants further empirical attention. On an international scale, the formal recognition of gaming or Internet use as a disorder or as having quantifiable harms at certain levels of usage has been foundational to developing structured prevention responses. The South Korean model, in particular, is an exemplar of a coordinated response to a public health threat, with extensive government initiatives and long-term strategic plans at all three levels of prevention (i.e., universal, selective, and indicated). Western regions, by comparison, are dominated by prevention approaches led by non-profit organizations and private enterprise. The future of prevention of gaming and Internet problems ultimately relies upon all stakeholders working collaboratively in the public interest, confronting the reality of the evidence base and developing practical, ethical, and sustainable countermeasures.

  18. The human right to water and sanitation: a new perspective for public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Brown

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recognition of the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS by the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council in 2010 constituted a significant political measure whose direct consequences are still being assessed. Previous to this date, the HRtWS and its link to a healthy life and adequate standard of living had been recognised in diverse legal and judicial spheres worldwide, in some cases under the pressure of the initiatives of strong social movements. However, while the HRtWS is recognised by the UN State Members, it constitutes a concept in construction that has not been approached and interpreted in consensual ways by all concerned stakeholders. The present article presents a formal definition of this right with a base in human rights regulation. It attempts to dialogue with the different existing perspectives regarding the impact of its international recognition as a human right. It then elucidates the progressive development of the HRtWS in law and jurisprudence. Finally, it considers the urgency and challenge of monitoring the HRtWS and discusses important implications for public policies.

  19. The Evaluation of Public Policies from the Perspective of the Agenda 21 of Culture: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    María Aracely Mendívil-Portillo; Luz Cecilia Gálvez-Bon; Juan Pedro Ibarra-Michel; José Guadalupe Soto-Karass

    2017-01-01

    . This research shows the results of the implementation of a public cultural policy at the municipal level and has as a main objective to evaluate, from the perspective of the agenda 21 of culture, the program "Art for social development" by the Municipal Institute of Art and Culture developed in a secondary-level boarding school located at the Topolobampo community, in the municipality of Ahome, Mexico. A QUAN-QUAL methodology was used with instruments like questionnaires applied to the youn...

  20. INVESTIGATING ``MARKETING ORIENTATION `` INFLUENCES ON ACHIEVING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE –WITHIN JORDANIAN MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY (BEHAVIOURAL- ATTITUDINAL PERSPECTIVE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ashour, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Several previous studies emphasised the importance of marketing orientation in achieving firms` competitive position, and many efforts have been focused on investigating Marketing Orientation-organizational performance relationship. However, the majority of previous researches have been conducted in Western cultures and within industrial contexts. This research is an attempt to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the adopted levels of Marketing Orientation (MO) for each mobile telecommun...

  1. The dominance of the Lisbon agreement as a barrier for an environmentally oriented transport policy in Europe : The gap between theory and implementation in policy integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, H.; Van der Sluis-van Meijeren, M.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for policy integration in a number of policy areas. This is also the case when it comes to the ambition to realize a sustainable transport system, where seemingly contrasting issues such as economic growth and the related negative effects, increasing emissions for

  2. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  3. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Alexia; Oulami, Halima; Zekraoui, Wahiba; Hikmat, Halima; Temmerman, Marleen; Leye, Els

    2013-10-16

    In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO's and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and policy framework should go hand in hand

  4. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Methods A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO’s and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Results Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. Conclusion The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and

  5. The Natural Gas Dilemma in New England's Electricity Sector: Experts' Perspectives on Long Term Climate Issues and Policy Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Steven

    This thesis is an interpretive analysis of experts' perspectives on the climate implications of New England's reliance on natural gas for electricity generation. Specifically, this research, conducted through interviews and literature review, examines experts' opinions on the desired role of natural gas within the regional electricity sector, alternative energy resources, and state and regional policy opportunities toward the achievement of New England's ambitious long-term greenhouse gas reduction goals. Experts expressed concern about the climate dilemma posed by a dependence on natural gas. However, interviews revealed that short-term reliability and cost considerations are paramount for many experts, and therefore a reliance on natural gas is the existing reality. To incentivize renewable generation technologies for the purposes of long-term climate stabilization, experts advocated for the expanded implementation of renewable portfolio standard, net metering, and feed-in tariff policies. More broadly, interviewees expressed the need for an array of complementary state and regional policies.

  6. Global Perspectives on Children's Digital Opportunities: An Emerging Research and Policy Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia; Lemish, Dafna; Lim, Sun Sun; Bulger, Monica; Cabello, Patricio; Claro, Magdalena; Cabello-Hutt, Tania; Khalil, Joe; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Nayar, Usha S; Nayar, Priya; Park, Jonghwi; Tan, Maria Melizza; Prinsloo, Jeanne; Wei, Bu

    2017-11-01

    Diverse international perspectives show that children can benefit greatly from digital opportunities. Despite widespread optimism about the potential of digital technologies, especially for information and education, the research reveals an insufficient evidence base to guide policy and practice across all continents of the world, especially in middle- and low-income countries. Beyond revealing pressing and sizeable gaps in knowledge, this cross-national review also reveals the importance of understanding local values and practices regarding the use of technologies. This leads us to stress that future researchers must take into account local contexts and existing inequalities and must share best practices internationally so that children can navigate the balance between risks and opportunities. This article documents the particular irony that while the world's poorer countries look to research to find ways to increase access and accelerate the fair distribution of digital educational resources, the world's wealthier countries look to research for guidance in managing excessive screen time, heavily commercial content, and technologies that intrude on autonomy and privacy. We conclude by recommending that digital divides should be carefully bridged with contextual sensitivity to avoid exacerbating existing disparities; that the provision of technological resources is complemented by a focus on skills enhancement, for teachers as well as students; that a keen eye is needed to ensure the balance of children's protection and participation rights, with protection now including data abuses as well as safety considerations; and that we forge collaborations among all stakeholders in seeking to enhance children's digital opportunities worldwide. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. The Danish Perspective of Energy Internet: From Service-oriented Flexibility Trading to Integrated Design, Planning and Operation of Multiple Cross-sectoral Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Jin, Lin; Hu, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the success of internet technologies, energy internet, also referred as web-based smart grid (SG) or SG 2.0, is expected to offer innovative applications based on advanced connectivity and intelligent management of distributed energy resources (DER), systems and services with a strong...... two important subjects of the energy internet from the Danish perspective, i.e., service-oriented flexibility trading and integrated design, planning and operation of multiple cross-sectoral energy systems. Both elements are anticipated to bring in new business opportunities and challenges...

  8. Environmental Policies and Problems in Japan, China, and Hong Kong: Travel Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therivel, Riki; Wrisberg, Mette

    1988-01-01

    Compared are some of the environmental planning policies and developmental policies of three regions of the Far East. Discusses the relationship between social structures and environmental problems such as pollution, erosion, waste disposal, and the uses of technology. (CW)

  9. A Perspective on United States Policy toward the Arab Gulf Countries and Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al Shamisi, Ibrahim A

    2005-01-01

    .... The events of September 2001 caused important changes in the United States' national security policy, which led it to initiate aggressive foreign policies toward Islam in general, and Arabs in particular...

  10. Globalization and environmental policy innovations: Perspectives for national and regional pioneers

    OpenAIRE

    Jaenicke, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Is economic globalisation an obstacle to environmental policy innovations of regions or nations? Which effects will the rapid globalisation of environmental policy have? Could globalisation improve the conditions for regulatory competition and green pioneers? The presentation will describe the growing environmental policy convergence in the world, which may prevent a downward spiral of environmental standards. Global environmental policy learning will be described in terms of environmental po...

  11. CURRICULUM POLICIES AND GEOGRAPHY TEACHING: perspectives ond discourse, subjectivity and subject community

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Heleno Camilo Costa

    2012-01-01

    This paper I discuss, in the context of research in curriculum policy for the teaching of Geography, the processes of constitution of the subjects involved in policy. Present initially snippets of the course of research development, drawing attention to possibilities of understanding about the processes that lead to the production of curriculum policies for Geography. I call attention to the subjectivity involved in the production of such policies, questioning the category subject community i...

  12. Teacher Education and Development Policies: Critical Discourse Analysis from a Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Monica E.; Gorostiaga, Jorge M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore teacher education policies in different countries of Latin America and North America through the comparison of policy documents. The training of teachers, a key component of education, faces educational challenges as a result of various reform policies in different countries. Critical discourse analysis…

  13. Urban Health Educators' Perspectives and Practices regarding School Nutrition Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane; Shen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Although nutrition-related health education policies exist at national, state and local levels, the degree to which those policies affect the everyday practices of health education teachers who are charged with executing them in schools is often unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the nutrition-related health education policy matrix…

  14. Teacher Education Research and Education Policy-Makers: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simone

    2016-01-01

    As teacher educators, we want our research to be influential in contributing to educational policy and practice, but there remains little understanding about ways in which teacher educators might more productively engage with each other and policy-makers so as to maximise their research impact. Drawing on an empirical study and policy document…

  15. Organisational culture and trust as influences over the implementation of equity-oriented policy in two South African case study hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Ermin; Gilson, Lucy; Govender, Veloshnee; Nkosi, Moremi

    2017-09-15

    This paper uses the concepts of organisational culture and organisational trust to explore the implementation of equity-oriented policies - the Uniform Patient Fee Schedule (UPFS) and Patients' Rights Charter (PRC) - in two South African district hospitals. It contributes to the small literatures on organisational culture and trust in low- and middle-income country health systems, and broader work on health systems' people-centeredness and "software". The research entailed semi-structured interviews (Hospital A n = 115, Hospital B n = 80) with provincial, regional, district and hospital managers, as well as clinical and non-clinical hospital staff, hospital board members, and patients; observations of policy implementation, organisational functioning, staff interactions and patient-provider interactions; and structured surveys operationalising the Competing Values Framework for measuring organisational culture (Hospital A n = 155, Hospital B n = 77) and Organisational Trust Inventory (Hospital A n = 185, Hospital B n = 92) for assessing staff-manager trust. Regarding the UPFS, the hospitals' implementation approaches were similar in that both primarily understood it to be about revenue generation, granting fee exemptions was not a major focus, and considerable activity, facility management support, and provincial support was mobilised behind the UPFS. The hospitals' PRC paths diverged quite significantly, as Hospital A was more explicit in communicating and implementing the PRC, while the policy also enjoyed stronger managerial support in Hospital A than Hospital B. Beneath these experiences lie differences in how people's values, decisions and relationships influence health system functioning and in how the nature of policies, culture, trust and power dynamics can combine to create enabling or disabling micro-level implementation environments. Achieving equity in practice requires managers to take account of "unseen" but important factors such as

  16. Understanding the dynamics of the Seguro Popular de Salud policy implementation in Mexico from a complex adaptive systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda, Gustavo; González-Robledo, Luz María; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Adam, Taghreed

    2016-05-13

    In 2003, Mexico's Seguro Popular de Salud (SPS), was launched as an innovative financial mechanism implemented to channel new funds to provide health insurance to 50 million Mexicans and to reduce systemic financial inequities. The objective of this article is to understand the complexity and dynamics that contributed to the adaptation of the policy in the implementation stage, how these changes occurred, and why, from a complex and adaptive systems perspective. A complex adaptive systems (CAS) framework was used to carry out a secondary analysis of data obtained from four SPS's implementation evaluations. We first identified key actors, their roles, incentives and power, and their responses to the policy and guidelines. We then developed a causal loop diagram to disentangle the feedback dynamics associated with the modifications of the policy implementation which we then analyzed using a CAS perspective. Implementation variations were identified in seven core design features during the first 10 years of implementation period, and in each case, the SPS's central coordination introduced modifications in response to the reactions of the different actors. We identified several CAS phenomena associated with these changes including phase transitions, network emergence, resistance to change, history dependence, and feedback loops. Our findings generate valuable lessons to policy implementation processes, especially those involving a monetary component, where the emergence of coping mechanisms and other CAS phenomena inevitably lead to modifications of policies and their interpretation by those who implement them. These include the difficulty of implementing strategies that aim to pool funds through solidarity among beneficiaries where the rich support the poor when there are no incentives for the rich to do so. Also, how resistance to change and history dependence can pose significant challenges to implementing changes, where the local actors use their significant power

  17. Policy Guidelines for Effective Inclusion and Reintegration of People with Chronic Diseases in the Workplace: National and European Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Roka, Olga; Vasilou, Evdokia; Papadimitriou, Dimitra; Scaratti, Chiara; Kadyrbaeva, Asel; Fheodoroff, Klemens; Brecelj, Valentina; Svestkova, Olga; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Finnvold, Jon Erik; Gruber, Sonja; Leonardi, Matilde

    2018-03-11

    The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among the European working age population, as well as the implications for the individual and societal level, underline the need for policy guidelines targeting the effective inclusion of persons with chronic diseases in the workplace. The aim of the present paper was to explore the perspectives of European and National-level stakeholders on existing strategies for work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases, and to provide policy guidelines. A highly-structured interview protocol was distributed to 58 National level stakeholders (policy makers, professionals and employers) from seven European countries. Additionally, 20 European organizations concerned with health-related issues and employment completed an online survey. The findings reveal that employment-related challenges remain largely unaddressed. Both national and European stakeholders considered the existing legislative frameworks inadequate and appraised the co-ordination for the implementation of employment re-integration policies as ineffective. Policies targeting at work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases at European and national level should focus on consistent cooperation among all key stakeholders, awareness raising to staff and management, dissemination of effective strategies, developing research and evaluation standards and establishing monitoring systems on inclusive labour markets.

  18. Policy Guidelines for Effective Inclusion and Reintegration of People with Chronic Diseases in the Workplace: National and European Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Vlachou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of chronic diseases among the European working age population, as well as the implications for the individual and societal level, underline the need for policy guidelines targeting the effective inclusion of persons with chronic diseases in the workplace. The aim of the present paper was to explore the perspectives of European and National-level stakeholders on existing strategies for work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases, and to provide policy guidelines. A highly-structured interview protocol was distributed to 58 National level stakeholders (policy makers, professionals and employers from seven European countries. Additionally, 20 European organizations concerned with health-related issues and employment completed an online survey. The findings reveal that employment-related challenges remain largely unaddressed. Both national and European stakeholders considered the existing legislative frameworks inadequate and appraised the co-ordination for the implementation of employment re-integration policies as ineffective. Policies targeting at work re-integration of persons with chronic diseases at European and national level should focus on consistent cooperation among all key stakeholders, awareness raising to staff and management, dissemination of effective strategies, developing research and evaluation standards and establishing monitoring systems on inclusive labour markets.

  19. A microeconomic perspective on the role of efficiency and equity criteria in designing natural resource policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kaine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberating on policy design to manage natural resources with clarity and precision is a difficult task, even for professional and highly experienced policy practitioners. These difficulties are exacerbated by confounding the crafting of policy instruments to change resource use (a behavioral matter related to resource management with the consequential issue of who bears the cost of changing resource use (an equity matter. The confounding of behavioral and equity issues is not surprising because equity is commonly suggested as a criterion in the literature on policy instrument choice, and inequity in access to resources may also be one of the initial drivers of policy intervention. Here, we restate the microeconomic analysis of "open access" resources and highlight the fundamental difference between efficiency (including allocative inefficiency and equity that emerges from that analysis. We then discuss the implications of this difference for the choice of policy instruments to resolve problems in natural resource management, at least for instruments that entail changing the behavior of primary producers. This discussion is centered on three key decisions for formulating policy: (1 choosing the preferred portfolio of uses for a natural resource, (2 choosing a policy instrument to change that portfolio, and (3 choosing a mechanism to distribute the costs of change fairly. To illustrate how these decisions may play out in a real-world example, we apply the decisions to a freshwater policy process in New Zealand. By articulating the distinction, microeconomics draws distinctions between efficiency and equity as policy objectives. Linking that distinction with the Tinbergen's principle regarding the matching of instruments to objectives, we aim to reduce the conflation of the decision-making criteria employed in policy formulation decisions. In doing so, we hope to assist policy makers to avoid policy failure by reducing the potential for the

  20. [The General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy from the perspective of clinical psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoshinori; Inagaki, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    In view of the fact that the suicide rate in Japan has remained high since 1998, the Basic Act on Suicide Prevention was implemented in 2006 with the objective of comprehensively promoting suicide prevention measures on a national scale. Based on this Basic Act, in 2007, the Japanese government formulated the General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy as a guideline for recommended suicide prevention measures. These General Principles were revised in 2012 in accordance with the initial plan of holding a review after five years. The Basic Act places an emphasis on the various social factors that underlie suicides and takes the perspective that suicide prevention measures are also social measures. The slogan of the revised General Principles is "Toward Realization of a Society in which Nobody is Driven to Commit Suicide". The General Principles list various measures that are able to be used universally. These contents would be sufficient if the objective of the General Principles were "realization of a society that is easy to live in"; however, the absence of information on the effectiveness and order of priority for each measure may limit the specific effectiveness of the measures in relation to the actual prevention of suicide. In addition, considering that nearly 90% of suicide victims are in a state at the time of committing suicide in which a psychiatric disorder would be diagnosed, it would appear from a psychiatric standpoint that measures related to mental health, including expansion of psychiatric services, should be the top priority in suicide prevention measures. However, this is not the case in the General Principles, in either its original or revised form. Revisions to the General Principles related to clinical psychiatry provide more detailed descriptions of measures for individuals who unsuccessfully attempt suicide and identify newly targeted mental disorders other than depression; however, the overall proportion of contents relating to

  1. A Simple Object-Oriented and Open Source Model for Scientific and Policy Analyses of the Global Carbon Cycle-Hector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, C.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Patel, P.; Link, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Simple climate models play an integral role in policy and scientific communities. They are used in climate mitigation scenarios within integrated assessment models, complex climate model emulation, and uncertainty analyses. Here we describe, Hector an open source, object-oriented, simple global climate carbon-cycle model. This model runs essentially instantaneously while still representing the most critical global scale earth system processes, e.g., carbon fluxes between the ocean and atmosphere, and respiration and primary production on land. Hector has three main carbon pools: an atmosphere, land, and ocean. The terrestrial carbon cycle is represented by a simple design with respiration and primary production, accommodating arbitrary geographic divisions into, e.g., ecological biomes or political units. The ocean carbon cycle actively solves the inorganic carbon system in the surface ocean, directly calculating air-sea fluxes of carbon and ocean pH. Hector reproduces the large-scale global trends found in historical data of atmospheric [CO2] and surface temperature and simulates all four Representative Concentration Pathways. Hector's results compare well with current observations of critical climate variables, MAGICC (a well-known simple climate model), as well as, model output from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5. Hector has the ability to be a key analytical tool used across many scientific and policy communities due to its modern software architecture, open source, and object-oriented structure. In particular, Hector can be used to emulate larger complex models to help fill gaps in scenario coverage for future scenario processes.

  2. The Evolution of the Romanian Agriculture during the post accession Period, from the perspective of the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Florin Cilan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition from a planned economy to a market economy involved a series of changes in all branches of economic system, the agriculture also supporting this process. The starting point of the transition has placed our country in one of the most difficult situations due to excessive centralization of the before 1989 period, to a significant gap with developed countries, to an energetic intensive structure of the hole economy etc. Accession to the European Union in 2007 and the rallying to the Common Agricultural Policy are very important elements that can lead to a new perspective on the Romanian agriculture.

  3. A regional perspective on the environment-climate change-migration nexus: Governance and policy responses to environmental refugees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conference 9 – 11 October 2017 A regional perspective on the environment-climate change-migration nexus Governance and policy responses to environmental refugees Dr Inga Jacobs-Mata 2Key human mobility terms 4Background – 1 billion by 2050: fact... or fiction? • Worldwide, between 2008 - 2015, an average of 26.4 million people were displaced by disasters each year - equivalent to one person every second. Africa particularly vulnerable in this regard. • The migration - environmental degradation...

  4. Alcoholic liver disease patients' perspective of a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention after hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Rudkjær; Hendriksen, Carsten; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2016-01-01

    Aim and objective: To identify and describe the impact of a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention on alcoholic liver disease patients after hepatic encephalopathy in terms of their interaction with professionals and relatives. Background: Patients who have experienced...... were conducted with 10 alcoholic liver disease patients who were diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy and participated in a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention. Richard S. Lazarus's theory of stress and coping inspired the interview guide. Results: The significance...... of a coping and physical activity-oriented rehabilitation intervention on alcoholic liver disease patients’ ability to cope with problems after surviving alcohol-induced hepatic encephalopathy in terms of their interaction with professionals and relatives was characterised by the core category ‘regain control...

  5. Child mental-health policy development in sub-Saharan Africa: broadening the perspectives using Bronfenbrenner's ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka

    2017-04-01

    Despite socio-economic, demographic and epidemiological facts and realities that point to a potential risk for explosion in the prevalence of childhood mental health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, there is still a severe dearth of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) policy or strategy to respond to the situation in the region. Unfortunately, current attempts at suggesting courses of action in this regard appear to be focused on narrow reactionary approaches. There is a need for theoretical frameworks to capture the full ramification of childhood in sub-Saharan Africa, from which multi-level, context-appropriate and holistic CAMH policy directions can be understood. In this commentary, we propose an amended version of the Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of childhood as such framework that captures proximal, intermediate and distal factors that influence the care environment of children. We then used the insights provided by the model to identify and prioritize intervention points and appropriate intervention strategies in charting a tentative course for CAMH policy development in the region. Though the ecological model provides a distinct perspective to the structure and dynamics of the care environment of children, the proposed framework using the model is still largely theoretical and need to be further integrated into future studies on CAMH policy development in the region. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. An International Orientation on Institutional Strategies and Governmental Policies for the Use of ICT in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wende, Marijk; Beerkens, Eric

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an international comparative overview of institutional strategies, collaboration patterns and governmental policies related to the use of ICT in higher education. It has been produced as part of an international comparative study on the use of ICT in higher education. A study

  7. Reculturing Schools in England: How "Cult" Values in Education Policy Discourse Influence the Construction of Practitioner Identities and Work Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The imperative of continuous improvement has now become normative in education policy discourse, typically framed as setting "aspirational" targets for pupil performance as a prerequisite for gaining competitive advantage in the global economy. In this context, teachers, leaders, teacher assistants and other practitioners working in…

  8. Comparing the OECD's and Norway's Orientation to Equity in Their Teacher Education Policies--Teacher Autonomy under Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Cecilie Ronning

    2013-01-01

    More and more nations are losing the ability to control their education systems. OECD is an important premise provider for educational policymaking championing a neoliberal agenda. With the aim to investigate the impact the OECD may have on national policymaking, this paper compares their recent teacher education policies with those of Norway. The…

  9. Perspectives of Teachers on the Implementation of Life Orientation in Grades R-11 from Selected Western Cape Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deventer, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Educational transformation in South Africa not only brought about Outcomes-based Education and Curriculum 2005 but also a new Learning Area/Subject, called Life Orientation (LO). A major challenge for LO as a new Learning Area/Subject is the preconceptions that exist about it, and the fact that the attitude of school principals is not conducive to…

  10. Socio-Demographic and Practice-Oriented Factors Related to Proficiency in Problem Solving: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…

  11. "Are You Really Ready to Change?" An Actor-Oriented Perspective on a Farmers Training Setting in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller Mirza, Nathalie; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2016-01-01

    Far from following a linear process from its conception to its implementation, an educational design often involves discrepancies between what its promoters intended and what the participants actually do. In this paper, drawing from a sociocultural perspective to learning, we focus our attention precisely on some of the discrepancies observed…

  12. Perceptions and Implications of No-Fee School Policy: School-Based Management Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naong, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    The inception of no-fee schools and a school-fee exemption policy has become a contentious issue but also an exciting one for school managers in South Africa. Managers opposed to the policy have cited amongst others things, academic standards dropping, as well as parents who can afford to pay jumping on the bandwagon and refusing to pay. While the…

  13. Dialogic Spaces: A Critical Policy Development Perspective of Educational Leadership Qualifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Déirdre; Kelly, Darron; Allard, Carson

    2017-01-01

    The critical exploration of policy development processes employed to construct leadership qualifications is the focus of this inquiry. This exploration is made through specific application of the necessary conditions of Habermasian "practical discourse" to current dialogic procedures used to develop policies for principal, supervisory…

  14. Pharmaceutical policy analysis – A European perspective on pricing and reimbursement in challenging times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, C.

    2014-01-01

    The pharmaceutical policy environment is dynamic as new medicines are being developed and different medical needs arise, while diverse interests by stakeholders influence policy making. Tensions are especially noticeable with respect to pricing and reimbursement of medicines; what health care plans

  15. Introduction: Family migration as an integration issue? Policy perspectives and academic insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Kraler, A.

    2015-01-01

    "Family migration" and "integration" are intimately related concepts in policy discourses in Europe today. Assumptions about the relation between "family migration" and "integration" play a crucial role in shaping policies. This special issue aims to examine the axis between "family migration,"

  16. Participation in sport from a European policy perspective: A flash back and a look forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerder, J.; Breedveld, K.

    2016-01-01

    The heart of any sport policy ought to be raising levels of sport participation and preventing any social group being excluded from sport. Despite serious efforts in raising the levels of sport participation, countries differ on sport participation rates. In order to develop a public policy to

  17. How to Analyse Local Transport Policy and Planning from an Environmental Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    The research paper discuss and analyse the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The research paper discuss and analyse the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  18. "Who Cares for the Children?" Lessons from a Global Perspective of Child Care Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokteff, Maegan; Piercy, Kathleen W.

    2012-01-01

    We present the argument that the meaning of child care and the policies that address it are explicitly linked with national ideologies, work force participation, economic success, and child outcomes. The relationship between family and child care policies is cyclical in nature, with a nation's ideology and vision of family often driving child care…

  19. Military Line Leadership and Tobacco Control: Perspectives of Military Policy Leaders and Tobacco Control Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S. C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Hoffman, Kevin M.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Hughey, Joseph; Lando, Harry A.; Winsby, Amelia; Haddock, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Despite progress in policy changes, tobacco use rates are still high in the military. Little is known about the views of those who create and implement tobacco control policies within the Department of Defense. These individuals determine what policy initiatives will be developed, prioritized, and implemented. We conducted key informant interviews with 16 service-level policy leaders (PLs) and 36 installation-level tobacco control managers (TCMs). PLs and TCMs believed that line leadership view tobacco control as a low priority that has minimal impact on successful mission completion. They also identified cultural factors that perpetuate tobacco use, such as low cost and easy accessibility to tobacco, smoke breaks, and uneven or unknown enforcement of current tobacco policies. PMID:20968274

  20. Tobacco-Free Policy Compliance Behaviors among College Students: A Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework for understanding tobacco-free policy compliance behaviors. Undergraduate student smokers (n = 479) on a college campus with a tobacco-free policy were randomly selected to report their tobacco-free compliance behaviors and respond to TPB items. A path analysis found all constructs of the TPB model to be significantly related to tobacco-free policy compliance behaviors. The results obtained from this study fill gaps in the mostly atheoretical literature regarding our understanding of tobacco-free policy compliance behaviors as well as extend our knowledge of the TPB. Implications for this study provide recommendations for universities, health organizations, and government agencies currently attempting to enforce compliance with a tobacco-free policy.

  1. Pathways of undue influence in health policy-making: a main actor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    It is crucial to know the extent to which influences lead to policy capture-by which the policy-making process is shifted away from the public interest towards narrow private interests. Using the case study of Spain, our aim was to identify interactions between public administration, civil society and private companies that could influence health policies. 54 semistructured interviews with key actors related to health policy. The interviews were used to gather information on main policy actors as well as on direct and subtle influences that could modify health policies. The analysis identified and described, from the interviewed persons' experiences, both the inappropriate influences exerted on the actors and those that they exerted. Inappropriate influences were identified at all levels of administration and policy. They included actions for personal benefits, pressure for blocking health policies and pressure from high levels of government in favour of private corporations. The private sector played a significant role in these strategies through bribery, personal gifts, revolving doors, negative campaigns and by blocking unfavourable political positions or determining the knowledge agenda. The interviewees reported subtle forms of influence (social events, offers of technical support, invitations, etc) that contributed to the intellectual and cultural capture of health officials. The health policy decision-making processes in Spain are subject to influences by stakeholders that determine a degree of policy capture, which is avoidable. The private sector uses different strategies, from subtle influences to outright corruption, taking advantage in many cases of flexible legislation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle-income countries: policy makers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinyk, Shannon; Gibbs, Andrew; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate the impact and transform gender relations. However, the effects of these policies have been less than successful. In March 2010 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) launched the Agenda for accelerated country level action on women, girls, gender equality and HIV (the Agenda), an operational plan on how to integrate women, girls and gender equality into the HIV response. This paper explores the perspectives of those involved in developing and implementing the Agenda to understand its strengths and limitations. In-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with 16 individuals involved in the development and implementation of the Agenda. The data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Facilitators of the Agenda centred on the Agenda's ability to create political space for women and girls within the global HIV/AIDS response and the collaborative process of developing the Agenda. Barriers to the implementation and development of the Agenda include the limited financial and non-financial resources, the top-down nature of the Agenda's development and implementation and a lack of political will from within UNAIDS to implement it. We suggest that the Agenda achieved many goals, but its effect was constrained by a wide range of factors.

  3. Law project on the energy policy direction; Projet de loi d'orientation sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffarin, J.P.; Sarkozy, N

    2004-05-01

    The law of the energy direction aims to define, in the first article, the objectives and the directions of the french energy policy and to complete the today dispositions in matter of energy. The first part is devoted to the energy demand control and presents a system of energy saving certificates, the thermal regulation increasing of buildings and a better information of the consumers. The second part promotes the renewable energies development. (A.L.B.)

  4. Re-Orienting Ethiopia's Educational Policy in the Classical Humanist Perspectives of Renaissance Utopias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debele, Meskerem L.

    2018-01-01

    Ethiopia has launched a grand scheme of renaissance to realise fast-paced economic growth. The two Growth and Transformation Plans spanning five years each (2010/11-2015/16 and 2016/17- 2020/21) outlined major targets towards which the country intends to mobilise all its resources. In the education sector, this vision is understood as producing a…

  5. Global perspectives on nursing and its contribution to healthcare and health policy: thoughts on an emerging policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamian, Judith

    2014-12-01

    We know from rigorous evidence that nurses can exert an incredible impact on the everyday lives of people and their health. Nurses can also contribute in much wider spheres of influence by applying their knowledge and skills to address broader issues affecting population health across communities, nations and globally. Despite the prevalence of so many vexing health and social issues, nurses often fail to think globally, or even regionally, when they are lobbying for change. And while much political influence is local, some issues are simply too complex to rely on local influence alone. Importantly in all this, we must acknowledge the ways these complex health issues are shaped by economic and political agendas and not necessarily by healthcare agendas. As such, the nursing community has to act globally and locally, both within and outside of the nursing arena. This paper explores early thinking about an evolving model of spheres--or "bubbles"--of policy influence in which nurses can and must operate to more effectively impact key global health and healthcare challenges.

  6. Towards international consensus on patient harm: perspectives on pressure injury policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Debra; Hutchinson, Marie; Barnason, Susan; Li, William; Mannix, Judy; Neville, Stephen; Piper, Donella; Power, Tamara; Smith, Graeme D; Usher, Kim

    2016-10-01

    To analyse influential policies that inform practice related to pressure injury management in Australia, England, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Scotland and the United States of America. Pressure injuries are associated with significant harm to patients, and carry economic consequences for the health sector. Internationally, preventing and managing pressure injuries is a key nursing activity and quality indicator. Comparative review and synthesis of pressure injury policies that inform practice. The predominant focus of policy is on patient risk assessment, compliance with documentation and pressure relief. Financial penalty for institutions is emerging as a strategy where pressure injuries occur. Comparisons of prevalence rates are hampered by the lack of consensus on data collection and reporting. To date there has been little evaluation of policy implementation and implemented policy strategies, associated guidelines remain founded upon expert opinion and low-level evidence. The pressure injury policy agenda has fostered a discourse of attention to incidents, compliance and penalty (sanctions). Prevention and intervention strategies are informed by technical and biomedical interpretations of patient risk and harm, with little attention given to the nature or design of nursing work. Considerable challenges remain if this policy agenda is successfully to eliminate pressure injury as a source of patient harm. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Research translation to inform national health policies: learning from multiple perspectives in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research and evidence can have an impact on policy and practice, resulting in positive outcomes. However, research translation is a complex, dynamic and non-linear process. Although universities in Africa play a major role in generating research evidence, their strategic approaches to influence health policies and decision making are weak. This study was conducted with the aim of understanding the process of translating research into policy in order to guide the strategic direction of Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS and similar institutions in their quest to influence health outcomes nationally and globally. Methods A case study approach using 30 in-depth interviews with stakeholders involved in two HIV prevention research project was purposively selected. The study sought to analyze the research-to-policy discourses for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT and safe male circumcision (SMC. The analysis sought to identify entry points, strengths and challenges for research-to-policy processes by interviewing three major groups of stakeholders in Uganda – researchers (8, policy makers (12 and media practitioners (12. Results Among the factors that facilitated PMTCT policy uptake and continued implementation were: shared platforms for learning and decision making among stakeholders, implementation pilots to assess feasibility of intervention, the emerging of agencies to undertake operations research and the high visibility of policy benefits to child survival. In contrast, SMC policy processes were stalled for over two years after the findings of the Uganda study was made public. Among other factors, policy makers demanded additional research to assess implementation feasibility of SMC within ordinary health system context. High level leaders also publicly contested the SMC evidence and the underlying values and messages – a situation that reduced the coalition of policy champions

  8. The influence of korean nurses' immigration into Germany on the nursing culture and policy of the countries: a transnational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Na Hye

    2013-04-01

    While many studies have addressed the Korean nurse immigration to Germany in 1960s-70s in terms of the nurses' personal histories from a national perspective, few studies have pointed to its transnational impact on the medical field. Given this gap, the paper discusses its significance in the medical history through examining the nursing culture and policy changes made in both countries initiated by the immigration of the qualified Korean nurses. For this end, the paper first discusses differences between Korea and Germany in the nursing culture and professional standards at the time of the nurse immigration. The study then examines the transnational changes in the two nations in the nursing professional culture and related policies including nurse education and qualification process. More specifically, the paper argues that the Korean female nurses not only supplied labor in need but also contributed to the medical policy changes in Germany. The prevalent stereotype of nursing as a non-professional field in the German society begin to change while experiencing professionally qualified Asian immigrant nurses and practiced treatments that had been conduced by German doctors by then. This observation actually leads to the policy level reforms in nursing education and qualification process to meet the need of high-quality nurses when the labor immigration was stopped in mid-1970s. The paper also points out that the influence of the nurse immigration on the Korean society is not merely economic; it brought the policy level reforms in nurse education and qualification as well. The immigration, resulting in a lack of nurses in the Korean society, triggered two main responses: the expansion of the existing nurse education system and the establishment of a new system called "nursing assistant."

  9. Green industrial policy. Perspectives of economic and political scienc; Oekologische Industriepolitik. Wirtschafts- und politikwissenschaftliche Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Klaus [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The necessity and possibilities of, limits to and the specific instruments employed for green industrial policy are a topic of both scientific and political debate. Economists and politicians can draw on rich resources in dealing with these issues. The contributions contained in this volume are the outcome of a workshop held by the German Federal Environment Agency and the Federal Environment Ministry on the topic of ''Green industrial policy'' on 18 April 2008 in Berlin. Economists and politicians were invited to participate in an expert dialog to locate the topic of green industrial policy within the larger discourses of political economics, deliberate on theoretical motives and practical limits to the concept from an economic viewpoint and discuss possible instruments and fields of action. The workshop focussed on questions relating to the necessity of green industrial policy, the framing of political programmes and the implementation of adopted goals into specific measures.

  10. Can sense-making tools inform adaptation policy? A practitioner's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla M. G. Milne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As governments struggle to find solutions to complex problems like climate change, policy makers look for tools that can capture complexity and elicit insight. I explored the application of one such tool, known as "SenseMaker," in helping Canadian policy makers understand the factors that enable or hinder climate change adaptation in Canada. I have reflected on the usefulness of SenseMaker and of a multiperspective, multimethod approach to investigating perceptions and experiences of adaptation. The challenges and advantages of applying this analysis in government were explored, and data findings assessed for their impact on policy. Findings showed that although the approach has promise, further work and testing are needed before sense-making approaches support adaptation policy.

  11. Regulatory policy and structural change in the natural gas industry: A transaction cost perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has recently promoted policy initiatives designed to substitute market responsive industry practices for the micro-management regulatory practices previously employed. These new policies are expected to generate a flexible gas pricing policy that more accurately reflects market supply and demand conditions. Historically, much of the regulation of this industry was enacted to ensure that pipeline companies would be able to recover the very large up-front investments in immobile equipment that characterize the production, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas. The institutional detail available from historical accounts of the development of the industry are used to describe structural change over time. Regulatory policy, the level of asset specificity, and the extent of secondary environmental uncertainty are all shown to exert significant effects on the level of integration into production, storage and marketing.

  12. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  13. Community perspectives on the impact of policy change on linking social capital in a rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lyn; Walker, Rae

    2007-06-01

    Understanding what undermines or builds social capital is important when estimating the impact that changes in social capital have on people's lives. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how the consequences of neo-liberal policy initiatives have impacted on linking social capital in one small and vibrant rural community in Australia. Policy changes affecting all levels of government and various commercial agencies have undermined people's capability for a range of actions which bring personal and community-wide social and economic returns. Rationalisation and regionalisation of services and commercial agencies, including local government amalgamation, and increased workloads have undermined people's capabilities for community engagement. Policy outcomes are at odds with the stated policy agenda of building community capacity.

  14. The growth of public debt in Italy: past experience, perspectives and policy problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugi Spaventa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The work surveys the Italian experience with reference to growth and public debt. It does not seek to test conflicting views, as the effects of some financial and policy innovations are too recent and some data is of poor quality. Rather, its more limited scope is to draw on past experience and, more importantly, assess future prospects in order to discuss some problems regarding both fiscal and monetary policy. The author examines debt formation with reference to borrowing requirements, their composition and their adjusted measure, before taking into consideration financing policies pursued by the authorities and the changes in the composition, ownership and cost of debt. Finally, possible future developments and some connected policy problems are examined.

  15. Searching for sustainability within public health policy: insights from an injury prevention perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errington, Gail; Evans, Catrin; Watson, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Sustaining public health programmes in the long-term is key to ensuring full manifestation of their intended benefits. Although an increasing interest in sustainability is apparent within the global literature, empirical studies from within the European setting are few. The factors that influence sustainability are generally conceptualized at three levels: programme level, the immediate context and the wider environment. To-date attention has focused primarily on the former two. Using a community-based child injury prevention programme in England as an exemplar, this paper explores the concept of sustainability within the wider policy environment, and considers the impact of this on local programmes. A content review of global and UK national public health policies (1981-2014) relevant to child safety was undertaken. Interviews were held with senior representatives of global and UK agencies involved in developing child safety policy. Forty-nine policies were reviewed. The term 'sustain', or its derivatives, featured in 36 (73%) of these. Its' use however, related primarily to conservation of resources rather than continued programme operation. Potential mechanisms for supporting programme sustainability featured within some documents; however, the approach to sustainability was inconsistent between policies and over time. Policy stakeholders identified programme sustainability as relevant to their core business, but its' conceptualization varied according to individual interpretation. Programme sustainability is poorly addressed within global and UK-based public health policy. Strengthening a national and international policy focus on sustainability and incorporating sustainability into public health planning frameworks may create a more supportive environment for local programmes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Using of Protectionism Policy Tools in the context of WTO from the Perspective of Dependency Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel KARAŞ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, when neoliberal policies have been intensively implemented, the distribution of income between developed and less developed countries in the world has begun to increase inequality. There are discourses that the neoliberal view suggests that today's wealthy countries are successful with free market economics, so that all countries in the world must move to a free market economy system and that neoliberal policies are the only way for development. According to the neoliberal policy which advocates the state neutrality in the economy, the role of the state in the economy should be reduced. As a result, weakening the effectiveness of government policy-setting and implementation in the economy is intended. Thus, developed countries direct the underdeveloped or developing countries in the direction of their own interests. The result of these discourses, the theory of dependence which states that there is a relationship between developed and underdeveloped countries based on power and control, that underdevelopment of underdeveloped countries should be sought in the development process of developed countries has come out. The aim of the study is to assess the results of the use of defense measures in the trade policy implemented under the World Trade Organization (WTO, based on the assumptions of the dependency theory. When the use of defense instruments in trade policy is examined, it appears that these instruments have been effectively used by developed countries that advocate and enforce the free market economy in the world.

  17. Can all cause readmission policy improve quality or lower expenditures? A historical perspective on current initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, James F; Hockenberry, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    All-cause readmission to inpatient care is of wide policy interest in the United States and a number of other countries (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, in the United Kingdom by the National Centre for Health Outcomes Development, and in Australia by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare). Contemporary policy efforts, including high powered incentives embedded in the current US Hospital Readmission Reduction Program, and the organizationally complex interventions derived in anticipation of this policy, have been touted based on potential cost savings. Strong incentives and resulting interventions may not enjoy the support of a strong theoretical model or the empirical research base that are typical of strong incentive schemes. We examine the historical broad literature on the issue, lay out a 'full' conceptual organizational model of patient transitions as they relate to the hospital, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of previous and proposed policies. We use this to set out a research and policy agenda on this critical issue rather than attempt to conduct a comprehensive structured literature review. We assert that researchers and policy makers should consider more fundamental societal issues related to health, social support and health literacy if progress is going to be made in reducing readmissions.

  18. A Policy-Based Framework for Preserving Confidentiality in BYOD Environments: A Review of Information Security Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalee Vorakulpipat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many organizations allow their employees to bring their own smartphones or tablets to work and to access the corporate network, which is known as a bring your own device (BYOD. However, many such companies overlook potential security risks concerning privacy and confidentiality. This paper provides a review of existing literature concerning the preservation of privacy and confidentiality, with a focus on recent trends in the use of BYOD. This review spans a large spectrum of information security research, ranging from management (risk and policy to technical aspects of privacy and confidentiality in BYOD. Furthermore, this study proposes a policy-based framework for preserving data confidentiality in BYOD. This framework considers a number of aspects of information security and corresponding techniques, such as policy, location privacy, centralized control, cryptography, and operating system level security, which have been omitted in previous studies. The main contribution is to investigate recent trends concerning the preservation of confidentiality in BYOD from the perspective of information security and to analyze the critical and comprehensive factors needed to strengthen data privacy in BYOD. Finally, this paper provides a foundation for developing the concept of preserving confidentiality in BYOD and describes the key technical and organizational challenges faced by BYOD-friendly organizations.

  19. World Gas Prospects: Which Role for the Middle East? Perspectives mondiales du gaz naturel : quel rôle pourrait jouer le Moyen-Orient ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabrelie M. F.

    2006-12-01

    vingt dernières années, le gaz naturel a enregistré le taux de croissance le plus élevé parmi les énergies fossiles, et sa part de marché est progressivement passée de 18,9 % en 1975 à 23 % en 1997. Aujourd'hui, des facteurs d'ordres économiques et environnementaux font du gaz naturel l'énergie de choix sur de nombreux marchés. Le gaz jouit en effet d'un certain nombre d'atouts (réserves importantes, flexibilité, utilisations performantes qui lui confèrent une place majeure dans tous les scénarios de prévision de demande énergétique. Le développement le plus spectaculaire se fera sans conteste dans le secteur électrique. Doté de réserves gazières considérables, le Moyen-Orient représentera une source d'approvisionnement essentielle pour bon nombre de pays industrialisés et plusieurs projets d'exportation de gaz par méthaniers ou par gazoducs sont déjà à l'étude. Par ailleurs, au cours des dix dernières années, la contribution du gaz naturel dans le bilan énergétique a augmenté de façon significative dans la plupart des pays du Moyen-Orient. La croissance de l'utilisation du gaz devrait se poursuivre à un rythme soutenu, en particulier sous l'influence du secteur électrique, de la pétrochimie et de l'autoconsommation de l'industrie pétrolière. Ces perspectives prometteuses de demande de gaz sur la plupart des marchés de la région pourraient conduire au développement d'un réseau de transport intrarégional. Toutefois, bien que des opportunités existent, elles ne doivent pas masquer les nombreux défis que cette région devra relever pour contribuer plus largement au bilan gazier mondial dans les années à venir.

  20. Drinking and its burden in a global perspective: policy considerations and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin; Graham, Kathryn; Rehm, Jürgen; Jernigan, David; Monteiro, Maristela

    2003-10-01

    To identify the policy implications of the magnitude and characteristics of alcohol consumption and problems, viewed globally, and to summarize conclusions on the effectiveness of the strategies available to policymakers concerned with reducing rates of alcohol problems. This summative article draws on the findings of the articles preceding it and of reviews of the literature. Overall volume of consumption is the major factor in the prevalence of harms from drinking. Since consumption and associated problems tend to increase with economic development, policymakers in developing economies should be especially aware of the need to develop policies to minimize overall increases in alcohol consumption. Unrecorded consumption is also an important consideration for policy in many parts of the world, and poses difficulties for alcohol control policies. Drinking pattern is also an important contributing factor toward alcohol-related harm. Although some drinking patterns have been shown to produce beneficial health effects, because the net effect of alcohol on coronary disease is negative in most parts of the world, policies that promote abstinence or lower drinking overall may be the safest options. Moreover, sporadic intoxication is common in many parts of the world, and policies are unlikely to change this drinking pattern at least in the short to medium term. At the same time, because injuries comprise a large proportion of the burden of alcohol, it is appropriate to enhance these policies with targeted harm reduction strategies such as drinking and driving countermeasures and interventions focused on reducing alcohol-related violence in specific high-risk settings. Alcohol consumption is a major factor for the global burden of disease and should be considered a public health priority globally, regionally, and nationally for the vast majority of countries in the world. The need for alcohol policy is even stronger when it is taken into consideration that the burden of

  1. Empowerment model for nurse leaders' participation in health policy development: an east African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Nilufa Jivraj

    2015-01-01

    Nurses comprise the largest portion of the health care workforce in most countries; they interact closely with patients and communities, they work throughout the day and within all sectors of health care. Their breath of practice gives them a broad understanding of requirements of the health care system, of how factors in the environment affect the health outcomes of clients and communities. Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health services are: safe, effective, available and inexpensive. A Delphi survey was utilized and included the following criteria: expert panelists, three iterative rounds, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and building consensus. The overall aim of the study was to develop "An Empowerment Model for Nurse Leaders' participation in Health Policy Development". The study included purposively selected sample of national nurse leaders from the three East African countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. Data collection tools were questionnaires. Data analysis was done by examining the data for the most commonly occurring concepts in the first round and descriptive statistics in the second and third rounds. The findings of the study support the development of the "Empowerment Model for Nurse Leaders' Participation in Health Policy Development". Further the study identified that there was a significant gap in and barriers to participation in health policy activity and that an opportunity seems to exist to enable and develop nurse leaders' role and involvement in this respect. There was consensus on factors considered to be facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' involvement in health policy development. Furthermore, consensus was achieved on essential leadership attributes that enhance nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. The model was validated a small sample of the nurse leaders' who participated in the study. The model provides a framework

  2. Smallholder Forestry in the Western Amazon: Outcomes from Forest Reforms and Emerging Policy Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pacheco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The forest reforms unfolding during the last two decades in the western Amazon have embraced policy regimes founded on the principles of sustainable forest management. The policy frameworks adopted for smallholder forestry aimed to clarify forest rights including those of the indigenous people and smallholders, support the adoption of sustainable forest management and put a system in place to assure a legal timber supply. The emerging forest policy regimes have significantly shaped who has access to the forest, how the forest resources are used and the benefits that are utilized. We argue that forest reforms have not addressed some critical constraints facing smallholders in managing their forests either individually or collectively. Informal timber extraction persists with contradictory effects on smallholders and forests. Local participants continue to make a significant contribution in meeting a growing demand for timber through vigorous market networks that combine legal and illegal sources of timber supply. Some recent changes to forest policy frameworks emphasize approaches towards additional integrated forest management, simplification of regulations and incentives for improved forest management. We critically reflect on the scope, implementation and expected outcomes of these policy frameworks.

  3. INTERDEPENDENT ANALYSIS OF LEVERAGE, DIVIDEND, AND MANAGERIAL OWNERSHIP POLICIES: Agencies Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibisono Hardjopranoto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate interdependent mechanism among leverage, dividend, and managerial ownership policies. This paper considers firm size and economic conditions to control their effect on the relationship among the three policies. The interrelationship between leverage, dividend, and managerial ownership policies will be tested using two-stage least squares. Five exogenous variables are employed in simultaneous equation: current assets and structure of assets as leverage determinants, book to market and return on investment as dividend determinants, and relative return to risk as managerial ownership determinant. The research employs year 1994-2004 data, with 1717 firm years. The research findings can be summarised as follows. First, there is a negative relationship between managerial ownership and leverage policies as suggested by agency theory. Second, there is a relationship between managerial ownership and dividend policies, but the relationship between leverage and dividend is insignificant. Third, the relationship between leverage and dividend is insensitive to economic condition and firm size. Fourth, all exogenous variables have significant effect on endogenous variables, except relative return. Fifth, the effects of exogenous variables are not sensitive to control variables. Sixth, we find that managers show self-interest behaviours by reducing managerial ownership when the economic condition worsens.

  4. Implementation challenges of free maternity services policy in Kenya: the health workers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamalwa, Emmanuel Wekesa

    2015-01-01

    Kenya implemented the policy of free maternity services to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. For successful implementation of this policy, there is need to monitor the implementation progress, identify the challenges and mitigate them and determine better strategies for implementation based on emerging implementation issues. This study was carried out to determine the challenges facing policy implementation and strategies for better implementation. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried at the Rift Valley Provincial General Hospital (RVPGH) and Bondeni maternity. All the staff who work at Bondeni Maternity (including nursing officer in-charge) were included in the study. All the staff who work at the Maternity Unit of the RVPGH were included in the study, as well as the Medical Superintendent of the facility. A total of 110 respondents were sampled. A questionnaire and interview guide were used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. A response rate of 91% (n=100) was achieved. Major implementation challenges include inadequate supplies (86%), inadequate funding (38%), staff shortage (92%), lack of motivation among health workers (62%), overwhelming workload (89%) and abuse of services by clients (32%). Strategies for better implementation include employment of more staff, motivation of health workers, improvement in policy financing, training of health workers and provision of adequate supplies. Implementation of free maternity services policy in Kenya is facing challenges but there exists strategies, which, if implemented, will help address these challenges.

  5. Debates—Perspectives on socio-hydrology: Modeling flood risk as a public policy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gober, Patricia; Wheater, Howard S.

    2015-06-01

    Socio-hydrology views human activities as endogenous to water system dynamics; it is the interaction between human and biophysical processes that threatens the viability of current water systems through positive feedbacks and unintended consequences. Di Baldassarre et al. implement socio-hydrology as a flood risk problem using the concept of social memory as a vehicle to link human perceptions to flood damage. Their mathematical model has heuristic value in comparing potential flood damages in green versus technological societies. It can also support communities in exploring the potential consequences of policy decisions and evaluating critical policy tradeoffs, for example, between flood protection and economic development. The concept of social memory does not, however, adequately capture the social processes whereby public perceptions are translated into policy action, including the pivotal role played by the media in intensifying or attenuating perceived flood risk, the success of policy entrepreneurs in keeping flood hazard on the public agenda during short windows of opportunity for policy action, and different societal approaches to managing flood risk that derive from cultural values and economic interests. We endorse the value of seeking to capture these dynamics in a simplified conceptual framework, but favor a broader conceptualization of socio-hydrology that includes a knowledge exchange component, including the way modeling insights and scientific results are communicated to floodplain managers. The social processes used to disseminate the products of socio-hydrological research are as important as the research results themselves in determining whether modeling is used for real-world decision making.

  6. Financial statements – basis for assessing the financial performance from the investors’ perspective, by means of prospectively oriented indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristita Rotila

    2009-12-01

    starting from the financial statements, we could approach the issue of assessing the financial performance only from the single perspective of the investors, also taking into account the market value of the company. The market value of a company represents the sum of the market values of the two components in the capital’s structure: shareholders’ equity and liabilities. It is considered that it is only in the case of shareholders’ equity that the market value differs from the accounting value, but this is not the case with liabilities, so the “market value added” will be researched only by taking account of shareholders’ equity.

  7. Interest mediation and policy formulation in the European Union. Influence of transnational technology-oriented agreements on European policy in the field of carbon capture and storage. Advances in systems analysis 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Olga

    2013-10-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) laid down the cornerstone in the international cooperation to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuels combustion. The UNFCCC provided a general framework for global cooperation to mitigate climate change. The Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC which formulated binding GHG emissions reduction targets did not result in universal participation. The United States- the major CO{sub 2} emitting country at the time of the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 - signed but did not ratify the Protocol. China - the current top CO{sub 2} emitter - does not belong to the list of countries which are committed to the CO{sub 2} reductions in the framework of the Protocol. Whereas the approach pursued within the UNFCCC is based on a goal-setting in the framework of the legally binding international treaties, an alternative approach to GHG mitigation presents a voluntary international cooperation in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies. The technology-oriented approach to climate change mitigation led to the development of the specific forms of cooperation between the public authorities and the stakeholders. Previous research referred to the organizations aimed at the transnational cooperation in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies to mitigate GHG emissions as the technology-oriented agreements (TOA). The literature on TOA focused on the scope of the contribution of the technology-oriented approach to the climate change mitigation targets. This PhD research project analyzes the influence of those specific forms of cooperation on policies in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies. The principal research question of the research project is formulated as follows - What is the influence of the technology-oriented agreements on policies aimed at supporting innovative technologies for mitigation of GHG emissions? The

  8. Interest mediation and policy formulation in the European Union. Influence of transnational technology-oriented agreements on European policy in the field of carbon capture and storage. Advances in systems analysis 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) laid down the cornerstone in the international cooperation to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuels combustion. The UNFCCC provided a general framework for global cooperation to mitigate climate change. The Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC which formulated binding GHG emissions reduction targets did not result in universal participation. The United States- the major CO 2 emitting country at the time of the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 - signed but did not ratify the Protocol. China - the current top CO 2 emitter - does not belong to the list of countries which are committed to the CO 2 reductions in the framework of the Protocol. Whereas the approach pursued within the UNFCCC is based on a goal-setting in the framework of the legally binding international treaties, an alternative approach to GHG mitigation presents a voluntary international cooperation in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies. The technology-oriented approach to climate change mitigation led to the development of the specific forms of cooperation between the public authorities and the stakeholders. Previous research referred to the organizations aimed at the transnational cooperation in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies to mitigate GHG emissions as the technology-oriented agreements (TOA). The literature on TOA focused on the scope of the contribution of the technology-oriented approach to the climate change mitigation targets. This PhD research project analyzes the influence of those specific forms of cooperation on policies in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies. The principal research question of the research project is formulated as follows - What is the influence of the technology-oriented agreements on policies aimed at supporting innovative technologies for mitigation of GHG emissions? The research project

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Renewable Energy Use and Policies: Global and Turkish Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmure Övül Arıoğlu Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of renewable energy sources (RES has become inevitable, not only due to the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels, but also to sustain life on Earth. Consequently, countries have started developing renewable energy policies individually and as part of global organizations and networks, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, the European Union (EU and the International Energy Agency (IEA. Turkey is a developing OECD member country and in the accession process to the EU. Thus, the renewable energy policies should be aligned with those of the EU. Moreover, despite the substantial amount and wide range of RES, it is still in a position to import more than half of its energy demand. In the light of these facts, this study aims to analyze and compare the renewable energy policies in Turkey with those adopted worldwide to lay out possible solutions regarding its energy problems.

  10. History, framework and perspectives of international policy for preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakainski, M.

    1985-12-01

    The study analyses the framework conditions, such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the international non-proliferation regime and their interlacement with international nuclear energy policies, and evaluates the results achieved so far on an international level by the efforts directed towards preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The conclusion to be drawn as stated by the author is that the classical tool of non-proliferation policy - denial of technology transfer - will lose in importance and give way to enhanced, controlled cooperation between countries of the Third World and the industrialised countries. Another instrument that will maintain its value for non-proliferation policy is cooperation for political stabilisation in those parts of the world where regional conflicts might aggravate. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...... institutions and relying heavily on civic society enterprise. After national independence in 1918 there are growing conflicts in the cultural field and during the Cold War such conflicts take the form of an alliance of nationlism and socialism against NATO-oriented anti-communism. However, there is consensus...... on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation....

  12. Analyzing policy support instruments and regulatory risk factors for wind energy deployment-A developers' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethi, Sonja; Praessler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A transition to a renewable energy system is high on the policy agenda in many countries. A promising energy source for a low-carbon energy future is wind. Policy-makers can attract wind energy development by providing attractive policy frameworks. This paper argues that apart from the level of financial support, both the risks stemming from the regulatory environment (legal security, administrative process and grid access) and the ability to finance projects play a critical role in determining the attractiveness of the development environment. It sheds light on how project developers trade off these different aspects and to what extent the attractiveness of a certain policy framework increases with the introduction of specific measures. Conjoint analysis is employed to provide empirical evidence on the preference of wind energy developers in the EU and the US. The analysis shows that developers' preferences are very similar across the studied regions and for different types of developers. Which policy measures could be most valuable depends on the specific existing environment. In some southeastern European countries, a reduction of administrative process duration may yield the highest utility gains, whereas, in the US, improvements in grid access regulation and an increase in remuneration levels may be more effective. - Highlights: → Paper suggests conjoint analysis as scenario tool for estimating potential effects of specific policy measures. → It provides a quantitative, empirical dataset of 119 onshore wind energy developers' preferences. → Results suggest that the aspects 'Legal security' and 'Remuneration' are important attributes. → Cluster analyses yields slightly different preferences for developers from EU and US.

  13. Policy and prevention approaches for disordered and hazardous gaming and internet use: an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    King, DL; Delfabbro, PH; Doh, YY; Wu, AMS; Kuss, DJ; Pallesen, S; Mentzoni, R; Carragher, N; Sakuma, H

    2017-01-01

    Problems related to high levels of gaming and Internet usage are increasingly recognized as a potential public health burden across the developed world. The aim of this review was to present an international perspective on prevention strategies for Internet gaming disorder and related health conditions (e.g., Internet addiction), as well as hazardous gaming and Internet use. A systematic review of quantitative research evidence was conducted, followed by a search of governmental reports, poli...

  14. Reaction of the residents to nuclear related policies: in a risk perception perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    In general, most of the nuclear related policies are discussed at governmental level. Siting nuclear related facilities policies is the state as this. The government, as the single decision-maker, tends to decide all procedures from policy drafting, decision making to implementation. That is to say, the government has been opting for DAD(Decide-Announce-Defend) measure. This resulted in many forms of discord because the government overlooked the importance of sufficient communication with resident or the public. However, the precondition for promoting nuclear related policies is public acceptance. Meanwhile, the public including resident fully understand the necessity of nuclear facilities but do not agree with the idea of having them in their residential area. Therefore, the research focuses on identifying the affecting factors toward reaction of the resident derived from previous studies. It also aims to lay the foundation for devising effective communication strategies between the government and the public. The result of case study, it was found that these factors-trust, participation and compensative-have interacted to affect resident's reaction. Ultimately, the government must recognize the residents as decision-maker so as to gain the PA(Public Acceptance). It also necessary to create better decision making processes by substantial participation, reasonable compensation and trust are essential first steps toward improving the situation

  15. Energy policy options--from the perspective of public attitudes and risk perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viklund, Mattias

    2004-01-01

    In the present study a representative sample (N=797) of the Swedish population was surveyed, with regard to attitudes related to energy policy issues (e.g., environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and attitudes towards different energy production systems), and self-reported electricity saving behavior. These factors were considered relevant in a Swedish energy policy context, due to the planned phase-out of nuclear power. Citizens' attitudes have traditionally been important factors in energy policy-making, especially nuclear policy. One of the conditions for a successful phase-out is decreased levels of electricity consumption among households and in industry, in order to compensate for the loss in energy production. Respondents reported positive attitudes to the environment in general and to electricity saving, while the attitudes to nuclear power as an energy production system in Sweden were relatively negative. Perceived risk was an important predictor of these attitudes and it was concluded that it is important to investigate factors behind this variable. The relationship between attitudes towards electricity saving and electricity saving behavior was weak. It is suggested that a contribution of psychological knowledge in energy conservation campaigns could be to elaborate on people's willingness to be public-spirited citizens in combination with their pro-environmental attitudes. Viklund (1999, Electricity saving: Attitudes and behavior of Swedish households. Center for Risk Research, Stockholm.) presented more data from the survey referred to here

  16. Health in All Policies in South Australia-Did It Promote and Enact an Equity Perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eyk, Helen; Harris, Elizabeth; Baum, Fran; Delany-Crowe, Toni; Lawless, Angela; MacDougall, Colin

    2017-10-25

    Mobilising cross-sectoral action is helpful in addressing the range of social determinants that contribute to health inequities. The South Australian Health in All Policies (SA HiAP) approach was implemented from 2007 to stimulate cross-sector policy activity to address the social determinants of health to improve population wellbeing and reduce health inequities. This paper presents selected findings from a five year multi-methods research study of the SA HiAP approach and draws on data collected during interviews, observation, case studies, and document analysis. The analysis shows that SA HiAP had dual goals of facilitating joined-up government for co-benefits (process focus); and addressing social determinants of health and inequities through cross-sectoral policy activity (outcomes focus). Government agencies readily understood HiAP as providing tools for improving the process of intersectoral policy development, while the more distal outcome-focused intent of improving equity was not well understood and gained less traction. While some early rhetorical support existed for progressing an equity agenda through SA HiAP, subsequent economic pressures resulted in the government narrowing its priorities to economic goals. The paper concludes that SA HiAP's initial intentions to address equity were only partially enacted and little was done to reduce inequities. Emerging opportunities in SA, and internationally, including the UN Sustainable Development Goals, may revive interest in addressing equity.

  17. Health in All Policies in South Australia—Did It Promote and Enact an Equity Perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Elizabeth; Baum, Fran; Delany-Crowe, Toni; MacDougall, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Mobilising cross-sectoral action is helpful in addressing the range of social determinants that contribute to health inequities. The South Australian Health in All Policies (SA HiAP) approach was implemented from 2007 to stimulate cross-sector policy activity to address the social determinants of health to improve population wellbeing and reduce health inequities. This paper presents selected findings from a five year multi-methods research study of the SA HiAP approach and draws on data collected during interviews, observation, case studies, and document analysis. The analysis shows that SA HiAP had dual goals of facilitating joined-up government for co-benefits (process focus); and addressing social determinants of health and inequities through cross-sectoral policy activity (outcomes focus). Government agencies readily understood HiAP as providing tools for improving the process of intersectoral policy development, while the more distal outcome-focused intent of improving equity was not well understood and gained less traction. While some early rhetorical support existed for progressing an equity agenda through SA HiAP, subsequent economic pressures resulted in the government narrowing its priorities to economic goals. The paper concludes that SA HiAP’s initial intentions to address equity were only partially enacted and little was done to reduce inequities. Emerging opportunities in SA, and internationally, including the UN Sustainable Development Goals, may revive interest in addressing equity. PMID:29068400

  18. Digital Skills in Perspective: A Critical Reflection on Research and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos de Haan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will reflect on the evolving focus of research on digital skills over the past 15 years and discuss the outcomes of this research and their implications for policy. Policy issues regarding digital skills have shifted over time. The present focus on media literacy ties digital skills to the broader theme of citizenship and calls for a wide agenda to improve skills, knowledge of media systems and attitudes towards the media. It reaches into policy domains such as education, work and social participation. We will also reflect on the question as to just how far research is able to feed these policy discussions. The argument is organized in four sections, following more or less chronologically the stages of research on digital skills. We begin with the largely descriptive research on digital skills in the context of the digital divide. The second and third sections follow the theoretical turn in the research agenda with a focus on the causes and consequences of differences in digital skills. In the fourth section we discuss a more recent development, where digital skills are included in a broader research agenda of media literacy.

  19. Intergenerational Programmes: Public Policy and Research Implications--An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton-Yeo, Alan, Ed.; Ohsako, Toshio, Ed.

    This document consists of 12 papers that, together, summarize the key issues underpinning future research and policy development related to intergenerational programs (IPs). "Introduction" (Alan Hatton-Yeo) discusses the project out of which the papers developed. "A General Assessment of IP Initiatives in the Countries…

  20. ICT Capacity Building: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Rwandan Policies from Higher Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byungura, Jean Claude; Hansson, Henrik; Masengesho, Kamuzinzi; Karunaratne, Thashmee

    2016-01-01

    With the development of technology in the 21st Century, education systems attempt to integrate technology-based tools to improve experiences in pedagogy and administration. It is becoming increasingly prominent to build human and ICT infrastructure capacities at universities from policy to implementation level. Using a critical discourse analysis,…

  1. PISA as an Ideational Roadmap for Policy Change: Exploring Germany and England in a Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, Philipp; Martens, Kerstin; Niemann, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Education policy has undergone transformation in many countries over the last decade. In this article, we focus on the effects of the most significant international initiative in secondary education, which is the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We analyse two…

  2. Noncompliance and Dissent with Cell Phone Policies: A Psychological Reactance Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Nicholas T.; Olson, Michele K.; Frey, T. K.

    2018-01-01

    This study employed Brehm's psychological reactance theory (PRT) to understand why students do or do not choose to follow classroom cell phone policies. Results (N = 750) from this study demonstrate that when instructors discourage cell phone use for noninstructional reasons, students feel their autonomy has been threatened. These perceptions of…

  3. Student Loan Debt and Economic Outcomes. Current Policy Perspective No. 14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel; Wang, J. Christina

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief advances the growing literature on how student loan debt affects individuals' other economic decisions. Specifically, it examines the impact of student loan liabilities on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation. The analysis employs a rich set of financial and demographic control variables that are not…

  4. Workshop: Towards an integrative European perspective on health human resources policy: how and why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.; Kuhlmann, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Across many countries, shortages and inefficient use of qualified healthcare staff – together with changes in the composition of the health professional workforce by age, gender and citizenship – have created an urgent call for health human resources policy, planning and management. In

  5. State of Early Child Development Research, Practice, and Policy for Most Vulnerable Children: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary Eming

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to enhance development of children ages 0-6 have profound benefits for children, families, and societies. The benefits are well documented, recognized internationally, and supportive of policies and programs targeting early child development (ECD). Intervening in the early years is a critical first step toward alleviating poverty,…

  6. New perspectives on agri-environmental policies; a multidisicplinary and transatlantic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goetz, S.J.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred in recent years in Europe and in North America in addressing agri-environmental policies. Land use issues tend to be more pressing in Europe than in the US as a whole because of different spatial exigencies. Because these advances have taken place within individual

  7. POLICY ADVOCACY IN SCIENCE: PREVALENCE, PERSPECTIVES, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much debate and discussion has focused on the relationship between science and advocacy, and the role of scientists in influencing public policy. Some argue that advocacy is widespread within scientific literature, however, data to evaluate that contention are lacking. We examine...

  8. Bilingual Parenting as Good Parenting: Parents' Perspectives on Family Language Policy for Additive Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kendall; Fogle, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates how parents explain, frame and defend their particular family language policies. We focus here on 24 families who are attempting to achieve additive Spanish-English bilingualism for their children, an aim which in many cases requires parents to use and to teach a language that is not their first language, nor the primary…

  9. Finding Superman & Global Competitiveness: A Conversation with Arthur Levine & Watson Scott Swail. Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Arthur; Swail, Watson Scott

    2014-01-01

    On March 21 2013, the "Educational Policy Institute" held the first day of the EPI Forum on Education & the Economy in Orlando, Florida. The Forum was designed to discuss critical issues related to the nexus of education and the workforce. This document presents the transcribed session that featured two of the authors of the Teachers…

  10. UNCONVENTIONAL MONETARY POLICY: CHANGING EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK’S PERSPECTIVE ON FINANCIAL GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Munteanu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to look at the European Central Bank governance in terms of decisions taken to deploy a new kit of unconventional monetary policy measures, in order to respond to a new economic paradigm characterized by dynamic change in evolution, high volatility and enhanced financial risks. As an institution, the European Central Bank is led by the Governing Council and the decisions taken on how to use monetary policy impact an entire financial system. European Central Banking governance is about safeguarding the common currency and ensuring a future for the economic and monetary area to emerge stronger. For this purpose, when conventional monetary policies reach limits in their effects, it is time for the European Central Bank governance to analyse and assume the decision to deploy the arsenal of unconventional monetary policies. The experience of recent years showed a positive effect of the European Central Bank’s unconventional monetary measures, but costs could rise in case of extensive use of such measures. When these measures are used in combination, the effect is amplified and the European Central Bank needs to assess when it is time to withdraw the support, how to communicate and what exit strategy should use, what the costs are and impact can expect.

  11. Beyond the Poverty of National Security: Toward a Critical Human Security Perspective in Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the intersecting logics of human capital and national security underpinning the corporate school reform movement in the United States. Taking a 2012 policy report by the Council on Foreign Relations as an entry point, it suggests that these logics are incoherent not only on their own narrow instrumental terms, but also more…

  12. Straight Roads and Winding Tracks: Swedish Educational Policy from a Gender Equality Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgqvist-Saltzman, Inga

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Swedish educational reforms, policies, and research. Considers whether Sweden's gender-equality goal supports research that develops more gender-sensitive methodologies and concepts to upgrade women's knowledge, experiences, and values. Sweden's goal of giving men and women the same responsibilities for work, parenthood, and civil duties…

  13. Strategies for addressing climate change: policy perspectives from around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.D.; Sathaye, J.A.; Craig, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is intrinsically global. Accordingly, effective responses require global coordination. While limited policies have been adopted, notably for phasing out chlorofluorocarbons, there is no clear consensus as to what to do about other greenhouse gases. In this paper, we survey attitudes and policy responses among the nations of the world. Public opinion surveys are consistent in showing that considerable sensitivity to environmental issues exists virtually everywhere. On the other hand, there is acute awareness that other issues, especially economic development, can conflict with global climate-change mitigation goals. In such a state of uncertainty there is a strong argument to be made for implementing policies which are good ideas independent of greenhouse-gas considerations. There is also good reason to expand research. What is feasible depends strongly on present and changing attitudes of the citizens of the world, and of their governments. It is thus critical to follow closely the evolution of attitudes. The kind of work summarized in this paper needs to be updated on a continuing basis, and the results made available routinely to the global policy community. We conclude our review with several recommendations for research designed specifically to reduce uncertainty about costs and institutional issues relating to responses to global climate change. (author)

  14. What's the Original Concept of Meridian and Acupuncture Point in Oriental Medicine? - A Perspective of Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Chang- Shik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Meridian and acupuncture point(MAP is a core theory of acupuncture and essential building blocks of oriental medicine. There still continue theoretic or experimental arguments and controversies on the origination or original concept of MAP, without any definite approval or disapproval of a hypothesis. The theory of MAP is an historic product and has never been outside of historic influences. This study discusses the original concept of meridian and acupuncture point theory and its historical evolution, based on the review of classic literatures on meridian including the mawangdui medical texts of Han dynasty. The concept of MAP served as a empirical reference system in clinical settings irrespective of the anatomical entity of MAP.

  15. Implementing Health and Safety Policy Changes at the High School Level From a Leadership Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pitney, William A.; Burton, Laura J.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Although consensus statements and recommendations from professional organizations aim to reduce the incidence of injury or sudden death in sport, nothing is mandated at the high school level. This allows states the freedom to create and implement individual policies. An example of a recommended policy is heat acclimatization. Despite its efficacy in reducing sudden death related to heat stroke, very few states follow the recommended guidelines. Objective:  To retroactively examine why and how 3 states were able to facilitate the successful creation and adoption of heat-acclimatization guidelines. Design:  Qualitative study. Setting:  High school athletic associations in Arkansas, Georgia, and New Jersey. Patients or Other Participants:  Eight men and 3 women (n = 11; 6 athletic trainers; 2 members of high school athletic associations; 2 parents; 1 physician) participated. Participant recruitment ceased when data saturation was reached. Data Collection and Analysis:  All phone interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A grounded-theory approach guided analysis and multiple analysts and peer review were used to establish credibility. Results:  Each state had a different catalyst to change (student-athlete death, empirical data, proactivity). Recommendations from national governing bodies guided the policy creation. Once the decision to implement change was made, the states displayed 2 similarities: shared leadership and open communication between medical professionals and members of the high school athletic association helped overcome barriers. Conclusions:  The initiating factor that spurred the change varied, yet shared leadership and communication fundamentally allowed for successful adoption of the policy. Our participants were influenced by the recommendations from national governing bodies, which align with the institutional change theory. As more states begin to examine and improve their health and safety policies

  16. Implementing Health and Safety Policy Changes at the High School Level From a Leadership Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnotta, Kelly D; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Pitney, William A; Burton, Laura J; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-04-01

    Although consensus statements and recommendations from professional organizations aim to reduce the incidence of injury or sudden death in sport, nothing is mandated at the high school level. This allows states the freedom to create and implement individual policies. An example of a recommended policy is heat acclimatization. Despite its efficacy in reducing sudden death related to heat stroke, very few states follow the recommended guidelines. To retroactively examine why and how 3 states were able to facilitate the successful creation and adoption of heat-acclimatization guidelines. Qualitative study. High school athletic associations in Arkansas, Georgia, and New Jersey. Eight men and 3 women (n = 11; 6 athletic trainers; 2 members of high school athletic associations; 2 parents; 1 physician) participated. Participant recruitment ceased when data saturation was reached. All phone interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A grounded-theory approach guided analysis and multiple analysts and peer review were used to establish credibility. Each state had a different catalyst to change (student-athlete death, empirical data, proactivity). Recommendations from national governing bodies guided the policy creation. Once the decision to implement change was made, the states displayed 2 similarities: shared leadership and open communication between medical professionals and members of the high school athletic association helped overcome barriers. The initiating factor that spurred the change varied, yet shared leadership and communication fundamentally allowed for successful adoption of the policy. Our participants were influenced by the recommendations from national governing bodies, which align with the institutional change theory. As more states begin to examine and improve their health and safety policies, this information could serve as a valuable resource for athletic trainers in other states and for future health and safety initiatives.

  17. Investment under uncertain climate policy: A practitioners' perspective on carbon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of payment probability as an important component of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO 2 emissions under uncertain climate policy). In modeling power plant investment decisions, most existing literature uses the expected carbon price (e.g., the price of traded permits or carbon tax) as a proxy for carbon risk. In contrast, this paper identifies expected carbon payment as a more accurate measure of carbon risk as perceived by industry practitioners. This measure of carbon risk incorporates both expected price and the probability that this price would actually be faced in the case of a particular investment. This concept helps explain both the surge of activity in 2005–2006 and the subsequent decline in interest in coal-fired power plant development in the U.S. The data for this case study comes from an extensive online survey of 700 U.S. energy professionals completed in 2006, as well as interviews conducted with industry representatives from 2007 to 2009. By analyzing industry views on policy uncertainty and future carbon legislation, we gain a better understanding of investor attitudes toward carbon risk. This understanding will help policy makers design better incentives for investing in low-carbon technologies. - Highlights: • A new model of carbon risk that incorporates payment probability is presented. • A survey of 700 U.S. energy professionals conducted in 2006 provides data on beliefs about future climate policy. • The vast majority of respondents expected climate policy to be enacted, but also expected it to be lax. • This data is used to analyze investor attitudes toward carbon risk

  18. Chinese Foreign Policy in a Global Perspective: A Responsible Reformer "Striving For Achievement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Weissmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last four decades, China has moved from being an isolated country separated from the international community to having become one of the world’s major powers. It is vital to understand what is guiding Chinese foreign policy, why this is so, and not least what kind of power China is and will be in the future. This article analyses the vital elements and thinking that guides Chinese foreign policy, its priorities and decision making process. It is found that China's foreign policy is embedded in domestic issues. The foremost foreign policy objective is domestic political stability, which in turn is a necessity for the survival of one-party rule. Both are dependent on a combination of two key factors: continuing domestic economic growth and nationalism. The foreign policy is also closely linked to the Chinese self-perception, both its self-superiority/self-inferiority dualism and its multitude of confusing (overlapping identities about what China is and should be. A key turning year is 2008 when the "global" financial crisis severely affected the United States and Europe at a time of Chinese economic success, which gave China confidence to pursue a more active and aggressive/assertive stance on the international stage. It is concluded that China under Xi Jinping will not be a status que power accepting the world as it is, but nor are we to expect China to become a revisionist power aiming to remodel the global order. China is what can best be described as a responsible reformer "striving for achievements".

  19. Development of the supply chain oriented quality assurance system for aerospace manufacturing SMEs and its implementation perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Abdullahi; Cheng, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace manufacturing SMEs are continuously facing the challenge on managing their supply chain and complying with the aerospace manufacturing quality standard requirement due to their lack of resources and the nature of business. In this paper, the ERP system based approach is presented to quality control and assurance work in light of seamless integration of in-process production data and information internally and therefore managing suppliers more effectively and efficiently. The Aerospace Manufacturing Quality Assurance Standard (BS/EN9100) is one of the most recognised and essential protocols for developing the industry-operated-and-driven quality assurance systems. The research investigates using the ERP based system as an enabler to implement BS/EN9100 quality management system at manufacturing SMEs and the associated implementation and application perspectives. An application case study on a manufacturing SME is presented by using the SAP based implementation, which helps further evaluate and validate the approach and application system development.

  20. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Developmental mechanisms: putting genes in their place. STUART A NEWMAN. Department of Cell Biology ... effects, multifactoriality and func- tional redundancy of gene action in the determination of. Perspectives .... The vertebrate seg- mental plate becomes sequentially partitioned into paired somites by a process that ...

  1. The Crisis in Scholarly Communication, Open Access, and Open Data Policies: The Libraries' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besara, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    For years the cost of STEM databases have exceeded the rate of inflation. Libraries have reallocated funds for years to continue to provide support to their scientific communities, but they are reaching a point at many institutions where they are no longer able to provide access to many databases considered standard to support research. A possible or partial alleviation to this problem is the federal open access mandate. However, this shift challenges the current model of publishing and data management in the sciences. This talk will discuss these topics from the perspective of research libraries supporting physics and the STEM disciplines.

  2. The Evaluation of Public Policies from the Perspective of the Agenda 21 of Culture: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aracely Mendívil-Portillo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available . This research shows the results of the implementation of a public cultural policy at the municipal level and has as a main objective to evaluate, from the perspective of the agenda 21 of culture, the program "Art for social development" by the Municipal Institute of Art and Culture developed in a secondary-level boarding school located at the Topolobampo community, in the municipality of Ahome, Mexico. A QUAN-QUAL methodology was used with instruments like questionnaires applied to the young participants and interviews with the workshop facilitators and administrative staff. Guitar, painting and theatre workshops were given, through which the development of new artistic expression skills was achieved, as well as contributing to the strengthening of social behaviors such as tolerance, patience and interpersonal communication, among others. It was found the constant need of having permanent programs of integral training, both in the field of artistic training and socio-emotional, giving priority to groups at risk, such as students of the boarding school that mostly come from families of scarce resources, some of the low performance academic and aggressive behavior. The conclusion is that public policies are required to promote greater articulation of education and culture in order to have a stronger impact on the social and cultural inclusion of young people.

  3. From problem people to addictive products: a qualitative study on rethinking gambling policy from the perspective of lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen E; Thomas, Samantha L; Robinson, Priscilla

    2018-04-06

    Previous research has shown that government and industry discussions of gambling may focus on personal responsibility for gambling harm. In Australia, these discussions have largely excluded people with lived experience of problem gambling, including those involved in peer support and advocacy. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with people with current or previous problem gambling on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) involved in peer support and advocacy activities, using an approach informed by Interpretive Policy Analysis and Constructivist Grounded Theory. Participants perceived that government and industry discussed gambling as safe and entertaining with a focus on personal responsibility for problem gambling. This focus on personal responsibility was perceived to increase stigma associated with problem gambling. In contrast, they described gambling as risky, addictive and harmful, with problem gambling resulting from the design of EGMs. As a result of their different perspectives, participants proposed different interventions to reduce gambling harm, including reducing accessibility and making products safer. Challenging the discourses used by governments and industry to describe gambling, using the lived experience of people with experience of gambling harm, may result in reduced stigma associated with problem gambling, and more effective public policy approaches to reducing harm.

  4. The environmental policy in Mexico: Crisis and perspectives; La politica ambiental en Mexico: Crisis y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi, Victor [Colegio de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper some aspects of the environmental situation in Mexico are condensed. The main roll performed by the modality of the energy resources consumption and the evolution of the environmental policy in Mexico from 1971 to 1996 is analyzed. It is concluded that in Mexico it has not been able to define the environmental policy in all its extension requiring, therefore, a greater participation of all the sectors to protect Nature and fight against the industrial and municipal pollution [Espanol] En esta ponencia se resumen algunos aspectos de la situacion ambiental actual de Mexico. Se analiza el papel central desempenado por la modalidad del consumo de energeticos y la evolucion de la politica ambiental en Mexico desde 1971 hasta 1996. Se concluye en que la politica ambiental en Mexico no se ha podido definir todavia en todos sus alcances por lo que se requiere una mayor participacion de todos los sectores para proteger la naturaleza y combatir la contaminacion industrial y municipal

  5. Equity and the Global Policy on Climate Change: A Law and Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Gunawan Wibisana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The opponents of the global commitment to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions seem to have shifted their arguments from the one emphasising on the issue of uncertainty to the one focusing on the economic burdens disproportionately placed on the current generation in general, and some developed countries in particular. Inevitably, the issue of equity becomes of highly importance in the recent climate policy debates. This paper attempts to analyze the implementation of equity principles, i.e. intergenerational and intragenerational equity, in the global climate policy. In doing so, it will first briefly outline some prominent economic appraisals on the impacts of climate change. Afterwards, some proposals to incorporate equity into the economic appraisals will be analyzed. Emphasizing on the concepts of equity, this paper will finally offer some recommendations for post-Kyoto negotiations.

  6. Public Policies and Children’s Rights: a reflection from the ethnic-racial perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anete Abramowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that in recent years we have been open to discussing race-related issues in Brazil, bringing about considerable changes in the contemporary debate, discrimination related to race is still a structural variable in our reality, and education shows this racial inequality in its educational indicators and in the micropolitics of each kindergarten. The black and small children suffer a double social inequality: they are small and black. Through this reflexive essay we seek to discuss issues related to public policies and the rights of black children to education. The relevance for the development of the work is based on the smallness of studies involving public policies, education and childhood from the age and race in Brazil.

  7. EU Regional Policy. Realities and Perspectives on the Absorption of European Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NECULITA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available EU expansion to 27 Member States has generate challenges in terms of its competitiveness and internal cohesion. The already existing disparities between the Member States and among their regions have deepened. These disparities are generated by the structural deficiencies in key factors of competitiveness, i.e. inadequate endowment with physical and human capital (infrastructure and workforce, insufficient capacity for innovation, business support and low level of environmental capital (natural environment and / or urban pollution. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether the cohesion policy reduced or increased the disparities between regions. Therefore in order to achieve this goal of the cohesion policy, the Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and achieve their potential of growth.

  8. Equity and the Global Policy on Climate Change: a Law and Economic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wibisana, Andri Gunawan

    2012-01-01

    The opponents of the global commitment to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions seem to have shifted their arguments from the one emphasising on the issue of uncertainty to the one focusing on the economic burdens disproportionately placed on the current generation in general, and some developed countries in particular. Inevitably, the issue of equity becomes of highly importance in the recent climate policy debates. This paper attempts to analyze the implementation of equity principle...

  9. Security Perspectives and Policies: Lebanon, Syria, Israel, and the Palestinians. Conference Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    candidates born certain long-term -issues of security policy over the in Asia or Africa among the first 40 on its list. The past few years; and-(3) a...and North Africa : A B.?iographi cal Dictionary (New House, 1984). York, Westport, Connecticut, and London. Greenwood Press, Simon, Menill. Moshe...that, however, they have not conflit ,-the Maronites were constantly accused by registered any military successes to justify much their opponents of

  10. The impact of fiscal and monetary policies on unemployment problem in Nigeria (managerial economic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Attamah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of fiscal and Monetary Policies on Unemployment Problem in Nigeria and covers the periods 1980 to 2013. To achieve this, fiscal policy was captured here by government expenditures and revenues respectively while monetary policy was proxied by broad Money Supply (M2, Interest and Exchange rates respectively. The methodology adopted was econometric analysis employing OLS techniques and unit roots of the series were examined using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller after which the co-integration tests was conducted using the Engle Granger approach. Error correction models were estimated to take care of the short run dynamics. It was found that while government expenditure had a positive relationship with unemployment problem in Nigeria, the result of government revenue was negative and insignificant on unemployment problem. For monetary policy, it was found that money supply and exchange rate had positive and significant impact while interest rate has only a positive relationship on unemployment problem in Nigeria. This meets the a priori expectation. The study also revealed that increases in interest and exchange rates escalate unemployment by increasing cost of production which discourages the private sector from employing large workforce. On the other hand, national productivity measured by real GDP had a negative and significant impact on unemployment rate in Nigeria. This paper recommends that for an effective combat to unemployment problem in Nigeria, there should be a systematic diversion of strategies, thus more emphasis should be laid on aggressively pursuing entrepreneurial development and increased productivity. Again government should aggressively focus on investment, employment generation and economic growth that has mechanism to trickle does to the masses

  11. Sexual harassment, special relationships and consensual engagement policies within higher learning institutions : a labour law perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    LL.M. (Labour Law) A university is a community of adults in which close personal relationships between adults can develop. These institutions of higher learning recognise the need for policies prohibiting sexual harassment but few have addressed the subtle issues surrounding consensual and special amorous relationships between academic staff members and students and whether they have the right to regulate private behaviour between adults. The aim of this minor dissertation is to explore th...

  12. The Power to Raise and Support Armies: The Homosexual Exclusion Policy in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    of sexual gratification, range over a spectrum that is limited only by one’s imagination. Non-homosexual 64 preferences, such as pedophilia ...C.M.A. 1988). In Benedict, experts testified variously on the issue of whether the insanity defense applied based on a diagnosis of pedophilia ...Regardless that expert evidence might be in disarray on pedophilia , as a policy matter, the Army could resolve in its favor risks raised by that sexual

  13. Perspectives on the policy 'black box': a comparative case study of orthopaedics services in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Hugh; Millar, Ross; Goodwin, Nick; Powell, Martin

    2014-10-01

    There has been much recent debate on the impact of competition on the English National Health Service (NHS). However, studies have tended to view competition in isolation and are controversial. This study examines the impact of programme theories associated with the health system reforms, which sought to move from a dominant target-led 'central control' programme theory, to one based on 'market forces', on orthopaedics across six case-study local health economies. It draws on a realistic evaluation approach to open up the policy 'black box' across different contexts using a mixed methods approach: analysis of 152 interviews with key informants and analysis of waiting times and admissions. We find that the urban health economies were more successful in reaching the access targets than the rural health economies, although the gap in performance closed over time. Most interviewees were aware of the policies to increase choice and competition, but their role appeared comparatively weak. Local commissioners' ability to influence demand appeared limited with providers' incentives dominating service delivery. Looking forward, it is clear that the role of competition in the NHS has to be considered alongside, rather than in isolation from, other policy mechanisms.

  14. Perspectives of intellectual disability in India: epidemiology, policy, services for children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girimaji, Satish C; Srinath, Shoba

    2010-09-01

    To provide a panoramic view of the recent developments and current situation in epidemiology, legislation, policies, services, and research in intellectual disability in India. A wide variation in point prevalence of intellectual disability has been reported, from around 1/1000 to 32/1000, depending on the case definition, methodology, and population selected. There are a number of acts, policies, and programs addressing intellectual disability, but their implementation needs to improve. Services in terms of prevention, early intervention, health services, parent-focused and family-focused interventions, special and inclusion education, vocational training, support for individuals and their families, and community-based rehabilitation services are steadily improving, albeit unevenly across different regions and sub-populations. Genetics of disorders associated with intellectual disability such as primary microcephaly and fragile X syndrome have received research attention. Psychosocial research has focused on family needs, family-focused intervention, early intervention, and comorbid disorders. A positive development has been the organization of parents into parent associations all over India and formation of a national confederation. There has been noticeable progress in addressing the challenges posed by intellectual disability in India on all fronts. However, there is still a long way to go in terms of developing a locally and nationally relevant and reliable database, effective implementation of legislation and policies, and development of effective, accessible, and affordable interventions.

  15. Transition to low carbon energy policies in China-from the Five-Year Plan perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xueliang; Zuo Jian

    2011-01-01

    Energy policy plays a critical role not only in the energy development, but also in the social and environmental aspects of a nation. Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development is one of the most important government plans, which documents the national strategy during that period. This study presents a critical review of 12 Five-Year Plans that have been released by the Chinese central government in last 58 years. In particular, the recently released Twelfth Five-Year Plan is reviewed. The results clearly show a pattern of increasingly level of attention of Chinese government to energy efficiency improvement, air pollutant emission reduction, new and renewable energy development, carbon dioxide emission and climate change. - Highlights: → Critical review of the energy related contents in the 12 Five-Year Plans. → Energy policy of China is focusing on energy efficiency, new and renewable energy. → China is improving the capability of dealing with CO 2 emission and climate change. → China is on transition to low carbon energy policies for a sustainable development.

  16. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Neveen, E-mail: n.hamza@ncl.ac.u [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Gilroy, Rose [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: {yields} An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. {yields} Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. {yields} Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  17. New Approach to Remuneration Policy for Investment Firms: a Polish Capital Market Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Okoń

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the recent financial crisis leads to reflections on the relevant mechanisms of risk reduction of an investment firms activity. Within the European Union, the Directive 2010/76/EU (CRD III has introduced new rules regarding the remuneration policy for investment firms. The main goal was to reduce the risk of investment firms’ activity. This is a prudential regulation. The purpose of this article is to evaluate, from the point of view of an investment firm, proposed by the EU legislator approach to remuneration policy aimed at reducing the risk of the operation of this type of financial institutions. The aim was to identify the key problems with which Polish investment firms may face in the future in connection with new remuneration policy rules. As far as the methodology is concerned, the author carried out in-depth and standardized interviews with the representatives of several investment firms in Poland. In addition, the method of observation has been applied. The results of the research demonstrates that the abovementioned regulations will have limited impact on reducing the risk of the activities of these financial institutions as well as their implementation will be difficult for them in practice.

  18. The public's perspectives on advance directives: implications for state legislative and regulatory policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Morhaim, Dan; Williams, Michael A

    2010-06-01

    Determine the prevalence of advance directives (ADs) in Maryland and identify the barriers and enablers to their adoption, in order to guide the formulation of state legislative policy. Cross-sectional survey administered over the telephone to a representative age-stratified random sample of 1195 Maryland adults. Approximately 34% (n=401) of Maryland adults reported having an AD. Older adults (65+ years) were more likely than younger adults (18-64 years) to have ADs (p<0.001); the proportional difference between those with and without ADs diminished as age increased. Two times as many Whites than Blacks reported having ADs (43-23%; p<0.001). Of those who had an AD, the primary motivations for creating one was a personal medical condition or a diagnosis to one's self or a family/friend (41%). Those without ADs identified lack of familiarity with them (27%), being too young or healthy to need one (14%), or uncertainty of the process for adopting one (11%) as reasons for not having one. Barriers to AD adoption appear amenable to policy interventions. Policies that seek to increase access and ensure ease of enrollment, combined with a targeted public health advocacy campaign, may help increase the prevalence of ADs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Neveen; Gilroy, Rose

    2011-01-01

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: → An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. → Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. → Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  20. Improving the policy of public procurements for development of science cities: agent-oriented modeling and scenario analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Abramov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to assess the impact of policy change scenarios in the sphere of public procurements on the development of science cities. Methods simulation modeling agentoriented modeling. Results depressive trends of singleindustry townsrsquo development are one of the key problems in the development of Russia. At the same time the procedure for identifying suppliers proposed by the system of public procurements does not imply mechanisms that would favor the development of science cities. The article analyzes the approaches to estimate the effectiveness of the public procurements system. It is determined that the agentoriented approach is one of the most promising methods of public procurements management. Through simulation modeling in particular agentoriented approach the article presents the results of scenario experiments. It is established that public procurements can act not only as an instrument of effective expenditure of budgetary funds but also as a mechanism of economic development of territories. Although the presented experiments showed a decrease in the level of savings as a result of competitive procedures additionalnbsp socioeconomic effects were achieved due to the localization of procurements participants in the science citiesrsquo territory. Among other things the scenarios suggest reduction of transportation costs and consequently the traffic flow between Moscow and science cities which would help to reduce the load on the transport networks of megacities. Scientific novelty for the first time it was shown that the tool of public procurements can serve for stimulation and maintenance of the development of science cities and singleindustry towns and become a key factor in their development. The agentoriented model of the public procurements system functioning by the example of Zhukovskiy science city was developed which allows quantitative estimation of the consequences of introducing various mechanisms for improving the

  1. Is It Okay To Ask: Transgender Patient Perspectives on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Collection in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Torain, Maya; Adler, Rachel; Ranjit, Anju; Schneider, Eric; Shields, Ryan Y; Kodadek, Lisa M; Snyder, Claire F; German, Danielle; Peterson, Susan; Schuur, Jeremiah; Lau, Brandyn D; Haider, Adil H

    2017-06-01

    The National Academy of Medicine and Joint Commission recommend routine documentation of sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) in healthcare to address lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) health disparities. We explored transgender patient-reported views on the importance on SO/GI collection, their willingness to disclose, and their perceived facilitators of SO/GI collection in primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. We recruited a national sample of self-identified transgender patients. Participants completed demographic questions, survey questions, and free-response comments regarding their views on SO/GI collection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics; inductive content analysis was conducted with open-ended responses. Patients mostly self-identified as male gender (54.5%), white (58.4%), and SO other than heterosexual or LGB (33.7%; N = 101). Patients felt that it was more important for primary care providers to know their GI than SO (89.1% vs. 57%; p gender differences may exist in facilitators of SO/GI disclosure. Given the underrepresentation of transgender patients in healthcare, it is crucial for providers to address their concerns with SO/GI disclosure, which include LGBT education for medical staff and provision of a safe environment. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  2. Practitioner perspectives matter: Public policy and private investment in the U.S. electric power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    This dissertation examines the influence of attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of energy industry practitioners on investment decision-making with regard to fuel choice for new electric power plants. The conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and an extensive online survey I conducted of 600-800 energy professionals in the U.S. power sector. Chapter 1 analyzes the impact of policy uncertainty on investment decision-making in renewable energy, using the federal production tax credit (PTC) and wind energy investment as an example. It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the PTC causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the U.S. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. The widely held belief that the severe downturn in investment during "off" years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC turns out to be unsubstantiated: this chapter demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during "off" years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. This suggests that reducing regulatory uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from my survey, various alternative policy incentives are considered and compared in terms of their perceived reliability for supporting long-term investment. Chapter 2 introduces the concept of expected payment of carbon as a factor in investment decision-making. The notion of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under potential climate change policy) is usually incorporated into

  3. CURRICULUM POLICIES AND GEOGRAPHY TEACHING: perspectives ond discourse, subjectivity and subject community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Heleno Camilo Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper I discuss, in the context of research in curriculum policy for the teaching of Geography, the processes of constitution of the subjects involved in policy. Present initially snippets of the course of research development, drawing attention to possibilities of understanding about the processes that lead to the production of curriculum policies for Geography. I call attention to the subjectivity involved in the production of such policies, questioning the category subject community in reflection on the constitution of political subjects that operate in the discursive field of Geography. I discuss, from the Discourse Theory of Ernesto Laclau and also the works of Lopes and Macedo, the importance of the curriculum policy is conceived as a process by mobilizing articulations that aim to hegemony and unleash political subjectivities. I conclude criticizing Goodson's formulations on political subjects considering the theoretical contributions of Laclau, through which I propose the incorporation the idea of povo as element capable of assisting in critique to readings about the disciplines and curriculum in structural view, and resize reflection on the demands articulated in the production of curriculum policies and the processes of constitution of subjects.RESUMO: Neste trabalho discuto, com foco no contexto da pesquisa em políticas de currículo para o ensino de Geografia, os processos de constituição dos sujeitos envolvidos nas políticas. Apresento, inicialmente, trechos do percurso da pesquisa que desenvolvo, ponderando possibilidades de compreensão sobre os processos que levam à produção da política de currículo para Geografia. Chamo a atenção para as subjetividades envolvidas na produção de tais políticas, problematizando a categoria comunidade disciplinar na reflexão sobre a constituição dos sujeitos políticos atuantes no campo discursivo da Geografia. Discuto, a partir da Teoria do Discurso de Ernesto Laclau e dos

  4. Perspectives of interns and residents toward do-not-resuscitate policies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoudi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah S Amoudi,1 Mohammed H Albar,2 Amjed M Bokhari,3 Sultan H Yahya,4 Anas A Merdad1 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, 4Department of Radiology, King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objective: Do-not-resuscitate (DNR orders in Saudi Arabia were first regulated by a fatwa on a national level in 1988, one that excludes the patient and their families from decision making. Although the core of this policy is taken up by all hospitals in Saudi Arabia, there is no homogeneity in implementation. Here, we appraise what interns and residents know of these policies and their attitudes toward DNR. Methods: Interns and residents in four major hospitals in Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, National Guard Hospital, King Fahad General Hospital, and King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, were given a questionnaire in English with four blocks of questions. Results: A total of 140 questionnaires were included in our study. From these questionnaires, we conclude a lack of familiarity with DNR's policies and the fatwa and also a lack of understanding when it comes to treating DNR-labeled patients. The majority opinion was to include the patient in the decision-making process who is excluded according to the fatwa. Participants considered patients' dignity, religious concerns, and legal concerns to be important in considering resuscitation. Conclusion: We conclude a need to emphasize the issue of DNR and treatment of DNR patients in medical ethics classes in Saudi Arabia and put more effort to enact national DNR laws that include the patient in the decision-making process. Keywords: passive euthanasia, Middle East, cross-sectional study

  5. The Iranian Foreign Language Practitioners‟ Perspectives about Iran‟s Foreign Language Education Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Rashidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to identify the perceptions of the Iranian foreign language practitioners about Iran‟s foreign language education policy within a systemic functional linguistics approach. To this end, 8 Iranian male and female foreign language practitioners were interviewed and asked to talk about what they thought about Iran‟s foreign language policy. The findings obtained from analysing the process types and participants employed by the Iranian foreign language practitioners within a systemic functional linguistics approach point out that the FLEP document is heavily influenced by and draws on well entrenched ideological, historical, religious, economic, and political discourses. Further investigations within a systemic functional linguistics approach indicate that the Iranian teachers believed that while English is a tool for understanding cultural exchanges and transferring technological advances, achieving these goals through the teaching of English is sometimes problematic within an absolute Islamic framework. The findings obtained from a transitivity analysis for the Iranian foreign language practitioners by subjecting their responses to the questions on the interviews to a systemic functional linguistics approach are also indicative of the Iranian foreign language teachers‟ loyalty to the “the younger, the better” belief. Likewise, course content was a topic for controversy. Some of the practitioners believed that course content should be developed around a variety of topics. Whereas others asserted that the inclusion of different topics in the foreign language education policy document may increase the workload on the part of the teachers. Other issues such as culture, the Islamic ideology, and imperialism were identified as causes of different understandings among the Iranian foreign language practitioners as well.

  6. Vegetation Fires in the Coupled Human-Earth System Under Future Environmental and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    le page, Y.; Morton, D. C.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Fires play a major role in terrestrial ecosystems dynamics and the carbon cycle. Potential changes in fire regimes due to climate change, land use change, or human management could have substantial ecological, climatic and socio-economic impacts, and have recently been emphasized as a source of uncertainty for policy-makers and climate mitigation cost estimates. Anticipating these interactions thus entails interdisciplinary models. Here we describe the development of a new fire modeling framework, which features the essential integration of climatic, vegetation and anthropogenic drivers. The model is an attempt to realistically account for ignition, spread and termination processes, on a 12-hour time step and at 1 degree spatial resolution globally. Because the quantitative influence of fire drivers on these processes are often poorly constrained, the framework includes an optimization procedure whereby key parameters (e.g. influence of moisture on fire spread, probability of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes to actually ignite a fire, human ignition frequency as a function of land use density) are determined to maximize the agreement between modeled and observed burned area over the past decade. The model performs surprisingly well across all biomes, and shows good agreement on non-optimized features, such as seasonality and fire size, which suggests some potential for robust projections. We couple the model to an integrated assessment model and explore the consequences of mitigation policies, land use decisions and climate change on future fire regimes with a focus on the Amazon basin. The coupled model future projections show that business-as-usual land use expansion would increase the frequency of escaped fires in the remaining forest, especially when combined with models projecting a drier climate. Inversely, climate mitigation policies as projected in the IPCC RCP4.5 scenario achieve synergistic benefits, with increased forest extent, less fire ignitions, and

  7. Critical Perspective on ASEAN's Security Policy Under ASEAN Political and Security Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Jati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available   Despite economic integration challenges, ASEAN faces greater security challenges. It is obvious to assert that a stable economic development requires a secure regional atmosphere. The most probable threats against ASEAN are ranging from hostile foreign entities infiltration, intra and inter states disputes, radical religious movements, human trafficking, drugs and narcotics smuggling, cybercrimes and environmental disasters. In 2009, ASEAN established the ASEAN Political and Security Community as the umbrella of ASEAN’s political and security initiatives. APSC slots in some significant fora; ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR, ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting (AMM,  ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF, ASEAN Defense Minister’s Meeting (ADMM, ASEAN Law Ministers Meeting (ALAWMM, and ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crimes (AMMTC. The wide array of these forums signify ASEAN efforts to confront double features of security; the traditional and nontraditional or critical security. The traditional security considers state security as the primary object security. While the critical security tends to focus on non-state aspects such as individual human being as its referent object. Even though some argue that APSC has been able to preserve the stability in the region, it still lack of confidence in solving critical issues such as territorial disputes and irregular migrants problems.Therefore, this piece would examine the fundamental questions: How does ASEAN address beyond state security issues in its security policy through APSC? To search for the answer this paper would apply critical security studies approach. Critical security posits that threats are not always for the states but in many cases for the people. Based on the examination of ASEAN security policies, this paper argues that ASEAN’s security policy has touched the non-traditional security issues but showing slow progress on its development and application. 

  8. Foreign language learning using e-mail in a task-oriented perspective: Interuniversity experiments in communication and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, John; Frommer, Judith; Schwartz, Michael

    1993-12-01

    From 1988 to 1990 several collaborative “cross-country” intermediate French classes at Harvard and Stanford became one class. Students combined their efforts and insights in the accomplishment of a semester-long task, in most cases the publication of a student newspaper or magazine, using the electronic mail (e-mail) network to contact each other, elaborate their plans, and bring their projects to successful conclusion. Additional experiments of a similar nature took place between Harvard and the University of Pittsburgh (in the spring of 1990) and between Stanford and the University of Pittsburgh during 1991 1993. This paper suggests that this type of task-oriented learning through distance-communication is applicable at many different course levels and has considerable merit as an approach to teaching and learning. The key phases of this task-based model are presented along with technological information regarding computers and networks, as a guide to colleagues interested in pursuing similar lines of experimental teaching. Also included are samples of student messages, with their varied and often highly colorful discourse features, which attest to the motivation of students and reveal the strong personal investment made by the participants as they join hands across the miles in a productive, communication-based enterprise. The language and learning styles generated by technology and computers fully deserve closer investigation by researchers and teaching practitioners alike. The authors summarize the experiments, discuss assessment, and present research issues, concluding that good pedagogy and quality technology must share a vision of what can be accomplished in this rapidly evolving educational work place.

  9. Psychotherapy research in historical perspective. Implications for mental health care policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R L; Orlinsky, D E

    1996-08-01

    This article is a sketch of the historical development of the field of behavioral and non-behavioral therapy research. Four phases are characterized: (1) establishing scientific research (1927-1954), (2) searching for scientific rigor (1955-1969), (3) expansion and organization (1970-1983), and (4) consolidation and reformulation (1984-present). Continuities between and key developments within successive phases are outlined, with emphasis given to methodological innovations. The corroboration of select findings about process and outcome and the development of several critical discourses within the third and fourth phases have implications for the provision of mental health care and for policy discussions.

  10. Democracy Promotion at a Local Level : Experiences, Perspectives and Policy of Swiss International Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dahinden

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I would like to thank Andrea Iff and Marco Pfister from swisspeace, who were asked by the SDC’s Analysis and Policy Division to write a discussion paper on the SDC’s democracy promotion. The project further received advice and drew extensively from dlgn’s (SDC Decentralisation and Local Governance Network work. The results of dlgn’s work are accessible in full detail on the dlgn website, http://www.sdc-decentralization.net.What is democracy promotion? Today, we are witnessing a new wave of i...

  11. The Colombian Policy of Rewards from the perspective of International Humanitarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Galvis - Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The scandal caused by the assassination of a guerrilla leader by one of his subordinates and the payment of a substantial economic reward made to him by the State, led to the first questionings regarding the legality of the reward system in Colombia. This article seeks to establish if the state spon sored reward policy respects the rules of International Humanitarian Law applicable to the Colombian armed conflict. For this purpose the article will analyze both the legislative development and three of the most controversial situations raised in practice which prove the range and effects of the use of rewards as a strategic tactic within the armed conflict.

  12. Science education reform in Confucian learning cultures: teachers' perspectives on policy and practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2018-03-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical focus from traditional approaches to teaching science to an active engagement in students' learning. Multiple sources of qualitative data were obtained, including individual interviews with science teachers and teachers' reflective journals about Confucianism in relation to their educational philosophies. Thematic analysis and constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that Confucian traditions play a significant role in shaping educational practices in Taiwan and profoundly influence teachers' epistemological beliefs and their actual classroom practice. Indeed, science teachers' perspectives on Confucian learning traditions played a key role in supporting or obstructing their pedagogical commitments to inquiry-based and learner-centered approaches. This study draws on the literature concerning teachers' professional struggles and identity construction during educational reform. Specifically, we explore the ways in which teachers respond to educational changes and negotiate their professional identities. We employed various theories of identity construction to understand teachers' struggles and challenges while wrestling with competing traditional and reform-based pedagogical approaches. Attending to these struggles and the ways in which they inform the development of a teacher's professional identity is vital for sustaining current and future educational reform in Taiwan as well as in other Eastern cultures. These findings have important implications for teachers' professional development programs in East Asian cultures.

  13. Science education reform in Confucian learning cultures: teachers' perspectives on policy and practice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Syuan; Asghar, Anila

    2016-10-01

    This empirical study investigates secondary science teachers' perspectives on science education reform in Taiwan and reflects how these teachers have been negotiating constructivist and learner-centered pedagogical approaches in contemporary science education. It also explores the challenges that teachers encounter while shifting their pedagogical focus from traditional approaches to teaching science to an active engagement in students' learning. Multiple sources of qualitative data were obtained, including individual interviews with science teachers and teachers' reflective journals about Confucianism in relation to their educational philosophies. Thematic analysis and constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that Confucian traditions play a significant role in shaping educational practices in Taiwan and profoundly influence teachers' epistemological beliefs and their actual classroom practice. Indeed, science teachers' perspectives on Confucian learning traditions played a key role in supporting or obstructing their pedagogical commitments to inquiry-based and learner-centered approaches. This study draws on the literature concerning teachers' professional struggles and identity construction during educational reform. Specifically, we explore the ways in which teachers respond to educational changes and negotiate their professional identities. We employed various theories of identity construction to understand teachers' struggles and challenges while wrestling with competing traditional and reform-based pedagogical approaches. Attending to these struggles and the ways in which they inform the development of a teacher's professional identity is vital for sustaining current and future educational reform in Taiwan as well as in other Eastern cultures. These findings have important implications for teachers' professional development programs in East Asian cultures.

  14. Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamara Shefer

    towards achieving a safe and secure learning environment. The first building block is for schools to be prepared to prevent and manage any safety-related problems it may encounter. Preparedness stems from having the necessary codes of conduct, school safety policies and procedures in place, and ensuring that learners ...

  15. The challenge to UK energy policy. An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Neveen; Gilroy, Rose [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. (author)

  16. Competition Policy in the European Film Industry Focused on Consumers’ Interests – a Romanian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puiu Nistoreanu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available European cinema was and still is often assimilated by film consumers as art cinema which is more difficult to understand and ultimately to reach a big number of consumers. The objectives of this paper were to examine the pathway of European cinema market and the relationship with its consumers along with their interests and attitudes towards European films and to research the most important measures taken by European Union institutions under their competition policy to support European films through state aid schemes. In order to give shape to these objectives, in-depth interviews with five elite specialists from the Romanian film industry were used, specialists who possess international expertise and recognition. The problems of the qualitative research are: the modification of consumer behaviour face to European cinema and support measures. The findings suggest that regarding its relationship with consumers and their interests in the seventh art, European cinema faces many different difficulties ranging from the competition with American films and insufficient funds, to the increased comfortableness or coziness of the movie consumers of our times. The paper concludes with examples of measures suggested by the respondents, to help European cinema become more attractive to consumers, measures which are already being implemented by the industry, making the results of our study useful for policy and decision makers within this cultural area.

  17. [Intercultural health care policy from the perspective of health care providers and Mapuche clients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Ana María; Astudillo, Paula; Barrios, Sara; Rivas, Edith

    2004-09-01

    Intercultural health is becoming an emergent topic in the design of health care programs for Mapuche people of Chile. This process faces important challenges such as the scarce theoretical support about the meaning of intercultural health and their practical consequences for providers and clients. To explore the perception in providers and Mapuche clients about intercultural health. A survey performed in 11 counties with the highest concentration of Mapuche people, of the IX region of Chile. The perception about the development of a new health policy specially designed for Mapuche patients was surveyed in 399 Mapuche patients and 64 providers of primary health care centers. Mapuche clients considered, as the main regional challenges, the indifference and discrimination of health care teams towards Mapuche patients, aggravated by the indifference of authorities. Providers considered that the main problem was a lack of knowledge about Mapuche culture and skills to deal with this ethnic group. Patients and providers agreed on the need to use Mapuche dialect in health care attentions, to coordinate actions with traditional healers and to accept ethnical therapeutic practices. There is scarce agreement between providers and Mapuche clients about the need for an special intercultural health policy, its contents, and the regional conditions for its implementation and development.

  18. Seventy-five years of policy on alcohol problems: an American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of alcohol-related social policy over the past 75 years. The literature was reviewed and is critically discussed. The social history of alcohol policies over the last 75 years began with the scientific approach to alcohol in the 1930s and later shifted to a central interest in the disease of alcoholism. Beginning with the National Council on Alcoholism Education, advocates struggled to "mainstream" treatment for this disease into the health care system. Major steps included decriminalization of public intoxication, emphasis of the social respectability of persons with alcohol problems, development of a treatment system that was accompanied by health insurance coverage, and work-based programs to identify and attract employed patients with health insurance coverage. These structures were considerably altered by the War on Drugs, managed care, and the merger of drug and alcohol treatment. The Affordable Care Act, however, has the potential for achieving the mainstreaming goals for alcohol problems originally conceived in the early 1940s. Responsible involvement of the alcoholic beverage industry could greatly enhance current activities but is not likely to occur. Stigma persists in part because of associations with prevention and treatment of illegal drug use problems. The Affordable Care Act offers opportunities and challenges to the specialty of treating alcohol use disorders.

  19. Resident Perspectives on Work-Life Policies and Implications for Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westercamp, Nicole; Wang, Raziya S; Fassiotto, Magali

    2018-02-01

    As resident burnout increases, there is a need for better awareness, resources, and interventions. Challenges in balancing work and life priorities have been implicated in contributing to physician burnout. Institutional work-life policies (WLPs) are critical tools to meet work-life needs. This study investigates the influence of WLPs on residents' experiences. The authors emailed a SurveyMonkey link to the APA chief resident and Minority Fellow listservs and directly to 94 psychiatry program directors and 52 fellowship directors nationwide to distribute a survey to residents regarding WLP use and barriers, as well as burnout. Estimated response rate was 12-23%. The authors assessed the anonymous responses using SPSS to evaluate for relationships between awareness of WLPs, perceptions/barriers surrounding their usage, and burnout. The authors analyzed 255 responses. Awareness and use of policies ranged from 2 to 33%. A prominent barrier to WLPs is that use results in shifting workload to co-residents (48% agree). Respondents who perceived leadership to view use of WLPs as a sign of weakness (16% agree) were less likely to use WLPs (t (89) = -3.52, p burnout (41%) perceived vastly higher barriers to using WLPs as compared to those without burnout. This study supports the need for further investigation of WLPs to mitigate resident burnout and identifies important perceived barriers that affect the use of WLPs including low awareness, potential for shifting workload to co-residents, and negative perceptions of leadership attitudes toward WLPs.

  20. Nanoparticulate materials and regulatory policy in Europe: An analysis of stakeholder perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Aasgeir; Kastenholz, Hans; Thidell, Aake; Arnfalk, Peter; Deppert, Knut

    2006-10-01

    The novel properties of nanoparticulate materials (NPM) and the rapid development of NPM based products have raised many unanswered questions and concerns by different stakeholders over its consequences for the environment and human health. These concerns have led to an increasing discussion in both the US and Europe about possible regulatory policies for NPM. In this article a comparative study of stakeholders' perceptions on regulatory policy issues with NPM in Europe is presented. It was found that industry wants to regulate this area if the scientific evidence demonstrates that NPM are harmful, but also that the regulatory bodies do not find it necessary at this point of time to regulate until scientific evidence demonstrates that NPM are harmful. This research therefore shows that there will most likely not be any regulatory interventions until there is an established and convincing scientific knowledge base demonstrating that NPM can be hazardous. It is furthermore discussed in this article the different roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders in financing the research required to establish the necessary level of fundamental scientific evidence. It was also found that the activity of the regulatory bodies on this issue differ between the European countries.

  1. Nanoparticulate materials and regulatory policy in Europe: An analysis of stakeholder perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helland, Aasgeir, E-mail: asgeir.helland@empa.ch; Kastenholz, Hans [EMPA Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab (Switzerland); Thidell, Aake; Arnfalk, Peter [International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University (Sweden); Deppert, Knut [Lund University, Solid State Physics/Nanometer Structure Consortium (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    The novel properties of nanoparticulate materials (NPM) and the rapid development of NPM based products have raised many unanswered questions and concerns by different stakeholders over its consequences for the environment and human health. These concerns have led to an increasing discussion in both the US and Europe about possible regulatory policies for NPM. In this article a comparative study of stakeholders' perceptions on regulatory policy issues with NPM in Europe is presented. It was found that industry wants to regulate this area if the scientific evidence demonstrates that NPM are harmful, but also that the regulatory bodies do not find it necessary at this point of time to regulate until scientific evidence demonstrates that NPM are harmful. This research therefore shows that there will most likely not be any regulatory interventions until there is an established and convincing scientific knowledge base demonstrating that NPM can be hazardous. It is furthermore discussed in this article the different roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders in financing the research required to establish the necessary level of fundamental scientific evidence. It was also found that the activity of the regulatory bodies on this issue differ between the European countries.

  2. The science, policy and practice of nature-based solutions: An interdisciplinary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesshöver, Carsten; Assmuth, Timo; Irvine, Katherine N; Rusch, Graciela M; Waylen, Kerry A; Delbaere, Ben; Haase, Dagmar; Jones-Walters, Lawrence; Keune, Hans; Kovacs, Eszter; Krauze, Kinga; Külvik, Mart; Rey, Freddy; van Dijk, Jiska; Vistad, Odd Inge; Wilkinson, Mark E; Wittmer, Heidi

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we reflect on the implications for science, policy and practice of the recently introduced concept of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), with a focus on the European context. First, we analyse NBS in relation to similar concepts, and reflect on its relationship to sustainability as an overarching framework. From this, we derive a set of questions to be addressed and propose a general framework for how these might be addressed in NBS projects by funders, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners. We conclude that: To realise their full potential, NBS must be developed by including the experience of all relevant stakeholders such that 'solutions' contribute to achieving all dimensions of sustainability. As NBS are developed, we must also moderate the expectations placed on them since the precedent provided by other initiatives whose aim was to manage nature sustainably demonstrates that we should not expect NBS to be cheap and easy, at least not in the short-term. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Action-Oriented Study Circles Facilitate Efforts in Nursing Homes to “Go from Feeding to Serving”: Conceptual Perspectives on Knowledge Translation and Workplace Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Westergren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Action-oriented study circles (AOSC have been found to improve nutrition in 24 nursing homes in Sweden. Little, however, is known about the conceptual use of knowledge (changes in staffs’ knowledge and behaviours. Methods. Qualitative and quantitative methods, structured questionnaires for evaluating participants’ (working in nursing homes experiences from study circles (n=592, 71 AOSC and for comparisons between AOSC participants (n=74 and nonparticipants (n=115. Finally, a focus group interview was conducted with AOSC participants (in total n=12. Statistical, conventional, and directed content analyses were used. Results. Participants experienced a statistically significant increase in their knowledge about eating and nutrition, when retrospectively comparing before participating and after, as well as in comparison to non-participants, and they felt that the management was engaged in and took care of ideas regarding food and mealtimes to a significantly greater extent than non-participants. The use of AOSC was successful judging from how staff members had changed their attitudes and behaviours toward feeding residents. Conclusions. AOSC facilitates professional development, better system performance, and, as shown in previous studies, better patient outcome. Based on a collaborative learning perspective, AOSC manages to integrate evidence, context, and facilitation in the efforts to achieve knowledge translation in a learning organisation. This study has implications also for other care settings implementing AOSC.

  4. STRUCTURE AND VALIDATION OF A CONTEXTUAL QUALITY OF LIFE SCALE FOR PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES IN SOCIAL SERVICES: AN ORGANIZATION-ORIENTED MEASURE FROM AN EXTERNAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moliner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop and validate a scale on the Quality of Life (QoL of people with intellectual disabilities as assessed by family members (external perspective. The instrument measures improvement in QoL due to actions by organizations delivering services to individuals with intellectual disabilities (organization-oriented measure. In order to design the items for the scale, focus groups were set up with professionals dedicated to attending to individuals with intellectual disabilities. An initial scale of 20 items was constructed by consensus. A total of 1195 family members answered the questionnaire. In order to assess the structure of the scale, EFA recommended deleting 3 overlapping items. The final scale consisted of 17 items (α=95 and was composed of four main dimensions: self-determination (SD, social inclusion (SI, rights (RI and overall improvement (OI, which explained 74.83% of the variance. Finally, the consistency and validity were assessed. Convergent validity and discriminant validity were satisfactory. Moreover, CFA confirmed the structure of the scale. Main conclusions, limitations and practical implications are discussed.

  5. Perspectives of intellectual disability in Mexico: epidemiology, policy, and services for children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gregorio; Márquez-Caraveo, Maria E; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2010-09-01

    Intellectual disability is a public health issue, which has largely been overlooked in Mexico. The magnitude of this problem is unknown; few programs exist for adults and mental health professionals focus mainly on identifying treatable comorbidities. In Mexico, there is an example of a best practice in social integration. This program has benefited hundreds of adults with intellectual disability by teaching four basic abilities: practical academic skills; vocational skills; independent living skills; and skills for community integration. In a sociocultural and economic context such as Mexico's, social integration programs are feasible and necessary in order to provide an organized social response to the health, social, and vocational needs of people with intellectual disability and should become part of public policy.

  6. India’s Look/Act East Policy and the Northeast Region: A Critical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Hiranya K Nath

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available India’s Look East Policy (LEP signifies a strategic shift in its international political, economic, and military relationships. Regional integration of its Northeast Region (NER with the countries in East, Southeast and South Asia may potentially generate economic dividends to the region. However, there are formidable challenges in realizing the potentials. The proposed infrastructure projects, if completed with no further delay, will go a long way in improving connectivity with the neighbouring countries. However, improving connectivity within the region and with the rest of the country is also very important. Further, it would require a comprehensive long-term plan with well-defined projects for developing industries and services including education, health and tourism. Building infrastructure, ensuring socio-political stability and ecological balance, and improving the quality of institutions would be a major part of this plan.

  7. Implementation of decentralized power generation by biogas digester: Policy and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalendunath Ghosh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evolve innovative system for fast track implementation of decentralized power generation by biogas digester across the country commensurate with estimated potential of this energy resource. The methodology is based on the principle that necessity of a process or facility for human liveli hood generates demand of a new system if that is competitive enough to impress society by its value to meet the standard of usability economically and technically in all respect. Firstly, the study described a network of communication to propagate knowledge about the benefit, cost and operation of biogas digester to serve multiple purposes among policy makers and other stakeholders all over the country through distance mode programme and training of the human resources by simulating the process for training programme. Secondly, analysis by cause and effect method focused on major issues related to implementation of power generation by biogas that identified factors corresponding to the problems. Next the study attempt to focus on supply chain management for controlling those factors supported by administration with financial, technical facilities ensuring trouble free dynamic process from procurement of substrate through input to digester till delivery of electricity to the consumers. The study identified driving variables between resource centre and delivery stage of the supply chain that has influence on methane production related to power generation. The mathematical analysis reveal that optimum yield of biogas is independent of daily feed stock and improving methane fraction of biogas is possible by monitoring temperature and pH value within limited span of Hydraulic Retention period (HRT.The study observed by mathematical analysis that cost of power generation from biogas digester is dependent on the cost of substrate for biogas generation and the other fixed cost of the process. Bio gas digester cum power generation policy has been

  8. Land Rights of Community Forest Plantation Policy: Analysis from an Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramasto Nugroho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the land rights of bussiness permit for timber utilization from community forestplantation (IUPHHK-HTR in Indonesia and to predict its effectiveness based on property rights theory relatedto target group characteristics. Field survey was conducted in November 2008 to April 2009 in Riau and SouthKalimantan Provinces. The results showed that from the property rights theory perspective, the land rights forHTR could be categorized as lease or management rights consisted of rights to exclude, to manage, to use, andto access, without rights to transfer and to bequeath. This suggests that the mechanism of transfer of rights fromthe government to the holder of IUPHHK-HTR as a temporary transfer of rights. As a result, the government needsto regulate a rigid and detailed obligation for IUPHHK-HTR holders that may not be fulfilled by the farmers. Thegranting of permits for a long period (up to 95 years is predicted to lose the meanings, caused of the prohibitionon inheritance of the permits. From these findings it is predicted to reduce the interest of farmers to invest in theHTR.Keywords: land rights, community forest plantation, institutions, property rights, lease/management rights

  9. Joint implementation as a cost-effective climate policy measure: a Chinese perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    By analysing the macroeconomic and sectoral effects of carbon emission limits for China through a time-recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model of the Chinese economy, the report shows that the carbon taxes required in China are much lower than those for both the industrialised countries and the world average in order to achieve the same percentage of emission reductions relative to the baseline. This provides the economic rationale for the development of JI projects with China. The report discusses in some detail potential areas for JI projects with China. Areas of most interest are related to those activities and options aimed at: (1) improving the efficiency of energy use, particularly at energy intensive energy sectors (e.g. iron and steel industry, chemical industry, building materials industry, and power industry) and devices (e.g. industrial boilers); (2) pushing efficient use of coal through increasing proportion of raw coal washed; popularizing domestic use of coal briquette; substitution of direct burning of coal by electricity through development of large-size, high-temperature and high-pressure efficient coal-fired power plants; expanding district heating systems and developing cogeneration; increased penetration of town gas into urban households; and through development of environmentally sound coal technologies; (3) speeding up the development of hydropower and nuclear power; and (4) developing renewables. The report addresses some operational aspects of JI from a Chinese perspective. Some JI projects are under discussion but the Chinese government has not yet approved any

  10. Policy implications of first-dollar coverage: a qualitative examination from the payer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, Emily F; Moore, Jonathan R; Whitmore, Heidi; O'Grady, Michael J; Shen, Angela K

    2011-01-01

    Immunization against potentially life-threatening illnesses for children and adults has proved to be one of the great public health successes of the 20th century and is extremely cost-effective. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes a number of provisions to increase coverage and access to immunizations for the consumer, including a provision for health plans to cover all Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices-recommended vaccines at first dollar, or without cost sharing. In this study, we examined payers' perspectives on first-dollar coverage of vaccines and strategies to improve vaccination rates. This was a qualitative study, using a literature review and semistructured expert interviews with payers. Four key themes emerged, including (1) the cost implications of the first-dollar change; (2) the importance of examining barriers to children, adolescents, and adults separately to focus interventions more strategically; (3) the importance of provider knowledge and education in increasing immunization; and (4) the effect of first-dollar coverage on those who decline vaccination for personal reasons. We determined that, while reducing financial barriers through first-dollar coverage is an important first step to increasing immunization rates, there are structural and cultural barriers that also will require collaborative, strategic work among all vaccine stakeholders.

  11. Perspectives of policy and political decision makers on access to formal dementia care: expert interviews in eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Anja; Bieber, Anja; Meyer, Gabriele; Hopper, Louise; Joyce, Rachael; Irving, Kate; Zanetti, Orazio; Portolani, Elisa; Kerpershoek, Liselot; Verhey, Frans; Vugt, Marjolein de; Wolfs, Claire; Eriksen, Siren; Røsvik, Janne; Marques, Maria J; Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Woods, Bob; Jelley, Hannah; Orrell, Martin; Stephan, Astrid

    2017-08-03

    As part of the ActifCare (ACcess to Timely Formal Care) project, we conducted expert interviews in eight European countries with policy and political decision makers, or representatives of relevant institutions, to determine their perspectives on access to formal care for people with dementia and their carers. Each ActifCare country (Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom) conducted semi-structured interviews with 4-7 experts (total N = 38). The interview guide addressed the topics "Complexity and Continuity of Care", "Formal Services", and "Public Awareness". Country-specific analysis of interview transcripts used an inductive qualitative content analysis. Cross-national synthesis focused on similarities in themes across the ActifCare countries. The analysis revealed ten common themes and two additional sub-themes across countries. Among others, the experts highlighted the need for a coordinating role and the necessity of information to address issues of complexity and continuity of care, demanded person-centred, tailored, and multidisciplinary formal services, and referred to education, mass media and campaigns as means to raise public awareness. Policy and political decision makers appear well acquainted with current discussions among both researchers and practitioners of possible approaches to improve access to dementia care. Experts described pragmatic, realistic strategies to influence dementia care. Suggested innovations concerned how to achieve improved dementia care, rather than transforming the nature of the services provided. Knowledge gained in these expert interviews may be useful to national decision makers when they consider reshaping the organisation of dementia care, and may thus help to develop best-practice strategies and recommendations.

  12. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme - Identifying Policy Translation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2016-10-01

    Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders' views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. In the study, interviewees referred to both 'hard and soft' elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main 'hard elements' include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The 'soft' elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years, amounting to a process best conceived as germination as opposed

  13. Perspectives on the role of stakeholders in knowledge translation in health policy development in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Marchal, Bruno; Mafigiri, DavidKaawa; Ssengooba, Freddie; Macq, Jean; Da Silveira, Valeria Campos; Criel, Bart

    2013-08-19

    Stakeholder roles in the application of evidence are influenced by context, the nature of the evidence, the policy development process, and stakeholder interactions. Past research has highlighted the role of stakeholders in knowledge translation (KT) without paying adequate attention to the peculiarities of low-income countries. Here we identify the roles, relations, and interactions among the key stakeholders involved in KT in Uganda and the challenges that they face. This study employed qualitative approaches to examine the roles of and links among various stakeholders in KT. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 key informants and focused on the key actors in KT, their perceived roles, and challenges. Major stakeholders included civil society organizations with perceived roles of advocacy, community mobilization, and implementation. These stakeholders may ignore unconvincing evidence. The community's role was perceived as advocacy and participation in setting research priorities. The key role of the media was perceived as knowledge dissemination, but respondents noted that the media may misrepresent evidence if it is received in a poorly packaged form. The perceived roles of policy makers were evidence uptake, establishing platforms for KT and stewardship; negative roles included ignoring or even misrepresenting evidence that is not in their favor. The roles of parliamentarians were perceived as advocacy and community mobilization, but they were noted to pursue objectives that may not be supported by the evidence. The researchers' main role was defined as evidence generation, but focusing disproportionately on academic interests was cited as a concern. The donors' main role was defined as funding research and KT, but respondents were concerned about the local relevance of donor-supported research. Respondents reported that links among stakeholders were weak due to the absence of institutionalized, inclusive platforms. Challenges facing the stakeholders in

  14. [Immigration in Spain and the health system: a fiscal policy perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Moreno, Angela; Hernández Pascual, Javier

    2009-12-01

    The Spanish population has grown by over 6 million people in the last 10 years and immigrants account for 4.5 million of this increase. Although this influx has largely been motivated by economic reasons, stimulated by the sharp growth of the Spanish economy, sociological factors must also be considered to assess the impact of immigration shock on public expenditure and the social welfare system. On the one hand, the demographic growth caused by immigration temporarily balances the pension system, as immigrants have a lower average age and a higher fertility rate. On the other hand, the demographic and economic features of the immigrant community make additional demands on the social welfare system. Universal access to basic public services such as the education and health systems is a crucial asset in the integration policy aimed at the immigrant collective, and compensates for its possible effect as an incentive to immigrate. In the short term, the huge population growth has led to health services' congestion, especially in primary health care, because of the unequal geographic distribution of immigrants. The health expenditure imputable to immigrants is lower than their share in the total population and is highly concentrated in four autonomous regions.

  15. Alleviating inequality in climate policy costs: an integrated perspective on mitigation, damage and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cian, E.; Hof, A. F.; Marangoni, G.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, D. P.

    2016-07-01

    Equity considerations play an important role in international climate negotiations. While policy analysis has often focused on equity as it relates to mitigation costs, there are large regional differences in adaptation costs and the level of residual damage. This paper illustrates the relevance of including adaptation and residual damage in equity considerations by determining how the allocation of emission allowances would change to counteract regional differences in total climate costs, defined as the costs of mitigation, adaptation, and residual damage. We compare emission levels resulting from a global carbon tax with two allocations of emission allowances under a global cap-and-trade system: one equating mitigation costs and one equating total climate costs as share of GDP. To account for uncertainties in both mitigation and adaptation, we use a model-comparison approach employing two alternative modeling frameworks with different damage, adaptation cost, and mitigation cost estimates, and look at two different climate goals. Despite the identified model uncertainties, we derive unambiguous results on the change in emission allowance allocation that could lessen the unequal distribution of adaptation costs and residual damages through the financial transfers associated with emission trading.

  16. Fiscal policy and private investment: latin america in a comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Caballero U.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to assess the impact of fiscal variables on private investment comparing some Latin-American economies to other advanced ones. For such purposes, the authors carry out an econometric analysis for the period 1990-2008. They make use of two dynamic panel models in which they group countries with similar characteristics and development levels. In one of them, they include Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Uruguay; whereas in the second one the countries accounted for are the U.S., Canada, Spain, Korea, Ireland and Japan. They specify in both models an investment function using as arguments a wide range of variables, including those related with fiscal policy. From their results the authors infer that governments can, with higher spending, boost up the economy even when they finance spending with higher taxes. In Latin America, where income concentration is enormous, a proposal to boost up the economy through higher government expenditure financed with a progressive income tax, is even more justified.

  17. Pan-European management of coastal lagoons: A science-policy-stakeholder interface perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillebø, Ana I.; Stålnacke, Per; Gooch, Geoffrey D.; Krysanova, Valentina; Bielecka, Małgorzata

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of the work carried out in the scope of a three years collaborative research project was to develop science-based strategies and a decision support framework for the integrated management of coastal lagoons and their catchments and, in this context, to enhance connectivity between research and policymaking. In this paper our main objective is to share the lessons learned from the innovative methodology used throughout the project. To achieve the proposed objectives, the multidisciplinary scientific knowledge in the project team was combined and integrated with the knowledge and views of local stakeholders of four selected European coastal lagoons, using a three step participatory approach. With this innovative approach, which included the usage of eco-hydrological and water quality-modelling tools, the team developed and analyzed integrated scenarios of possible economic development and environmental impacts in four European lagoons and their catchments. These scenarios were presented and discussed with stakeholders, giving rise to management recommendations for each case study lagoon. Results show that some management options might be transferrable to other European lagoons having similar climatic, geophysical and socio-economic settings. In management terms, the project output provides a set of policy guidelines derived from the different analyses conducted and proposes initiatives concerning management implementation in a local-regional-national-European setting.

  18. Seeking a stable future: perspectives on population policy. The legal approach: women's rights as human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, R N

    1994-01-01

    As it has grappled with issues of population policy, the international community has emphasized that women's reproductive rights are human rights. Scholars have also acknowledged that the right to reproductive health care exists within the scope of international human rights treaties and conventions and that gender equality, nondiscrimination, and freedom from government interference in marriage and family life are also guaranteed. Further protections extend to counseling and health information and referral. The Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development continues this trend by emphasizing the importance of human rights for attaining population and development objectives, calling on governments to focus their efforts on improving the quality of life for individuals, and endorsing the notion that reproductive rights are universal human rights. Reproductive health care options are also influenced by sovereign laws that restrict availability of contraception, sterilization, or abortion. However, universal rights and unrestricted access must be complemented by other factors controlled by domestic laws to guarantee reproductive choice. Such laws cover issues like marriage age, divorce, marital property, child support, maternity benefits, day care, sex discrimination, eligibility for insurance, confidentiality, spousal consent, rape, and sexual abuse. Countries must modify restrictive national laws and promote laws protecting women's rights.

  19. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... and arise from complex interactions between genetic makeup and environment, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a collection of sub-phenotypes resulting in high fasting glucose. The underlying gene-environment interactions that produce these classes of T2DM are imperfectly characterized. Based on assessments...... of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue...

  20. Equality at home - A question of career? Housework, norms, and policies in a European comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Fahlén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dual-earner families are widespread in contemporary Europe, yet the division of housework is highly gendered, with women still bearing the lion's share. However, women in dual-career couples and in other types of non-traditional couples, across and within different European countries, appear to handle the division of housework differently. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the division of housework among various couple-earner types, by determining i whether relative resources, time spent on paid work, gender attitudes, and family structure reduce variations in housework between different couple types, and ii whether the division of housework varies between countries with different work‒family policies and gender norms. Methods: The study uses data from ten countries, representing different welfare regime types, extracted from the European Social Survey (2010/11, and employs multivariate regressions and aggregated analysis of the association between the division of housework and the contextual indices. Results: The results show that dual-career couples divide housework more equally than dual-earner couples, relating more to the fact that the former group of women do less housework in general, rather than that men are doing more. The cross-national analysis shows tangible differences between dual-earner and dual-career couples; however, the difference is less marked with respect to the division of housework in countries with more institutional support for work‒family reconciliation and less traditional gender norms. Contribution: By combining conventional economic and gender-based approaches with an institutional framework, this study contributes to the research field by showing that the division of housework within different couple-earner types is contextually embedded.

  1. Private Sector in Indian Healthcare Delivery: Consumer Perspective and Government Policies to promote private Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsh Shah, Ragini Mohanty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper attempts to collate literature from various sources, in an attempt to answer three pertinent questions related to healthcare in India. Firstly, what is it meant by ‘private sector’ in healthcare delivery system of India, secondly how has the private sector evolved over the decades and what has been the role of the government in propelling the growth. Finally, the paper tries to highlight some of the factors that have promoted the growth of private sector in India with specific reference to quality of medical care. The paper explicitly indicates that the deficiencies in the public health delivery system of India, was the key to growth of private infrastructure in healthcare.The shift of hospital industry for ‘welfare orientation’ to ‘business orientation’ was marked by the advent of corporate hospitals, supported by various policy level initiatives made by the government. Today, there are over 20 international healthcare brands in India with several corporate hospitals.However, a large section of the ‘private healthcare delivery segment’ is scattered and quality of medical care continues to remain a matter of concern. This paper tracks the various government initiatives to promote private investment in healthcare and attempts to explore the reasons for preference of the private sector. Surprisingly, in contrast to contemporary belief, quality of medical care doesn’t seem to be the leading cause for preference of the private sector. Except for a few select corporate and trust hospitals, quality of medical care in private sector seems to be poor and at times compromised.

  2. Swedish Employers and Trade Unions, Labor Migration and the Welfare State—Perspectives on Swedish Labor Migration Policy Debates during the 1960s and the 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Johansson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses a political economy approach and explores the nexus between labor migration and the welfare state and how its specificities have been viewed and presented by organized interests of employers and trade unions in Swedish labor migration policy debates during the 1960s and the 2000s. The analysis demonstrates that the Swedish Employers’ Confederation (SAF and its organizational successor the Swedish Confederation of Enterprise (SN have preferred a market-liberal labor migration policy. Over time, a liberal immigration policy has been viewed by employers as an important policy solution to extend levels of economic growth, increase firm competitiveness, and maintain funding for generous welfare state services. However, since the 1960s the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO has preferred a state-coordinated and regulated labor migration policy. In LO’s perspective, a regulated immigration policy is a fundamental precondition for guaranteeing workers’ rights, and for minimizing potential negative effects for the functioning of the Swedish labor market model and for a prosperous Swedish welfare state.

  3. Twenty years of struggle against global warming in France: assessment and perspectives for public policies. Opinion of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virlouvet, Gael

    2015-04-01

    This huge report proposes a rather detailed overview of the evolution of the French policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to struggle against climate change and global warming. The introduction proposes a large synthesis by addressing the challenges of this struggle, the French attenuation trajectory within the European framework, the relationship between energy and climate policies, the progressive development of a method, the increasing number of involved actors, the commitment of the various economic sectors and local communities. Some recommendations are made within the perspective of the next Conference on Climate (COP21) and beyond. Then, the report first part addresses the 1992-2014 period, describes the international context (evolutions of greenhouse gas emissions in the world and per sector), presents the different international agreements (Kyoto protocol, Doha amendment, European commitments, the role of France in the world and European dynamics), gives an overview of the progressive emergence of a climate policy in France and of its results (global decrease of emissions, but with variations among sectors), proposes a comparison of climate policies debated and implemented in different countries (China, USA, Swede, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany). An analysis discusses the obtained results, the difficult implementation of Climate plans in France, the coherence of public policies, the territorialisation of the climate challenge, and the influence of the economic context on the evolution of emissions. The next part outlines and comments how the French population becomes always more aware of the climate challenge, how intermediate bodies tend to take charge of this issue, how economic activities progressively integrate the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and how local policies can also tackle the problem. Perspectives are then discussed: on the long term (factor 4 objective for the various sectors), on the medium term (by 2020-2030), and

  4. Near field communication in orienteering

    OpenAIRE

    Lisovski, Dominik Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) – radio-based communication technology that is rapidly gaining in popularity, although its potential is still not fully utilized. The aim of this thesis is to improve orienteering sports using NFC technology. Firstly, in this final work orienteering sport is analysed. It is identified how punching happens at control points and what are the main problems of orienteering sports. Secondly, operating principles of the technology, usage perspectives at the present an...

  5. Shifts in EU cohesion policy and processes of peripheralization: a view from Central Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faragó, L.; Varró, K.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing dominance of neoliberalism as the key steering mechanism of the European Union (EU) since the early 1990s has implied the competitiveness-oriented reshaping of cohesion policy. The aim of this paper is to initiate a debate from a critical political economic perspective on the

  6. Evaluation of implementation status of national policy on Indian systems of medicine and homeopathy 2002: Stakeholders′ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balpreet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Response rate was 61%. Majority of experts considered implementation status of ISM and H Policy as poor. Lack of quality education was mentioned as major factor responsible for current scenario of ISM and H Policy by most of experts. Lack of funds and government support were emerged as major bottlenecks in implementation of ISM and H Policy.

  7. Locked Up and Locked Out: An Educational Perspective on the U.S. Prison Population. Policy Information Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Richard J.; Barton, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    In this important and sobering report, the authors provide a broad perspective on the U.S. prison population and offer judgments about the status of prison education programs. This report brings together data and information from a variety of sources to provide an educational perspective on the nation's prison population. It examines the size and…

  8. A Study on the preparation of environmental act system in Korea II - concentrated on the preparation of environmental policy fundamental act, protection of water supply source, and greenbelt area act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is to propose to reform environmental policy fundamental act and land related act into future-oriented direction. First of all, the environmental policy fundamental act presented the direction of reforming water supply, national parks, and greenbelt related acts in environmental preservation perspective. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  9. Does an intrinsic work value orientation strengthen the impact of job resources? A perspective from the Job Demands-Resources Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, A. van den; Ruysseveldt, J. van; Smulders, P.G.W.; Witte, H. de

    2011-01-01

    Based on assumptions of the Job Demands-Resources model and the Person-Environment fit literature, the present research conceptualizes an intrinsic relative to an extrinsic work value orientation as a personal resource. We examine whether such an orientation may strengthen the relations of classical

  10. Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C

    2012-02-01

    In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males.

  11. Tracking the implementation of green credit policy in China: top-down perspective and bottom-up reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Yang, Yan; Bi, Jun

    2011-04-01

    The Chinese government has introduced the green credit policy to mitigate the environmental impact of industrialization by reining in credit loans to companies and projects with poor environmental performance. This research investigated the implementation of the green credit policy both at the national and provincial levels. Our results show that the green credit policy is not fully implemented. The wide-ranging impact on high-polluting and high energy-consuming industries, vague policy details unclear implementing standards, and lack of environmental information are the main problems in the implementation of the green credit policy in China. On the other hand, the practice at local level (Jiangsu Province) is more practical by integrating green credit policy with the environmental performance rating system. Finally, suggestions are outlined to improve China's green credit policy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards durable multistakeholder-generated solutions: The pilot application of a problem-oriented policy learning protocol to legality verification and community rights in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Humphreys; B. Cashore; I.J. Visseren-Hamakers; W. De Jong; K. McGinley; A. Denvir; P. Caro Torres; S. Lupberger

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports and reflects on the pilot application of an 11-step policy learning protocol that was developed by Cashore and Lupberger (2015) based on several years of Cashore's multi-author collaborations. The protocol was applied for the first time in Peru in 2015 and 2016 by the IUFRO Working Party on Forest Policy Learning Architectures (hereinafter...

  13. Public policy for victims of forced displacement in the city of Medellín: a synthesis of interorganizational relationships from a policy network perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Alejandro Murcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to synthetise the interorganisational relationships that have developed in Public Policy in relation with victims of forced displacement in the Municipality of Medellin. Using the Public Policy Networks approach and Inter-organisational theory, it focuses on scenarios where such relationships occurred, on the attributes, positions and roles of the organisations, on the types of relationships, exchanges and resources. To achieve the objectives, Social Network Analysis as methodological strategy and qualitative strategies were used to understand the organizations’ perceptions of their relationships in the policy process. This study permitted to understand the structure and dynamics of the network, and enhanced different modalities in the participation of organizations in terms of frequency, changes in their roles, power relations, conflicting and cooperative relations, among other factors.

  14. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  15. A dynamic model for organic waste management in Quebec (D-MOWIQ) as a tool to review environmental, societal and economic perspectives of a waste management policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Jean-Philippe; Housset, Johann

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic systems model of organic waste management for the province of Quebec, Canada, was built. Six distinct modules taking into account social, economical and environmental issues and perspectives were included. Five scenarios were designed and tested to identify the potential consequences of different governmental and demographic combinations of decisions over time. Among these scenarios, one examines Quebec's organic waste management policy (2011-2015), while the other scenarios represent business as usual or emphasize ecology, economy or social benefits in the decision-making process. Model outputs suggest that the current governmental policy should yield favorable environmental benefits, energy production and waste valorization. The projections stemming from the current policy action plan approach the benefits gained by another scenario emphasizing the environmental aspects in the decision-making process. As expected, without the current policy and action plan in place, or business as usual, little improvements are expected in waste management compared to current trends, and strictly emphasizing economic imperatives does not favor sustainable organic waste management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Promovendo o autocuidado a pacientes com cefaléia por meio da perspectiva oriental de saúde Promoviendo el autocuidado en pacientes con dolor de cabeza a través de la perspectiva oriental de salud Promoting self-care to patients suffering headache through the oriental perspective of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Wink

    2007-04-01

    Nursing graduation course, who presented headaches. Built from a subject of the Nursing Master Course of Federal University of Santa Catarina, the project was based in the concept of competence for self-care of Orem, understood through an oriental perspective of health. Three strategies of care were applied: the pain dairy, the focusing and the cranium-acupuncture, in monthly-weekly meetings and in individual meetings, for a two-month period. The participants related results of pain relief, discover of non-physical causes for pain and increase of welfare. It was possible to verify that the participants presented an individualized process of self-care development and that the strategies selected are suitable for the care.

  17. Learner Autonomy in Foreign Language Policies in Vietnamese Universities: An Exploration of Teacher Agency from a Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T. T. Huyen; Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2017-01-01

    Learner autonomy (LA) is generally accepted as an important goal, either explicit or implicit, in language education policies across polities. Fostering LA in educational settings primarily depends on the role of teachers in enacting macro-level policies at the micro level. While various top-down and bottom-up frameworks for language policy…

  18. The dilemmas and complexities of implementing language-in-education policies: perspectives from urban and rural contexts in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.; Moorcroft, S.; van der Draai, H.

    2014-01-01

    Language-in-education policies are a highly debated topic in Africa and at the root of understanding inequalities in Africa's education systems. This article explores the implementation of Uganda's recent local language education policy; how it has been received and practiced in urban and rural

  19. Banning shisha smoking in public places in Iran: an advocacy coalition framework perspective on policy process and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Breton, Eric; Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-07-01

    Shisha smoking is a widespread custom in Iran with a rapidly growing prevalence especially among the youth. In this article, we analyze the policy process of enforcing a federal/state ban on shisha smoking in all public places in Kerman Province, Iran. Guided by the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), we investigate how a shisha smoking ban reached the political agenda in 2011, how it was framed by different policy actors, and why no significant breakthrough took place despite its inclusion on the agenda. We conducted a qualitative study using a case study approach. Two main sources of data were employed: face-to-face in-depth interviews and document analysis of key policy texts. We interviewed 24 policy actors from diverse sectors. A qualitative thematic framework, incorporating both inductive and deductive analyses, was employed to analyze our data. We found that the health sector was the main actor pushing the issue of shisha smoking onto the political agenda by framing it as a public health risk. The health sector and its allies advocated enforcement of a federal law to ban shisha smoking in all public places including teahouses and traditional restaurants whereas another group of actors opposed the ban. The pro-ban group was unable to neutralize the strategies of the anti-ban group and to steer the debate towards the health harms of shisha smoking. Our analysis uncovers three main reasons behind the policy stasis: lack of policy learning due to lack of agreement over evidence and related analytical conflicts between the two groups linked to differences in core and policy beliefs; the inability of the pro-ban group to exploit opportunities in the external policy subsystem through generating stronger public support for enforcement of the shisha smoking ban; and the nature of the institutional setting, in particular the autocratic governance of CHFS which contributed to a lack of policy learning within the policy subsystem. Our research demonstrated the utility

  20. Challenges of the Energiewende from a policy analysis perspective. Understanding the goals and improving the policy instruments of Germany's energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joas, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Germany is currently restructuring its energy system, an endeavor its chancellor, Angela Merkel, called the project of the century. This Energiewende has moved into rough waters in recent years. The relatively high and rapidly growing shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources (mainly wind and photovoltaic) have led to numerous technical and socio-economic challenges. The unclear and sometimes contradictory policy goals of the Energiewende as well as suboptimally designed policy instruments in key areas of the Energiewende are the two major areas of concerns of this dissertation. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the solution of selected challenges of the Energiewende in the context of goals and policy instruments. In this regard, the following four research questions are addressed: 1. What are the goals of the Energiewende and how do they interact with the design of policy instruments? 2. What are the impacts of the German nuclear phase-out on the electricity market and the security of supply? 3. How do different designs of support mechanisms for renewable energy affect the riskdistribution between society, investors in renewable energy and investors in conventional power plants? 4. What is the impact of ex-post transaction costs on the cost-effectiveness of selected climate policy instruments? The main results and the subsequent policy conclusions of this thesis can be summarized as follows: The research on the goals of the Energiewende was based on a survey among elite policy actors, which showed that climate protection is the most important goal of the Energiewende. However, climate protection is neither the only goal, nor an indispensable one. Additional goals such as the nuclear phase-out, import independence from fossil fuels and job creation also play an important role. A large majority agrees that the Energiewende would make sense even if climate change did not exist. The following policy conclusions can be derived: first, there should

  1. Challenges of the Energiewende from a policy analysis perspective. Understanding the goals and improving the policy instruments of Germany's energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joas, Fabian

    2017-05-19

    Germany is currently restructuring its energy system, an endeavor its chancellor, Angela Merkel, called the project of the century. This Energiewende has moved into rough waters in recent years. The relatively high and rapidly growing shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources (mainly wind and photovoltaic) have led to numerous technical and socio-economic challenges. The unclear and sometimes contradictory policy goals of the Energiewende as well as suboptimally designed policy instruments in key areas of the Energiewende are the two major areas of concerns of this dissertation. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the solution of selected challenges of the Energiewende in the context of goals and policy instruments. In this regard, the following four research questions are addressed: 1. What are the goals of the Energiewende and how do they interact with the design of policy instruments? 2. What are the impacts of the German nuclear phase-out on the electricity market and the security of supply? 3. How do different designs of support mechanisms for renewable energy affect the riskdistribution between society, investors in renewable energy and investors in conventional power plants? 4. What is the impact of ex-post transaction costs on the cost-effectiveness of selected climate policy instruments? The main results and the subsequent policy conclusions of this thesis can be summarized as follows: The research on the goals of the Energiewende was based on a survey among elite policy actors, which showed that climate protection is the most important goal of the Energiewende. However, climate protection is neither the only goal, nor an indispensable one. Additional goals such as the nuclear phase-out, import independence from fossil fuels and job creation also play an important role. A large majority agrees that the Energiewende would make sense even if climate change did not exist. The following policy conclusions can be derived: first, there should

  2. Trends of domestic climate change policy and the business voluntary action. Its linkage to the energy sector perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    It consists of ten illustrations about the energy policy and global warning effect. The illustrations describe fundamental principle of energy policy, trends of liberalization of electric power, problems of Kyoto Protocol, measures to global warming effect, schedule until first promise time, object and shift of exhaust of carbon dioxide in the industry, countermeasure of electric industry, life cycle CO 2 exhaust unit by each kind of electric power and potential of CO 2 reduction by heat pomp. (S.Y.)

  3. An introduction to the HighARCS Integrated Action Plans, with an institutions, policies and conflicts perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren

    This report is an introduction focused on institutions, policies and conflicts aspects, for the Integrated Action Plans (IAPs) produced by the HighARCS project for the 5 sites in China, India and Vietnam......This report is an introduction focused on institutions, policies and conflicts aspects, for the Integrated Action Plans (IAPs) produced by the HighARCS project for the 5 sites in China, India and Vietnam...

  4. The politics of social policy: welfare expansion in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tillin, Louise; Duckett, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This introductory essay reviews the scholarship on the politics of social policy, and shows the contribution of the special issue to explaining expanded welfare commitments in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in the twenty first century. Much literature on welfare expansion in lower- and middle income contexts views it primarily as a policy corrective to the economic dislocations produced by global economic integration. This special issue focuses on the political factors that are critica...

  5. Incorporating community and multiple perspectives in the development of acceptable drinking water source protection policy in catchments facing recreation demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Geoffrey J; Nancarrow, Blair E

    2013-11-15

    The protection of catchment areas for drinking water quality has become an increasingly disputed issue in Australia and internationally. This is particularly the case in regard to the growing demand for nature based and rural recreation. Currently the policy for the protection of drinking water in Western Australia is to enforce a 2 km exclusion zone with a much larger surrounding area with limited and prescribed access to recreators. The debate between recreators and water management agencies has been lively, culminating in a recent state government enquiry. This paper describes the second phase of a three phase study to develop a methodology for defensible policy formulation which accounts for the points of view of all stakeholders. We examine general community, active recreators and professionals' views on the current policy of catchment protection and five proposed alternatives using a social judgement theory approach. Key attitudinal determinants of the preferences for policies were identified. Overall the recreators did not support the current policy despite strong support from both the general community and the professional group. Nevertheless, it was evident that there was some support by the community for policies that would enable a slight relaxation of current recreational exclusion. It was also evident that there was a significant proportion of the general community who were dissatisfied with current recreational opportunities and that, in future, it may be less easy to police exclusion zones even if current policy is maintained. The potential for future integration of recreational and water source protection is discussed as well as the benefits of community research in understanding policy preferences in this regard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of international sustainable development law principles in enabling effective renewable energy policy – a South African perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barnard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is universally accepted that renewable energy is an important contributing factor towards the promotion of sustainable development. The implementation of renewable energy needs to be regulated in an effective manner which in turn necessitates the formulation of law and policy geared towards sustainable development. Recent policy developments in South Africa propose to facilitate the promotion of sustainable development through the implementation of renewable energy, among others. In terms of existing energy policy in South-Africa, the interconnectivity of renewable energy and sustainable development is evident. Most notably, the White Paper on Renewable Energy of 2003 promotes increased access to affordable renewable energy in order to contribute to sustainable development. Moreover, the 2008 first review of the National Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South-Africa of 2005 states that in order for the country’s renewable energy policy to be considered sustainable, it needs to facilitate development in the social, economic and environmental spheres. Notwithstanding, attaining the goal of sustainable development depends on whether all its effecting principles are catered for in the policy developments. Accordingly, in order to ascertain whether South-African law and policy can successfully facilitate/enable sustainable development via the implementation of renewable energy, a specific methodology is proposed. In terms of the New Delhi Declaration of 2002 there are 7 principles of international law effecting sustainable development. These principles will be used as criteria in a principled assessment of South-African renewable energy law and policy in order to establish whether the goal of promoting sustainable development would be effected through the national policy developments.

  7. A perspective of the energy policy for Europe: demands and recommendations concerning energy and research policy for overcoming the present stagnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandmann, H.

    1977-01-01

    Giving a historical perspective which analyzes the close connection between the energy density used for production and the increase per capita consumption of energy and economic wealth, the author attempts to show that a delay in the development and application of new production technologies will have catastrophic consequences for humanity. The only possible production technology is that based on controlled nuclear fusion. This is more than a forced development of a new reactor technology. Rather, controlled nuclear fusion is seen as a global pacemaker for science, technology, and industrial production. The paper discusses the R and D strategy of an immediate programme drawn up by the Fusion Energy Foundation (FEF) as well as the economic and financial conditions required to make such a programme possible. (GG) [de

  8. A difficult balancing act: policy actors' perspectives on using economic evaluation to inform health-care coverage decisions under the Universal Health Insurance Coverage scheme in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Russell, Steve

    2008-03-01

    In Thailand, policymakers have come under increasing pressure to use economic evaluation to inform health-care resource allocation decisions, especially after the introduction of the Universal Health Insurance Coverage (UC) scheme. This article presents qualitative findings from research that assessed a range of policymakers' perspectives on the acceptability of using economic evaluation for the development of health-care benefit packages in Thailand. The policy analysis examined their opinions about existing decision-making processes for including health interventions in the UC benefit package, their understanding of health economic evaluation, and their attitudes, acceptance, and values relating to the use of the method. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role or have some input into health resource allocation decisions within the Thai health-care system. These included 14 senior policymakers at the national level, 5 hospital directors, 10 health professionals, and 7 academics. Policy actors thought that economic evaluation information was relevant for decision-making because of the increasing need for rationing and more transparent criteria for making UC coverage decisions. Nevertheless, they raised several difficulties with using economic evaluation that would pose barriers to its introduction, including distrust in the method, conflicting philosophical positions and priorities compared to that of "health maximization," organizational allegiances, existing decision-making procedures that would be hard to change, and concerns about political pressure and acceptability.

  9. Community-based shared values as a 'Heart-ware' driver for integrated watershed management: Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Zeeda Fatimah; Nasaruddin, Affan; Abd Kadir, Siti Norasiah; Musa, Mohd Noor; Ong, Benjamin; Sakai, Nobumitsu

    2015-11-01

    This paper explores the case for using ;community-based shared values; as a potential driver for the ;Heartware; aspects of governance in Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) - from a Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective. This policy approach was originally inspired by the Japanese experience, and the paper investigates whether a similar strategy can be adapted in the Malaysian context-based on a qualitative exploratory case study of a local downstream watershed community. The community-based shared values are categorized into six functional values that can be placed on a watershed: industry, ecosystem, lifestyle, landscape, water resource and spirituality. The study confirmed the availability of a range of community-based shared values in each category that are promising to drive the heartware for integrated watershed management in the local Malaysian context. However, most of these shared values are either declining in its appreciation or nostalgic in nature. The paper ends with findings on key differences and similarities between the Malaysian and Japanese contexts, and concludes with lessons for international transfer of IWM heartware policy strategies between the two countries.

  10. Public policies with a human rights perspective in the shift to the left. From rupture to the second round in Venezuela and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Espinosa Díaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are three processes that interact in certain countries in Latin America: the shift to the left, movements to develop new constitutions driven by left wing governments , and the increasingly relevant role played by human rights in the development of public policy. We will make evident these interactions by analyzing this last point: public policy with a human rights perspective (PPHR. The inclusion of human rights in constitutions is something that has been thoroughly analyzed; yet the link of this inclusion with pubic policy is an area that is relatively new despite it being key in understanding the gaps between the fulfillment and enjoyment of human rights. We ask: what is the relationship between constitutions issued by left wing governments and the development of PPHR? One would expect that the role played by human rights in new constitutions would have a sustained impact in the development of PP. This is not necessarily the case: although there is interaction between constitutions and PP, there are two interesting aspects to highlight: the rebranding in the case of Ecuador and the second round in the case of Venezuela.

  11. Key Informant Perspectives on Federal Research Agency Policy and Systems and Scientific Workforce Diversity Development: A Companion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey L.; Wang, Ningning; Davis, Dytisha; Aref, Fariborz; Manyibe, Edward O.; Washington, Andre L.; Johnson, Jean; Eugene-Cross, Kenyotta; Muhammad, Atashia; Jennings-Jones, Desiree

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In the previous analysis of key informant perspectives on minority research leaders' career development factors, we identified individual and sociocultural, institutional, and federal research agency (i.e., National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research; National Institutes of Health; Agency for…

  12. Climate change adaptation strategies for federal forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA: ecological, policy, and socio-economic perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Spies; Thomas W. Giesen; Frederick J. Swanson; Jerry F. Franklin; Denise Lach; K. Norman. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Conserving biological diversity in a changing climate poses major challenges for land managers and society. Effective adaptive strategies for dealing with climate change require a socioecological systems perspective. We highlight some of the projected ecological responses to climate change in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A and identify possible adaptive actions that...

  13. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  14. A Delphi survey of leadership attributes necessary for national nurse leaders' participation in health policy development: an East African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj Shariff, Nilufa

    2015-01-01

    Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health services are: safe, effective, available and inexpensive. Nursing history reveals several legendary nurse leaders who have influenced policy and the course of nursing and health care. In the recent times there have been concerns regarding the availability of effective leaders physically, symbolically and functionally at clinical, organizational and national levels, who can effectively influence health policy. Exerting influence in the policy arena requires that nurse leaders acquire attributes that enable them to be effective in policy development activity. This paper reports part of a larger study whose purpose included: "build consensus on leadership attributes necessary for nurse leaders' participation in health policy development in East Africa". A Delphi survey was utilized and included the following criteria: expert panelists, three iterative rounds, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and building consensus. The study included purposively selected sample of national nurse leaders (expert panelists) from the three East African countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. Seventy eight (78) expert panelists were invited to participate in the study and 37 (47%) participated in the first round of these; 24 (64.8%) participated in the second round and all invited in the third round 24 (100%) participated. Data collection was done using questionnaires and collected qualitative and quantitative data. Data analysis was done utilizing the principles of qualitative analysis in the first round and descriptive statistics in the second and third rounds. The study achieved consensus on the essential leadership attributes for nurse leaders' participation in health policy and include being able to: influence; communicate effectively; build relationships; feel empowered and demonstrate professional credibility. For nursing to participate in influencing the

  15. Insights on Supporting Learning during Computing Science and Engineering Students' Transition to University: A Design-Oriented, Mixed Methods Exploration of Instructor and Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloy, Sheryl; Salimi, Farimah; Cukierman, Diana; McGee Thompson, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Using a design-based orientation, this mixed-method study explored ways to support computing science and engineering students whose study strategies may be inadequate to meet coursework expectations. Learning support workshops, paired with university courses, have been found to assist students as they transition to university learning, thereby…

  16. Senate works: law project on the energy policy (first reading); Travaux du Senat: projet de loi d'orientation sur l'energie (premiere lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This synthesis of the Senate works on the law project on the energy policy, comments each article of the law text. It concerns: the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the transport and distribution networks of electric power, taxation and financial incentives. (A.L.B.)

  17. Exploring exploration orientation and its determinants : Some empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, H.R.; Volberda, H.W.; Sidhu, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    Adopting an information-process perspective, this article conceptualizes exploration orientation in terms of scope of information acquisition. In line with this conceptualization, a multidimensional operational measure of exploration orientation is developed and its internal consistency established.

  18. Ex-Post Critical Evaluations of Energy Policies in Malaysia from 1970 to 2010: A Historical Institutionalism Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir F. N. Abdul-Manan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ex-post evaluations of energy policies in Malaysia between 1970 and 2010 were conducted. The developments of energy policies in Malaysia were traced from the early 1970s with the introduction of the country’s first energy-related policy all the way to 2010 with the country’s first endeavour towards a biobased energy system. Analyses revealed that many of the policies were either: (1 directly responding to changes in global/domestic socioeconomic and political events, or (2 provided visions to guide developments of the energy sector in alignment with the country’s growth agenda. Critical examinations of the country’s actual energy consumptions during these 40 years were also conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these energy-related policies. Three noteworthy successes in Malaysia’s energy landscape are: (1 the formation of PETRONAS as the national oil and gas company; (2 reduction of country’s over-reliance on oil as a single source of energy by significantly growing the production and use of natural gas in a short span of time; and (3 creation of a thriving oil and gas value chain and ecosystem in the country. However, the country is still critically dependent on scarce petroleum resources, despite having an abundance of renewable reserves. Progress towards renewable energy has been too little and too slow.

  19. Perspectives and Practices of Athletic Trainers and Team Physicians Implementing the 2010 NCAA Sickle Cell Trait Screening Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mary Anne; Creary, Melissa S; Powell, Jill; Daley, Lori-Ann; Baker, Charlotte; Royal, Charmaine Dm

    2017-12-01

    Sickle cell trait (SCT) is usually benign. However, there are some conditions that may lead to SCT-related problems and put athletes with the trait at particular risk. In 2010 the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) issued a policy that required all Division I (DI) student-athletes to confirm their SCT status or sign a liability waiver to opt out of testing. Athletic trainers and team physicians play key roles in the policy implementation and we examined their perceptions and practices. Between December 2013 and March 2014 we interviewed 13 head athletic trainers and team physicians at NCAA Division I colleges and universities in North Carolina. We used an interview guide with open-ended questions covering knowledge of SCT, historical screening and education practices, current implementation, and policy benefits and challenges. Participants were knowledgeable about SCT and thought the policy was beneficial in providing SCT health information to and for student-athletes. Schools varied in provision of genetic counseling, offering the waiver, SCT tests administered, and other aspects. Challenges included: insufficient guidance from the NCAA; financial considerations; and misunderstanding of the relationships of race and ancestry to SCT risk. Athletic staff found the policy valuable, but felt it needs clarity and standardization.

  20. Healthcare service providers' and facility administrators' perspectives of the free maternal healthcare services policy in Malindi District, Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang'at, Evaline; Mwanri, Lillian

    2015-06-27

    Globally, there are increasing efforts to improve maternal health outcomes including the reduction in maternal mortality rates. Improved access to skilled care utilisation during pregnancy and delivery has been one of the strategies employed to improve maternal health outcomes. In Kenya, more than half of the women deliver without the assistance of a skilled attendant and this has contributed to high maternal mortality rates. The free maternal healthcare services policy in all public facilities was initiated as a strategy to improve access to skilled care and reduce poor maternal health outcomes. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of the service providers and facility administrators of the free maternal health care service policy that was introduced in Kenya in 2013. A qualitative inquiry using semi-structured one-on-one interviews was conducted in Malindi District, Kenya. The participants included maternal health service providers and facility administrators recruited from five different healthcare facilities. Data were analysed using a thematic framework analysis. Free maternal healthcare service provision was perceived to boost skilled care utilisation during pregnancy and delivery. However, challenges including; delays in the reimbursement of funds by the government to the facilities, stock outs of essential commodities in the facilities to facilitate service provision, increased workload amidst staff shortage and lack of consultation and sensitisation of key stakeholders were perceived as barriers to effective implementation of this policy. Free maternal healthcare services can be one of the strategies to improve a range of maternal health outcomes. However, the implementation of this policy would be more effective if; the healthcare facilities were upgraded, equipped with adequate supplies, funds and staff; the community are continually sensitized on the importance of seeking skilled care during pregnancy and delivery; and inclusivity and

  1. Analyzing policy support instruments and regulatory risk factors for wind energy deployment-A developers' perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luethi, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.luethi@unisg.ch [University of St. Gallen, 9000 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Praessler, Thomas [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    A transition to a renewable energy system is high on the policy agenda in many countries. A promising energy source for a low-carbon energy future is wind. Policy-makers can attract wind energy development by providing attractive policy frameworks. This paper argues that apart from the level of financial support, both the risks stemming from the regulatory environment (legal security, administrative process and grid access) and the ability to finance projects play a critical role in determining the attractiveness of the development environment. It sheds light on how project developers trade off these different aspects and to what extent the attractiveness of a certain policy framework increases with the introduction of specific measures. Conjoint analysis is employed to provide empirical evidence on the preference of wind energy developers in the EU and the US. The analysis shows that developers' preferences are very similar across the studied regions and for different types of developers. Which policy measures could be most valuable depends on the specific existing environment. In some southeastern European countries, a reduction of administrative process duration may yield the highest utility gains, whereas, in the US, improvements in grid access regulation and an increase in remuneration levels may be more effective. - Highlights: > Paper suggests conjoint analysis as scenario tool for estimating potential effects of specific policy measures. > It provides a quantitative, empirical dataset of 119 onshore wind energy developers' preferences. > Results suggest that the aspects 'Legal security' and 'Remuneration' are important attributes. > Cluster analyses yields slightly different preferences for developers from EU and US.

  2. Medical intellectuals: resisting medical orientalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aull, Felice; Lewis, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose analogies between medical discourse and Edward Said's "Orientalism." Medical discourse, like Orientalism, tends to favor institutional interests and can be similarly dehumanizing in its reductionism, textual representations, and construction of its subjects. To resist Orientalism, Said recommends that critics--"intellectuals"--adopt the perspective of exile. We apply Said's paradigm of intellectual-as-exile to better understand the work of key physician-authors who cross personal and professional boundaries, who engage with patients in mutually therapeutic relationships, and who take on the public responsibility of representation and advocacy. We call these physician-authors "medical intellectuals" and encourage others to follow in their path.

  3. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  4. Formation of the perspective innovation policy of the enterprise in the conditions of organizational-economic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarova, Svetlana; Vlasenko, Vyacheslav; Bukreev, Anatoly; Myshovskaya, Ludmila; Kuzina, Olga

    2018-03-01

    This article is based on the analysis of modern condition and dynamics of innovational development of high-rise buildings construction. A number of cardinal organizational and economic changes in management at the macro and meso-levels is taken into the account. Principal scheme of development of the methodology of formation of perspective innovation politics in high-ruse buildings construction based on inculcation of modern methods of strategic control of innovational activity is suggested in this article.

  5. Formation of the perspective innovation policy of the enterprise in the conditions of organizational-economic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the analysis of modern condition and dynamics of innovational development of high-rise buildings construction. A number of cardinal organizational and economic changes in management at the macro and meso-levels is taken into the account. Principal scheme of development of the methodology of formation of perspective innovation politics in high-ruse buildings construction based on inculcation of modern methods of strategic control of innovational activity is suggested in this article.

  6. Linking the actors and policies throughout the disaster management cycle by "Agreement on Objectives" – a new output-oriented management approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Greiving

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Current management of disaster risks is often fragmented due to a lack of coordination between involved actors, i.e. civil protection and spatial planning – a phenomenon which is known as the "problem of interplay". This paper presents an output-oriented risk management approach ("parametric governance". Here, the modality of the achievement of objectives remains in the hands of the given addressees. This implies a shift from a top-down to a more collaborative, process-oriented form of decision-making. The approach has been successfully applied in two hazard cases and three administrative contexts: (a the City of Dortmund (Germany facing flash floods, (b East Attica region (Greece facing forest fires, and (c Lazio Region (Italy also facing forest fires. As proved by the applications of the concept, a dialogue among experts, stakeholders, and decision-makers is indispensable in order to guarantee inclusion of all diverse and competing values, opinions, and claims. Moreover, a structured communication path is needed to meet the requirements of a risk governance process. Finally, a win-win-situation among the involved actors has to be created to reach an agreement on common goals and actions to achieve them in due time.

  7. The Future of Tourism: Can Tourism Growth and Climate Policy be Reconciled? A Climate Change Mitigation Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössling, S.; Hall, C.M.; Peeters, P.M.; Scott, D.

    2010-01-01

    Tourism is an increasingly significant contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions growth in the sector is in substantial conflict with global climate policy goals that seek to mitigate climate change through deep emission reductions. This article discusses the role of various tourism

  8. Rationale and Consequences of Reclassifying Obesity as an Addictive Disorder: Neurobiology, Food Environment and Social Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia; Batra, Payal; Geiger, Brenda M.; Wommack, Tara; Gilhooly, Cheryl; Pothos, Emmanuel N.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity is a priority for investigators from across numerous disciplines, including biology, nutritional science, and public health and policy. In this paper, we systematically examine the premise that common dietary obesity is an addictive disorder, based on the criteria for addiction described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association, version IV, and consider the consequences of such a reclassification of obesity for public policy. Specifically, we discuss evidence from both human and animal studies investigating the effects of various types and amounts of food and the food environment in obese individuals. Neurobiological studies have shown that the hedonic brain pathways activated by palatable food overlap considerably with those activated by drugs of abuse and suffer significant deficits after chronic exposure to high-energy diets. Furthermore, food as a stimulus can induce the sensitization, compulsion and relapse patterns observed in individuals who are addicted to illicit drugs. The current food environment encourages these addictive-like behaviors where increased exposure through advertisements, proximity and increased portion sizes are routine. Taking lessons from the tobacco experience, it is clear that reclassifying common dietary obesity as an addictive disorder would necessitate policy changes (e.g., regulatory efforts, economic strategies, and educational approaches). These policies could be instrumental in addressing the obesity epidemic, by encouraging the food industry and the political leadership to collaborate with the scientific and medical community in establishing new and more effective therapeutic approaches. PMID:22583861

  9. Strategies to strengthen public health inputs to water policy in response to climate change: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goater, Sarah; Cook, Angus; Hogan, Anthony; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hieatt, Arron; Weinstein, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Under current climate change projections, the capacity to provide safe drinking water to Australian communities will be challenged. Part of this challenge is the lack of an adaptive governance strategy that transcends jurisdictional boundaries to support integrated policy making, regulation, or infrastructural adaptation. Consequently, some water-related health hazards may not be adequately captured or forecast under existing water resource management policies to ensure safe water supplies. Given the high degree of spatial and temporal variability in climate conditions experienced by Australian communities, new strategies for national health planning and prioritization for safe water supplies are warranted. The challenges facing public health in Australia will be to develop flexible and robust governance strategies that strengthen public health input to existing water policy, regulation, and surveillance infrastructure through proactive risk planning, adopting new technologies, and intersectoral collaborations. The proposed approach could assist policy makers avert or minimize risk to communities arising from changes in climate and water provisions both in Australia and in the wider Asia Pacific region.

  10. Cooperation between Counterparts in Parliament from an Agenda-Setting Perspective: Legislative Coalitions as a Trade of Criticism and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Flemming Juul; Seeberg, Henrik Bech

    2016-01-01

    . By offering the opposition noteworthy policy influence in legislative coalitions, governments avoid opposition criticism in return, in addition to having initiatives passed. In order to test this argument, a large dataset is compiled on opposition criticism in parliament and the media before and after the 325...

  11. Understanding urban practitioners' perspectives on social-mix policies in Amsterdam: the importance of design and social space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawton, P.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout recent decades, socially-mixed neighbourhoods have become a key element of urban policy and debate. This paper argues, with Amsterdam as an empirical case, that the design, layout and everyday use of social space—including public and private space—is of key importance in understanding the

  12. The Uncertainty of Policy Ambition: An Analysis of Key State Actor Perspectives on Seeking Equity through Facilities Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Brandon H.; Torres, Mario S., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to broaden awareness of legislative intentions associated with a State's facilities funding policy (Texas' Instructional Facilities Allotment, IFA). Recognizing the politically contested nature of school funding, arguments in support and against investing in facilities appear equally replete. Be that as it may, some…

  13. Benefit sharing in the Arctic energy sector: Perspectives on corporate policies and practices in Northern Russia and Alaska

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tysyachnyouk, M.; Petrov, Andrey N.

    2018-01-01

    Many transnational energy companies are engaged in the exploration and development of oil reserves in the Arctic, and are facing policy challenges in respect to benefit sharing with the local communities. Benefit sharing arrangements between oil and natural gas companies and indigenous communities

  14. The Common Core's Promises and Pitfalls from the Perspectives of Policy Entrepreneurs and Ground-Level Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Mindy L.; Barkauskas, Nikolaus J.; Griffith, Kelly M.; Sausner, Erica; Mahfouz, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards Initiative (Common Core) was spearheaded by policy entrepreneurs, unveiled nationally in 2010, and initially received strong support from leaders in state and federal government, philanthropic foundations, the business sector, and teacher unions. However, the reform came into the crosshairs of an ideologically wide…

  15. Globalisation and Education: A Review of Conflicting Perspectives and their Effect on Policy and Professional Practice in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Many disparate groups have written about the effects of globalisation on education. Some have promoted its benefits; others have warned against its ill-effects. This paper is an attempt at coalescing and juxtaposing the respective arguments as they relate to schooling policy and practice in the UK. The growing international pressures of…

  16. Support given to lecturers when providing mobile centric services in teaching and learning: a policy analysis perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chipangura, B

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the status of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) policies in supporting lecturers when providing mobile centric services to students. The research was undertaken as a single case study within the Open...

  17. Research, evidence and policymaking: the perspectives of policy actors on improving uptake of evidence in health policy development and implementation in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Juliet Nabyonga; Mafigiri, David Kaawa; Marchal, Bruno; Ssengooba, Freddie; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2012-02-09

    Use of evidence in health policymaking plays an important role, especially in resource-constrained settings where informed decisions on resource allocation are paramount. Several knowledge translation (KT) models have been developed, but few have been applied to health policymaking in low income countries. If KT models are expected to explain evidence uptake and implementation, or lack of it, they must be contextualized and take into account the specificity of low income countries for example, the strong influence of donors. The main objective of this research is to elaborate a Middle Range Theory (MRT) of KT in Uganda that can also serve as a reference for other low- and middle income countries. This two-step study employed qualitative approaches to examine the principal barriers and facilitating factors to KT. Step 1 involved a literature review and identification of common themes. The results informed the development of the initial MRT, which details the facilitating factors and barriers to KT at the different stages of research and policy development. In Step 2, these were further refined through key informant interviews with policymakers and researchers in Uganda. Deductive content and thematic analysis was carried out to assess the degree of convergence with the elements of the initial MRT and to identify other emerging issues. Review of the literature revealed that the most common emerging facilitating factors could be grouped under institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics, dissemination, partnerships and political context. The analysis of interviews, however, showed that policymakers and researchers ranked institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics and partnerships as the most important. New factors emphasized by respondents were the use of mainstreamed structures within MoH to coordinate and disseminate research, the separation of roles between researchers and policymakers, and the role of the community and civil

  18. Research, evidence and policymaking: the perspectives of policy actors on improving uptake of evidence in health policy development and implementation in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Juliet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of evidence in health policymaking plays an important role, especially in resource-constrained settings where informed decisions on resource allocation are paramount. Several knowledge translation (KT models have been developed, but few have been applied to health policymaking in low income countries. If KT models are expected to explain evidence uptake and implementation, or lack of it, they must be contextualized and take into account the specificity of low income countries for example, the strong influence of donors. The main objective of this research is to elaborate a Middle Range Theory (MRT of KT in Uganda that can also serve as a reference for other low- and middle income countries. Methods This two-step study employed qualitative approaches to examine the principal barriers and facilitating factors to KT. Step 1 involved a literature review and identification of common themes. The results informed the development of the initial MRT, which details the facilitating factors and barriers to KT at the different stages of research and policy development. In Step 2, these were further refined through key informant interviews with policymakers and researchers in Uganda. Deductive content and thematic analysis was carried out to assess the degree of convergence with the elements of the initial MRT and to identify other emerging issues. Results Review of the literature revealed that the most common emerging facilitating factors could be grouped under institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics, dissemination, partnerships and political context. The analysis of interviews, however, showed that policymakers and researchers ranked institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics and partnerships as the most important. New factors emphasized by respondents were the use of mainstreamed structures within MoH to coordinate and disseminate research, the separation of roles between researchers and

  19. Understanding the contemporary United States and European Union foreign policy in the Middle East Entendiendo la política exterior de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea en el Medio Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Anaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available United States, as the dominant geopolitical power in the Middle East, has been struggling to stabilize the region to achieve its geopolitical objectives and interests. Especially since the Second World War, the US has rioritized, enacted and represented Middle East policies as vital to securing its "national interests" till terrorist attacks on the twin towers in New York City. As it is understood, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, markeda dramatic changenot onlyin US policy, but in USrhetoricandinternational discourses as well. Following the terror attacks, US Middle East policy shifted from being the matter of "national security," which primarily puts more emphases on "responsive securitization", to the "preventive securitization of national interests," particularly under the neo-conservative Bush Administrations. Consequently, US launched two direct military engagements in Afghanistan (2001 and Iraq (2003, and involved in unilateral regime change in those states ostensibly, to secure its national interests and provide world peace in the long run. It is important to highlight here that US cleared the full support (rhetorically, at least of the United Nations to disarm the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. This study, therefore, attempts to revisit and conceptualize the contemporary US and EU Middle East foreign policy -though they are not identical- before and after the September 11 terror attack. The argument here is that the Middle East policy objectives of the US and the EU primarily agglomerate around two main headings: security of oil and protecting the state of Israel in an Arab-dominated region. Closely related, but not equivalent, both the US and EU have a stake in establishing good relations with the Arab states and promoting democracy and liberal market economies in the Middle East. This study also reviews the President Barack Obama’s Middle Eastern foreign policy initiatives and attempts to suggest several key points

  20. Perspectives on econometric modelling to inform policy: a UK qualitative case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-06-01

    Novel policy interventions may lack evaluation-based evidence. Considerations to introduce minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol in the UK were informed by econometric modelling (the 'Sheffield model'). We aim to investigate policy stakeholders' views of the utility of modelling studies for public health policy. In-depth qualitative interviews with 36 individuals involved in MUP policy debates (purposively sampled to include civil servants, politicians, academics, advocates and industry-related actors) were conducted and thematically analysed. Interviewees felt familiar with modelling studies and often displayed detailed understandings of the Sheffield model. Despite this, many were uneasy about the extent to which the Sheffield model could be relied on for informing policymaking and preferred traditional evaluations. A tension was identified between this preference for post hoc evaluations and a desire for evidence derived from local data, with modelling seen to offer high external validity. MUP critics expressed concern that the Sheffield model did not adequately capture the 'real life' world of the alcohol market, which was conceptualized as a complex and, to some extent, inherently unpredictable system. Communication of modelling results was considered intrinsically difficult but presenting an appropriate picture of the uncertainties inherent in modelling was viewed as desirable. There was general enthusiasm for increased use of econometric modelling to inform future policymaking but an appreciation that such evidence should only form one input into the process. Modelling studies are valued by policymakers as they provide contextually relevant evidence for novel policies, but tensions exist with views of traditional evaluation-based evidence. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.