WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy options implications

  1. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. A Game of Two Elderly Care Facilities: Competition, Mothballing Options, and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a model to investigate the entry strategies of private investors to the elderly care service market, with the purpose of explaining the reasons behind dilemma of low signing rate plaguing China’s Public-Private Partnership projects. We focus on the competition between two private investors with or without mothballing options under price uncertainty. After the derivation of equilibria of entry strategies, we employ numerical examples to analyze the dependencies of entry thresholds on market parameters, cost parameters, subsidy, and possession of mothballing option. Conclusions are drawn and some policy implications are given with the intention to alleviate the problem of low signing rate.

  3. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Li, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  4. Real options analysis for land use management: Methods, application, and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Courtney M; Bryan, Brett A; Connor, Jeffery D; Meyer, Wayne S; Ostendorf, Bertram; Zhu, Zili; Bao, Chenming

    2015-09-15

    Discounted cash flow analysis, including net present value is an established way to value land use and management investments which accounts for the time-value of money. However, it provides a static view and assumes passive commitment to an investment strategy when real world land use and management investment decisions are characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, change, and adaptation. Real options analysis has been proposed as a better valuation method under uncertainty and where the opportunity exists to delay investment decisions, pending more information. We briefly review the use of discounted cash flow methods in land use and management and discuss their benefits and limitations. We then provide an overview of real options analysis, describe the main analytical methods, and summarize its application to land use investment decisions. Real options analysis is largely underutilized in evaluating land use decisions, despite uncertainty in policy and economic drivers, the irreversibility and sunk costs involved. New simulation methods offer the potential for overcoming current technical challenges to implementation as demonstrated with a real options simulation model used to evaluate an agricultural land use decision in South Australia. We conclude that considering option values in future policy design will provide a more realistic assessment of landholder investment decision making and provide insights for improved policy performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitigation implications of midcentury targets that preserve long-term climate policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian C; Riahi, Keywan; Keppo, Ilkka

    2010-01-19

    Midcentury targets have been proposed as a guide to climate change policy that can link long-term goals to shorter-term actions. However no explicit mitigation analyses have been carried out of the relationship between midcentury conditions and longer-term outcomes. Here we use an integrated assessment modeling framework with a detailed representation of the energy sector to examine the dependence of climate change outcomes in 2100 on emissions levels, atmospheric concentrations, and technology characteristics in 2050. We find that midcentury conditions are crucial determinants of longer-term climate outcomes, and we identify feasibility thresholds describing conditions that must be met by midcentury to keep particular long-term options open. For example, to preserve the technical feasibility of a 50% likelihood of keeping global average temperature at < 2 degrees C above preindustrial in 2100, global emissions must be reduced by about 20% below 2000 levels by 2050. Results are sensitive to several assumptions, including the nature of future socio-economic development. In a scenario with high demand for energy and land, being below 2 degrees C with 50% likelihood requires a 50% reduction in emissions below 2000 levels by 2050, which is only barely feasible with known technologies in that scenario. Results suggest that a greater focus on midcentury targets could facilitate the development of policies that preserve potentially desirable long-term options.

  6. Economic and Energy Development in China: Policy Options and Implications for Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, M. B.; Nielsen, C.

    2003-01-23

    The Harvard University Center for the Environment and partner institutions in China established a multidisciplinary program of integrated research on energy-related environmental issues, local air pollution and global climate change, in China and their role in U.S.-Chinese relations. Major research streams included: (a) developing a dynamic, multi-sector model of the Chinese economy that can estimate energy use, emission, and health damages from pollution, and using this model to simulate broad economic effects of market-based pollution-control policies; (b) developing a regionally disaggregated model of technology and investment choice in the Chinese electric power sector; (c) applying an atmospheric chemical tracer transport model to investigate carbon uptake in Eurasis (notably China) and North America, and to inform observational strategies for CO{sub 2} in China and elsewhere.

  7. Policy implications of Iran's Nuclear Deal in technical terms for the plutonium route, uranium route, covert options, inspections, monitoring and verifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M., E-mail: andrericardopinheiro@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval; Guimarães, Leonam dos Santos, E-mail: leonam@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The present Paper addresses the policy implications of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known as 'Ian Nuclear Deal', implemented on 16{sup th} January of 2016 between the Iran and the P5+1 countries (the U.S., U.K. France, Germany, Russia, and China), along with the EU in technical terms to analyze the Plutonium Route, Uranium Route and the Covert options and Inspections, Monitoring and Verifications. A historical review is presented to understand how the Iranian Nuclear Program is formed. Following is shown the current nuclear facilities in Iran and its capacity to process nuclear materials. It is analyzed the impact of JCPOA in Uranium and Plutonium routes. Covert Options always will be an option, so the most sensitive impact is related to the new monitoring and verification policies that must ensure real control of illegal procedures. The main conclusion is that the deal postpones the Iran's nuclear program for more than a decade (15 years), delaying Iran's nuclear bomb time from a few months to at least one year, although there is a current latent capacity to develop a nuclear bomb in Uranium route. It also gives IAEA inspectors capability to monitor nuclear activities and prevent to possible development to a nuclear bomb. To arrive in this conclusion an extensive technical analyze of impact of JCPOA in Iran's nuclear capabilities was made to discover how effective is the deal to prevent Iran to build, or acquire a nuclear weapon. (author)

  8. Policy implications of Iran's Nuclear Deal in technical terms for the plutonium route, uranium route, covert options, inspections, monitoring and verifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M.

    2017-01-01

    The present Paper addresses the policy implications of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) known as 'Ian Nuclear Deal', implemented on 16 th January of 2016 between the Iran and the P5+1 countries (the U.S., U.K. France, Germany, Russia, and China), along with the EU in technical terms to analyze the Plutonium Route, Uranium Route and the Covert options and Inspections, Monitoring and Verifications. A historical review is presented to understand how the Iranian Nuclear Program is formed. Following is shown the current nuclear facilities in Iran and its capacity to process nuclear materials. It is analyzed the impact of JCPOA in Uranium and Plutonium routes. Covert Options always will be an option, so the most sensitive impact is related to the new monitoring and verification policies that must ensure real control of illegal procedures. The main conclusion is that the deal postpones the Iran's nuclear program for more than a decade (15 years), delaying Iran's nuclear bomb time from a few months to at least one year, although there is a current latent capacity to develop a nuclear bomb in Uranium route. It also gives IAEA inspectors capability to monitor nuclear activities and prevent to possible development to a nuclear bomb. To arrive in this conclusion an extensive technical analyze of impact of JCPOA in Iran's nuclear capabilities was made to discover how effective is the deal to prevent Iran to build, or acquire a nuclear weapon. (author)

  9. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario

  10. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY, FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION, CO2 EMISSIONS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: IMPLICATIONS AND POLICY OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibueze Eze Nnaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the causal relationship among electricity supply, fossil fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1971-2009, in a multivariate framework.Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. The findings also indicate that economic growth is associated with increased CO2 emissions while a positive relationship exists between electricity supply and CO2 emissions revealing the poor nature of electricity supply in Nigeria. Further, the Granger causality test results indicate that electricity supply has not impacted significantly on economic growth in Nigeria. The results also strongly imply that policies aimed at reducing carbon emissions in Nigeria will not impede economic growth. The paper therefore concludes that a holistic energy planning and investment in energy infrastructure is needed to drive economic growth. In the long-run however, it is possible to meet the energy needs of the country, ensure sustainable development and at the same time reduce CO2 emissions by developing alternatives to fossil fuel consumption, the main source of CO2 emissions.

  11. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis...... show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy...... instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference...

  12. The Chinese brain drain and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P; Deng, Z

    1992-01-01

    The authors discuss the growing problem caused by the increasing reluctance of Chinese receiving higher education overseas to return to China following completion of their studies. They note that the Tiananmen incident of June 1989 exacerbated this problem. The policy options open to the Chinese government are reviewed.

  13. Chapter 13, Policy options: North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Barr; James Dobrowolski; John Campbell; Philippe Le Prestre; Lori Lynch; Marc Sydnor; Robert Adler; Jose Etcheverry; Alexander Kenny; Catherine Hallmich; Jim Lazar; Russell M. Meyer; Robin Newmark; Janet Peace; Julie A. Suhr Pierce; Stephen. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    As previously indicated, GEO-5 shifts the GEO focus from identifying environmental problems to identifying solutions that governments can then prioritize. This chapter provides examples of a number of policy options and market mechanisms that have shown some success in improving environmental conditions in North America. They are organized by priority environmental...

  14. Deflation; Determinants, Risks, and Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Taimur Baig; Jörg Decressin; Tarhan Feyzioglu; Manmohan S. Kumar; Chris Faulkner-MacDonagh

    2003-01-01

    Deflation can be costly and difficult to anticipate, and concerns of a generalized decline in prices in both industrial and emerging market economies have increased recently. This paper investigates the causes and consequences of deflation, the risk of deflation globally and in individual countries, and policy options. The authors discuss issues related to the measurement, determinants, and costs of deflation and examine previous episodes of deflation. They compute an index of deflation vulne...

  15. Options for enabling policies and regulatory environments

    OpenAIRE

    Izac, A.-M.; Egelyng, H.; Ferreira, G.; Duthie, D.; Hubert, B.; Louwaars, N.; al., et

    2009-01-01

    Based on the International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD), this chapter (7) of the “Global Report” identifies a range of policy options for future support for agricultural knowledge, science and technology (AKST) to pursue environmentally and socially sustainable development. Presenting its analysis in sections covering “Natural resources and global environmental change”, “Trade and Markets”, “Food Safety and Plant Health”, “Knowledge and...

  16. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  17. Global population trends and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Alex C; Bongaarts, John; Mberu, Blessing

    2012-07-14

    Rapid population growth is a threat to wellbeing in the poorest countries, whereas very low fertility increasingly threatens the future welfare of many developed countries. The mapping of global trends in population growth from 2005-10 shows four distinct patterns. Most of the poorest countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by rapid growth of more than 2% per year. Moderate annual growth of 1-2% is concentrated in large countries, such as India and Indonesia, and across north Africa and western Latin America. Whereas most advanced-economy countries and large middle-income countries, such as China and Brazil, are characterised by low or no growth (0-1% per year), most of eastern Europe, Japan, and a few western European countries are characterised by population decline. Countries with rapid growth face adverse social, economic, and environmental pressures, whereas those with low or negative growth face rapid population ageing, unsustainable burdens on public pensions and health-care systems, and slow economic growth. Countries with rapid growth should consider the implementation of voluntary family planning programmes as their main policy option to reduce the high unmet need for contraception, unwanted pregnancies, and probirth reproductive norms. In countries with low or negative growth, policies to address ageing and very low fertility are still evolving. Further research into the potential effect of demographic policies on other social systems, social groups, and fertility decisions and trends is therefore recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Policy implications for familial searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-11-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  19. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  20. GATS Mode 4 Negotiation and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Sang Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics and issues of GATS Mode 4 and guesses the effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market to suggest policy options to Korea. Mode 4 negotiation started from the trade perspective, however, since Mode 4 involves international labor migration, it also has migration perspective. Thus developed countries, that have competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of skilled workers such as intra-company transferees and business visitors. On the other hand, developing countries, that have little competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of low-skilled workers. Empirical studies predict that the benefits of Mode 4 liberalization will be focused on developed countries rather than developing countries. The latter may suffer from brain drain and reduction of labor supply. Nevertheless developed countries are reluctant to Mode 4 negotiation because they can utilize skilled workers from developing countries by use of their own temporary visa programs. They are interested in Mode 4 related with Mode 3 in order to ease direct investment and movement of natural persons to developing countries. Regardless of the direction of a single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation, the net effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market may be negative. The Korean initial offer on Mode 4 is the same as the UR offer. Since Korean position on Mode 4 is most defensive, it is hard to expect that Korean position will be accepted as the single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation. Thus Korea has to prepare strategic package measures to minimize the costs of Mode 4 liberalization and improve competitiveness of service sector.

  1. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That Influence Enrolling in Alternative Educational Options: Adult Perceptions and Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis-McNerney, Violet

    2013-01-01

    This research obtained information using focus groups as qualitative method to determine the factors that influenced alternative education decisions. The purpose of this study was to help bridge theory, research, and educational practices and examine policy reform efforts. Through the lenses of returning adult education students, this research…

  2. Energy policy options for Illinois. Proceedings. [26 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six papers presented at the Fifth Annual Oil Illinois Energy Conference are categorized into five sections, namely: An overview of U.S. and Illinois Energy Policy; Energy Policy; Conservation--Solar--Biomass and Solid Wastes; Energy Policy; Petroleum and Natural Gas; Energy Policy; Coal and Electric Utilities; and Economic and Consumer Concerns. One paper, A Perspective on Long-Range Nuclear Energy Options, by William O. Harms has previously appeared in EAPA 4: 1364. (MCW)

  3. Alternative entrepreneurial options: a policy mitigation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on alternative entrepreneurial options as a mitigation strategy against climate change among part-time farmers in Abia state Nigeria. Some farmers abandoned farming in the face of reoccurring adverse weather conditions to other livelihood sustaining activities. The objectives were to examine the ...

  4. Radiation indicator options for environmental policy

    CERN Document Server

    Pruppers, M J M

    2002-01-01

    It has proven impossible to create an indicator capable of showing the state of the art in a single figure so as to determine the progress made in the 'radiation component' of environmental policy from the trends indicated. This is the conclusion following an investigation requested by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in the framework of the environmental theme 'dispersion of radioactive substances and ionising radiation' to develop a radiation indicator comparable to the indicators for proprietary substances and pesticides. The most important reasons for failing to develop this indicator lie in the absence of both suitable policy targets and data for the calculations necessary for the indicator. Substituting policy targets with reference emissions, reference concentrations and reference doses would make it possible to define indicators for radiation protection. Here, environmental pressure indicators are proposed for nuclear installations and the process industry. The environment...

  5. Policy options to contain healthcare costs: a review and classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadhouders, N.W.; Koolman, X.; Tanke, M.A.C.; Maarse, H.; Jeurissen, P.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Containing health care costs has been a challenge for most OECD member states. We classify 2250 cost containment policies in forty-one groups of policy options. This conceptual framework might act as a toolkit for policymakers that seek to develop strategies for cost control; and for researchers

  6. Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina.

  7. Danish Telecommunications: Keeping the Policy Options Open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Wulff, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    In recent years Danish telecommunications policy has gone through a marked change in emphasis, Tele Danmark, formed only 6 years ago as the national operator in order to strengthen the Danish telecom industry, has come under pressure in the present liberalization. This article discusses Tele...... Danmark's situation and future possibilities and presents background information on the new Danish telecommunications legislation, the present Danish telecommunications market, and Tele Danmark's strategies. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  8. World Energy Outlook - 2050: Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghouri, Salman Saif

    2007-07-01

    The paper analyzes the historical trends, resource distribution and forecasts the regional total primary energy consumption (TPEC) to 2050. The purpose is to provide a most probable path so that appropriate policies can be made to enhance/slowdown the energy consumption without hampering economic growth. Global TPEC is most likely to reach 763-1259 Quadrillion Btu (QBtu) to 2050 with reference case trending between and stood at 978 QBtu. By 2050 the equation of TPEC is expected to be tilted in favor of developing countries when their share is increased from 47 percent in 2003 to 59 percent. Asia developing region becomes the largest consumer of TPEC; however on per capita basis it remains the lowest after Africa. The forecast gives some guidance to policy makers. Which policy measures should be taken to ensure availability of predicted level of energy resources? How should we mobilize sizeable investment to increase the expected production/capacity/logistic both in the producing and consuming countries? Simultaneously, what strategic measures should be taken: to improve energy efficiency/conservation, development/promotion of renewable sources of energies and check population growth to downward shift the probable TPEC path without compromising economic growth, productivity and quality of life? (auth)

  9. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  10. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    , the Working Group recognizes that the protection and enforcement of the rights of inventors through the patent system must be done in a manner to stimulate innovation and the diffusion of knowledge. In order to propose meaningful policy options that meet these objectives as much as possible, the evidence put...... these and the other challenges identified in the report. Instead, the Working Group believes a package of interrelated options is more suitable. This reflects the intricacy of the policy situation and mirrors the many connected and complex fields involved. For instance, the workings of the European patent system...

  11. Policy Options for Reducing Dietary Sodium Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay McLaren

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with soaring health-care costs, Canadian governments should consider creative ways to enable the population to stay healthy — and making it possible for Canadians to reduce their sodium intake is an extremely cost-effective way to do so. Excess sodium consumption is a risk factor for high blood pressure, stroke and heart disease. On average, Canadians consume 3,400 mg of sodium a day (1,100 mg over recommended levels, at least three-quarters of which comes from processed foods. Any attempt at sodium reduction must therefore involve the food industry. This paper surveys sodium reduction efforts in jurisdictions around the globe, as well as past Canadian attempts, to provide provincial and federal policymakers with a comprehensive suite of lessons learned and a host of far-sighted policy recommendations ranging from food procurement to legislation and private sector engagement. Provincial governments, individually or together, must launch multi-pronged efforts involving food service companies, manufacturers, post-secondary institutes and the media to ensure that low-sodium alternatives are readily available, and that consumers are aware of them. They must also support federal action on changing dietary guidelines and introducing restrictions on food advertising to children. The benefits to be had are very real. In light of evidence showing that population-level intervention is superior to clinical intervention in terms of cost-effectiveness, returning up to $11.10 for every dollar spent and generating tens of billions in direct health-care savings, there is a very strong case for investing in population-level sodium reduction interventions that will work. The time for governments to act is now.

  12. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  13. Policy options to contain healthcare costs: a review and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadhouders, Niek; Koolman, Xander; Tanke, Marit; Maarse, Hans; Jeurissen, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Containing health care costs has been a challenge for most OECD member states. We classify 2250 cost containment policies in forty-one groups of policy options. This conceptual framework might act as a toolkit for policymakers that seek to develop strategies for cost control; and for researchers that seek to evaluate them. We found that certain important cost drivers such as wages and capital are being sparsely covered. We distinguish four primary targets to contain costs: volume controls, price controls, budgeting and market oriented policies. Price controls and budgeting, both seen as relatively effective, appear substantially less often in literature than volume controls and market oriented policies. The relative use of each option hardly changed over time, although the health system type did matter. Market oriented policies were more likely to be suggested for countries with public provision of health care, as well as for the US system. In contrast, budgeting policy proposals were more likely to be suggested for countries with market provision systems, such as Canada, Germany and France. Implementation of cost containment policies could lead to convergence of health care systems, except for the US system, if policies are implemented based on the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental effects of manure policy options in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Liere, van L.; Plette, S.; Prins, T.; Zeijts, van H.; Schoumans, O.F.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the effects of manure policy options for agricultural land in The Netherlands on nitrate leaching to groundwater, ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions to the atmosphere and on eutrophication of surface waters. The implementation of the farm gate balance MINAS at farm level, with

  15. An Empirical Analysis of Payout Policy and Option Expensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio J. Cardona

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of stock options as a compensation component and the subsequent failure of firms where their use was prevalent forced both Congress and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB to enact new legislation and regulations in 2002. Among other things, the new legislation required corporations to disclose more information on their financial statements and initially to recognize voluntarily stock option grants as an expense on their financial statements. In 2004 option expensing became mandatory. This investigation uses Tobit regression models to examine whether there is a change in the payout policy (use a firm’s cash to pay dividends to its stockholders or to repurchase outstanding shares from its shareholders in a group of firms after announcing their voluntary decision to expense their stock options. The expected increases in the payment of dividends or share repurchases did not occur. Firms seem to have reacted to the required option expensing with other changes in their equity compensation plans such as accelerating the vesting of its options or by modifying the terms of its option grants.

  16. Renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi: Drivers and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezher, Toufic; Dawelbait, Gihan; Abbas, Zeina

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel depletion are the main drivers for the recent focus on Renewable Energy (RE) resources. However, since the high cost of RE technologies is the main obstacle facing the diffusion of RE power generation, economic and political intervention is inevitable. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population and economic growth are the main causes of a sharp increase of energy demand. Two key related factors highlight the need to establish a RE sector: first the UAE has one of the highest carbon footprint in the world and second, the rate of depletion of its main energy generation resource – fossil fuel. In this study, we present a review of overall policies in sixty-one countries, focusing on their efforts to adopt RE resources in the power sector, and on their implementation of fundamental policies implemented. Furthermore, we investigate the applicability to Abu Dhabi UAE of the main RE policies implemented worldwide. As a result of our analysis, we recommend the implementation of a mixed policy of Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) and the Quota system for RE electricity generation in order for the UAE to meet its 7% target by 2020. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive review of renewable energy policy mechanisms. ► Summarizes the renewable energy policy adoptions, targets, and installed capacity in many countries. ► Gives recommendations on renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi, an oil rich country.

  17. Comparing Clean Water Act Section 316(b Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kadvany

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a comparative framework for policy proposals involving fish protection and Section 316(b of the Clean Water Act (CWA. Section 316(b addresses the impingement and entrainment of fish by cooling-water intake structures used principally by steam electric power plants. The framework is motivated by examining the role of adverse environmental impacts (AEIs in the context of Section 316(b decision making. AEI is mentioned in Section 316(b, but not defined. While various AEI options have been proposed over the years, none has been formalized through environmental regulations nor universally accepted. Using a multiple values approach from decision analysis, AEIs are characterized as measurement criteria for ecological impacts. Criteria for evaluating AEI options are identified, including modeling and assessment issues, the characterization of ecological value, regulatory implementation, and the treatment of uncertainty. Motivated by the difficulties in defining AEI once and for all, a framework is introduced to compare options for 316(b decision making. Three simplified policy options are considered, each with a different implicit or explicit AEI approach: (1 a technology-driven rule based on a strict reading of the 316(b regulatory text, and for which any impingement and entrainment count as AEI, (2 a complementary, open-ended risk-assessment process for estimating population effects with AEI characterized on a site-specific basis, and (3 an intermediate position based on proxy measures such as specially constructed definitions of littoral zone, sensitive habitat, or water body type. The first two proposals correspond roughly to responses provided, respectively, by the Riverkeeper environmental organization and the Utility Water Act Group to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA’s proposed 316(b new facilities rule of August 2000; the third example is a simplified form of the EPA’s proposed August 2000 new facilities

  18. The Farm Credit Situation: Implications for Agricultural Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, J. Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Examines issues regarding current farm finance situation from a public policy perspective: origins and causes of current situation, available policy options for dealing with the problems, and impacts of policy options. (NEC)

  19. Background document for climate change policy options in Northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an initial compilation of background material in support of the development of climate change policy options for the jurisdictions of Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut in Northern Canada. While Northern Canada contributes only a small fraction of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, scientists forecast changes in average annual temperatures to be among the highest in the world. The Northern Climate Exchange at Yukon College was created in March 2001 to address this issue and to help guide northerners in what they can do now and in the future. This paper includes an annotated bibliography of a total of 75 international, national, and territorial policy documents and major reference documents relevant to climate change issues. It is meant to be a resource for researchers, policy analysts and government officials developing policy options and implementing programs for Northern Canada. While each of the three northern territories are at a different stage in the evolution of their climate change activities, they are all striving to develop strategies and action plans and to initiate the implementation of those plans. It is recognized that many long-standing programs and initiatives, particularly in the areas of energy efficiency and alternate energy, will help northern jurisdictions address their climate change objectives. The three territories are cooperating to deliver their message to the federal government. 75 refs., 4 figs

  20. Student Tuition Charges: Comparisons, Options, and Implications and An Appendix to Student Tuition Charges: Comparisons, Options, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.

    National and state comparisons of tuition and fee charges, as well as various policy options presented to the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education, are provided. An introduction to tuition and fee calculation is followed by definitions of tuition, required student fees, and student residency status. A study of tuition and fees at New Mexico…

  1. Policy options for effective REDD+ implementation in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, Moeko; Sikor, T.; Kurniawan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia, which contains the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world, is currently exploring policy options for the effective implementation of REDD+, the global initiative to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This article analyses the major questions regarding...... the effective distribution of benefits on the basis of three village case studies in Kutai Barat district in the province of East Kalimantan. The case studies demonstrate that companies are unlikely to take up compensation payments for stopping large-scale activities that cause deforestation and forest......, and in particular recognition of customary forest tenure through communal titles, which is more advantageous than the transfer of individual titles to households....

  2. Policy options for effective REDD+ implementation in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, Moeko; Sikor, T.; Kurniawan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia, which contains the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world, is currently exploring policy options for the effective implementation of REDD+, the global initiative to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This article analyses the major questions regarding...... the effective distribution of benefits on the basis of three village case studies in Kutai Barat district in the province of East Kalimantan. The case studies demonstrate that companies are unlikely to take up compensation payments for stopping large-scale activities that cause deforestation and forest...

  3. Taxing Stock Options: Efficiency, Fairness and Revenue Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The federal Liberals and the NDP are right about this much: There is a more sensible way to tax the stock options that are granted as compensation by corporations than the approach the federal government takes now. But both parties are wrong about how much revenue an appropriate change in current tax policy will add to the treasury. Far from the half-billion dollars or more that both parties claim they will raise in federal tax revenue by changing the taxation of stock options, the appropriate reform will virtually raise no revenue. It could actually result in marginally lower tax revenue. As it stands, stock options are treated differently than salary and other forms of cash compensation when it comes to taxing an employee or director, in that they are subject to only half taxation, similar to capital gains. They are also treated differently than cash compensation for the corporation granting the options, in that they cannot be deducted from corporate income tax. The federal NDP and Liberals have both accepted the growing criticism, which only intensified in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, that the lower tax rate is an unfair tax break for those employees who receive stock options. Both parties have proposed to change that, leaving an exemption for startup companies only, with the NDP proposing full personal taxation for all stock options except for start-up companies and the Liberals proposing it for options-based compensation exceeding $100,000. Treating stock options the same as cash compensation would indeed be more tax efficient, reducing the distortionary effect that can influence company compensation packages to give more weight to stock options and less to cash than they might otherwise. But the only way to ensure that efficiency is by treating both the personal tax side of the benefit, and the corporate tax side of the benefit, in the same way as other employee compensation. That is, applying full taxation to the recipient

  4. Prohibiting physicians' dual practice in Iran: Policy options for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Jahanmehr, Nader; Behzadi, Faranak; Moghri, Javad; Doshmangir, Leila

    2018-04-23

    In Iran, based on the recent national policy documents, physician dual practice (PDP) has been prohibited. This study aimed to develop policy options (POs) to implement physicians' dual practice prohibition law in Iran. International evidence published in English and local documents published in Persian about PDP analyzed and results (advantages, disadvantages, challenges and requirements to ban PDP, and applied policies to limit the dual practice) were extracted. Results discussed among the research team in 5 rounds of meetings. In each meeting, any possible PO to limit PDP in Iran was proposed based on brainstorming technique and 12 POs were developed. These 12 POs and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed in a focus group discussion attended by 14 informed policy makers, and 3 additional POs were added. Fifteen POs were developed. Each PO has its own advantages and disadvantages. It is worth to highlight that not only are the proposed POs not mutually exclusive but they are also mutually reinforcing; that is, each of these POs can be applied alone or they can be implemented alongside each other simultaneously. No single optimal PO exists for dealing with the dual practice in Iranian health system. Implementing a mix of POs could reduce possible complications of each PO and increase the chance of successful implementation of the law. It is advisable to follow a conservative and incremental approach and start with POs that will cause less resistance and political challenges. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A climate for development. Climate change policy options for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoth-Ogendo, H.W.O.; Ojwang, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The seriousness of the potential impacts of climate change on development in Africa is now well recognized within, and increasingly outside, scientific circles. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a landmark in international environmental governance, providing a mechanism for exchange, negotiation and institution-building to re-direct development towards more efficient use of resources, especially energy. The message of 'A climate for Development' is that unless policy-makers fully understand both the international commitments made under the Convention and the essential national development priorities of their own countries, effective action on climate change is unlikely to be realized. The action needed, however, can at the same time stimulate capacity-building, planning and policy change which would strengthen the economic and ecological base of African countries. The climate change issue has hence brought us face to face with the urgency of the basic issues of sustainable development in Africa. The book discusses key issues that cut across all African countries, such as emissions and their impacts, financial resources and technology transfer for emissions abatement strategies. It then provides a sectoral analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and abatement options focusing on energy, industry, agriculture, forestry and transportation. The book concludes with guidelines for options which may be considered by African countries to ensure that climate change concerns are effectively dealt with in the context of their development priorities. 113 refs

  6. EU policy options for climate and energy beyond 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelemeijer, R.; Ros, J.; Notenboom, J.; Boot, P. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Groenenberg, H.; Winkel, T. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In 2009, the EU climate and energy package with targets for 2020 (the so-called 20-20-20 targets) were formulated. For the period after 2020, however, there are no legally binding targets at the EU level, except for a decreasing ETS cap which will not be sufficient in light of the ambition for 2050. This leads to uncertainty for market players, as project lead times are long and high upfront investments need to deliver returns well beyond 2020. In its Green Paper on a 2030 framework for climate and energy policies, the European Commission recognised the need for clarity regarding the post-2020 policy framework. Currently under discussion is whether the approach for 2020 should be continued towards 2030 in the form of three more stringent targets or that other approaches would be more appropriate. Within this context, the Dutch Government asked PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and Ecofys for advice. PBL and Ecofys have subsequently analysed possible options for an EU policy framework for 2030 that will steer towards a low-carbon economy by 2050 in a cost-effective way.

  7. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  8. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    been developed to improve the system as it is known today, since the Community patent is not guaranteed to be introduced in the near future. Should it be introduced, the Working Group considers that many of the policy options put forward would have an even better effect. When making its recommendations...... forward in the report includes an assessment of key patenting activity trends occurring at the moment. The analysis assesses what kind of impact these trends have on the ability of the European patent system to work well, and what are the specific challenges that arise as a result. The report identifies...... that worldwide, the most important patent trends happening now relate to the number of patent applications being made. Specifically, the fact that applications received by patent offices continue to grow steeply, resulting in high numbers of granted patent rights. One potentially undesirable consequence...

  9. Surface technologies 2006-Alternative energies and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces are the immediate contact between anything in our world. Literally, every industry utilizes coatings and surface modifications in order to create surfaces tailored to specific needs, protect underlying substrates, or modify their behavior. Surface and coating technologies are essential to a large variety of different industrial sectors, including transportation, manufacturing, food and biomedical engineering, energy, resources, and materials science and technology. The present paper explains the limitations for alternative energy technologies, with a focus on fuel cell technology development and the alternative energy sector, based on the outcomes of presentations and facilitated discussion groups during a Canadian national workshop series. Options for technological improvements of alternative energy systems are presented in combination with national and international policy choices, which could positively influence research and development in the alternative energy sector

  10. Reconciling biofuels, sustainability and commodities demand. Pitfalls and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, A.; Bole, T.; Londo, M.; Pelkmans, L.; Berndes, G.; Prieler, S.; Fischer, G.; Cueste Cabal, H.

    2010-06-01

    prices. Furthermore, land use change both through converting natural land to produce 1st generation biofuels, and by displacing existing agricultural activities to other areas, may drastically impact the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction of biofuels production and use. However, there are ways to reduce negative impacts. Even though shifting to second generation (2nd generation) biofuels appears to be one of the best solutions in terms of decreasing the pressure on agricultural commodity markets and improving GHG performances of biofuels, a mix of 1st and 2nd generation biofuels will be the likely future. In this respect, strategies to increase agricultural productivity, especially in developing countries where yields presently are low, stands out as one of the most important requirements. Food security and agricultural productivity improvements have been addressed as part of the millennium development goals (MDG's). But policy-driven biofuel production that impacts global agricultural markets should also become part of the policy framework that supports agricultural productivity increase in the world regions that are likely to be impacted most with increased biofuel demand. 2nd generation biofuels can decrease some of the pressure on agriculture commodities if they are produced from residues and crops cultivated on marginal lands. They are in addition expected to provide a substantial contribution to reducing GHG emissions. However, those technologies are still at demonstration stage and bringing them to the market requires policy measures that take into account their risk profiles and create a favourable and stable investment climate. A set of policy options, for instance combinations of high investment subsidies with soft loans, tax exemptions, and favourable crediting in relation to biofuel targets, can help overcome the initial investment barriers and enable larger volumes of 2nd generation biofuel penetration into the market. Lignocellulosic feedstocks are

  11. 3 CFR 13493 - Executive Order 13493 of January 22, 2009. Review of Detention Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Detention Policy Options 13493 Order 13493 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13493 of January 22, 2009 EO 13493 Review of Detention Policy Options By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, in order to develop policies for the...

  12. The Study on Policy Options for Siting Hazardous Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Oh [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    The problem of site allocation on locally unwanted land uses related to energy utilities that extended most recently is becoming a new energy policy issue due to the improvement of national standard of living and livelihood quality. Residents do not generally agree on establishing the construction of public energy utilities in their village due to NIMBY syndrome while they basically agree to have them. These circumstances made a big problem against mass production of industry society and the improvement of the national welfare. Locally unwanted land use related to energy utilities includes waste incineration system, nuclear power plant, coal fired power plant, oil and Gas storage tank, briquette manufacturing plant and etc. Opportunity for SOC projects carried out by central and local government is lost because of the regional egoism. The site dispute between government and residents obstructs optimal energy supply to be necessary for industry growth and the national welfare. The main objective of this study is to propose the policy option for finding a solution after surveying theory and background of site troubles and dispute factors. Final results of this study propose a solution on structural and institutional dispute. The former introduces three kinds of approaches such as tradition, compensation and negotiation. The transition of an environmentally sound energy consumption pattern and the improvement of energy efficiency could be carried out by traditional approaches. To claim the damage and offer the accommodation facilities could be settled by compensational approaches. The establishment of regional decentralization on NIMBY facilities could be settled by negotiatory approaches through fair share criteria. The latter proposes 1) 'polluter pays principle', 2) internalization of social cost and benefit on air or water pollution, 3) the behind - the - scene negotiation in a bid to settle a site dispute, 4) and supporting system for peripheral areas

  13. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  14. Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China

  15. Policy implications for familial searching

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforce...

  16. Mapping public policy options responding to obesity: the case of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    González Zapata, Laura Inés; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses the opinions of the main Spanish stakeholders from food and physical exercise policy networks on public policy options for responding to obesity. We followed the multi-criteria mapping methodology in the framework of the European project ‘Policy options in responding to obesity’ (PorGrow), through a structured interview to 21 stakeholders. A four-step approach was taken: options, criteria, scoring and weighting, obtaining in this way a measure of the performance of each op...

  17. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  18. Rising Inequality in Asia and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Juzhong; Kanbur, Ravi; Rhee, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the recent trends of rising inequality in developing Asia, asks why inequality matters, examines the driving forces of rising inequality, and proposes policy options for tackling high and rising inequality. Technological change, globalization, and market-oriented reform have driven Asia’s rapid growth, but have also had significant distributional consequences. These factors have favored owners of capital over labor, skilled over unskilled workers, and urban and coastal a...

  19. Interim Policy Options for Commercialization of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, Roger

    This interim report reviews the major incentive policy options available to accelerate market penetration of solar heating and cooling (SHAC) systems. Feasible policy options designed to overcome existing barriers to commercial acceptance and market penetration are identified and evaluated. The report is divided into seven sections, each dealing…

  20. Environmental and technology policy options in the electricity sector. Interactions and outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Newell, Richard G.; Preonas, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Myriad policy measures aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector, promote generation from renewable sources, and encourage energy conservation. To what extent do innovation and energy efficiency (EE) market failures justify additional interventions when a carbon price is in place? We extend the model of Fischer and Newell (2008) with advanced and conventional renewable energy technologies and short and long-run EE investments. We incorporate both knowledge spillovers and imperfections in the demand for energy efficiency. We conclude that some technology policies, particularly correcting R and D market failures, can be useful complements to emissions pricing, but ambitious renewable targets or subsidies seem unlikely to enhance welfare when placed alongside sufficient emissions pricing. The desirability of stringent EE policies is highly sensitive to the degree of undervaluation of EE by consumers, which also has implications for policies that tend to lower electricity prices. Even with multiple market failures, emissions pricing remains the single most cost-effective option for reducing emissions.

  1. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America. © 2015 ASCPT.

  2. The nuclear power option in the Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nucci, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    Italy took a pioneering role in the early development of nuclear power. This source of energy should have provided the answer to the lack of domestic fossil resources. Due to the cheap oil prices, the influence of the state hydrocarbons company ENI and an influential petroleum lobby, following the nationalisation of the electricity sector in the early sixties, the nuclear option was no longer consequently pursued. Italy became heavily dependent on imported oil. Although in the period 1974-1975 an intensive nuclear power development programme was launched, the share of nuclear power remained marginal. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster and following the referendum phasing out nuclear power in 1987, the national energy policy was newly defined. Our analysis will follow the customary practice to subdivide the Italian nuclear power development into three phases: the pioneering years till the mid-1960s; the period between 1966 and 1987 and the post-Chernobyl phase. We discuss the early phase at a certain length, since it is symptomatic of the way in Italy technological and industrial matters are dealt with and well illustrates the alliance games and behaviour of still existing market players. Although disputes about the alleged advantages of nuclear power are revived with certain regularity and are justified with arguments such as climate change and dependence on imported fuel, we argue that a return to nuclear power in Italy is not foreseeable. Nonetheless, the country cannot be considered a nuclear-free area. Nuclear wastes still play a disquieting role and imported electricity is generated also by nuclear power. Moreover, another tendency has set through. Due to a large liquidity provided by the mandated divestments in the framework of the liberalisation of the electricity market, the previous monopolist ENEL is heavily investing in generating capacities, including stakes in nuclear plants abroad, especially in new EU countries. (author)

  3. Income inequality: Implications and relevant economic policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to discuss closely the implications of income inequality and the economic policies to tackle it, especially so in view of inequality being one of the main causes of the 2007/2008 international financial crisis and the “great recession” that subsequently emerged. Wealth inequality is also important in this respect, but the focus is on income inequality. Ever since the financial crisis and the subsequent “great recession”, inequality of income, and wealth, has increased and the demand for economic policy initiatives to produce a more equal distribution of income and wealth has become more urgent. Such reduction would help to increase the level of economic activity as has been demonstrated again more recently. A number of economic policy initiatives for this purpose will be the focus of this contribution.

  4. THE INNOVATIVE POLICY OPTIONS FOR COASTAL FISHERIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A CASE OF KWANDANG BAY COASTAL ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Taylor Moore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Socio-environmental problems, such as climate change, pollution and habitat destruction, present serious challenges for fisheries economic development. The integration of interventions or investments within a coastal marine ecosystem, a defined spatial area, is considered important in the economic development of local communities leading to the planned outcomes of livelihoods, food security and conservation The coastal marine ecosystem, is the provider of products and services to the local economy adjacent to the ecosystem where the benefit flows, within that area, are interconnected. The roles of science, technology and innovation (STI are an integral part of these multi-dimensional interventions. Hence the need for an integrated approach for these interventions by government and/or through donor funded projects to enhance economic development of coastal communities. The policy framework proposed is therefore an STI perspective of the links between these intervention and investment options, based on a ‘fisheries economic development Hub’ (Hub and discussed using the multi-level perspective (MLP. The policy innovation proposal suggests an implementation strategy of a pilot project and analyses the selection and implications of a potential Indonesian site for the application of the Hub. This paper aims to introduce the MLP into the framework of coastal community-based fisheries economic development.   Key words: policy innovation. coastal marine ecosystem, fisheries economic development Hub, value chains, multi-level perspective (MLP

  5. Drinking and its burden in a global perspective: policy considerations and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin; Graham, Kathryn; Rehm, Jürgen; Jernigan, David; Monteiro, Maristela

    2003-10-01

    To identify the policy implications of the magnitude and characteristics of alcohol consumption and problems, viewed globally, and to summarize conclusions on the effectiveness of the strategies available to policymakers concerned with reducing rates of alcohol problems. This summative article draws on the findings of the articles preceding it and of reviews of the literature. Overall volume of consumption is the major factor in the prevalence of harms from drinking. Since consumption and associated problems tend to increase with economic development, policymakers in developing economies should be especially aware of the need to develop policies to minimize overall increases in alcohol consumption. Unrecorded consumption is also an important consideration for policy in many parts of the world, and poses difficulties for alcohol control policies. Drinking pattern is also an important contributing factor toward alcohol-related harm. Although some drinking patterns have been shown to produce beneficial health effects, because the net effect of alcohol on coronary disease is negative in most parts of the world, policies that promote abstinence or lower drinking overall may be the safest options. Moreover, sporadic intoxication is common in many parts of the world, and policies are unlikely to change this drinking pattern at least in the short to medium term. At the same time, because injuries comprise a large proportion of the burden of alcohol, it is appropriate to enhance these policies with targeted harm reduction strategies such as drinking and driving countermeasures and interventions focused on reducing alcohol-related violence in specific high-risk settings. Alcohol consumption is a major factor for the global burden of disease and should be considered a public health priority globally, regionally, and nationally for the vast majority of countries in the world. The need for alcohol policy is even stronger when it is taken into consideration that the burden of

  6. Implications of an Aging Labor Force for Human Resource Development Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Gerard M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Demographic trends show that areas such as Kentucky, Japan, and Sweden are experiencing very limited labor force growth and heavier reliance on older workers as the younger population declines. Implications of an aging work force for policy involve pensions, health benefits, retraining, flexible work options, and income support programs. (SK)

  7. Book Review: Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    T. Marimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Book Review Regulating Private Tutoring for Public Good: Policy Options for Supplementary Education in Asia By Mark Bray and Ora Kwo (2014), 93pp. ISBN: 978-988-17852-9-9, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre.

  8. Engaging China in the International Export Control Process: Options for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Charles

    1995-01-01

    .... objectives and potential policy initiatives toward that end. Using knowledge about the operation of the Chinese bureaucratic system, especially in defense related research and development, the briefing describes a number of strategy options for U.S...

  9. Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Rienstra, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologiesmay be an interesting option. In this context several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed in this

  10. Chinese water policy for sustainable water resources: Options for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China has no option but to press on with the implementation of the National Water Initiative as stated by its government in ''Document No. 1". One might observe that it can be a bit heavy in political terms. Most hydrological means are pretty meaningless in reality. Though the nation is not sure if it can handle such a project ...

  11. The U.S. Trade Deficit: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    project, it is undertaking intertemporal trade . In such a transaction, the borrowing nation gains because it can support a higher rate of investment...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress The U.S. Trade Deficit: Causes , Consequences, and Policy Options...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The U.S. Trade Deficit: Causes , Consequences, and Policy Options 5a

  12. Payout phase in DC pension funds – policy option - Theoretical considerations and Albanian available options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkeleda Shehi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the third pillar of pensions in Albania and what are the different alternatives related to the payout. Referring to the actual development of this market in Albania, experience of the actors involved, I find it indispensable and necessary to provide some theoretical background and considerations, and then build up a simple model of projection of a pension scheme cost and a model for payout alternatives for the Albanian pension funds. A great deal of importance is shown towards posing the assumptions. Also, the paper gives an explanation about the differences among different payout options and suggests the best option for the existing pension funds in Albania. The best option represents my conclusion and recommendation for the actual third pillar of pensions and the others that might join latter. To sum up, the first conclusion of the paper is that the annuity option is the best alternative for the payout phase of the pensions. It has the advantage of providing the highest protection against the risk of longevity. The second conclusion is that based on other countries experiences, the annuity market have to be developed hand in hand with the pension system development. Therefore Albania should rely on and follow this experience.

  13. The Implications of Real Options on ERP-Enabled Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankpa, Joseph K.

    2012-01-01

    Current research on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems and real options focuses on valuation and justification issues that manager's face prior to project approval with existing literature attempting to demonstrate that ERP systems as technology positioning investments have option-like characteristics thus making such ERP systems…

  14. Incentive Policy Options for Product Remanufacturing: Subsidizing Donations or Resales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yue; Li, Bangyi

    2017-01-01

    Remanufactured products offer better environmental benefits, and governments encourage manufacturers to remanufacture through various subsidy policies. This practice has shown that, in addition to product sales, remanufactured product can also achieve its value through social donation. Based on the remanufactured product value realization approaches, governments provide two kinds of incentive policies, which are remanufactured product sales subsidies and remanufactured product donation subsidies. This paper constructs a two-stage Stackelberg game model including a government and a manufacturer under two different policies, which can be solved by backward induction. By comparing the optimal decision of the two policies, our results show that, compared with the remanufacturing sales subsidy, donation subsidy weakens the cannibalization of remanufactured products for new products and increases the quantity of new products. It reduces the sales quantity of remanufactured products, but increases their total quantity. Under certain conditions of low subsidy, the manufacturer adopting sales subsidy provides better economic and environmental benefits. Under certain conditions of high subsidy, the manufacturer adopting donation subsidy offers better economic and environmental benefits. When untreated product environmental impact is large enough, donation subsidy policy has a better social welfare. Otherwise, the choice of social welfare of these two different policies depends on the social impact of remanufactured product donated. PMID:29194411

  15. U.S. weapons-useable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, A.L.; Gonzalez, V.L.

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective

  16. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, A.L. [ed.] [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Gonzalez, V.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Political Science

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  17. Multiperiod Production and Ordering Policies for a Retailer-Led Supply Chain through Option Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Wan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates two groups of multiperiod production and ordering models with call and bidirectional option contracts for a two-party supply chain consisting of one followed supplier and one dominant retailer, respectively. Based on dynamic programming theory, we characterize the optimal policy structures for two partners in each period. We also provide an approximation for the corresponding policy parameters evaluation in two cases. Then, we investigate the impacts of different option contracts and the demand risk on the decisions and performances of two members. Our results suggest that, whether concerning call or bidirectional option contracts, the optimal policies for two members always follow a base stock type. When the price parameters are the same for different option contracts, the service levels of both the system and the retailer are higher with call option contracts than with bidirectional ones, whereas the retailer’s inventory risk is lower with bidirectional option contracts than with call ones. Under the same conditions stated above, call option contracts can always benefit the supplier, but not the retailer. Owing to the retailer’s dominant position, call option contracts are better choice for the supply chain if the option (exercise price is low (high, while bidirectional option contracts are more suitable choice for the supply chain if the option (exercise price is high (low. In addition, an increase in the demand risk would prompt the supplier to increase his production quantity and the retailer to reduce the initial firm order quantity, either with call or bidirectional option contracts.

  18. Oceanic implications for climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben I.

    2006-01-01

    Under the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (1982), each participating country maintains exclusive economic and environmental rights within the oceanic region extending 200 nm from its territorial sea, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Although the ocean within each EEZ is undoubtedly an anthropogenic CO 2 sink, it has been over-looked within international climate policy. In this paper I use an area-weighted scaling argument to show that the inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink within national carbon accounts would have significant implications in tracking national greenhouse commitments to any future climate change policy initiative. The advantages and disadvantages for inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink into global climate change policy are also explored. The most compelling argument for including the EEZ CO 2 sink is that it would enhance the equity and resources among coastal nations to combat and adapt against future climate change that will inherently impact coastal nations more so than land locked nations. If included, the funds raised could be used for either monitoring or adaptive coastal infrastructure among the most vulnerable nations. On the other hand, the EEZ anthropogenic CO 2 sink cannot be directly controlled by human activities and could be used as a disincentive for some developed nations to reduce fossil-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. This may therefore dampen efforts to ultimately reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In consideration of these arguments it is therefore suggested that an 'EEZ clause' be added to Kyoto and any future international climate policy that explicitly excludes its use within national carbon accounts under these international climate frameworks

  19. Mapping public policy options responding to obesity: the case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zapata, L I; Ortiz-Moncada, R; Alvarez-Dardet, C

    2007-05-01

    This study assesses the opinions of the main Spanish stakeholders from food and physical exercise policy networks on public policy options for responding to obesity. We followed the multi-criteria mapping methodology in the framework of the European project 'Policy options in responding to obesity' (PorGrow), through a structured interview to 21 stakeholders. A four-step approach was taken: options, criteria, scoring and weighting, obtaining in this way a measure of the performance of each option which integrates qualitative and quantitative information. In an overall analysis, the more popular policy options where those grouped as educational initiatives: include food and health in the school curriculum, improve health education to the general public, improve the training of health professionals in obesity care and prevention, incentives to caterers to provide healthier menus and improve community sports facilities. Fiscal measures as subsidies and taxes had the lowest support. The criteria assessed as priorities were grouped as efficacy and societal benefits. Obesity in Spain can be approached through public policies, although the process will not be easy or immediate. The feasibility of changes requires concerned public policymakers developing long-term actions taking into account the map of prioritized options by the stakeholders.

  20. United States Policy Options in the Western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    already overcrowded in relation to the resources available, have a severe population problem that must be corrected. The government does not possess a popu...lation policy and there are no programs designed to aid family planning. These programs must be undertaken soon or the prob- lems of overpopulation

  1. An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

  2. Options for including nitrogen management in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.

    2010-12-01

    The outline of the presentation is as follows: Climate change and nitrogen; Nitrogen and climate interlinkages; Options for nitrogen management; Report, workshop and IPCC; and Conclusions. The concluding remarks are: Fertilizing the biosphere with reactive nitrogen compounds lead to ecosystem, health, water and climate impacts; Nitrogen deposition can lead to additional carbon sequestration and to impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services; Nitrogen addition to the biosphere might have a net cooling effect of 1 W/m 2 ; Life Cycle Analysis is needed to show the full impact; and Nitrogen management is essential for the environment and can have a positive effect on the net GHG exchange.

  3. Office Construction in Singapore and Hong Kong: Testing Real Option Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.J. Jennen (Maarten); Y. Fu (Yuming)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe advance the real-option-based empirical analysis of commercial real estate investment in three respects. First, we test several real option implications for real estate construction that have not been examined in the commercial real estate investment literature. In particular and in

  4. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  5. Climate policy options and the transformation of the energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Held H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The key lines of argument to estimate a meaningful degree of efforts to mitigate global warming are outlined. Potential implementations of a policy that strives to limit global warming to 2°C compared to pre-industrial values are discussed. A recent model intercomparison study on mitigation costs is summarized. Conceptual difficulties when internalizing uncertainty in these types of analyses are highlighted and first attempts to overcome them are outlined. For the mitigation technology “carbon capture and storage” it is illustrated that mitigation technologies also require a proper treatment of their side-effects rather than just focusing on their cost-reduction potential in the context of mitigation. Finally, the prospects of climate policy are sketched.

  6. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    challenge identified is that new subject matter and science-based inventions are making it harder for examiners to accurately assess patentability requirements. And this may mean that undesirably broad rights are being granted in emerging technologies. No single all-embracing policy strategy is able to meet......The present report is based on an independent, policy-oriented investigation of the current European patent system. The central premise of the report is that the patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation and the diffusion of knowledge, and thus that the system...... is contributing in a constructive way to economic and social welfare objectives. In acknowledging the importance of the patent system in relation to many aspects of society, it is also essential to continually evaluate whether the system is working as effectively as it could be. In addition, because of some...

  7. Accounting Policy Options under IFRS: Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Oguzhan BAHADIR; Buke TOLGA

    2013-01-01

    Although one of the main purposes of International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is to improve comparability of financial statements by eliminating different accounting treatments applied by companies, International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) still permit choices in accounting treatment of similar transactions and events. This paper examines the accounting choices made by Turkish listed companies in cases where IFRSs permit a choice between alternative accounting policies. The ...

  8. US Policy Options Mitigating Venezuelan Sponsored Security Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-12

    Democratic Action Party (Accion, Democratica - AD) and the Social Christian Party (Comite de Organizacion Politica Electoral Independiente-COPEI...because Chavez has been vehemently anti-American. At the other end of the spectrum, Chavez could use an engagement policy as a propaganda tool touting... propaganda needs in portraying the US as an international villain. He could easily plead Venezuela’s case in international forums with some degree of success

  9. Uncertainty and global warming : an option - pricing approach to policy

    OpenAIRE

    Baranzini, Andrea; Chesney, Marc; Morisset, Jacques

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty is inherent in the analysis of global warming issues. Not only is there considerable scientific uncertainty about the magnitude of global warming, but even if that problem were resolved, there is uncertainty about what monetary value to assign to the costs and benefits of various policies to reduce global warming. And yet the influence of uncertainty in policymaker's decisions is ignored in most studies of the issue. The authors try to explicitly incorporate the effect of uncertai...

  10. Assessing Stop-Loss Policy Options through Personnel Flow Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    respond to iso - lated policy changes for stop-loss in a manner fundamentally similar to any alternative system change that, too, would have to reconcile...All Units - Scale: 5 Pct of Force FY07 Accession Pattern 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Year

  11. Metering: EU policy and implications for fuel poor households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel poverty is a function of household energy consumption, income, and the cost of delivered energy. The paper discusses ways in which current EU policy on the development of ‘smart’ metering could affect fuel poor households. The main focus is on developments in electricity metering and the development of ‘active demand’ and smart grids, so that demand can be matched closely with available supply. Advances in metering and related technologies open the way to time-of-use charging, easier switching between suppliers and between credit payment and prepayment, direct load control of some end-uses by the utility, greater scope for microgeneration, and improved consumption feedback for customers. These options open up both uncertainties and risks. The paper offers definitions and discussion of various functions of smart metering, summarizes the EU policy background, and considers some possible equity implications of rolling out a new generation of meters. There follows an assessment of potential implications to the fuel poor of changes to metering, based on a review of the literature on energy feedback, tariffing, and supplier–customer relationships. Much of the discussion is based on the UK experience, with examples from other EU member states and, where appropriate, from other parts of the world. - Highlights: ► Smart meters are part of general upgrading of electricity and gas networks. ► EU policy is to roll out the meters to 80%+ of the population by 2020. ► Improved feedback and prepayment metering may benefit the fuel poor. ► Remote disconnection and data privacy are issues for all consumers. ► We need careful assessment of potential gains and losses to the fuel poor.

  12. Projection of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by motor vehicles in China: Policy options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Wang, Michael; Zhang Xiliang; He Kebin; Gong Huiming; Jiang Kejun; Jin Yuefu; Shi Yaodong; Yu Xin

    2012-01-01

    We project the well-to-wheels (WTW) and tank-to-wheels (TTW) fossil-energy use, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the road-transport sector in China up to year 2050 and evaluate the effects of various potential policy options with the fuel economy and environmental impacts (FEEI) model ( (http://www.feeimodel.org/)). The policies evaluated include (1) vehicle fuel-consumption improvements, (2) dieselization, (3) vehicle electrification, and (4) fuel diversification, with plausible policy scenarios. Under the business-as-usual scenario, road transport in China would create 410–520 million metric tons (MMT) of oil-equivalent of TTW oil demand (three to four times the current level), 28–36 billion GJ of WTW energy demand, and 1900–2300 MMT of CO 2 -equivalent of WTW GHG emissions by 2050. The policies (in the same order as above) are projected to reduce the TTW oil demand by 35%, 10%, 29%, and 44%, and reduce WTW GHG emissions by 34%, 5%, 12%, and 13%, respectively, by 2050. This evaluation reveals that the fuel-consumption improvement policy could achieve greater benefit in reducing oil use, fossil-energy use, and GHG emissions. Implications of each policy option are discussed and the uncertainties associated with the policy scenarios are analyzed. - Highlights: ► Fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of vehicles in China are projected up to 2050. ► Various policies are evaluated with the fuel economy and environmental impacts model. ► Fuel economy standards have greatest benefit in saving energy use and GHG emissions. ► Electrification is effective. Benefit of dieselization and fuel blending is limited.

  13. Healthcare quality improvement -- policy implications and practicalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esain, Ann Elizabeth; Williams, Sharon J; Gakhal, Sandeep; Caley, Lynne; Cooke, Matthew W

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explore quality improvement (QI) at individual, group and organisational level. It also aims to identify restraining forces using formative evaluation and discuss implications for current UK policy, particularly quality, innovation, productivity and prevention. Learning events combined with work-based projects, focusing on individual and group responses are evaluated. A total of 11 multi-disciplinary groups drawn from NHS England healthcare Trusts (self-governing operational groups) were sampled. These Trusts have different geographic locations and participants were drawn from primary, secondary and commissioning arms. Mixed methods: questionnaires, observations and reflective accounts were used. The paper finds that solution versus problem identification causes confusion and influences success. Time for problem solving to achieve QI was absent. Feedback and learning structures are often not in place or inflexible. Limited focus on patient-centred services may be related to past assumptions regarding organisational design, hence assumptions and models need to be understood and challenged. The authors revise the Plan, Do, Study; Act (PDSA) model by adding an explicit problem identification step and hence avoiding solution-focused habits; demonstrating the need for more formative evaluations to inform managers and policy makers about healthcare QI processes. - Although UK-centric, the quality agenda is a USA and European theme, findings may help those embarking on this journey or those struggling with QI.

  14. Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency is important to reduce the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of energy production and consumption in South Africa. Currently, renewable energy contributes relatively little to primary energy and even less to the consumption of commercial energy. This article examines policy options for promoting renewable electricity. Feed-in tariffs guarantee prices for developers, but lack certainty on the amount of renewable electricity such laws would deliver under local conditions. Portfolio standards set a fixed quantity, which would guarantee diversity of supply. The question is whether the incremental upfront cost to be paid by society may be unacceptably high, compared to future health and environmental benefits. A renewables obligation combines the setting of a target with a tendering process, but may be bureaucratic to administer. Neither setting targets or regulating prices alone, however, will be sufficient. Power purchase agreements, access to the grid and creating markets for green electricity are some supporting activities that should be considered. Given that renewable electricity technologies have to compete with relatively low electricity tariffs, funding will be needed. Possible sources, both locally and internationally, are identified. The extent to which these are utilised will determine the future mix of renewable energy in South Africa. (author)

  15. Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency is important to reduce the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of energy production and consumption in South Africa. Currently, renewable energy contributes relatively little to primary energy and even less to the consumption of commercial energy. This article examines policy options for promoting renewable electricity. Feed-in tariffs guarantee prices for developers, but lack certainty on the amount of renewable electricity such laws would deliver under local conditions. Portfolio standards set a fixed quantity, which would guarantee diversity of supply. The question is whether the incremental upfront cost to be paid by society may be unacceptably high, compared to future health and environmental benefits. A renewables obligation combines the setting of a target with a tendering process, but may be bureaucratic to administer. Neither setting targets or regulating prices alone, however, will be sufficient. Power purchase agreements, access to the grid and creating markets for green electricity are some supporting activities that should be considered. Given that renewable electricity technologies have to compete with relatively low electricity tariffs, funding will be needed. Possible sources, both locally and internationally, are identified. The extent to which these are utilised will determine the future mix of renewable energy in South Africa

  16. Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ► There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ► expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ► A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ► The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ► The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.

  17. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and

  18. The economic policy options and their connection with inflation and unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Kopeć

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic system after 1990 had many fluctuations. This article applies to two essential phenomena in a free market economy: inflation and unemployment. This article applies to changes in the process of inflation and fluctuations in the unemployment rate under different economic policy options. Economic policies can affect the development of the inflation and unemployment. It includes interest rates and budget deficits. Methodology of model is based on a pendulum. Economic policy has been designated as a synthetic indicator of the resultant two policies - monetary and fiscal policies. With the help of the pendulum model has been established that the character had run monetary and fiscal policy, and how developed as economic policy. By the dominance of one of the policy options is understood that during cycles level inflation or the deficit fluctuated strongly to economic stabilization. One of the stages of the study was to analyze the monetary policy and assess whether there is a link between the evolution of interest rates and the evolution of the inflation rate. In a similar way, fiscal policy was analyzed. This article attempts to determine whether the conduct of economic policy was correct, and has had an impact on the economic situation.

  19. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  20. Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

    2014-01-01

    By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

  1. Assessment of selected world bank policies and their implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The review x-rayed some World Bank policies and their implications on the fight against poverty in Nigeria. World Bank policies on education, structural adjustment programme, water privatization, deregulation/liberalization and their implications on the fight against poverty in Nigeria were analyzed. In the review it was found ...

  2. Alcohol under the radar: do we have policy options regarding unrecorded alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Taylor, Benjamin J; Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    According to the World Health Organization, the public health impact of illicit alcohol and informally produced alcohol should be reduced. This paper summarizes and evaluates the evidence base about policy and intervention options regarding unrecorded alcohol consumption. A systematic review of the literature using electronic databases. The literature on unrecorded consumption was sparse with less than 30 articles about policy options, mostly based on observational studies. The most simplistic option to reduce unrecorded consumption would be to lower recorded alcohol prices to remove the economic incentive of buying unrecorded alcohol. However, this may increase the net total alcohol consumption, making it an unappealing public health policy option. Other policy options largely depend on the specific sub-group of unrecorded alcohol. The prohibition of toxic compounds used to denature alcohol (e.g. methanol) can improve health outcomes associated with surrogate alcohol consumption. Cross-border shopping can be reduced by either narrowing the tax differences, or stricter control. Actions limiting illegal trade and counterfeiting include introduction of tax stamps and electronic surveillance systems of alcohol trade. Education campaigns might increase the awareness about the risks associated with illegal alcohol. The most problematic category appears to be the home and small-scale artisanal production, for which the most promising option is to offer financial incentives to the producers for registration and quality control. Even though there are suggestions and theories on how to reduce unrecorded alcohol consumption, there is currently no clear evidence base on the effectiveness or cost effectiveness of available policy options. In addition, the differences in consumption levels, types of unrecorded alcohol, culture and tradition point to different measures in different parts of the world. Thus, the recommendation of a framework for moving forward in decision making

  3. AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE AND POLICY IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon; Heon-Goo Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at the current status of Korean social enterprises and their problems and suggested governmental policy implications for enhancing the competitiveness of social enterprises. As the study methods, the current status of social enterprises was analyzed and performance of social enterprise support was examined and then policy implications for promoting the social enterprises were analyzed. First, the direction of governmental policy regarding the promotion of social enterprise s...

  4. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  5. Energy and the environment: Technology assessment and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.P.W.

    1990-01-01

    While the energy crisis of the 1970s stimulated technological innovation in developed countries, it often had the opposite effect in the third world. However, developing countries can be considered to have two types of energy systems: ''connected'' and ''disconnected''. The connected system is affected by changes in the price of commercial energy, but the disconnected system is usually rural and remote. Commercial forms of energy may be needed in the disconnected system, but they are largely unavailable. In some of the developing countries, new energy technologies have therefore been developed which adapt traditional technologies still existing in the disconnected sector. In this article some of the work of the United National Centre for Science and Technology for Development is described. Through its ATAS (Advance Technology Alert System) programme, international and regional workshops are held to discuss policy questions arising in regard to new technologies and developments. Workshops have been held in Moscow on new energy technologies in the industry subsystem (connected), in Guatemala City on new energy technologies and the disconnected system, and in Ottawa on new energy technologies, transportation and development. Initial assessments made by or through these workshops are outlined here. A fourth workshop will be held in June 1990 in Saarbrucken on energy technologies and climate change. (author). 3 figs

  6. Implications of structural policies on the wheat market – comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural policy instruments can directly influence agricultural production, productivity, and other market variables. Using a Cobb-Douglas market model, we quantitatively assess national and global implications of structural policies on the wheat market, determined by technical progress and other structural policy measures ...

  7. Implications for Child Bilingual Acquisition, Optionality and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica

    2014-01-01

    Amaral & Roeper's Multiple Grammars (MG) proposal offers an appealingly simple way of thinking about the linguistic representations of bilingual speakers. This article presents a commentary on the MG language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue, focusing on the theory's implications for child…

  8. The Pacific Islands. Policy options for telecommunications investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussawalla, M; Ogden, M R

    1989-03-01

    The Independent Commission for World-Wide Telecommunications Development (Maitland Commission) reported that telecommunication networks, including public telephone systems, are an infrastructure which aids economic development throughout the world. The Commissions objective is to bring the majority of the world's population within easy access of a telephone and, in time, other communications services. Development in the Pacific Islands region is slowed by a lack of efficient communications. The islands are spread over 29 million square kilometers of ocean and extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. Pacific Island Nations (PINs) have problems of foreign exchange, skill shortages, and poor credit terms. Telecommunications infrastructure audits showed the overall regional teledensity of 3 telephones per 100 population. The individual countries vary form 8.3 in Fiji to 1.5 in Papua New Guinea and 25.2 in New Zealand. The population of the developing island countries is in mostly rural areas where there is a chronic shortage of telephones. The constraints on radio systems can be overcome with satellite technology. The new technologies are coming on the market faster than these countries can afford to handle them. By using satellite technology and sharing facilities PINs can greatly reduce the cost of telecommunications systems. Fiber optic cables will be used to carry large volumes of traffic over major routes while satellites can be used for a array of services for the smallest PIN nation to the largest route rim country. Work is being done to standardize the equipment specifications and to develop policies for the coordination of regional telecommunications training. To further facilitate communications development in this area, changes need to be made in international funding priorities for development, and recommendations by the Maitland Commission must be taken seriously.

  9. Policy options for pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing: issues for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen; Brooks, Geoffrey; Mant, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising globally. Most high-income countries have exercised pricing or purchasing strategies to address this pressure. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, usually have less regulated pharmaceutical markets and often lack feasible pricing or purchasing strategies, notwithstanding their wish to effectively manage medicine budgets. In high-income countries, most medicines payments are made by the state or health insurance institutions. In LMICs, most pharmaceutical expenditure is out-of-pocket which creates a different dynamic for policy enforcement. The paucity of rigorous studies on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing strategies makes it especially difficult for policy makers in LMICs to decide on a course of action. This article reviews published articles on pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies. Many policy options for medicine pricing and purchasing have been found to work but they also have attendant risks. No one option is decisively preferred; rather a mix of options may be required based on country-specific context. Empirical studies in LMICs are lacking. However, risks from any one policy option can reasonably be argued to be greater in LMICs which often lack strong legal systems, purchasing and state institutions to underpin the healthcare system. Key factors are identified to assist LMICs improve their medicine pricing and purchasing systems. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  10. Policy options for carbon taxation in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2010-06-01

    Even though the EU clearly leads the global fight against climate change and despite the additional reduction in emissions due to the global crisis and European recession, the ambitious objectives flagged in the '20-20-20 by 2020' strategy and 'climate-energy package' are probably out of reach if a more resolute and consistent policy of carbon taxation is not rapidly put in place. First, the EU is not as 'virtuous' as it may seem, and shows signs of a 'fatigue' in mitigating climate change; this is explained by the weak incentive structure of current climate institutions, due to both narrow coverage and insufficient stringency of the European 'Emission Trading Scheme' (ETS) - the European 'carbon market'-, and to excessive reliance on emission standards combined with weak energy taxation. Fears of losing competitiveness are a major argument against imposing a higher carbon price on industries, feeding tax competition both within the EU and vis-a-vis the rest of the world. Though not fully satisfactory, the Commission's recent proposal (a revision of the 2003 energy taxation directive introducing floors on national excises based on carbon content) would help solving the intra-EU conundrum. Alternatively, an extension of the EU ETS to households and the transport sector via the 'upstream' inclusion of fossil fuel dealers would also be a feasible solution. In order to answer the 'carbon leakage' argument and to send appropriate price signals to European consumers on extra-EU imports, a border adjustment mechanism - carbon levy or inclusion of importers into the EU ETS - is also necessary. Ultimately though, in order to make sure that economic agents face a uniform carbon price, a generalized carbon tax, in the form of a European 'Carbon Added Tax' (ECAT), would be the most effective instrument in the fight against climate change, as well as the pillar of a thorough tax

  11. Uruguay - Policy Options for Improving the Efficiency of Uruguay’s Railway Sector : Consolidated Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the state of the productive infrastructure of Uruguay and the development policies that govern it and to propose policy options for the long term contribution to achieving a higher level of economic and sustainable development, based on the premise that there is a link between the development of a country's infrastructure and its economic growth. The stud...

  12. Regulatory and mixed policy options for reducing energy use and carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisher, J.N. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Non-fiscal policy options to reduce energy demand and the resulting environmental impacts are discussed, and experiences with these options to date are reviewed. Such policies include accelerating technology development and demonstration, stimulating product demand via procurement policies, applying efficiency standards to information-poor end-use sectors, and encouraging utility energy efficiency programs. Efforts to implement such measures are underway in several industrialised countries and have begun in developing countries. Increasing energy efficiency is an important area for near-term carbon emission reductions, and a key strategy for cost-effective mitigation of global climate change. However, little of the energy efficiency potential identified by technical studies will be realised in the absence of policies to reduce barriers to energy efficiency investments. Performance standards can overcome the lack of information on the part of energy users, while technology procurement helps overcome the view of manufacturers that introducing efficient products is risky. The effects of these policy options on product markets are characterised, showing the synergy between different instruments and their potential to create and transform markets for energy efficient products, systems and services. The existence of such energy efficiency markets can stimulate new progress and innovation, providing the conditions in which the continuous process of technical improvement is significantly accelerated. Most policy analysis and discussions regarding climate change mitigation have centred on various forms of carbon emission taxes and to some extent on tradable emission offsets or permits. This article concludes with an examination of why non-fiscal options are mostly absent from energy-economic models and climate change policy studies, and we suggest approaches to include them more fully in energy policy analysis and implementation. 2 figs., 1 tab., 64 refs.

  13. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  14. Estimating the influence of U.S. ethanol policy on plant investment decisions: A real options analysis with two stochastic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmit, T.M.; Luo, J.; Conrad, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. ethanol policies have contributed to changes in the levels and the volatilities of revenues and costs facing ethanol firms. The implications of these policies for optimal investment behavior are investigated through an extension of the real options framework that allows for the consideration of volatility in both revenue and cost components, as well as the correlation between them. The effects of policy affecting plant revenues dominate the effects of those policies affecting production costs. In the absence of these policies, much of the recent expansionary periods would have not existed and market conditions in the late-1990s would have led to some plant closures. We also show that, regardless of plant size, U.S. ethanol policy has narrowed the distance between the optimal entry and exit curves, implying a more narrow range of inactivity and indicative of a more volatile evolution for the industry than would have existed otherwise. - Highlights: ► An extended real options framework with two stochastic variables is developed. ► Ethanol expansion largely induced by the revenue-enhancing effects of policy. ► Removing effects of policy changes optimal entry/exit environment considerably. ► To expand US ethanol industry, size of policy contributions needs to grow. ► US ethanol policy has fostered more volatile industry development.

  15. Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

    This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

  16. China Policy Options in a Post Crisis World : Young China Scholars ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    China Policy Options in a Post Crisis World : Young China Scholars Network - Phase II. This project builds on an earlier phase, Poverty and Inequality Research Network for China ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques. Les entreprises peuvent comprendre les tendances commerciales et les défis futurs dans ...

  17. Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability.

  18. Stemming the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa: a systemic review of policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Zimbudzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has been losing professionally trained health workers who are the core of the health system of this continent for many years. Faced with an increased burden of disease and coupled by a massive exodus of the health workforce, the health systems of many African nations are risking complete paralysis. Several studies have suggested policy options to reduce brain drain from Africa. The purpose of this paper is to review possible policies, which can stem the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa. A systemic literature review was conducted. Cinahl, Science Direct and PubMed databases were searched with the following terms: health professional brain drain from Africa and policies for reducing impact of brain drain from Africa. References were also browsed for relevant articles. A total of 425 articles were available for the study but only 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review identified nine policy options, which were being implemented in Africa, but the most common was task shifting which had success in several African countries. This review has demonstrated that there is considerable consensus on task shifting as the most appropriate and sustainable policy option for reducing the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa.

  19. Using economic policy to tackle chronic disease: options for the Australian Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplin, Lauren; Thow, Anne Marie

    2013-03-01

    Australia suffers from one of the highest prevalences among developed countries of persons being overweight and obese, these conditions arising from the overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that are generally less expensive than healthier options. One potential avenue for intervention is to influence the price of foods such that healthier options are less expensive and, therefore, are an easier choice to make. This article considers the potential for fiscal policies that would realign food prices with health incentives. Through a review of consumption taxes, consumer subsidies, trade policies, agricultural support policies, and other incentive programs as possible avenues for intervention, this article asks what the Commonwealth Government has already done to help improve Australian diets, and looks at where further improvements could be made.

  20. The Epidemiological Transition: Policy and Planning Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key words employed were: Epidemiological Transition with particular emphasis on policy and planning implications in developing countries. Several studies have outlined definitions, stages and historical perspectives of epidemiological transition, as well as the scenarios in developed and developing countries.

  1. Dependence on carbonated water: Clinical and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of caffeine dependence syndrome with preference for a specific brand of carbonated water (popularly known as soft drinks or colas is discussed to highlight the clinical and policy implications.

  2. The implications of the nuclear option in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, P.A.; Boivin, M.

    1979-10-01

    Problems concerning the nuclear option as a component of the energy balance of Quebec are presented. The demand for electrical energy for the periods 1977-1985 and 1985-2000, the energy resources of Quebec, and an analysis of nuclear fission energy are considered. In 1978 65.5 percent of Quebec's energy needs were supplied by imported petroleum, 7.1 percent by imported gas, and 1.4 percent by imported coal. Hydroelectricity supplied 21.9 percent of the energy budget in 1976. According to projections electricity's share will be around 41 percent in 1990 after conservation, and approximately 50 percent in 2000, while petroleum and gas will have 44 percent, new energies 5 percent, and coal 1 percent. The acceptability of nuclear power can be broken down into six factors, for each of which a decision criterion can be recognized: technical feasibility, economic feasibility, security of supply, side effects for Quebec, human and ecological risks, and socio-political factors. The first four criteria are acceptable and even in certain cases desirable. The acceptability of risks is subjective and should be a collective decision, and therefore is policitcal. Even if Quebec does not need nuclear at the present or in the next decade, it is still a form of energy which it will be necessary to come to terms with eventually. Thus it is important to maintain the capacity to have recourse to it, and to start a program of public dialogue by setting up a 'Permanent Council for Energy Forecasting'. The democratic participation of a well-informed population in a neutral and objective nuclear debate is thus essential. (LL)

  3. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference: Technology and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, new radio technologies and services are poised to change the ways we communicate. Radio waves already make possible a wide range of services considered commonplace--AM and FM radio broadcasting, television, cellular telephones, remote garage-door openers, and baby monitors. Advances in radio technology are giving birth to even more new products and services, including pocket-sized telephones that may allow people to make and receive calls anywhere in the world, high-definition televisions (HDTV) with superior quality pictures and sound, and static-free digital radios. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-92) authorized frequencies for many of these new radio communication services, and granted additional frequencies for many existing services, including international broadcasting, satellite-based mobile communications, and communications in space. The effects of these changes will be felt well into the 21st century as countries around the world develop and deploy new communications systems to serve the needs of consumers, businesses, and governments. For the United States, the decisions made at the conference will critically affect how we develop new radio technologies and applications, how competitive this country will be in radio communications equipment and services, and how effectively the United States can exercise its role as a leader in world radio communication policymaking. This study of the outcomes and implications of WARC-92 was requested by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. OTA was asked to evaluate the success of U.S. proposals at the conference, discuss the implications of the decisions made for U.S. technology and policy development, and identify options for improving U.S. participation in future world radio communication conferences.

  4. Financial Frictions and Real Implications of Macroprudential Policies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 26 (2012), s. 333-368 ISSN 1555-4961 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Debt * Equity * Bank * Default * Macroprudential policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/Derviz- financial frictions and real implications of macroprudential policies.pdf

  5. Current Government Actions and Potential Policy Options for Reducing Obesity in Queensland Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharairi, Naser A

    2018-01-29

    School nutrition policies provide promising avenues towards the improvement of children's eating habits and the prevention of obesity. Childhood obesity rates and related chronic diseases are increasing in Queensland, in part as a result of unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activity. There is a very high investment by the Queensland government in maintaining healthy weight and promoting nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren through delivering a range of initiatives across the state. However, there is a lack of evidence concerning the effectiveness of nutrition/physical education and parental involvement programs addressing obesity delivered in Queensland schools. This paper can be used to guide government and policy-makers regarding the most effective policy options that will promote healthy eating and physical activity among Queensland schoolchildren. The aim of this paper is to: (i) summarize current evidence on Queensland government responses to obesity; and (ii) discuss potential policy options that could support healthy eating and regular physical activity, and examine the evidence base for each option and suggest new areas for future research.

  6. Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2009-01-09

    Installations of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, growing from less than 20 MW in 2000 to nearly 500 MW at the end of 2007, a compound average annual growth rate of 59%. Of particular note is the increasing contribution of 'non-residential' grid-connected PV systems--defined here as those systems installed on the customer (rather than utility) side of the meter at commercial, institutional, non-profit, or governmental properties--to the overall growth trend. Although there is some uncertainty in the numbers, non-residential PV capacity grew from less than half of aggregate annual capacity installations in 2000-2002 to nearly two-thirds in 2007. This relative growth trend is expected to have continued through 2008. The non-residential sector's commanding lead in terms of installed capacity in recent years primarily reflects two important differences between the non-residential and residential markets: (1) the greater federal 'Tax Benefits'--including the 30% investment tax credit (ITC) and accelerated tax depreciation--provided to commercial (relative to residential) PV systems, at least historically (this relative tax advantage has largely disappeared starting in 2009) and (2) larger non-residential project size. These two attributes have attracted to the market a number of institutional investors (referred to in this report as 'Tax Investors') seeking to invest in PV projects primarily to capture their Tax Benefits. The presence of these Tax Investors, in turn, has fostered a variety of innovative approaches to financing non-residential PV systems. This financial innovation--which is the topic of this report--has helped to overcome some of the largest barriers to the adoption of non-residential PV, and is therefore partly responsible (along with the policy changes that have driven this innovation) for the rapid growth in the market seen in recent years

  7. The cross-country implications of alternative climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Aijun; Du, Nan; Wei, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Because of worldwide growing concerns about global climate change, great interest has been expressed in the potential of alternative climate policies to reduce global carbon emissions. In this paper, we compare cross-country implications of alternative climate policies, including unilateral and multilateral climate policies. Our main findings are as follows. Firstly, there are large differences in cross-country effects of alternative unilateral climate policies, when the same given carbon emission reductions are achieved in each abating country respectively. Meanwhile, cross-border externalities undermine efficiency of unilateral climate policies. Secondly, there are significant differences in cross-country implications of alternative multilateral climate policies, when the same global emission reductions are allocated in several different ways among abating countries. Thirdly, it is difficult to reach a stable global climate treaty, since any abating country has the incentive to argue for small carbon emission reductions. Finally, multilateral climate policies can reduce the negative impacts of cross-border externalities, but cannot cure all cross-border externalities. Looking ahead, it will be a great policy challenge for the world to reduce carbon emissions in a cost-effective way. - highlights: • We compare impacts of unilateral climate policies across countries. • We compare effects of alternative multilateral climate policies. • We explore whether cross-border externalities disappear under multilateral climate policies

  8. Air emissions of ammonia and methane from livestock operations: valuation and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Siikamäki, Juha

    2008-09-01

    The animal husbandry industry is a major emitter of ammonia (NH3), which is a precursor of fine particulate matter (PM2.5)--arguably, the number-one environment-related public health threat facing the nation. The industry is also a major emitter of methane (CH4), which is an important greenhouse gas (GHG). We present an integrated process model of the engineering economics of technologies to reduce NH3 and CH4 emissions at dairy operations in California. Three policy options are explored: PM offset credits for NH3 control, GHG offset credits for CH4 control, and expanded net metering policies to provide revenue for the sale of electricity generated from captured methane (CH4) gas. Individually these policies vary substantially in the economic incentives they provide for farm operators to reduce emissions. We report on initial steps to fully develop the integrated process model that will provide guidance for policy-makers.

  9. Policy Options to Reduce Fragmentation in the Pooling of Health Insurance Funds in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are fragmentations in Iran’s health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. PMID:27239868

  10. Policy Options to Reduce Fragmentation in the Pooling of Health Insurance Funds in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila

    2016-02-11

    There are fragmentations in Iran's health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  11. Policy implications of transportation network companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This policy brief presents a brief introduction to transportation network companies (TNCs) and their services, a review of state-level legislation across the United States, and the municipal regulations that have been implemented in Texas in response...

  12. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  13. Nonnative forest insects and pathogens in the United States: impacts and policy options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M. Lovett; Marissa Weiss; Andrew M. Liebhold; Tom Holmes; Brian Leung; Kathy-Fallon Lambert; David A. Orwig; Faith T. Campbell; Jonathan Rosenthal; Deborah G. McCullough; Radka Wildova; Matthew P. Ayres; Charles D. Canham; David R. Foster; Shannon L. LaDeau; Troy Weldy

    2016-01-01

    We review and synthesize information on invasions of nonnative forest insects and diseases in the United States, including their ecological and economic impacts, pathways of arrival, distribution within the United States, and policy options for reducing future invasions. Nonnative insects have accumulated in United States forests at a rate of ~2.5 per yr over the last...

  14. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Hejazi, Mohamad I. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Davies, Evan [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  15. Technical backgrounder to CAPP input on June 14, 2002 workshop on federal climate change policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents arguments regarding the Federal Discussion Paper on Climate Change which presents four options for Canada to implement the Kyoto Protocol. This paper describes some major flaws with the package. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) believes that policy on climate change should ensure that measures for the trade exposed industry sectors are based on achievable objectives and that all levels of government should take a coordinated approach to greenhouse gases. In addition there should be no unfair burden on any region or unfairness in any sector. Climate change policy objectives should also consider economic, environmental and social objectives. With respect to the Kyoto Protocol in particular, governments should assess the liability that ratification would create and determine whether it makes economic sense. CAPP argues that none of the four options in the federal discussion paper meets requirements for industry objectives and form of policies. In addition, if Canada does not shift industry and emissions to other countries, or buy foreign credits, energy use by consumers would have to be significantly reduced in order to meet the Kyoto target. It was also noted that if the 'polluter pay' policy proposal is to be adopted, it must be based on a thorough understanding of what it implies and be applied in such a way to reflect the reality of international markets

  16. National Security Implications of Global Warming Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming , in and of...become convinced that global warming is universally bad and humans are the primary cause, political leaders may develop ill-advised policies restricting

  17. Policy and Ethical Implications of Biosocial Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1995-01-01

    Social scientists are often concerned that research on biological causes of behavior will encourage biologically-based public policy. By simultaneously examining both social and biological causes of behavior, biosocial research models prevent simplistic biological thinking. Concludes that biosocial models clarify ethical problems rather than…

  18. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  19. Implications of Electronic Commerce for Fiscal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsbee, Austan

    In this chapter, I will consider both sides of the relationship between electronic commerce and fiscal policy. For the impact of electronic commerce on fiscal policy, I will pay particular attention to the potential sales-tax revenue losses. The data suggest that the potential losses are actually modest over the next several years. I will also consider the reverse relationship - how fiscal policy affects Internet commerce. Here the evidence suggests that taxes have a sizable effect. I point out, though, that this only supports special treatment if there is some positive externality. Without one, the tax system will lead to excessive online buying to avoid taxes. I will then deal the neglected issue of taxes and Internet access, which can create large deadweight costs both because demand may be price-sensitive and because taxes can slow the spread of new technologies. Finally, I offer some discussion of the international context of taxes and the Internet and the international temptations to raise rates on E-commerce.

  20. CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FOSTERING SOCIAL ENTREPRENEUR

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, problems in current status of social entrepreneurs in Korea were examined and further policy issues for them were suggested as well. For the methodology, the study analyzed the drawbacks and policy implication of fostering social entrepreneurs through Focus Group Interview (FGI) on analysis of present condition of incubating social entrepreneur and programs for it. First, it should escape from personnel expense-centered one and convert to ecosystem-centered or division-centered...

  1. Implications of China's one-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, K

    1984-05-01

    China's ambitious efforts to control its population have been effective, for the annual growth rate declined from 2.3% to 1.4% between 1971-81. The government's goal is to keep the population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 and either maintain that as a stable population, or, ideally, to reduce the population to 700 million, deemed the optimum population that China's natural resources can sustain. The government is using a 1 child policy as a means of achieving this goal. It is apparent that the 1 child policy will cause significant changes in the society's demographic structure and contribute to social stress. The age structure is being altered, the ratio of males to females reflects a desire for the only child to be a son, and there are conflicts between the new economic policy and the call for limits on the number of children. The state is powerful enough to enforce its policy in urban areas but will most likely need to be content with a 2-child compromise in the countryside. Like most developing countries, China has a young population now. In 1980, 36% of the people were 14 years old or younger, whereas only 5% of the population were 65 and older. Each Chinese worker supported .93 dependents (the dependency ratio), mostly young children. The economy is geared to a young population, and the government must provide pediatric medical care, day care, and schools. If Chinese couples reduce their family size to slightly more than 1.5 children per couple, the dependency ratio will improve initially as the percentage of workers increases until 2015. After that a large percentage of workers would reach retirement age. The Chinese government promises increased retirement benefits for retirees and community aid to elderly with no family to support them. Statistics show that currently only 10% of the urban population is covered by pensions and only 1% of men and women of retirement age in rural areas receive community aid. To increase the number of people assisted would be

  2. Nuclear power phaseout policy and the economic implications for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of Germany's nuclear power phaseout policy and the expected consequences are discussed in this paper, referring to environmental aspects and Germany's international commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, implications for the national economy, the required structural transformation of the energy industry, and changes in the general legal setting for the energy sector. Proposals are discussed for modifying the planned nuclear power phaseout policy so as to make the process of winding down nuclear generation more compatible with economic, social, and environmental policy conditions. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Assessment of policy options with regard to air pollution from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, F.; Veldeman, N.; Lodewijks, P.; Duuerinck, J.; Janssen, L.; Campling, P.; Janssen, S.; Vanherle, K.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a study has been carried out for DG Environment of the European Commission titled 'Market-based instruments for Reducing Air Pollution. Assessment of Policy Options to reducing air pollution from shipping'. Within this study it was decided to study the environmental impact of two legally possible trading systems: a voluntary emissions trading system for all sea areas belonging to the European Union and a mandatory emissions trading system for the ports and territorial waters of EU Member States. If the emissions in ports and coastal waters will be made part of such a trading system it can result in lower environmental exposure for the population. [nl

  4. Modelling the affordability and distributional implications of future health care financing options in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Di; Ataguba, John E

    2012-03-01

    South Africa is considering introducing a universal health care system. A key concern for policy-makers and the general public is whether or not this reform is affordable. Modelling the resource and revenue generation requirements of alternative reform options is critical to inform decision-making. This paper considers three reform scenarios: universal coverage funded by increased allocations to health from general tax and additional dedicated taxes; an alternative reform option of extending private health insurance coverage to all formal sector workers and their dependents with the remainder using tax-funded services; and maintaining the status quo. Each scenario was modelled over a 15-year period using a spreadsheet model. Statistical analyses were also undertaken to evaluate the impact of options on the distribution of health care financing burden and benefits from using health services across socio-economic groups. Universal coverage would result in total health care spending levels equivalent to 8.6% of gross domestic product (GDP), which is comparable to current spending levels. It is lower than the status quo option (9.5% of GDP) and far lower than the option of expanding private insurance cover (over 13% of GDP). However, public funding of health services would have to increase substantially. Despite this, universal coverage would result in the most progressive financing system if the additional public funding requirements are generated through a surcharge on taxable income (but not if VAT is increased). The extended private insurance scheme option would be the least progressive and would impose a very high payment burden; total health care payments on average would be 10.7% of household consumption expenditure compared with the universal coverage (6.7%) and status quo (7.5%) options. The least pro-rich distribution of service benefits would be achieved under universal coverage. Universal coverage is affordable and would promote health system equity, but

  5. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  6. assessment of selected world bank policies and their implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    Nigeria. World Bank policies on education, structural adjustment programme, water privatization, deregulation/liberalization and their implications on the fight against poverty in Nigeria were ... necessities, assets, and income. It is a condition of general deprivation whose manifestation in the form of social inferiority, isolation, ...

  7. Innovation and inter-firm linkages : new implications for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the implications for competition, innovation and learning of different forms of inter-firm linkage, ways to govern them, different 'generic systems' of innovation, and government policy. It employs a transformed theory of transactions that can deal with innovation and

  8. Nigeria's National Population Policy and its Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compared Nigeria's national population policy and programme with those of other Third World countries and examined the implications for sustainable development in the 21st century, considering the trend of events in the country since 1999. it argued that when compared to those of China and India in terms of ...

  9. The Epidemiological Transition: Policy and Planning Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relevant literatures were reviewed from medical journals, library search and internet source using Google search engine as well as international, national and local journals. The key words employed were: Epidemiological Transition with particular emphasis on policy and planning implications in developing countries.

  10. Understanding Homophobic Behavior and Its Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Russell, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider recent advances in scholarship on homophobic bullying, and implications for policy and practice. We first consider toward whom homophobic behavior is directed, drawing attention to the nuances among LGBT youth, and the realities of homophobic bullying for heterosexual or straight youth. We review the correlates or…

  11. Patient dumping. Status, implications, and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, D A; Schiff, R L

    1987-03-20

    Patient dumping, or the transfer of patients from private to public hospitals because of economic or social factors, is on the increase throughout the United States. Focusing on the dumping of patients by hospital emergency departments, the authors examine the economic, ethical, legal, and medical aspects of the problem. Although 22 states and the federal government have enacted statutes requiring hospitals to provide emergency care regardless of ability to pay and requiring that patients be stabilized before transfer to another hospital, Ansell and Schiff contend that even the best of these laws are deficient in defining such terms as "emergency" and "patient stability" and that monitoring and enforcement of existing laws and the guidelines of the American College of Emergency Physicians are inadequate. They propose a policy that no patient in need of emergency hospitalization should be denied admission or transferred for economic reasons.

  12. Emerging energy technologies impacts and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    Technical change is a key factor in the energy world. Failure to recognize the potential for technical change, and the pace at which it may occur, has limited the accuracy and usefulness of past energy projections. conversely, programs to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies have often proved disappointing in the face of technical and commercial obstacles. This book examines important new and emerging energy technologies, and the mechanisms by which they may develop and enter the market. The project concentrates on the potential and probable role of selected energy technologies-which are in existence and likely to be of rapidly growing importance over the next decade-and the way in which market conditions and policy environment may affect their implementation

  13. Reactivation of nuclear power plant construction projects. Plant status, policy issues and regulatory options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.B.

    1986-07-01

    Prior to the TMI-2 accident on March 28, 1979, four nuclear power plant units that had previously been issued a construction permit were cancelled, principally because of reduced projections of regional power demand. Since that time, an additional 31 units with CPs have been cancelled and eight units deferred. On December 23, 1985 one of the deferred units (Limerick-2) was reactivated and construction resumed. The primary objective of this policy study is to identify the principal issues requiring office-level consideration in the event of reactivation of the construction of one or more of the nuclear power plants falling into two categories: (1) LWR units issued a construction permit whose construction has been cancelled, and (2) LWR units whose construction has been deferred. The study scope is limited to identifying regulatory issues or questions deserving analysis rather than providing, at this time, answers or recommended actions. Five tasks are addressed: a tabulation and discussion of the status of all cancelled and deferred LWR units; and identification of potential safety and environmental issues; an identification of regulatory or policy issues and needed information to determine the desirability of revising certain rules and policies; and identification of regulatory options and decision criteria; and an identification of decision considerations in determining staff requirements and organizational coordination of LWR reactivation policy and implementation efforts. 41 refs

  14. Policy implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Specific topics include: the technological feasibility of proposed components and architectures; the compatibility of the proposed systems with existing and proposed arms control agreements, with special emphasis upon the ABM Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, the Defense and Space Treaty, and the START Treaty; the compatibility of proposed systems with classical warfare doctrine and the four modern strategic nuclear doctrines of Massive Retaliation, Assured Destruction, Countervailing and Flexible Response; the economics of strategic defense including an assessment of overall governmental spending, of the suballocation for defense, and of the feasibility of defensive systems which are cost-effective at the margin; and, in summary, an assessment of the New Strategic Concept which balances arms control, offensive forces, and defensive forces. This study falls within the realm of defense policy analysis in that it attempts to determine whether the administration's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as the long-term strategic defensive systems derived from SDI research, constitute efficient, desirable allocation of scarce government resources - especially in a period of seemingly relaxed superpower tensions and numerous demands upon those resources

  15. Biofuels development in China: Technology options and policies needed to meet the 2020 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhao, Lili; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included sub-targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies. Almost all the 2010 sub-targets have been met and even surpassed except non-grain fuel ethanol. There is debate surrounding the questions of whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides the assessment of potential technology pathways to achieve the 2020 target regarding their respective resource potential and supply cost. Barriers and policy options are identified based on broad literatures review. And an overview of biofuels projections is presented to provide insight into the comparison of various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from technology perspective. But she will probably fall far short of this target if current situations continue. Additional policy efforts are needed. Meanwhile, the target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved. However, if given support policies, it will develop better. - Highlights: ► I. Non-grain feedstocks such as cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato grown in low productive arable lands or unutilized lands have enough potential to meet ethanol targets in 2020. ► II. If current situations continue, China will fall far short of the 2020 target. ► III. The target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved, while, if given support policies, it will develop better. ► IV. Supply cost is one of the major barriers faced by all biofuels pathways. ► V. Various policy measures would be necessary to overcome the costs barriers to biofuels in China.

  16. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  17. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  18. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-06-01

    In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

  19. The policy of green economy in developing countries and policy implications for Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong loan

    2017-01-01

    Green economy is emerging as a new development trend in the World because the global economy is facing environmental and ecosystem risks. For developing economies, green economy is seen as an opportunity and an optimal choice to change the conventional economic growth model towards sustainable development. Therefore, the research topic "The policy of green economy in developing countries and policy implications for Vietnam" is chosen for this study. This study aims to clarify the concept of g...

  20. Policy options to improve the effectiveness of the EU emissions trading system: A multi-criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Battles, Susan; Zoppoli, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers several policy options which have been proposed to improve the functioning of the ETS. These options require an intervention either on the ETS cap (−30% target, set-aside, carbon central bank, long-term target) or on the carbon price (European and national price floor). We analyse the impact of each policy on the ETS carbon price and emissions. A multi-criteria evaluation method is applied to compare the policy options against a plurality of environmental, economic and procedural criteria. We find that the final ranking depends on the goals to be achieved, i.e., the relative weights attributed to the criteria. When policymakers want mainly to support the carbon price both in the short and long-run, while improving ETS flexibility and harmonization, the CCB and the EU price floor are, respectively ranked as first and second-best options. As the preference for environmental and implementation goals gradually increases, the position of the EU price floor and CCB options tend to invert. The −30% target should be adopted when reducing emissions is the priority goal, while a national price floor is the worst option, in this case. Nevertheless, self-interested States looking for a relatively quick, feasible solution, may find it optimal. - Highlights: ► A multi-criteria analysis is adopted to compare policy options to improve the ETS effectiveness. ► An ETS cap reversible adjustment by a carbon central bank is the first-best option. ► The establishment of a EU-wide price floor would represent a second-best solution. ► A national price floor is the worst option but self-interest states may find it optimal. ► A post-2020 target is not a mutually exclusive option and should be set

  1. Son preference and sex-selective abortion in China: informing policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi; Wang, Xiao Lei; Zhou, Xu Dong; Hesketh, Therese

    2012-06-01

    There is growing evidence in China that son preference is on the decline, but the sex ratio at birth is still the highest in the world at around 120 male births to 100 females. The aim of the study was to explore attitudes towards gender preference among people of reproductive age, to determine the reasons why the sex ratio is persistently high, and to inform policy options. We conducted in-depth interviews with 212 individuals who aged from 18 to 39 in rural and urban areas of three provinces: Yunnan, Guizhou and Zhejiang. We show that while son preference has weakened considerably, it has not disappeared. The sex ratio remains high, because of this small minority of individuals, who still choose sex-selective abortion to ensure male offsprings. Intensive local policy interventions have been successful in reducing the sex ratio in some areas and these should be disseminated widely. In addition, the law forbidding sex selection should be actively enforced, and the One Child Policy should be relaxed in some areas, to reduce the disproportionately high sex ratio in the second order births.

  2. Child development in developing countries: child rights and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context for development of the youngest children in the majority world using one of the only data sets to study these contexts across countries. Using the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular the Rights to Survival, Development and Protection, findings are explained with implications for international and national-level social policies. Implications are also discussed, with respect to policy makers and the larger international community, who have the obligation to uphold these rights. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.; Otway, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

  4. The Global Financial Crisis: Analysis and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    encourages terrorist activity. The precipitous drop in the price of oil holds important implications for countries, such as Russia, Mexico, Venezuela ...and Venezuela , all of which share a heavy dependence on commodity exports and weak economic policy frameworks. In each of these countries, bond...particular, including textiles and various machinery exports, raising tensions between the two major trade partners of the regional customs union, Mercosur

  5. Exploring Policy Options to Stop the Loss of Wetlands on Prairie Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serran, J.; Creed, I. F.

    2013-12-01

    Wetlands from the prairie pothole region of North America have been disappearing at rapid rates over the past century. Within Canada, the issue of wetland loss is compounded by the lack of high resolution wetland inventories, the lack of information on rates of wetland loss, and the absence of wetland policies to further protect against loss. In Alberta, the situation is particularly problematic as increasing development pressures continue to place wetlands at risk. The 'no net loss' of wetlands policy established in 1993 has been ineffective, as wetland loss has continued, leaving Albertans searching for alternative policy options. An alternative policy option is to shift focus from wetland area to wetland function. We present a wetland function assessment system founded on ecological and hydrological processes for estimating wetland functions, including biodiversity, flood control, and pollution reduction, for a regional watershed in Alberta. First, we establish wetland loss rates using inventory time series from 1960 to present; wetland loss estimates can be derived from a break in slope in the area-frequency relationship. Second, we create a high-resolution wetland inventory using a novel approach that fuses LiDAR data (probability of wetland) with aerial photographs (to distinguish open water and the surrounding wet meadow zone). Third, using this wetland inventory, we identify indicators of wetland function using GIS and remote sensing data and technologies for application at regional watershed scales. Biodiversity indicators include a wetland's condition, ability to provide habitat, and potential for high ecological diversity. Flood control indicators include a wetland's ability to store water, connect to surface drainage network, and desynchronize flood waves throughout the landscape. Pollution control indicators include a wetland's contributing source area of nutrients, mechanisms that transport nutrients to the wetland, and mechanisms that retain

  6. Nonnative forest insects and pathogens in the United States: Impacts and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Gary M; Weiss, Marissa; Liebhold, Andrew M; Holmes, Thomas P; Leung, Brian; Lambert, Kathy Fallon; Orwig, David A; Campbell, Faith T; Rosenthal, Jonathan; McCullough, Deborah G; Wildova, Radka; Ayres, Matthew P; Canham, Charles D; Foster, David R; LaDeau, Shannon L; Weldy, Troy

    2016-07-01

    We review and synthesize information on invasions of nonnative forest insects and diseases in the United States, including their ecological and economic impacts, pathways of arrival, distribution within the United States, and policy options for reducing future invasions. Nonnative insects have accumulated in United States forests at a rate of ~2.5 per yr over the last 150 yr. Currently the two major pathways of introduction are importation of live plants and wood packing material such as pallets and crates. Introduced insects and diseases occur in forests and cities throughout the United States, and the problem is particularly severe in the Northeast and Upper Midwest. Nonnative forest pests are the only disturbance agent that has effectively eliminated entire tree species or genera from United States forests within decades. The resulting shift in forest structure and species composition alters ecosystem functions such as productivity, nutrient cycling, and wildlife habitat. In urban and suburban areas, loss of trees from streets, yards, and parks affects aesthetics, property values, shading, stormwater runoff, and human health. The economic damage from nonnative pests is not yet fully known, but is likely in the billions of dollars per year, with the majority of this economic burden borne by municipalities and residential property owners. Current policies for preventing introductions are having positive effects but are insufficient to reduce the influx of pests in the face of burgeoning global trade. Options are available to strengthen the defenses against pest arrival and establishment, including measures taken in the exporting country prior to shipment, measures to ensure clean shipments of plants and wood products, inspections at ports of entry, and post-entry measures such as quarantines, surveillance, and eradication programs. Improved data collection procedures for inspections, greater data accessibility, and better reporting would support better evaluation

  7. Behavioural Climate Change Mitigation Options and Their Appropriate Inclusion in Quantitative Longer Term Policy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Schroten, A.; Bles, M.; Sevenster, M.; Markowska, A.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Rohde, C.; Duetschke, E.; Koehler, J.; Gigli, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zimmermann, K.; Soboh, R.; Van ' t Riet, J. [Landbouw Economisch Instituut LEI, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Changes in consumer behaviour can lead to major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union, particularly in the areas of transport, housing and food. Behavioural changes can complement technological changes and can allow emission reduction targets to be achieved more cost-effectively overall. The study identifies 36 options for behavioural change that would cut greenhouse gas emissions. Of these, 11 particularly relevant options have been studied in detail. They include shifting to a more healthy and balanced diet, eating less meat and dairy products, buying and using a smaller car or an electric car, teleworking, adjusting room temperature and optimising ventilation. For each of the behavioural changes studied in depth, emission reduction potentials have been quantified for 2020, 2030 and 2050. The study identifies barriers to implementing the changes, and quantifies the likely effects of policy packages which could overcome these barriers. The results show that the behavioural changes that could take place simultaneously have the potential to save emissions totalling up to about 600 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent a year in 2020. This is about one-quarter of the projected annual emissions from sectors not covered by the EU emissions trading system. The savings potential is particularly high in the area of food.

  8. Older and incarcerated: policy implications of aging prison populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psick, Zachary; Simon, Jonathan; Brown, Rebecca; Ahalt, Cyrus

    2017-03-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations. Design/methodology/approach An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform. Findings Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes. These trends are accompanied by a growing body of evidence that old age is strongly correlated with desistance from criminal behavior, suggesting an opportunity to at least partially address the challenges of an aging prison population through early release from prison for appropriate persons. Originality/value Some policies do exist that aim to reduce the number of older, chronically ill or disabled and dying people in prison, but they have not achieved that goal on a sufficient scale. An examination of the situation in California shows that recognizing how the healthcare needs of incarcerated people change as they age - and how aging and aging-related health changes often decrease an older person's likelihood of repeat offense - is critical to achieving effective and efficient policies and practices aimed at adequately caring for this population and reducing their numbers in prisons when appropriate.

  9. Measuring Medicaid Physician Participation Rates and Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Kronick, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Policy makers continue to debate Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, and concerns remain about low provider participation in the program. However, there has been little research on how various measures of physician participation may reflect different elements of capacity for care within the Medicaid program and how these distinct measures correlate with one another across states. Our objectives were to describe several alternative measures of provider participation in Medicaid using recently publicly available data, to compare state rankings across these different metrics, and to discuss potential advantages and disadvantages of each measure for research and policy purposes. Overall, we find that Medicaid participation as measured by raw percentages of physicians taking new Medicaid patients is only weakly correlated with population-based measures that account for both participation rates and the numbers of physicians per capita or physicians per Medicaid beneficiary. Participation rates for all physicians versus primary care physicians also offer different information about state-level provider capacity. Policy makers should consider multiple dimensions of provider access in assessing policy options in Medicaid, and further research is needed to evaluate the linkages between these provider-based measures and beneficiaries' perceptions of access to care in the program. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  10. A real options approach to biotechnology Investment policy - the case of developing a Campylobacter vaccine to poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-01-01

    in a cost-effective way. The development of a vaccine against Campylobacter jejuni in poultry is applied as a case study. Employing the real options methodology, the net present value of the vaccine R&D project becomes larger than a purely probabilistic expected present value throughout the different stages...... of the project – and the net present value becomes larger, when more types of real options are taken into consideration. The insight from the real options analysis reveals opportunities for new policies to promote the development of animal vaccines. One such approach might be to develop schemes combining stage...

  11. Translating biomonitoring data into risk management and policy implementation options for a European Network on Human Biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeters G

    2008-01-01

    will eventually lead to the formulation of a variety of policy relevant risk reduction options. Conclusion Although the usefulness of this approach still needs to be tested, and potential fine-tuning of the procedure may be necessary, approaching the policy implications of HBM in an objective framework will prove to be essential.

  12. Analysis of policy options and implementation measures promoting electricity from renewable biomass in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautto, N.

    2005-04-01

    Biomass as a renewable energy source holds a great potential in responding to energy challenges of the future as well as meeting renewable energy targets set by the European Union. The objective of this study was to analyse various policy options and implementation measures promoting electricity from renewable biomass in the European Union, including new Member States (EU-25). The main political driving force behind this investigation was the RES-E Directive (2001/77/EC). The effectiveness of policy instruments regarding the development of electricity from biomass and biogas in the period of 1990-2002, and the framework conditions, i.e. success and risk factors, for this progress were assessed though a 'five-step approach'. Past development in terms of bioelectricity production and generating capacity was assessed based on statistics of Eurostat and the IEA. Policy instruments promoting bioelectricity and the framework factors on the national level in each EU Member State (excluding Cyprus and Malta) were investigated using the EU and governmental documents, independent evaluations and expert contacts as information sources. It became clear that determination of the effectiveness of policy instruments cannot be separated from the environment these mechanisms are applied to: mapping of the frame conditions for development is essential. Instead of selecting distinct policy instruments, successful Member State/bioelectricity combinations were chosen. The most successful combinations were found to be Germany, United Kingdom, Spain and Finland, whereas examples of unsuccessful measures were found in Greece, Luxembourg and the new Member States. Bioelectricity has clearly benefited from feed-in tariff system in countries like Germany but the use of biomass has essentially increased even without this measure in Sweden and Finland, where favourable taxation and strong links between forestry and power industries are defining factors for positive development. This study

  13. Policy Implications of Limiting Immigrant Concentration in Danish Public Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Thomsen, Mette Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant students in Denmark on average perform worse in lower secondary school than native Danish students. Part of the effect may not stem from the immigrant students themselves, but from the student composition at the school. From a policy perspective, the latter aspect is quite interesting...... since it is more feasible to change student composition in schools than the socioeconomic status of the individual students.This article describes theoretically the circumstances under which total student achievement can be increased by reallocating certain groups of students. Empirical analyses......’ educational outcome, by limiting the share of immigrant students at grade level at any one school to less than 50 percent. The policy implications of this finding are discussed....

  14. Opposite policy implications in the theory of money and banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson D. P. Bertolai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis creates a demand for welfare-based models of financial regulation and liquidity shortages. In this paper, we review policy implications from two cornerstone models and show that they imply different responses in terms of intertemporal returns of financial liabilities. In the first case, a version of the Cavalcanti and Wallace (1999, random-matching model, monitored agents are led to promote inflation in bank-issued money. In the second case, a sequential-service version of the Diamond and Dybvig (1983 model of bank runs with insolvency, increases in long-run returns can prevent bank runs by reducing the provision of liquidity.

  15. FISCAL - BUDGETARY POLICY IMPLICATIONS ON THE SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC RELAUNCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the implications of fiscal policy and budgetary measures on the Romanian economy after its inclusion on the coordinates of the market economy. Thus, we analyzed the evolution of macroeconomic indicators in conjunction with fiscal measures adopted. The research shows that the measures adopted in fiscal plan were passed on the economy, the effects of registration are often contrary to those expected. Giving a leading role financial tax system generally increased tax burden, accompanied by a low collection rate, repeated changes in tax laws and poor economic conditions concrete. In this context, the creation, allocation and optimal redistribution of budget resources are useful elements in the sustainable recovery of economic growth. I believe that fiscal policy is a permanent policy contestable numerous debates about the effectiveness of using a tax system for purposes other than financial concern namely monetary resources needed to cover expenditure for social or collective needs. Fiscal integrity in the decision process of traders produce permanent changes in their original condition, a change in behavior due to their concern objectively to find those ways of organizing and selling activities to generate the lowest tax burden. I appreciate that fiscal policy remains a tool of macroeconomic adjustment to national authorities. This means that the responsibility of maintaining budgetary balance and the responsibility of maintaining balance in the real economy will always return to the National Government.

  16. A quantitative assessment of policy options for no net loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, C.J.E.; van Teeffelen, A.J.A.; Tucker, G.; Verburg, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Biodiversity Strategy of the European Union includes a target to "ensure no-net-loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2020". Many policy options can be envisioned to achieve such a no-net-loss target, mainly acting on land use and land management. To assess the effectiveness of such

  17. Using value of statistical life for the ex ante evaluation of transport policy options: a discussion based on ethical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wee, B.; Rietveld, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss a number of questions that are highly important for the ex ante evaluation of the safety impacts of transport policy options, from the perspective of ethical theory: (1) Is it morally OK to express prevention on acceptance of fatalities or risks in monetary terms? (2) How

  18. Using value of statistical life for the ex ante evaluation of transport policy options : A discussion based on ethical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Rietveld, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss a number of questions that are highly important for the ex ante evaluation of the safety impacts of transport policy options, from the perspective of ethical theory: (1) Is it morally OK to express prevention on acceptance of fatalities or risks in monetary terms? (2) How

  19. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

  20. Climate policy through changing consumption choices: Options and obstacles for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Hertwich, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    While national climate policy can address countries’ production or consumption, climate mitigation via changes in consumption has previously received relatively little attention in climate policy literature. In the absence of an effective international climate policy, the focus on consumption is

  1. Private initiatives and policy options: recent health system experience in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, B C

    2001-03-01

    In the recent past the impact of structural adjustment in the Indian health care sector has been felt in the reduction in central grants to States for public health and disease control programmes. This falling share of central grants has had a more pronounced impact on the poorer states, which have found it more difficult to raise local resources to compensate for this loss of revenue. With the continued pace of reforms, the likelihood of increasing State expenditure on the health care sector is limited in the future. As a result, a number of notable trends are appearing in the Indian health care sector. These include an increasing investment by non-resident Indians (NRIs) in the hospital industry, leading to a spurt in corporatization in the States of their original domicile and an increasing participation by multinational companies in diagnostics aiming to capture the potential of the Indian health insurance market. The policy responses to these private initiatives are reflected in measures comprising strategies to attract private sector participation and management inputs into primary health care centres (PHCs), privatization or semi-privatization of public health facilities such as non-clinical services in public hospitals, innovating ways to finance public health facilities through non-budgetary measures, and tax incentives by the State governments to encourage private sector investment in the health sector. Bearing in mind the vital importance of such market forces and policy responses in shaping the future health care scenario in India, this paper examines in detail both of these aspects and their implications for the Indian health care sector. The analysis indicates that despite the promising newly emerging atmosphere, there are limits to market forces; appropriate refinement in the role of government should be attempted to avoid undesirable consequences of rising costs, increasing inequity and consumer exploitation. This may require opening the health

  2. Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Nunn, Charles L.; Vincent, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    with insights from the social and economic sciences, the papers in this Theme Issue address the complex relationships, patterns and ecological mechanisms that influence conservation, infectious disease, and the policy options available to protect nature and human health.

  3. Financial Literacy and Economic Outcomes: Evidence and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Olivia S; Lusardi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews what we have learned over the past decade about financial literacy and its relationship to financial decision-making around the world. Using three questions, we have surveyed people in several countries to determine whether they have the fundamental knowledge of economics and finance needed to function as effective decision-makers. We find that levels of financial literacy are low not only in the United States. but also in many other countries including those with well-developed financial markets. Moreover, financial illiteracy is particularly acute for some demographic groups, especially women and the less-educated. These findings are important since financial literacy is linked to borrowing, saving, and spending patterns. We also offer new evidence on financial literacy among high school students drawing on the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment implemented in 18 countries. Last, we discuss the implications of this research for policy.

  4. Choice of forest map has implications for policy analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria; McCallum, Ian; Fritz, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    and harmonised approach at the European level. However, they possess different characteristics in terms of spatial detail or thematic accuracy. Little attention has been paid to the effect of these characteristics on simulation models and the resultant policy implications. In this study we tested whether...... the choice of a forest map has substantial influence on model output, i.e. if output differences can be related to the input differences. A sensitivity analysis of the spatially explicit Global Forest Model (G4M) was performed using four different forest maps: the pan-European high resolution forest...... utilization of forest biomass. The sensitivity analysis showed that the choice of the forest cover map has a major influence on the model outputs in particular at the country-level, while having less influence at the EU27 level. Differences between the input datasets are strongly reflected in the outputs...

  5. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, A.; Marra, M.; Ciuffo, B.

    2011-01-01

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: → Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. → How to combine ambitious CO 2 reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. → Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. → Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  6. Trophy Hunting, Conservation, and Rural Development in Zimbabwe: Issues, Options, and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor K. Muposhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophy hunting has potential to support conservation financing and contribute towards rural development. We conducted a systematic review of the Zimbabwean trophy hunting perspective spanning from pre-1890 to 2015, by examining the following: (1 evolution of legal instruments, administration, and governance of trophy hunting, (2 significance of trophy hunting in conservation financing and rural development, and (3 key challenges, emerging issues in trophy hunting industry, and future interventions. Our review shows that (i there has been a constant evolution in the policies related to trophy hunting and conservation in Zimbabwe as driven by local and international needs; (ii trophy hunting providing incentives for wildlife conservation (e.g., law enforcement and habitat protection and rural communities’ development. Emerging issues that may affect trophy hunting include illegal hunting, inadequate monitoring systems, and hunting bans. We conclude that trophy hunting is still relevant in wildlife conservation and rural communities’ development especially in developing economies where conservation financing is inadequate due to fiscal constraints. We recommend the promotion of net conservation benefits for positive conservation efforts and use of wildlife conservation credits for the opportunity costs associated with reducing trophy hunting off-take levels and promoting nonconsumptive wildlife use options.

  7. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union-level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Saborido, Carlos; Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia; Caldeira, Sandra; Wollgast, Jan

    2016-11-01

    The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy.

  8. Optimal Replacement Policies for Non-Uniform Cache Objects with Optional Eviction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahat, Omri; Makowski, Armand M

    2002-01-01

    .... However, since the introduction of optimal replacement policies for conventional caching, the problem of finding optimal replacement policies under the factors indicated has not been studied in any systematic manner...

  9. Climate change : expert opinion on the economics of policy options to address climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Panelists identified key strengths and limitations of alternative policy approaches that should be of assistance to the Congress in weighing the potential benefits and costs of different policies for addressing climate change. Many panelists said tha...

  10. Dual containment in the Persian Gulf: strategic considerations and policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Mraz, Jerry L; McCallen, John P.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis is a critical analysis of US foreign policy toward Iran and Iraq known as a policy of dual containment. The objective of dual containment is to isolate these regimes politically, economically and militarily. This thesis evaluates American conduct in the region for the last 50 years, in order to show how previous strategies culminated in the present policy. It discusses both the merits and problems inherent in dual containment, as well as the impact of this policy on its two intend...

  11. China Policy Options in a Post Crisis World : Young China Scholars ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The grant will enable young scholars to contribute to the debate by undertaking new research on the impact of the financial crisis and post-crisis policy in five areas: trade and investment; financial structure and macroeconomic policy; inequality, poverty and the social dimensions of the crisis and post-crisis policy; rural ...

  12. Financial considerations of policy options to enhance biomass utilization for reducing wildfire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Debra Larson; Eini C. Lowell

    2009-01-01

    The Harvest Cost-Revenue Estimator, a financial model, was used to examine the cost sensitivity of forest biomass harvesting scenarios to targeted policies designed to stimulate wildfire hazardous fuel reduction projects. The policies selected represent actual policies enacted by federal and state governments to provide incentive to biomass utilization and are aimed at...

  13. A real option-based model to valuate CDM projects under uncertain energy policies for emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Taeil; Kim, Changyoon; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A real option-based model for the valuation of CDM projects is proposed. • This study investigates the impact of energy policies on the value of CDM projects. • Level of target emission and its schedule should be carefully designed. • Government subsidy facilitates the implementation of CDM projects. • Period for free emission allowance prevents promoting CDM projects. - Abstract: Emission trading has been considered a primary policy tool for emission reduction. Governments establish national targets for emission reduction and assign emission reduction goals to private entities to accomplish the targets. To attain the goal, private entities should perform offset projects that can produce emission credits or buy emission credits from the market. However, it is not easy for private entities to decide to implement the projects because energy policies associated with emission trading keep changing; thus, the future benefits of the offset projects are quite uncertain. This study presents a real option-based model to investigate how uncertain energy policies affect the financial viability of an offset project. A case study showed that the establishment of a target emission was attractive to the government because it could make the CDM project financially viable with a small amount of government subsidy. In addition, the level of the government subsidy could determine the investment timing for the CDM project. In this context, governments should be cautious in designing energy policies, because even the same energy policies could have different impacts on private entities. Overall, this study is expected to assist private entities in establishing proper investment strategies for CDM projects under uncertain energy policies

  14. Compulsive Buying among College Students: An Investigation of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Implications for Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)

  15. Caring: Implications for Child Care and for Family Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity in families. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant and toddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parental preferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.

  16. Rationalization and Student/School Personhood in U.S. College Admissions: The Rise of Test-Optional Policies, 1987 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Jared

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the rise of "test-optional" college admissions policies since the 1990s. I argue that the rationalization of college admissions policies after World War II contributed to the rise of "meritocratic" stratification (in policy) and standardized tests, like the SAT, but it also led to the expansion and…

  17. Is recycling the best policy option? Insights from life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1996-03-01

    The public perceives that the more we recycle, the better off we are. However, both the concept of recycling and the benefits to be achieved from recycling are somewhat vague. To determine the best option for disposition of a material at the end of its first use, we need to first define the available options and then clarify the possible goals that can be achieved by them. The best option will depend on the material, goals to be achieved, and location-dependent factors, such as costs, resources, and regulations. This paper presents the results of a life-cycle energy analysis of kraft paper and newsprint by Argonne National Laboratory. They indicate that under some circumstances, the option of fiber-energy recovery will maximize the benefits that can. be realized from the U.S. used paper resource.

  18. Preferences for Policy Options for Deceased Organ Donation for Transplantation: A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kirsten; Jan, Stephen; Rose, John M; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison; Chadban, Steven; Allen, Richard D; Cass, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Despite broad public support for organ donation, there is a chronic shortage of deceased donor organs. We sought to identify community preferences for features of organ donation policies. A discrete choice study was conducted using an online panel of Australian community respondents older than 18 years. Respondents were presented with scenarios comparing a "new" policy to the current policy. Tradeoffs between 8 policy aspects were quantified using mixed logit and latent class models: registration system, extent of donor family involvement, ease of registration, frequency of confirmation of intent, direct payment, and funeral expense reimbursement, priority for donor's family, and formal recognition of donation. There were 2005 respondents (mean, 44.6 years). We found a strong preference for a new policy. Overall, respondents favored a policy that included: some involvement of the donor's family in the final decision, simple registration processes, less frequent reconfirmation of donation intent, direct payment or funeral expense reimbursement, and formal recognition of donation. However, there was significant preference heterogeneity across respondents, with various respondent groups valuing policy mechanisms differently. Respondents who viewed policy change negatively were also those who would be unlikely to be organ donors anyway, because they tended to hold negative views toward organ donation. Our results suggest that the Australian community are open to alternative organ donation policies including changes to: registration systems, family involvement, and financial and nonfinancial mechanisms. Future policy discussions should not be limited by preconceived notions of what is acceptable to the community, rather informed by actual community values and preferences.

  19. Global warming and options for China: energy and environmental policy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Gan.

    1990-09-01

    This report attempts to give a comprehensive review of current perspectives on energy/environmental problems and policies in China during the last ten years. The second chapter serves as a starting point by giving a general background of the characteristics of economic development and major policy changes in China during the last ten years (1979-89). The third chapter analyzes the characteristics and problems of energy demand and supply in China by breaking down different economic sectors (industry, agriculture, transportation and residential/commercial sectors). The fourth chapter focuses on the problems of CO 2 emissions by giving a historical review of CO 2 emissions by linking up the impact of economic policies and political development in the country during 1950-89. The fifth chapter is mostly devoted to describing policy performance within government environmental policy-making and implementation in the last ten years. Finally, the report concludes by giving several policy recommendations. (Quittner)

  20. Quantifying the spatial implications of future land use policies in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Roux, A.; Augustijn-Beckers, Petronella

    2017-01-01

    Land use policies have a definite and lasting impact on the way that cities grow; however, it is difficult for policy- and decision-makers to observe and quantify the implications of their land use policies and strategies. There is thus a need for information and tools that can adequately support

  1. Large blackouts in North America: Historical trends and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Paul [School of Engineering, 301 Votey Hall, University of Vermont, 33 Colchester Avenue, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States); Apt, Jay [Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Department of Engineering and Public Policy and Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Talukdar, Sarosh [Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Department of Engineering and Public Policy and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Using data from the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) for 1984-2006, we find several trends. We find that the frequency of large blackouts in the United States has not decreased over time, that there is a statistically significant increase in blackout frequency during peak hours of the day and during late summer and mid-winter months (although non-storm-related risk is nearly constant through the year) and that there is strong statistical support for the previously observed power-law statistical relationship between blackout size and frequency. We do not find that blackout sizes and blackout durations are significantly correlated. These trends hold even after controlling for increasing demand and population and after eliminating small events, for which the data may be skewed by spotty reporting. Trends in blackout occurrences, such as those observed in the North American data, have important implications for those who make investment and policy decisions in the electricity industry. We provide a number of examples that illustrate how these trends can inform benefit-cost analysis calculations. Also, following procedures used in natural disaster planning we use the observed statistical trends to calculate the size of the 100-year blackout, which for North America is 186,000 MW. (author)

  2. Large blackouts in North America: Historical trends and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Paul; Apt, Jay; Talukdar, Sarosh

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) for 1984-2006, we find several trends. We find that the frequency of large blackouts in the United States has not decreased over time, that there is a statistically significant increase in blackout frequency during peak hours of the day and during late summer and mid-winter months (although non-storm-related risk is nearly constant through the year) and that there is strong statistical support for the previously observed power-law statistical relationship between blackout size and frequency. We do not find that blackout sizes and blackout durations are significantly correlated. These trends hold even after controlling for increasing demand and population and after eliminating small events, for which the data may be skewed by spotty reporting. Trends in blackout occurrences, such as those observed in the North American data, have important implications for those who make investment and policy decisions in the electricity industry. We provide a number of examples that illustrate how these trends can inform benefit-cost analysis calculations. Also, following procedures used in natural disaster planning we use the observed statistical trends to calculate the size of the 100-year blackout, which for North America is 186,000 MW.

  3. Carrying capacity: the tradition and policy implications of limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Deane Abernethy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Within just the last few centuries, science and technology have enlarged human capabilities and population size until humans now take, for their own use, nearly half of the Earth's net terrestrial primary production. An ethical perspective suggests that potentials to alter, or further increase, humanity's use of global resources should be scrutinized through the lenses of self-interested foresightedness and respect for non-human life. Without overtly invoking ethics, studies of the carrying capacity achieve just this objective. Carrying capacity is an ecological concept that expresses the relationship between a population and the natural environment on which it depends for ongoing sustenance. Carrying capacity assumes limits on the number of individuals that can be supported at a given level of consumption without degrading the environment and, therefore, reducing future carrying capacity. That is, carrying capacity addresses long-term sustainability. Worldviews differ in the importance accorded to the carrying capacity concept. This paper addresses three worldviews - ecological, romantic, and entrepreneurial - and explores the ethics and the policy implications of their contrasting perspectives.

  4. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  5. Advancing the climate agenda: Exploiting material and institutional linkages to develop a menu of policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, H.D.; Gupta, J.; Biermann, F.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of interlinkages of existing material and the strengthening and promotion of new institutional interlinkages can widen the climate change agenda through new and innovative policy and legal measures. Material linkages are inherent structural connections between policy domains that are

  6. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  7. The feasibility of multisectoral policy options aimed at reducing trans fats and encouraging its replacement with healthier oils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne-Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends replacement of trans fat with polyunsaturated fat to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Although several high-income countries have been successful in reducing trans fat in the food supply, low- and middle-income countries such as India may face additional contextual challenges such as the large informal sector, lack of consumer awareness, less enforcement capacity and low availability and affordability of healthier unsaturated fats. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of multisectoral policy options aimed at supporting trans fat reduction and its replacement with polyunsaturated fats in India. Multisectoral policy options examined in this study were identified using food supply chain analysis. Semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with key informants from agriculture, trade, finance, retail, industry, food standards, non-governmental organizations and the health professions to gain their views on the feasibility and acceptability of the policy options. Purposive sampling was used to identify key informants. Data were coded and organized based on key themes. There was support for policies aimed at improving the quality of seeds, supporting farmer co-operatives and developing affordable farming equipment suited to smallholders to improve the production of healthier oils. Increasing the role of the private sector to improve links among producers, processors and retailers may help to streamline the fats supply chain in India. Blending healthier oils with oils high in saturated fat, which are currently readily available, could help to improve the quality of fat in the short term. Improving consumer awareness through mass media campaigns and improved labelling may help increase consumer demand for healthier products. Reorienting agricultural policies to support production of healthier oils will help increase their uptake by industry. Policy coherence across sectors will be

  8. EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF POLICY OPTIONS ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES: AN ALTERNATIVE-FUTURES APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative-futures analysis was used to analyze different scenarios of future growth patterns and attendant resource allocations on the agricultural system of Oregon's Willamette River Basin. A stakeholder group formulated three policy alternatives: a continuation of current tr...

  9. Preventing Catastrophe: U.S. Policy Options for the Management of Nuclear Weapons in South Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wojtyaiak, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The "peaceful nuclear explosion" of an Indian device in 1974 was a watershed event that called upon the U,S to focus its nonproliferation policy in South Asia, During the mid-198Os, Pakistan developed...

  10. Monetary policy options for mitigating the impact of the global financial crisis on emerging market economies.

    OpenAIRE

    Dąbrowski, Marek A.; Śmiech, Sławomir; Papież, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Though the hypothesis that exchange rate regimes fully predetermine monetary policy in the face of external shocks hardly finds any advocates on theoretical ground it has crept in the most of empirical research. This study adopts a more discerning empirical approach that looks at monetary policy tools used in order to accommodate the recent financial crisis. We investigated the GDP growth in 45 emerging market economies in the most intense phase of the crisis and found out that there is no cl...

  11. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W., Feldman

    2011-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female chil...

  12. Tobacco Town: Computational Modeling of Policy Options to Reduce Tobacco Retailer Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Douglas A; Hammond, Ross A; Combs, Todd; Sorg, Amy; Kasman, Matt; Mack-Crane, Austen; Ribisl, Kurt M; Henriksen, Lisa

    2017-05-01

    To identify the behavioral mechanisms and effects of tobacco control policies designed to reduce tobacco retailer density. We developed the Tobacco Town agent-based simulation model to examine 4 types of retailer reduction policies: (1) random retailer reduction, (2) restriction by type of retailer, (3) limiting proximity of retailers to schools, and (4) limiting proximity of retailers to each other. The model examined the effects of these policies alone and in combination across 4 different types of towns, defined by 2 levels of population density (urban vs suburban) and 2 levels of income (higher vs lower). Model results indicated that reduction of retailer density has the potential to decrease accessibility of tobacco products by driving up search and purchase costs. Policy effects varied by town type: proximity policies worked better in dense, urban towns whereas retailer type and random retailer reduction worked better in less-dense, suburban settings. Comprehensive retailer density reduction policies have excellent potential to reduce the public health burden of tobacco use in communities.

  13. Policy options to promote energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies in small- and medium-scale industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruchelvam, M.; Kumar, S.; Visvanathan, C.

    2003-01-01

    The rapid industrialization of Asian developing countries has pushed the need for more energy at the cost of environmental degradation. Though large industries are targeted for energy conservation and pollution prevention, small and medium scale industries (SMI) also contribute to significant pollution. This paper discusses the role of SMI in the economy, its energy consumption and impact on the environment. An overview of the energy and environment policies of China, India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Vietnam, and the role of energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies (E 3 ST) as a viable means to meet these modern challenges in SMI is discussed. The barriers faced in adopting these technologies have been identified and an analysis has been done of the various strategies and policy options available to governments to promote E 3 ST in SMI. Examples and illustrations of such successful efforts have also been highlighted

  14. Rational Choise and Policy Implementation; Implications for Interorganizational Network Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1995-01-01

    Research on interorganizational policy implementation continues to be characterized by diverse theoretical approaches. It is perhaps surprising to observe, however, that formal and especially rational-choice approaches have been essentially neglected in the study of policy implementation processes.

  15. Expanding the Visibility of Women's Work: Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, DeAnne K. Hilfinger; Regev, Hanna; Im, Eun-Ok; Spiers, Judith A.; Van, Paulina; Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim

    1997-01-01

    Social conceptualization and media images of women's work affect health and social policy formation. Nurses can expand the visibility of women's work and promote gender-sensitive policies within and outside the profession. (SK)

  16. Policies and design elements for the repowering of wind farms: A qualitative analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del, E-mail: pablo.delrio@cchs.csic.e [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Calle Albasanz 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Calvo Silvosa, Anxo, E-mail: calvo@udc.e [Universidade da Coruna, Departamento de Economia Financeira e Contabilidade, Campus de Elvina s/n, A Coruna 15071 (Spain); Iglesias Gomez, Guillermo, E-mail: gwig@udc.e [Universidade da Coruna, Departamento de Economia Aplicada I, Campus de Elvina s/n, A Coruna 15071 (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Repowering of a wind farm is the process of replacing existing wind turbines with new turbines that either have a larger nameplate capacity or more efficiency, resulting in a net increase of the power generated. Although repowering brings, both, social and private benefits, there are also several obstacles to repowering which justify public support. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a qualitative analysis of instruments and design options to support repowering of on-shore wind farms. The multicriteria analysis carried out in this paper shows that all instruments have their advantages and drawbacks. However, feed-in tariffs and investment subsidies seem to be particularly appropriate instruments in this regard. Furthermore, we provide an assessment of different design options to promote repowering according to key assessment criteria. The relevance of design elements hinges on the fact that these are the ones directly affecting the variables that are relevant in the decision to repower (capacity factors and investment costs). - Research highlights: {yields} This paper provides a qualitative analysis of instruments and design options to support repowering in wind farms. {yields} The multicriteria analysis has shown that all instruments have their advantages and drawbacks regarding promotion of repowering. {yields} However, feed-in tariffs and investment subsidies seem to be particularly appropriate instruments in this regard. {yields} The choice of design elements within instruments is at least as important to promote repowering as the choice of specific instruments.

  17. Policies and design elements for the repowering of wind farms: A qualitative analysis of different options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Pablo del; Calvo Silvosa, Anxo; Iglesias Gomez, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Repowering of a wind farm is the process of replacing existing wind turbines with new turbines that either have a larger nameplate capacity or more efficiency, resulting in a net increase of the power generated. Although repowering brings, both, social and private benefits, there are also several obstacles to repowering which justify public support. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a qualitative analysis of instruments and design options to support repowering of on-shore wind farms. The multicriteria analysis carried out in this paper shows that all instruments have their advantages and drawbacks. However, feed-in tariffs and investment subsidies seem to be particularly appropriate instruments in this regard. Furthermore, we provide an assessment of different design options to promote repowering according to key assessment criteria. The relevance of design elements hinges on the fact that these are the ones directly affecting the variables that are relevant in the decision to repower (capacity factors and investment costs). - Research highlights: → This paper provides a qualitative analysis of instruments and design options to support repowering in wind farms. → The multicriteria analysis has shown that all instruments have their advantages and drawbacks regarding promotion of repowering. → However, feed-in tariffs and investment subsidies seem to be particularly appropriate instruments in this regard. → The choice of design elements within instruments is at least as important to promote repowering as the choice of specific instruments.

  18. Nigerian language policy and its implication in the school curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper observes that the Nigerian language policy, failed to take into consideration the socio-linguistic habits of Nigerians. Since English language is a focal point for communication it then implies that policy makers to formulate language policies based on realities of language need. This is the only way that the ...

  19. Freshwater Ecosystem Services in Mining Regions: Modelling Options for Policy Development Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mercado-Garcia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services (ES approach offers an integrated perspective of social-ecological systems, suitable for holistic assessments of mining impacts. Yet for ES models to be policy-relevant, methodological consensus in mining contexts is needed. We review articles assessing ES in mining areas focusing on freshwater components and policy support potential. Twenty-six articles were analysed concerning (i methodological complexity (data types, number of parameters, processes and ecosystem–human integration level and (ii potential applicability for policy development (communication of uncertainties, scenario simulation, stakeholder participation and management recommendations. Articles illustrate mining impacts on ES through valuation exercises mostly. However, the lack of ground- and surface-water measurements, as well as insufficient representation of the connectivity among soil, water and humans, leave room for improvements. Inclusion of mining-specific environmental stressors models, increasing resolution of topographies, determination of baseline ES patterns and inclusion of multi-stakeholder perspectives are advantageous for policy support. We argue that achieving more holistic assessments exhorts practitioners to aim for high social-ecological connectivity using mechanistic models where possible and using inductive methods only where necessary. Due to data constraints, cause–effect networks might be the most feasible and best solution. Thus, a policy-oriented framework is proposed, in which data science is directed to environmental modelling for analysis of mining impacts on water ES.

  20. Solving China's environmental problems: policy options from the Working Group on Environment in U.S.-China Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the main themes, funding needs, and policy options of the Working Group on the Environment in US-China Relations that was created in November 1996. Meetings are chaired by members of the Council of Foreign Relations and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The 40+ member Working Group is coordinated by the Environmental Change and Security Project and the Woodrow Wilson Center's Asia Program. It offers a forum for discussion of environmental and foreign policy concerns. The aims are to identify important environmental and sustainable development issues related to US and Chinese interests; to develop creative strategies for government and nongovernment projects between the US and China; and to discuss strategies for using environmental issues for building improved relations between countries. Monthly meetings focus on energy issues, water quantity and quality, funds for environmental protection, and biodiversity issues. The group meetings emphasize the themes of multilateral cooperation, local Chinese environmental issues of significance to the US, and obstacles to cooperation on US-led projects within China. Improved relations may be achieved by articulation of a coherent China policy with explicit goals and guidelines, provision of funding, and linking local environmental problems with global ones. The US should support private business in marketing environmental technology and assist in the development of policy changes in the energy and water sectors in China. China needs improved irrigation techniques and comprehensive watershed management plans.

  1. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W, Feldman

    2011-08-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination.

  2. Regulatory and mixed policy options for reducing fuel use and carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swisher, J.N. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1995-06-01

    As the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) goes into effect, some 20 industrialized countries have made commitments to stabilize or reduce future carbon emissions. To achieve the existing reduction targets, not to mention those necessary to stabilize the atmosphere, technological changes will be necessary to reduce the fossil fuel-intensity of most countries` energy system (supply-side measures) and to improve the efficiency with which fuels and electricity are used (demand-side measures). The possible policy instruments with which to stimulate these changes are many. At the international level, most discussion has centred on various forms of carbon emission taxes and to some extent on tradable emission offsets or permits. At the national level, where most real energy policy changes would have to be implemented, other non-fiscal policy instruments are common. (EG) 79 refs.

  3. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  4. North Korea's nuclear weapons development. Implications for future policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    This essay assesses North Korea's long-standing quest for nuclear weapons; alternative strategies for inhibiting Pyongyang's weapons development; and the potential implications for regional security and nonproliferation should the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) retain and enhance its weapons programs. North Korea's pursuit of a nuclear weapons capability has long provoked heated debate among policy makers and research analysts about the purposes of engagement with the North, reflecting the repeated frustrations in efforts to negotiate Korean denuclearization. These debates reflect widely divergent views of the North Korean regime; its sustainability as an autonomous political, economic, and military system; and the potential consequences of continued nuclear development in this isolated, highly idiosyncratic state. These questions assume additional salience as North Korea approaches a leadership succession for only the second time in its six-decade history. The effort to inhibit North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons is among the longest running and least successful sagas in international security and non-proliferation policy of the past quarter century. In early 2010, Pyongyang claims a rudimentary nuclear capability by possession of weaponized plutonium, the conduct of two nuclear tests, and advances in the production of enriched uranium as an alternative means of fissile material production, though the latter step is nominally justified as a source for reactor fuel. North Korea defends its pursuit of a nuclear deterrent to counter what Pyongyang deems existential threats posed by the United States.Despite the resumption of high-level diplomatic contact between Washington and Pyongyang in late 2009, realization of a non-nuclear Korean Peninsula remains a very remote prospect. The DPRK insists that a peace agreement between the U.S. and North Korea and hence the cessation of 'hostile DPRK-U.S. relations' are necessary before any consideration of

  5. Colombia - The Quality of Education in Colombia : An Analysis and Options for a Policy Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to analyze student learning in Colombia in order to foster policies to improve education quality that are grounded in research and the Colombian context. In 2006, Colombia participated for the first time in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which provides an imp...

  6. Digital platforms: an analytical framework for identifying and evaluating policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Fahy, R.; van Til, H.; Nooren, P.; Stokking, H.; Gelevert, H.

    2015-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, a project consortium of TNO, Ecorys and IViR have developed a framework to analyse policy questions regarding ‘digital platforms’. This framework enables the government to take advantage of the opportunities these platforms offer and to appreciate

  7. Energy policy options--from the perspective of public attitudes and risk perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viklund, Mattias

    2004-01-01

    In the present study a representative sample (N=797) of the Swedish population was surveyed, with regard to attitudes related to energy policy issues (e.g., environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and attitudes towards different energy production systems), and self-reported electricity saving behavior. These factors were considered relevant in a Swedish energy policy context, due to the planned phase-out of nuclear power. Citizens' attitudes have traditionally been important factors in energy policy-making, especially nuclear policy. One of the conditions for a successful phase-out is decreased levels of electricity consumption among households and in industry, in order to compensate for the loss in energy production. Respondents reported positive attitudes to the environment in general and to electricity saving, while the attitudes to nuclear power as an energy production system in Sweden were relatively negative. Perceived risk was an important predictor of these attitudes and it was concluded that it is important to investigate factors behind this variable. The relationship between attitudes towards electricity saving and electricity saving behavior was weak. It is suggested that a contribution of psychological knowledge in energy conservation campaigns could be to elaborate on people's willingness to be public-spirited citizens in combination with their pro-environmental attitudes. Viklund (1999, Electricity saving: Attitudes and behavior of Swedish households. Center for Risk Research, Stockholm.) presented more data from the survey referred to here

  8. Economic instruments and waste policies in the Netherlands. Inventory and options for extended use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhuis, F.H.; Van Beukering, P.J.H.; Bartelings, H.; Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, the interest in the use of economic instruments in environmental policy has been growing, reflecting increasing awareness of their potential cost-effectiveness as well as the need to diversify the 'policy toolbox'. Waste policy is no exception to this tendency. The present study explores the opportunities for extended use of economic instruments for waste policy in the Netherlands, focusing on waste from households and the trade, services and government sector. Five economic instruments are specifically addressed: (1) Waste taxes; (2) Waste collection charges; (3) Taxes on raw materials and products; (4) Deposit-refund schemes; and (5) Subsidies and fiscal incentives. For each of these economic instruments, the study describes existing experiences (both in the Netherlands and abroad) and analyses the impact and feasibility of a variety of possible new applications. These case studies, which primarily serve as illustrations of the mechanisms and possible impacts, were selected so as to represent a wide range of instrument types, levels of intervention, positions in the value chain, and types of waste. Depending on the application area and data availability, the analysis is done by means of quantitative approaches (using general-equilibrium modelling and statistical analysis) or more qualitative approaches in which expert judgements are used.

  9. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp

  10. Policy and tecnological constraints to implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation options in agriculture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available and ecological processes involved in trace gas emissions and carbon storage in agricultural systems makes investors more wary of these options than the more clear-cut industrial mitigation activities. This barrier can be reduced by investment in research... and changing lifestyles in some developing countries, most notably in China, are causing a growing demand for meat and dairy products. Meat demand in developing countries rose from 11 to �1 �1 3119 3184 +19 502 760 792 +22 142 99 106 +81 48 2260 2286...

  11. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sambeek, Emiel van [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yowargana, Ping [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuang, Liu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kejun, Jiang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.

  12. The Process of Immigrant Acculturation: Recent Findings and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Gary

    1980-01-01

    Describes new perspectives on immigrant acculturation in the disciplines of history, mental health, and language studies. Discusses the implications of these new perspectives for national policymaking. (ST)

  13. Greenhouse gas options, policy and measures for the Canadian Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Industry - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report summarizes and analyses the work that have been carried out by the Transportation Equipment Manufacturing Sector (TEMS) Working Group of the National Climate Change Industry Table over the last 14 months, and presents the Group's view of appropriate policies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Canada. To develop its approach, the Working Group conducted five separate studies which are included in this report as annexes. Annex A is a Foundation Paper, which provides an overview of the sector's performance vis-a-vis energy use and greenhouse gas production. Annex B analyzes the competitive position of the industry by reviewing growth trends in each of the industry sub-sectors and the key factors in maintaining and enhancing the sector's international competitive position. Annex C is a technology assessment. It provides an overview of the uptake of energy saving technology in the sector. Annex D provides a facility level analysis focusing on energy use in the automotive parts manufacturing sector. Annex E is a review of American policies on climate change, summarizing the approach currently being taken towards greenhouse gas emission reduction in the United States. Some of the key findings of this report are: (1) business-as-usual emissions will greatly exceed the implicit Kyoto target of six per cent reduction from 1990 levels, (2) relatively few opportunities exist for major emissions reductions through the use of existing technology, (3) sector-specific policies appear to be ill-advised, but cross-cutting policies provide good opportunities for the transportation equipment manufacturing sector to do its part in helping Canada meeting its Kyoto commitment. The report recommends investigation of barriers to adoption of new technologies and examination of market imperfections, promotion of cogeneration where it makes economic sense, and consideration of the use of flexible instruments such as carbon taxes and tradable emission permits. Overall, the

  14. Equilibrium Implications of Fiscal Policy with Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Rey, Guido M.

    This paper studies equilibrium effects of fiscal policy disturbances within a dynamic general equilibrium model where tax evasion and underground activities are explicitly incorporated. There are three mainresults. (i) The underground sector mitigates the distortionary impact of fiscal policies......, while lesseningthe drop (and the rise) of aggregate production after restrictive (expansionary) tax shocks. (ii) Taxevasion and underground economy can rationalize expansionary response to contractionary fiscal policies;(iii) A dynamic general equilibrium with tax evasion gives a rational justification...

  15. Monetary policy implications of financial innovation: In-depth analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bernoth, Kerstin; Gebauer, Stefan; Schäfer, Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    In this policy brief, we argue that the financial innovations triggered by the FinTech industry have the potential to affect the transmission of monetary policy as well as the informational content of important monetary indicators. The growing FinTech industry could contribute substantially to the emergence of nonbank finance as a substitute for traditional commercial bank finance. While the overall effect of nonbank finance on monetary policy transmission is not yet clear, we argue that regu...

  16. Fertilizer Reduction Policies in Developed Countries: Suitability and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed and analyzed the specific practices, implementation effects and applicable conditions of fertilizer reduction policies in the EU, US and Japan, explored the common laws and general conditions in the formulation of environmental orientation, and pro vided feasible policy recommendations for the formulation of fertilizer reduction policies in China. This study showed that fertilizer reduction policies in each country had their own advantages and disadvantages, and the applicable conditions were different. The EU's command and control policy was applicable to the situation of less farm households and the same agricultural planting type or farm type. The economic in centive policy in the US was applicable to the situation of more farm households, relatively perfect agricultural market system and sensitive price formation mechanism, while the public participation policy in Japan was applicable to regions with more relevant agricultural groups and strong economy. China should learn from each of these policies and make a comprehensive choice in the formulation of fertilizer reduc tion policies. Therefore, China should proceed from improving the agricultural price mechanism and the pollution-free agricultural products certification system as well as encouraging and supporting the development of large scale production units, and then promote the adoption of environmentally friendly technology through the guidance of market mechanism, ensure the effective implementation of environmental stan dards through farmers' integration and improve farmers' environmental awareness through propaganda guidance, so as to ensure the effective implementation of different types(command and control policy, economic incentive policy and public participation policyof fertilizer reduc tion policies.

  17. A third option for climate policy within potential limits to growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M.

    2017-02-01

    Climate change has revived debates around the concept of limits to growth, 45 years after it was first proposed. Many citizens, scientists and politicians fear that stringent climate policy will harm economic growth. Some are anti-growth, whereas others believe green growth is compatible with a transition to a low-carbon economy. As the window to curb warming at 2 °C closes, this debate will intensify. This Review critically reflects on both positions, providing an overview of existing literature on the growth versus climate debate. Both positions are argued here to jeopardize environmental or social goals. A third position, labelled an 'agrowth' strategy, is proposed to depolarize the debate and reduce resistance to climate policies.

  18. Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

    2012-08-01

    Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

  19. Comparison of auctions and alternative policy options for RES-E support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Islam, Marco; Fitch-Roy, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This report concludes the work carried out in the course of Task 6.2 of the AURES project. It is its aim to compare auctions with alternative policy instruments and in particular, to examine under which circumstances auctions may be superior and inferior to achieve intended policy targets...... analysis consists of two parts: First, we conduct a theoretical analysis, which summarises the insights gathered by Weitzman (1974). It illustrates that with uncertainty regarding the marginal costs and marginal benefits of RES, particularly the choice between price (e.g. a FIT) and quantity (e.......g. an auction) instruments will be decisive, since incorrect price or quota signals may have different effects. In essence, while price schemes may reduce the risk of welfare losses given a relatively steep marginal cost and a comparably flat marginal benefit curve, a quantity scheme may be superior...

  20. [Options for a future-oriented innovation policy in the medical devices industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, Michael; Lindner, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    From an innovation systems perspective the performance of the German medical devices industry, future challenges and barriers to innovation are assessed. Current performance indicators (e.g., R&D intensity, export growth rates) paint a favourable picture. Nonetheless, a number of innovation barriers are identified: in particular, insufficient network integration of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and ineffective policy coordination. Finally, recommendations addressing identified future challenges and innovation barriers are developed.

  1. U.S. forest products trade policies: what are the options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Darr

    1975-01-01

    Trade and other policies are being considered by the U.S. Forest Service according to the terms of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-378,93d Congress, S.2296). This paper describes the issues involved in the question, "Should we or should we not attempt to reduce net imports of forest products?" In terms of...

  2. Carrot, stick, or sledgehammer: U.S. policy options for North Korean nuclear weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Orcutt, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons has shaken the foundations of U.S. policy in Northeast Asia. Because of North Korea's record of state-sponsored terrorism, illicit activities, human rights violations, arms sales, and fiery rhetoric, its development of operational nuclear weapons is deeply disturbing. Although most agree North Korea should not possess nuclear weapons, nobody has a solution. This thesis evaluates three U.S. polic...

  3. Bioenergy transition in rural China: Policy options and co-benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Lin; Yu, Juan

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation of bioenergy development in China, particularly on its relationship to sustainable rural development. It argues that the current government strategy, investment policy and industrial interest are over-emphasized on biomass-burning power generation as part of the clean energy development trajectories, which may not lead to the most cost-effective outcomes in terms of investments, resource use and social development objectives. It points out that there are large potentials in developing and disseminating household-based biomass technologies in rural areas, especially with energy-efficient modern biomass stoves, which can produce far more economic, social and environmental benefits than biomass power plants. It is a decentralized solution to use renewable energy resources for meeting multi-objectives. It is suggested that key incentive policies be provided by the government to encourage this technological transition, or the leapfrogging from using traditional household stoves towards modern biomass stoves, which will lead to a win-win situation in global, regional and local environmental protection, sustainable resource management and related social benefits, particularly for the poor in remote communities. Six policy recommendations are made: (1) financial schemes development; (2) preferable tax and carbon tax; (3) regulatory policy reform; (4) service industry support; (5) market research, training and capacity building for key stakeholders; (6) development of methodologies and standards for CDM projects. The potential co-benefits brought up by this massive biomass technology transition will bring new perspectives to realizing Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and global CO 2 emissions reduction targets in China, and also set an example to other developing countries. (author)

  4. Nuclear Challenges and Policy Options for the Next U.S. Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    from NPT obligations on the part of state parties (e.g., Iraq and Libya) did not diminish the negative impact that the fi rst formal withdrawal...substantive de- bate reminded one of a staged “ beauty pageant ” in which delegations rolled out carefully craft ed statements on well-known positions...travel and fi nancial curbs on named individuals and companies. 16. The sanctions adopted so far have an impact on the economy but no effect on policy

  5. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. - Highlights: ► We demonstrate the significant impact of the split incentive on low-income tenants. ► We discuss split incentive characteristics, and policy failures. ► We described an on-bill financing model with unique features. ► This policy has protections and incentives for tenants and landlords.

  6. Determinants of Self-Employment Dynamics and their Implications on Entrepreneurial Policy Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Millán

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main results of the empirical research on self-employment dynamics —particularly entry and success— and discusses their possible implications on entrepreneurial policy effectiveness. The main goal of this study is to promote a debate on this topic, encouraging conditional analyses that serve as guidance in the design of a policy agenda.

  7. 20% biofuels in 2020. An outline of policy options for the implementation of 20-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.; Ritter, B.; Van Thuijl, E.; Neeft, J.; Hoogma, R.

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an outline of the technical feasibility of the Dutch target of 20% biofuels on energy basis in 2020. In order to reach this target additional effort is required with respect to the obligatory market share of 10% as proposed by the EU. The first chapters of this report describe the basic data. Chapter 2 gives an overview of developments in the market for transport fuels in the period 2008-2020 and the division of that market in a number of market segments. Chapter 3 provides information on production, distribution, availability of vehicles and user aspects of the main biofuels. Subsequently, chapter 4 addresses the options for achieving the 20% biofuels target. Chapter 5 sketches the variants on the basic route and calculates the costs of these variants. Chapter 6 discusses the timing and cost of the basic route and the variants. The main conclusion of this report is that 20% blending can be achieved. [mk] [nl

  8. System of policy options for the stabilization of the global climate. Chikyu kiko anteika no tame no seisaku option no taikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Tsuneyuki (National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-01-25

    Based on the materials of the Study Council on the Policies against Global Warming, policies were systematized and proposed in the name of COSMO (COmprehensive Strategies for MOderating global warming) Plan-I. In this report policies are meant to be the course of policies, and means are measures to accomplish policies and they include direct regulations, economic measures and education. These measures take root as systems after they are generalized and systematized. The design procedure of the policy frame is composed of three steps; firstly, extraction and identification of basic characteristics of the issue of the global warming: secondly, setting of basic policies based on the characteristics: and thirdly, design of the policy frame based on the set basic policies. Basic policies made through this process are grouped into 8; policies for converting basic structure of the social economy, policies for individual industrial countermeasures, policies for regional control and management, policies for international cooperations and adjustments, and policies for adapting to the global warming. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-02

    relations with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and an important component of U.S. policy in Asia. Official U.S. relations with the Republic of China ...8 Corruption Investigations: Former Chen Administration...................................................... 10 Special Expense Accounts...16 Maintain and Reaffirm the Current AOne- China @ Policy....................................................... 16 Change

  10. Political implications of US nuclear-export-policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Freese, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international debate regarding how effective strict export controls on nuclear-energy supplies are toward a non-proliferation goal. With the Carter Administration, the debate was heightened by a new, more-vigorous US nuclear-export policy, much of which was codified by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA). Because of the US position in both the international non-proliferation regime and nuclear export market, the NNPA has had far-reaching consequences. The thesis of this paper is that a nuclear-export policy that fails to consider its short-term ramifications, as the NNPA has been accused of, will be self-defeating. If the US wants a viable worldwide nuclear non-proliferation policy, it must first direct its efforts toward building a domestic non-proliferation consensus, and then worldwide, rather than first setting a highly controversial policy and expecting other nations to fall into line. This work provides a comprehensive case study of US nuclear-export policy between the years 1976 to 1980 in support of the thesis. Further, the behavior and impact of the interest groups which seem to shape US nuclear-export policies is examined, and recommendations made regarding the role of groups in nuclear policy-making and implementation. Finally, recommendations are made regarding non-proliferation policy for the future, as it relates to nuclear exports

  11. Education Policies: Potential Impacts and Implications in Australia and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Australian education is delivered through government and independent systems. This article discusses how education policies on gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and queer students in these different sectors have affected school climates. It describes how previously published policy analysis and survey data on Australian gay, lesbian,…

  12. Global Warming: Its Implications for U.S. National Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-19

    The approach to this topic will be to look at the science behind anthropogenic global warming . Is man largely responsible for causing global warming due...paper will then investigate the nexus between global warming and U.S. national security policy. It will address the challenges facing U.S. leaders and...policy makers as they tackle the issue of global warming and its implications for U.S. policy. Finally it will conclude with recommendations for those

  13. Alternative theories of oil-inventory management and government policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, J.

    1982-04-26

    Four alternative theories of oil inventory management and their implication for the level of private petroleum stockpiling are explored. The assumptions made were: that the product market for oil is competitive and that the capital market through which investments in oil stockpiles are financed is efficient. It is assumed that these conditions are expected to prevail even in the event of a supply interruption. These assumptions constitute the benchmark theory of oil inventory management. Variations on this theme provide the alternative theories of inventory behavior explored.

  14. Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of PolicyOptions and Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-04-05

    Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the bundle of information that describes the characteristics of renewable electricity generation, and may be (and increasingly are) sold separately from the underlying electricity itself. RECs are a relatively new phenomenon, emerging as a tradable commodity in voluntary markets in the late 1990s, and gaining strength as a means of compliance with various state policy requirements affecting renewable generation in the early 2000s (Holt and Bird 2005). Twenty states and Washington, D.C. now have mandatory renewables portfolio standard (RPS) obligations, and most of these may be satisfied by owning and retiring RECs. Many states also have fuel source and emissions disclosure requirements, for which RECs are useful. Even where state policy does not allow unbundled and fully tradable RECs to meet these requirements, RECs may still be used as an accounting and verification tool (REC tracking systems are in place or under development in many regions of the U.S.). These applications, plus REC trading activity in support of voluntary green claims, give rise to potential ''double counting'' to the extent that the purchaser of the RECs and the purchaser of the underlying electricity both make claims to the renewable energy attributes of the facility in question (Hamrin and Wingate 2003). When renewable electricity is sold and purchased, an important question therefore arises: ''Who owns the RECs created by the generation of renewable energy?'' In voluntary transactions, most agree that the question of REC ownership can and should be negotiated between the buyer and the seller privately, and should be clearly established by contract. Claims about purchasing renewable energy should only be made if REC ownership can be documented. In many other cases, however, renewable energy transactions are either mandated or encouraged through state or federal policy. In these cases, the issue of REC

  15. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues and policy options in industrial preparedness planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hardy, B.H.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is one of a set of working papers that serves as a background material to a FEMA-sponsored study of Industrial Mobilization planning. It identifies issues that will lead to policy alternatives in support of industrial preparedness. To do this, a simple framework cross classifying types of economic interaction between the DOD and the private sector, given peacetime, surge, and mobilization requirements. Next, policy recommendations from ten recent studies are examined. These came from a variety of different groups and focused on potential actions by DOD, FEMA, Congress, the Navy, and others. These are summarized and restated to match the cross classification framework. The planning framework is then used to organize a set of recommendations around three themes --- acquisition and public/private sector relationships technology and factor input enhancing activities, and offshore sourcing and international competitiveness. The DOD has already addressed the acquisition issue at great length and has implemented the bulk of its findings. These will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations. It cannot, however, by itself fully rationalize the acquisition process so that incentives to achieve greater efficiency are fully passed on to contractors. DOD can, however, revise its acquisition process so that surge provisions are a deliberate step in the contract of each sensitive procurement, and could require a surge analysis for each action, steps that would highlight preparations for surge. DOD should consider the creation of a new institution similar to, but more generic than SEMATECH to handle its activities that directly enhance the defense industrial base. It should also support the creation of a body whose goal it is to identify non-neutralities in government policy. 23 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  16. Political economy constraints on carbon pricing policies: What are the implications for economic efficiency, environmental efficacy, and climate policy design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments. - Highlights: • Political economy constraints can bind carbon pricing policies. • These constraints can prevent implementation of theoretically optimal carbon prices. • U.S. household willingness-to-pay for climate policy likely falls in the range of $80–$200 per year. • U.S. carbon prices may be politically constrained to as low as $2–$8 per ton of CO 2 . • An opportunity space exists for improvements in climate policy design and outcomes

  17. Policy implications of greenhouse warming: Mitigation, adaptation, and the science base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book discusses the policy implications of greenhouse warming by examining three major areas: general summary of information about the greenhouse effect leading to a framework for policy; the science basis for the greenhouse effect; mitigation of greenhouse warming. Each section contains 9-13 chapters on specific subjects including the following: overview of greenhouse gases; policy implications; internations considerations; climate records and models; sea levels; temperature rise estimation; energy management at several levels; nonenergy emission reduction; human populations; deforestation. Conclusions are summarized at the end of each section

  18. The foreign policy and security options of Romania in the vision of Klaus Johannis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Ioan Opriș

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If a decade ago, Romania became a NATO member and it was enrolled in the accession process to the European Union, in 2014, the problem is radically different: Romania has a new status within NATO, it is part of the EU, it is in process of accession to the Schengen area and it has developed its strategic partnership with the United States of America. In this context, the aim of this paper is to bring into attention the vision of the new president of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, regarding the romanian foreign policy and security.

  19. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO 2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO 2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO 2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO 2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO 2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  20. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela R.; Allen, Heidi L.; Martinson, Melissa L.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health. PMID:29236535

  1. A review of the aesthetic treatment of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue: background, implications, and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    The demand for aesthetic body sculpting procedures has expanded precipitously in recent years. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) deposits of the central abdomen are especially common areas of concern for both males and females. To review the available literature regarding the underlying pathophysiology of subcutaneous fat accumulation in the abdominal area and available treatment options. A MEDLINE and Google Scholar search was performed accordingly. The preferential accumulation of SAT in the central abdomen is attributable to the reduced lipolytic sensitivity of its adipocytes. A number of therapeutic options are available for the treatment of central abdominal adiposity. Cryolipolysis, high-intensity focused ultrasound, nonthermal ultrasound, radiofrequency, and injection adipolysis lead to adipocyte destruction through multiple different mechanisms. Nonablative modalities such as injection lipolysis mobilize fat stores from viable adipocytes, although its effects may be curtailed in obese patients. Liposuction through tumescent technique, however, mechanically extricates SAT. Although tumescent liposuction remains the gold standard for SAT removal, less invasive ablative and nonablative options for targeting localized deposits of adipose tissue now permeate the aesthetic marketplace. Limited results associated with these modalities mandate multiple sessions or combination treatment paradigms.

  2. Renewable energy policies in promoting financing and investment among the East Asia Summit countries: Quantitative assessment and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Fang, Zheng; Li, Yanfei

    2016-01-01

    Many countries have implemented various policies for renewable energy development ranging from setting power purchase agreements and the legislation of renewable energy requirements to providing incentives and imposing carbon taxes. The evaluation of the effectiveness of such policies, however, is fragmented, which raises a need for a comprehensive analysis. This paper aims to assess whether and how policies promoting renewable energy investment have achieved the intended goals. It employs five broadly defined criteria - market, uncertainty, profitability, technology, and financial resources - to build an index to assess respectively if such policies have helped create a market for renewable energy, maximize potential profits, reduce risks relating to the investment, develop and adopt new technologies, and improve the access to financial resources. Each criterion is reflected by three indicators. Values of each indicator are converted into ordinal values for analysis. The index not only scans comprehensively all relevant renewable energy investment policies in the East Asia Summit countries, but also provides systematic and quantitative measures to compare the effectiveness of policies in these countries with respect to the creation of market, the degree of uncertainty, the potential of profitability, the development and adoption of technology and the accessibility of financial resources. - Highlights: •This paper evaluate renewable energy policies in 16 East Asia Summit countries. •Five criteria are used to build the quantitative index. •They are market, profitability, legislation, technology, and financial resources. •Policy implications are drawn based on the index.

  3. Health services financing and delivery: analysis of policy options for Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidi S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hamidi School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Introduction: A national health account (NHA provides a systematic approach to mapping the flow of health sector funds within a specified health system over a defined time period. This article attempts to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates using data from NHAs, and to compare the functional structures of financing schemes in Dubai with schemes in Qatar and selected member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. Methods: The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs of Dubai and Qatar and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union of 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing indicators used were as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA. Results: In Dubai, spending on inpatient care was the highest-costing component, with 30% of current health expenditures (CHE. Spending on outpatient care was the second highest-costing component and accounted for about 23% of the CHE. Household spending accounted for about 22% of CHE (equivalent to US$187 per capita, compared to an average of 20% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent 0.02% of CHE on long-term care, compared to an average of 11% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent about 6% of CHE on prevention and public health services, compared to an average of 3.2% of CHE of OECD countries. Conclusion: The findings point to potential opportunities for growth and improvement in several health policy issues in Dubai, including increasing focus and funding of preventive services; shifting from inpatient care to day surgery, outpatient, and home-based services and strengthening long-term care; and introducing cost-containment measures for pharmaceuticals. More investment in the translation of

  4. Policy options when giving negative externalities market value: Clean energy policymaking and restructuring the Western Australian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty surrounds the choice of instruments that internalise fossil-fuel pollution at the local, regional and global level. This work outlines the considerable growth in the Western Australian (WA) energy sector and explores the available options and potential hazards of using specific instruments to internalise externalities. These core options are discussed with respect to liberalising energy markets, providing private investment certainty, and imparting commentary on the developments and consequences of reform in the WA context. As a large energy exporter, providing certainty for the WA energy sector investment and the community is necessary to maintain the current prosperity. Remarkably, in the decades of market reform progress, the absence of one essential element is evident: economic externalities. Policymakers are under increasing pressure to understand economic reform, new energy markets and the multifaceted repercussions they entail. With modern energy reform sitting squarely within the milieu of more efficient governments and climate policy, there are clear economic advantages to internalising negative and positive externalities and other market distortions during energy market developments. Ignoring market failures when commercialising government-owned energy utilities in de-regulated and competitive markets invites continued ad-hoc government interference that generates investment uncertainty in addition to a perplexed electorate

  5. EU environmental state aid policy: wide implications, narrow participation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline

    2008-11-15

    This article investigates the 2008 reform of the EU's environmental state aid guidelines, with an eye to determining the degree of external pressure and lobbyism towards environmental state aid policies. What is found is a strikingly low level of external pressure on the policy-field, not least on the part of the private sector. In fact, EU environmental state aid policy is largely the making of a few Commission officials, without much external 'interference'. The article discusses possible reasons for this, and asks whether state aid policy-making might be marked less by clear and established interests and utility maximising, and more by actors constrained by complexity and bounded rationality. (author). refs.,tab

  6. The Problem Trap: Implications of Policy Archaeology Methodology for Anti-Bullying Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    James Scheurich argues that practices of policy--normalized over time through repetition--serve three purposes. They structure social problems for which policy is designed to address; construct certain people, implicitly or explicitly, as problem individuals; and shape policy solutions. Following Foucault, he offers what he calls Policy…

  7. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Camera; Bryan Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    The illicit nonmedical use of prescription drugs is studied in a model where individuals with imperfectly observable health conditions seek prescription drugs for either medical or nonmedical reasons. The equilibrium number of medical and nonmedical users is endogenous and depends on economic and non-economic barriers to drugs consumption, such as pricing, health care costs, refill policies, monitoring programs, and the medical community’s prescription standards. The results show policies cen...

  8. Low-income energy assistance programs: a profile of need and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This second report of the Fuel Oil Marketing Advisory Committee (FOMAC) of DOE is twofold: to update information on the energy needs of low-income persons and governmental response to such needs; and to emphasize the need for energy-conservation programs that may alleviate the enormous financial burden placed on low-income people by rising energy prices. FOMAC has continued to develop further and refine its initial energy-conservation recommendations. Mainly, the updated assessment document finds that the poor will expend at least 35% of their income directly on energy and will spend at least 21% of their income on household energy. Other economic impacts of rising energy costs on low-income groups are summarized. Appropriations and stipulations by Congress to aid the lo-income people are reviewed. After careful review of various program designs, FOMAC continues to support the income indexing/vendor line of credit approach. This design provides assistance to elgible households based on: energy needed, cost of fuel, and percentage of income. The cost of implementing the FOMAC design nationally would, according to estimates, range from $3.5 to $4.6 billion for the 1980-1981 winter heating season. A figure of $1.6 to $2.2 billion is being discussed in the Congress. Meeting the ongoing energy needs of the poor will require a coherent national policy which consists of aid in paying energy bills and aid in the poor's effort to conserve energy. The report seeks to promote such policies. Needs assessment, government response, FOMAC model, comments on the programs, projected cost of 1980-1981 Energy Assistance Program, need for conservation programs, and program financing are discussed.

  9. Health services financing and delivery: analysis of policy options for Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Samer

    2015-01-01

    A national health account (NHA) provides a systematic approach to mapping the flow of health sector funds within a specified health system over a defined time period. This article attempts to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates using data from NHAs, and to compare the functional structures of financing schemes in Dubai with schemes in Qatar and selected member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs of Dubai and Qatar and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union) of 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing indicators used were as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA). In Dubai, spending on inpatient care was the highest-costing component, with 30% of current health expenditures (CHE). Spending on outpatient care was the second highest-costing component and accounted for about 23% of the CHE. Household spending accounted for about 22% of CHE (equivalent to US$187 per capita), compared to an average of 20% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent 0.02% of CHE on long-term care, compared to an average of 11% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent about 6% of CHE on prevention and public health services, compared to an average of 3.2% of CHE of OECD countries. The findings point to potential opportunities for growth and improvement in several health policy issues in Dubai, including increasing focus and funding of preventive services; shifting from inpatient care to day surgery, outpatient, and home-based services and strengthening long-term care; and introducing cost-containment measures for pharmaceuticals. More investment in the translation of NHA data into policy is suggested for future researchers.

  10. Policy options to reduce passenger car CO2 emissions after 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The EU has set emission targets for new cars up to 2020 and is now preparing the post 2020 legislation. The present study aims to give insight in the design of policies to further reduce passenger car emissions after 2020. Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles are now expected to enable deeper and less costly CO2 emission reductions than envisioned until recently. However, even advanced ICE vehicles will not enable to meet the very stringent long term emission reduction targets for passenger cars. Therefore transport policies need not only to reduce emissions of ICE vehicles, but also ensure that electric and hydrogen vehicles are phased in timely, along with low-CO2 electricity and hydrogen. Current legislation to regulate tank-to-wheel vehicle emissions is based on CO2-limits, expressed in g CO2/km. On the short term it is important to maximize the efficiency of conventional vehicles. At the same time it is essential to foster the market introduction of electric and hydrogen vehicles, given their potential to reach eventually much deeper overall CO2-reductions. When the market share of electric and hydrogen vehicles grows it becomes increasingly important to maximize their efficiency and to minimize their upstream CO2 emissions. Maximizing both efficiency and overall CO2-performance of all vehicle types - ICE, electric, and hydrogen - will be complicated to achieve with a single CO2-based standard. At this point an efficiency-based standard is more effective, and may offer some additional benefits too. The current report provides basic directions of how such legislation could be shaped.

  11. National drug policy: implications of the 'tough on drugs' ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, R

    2001-10-01

    Australia has emerged over the last decade as a world leader in drug policy. According to Single and Rohl (1997 pvii) Australia's National Drug Strategy 'has been characterised by a unique combination of features which have brought it international attention and acclaim'. The strength of Australia's policy has been its emphasis on both licit and illicit drugs, and also its clear articulation of harm minimisation as a guiding principle in all areas of action. The key policy goals recognised the harm associated with all substances and sought results in key areas of alcohol-related problems, tobacco-related problems, under-age consumption, prescription medication problems and illicit drug use. However, Australia has a new drug policy document for the new millennium, The National Drug Strategic Framework 1998 - 2002. As a result of a conservative influence in national politics, this framework has moved from the harm minimisation philosophy to a moralistic 'tough on drugs' philosophy that stresses zero tolerance, law enforcement and abstinence. There is a risk that Australia will experience an increase in adverse health, social and economic consequences as a result of this new policy direction. Nurses need to think critically about the 'tough on drugs' ideology. There is a risk that significant adverse affects may occur for their drug-using patients as a result of this policy change. In their practice, nurses need to challenge the validity of a punitive response, and to commit themselves to improving the health and safety of the illicit drug-using community.

  12. Vietnam and the Soviet Union: Implications for Europe and American Foreign Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Vietnam’s drawing rights until the nation can prove the money is being used for peaceful purposes and not to finance the war in Kampuchea. [ Wall Street Journal , S...rights until the nation can prove the money is being used for peaceful purposes and not to finance the war in Kampuchea. [ Wall Street Journal , S April...of its retail economy to about five percent. [ Wall Street Journal , 22 April 1982:34; 12 May 1982:28] Hungary recently became the second Bloc country

  13. Land Grab in Africa: A Review of Emerging Issues and Implications for Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodele F. Odusola

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, large-scale land acquisition in Africa has become quite intense, especially in DRC, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia. While African countries are motivated by the need to transform the agricultural sector and diversify their economies, the urge to meet the needs of future food and biofuel security, among others, underpins foreign interest. This divergence of interest makes the realisation of the prospective benefits elusive in Africa. Maximsin...

  14. Transportation energy consumption and conservation policy options in the Northeast. [1972 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    This report presents a profile of 1972 transportation energy consumption in the Northeast region. Transportation energy projections for the region are given by mode for the years 1985 and 2000. Conservation actions which could significantly affect future transportation energy demand levels are described and their impacts evaluated. It is estimated that while the demand for energy in the transportation sector might increase by as much as 88% by the year 2000, strong conservation actions could reduce the projected level of demand by over 30%. Recent changes in the growth and distribution of population and industrial and commercial activities are reviewed. Both the factors that affect these growth and distribution patterns and the implications of changes in existing patterns on energy use in the transportation sector are discussed. It is shown, for example, that land-use controls could substantially reduce the growth of energy demand in the transportation sector. Finally, conservation actions are discussed within the context of how they might be implemented by Federal, State, or local governments. Interactions between actions are discussed and groupings of actions that minimize the disadvantages of individual actions while taking advantage of complementary effects between actions are presented.

  15. Exploring policy options for a transition to sustainable heating system diffusion using an agent-based simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya Sopha, Bertha; Kloeckner, Christian A.; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2011-01-01

    Change in home heating to more efficient and renewable systems is important for a sound climate policy. The present paper aims to identify potential interventions for the uptake of wood-pellet heating in Norway using an agent-based model (ABM). The theoretically based, empirically founded, agent-based simulation demonstrates that financial support, i.e., a stable wood-pellet price, and technical development, i.e., functional reliability improvement, have to be established all at the same time for a successful wood-pellet market to start. Furthermore, a soft intervention through persuading households to use environmentally beneficial heating system is not a promising driver for wood-pellet diffusion. Limitations and suggestions for future work are also discussed. - Research highlights: → The theoretically based, empirically founded, agent-based simulation is applied to investigate potential policy options toward diffusion of wood-pellet heating in Norway. → Relative advantages are necessary for wood-pellet heating to be adopted, consistent with Diffusion of Innovation theory (). → Simultaneous development is also required for further uptake of wood-pellet heating, supporting the existing empirical hypothesis by . → Persuading households to use environmentally friendly heating system is not a promising driver, in line with empirical finding of , who investigated psychological factors underlying the adoption of wood-pellet heating.

  16. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The delusion of decoupling, and policy options for mitigating the rebound effect and the environmental impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    reduce, or at least limit, ‘P’ and ‘A’, including their rebound growth from the ‘T’ decrease. The paper suggest this to be achievable in affluent countries, by letting ‘P’ decline through low birth rates, and encouraging ‘A’ to decline in exchange for lowering labor input to the economy, partly......’. All three factors are through the equation coupled to ‘I’, and in general we should avoid using the misleading terminology of decoupling environmental impact (energy consumption) from the economy, represented by ‘P·A’. So far essentially all policies towards lowering ‘I’ has been devoted towards...... technical increase in energy efficiency, i.e., lowering ‘T’. The relief thereby obtained on ‘I’, however, tends to be rebounded by increasing both ‘P’ and ‘A’, which pull ‘I’ upwards. In a future degrowth economy, aiming at reducing ‘I’ significantly, focusing only on ‘T’ will not suffice. We must also...

  18. Compensating the opportunity cost of forest functional zoning - two alternative options for the Romanian forest policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Drăgoi,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge of the environmental policy is conceivingappropriate economic instruments able to account for the positive externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This issue is extremely important for implementing the provisions of the Romanian Forest Act, which states that forest owners shall be compensated for the opportunity costs of giving up harvesting operations due to various conservation purposes. The paper presents a statistical method based on analytical assessment of the effective forgone revenues brought about by banning the harvesting operations in 96 cases, each case being a distinctive forest management plan conceived for a large forest area, i.e. a production unit. Doing so, the scale effect has been taken into account because all legal provisions referring to forest management planning systems are focused on production units, considered the basic reference elements for sustainable forest management. The multiple regression function produced by the statistical analysis was turned into a simple formula allowing for a straightforward set up of the average compensation worth being paid per year and hectare. In order to better fetch the real opportunity cost paid for each hectare of protected forest, the algorithmwas further improved in order to account for the differences in stumpage residual value. Actually, the average compensation is differentiated onto five categories of hauling distances, using the same algorithm used by the National Forest Administration for differentiating the average reservation price established at national level on the ground of full-cost method stumpage pricing system.

  19. Lifestyle Vaccines and Public Health: Exploring Policy Options for a Vaccine to Stop Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Experimental vaccines are being developed for the treatment of ‘unhealthy lifestyles’ and associated chronic illnesses. Policymakers and other stakeholders will have to deal with the ethical issues that this innovation path raises: are there morally justified reasons to integrate these innovative biotechnologies in future health policies? Should public money be invested in further research? Focusing on the case of an experimental nicotine vaccine, this article explores the ethical aspects of ‘lifestyle vaccines’ for public health. Based on findings from a qualitative study into a vaccine for smoking cessation, the article articulates possible value conflicts related to nicotine vaccination as an intervention in tobacco control. The ‘vaccinization’ of lifestyle disease piggybacks on the achievements of classic vaccines. Contrary to expectations of simplicity and success, quitting smoking with a vaccine requires a complex supportive network. Social justice and public trust may become important ethical challenges when deciding whether to use further public funds for research or whether to implement these innovative vaccines in the future. PMID:27551304

  20. Household demand for insecticide-treated bednets in Tanzania and policy options for increasing uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara G; Marchant, Tanya J; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

    2011-03-01

    There has been considerable controversy about the most appropriate means of delivering insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to prevent malaria. Household demand for ITNs is a key factor influencing the choice of delivery strategy, but evidence to date about price and income elasticities comes either from studies of hypothetical willingness to pay or small-scale policy experiments. This study estimates the price and income elasticities of demand for ITNs using nationally representative household survey data and actual consumer choices, in the context of a national scheme to provide vouchers for subsidized nets to pregnant women in Tanzania. Under this distribution system, the estimated price elasticity of demand for subsidized ITNs equals -0.12 and the income elasticity estimates range from zero to 0.47, depending on household socio-economic status. The model also shows a substantial decline in short-term ITN purchases for women whose household received a free ITN. These findings suggest that if the Tanzanian government continues to use a mixed public-private model to distribute ITNs, increasing the consumer subsidy alone will not dramatically improve ITN coverage. A concerted effort is required including an increase in the subsidy amount, attention to income growth for poor households, increases in women's and girls' education levels, and expansion of the retail ITN distribution network. Use of a catch-up campaign to distribute free ITNs would increase coverage but raises questions about the effect of households' long-term purchase decisions for ITNs.

  1. Policies to Keep and Expand the Option of Concentrating Solar Power for Dispatchable Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lilliestam, Johan [Federal Swiss Institute for Technology (ETH); Barradi, Touria [MENARES; Caldes, Natalia [CIEMAT; Gomez, Marta [Dow Chemicals; Hanger, Susanne [Federal Swiss Institute for Technology (ETH); Kern, Jurgen [German Aerospace Center (DLR); Komendantova, Nadejda [Federal Swiss Institute for Technology (ETH); Hong, Wai Mun [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid; Wang, Zhifeng [Chinese Academy of Science; Patt, Anthony [Federal Swiss Institute for Technology (ETH)

    2018-02-16

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the few renewable electricity technologies that can offer dispatchable electricity at large scale. Thus, it may play an important role in the future, especially to balance fluctuating sources in increasingly renewables-based power systems. Today, its costs are higher than those of PV and wind power and, as most countries do not support CSP, deployment is slow. Unless the expansion gains pace and costs decrease, the industry may stagnate or collapse, and an important technology for climate change mitigation has been lost. Keeping CSP as a maturing technology for dispatchable renewable power thus requires measures to improve its short-term economic attractiveness and to continue reducing costs in the longer term. We suggest a set of three policy instruments - feed-in tariffs or auctions reflecting the value of dispatchable CSP, and not merely its cost; risk coverage support for innovative designs; and demonstration projects - to be deployed, in regions where CSP has a potentially large role to play. This could provide the CSP industry with a balance of attractive profits and competitive pressure, the incentive to expand CSP while also reducing its costs, making it ready for broad-scale deployment when it is needed.

  2. Contaminants in Sludge: Implications for Management Policies and Land Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentel, Steven K.

    2003-07-01

    Policies on sludge (or biosolids) management vary widely, particularly when decisions must be made on what to do with the final product. This paper examines the two principal rationales with which such decisions are made, and through which scientific knowledge is included in the process. These rationales are risk analysis (risk assessment and management), and the criterion of sustainability. Both are found to be potentially arbitrary due to the difficulty in defining the individual constituents necessary to relate environmental phenomena to environmental policy. To place the difficulties in a practical context, this paper presents research results from three recent projects concerned with contaminants in sludge (phosphorus, flocculant polymers, and polymer-surfactant aggregates), and uses the findings to exemplify the dilemma encountered in policy making. A path forward is proposed. (author)

  3. Industrial clusters in the Finnish economy. Strategies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkainen, S.

    2001-04-01

    Technology is currently the most important determinant of the long-term economic growth as it explains for at least half of the growth of the industrialised nations. Economists have demonstrated that R and D performed by the innovating company generates widespread value in the economy through technology diffusion. The objective of the private financing is, however, to increase the value of the innovating company and the spillovers to other companies are there not so important. The market failure created by the R and D spillovers is thus one of the main justifications for government policies. The advancement of spillovers by government's actions can be called cluster policy. The objective of this study is to produce knowledge to support decision making in the realisation of an efficient cluster-oriented technology policy. The Finnish industrial clusters are identified by a quantitative value chain analysis, and their economic profiles are analysed. Also, a solid framework is presented that describes how to evaluate the economic impacts of a R and D project from the cluster policy point of view. The clusters should be seen as a technology policy tools, by which the domestic industrial structures can be analysed and developed. In this kind of decision making it is important to understand the mechanisms of technology diffusion. Concrete technology policy occurs in the selection of the publicly financed R and D projects. In the selection of the supported-projects it is crucial to evaluate the economic impacts of project proposals in advance. That is why economic indicators like measures of spillovers are needed The governments should fund R and D projects that have the highest social rate of return and would otherwise be underfunded or delayed. (orig.)

  4. Managing vulnerability to drought and enhancing livelihood resilience in sub-Saharan Africa: Technological, institutional and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Shiferaw

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are highly sensitive to climatic variability. Drought, in particular, represents one of the most important natural factors contributing to malnutrition and famine in many parts of the region. The overall impact of drought on a given country/region and its ability to recover from the resulting social, economic and environmental impacts depends on several factors. The economic, social and environmental impacts of drought are huge in SSA and the national costs and losses incurred threaten to undermine the wider economic and development gains made in the last few decades in the region. There is an urgent need to reduce the vulnerability of countries to climate variability and to the threats posed by climate change. This paper attempts to highlight the challenges of drought in SSA and reviews the current drought risk management strategies, especially the promising technological and policy options for managing drought risks to protect livelihoods and reduce vulnerability. The review suggests the possibilities of several ex ante and ex post drought management strategies in SSA although their effectiveness depends on agro-climatic and socio-economic conditions. Existing technological, policy and institutional risk management measures need to be strengthened and integrated to manage drought ex ante and to minimize the ex post negative effects for vulnerable households and regions. A proactive approach that combines promising technological, institutional and policy solutions to manage the risks within vulnerable communities implemented by institutions operating at different levels (community, sub-national, and national is considered to be the way forward for managing drought and climate variability.

  5. Residential Water Scarcity in Cyprus: Impact of Climate Change and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Zachariadis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of the cost of water scarcity in Cyprus, today and in the next 20 years, taking into account the effect of projected climate change in the region. It focuses on the residential sector, accounting also for tourism and industry. Using a simple demand function, total scarcity costs in Cyprus are computed for the period 2010–2030, and three scenarios of future water demand are presented. The central estimate shows that the present value of total costs due to water shortages will amount to 72 million Euros (at 2009 prices, and, if future water demand increases a little faster, these costs may reach 200 million Euros. Using forecasts of regional climate models, costs are found to be about 20% higher in a “climate change” scenario. Compared to the loss of consumer surplus due to water shortages, desalination is found to be a costly solution, even if environmental damage costs from the operation of desalination plants are not accounted for. Finally, dynamic constrained optimization is employed and shows that efficient residential water prices should include a scarcity price of about 40 Eurocents per cubic meter at  2009 prices; this would constitute a 30–100% increase in current prices faced by residential consumers. Reductions in rainfall due to climate change would raise this price by another 2-3 Eurocents. Such a pricing policy would provide a clear long-term signal to consumers and firms and could substantially contribute to a sustainable use of water resources in the island.

  6. Quantifying policy options for reducing future coronary heart disease mortality in England: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Shaun; Bajekal, Madhavi; Norman, Paul; O'Flaherty, Martin; Hawkins, Nathaniel; Kivimäki, Mika; Capewell, Simon; Raine, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the number of coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths potentially preventable in England in 2020 comparing four risk factor change scenarios. Using 2007 as baseline, the IMPACTSEC model was extended to estimate the potential number of CHD deaths preventable in England in 2020 by age, gender and Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 quintiles given four risk factor change scenarios: (a) assuming recent trends will continue; (b) assuming optimal but feasible levels already achieved elsewhere; (c) an intermediate point, halfway between current and optimal levels; and (d) assuming plateauing or worsening levels, the worst case scenario. These four scenarios were compared to the baseline scenario with both risk factors and CHD mortality rates remaining at 2007 levels. This would result in approximately 97,000 CHD deaths in 2020. Assuming recent trends will continue would avert approximately 22,640 deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 20,390-24,980). There would be some 39,720 (37,120-41,900) fewer deaths in 2020 with optimal risk factor levels and 22,330 fewer (19,850-24,300) in the intermediate scenario. In the worst case scenario, 16,170 additional deaths (13,880-18,420) would occur. If optimal risk factor levels were achieved, the gap in CHD rates between the most and least deprived areas would halve with falls in systolic blood pressure, physical inactivity and total cholesterol providing the largest contributions to mortality gains. CHD mortality reductions of up to 45%, accompanied by significant reductions in area deprivation mortality disparities, would be possible by implementing optimal preventive policies.

  7. Quantifying policy options for reducing future coronary heart disease mortality in England: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Scholes

    Full Text Available To estimate the number of coronary heart disease (CHD deaths potentially preventable in England in 2020 comparing four risk factor change scenarios.Using 2007 as baseline, the IMPACTSEC model was extended to estimate the potential number of CHD deaths preventable in England in 2020 by age, gender and Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 quintiles given four risk factor change scenarios: (a assuming recent trends will continue; (b assuming optimal but feasible levels already achieved elsewhere; (c an intermediate point, halfway between current and optimal levels; and (d assuming plateauing or worsening levels, the worst case scenario. These four scenarios were compared to the baseline scenario with both risk factors and CHD mortality rates remaining at 2007 levels. This would result in approximately 97,000 CHD deaths in 2020. Assuming recent trends will continue would avert approximately 22,640 deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 20,390-24,980. There would be some 39,720 (37,120-41,900 fewer deaths in 2020 with optimal risk factor levels and 22,330 fewer (19,850-24,300 in the intermediate scenario. In the worst case scenario, 16,170 additional deaths (13,880-18,420 would occur. If optimal risk factor levels were achieved, the gap in CHD rates between the most and least deprived areas would halve with falls in systolic blood pressure, physical inactivity and total cholesterol providing the largest contributions to mortality gains.CHD mortality reductions of up to 45%, accompanied by significant reductions in area deprivation mortality disparities, would be possible by implementing optimal preventive policies.

  8. Macroeconomic policy interaction: State dependency and implications for financial stability in UK: A systemic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between economic and financial stabilities and influence of macroeconomic policies on the financial sector creates scope of active policy role in financial stability. As a contribution to the existing body of knowledge, this study has analysed the implications of macroeconomic policy interaction/coordination for financial stability, proxied by financial assets, i.e. equity and bonds price oscillation. The critical review and analysis of the existing literature on the subject suggests that there is also ample evidence of interdependence between monetary and fiscal policies and this interrelation necessitates coordination between them for the sake of financial stability. There is also a case for analysing the symmetry of financial markets responses to macroeconomic policy interaction. On methodological and empirical grounds, it is vital to test the robustness of policy recommendations to overcome the limitation of a single empirical approach (Jeffrey–Lindley’s paradox. Hence, the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches should be used in commentary manner. The policy interaction and optimal policy combination should also be analysed in the context of institutional design and major financial events to gain insight into the implications of policy interaction in the periods of stable economic and financial environments as well as period of financial and economic distress.

  9. Exertional Heat Illness among Secondary School Athletes: Statewide Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jill; Slota, Peggy; Zamboni, Beth

    2018-01-01

    Exertional heat illness (EHI) is a leading cause of preventable death among student athletes. While causes and preventative measures for EHI are known, school districts may not be implementing evidence-based practices. This descriptive, exploratory study explored school policies, resources, and practices of coaches in a mid-Atlantic state in the…

  10. Rehabilitation Policy and Practice in Romania: Implications for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Eniko C.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive account of the Romanian rehabilitation service delivery system. After a short presentation of disability issues during communism, the article shifts focus to a detailed review of current advancements in disability policy and legislation, prevalence, diagnosis, service delivery system and procedures, and…

  11. Curricular Critique of an Environmental Education Policy: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrow, Douglas D.; Fazio, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a curricular critique of an environmental education policy framework called "Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow" (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2009). Answers to the following two curricular questions: "What should be taught?" and "How it should be taught?" frame the critique. Scrutiny of the latter…

  12. The Economics of Wind Power in China and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifa Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the implementation of feed-in tariff (FIT and attractive public subsidies for onshore wind farms aroused great investment enthusiasm and spurred remarkable development of wind power in China. Meanwhile, rapid learning-by-doing has significantly cut down the cost of wind turbines and the capital cost of wind farms as well. Therefore, it is the right time to examine the appropriateness of the existing FIT policy for wind power in China. In this paper, we employ the analytical framework for levelized cost of electricity (LCOE to model the generation cost of wind power. Results show that the existing FIT policy is attractive to investors, but serious curtailment and turbine quality issues could make wind power unprofitable. Meanwhile, rapid substantial decreases in the cost of wind power have made it competitive to coal power in 2013, implying that it is possible and necessary to reform the FIT policy for new wind farms. In the future, energy policies for onshore wind power in China could be concentrated on reducing the integration cost, so as to reduce the overall system cost.

  13. From Print to Digital: Implications for Dictionary Policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at some familiar editorial and presentational conventions, and considers which are no longer appropriate in the digital medium — and what new policies might replace them. Keywords: Definitions, example sentences, digital media, exclusion Criteria, gatekeeper, lexicographic conventions, online dictionary ...

  14. Languages of Instruction: Policy Implications for Education in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This synopsis report was prepared under the auspices of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa (ADEA) Working Group on Educational Research and Policy Analysis (WGER&PA), in collaboration with the ADEA Secretariat. The research reviews on which the report is based were commissioned after ...

  15. The retirement cliff: Power plant lives and their policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, David C.; Fischbeck, Paul S.; Páez, Antonio R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines more than a century of U.S. power plant additions and retirements in conjunction with several decades of utility capital investment data. While policy analyses often invoke assumptions of power plant book life, relatively little analysis has focused on the physical life of power-generating assets. The average age of the U.S. generator fleet has increased significantly over time despite continued investment, in part because more recent investment has tended to focus on shorter-lived assets. This may be due in part to risk-averse power sector investors and lenders responding rationally to regulatory uncertainty in a deregulated market environment. Power plant retirement trends suggest that the pace of retirements will increase significantly in the decade after 2030 for most reasonable estimates of physical life. These capital investment trends have important consequences for carbon policy and highlight the importance of including consideration of the longer term—particularly when evaluating more significant decarbonization policies. - Highlights: • Many policy analyses neglect the physical lives of power plants. • A large database of U.S. power plant additions and retirements is examined. • The average age of power plants has steadily increased despite growing investment. • Long-term CO 2 reduction strategies are challenged by increases in plant retirements.

  16. assessment of selected world bank policies and their implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    terms such as globalization or liberalization can be used to describe such ... In her history,. Nigeria has not staged a conscious fight against poverty since its independent in 1960 as she is doing now. Thus, the significance of this paper is to enable policy makers and ... World Bank: Historical overview. World Bank is a term ...

  17. Policy Implications and Suggestions on Administrative Measures of Urban Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. V.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, C.; Yoon, J. H.; Chae, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency and intensity of floods are increasing worldwide as recent climate change progresses gradually. Flood management should be policy-oriented in urban municipalities due to the characteristics of urban areas with a lot of damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prepare a flood susceptibility map by using data mining model and make a policy suggestion on administrative measures of urban flood. Therefore, we constructed a spatial database by collecting relevant factors including the topography, geology, soil and land use data of the representative city, Seoul, the capital city of Korea. Flood susceptibility map was constructed by applying the data mining models of random forest and boosted tree model to input data and existing flooded area data in 2010. The susceptibility map has been validated using the 2011 flood area data which was not used for training. The predictor importance value of each factor to the results was calculated in this process. The distance from the water, DEM and geology showed a high predictor importance value which means to be a high priority for flood preparation policy. As a result of receiver operating characteristic (ROC), random forest model showed 78.78% and 79.18% accuracy of regression and classification and boosted tree model showed 77.55% and 77.26% accuracy of regression and classification, respectively. The results show that the flood susceptibility maps can be applied to flood prevention and management, and it also can help determine the priority areas for flood mitigation policy by providing useful information to policy makers.

  18. Policy options and their potential effects on Moroccan small farmers and the poor facing increased world food prices: A general equilibrium model analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Xinshen; Doukkali, Rachid; Yu, Bingxin

    2008-01-01

    "This study evaluates the potential impact of the recent rise in world food prices on the Moroccan economy and possible policy options to respond to it. The study focuses mainly on the poverty effects of such an external shock and the possible policy responses to it. A new social accounting matrix (SAM) and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model have been developed for this study based on micro-level data in combination with sectoral and economywide data. The CGE model simulations show ...

  19. Public policy, participation and the third position: the implication of engaging communities on their own terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Brian J; Vicary, David A; Browne, Alison L; Guard, Neil

    2009-03-01

    Policy development and implementation should be fundamental for community psychologists in their endeavors to create social change. Policy necessarily is engaged at broad social and political levels, but it is mediated through communities and individuals, and thus appealing for our discipline. We argue that there are increasing opportunities for social input in liberal democracies with the growing awareness of the need to consider social factors in policy. Public participation is one aspect of policy development, but it can be problematic and can disempowered communities, especially disadvantaged communities. Using the framework of the 'third position', a case study of attempts to ameliorate institutional oppression of Australian Aboriginal people through policy change is described. Structural reform to community engagement is described in terms of empowerment and capacity building. Power relationships are deconstructed to allow understandings of the dynamics of policy change, and the broader implications for community psychological praxis are discussed.

  20. Forensic and policy implications of the transracial adoption debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E E

    1995-01-01

    The adoption of black children by white families continues to garner significant attention from legislatures, the media, and scholars in many disciplines. Still, forensic psychiatrists have said little about this form of transracial adoption, and they seem willing to allow other disciplines to map out singlehandedly the public policy in this area. This policy is expected to affect an estimated 175,000 black children nationally who live in some form of out-of-home placement. Forensic psychiatrists should increase their understanding of and involvement in the debate over this special form of adoption. This article highlights several principles that must be better understood if forensic psychiatrists are to participate in the debate with clarity and understanding.

  1. Trump and the GOP agenda: implications for retirement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madland, David; Rowell, Alex

    2018-04-11

    Policymakers need to act to protect Americans' retirement security. A significant portion of Americans are at risk of not being able to maintain their standard of living in retirement and research suggests that this percentage is likely to grow. This commentary provides background on the current state of American retirement, highlights recent efforts to reform retirement policy, and predicts what to expect under President Donald Trump. Retirement has not been a major focus of national policymakers in recent years. Early actions during the Trump administration to undo Obama administration policies may make it more difficult for individuals to save for retirement. While it is impossible to predict the future with any certainty, long standing trends and recent political developments suggest that major action will not be taken during the Trump presidency to boost retirement security.

  2. The cell based therapy and the policy implications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Bratati; Basak, Saroj K; Ganguly, Nirmal K

    2011-01-01

    The recent scientific development using stem or other differentiated cells has generated great hopes for treatment of various diseases. Major thrust has been given to formulate country specific laws and regulations considering international guidelines to conduct research and clinical applications of "Cell Based Therapy" (CBT) all over the world. Attempts have made in this review to discuss the current policies that are practiced by various countries in the areas related to CBT with special emphasis on CBT related research and development in India. The two major funding agencies of Government of India e.g. Department of Biotechnology (DBT) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), have jointly formulated the "Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Therapy" in 2007 which requires update and revision. Based on the review of the current world scenario of CBT research and development, suggestions have been made for the development of a new CBT policy that will help in progress of research and patient treatment in India.

  3. Chimeras, moral status, and public policy: implications of the abortion debate for public policy on human/nonhuman chimera research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiffer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in creating chimeras by transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into animals early in development. One concern is that such research could confer upon an animal the moral status of a normal human adult but then impermissibly fail to accord it the protections it merits in virtue of its enhanced moral status. Understanding the public policy implications of this ethical conclusion, though, is complicated by the fact that claims about moral status cannot play an unfettered role in public policy. Arguments like those employed in the abortion debate for the conclusion that abortion should be legally permissible even if abortion is not morally permissible also support, to a more limited degree, a liberal policy on hESC research involving the creation of chimeras.

  4. Rural-Urban Migration and Unemployment: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zenou, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We develop a regional model where, in the city, unemployment prevails because of too high (efficiency) wages, while, in the rural area, workers are paid at their marginal productivity. We characterize the steady-state equilibrium and show that it is unique. We then consider two policies: decreasing urban unemployment benefits and subsidizing urban employment. We find that decreasing the unemployment benefit in the city creates urban jobs and reduces rural-urban migration since new migrants ha...

  5. Human trafficking in Southeast Asia causes and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis examines human trafficking within Southeast Asia to identify the similarities and differences between the causes of labor and sex trafficking. The thesis also analyzes how three case study countries have tailored their antitrafficking policies to causes present in their country. The causes examined are divided into two distinct categories, universal and specific. The universal causes studied are large-scale social issues af...

  6. The Economic Value of Personal Information and Policy Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiin; Nam, Changi; Kim, Seongcheol

    2015-01-01

    Personal information is essential in an information-oriented society for societal development and as a valuable business resource. However, because of poor management and a lack of proper protection, leakage of personal information can take place over time, and the standard for compensation is not well established. In order to establish appropriate policies for its protection, we need to know the economic value of personal information. Using conjoint analysis, we analyze the potential value o...

  7. The (Biological or Cultural) Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu Yalcinkaya, Nur; Estrada-Villalta, Sara; Adams, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Most research links (racial) essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action) among people with dominant (White) and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino) racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  8. The (Biological or Cultural Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Soylu Yalcinkaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most research links (racial essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action among people with dominant (White and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  9. Teasing apart "the tangled web" of influence of policy dialogues: lessons from a case study of dialogues about healthcare reform options for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvale, Gillian; McRae, Samantha A; Milicic, Sandra

    2017-07-28

    The knowledge exchange literature suggests that policy dialogues are intended to enhance short-, medium- and long-term capacities of individuals, organizations and health systems to use evidence to inform policy-making. Key features of effective dialogues have been suggested, but the linkages between these features and the realization of improved capacities for evidence-informed policy-making among dialogue attendees and the subsequent influence on policy-making activities are not well understood. We conducted a qualitative case study of a series of four policy dialogues that were convened in Canada among national, provincial and regional stakeholders on topics pertaining to healthcare financing and funding in 2011. Data sources included videos of participant perspectives captured during or immediately following each event and follow-up key informant interviews among dialogue participants held 4 years later in 2015. Three conceptual frameworks pertaining to (i) policy dialogues and capacities for evidence use, (ii) factors shaping policy-making across the policy cycle and (iii) factors shaping implementation of evidence guided the thematic analysis. We then synthesized the findings across the three frameworks. The results suggest the potential benefits of policy dialogues described in the literature were developed among the participants at these dialogues. Informants elaborated on how dialogue features influenced their capacities to use evidence, the ideas, interests and institutions during the agenda-setting and policy formulation stages of policy-making and how implementation was affected by characteristics of policy options, individuals, organizations, the external environment and processes. We present a conceptual framework that furthers our understanding of the potential influence of policy dialogues on the content and mechanisms of policy development and illustrate pathways of influence on various stages of the policy cycle from agenda setting through

  10. The policy implications of the different interpretations of the cost-effectiveness of renewable electricity support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, Pablo del; Cerdá, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of support for renewable electricity is a main criterion to assess the success of policy instruments, together with effectiveness. The costs of support are also a source of significant concern for governments all over the world. However, significant confusion exists in the literature on the cost-effectiveness of public support for renewable electricity. While some authors define the concept of cost-effectiveness as that which complies with the equimarginality principle, many others, including documents from relevant organisations (European Commission, International Energy Agency, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) define it as “the lowest costs of support”, generally equating it with the minimisation of consumer costs. The aim of this paper is to clarify the differences between both approaches and their policy implications regarding the choice of instruments and design elements. It is shown that they partly overlap and that their policy implications clearly differ, leading to very different policy prescriptions. While the former favours technology neutral instruments and design elements, the “minimisation of consumer costs” approach favours instruments and design elements which adjust support levels to the costs of the technologies. - Highlights: • Significant confusion exists in the literature on the cost-effectiveness of public support for renewable electricity. • Clarify the differences between two main approaches to cost-effectiveness. • Policy implications clearly differ, leading to very different policy prescriptions

  11. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  12. Transboundary air pollution in Asia: Model development and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    This work investigates transboundary air pollution in Asia through atmospheric modeling and public policy analysis. As an example of models actively shaping environmental policy, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe (LRTAP) is selected as a case study. The LRTAP Convention is the only mulit- lateral air pollution agreement to date, and results from the RAINS integrated assessment model were heavily used to calculate nationally differentiated emission ceilings. Atmospheric chemistry and transport are included in RAINS through the use of transfer coefficients (or ``source-receptor relationships'') relating pollutant transfer among European nations. Following past work with ATMOS to simulate sulfur species in Asia, here ATMOS is developed to include odd-nitrogen. Fitting with the linear structure of ATMOS and the emphasis on computational efficiency, a simplified chemical scheme developed for use in the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Global Chemical Transport Model (GFDL GCTM) is adopted. The method solves for the interconversions between NOx, HNO3, and PAN based on five reaction rates stored in look-up tables. ATMOS is used to calculate source-receptor relationships for Asia. Significant exchange of NOy occurs among China, North and South Korea, and Japan. On an annual average basis, China contributes 18% to Japan's total nitrate deposition, 46% to North Korea, and 26% to South Korea. Nitrate deposition is an important component of acidification (along with sulfate deposition), contributing 30-50% to the acid burden over most of Japan, and more than 50% to acid deposition in southeast Asia, where biomass burning emits high levels of NOx. In evaluating the policy-relevance of results from the ATMOS model, four factors are taken into account: the uncertainty and limitations of ATMOS, the environmental concerns facing Asia, the current status of the scientific community in relation to regional air pollution in the region, and

  13. An Overview of Turkish Healthcare System after Health Transformation Program: Main Successes, Performance Assessment, Further Challenges, and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkish healthcare system has been stated to show significant improvements regarding wider access to healthcare facilities, and the quality and efficiency through the introduction of Health Transformation Program launched in 2003. While the old system relied on differing provisions and financing and lacked behind many developed nations in terms of health outcomes, the new system achieved nearly universal coverage and many health outcomes enhanced significantly. Health expenditures rose to 5.4% of GDP in 2013 from 4.8% in 1998. Furthermore, Turkey provided both better financial protection for the poor against high health expenditures, and equity in access to health care across the population. However, Turkey still faces new challenges to catch other developed countries to have better health and further improve financial sustainability. To reach these targets, Turkey needs to further implement new policy options for reform such as combating informal economy, allocating more on health resources, designing incentive- based payment methods, adopting gate keeping system and referral chain, developing capacity to deploy health technology assessments in reimbursement decisions, and ensuring the hospital autonomy.

  14. German nuclear policy reconsidered. Implications for the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuersch, Michaela; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Malischek, Raimund; Nagl, Stephan; Panke, Timo; Trueby, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima, German nuclear policy has been reconsidered. This paper demonstrates the economic effects of an accelerated nuclear phase-out on the German electricity generation sector. A detailed optimization model for European electricity markets is used to analyze two scenarios with different lifetimes for nuclear plants (phase-out vs. prolongation). Based on political targets, both scenarios assume significant electricity demand reductions and a high share of generation from renewable energy sources in Germany. Our principal findings are: First, nuclear capacities are mainly replaced by longer lifetimes of existing coal-fired plants and the construction of new gas-fired plants. Second, fossil fuel-based generation and power imports increase, while power exports are reduced in response to the lower nuclear generation. Third, despite the increased fossil generation, challenging climate protection goals can still be achieved within the framework of the considered scenarios. Finally, system costs and electricity prices are clearly higher. We conclude that the generation sector can generally cope with an accelerated nuclear phase-out under the given assumptions. Yet, we emphasize that such a policy requires a substantial and costly transformation of the supply and the demand side.

  15. Global obesity: trends, risk factors and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Vasanti S; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity and related chronic diseases has largely been driven by global trade liberalization, economic growth and rapid urbanization. These factors continue to fuel dramatic changes in living environments, diets and lifestyles in ways that promote positive energy balance. Nutritional transitions in low-income and middle-income countries are typically characterized by increases in the consumption of animal fat and protein, refined grains, and added sugar. This change is coupled with reductions in physical activity owing to more mechanized and technologically driven lifestyles. Given the high costs of obesity and comorbidities in terms of health-care expenditure and quality of life, prevention strategies are paramount, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries that must manage coexisting infectious diseases and undernutrition in addition to the obesity epidemic. As countries become increasingly urbanized, undernutrition and obesity can exist side by side within the same country, community or household, which is a particular challenge for health systems with limited resources. Owing to the scope and complexity of the obesity epidemic, prevention strategies and policies across multiple levels are needed in order to have a measurable effect. Changes should include high-level global policies from the international community and coordinated efforts by governments, organizations, communities and individuals to positively influence behavioural change.

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY: POLICY ISSUES AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Boluk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current energy policy of Turkey is to increase the renewable energy share in total energy and to maximize benefit from existing potential until next 15 years. It was planed that the share of renewable energy resources in electricity production would be at least 30% by 2023 and government ensured some incentives such as feed-in tariff, investment incentives etc. for renewable energy. Moreover Turkish Energy Regulatory Agency (EMRA announced that biofuel blending would be mandatory starting from 2013 and 2014 for bioethanol (2% and biodiesel (1%, respectively. This study examines the current situation and potential of renewable resources and evaluates the impacts of renewable energy policy both on the energy sector and whole national economy. Renewable energy targets can generate around 275-545 thousand direct jobs possibilities in energy sector and 7.9 thousand tones natural gas and 464 thousand cubic meters fossil fuel saving by 2023. Net trade impact of renewable energy targets will be aggravated due to mandatory biodiesel blending since Turkey has oilseed deficit. In Turkey, utilization of all type of resources will contribute to economy but most feasible and sustainable renewable energy is biomass. Between the other renewables, biomass would provide highest social well-being in the country.

  17. Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on Poverty and Unemployment Rates in Nigeria, Implications for Attaining Inclusive Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Nwosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the effect of macroeconomic policies on unemployment and poverty rates in Nigeria from 1980 to 2013 with implication to achieving inclusive growth. The inability of macroeconomic policies in addressing the rising issues unemployment and poverty rates in Nigeria despite the impressive economic growth experience over the last decades has increasingly called for the need for the pursuance of inclusive growth to address the social issues of unemployment and poverty rate. Previous studies have not considered the extent to which macroeconomic policies affects unemployment and poverty rate in Nigeria, and the implication of this relationship to the attainment of inclusive growth in Nigeria. The study adopts the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique. The study observed that among macroeconomic policy variables only exchange rate significantly influenced unemployment rate while only fiscal policy significantly influenced and poverty rate. This implies that present macroeconomic policies in Nigeria do not guarantee the attainment of inclusive growth in Nigeria. The contribution of the paper is that to achieve inclusive growth that guarantees high employment and reduced poverty rate, there is the need for a re-examination of macroeconomic policy management in Nigeria.

  18. Current and future groundwater withdrawals: Effects, management and energy policy options for a semi-arid Indian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sishodia, Rajendra P.; Shukla, Sanjay; Graham, Wendy D.; Wani, Suhas P.; Jones, James W.; Heaney, James

    2017-12-01

    Effects of future expansion/intensification of irrigated agriculture on groundwater and surface water levels and availability in a semi-arid watershed were evaluated using an integrated hydrologic model (MIKE SHE/MIKE 11) in conjunction with biophysical measurements. Improved water use efficiency, water storage, and energy policy options were evaluated for their ability to sustain the future (2035) increased groundwater withdrawals. Three future withdrawal scenarios (low = 20, medium = 30, high = 50 wells/100 km2/year) based on the historical rate of growth of irrigation wells were formulated. While well drying from falling groundwater levels was limited to drought and consecutive below average rainfall years, under the current (2015) withdrawals, significant increases in frequency and duration (17-97 days/year) of well drying along with 13-26% (19-37 mm) reductions in surface flows were predicted under the future withdrawals. Higher (27-108%) energy demands of existing irrigation pumps due to declining groundwater levels and reduced hydroelectric generation due to decreased surface flows would create a vicious water-food-energy nexus in the future. Crop failure, one of the main causes of farmers' emotional distress and death in the region, is predicted to exacerbate under the future withdrawal scenarios. Shift to negative net recharge (-63 mm) and early and prolonged drying of wells under the high scenario will reduce the groundwater availability and negatively affect crop production in more than 60% and 90% of cropped areas in the Rabi (November-February) and summer (March-May) seasons, respectively during a drought year. Individual and combined demand (drip irrigation and reduced farm electricity subsidy) and supply (water storage) management options improved groundwater levels and reduced well drying by 55-97 days/year compared to business-as-usual management under the high scenario. The combined management (50% drip conversion, 50% reduction in subsidy, and

  19. The implications of UIC and NPDES regulations on selection of disposal options for spent geothermal brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This document reviews and evaluates the various options for the disposal of geothermal wastewater with respect to the promulgated regulations for the protection of surface and groundwaters. The Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments are especially important when designing disposal systems for geothermal fluids. The former promulgates regulations concerning the discharge of wastewater into surface waters, while the latter is concerned with the protection of ground water aquifers through the establishment of underground injection control (UIC) programs. There is a specific category for geothermal fluid discharge if injection is to be used as a method of disposal. Prior to February 1982, the UIC regulations required geothermal power plant to use Class III wells and direct use plants to use Class V wells. More stringent regulatory requirements, including construction specification and monitoring, are imposed on the Class III wells. On February 3, 1982, the classification of geothermal injection wells was changed from a Class III to Class V on the basis that geothermal wells do not inject for the extraction of minerals or energy, but rather they are used to inject brines, from which heat has been extracted, into formations from which they were originally taken. This reclassification implies that a substantial cost reduction will be realized for geothermal fluid injection primarily because well monitoring is no longer mandatory. The Clean Water Act of 1977 provides the legal basis for regulating the discharge of liquid effluent into the nation's surface waters, through a permitting system called the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge quantities, rates, concentrations and temperatures are regulated by the NPDES permits. These permits systems are based upon effluent guidelines developed by EPA on an industry by industry basis. For geothermal energy industry, effluent guidelines have not been formulated and are

  20. Investigating Policy Implications for the Abolition of Corporal Punishment in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate policy implications for the abolition of corporal punishment in secondary schools in Kenya. Adopting a survey design, using questionnaires, interviews and documentation, a sample of 355 was selected from target population of 3228 teachers, students and parents. The data were analysed thematically.…

  1. Teacher Transfer Policy and the Implications for Equity in Urban School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krei, Melinda Scott

    Policies and practices associated with intra-district teacher transfers in urban school districts were examined, exploring the implications for educational equity of this aspect of teacher mobility. Human capital theory and the theory of internal labor markets and their institutional rules provided the primary theoretical focus of the research.…

  2. Environmental Implications of Dynamic Policies on Food Consumption and Waste Handling in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will review the environmental implications of dynamic policy objectives and instruments outlined in the European Union 7th Framework Programme (EU-FP7 Project DYNAmic policy MIXes for absolute decoupling of EU resource use from economic growth (DYNAMIX to address reductions in food consumption, food waste and a change in waste handling systems. The environmental implications of reductions in protein intake, food waste reductions, food waste management and donations are addressed using a life cycle approach to find the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, land use and water consumption. Data are provided from the Statistics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAOSTAT food balance sheets for the European Union (EU with a base year of 2010 and life cycle inventory (LCI data from a meta-study of available GHG, land use and water consumption data for major food products. The implications are reviewed using a number of scenarios for the years 2030 and 2050 assuming policy instruments are fully effective. Results indicate that reductions in animal-based protein consumption significantly reduce environmental impacts, followed thereafter by reductions in food waste (assuming this also reduces food consumption. Despite the positive implications the policy mixes may have for targets for decoupling, they are not enough to meet GHG emissions targets for the EU outlined in the DYNAMIX project, although land and water use have no significant change compared to 2010 levels.

  3. In Retirement Migration, Who Counts? A Methodological Question with Economic Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, William H., III; Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Serow, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We examine the methodological and economic policy implications of three operationalizations of retirement migration. Design and Methods: We compared the traditional age-based definition of retirement migration and two retirement-based definitions, based on degree of labor-force participation and retirement income, by using the 2000 U.S.…

  4. Africa\\'s oil and gas sector: Implications for U.S. Policy | Cohen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa\\'s oil and gas sector: Implications for U.S. Policy. A Cohen, R Alasa. Abstract. In this thought provoking paper, the author opines that Africa's oil producing nations are more at a geographical advantage to attract capital investments to the region to develop their energy resources than their Middle East counterparts; ...

  5. The Public-Private Divide in Ethiopian Higher Education: Issues and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nega, Mulu

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the current issues on the public-private divide in the Ethiopian higher education landscape and their policy implications. It critically examines issues related to legal and regulatory frameworks in order to understand the public-private divide in the Ethiopian higher education context. The article is based on two premises.…

  6. Recycling of sewage in Swedish municipalities - Policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, H.

    1997-12-31

    The construction of sewage treatment plants, which increased dramatically during the sixties in Sweden, was based on the idea that sewage is a waste, despite the fact that it contains considerable amounts of nourishment. Environmental research today, focuses more and more on recycling and on the potential resource inherent in sewage. This chapter deals with how to manage a change from problem elimination to recycling of resources, and discuss such from an institutional perspective. A shift towards recycling implies a shift of techniques, decision-makers and process strategies. Implementation of recycling will need strategic principles, and thereby results from research focusing common property resource management can be used in the policy process 32 refs, 5 figs

  7. Perspectives on African Challenges: Cross Cutting Issues and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    asylum   seekers .  Increasing  state  capacity   should  go  hand  in  hand  with  training  in  international...is  the  author  of  numerous   books  and  articles  on  the  topic  of  food  policy,  including:   The  Human...London:  Zed   Books ,   2008),  and  No  Refuge:  The  Crisis  of  Refugee

  8. Food inflation in South Africa: some implications for economic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, Logan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends in food price movements in South Africa between 1980 and 2008. There are three main results emanating from the analysis in this paper. Firstly, food price movements have played a large role in generating inflationary episodes in South Africa. Secondly, while external influences do matter, South African food price movements are mainly due to domestic influences. This implies that national policy has an important role to play in taming domestic food price inflation. Thirdly, given the strong second round impacts, food price movements warrant special attention in monetary policymaking. Core measures of inflation that exclude food price movements may not accurately reflect the underlying inflationary pressures in the economy and could compromise the attainment of the goal of price stability.

  9. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.

  10. Early nurse attrition in New Zealand and associated policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, L; Clendon, J

    2018-03-01

    To examine the factors contributing to nurses choosing to exit the nursing profession before retirement age. Population growth, ageing and growing demand for health services mean increased demand for nurses. Better retention could help meet this demand, yet little work has been done in New Zealand to understand early attrition. An online survey of registered and enrolled nurses and nurse practitioners who had left nursing was used. This study reports analysis of responses from 285 ex-nurses aged under 55. The primary reasons nurses left the profession were as follows: workplace concerns; personal challenges; career factors; family reasons; lack of confidence; leaving for overseas; unwillingness to complete educational requirements; poor work-life balance; and inability to find suitable nursing work. Most nurses discussed their intentions to leave with a family member or manager and most reported gaining transferrable skills through nursing. Nurses leave for many reasons. Implementing positive practice environments and individualized approaches to retaining staff may help reduce this attrition. Generational changes in the nature of work and careers mean that nurses may continue to leave the profession sooner than anticipated by policymakers. If the nursing workforce is to be able to meet projected need, education, recruitment and retention policies must urgently address issues leading to early attrition. In particular, policies improving the wider environmental context of nursing practice and ensuring that working environments are safe and nurses are well supported must be developed and implemented. Equally, national nursing workforce planning must take into account that nursing is no longer viewed as a career for life. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Toddler drinks, formulas, and milks: Labeling practices and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Romo Palafox, Maria J; Harris, Jennifer L

    2018-04-01

    Toddler drinks are a growing category of drinks marketed for young children 9-36 months old. Medical experts do not recommend them, and public health experts raise concerns about misleading labeling practices. In the U.S., the toddler drink category includes two types of products: transition formulas, marketed for infants and toddlers 9-24 months; and toddler milks, for children 12-36 months old. The objective of this study was to evaluate toddler drink labeling practices in light of U.S. food labeling policy and international labeling recommendations. In January 2017, we conducted legal research on U.S. food label laws and regulations; collected and evaluated toddler drink packages, including nutrition labels and claims; and compared toddler drink labels with the same brand's infant formula labels. We found that the U.S. has a regulatory structure for food labels and distinct policies for infant formula, but no laws specific to toddler drinks. Toddler drink labels utilized various terms and images to identify products and intended users; made multiple health and nutrition claims; and some stated there was scientific or expert support for the product. Compared to the same manufacturer's infant formula labels, most toddler drink labels utilized similar colors, branding, logos, and graphics. Toddler drink labels may confuse consumers about their nutrition and health benefits and the appropriateness of these products for young children. To support healthy toddler diets and well-informed decision-making by caregivers, the FDA can provide guidance or propose regulations clarifying permissible toddler drink labels and manufacturers should end inappropriate labeling practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The learning potential of photovoltaics: implications for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, Bob van der; Rabl, Ari

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the prospects for cost reductions of flat panel photovoltaic (PV) electricity. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, in terms of cost per peak W and cost per kWh, for single crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon, as well as for thin-film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected based on learning curves. The cumulative production needed to reach 'breakeven' (at which PV is competitive with conventional alternatives) is estimated for a range of values of the learning curve parameter. The cost of this cumulative production is calculated, and the question is posed whether and how the 'cost cap' can be bridged, the latter being the difference between what this cumulative production will cost and what it would cost if it could be produced at a currently competitive level. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. The conclusions are: (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating past learning curves, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and they could provide an important part of the rationale behind major policy efforts to encourage increased use of PV. The costs involved with such policies would be elevated, but a considerable share of these costs could be justified by the fact that conventional power damage costs constitute a significant fraction of the cost gap, although probably not enough to close it

  13. Can education policy be health policy? Implications of research on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, M David; Low, Barbara J; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Huynh, Phuong T

    2005-12-01

    Research on the social determinants of health has demonstrated robust correlations between several social factors, health status, and life expectancy. Some of these factors could be modified through policy intervention. National-level public policies explicitly based on population health research are in various stages of development in many Western countries, but in spite of evident need, seemingly not at all in the United States. Because research shows such a strong association between education and good health, we offer evidence to show that at least two pressing problems in American society, namely the uneven distribution of educational attainment and health disparities linked to socioeconomic position, may be ameliorated through policy initiatives that link quality early childhood care, child development programs, and parental training in a seamless continuum with strengthened K-12 education.

  14. How do international trade obligations affect policy options for obesity prevention? Lessons from recent developments in trade and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tigerstrom, Barbara

    2013-06-01

    Regulatory measures, including taxes and subsidies on food and beverage products, food labelling requirements, regulation of food content and regulation of food marketing, have been proposed to encourage healthier eating and prevent obesity. The objective of this article is to explore the extent to which international trade agreements affect governments' choices to use such regulatory measures. It reviews key provisions of relevant World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and their implications. Some insights can be gained by examining 2 recent developments in the WTO regarding tobacco control: a current dispute involving Australia's plain packaging law and its effect on trademarks, and a recent decision involving the United States law banning flavoured cigarettes. This decision said that the ban did not restrict trade more than necessary to fulfil its legitimate health objective, but it was discriminatory because it banned imported products (clove cigarettes) while exempting domestic products (menthol cigarettes) with similar characteristics. The conclusion we can draw from this decision is that WTO member states probably enjoy a significant degree of latitude in developing food regulations as part of an obesity prevention strategy, so long as those do not disproportionately affect imported products and therefore raise questions of discrimination. The approach taken in this case encourages the adoption of public health policies that are consistent with strong scientific evidence, but may restrict governments' ability to make political compromises, which could frustrate some proposals. The ongoing development of WTO law will continue to affect policy choices in public health. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Geo hazard studies and their policy implications in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    Nicaragua, situated at the Central American Subduction zone and placed in the trajectory of tropical storms and hurricanes, is a frequent showplace of natural disasters which have multiplied the negative effects of a long term socioeconomic crisis leaving Nicaragua currently as the second poorest country of the Americas. In the last years, multiple efforts were undertaken to prevent or mitigate the affectation of the natural phenomena to the country. National and local authorities have become more involved in disaster prevention policy and international cooperation boosted funding for disaster prevention and mitigation measures in the country. The National Geosciences Institution (INETER) in cooperation with foreign partners developed a national monitoring and early warning system on geological and hydro-meteorological phenomena. Geological and risk mapping projects were conducted by INETER and international partners. Universities, NGO´s, International Technical Assistance, and foreign scientific groups cooperated to capacitate Nicaraguan geoscientists and to improve higher education on disaster prevention up to the master degree. Funded by a World Bank loan, coordinated by the National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Attention (SINAPRED) and scientifically supervised by INETER, multidisciplinary hazard and vulnerability studies were carried out between 2003 and 2005 with emphasis on seismic hazard. These GIS based works provided proposals for land use policies on a local level in 30 municipalities and seismic vulnerability and risk information for each single building in Managua, Capital of Nicaragua. Another large multidisciplinary project produced high resolution air photos, elaborated 1:50,000 vectorized topographic maps, and a digital elevation model for Western Nicaragua. These data, integrated in GIS, were used to assess: 1) Seismic Hazard for Metropolitan Managua; 2) Tsunami hazard for the Pacific coast; 3) Volcano hazard for Telica

  16. Identity politics: implications for gender analysis policy and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Y

    1997-01-01

    As attention has shifted from a concern for citizenship, equality, and welfare to ideas of empowerment, equity, and governance, the locus of competition over power has rested with "identity politics," a recognition of cultural diversity that claims the legitimate right to produce alternative definitions and symbols of identity in public space. The change in identity formation from universal/national to fractured/tribalizing has implications for gender relations in contexts where patriarchal power controls production and reproduction. Except for feminism, all discourses in the current competition over identity politics are patriarchal. A look at the forces of change that shifted the process of modernization to a process of globalization reveals that, while modernization tends to standardize, globalization embraces the contradictory forces of universalizing and diversifying trends. Issues of identity and inequality were not problematic until the modern and the traditional subsumed each other and, thus, revealed the inherent contradictions of modernization. The diversifying forces that jeopardize the transnationalization of identity into membership in a "human society" include 1) language differences among the working classes, 2) growing global inequalities, and 3) collective memories of antagonistic histories. An analysis of gender based on identity politics can be conducted on a macro-level to understand the reluctance of central governments to initiate certain interventions, competing needs, new contradictions, changing gender roles, and the importance of promoting a global social contract.

  17. Farmers’ Awareness of Ecosystem Services and the Associated Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Xun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the primary factors influencing farmers’ awareness of ecosystem services. This study, through questionnaires, conducts research on farmers’ awareness of and demand for ecosystem service functions. The research encapsulates 156 households from 21 groups of villagers in the Guangxi Karst Ecological Immigration District in China. The results of the factors influencing farmers’ awareness of ecosystem services, analyzed using a regression model, show that: (1 Farmers are concerned with ecosystem service functions that directly benefit them; however, they do not sufficiently understand the ecosystem’s ecological security maintenance or cultural landscape functions; (2 Farmers’ awareness of ecosystem service functions is not consistent with their corresponding demand, including the ecosystem’s leisure and entertainment, social security, disaster prevention and water purification services; (3 Education level, land area cultivated by the household, proportion of the household’s income from agriculture and immigration status directly affect farmers’ awareness of ecosystem services; (4 Farmers’ personal characteristics, family characteristics and subjective attitudes have different effects on the level of ecological service cognition. Understanding farmers’ awareness of ecosystem services, and the influencing factors can help policymakers and development managers plan local development and policies, and enable harmonious development of the human-earth system in immigration regions of China.

  18. Regarding zygotes as persons: implications for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, L Lewis; Brown, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the notion put forward by certain groups (largely as a consequence of their opposition to elective abortion) that the immediate post-fertilization cellular entity - the zygote - is a person and should be given full moral status. Because the zygote has none of the inherent characteristics necessary to be regarded as a person in the traditional philosophical sense (e.g., John Locke or Immanuel Kant), some advocates of this position attempt to advance their case with arguments based on the genetic potential of the human zygote to develop into a person. We argue that this position represents a flawed use of human genetics and ignores the extraordinarily inefficient and wasteful nature of human reproduction. We then explore the public policy consequences that would follow from granting the zygote full moral status. We conclude that the logical consequences of granting the zygote full moral status would require a revolutionary restructuring of many basic social institutions, especially the health care system. The social, political, and economic changes that would be required if the zygote is enshrined as a person in law constitute a convincing reductio ad absurdum that demonstrates the danger in taking this position seriously.

  19. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Norman G

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US. The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation, a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  20. Public Transport Service Provisions and Policy Implications for Columbarium Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Y. Szeto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grave-sweeping is one of the popular special events in Asian cities, especially in Chinese societies, in which families express filial piety to their ancestors during two traditional grave-sweeping festivals in a year. The extraordinary high travel demand is often attracted to columbaria within a relative short period around the festivals, and induces severe impacts to the local traffic. It is challenging for the government and private operators to formulate a public transport service setting to satisfactorily cater all the visitors' travel demand. This paper aims to propose an optimization framework to identify the optimal provisions of public transport services for columbarium trips to achieve consumer surplus or profit maximization. Numerical studies are carried out using the travel demand data collected from a selected columbarium, to examine the effects of different public transport service settings to the policy objectives in various cases. The model results show that the current situation is neither consumer surplus nor profit optimum. Improvement schemes are suggested in relation to allow various fares during different visit periods and provide multiple public transport feeder services to serve the visitors during the high travel demand period.

  1. Exploring State Policy Regarding Teachers Removing License Endorsements: Short Term and Long Term Policy Implications. Vol. 13 No. 47

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Earley

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores and begins baseline documentation of state policies governing teachers' voluntary removal of endorsement areas from their licenses. Through a survey of state licensure officers we find that most states allow teachers to remove endorsements, though the specifics of how this can be done vary from state to state. The No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act may help motivate teachers to remove endorsements. By defining teacher qualifications and setting expectations that all students will achieve adequate yearly progress on state examinations, these two pieces of legislation place additional pressure on teachers of general population and at-risk students. Thus, federal policy contributes to a dilemma playing out at the state level: Policies enacted to improve classroom instruction may increase pressure on qualified teachers that potentially drives some of them away from special needs classrooms that most require high quality service. As demands on them mount, teachers may look for ways to relieve some stress points. Removing a license endorsement becomes one such tool to avoid teaching in classrooms of students with learning challenges. If significant numbers of teachers remove license endorsements, labor market dislocations may follow. Additional study is needed in the future to further document how states do or do not regulate endorsement removal, the extent to which teachers are aware of and have utilized this option, and how school, district, and state administrators and decision makers respond to license endorsement removal.

  2. Teacher-student relationship climate and school outcomes: implications for educational policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, John P; Donohue, Dana K; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Baker, Andrew M; Weaver, Scott R; Henrich, Christopher C

    2012-03-01

    In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher-student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students' senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.

  3. Clean coal use in China: Challenges and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xu; Snowden, Simon; McLellan, Benjamin C.; Höök, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption in China is currently dominated by coal, a major source of air pollution and carbon emissions. The utilization of clean coal technologies is a likely strategic choice for China at present, however, although there have been many successes in clean coal technologies worldwide, they are not widely used in China. This paper examines the challenges that China faces in the implementation of such clean coal technologies, where the analysis shows that those drivers that have a negative bearing on the utilization of clean coal in China are mainly non-technical factors such as the low legal liability of atmospheric pollution related to coal use, and the lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal use in China. Policies for the development of clean coal technologies are in their early stages in China, and the lack of laws and detailed implementation requirements for clean coal require resolution in order to accelerate China's clean coal developments. Currently, environmental pollution has gained widespread attention from the wider Chinese populace and taking advantage of this opportunity provides a space in which to regain the initiative to raise people’s awareness of clean coal products, and improve enterprises’ enthusiasm for clean coal. - Highlights: • Clean coal is not widely used in China due to many management issues. • Legal liability of pollution related with coal utilization is too low in China. • China is lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal utilization. • It is difficult to accelerate clean coal utilization by incentive subsidies alone.

  4. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the USA - Use of mill tailings impoundments as a new policy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States is facing severe and immediate capacity limitations. Seemingly intractable regulatory and jurisdictional conflicts make establishment of new LLW disposal sites effectively impossible. Uranium mill tailings impoundments constructed at conventional uranium open-cast and underground mines could offer approximately 40 to 80+ million tons of disposal capacity for low activity radioactive waste. Such impoundments would provide an enhanced, high level of environmental and health and safety protection for the direct disposal of depleted uranium, special nuclear material, technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM) and mixed waste. Many waste streams, such as TENORM and decommissioning rubble, will be high-volume, low activity materials and ideally suited for disposal in such structures. Materials in a given decay chain with a total activity from all radionuclides present of ∼820 Bq/g (2.22 x 10 -08 Ci/g) with no single radionuclide present in an activity greater than ∼104 Bq/g (2,800 pCi/g) should be acceptable for disposal. Materials of this type could be accepted without any site-specific dose modelling, so long as the total activity of the tailings impoundment not exceed its design capacity (generally 82 x 10 07 Bq/metric tonne) (0.020 Ci/short ton) and the cover design requirements to limit radon releases are satisfied. This paper provides background on US LLW disposal regulations, examines LLW disposal options under active consideration by the US Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy, develops generic waste acceptance criteria and identifies policy needs for federal and state governments to facilitate use of uranium mill tailings impoundments for LLW disposal. (author)

  5. Population levels of sport participation: implications for sport policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, R M; Harvey, J T; Charity, M J; Payne, W R

    2016-08-09

    Participation in sport can contribute to health-enhancing levels of leisure-time physical activity. There are recent reports that participation in sport in Australia is decreasing. However, these studies are limited to ages 15 years and over. This study integrates sports club membership data from five popular team sports and investigates sport participation across the lifespan (4-100 years) by sex and region (metropolitan/non-metropolitan). Overall participant numbers per annum increased from 414,167 in 2010 to 465,403 in 2012 corresponding to a rise in the proportion of Victorian's participating in these sports from 7.5 % in 2010 to 8.3 % in 2012. The highest proportion of participants was in the 10-14 year age range, with participation rates of 36 % in 2010 and 40 % in 2012. There was a considerably lower participation rate in the 15-19 year age group compared to the 10-14 age group, in all three years studied, and the decline continued progressively with increasing age. Male and female age profiles of participation were generally similar in shape, but the female peak at age 10-14 was sharper than for the males, and conversely there were very few 4 year old female participants. Participation rates were generally higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas; the difference increased with increasing age from 4 to 34 years, then steadily declined, reaching parity at around 60 years of age. It is a positive sign that participation in these popular sports increased by over 50,000 participants from 2010 to 2012. Large proportions of the population aged 5-14 participate in club based sport. Participation rates decline sharply in late adolescence, particularly for females, and while this may not be a concern from a broad health perspective so long as they transition into other forms of physical activity, it is certainly a matter of concern for the sport sector. It is recommended that sport policy places a higher priority on grass-roots participation and

  6. Standards for arsenic in drinking water: Implications for policy in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew T; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Gamboa-Loira, Brenda; Cebrián, Mariano E

    2017-11-01

    Global concern about arsenic in drinking water and its link to numerous diseases make translation of evidence-based research into national policy a priority. Delays in establishing a maximum contaminant level (MCL) to preserve health have increased the burden of disease and caused substantial and avoidable loss of life. The current Mexican MCL for arsenic in drinking water is 25 μg/l (2.5 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation from 1993). Mexico's struggles to set its arsenic MCL offer a compelling example of shortcomings in environmental health policy. We explore factors that might facilitate policy change in Mexico: scientific evidence, risk communication and public access to information, economic and technological resources, and politics. To raise awareness of the health, societal, and economic implications of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Mexico, we suggest action steps for attaining environmental policy change and better protect population health.

  7. Policy implications of trends in Turkey's meat sector with respect to 2023 vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Fahri; Bilgic, Abdulbaki; Terin, Mustafa; Guler, Irfan O

    2013-12-01

    Turkey has become one of the leading emerging economies in the world being second after China as the highest economically growing country with 8.9% economic growth rate in 2010. Forecasting impacts of this development in coming 10 years might have very important policy implications for the meat sector in the framework of 2013 vision of Turkey. In this study, annual time series data which contain several key variables of meat sector in last 26 years (1987-2012) are used to forecast the variables of the coming twelve years (2013-2024) to drive policy implications by considering the impacts of high economic growths, crises and major policy changes. Forecasted future values of the variables for 2023 in the sector are assessed and compared with recent national and international values to drive policy implications. The results show that the economic growth results in the increase in per capita income and thus increased demand for meat seemed to foster the meat sector. Therefore, these macroeconomic indicators need to be better in addition to improvements at micro level for establishing competitive meat sector and thus reaching aimed consumption level of meat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A fraud prevention policy: Its relevance and implication at a university of technology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Rorwana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using research grants administrators and their clients (academic researchers as the lens, this paper investigated the relevance and implication of a fraud prevention policy at a University of Technology (UoT in South Africa. The paper adopted a quantitative approach in which closed-ended questions were complemented by open-ended questions in the survey questionnaire in the attempt to capture the perceptions of both research grants administrators and their clients on the relevance and implications of a fraud and irregularity prevention policy. The results indicate that both research grants administrators (71.4 %, and their clients (73% do not know if UoTx has a fraud and irregularity policy. While only 36% of research grants administrators indicated that they would feel safe reporting deceitful activities, a slight majority (59% of the clients reported same. With regards to the steps to follow to report fraudulent activity, it was noted that while all (100% the research grants administrators noted that they were clueless, ironically an overwhelming majority of their clients indicated otherwise. Notwithstanding, both research grants administrators and their clients (93% and 95% respectively concurred that a fraud prevention policy was necessary for UoTx. The implication is that having phenomenal controls that are not effectively publicized, monitored or worse still overridden by someone are useless.

  9. Earning and caring: demographic change and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaujot, Roderic

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishSeeking to define families as groups of people who share earning and caringactivities, we contrast theoretical orientations that see advantages to a division of labour orcomplementary roles, in comparison to orientations that see less risk and greater companionship in acollaborative model based on sharing paid and unpaid work, or co-providing and co-parenting. It isimportant to look both inside and outside of families, or at the changing gendered links betweenearning and caring, to understand change both in families and in the work world. It is proposed thatequal opportunity by gender has advanced further in the public sphere associated with education andwork, than in the private family sphere associated with everyday life. Time-use data [from Canada]indicate that, on average, men carry their weight in terms of total productive time (paid plus unpaidwork, but that women make much more of the accommodations between family and work. Fertility islikely to be lowest in societies that offer women equal opportunity in the public sphere but wherefamilies remain traditional in terms of the division of work. Policies are discussed that would reducethe dependency between spouses, and encourage a greater common ground between men and women in earningand caring.FrenchEn cherchant à définir la famille comme étant un groupe de personnes partageant les activités relatives au fait de gagner de l'argent et de prendre soin des autres, nous nous distinguons des théories préconisant la division du travail ou les rôles complémentaires comparativement au modèle collaboratif qui a l'avantage de présenter moins de risque et plus de compagnonnage et qui est fondé sur le partage du travail rémunéré et non rémunéré, le travail à l'extérieur de la maison et le parentage. Il est important de voir ce qui se passe à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur de la famille ou de considérer les liens changeant d'après le sexe entre le rôle de pourvoyeur et

  10. Introducing short term flexibility in the EU ETS to assure its long-term credibility: a multi-criteria analysis of policy options. Climate Report no. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Zuheir; Alberola, Emilie; Berghmans, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    It is now well established that the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) needs to be reformed. After more than 18 months of discussions, the EU Commission disclosed, in its communication published in January 2014 on 'A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 to 2030', its legislative proposal of a market stability reserve (MSR) in the EU ETS. This measure, that should be implemented from the next compliance period (2021-2028) onwards, would reduce the surplus of allowances growing since 2008 and improve the ETS's resilience to external shocks by automatically adjusting the supply of allowances to be auctioned. The operation of this MSR would be determined by predefined rules that, once agreed on, leave no discretion to either the Commission or Member States. The choice of the EU Commission to introduce a reserve in the EU ETS is very innovative even if other emissions trading schemes have already introduced a reserve in their design. Initial discussions began in March and April 2014 in the European Parliament and Council and the question of whether the MSR really improves the functioning of the EU ETS in the long term is still being debated. What other structural mechanism would be better suited in improving the long-term effectiveness of the EU ETS? To help in the decision making process, this report presents a multi-criteria analysis. Without prejudging their political support, five policy options have been evaluated that would introduce some flexibility in the EU ETS and potentially ensure its long-term credibility: an auction reserve price, permit supply rules that target a certain corridor of surplus (market stability reserve), permit supply rules that target economic activity, permit supply rules that target overlap with other energy policies and a rolling emissions cap. The assessment of these five policy options was based on a criteria tree and on the EU ETS experts' panel's votes that expressed

  11. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Moyle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians and the Australian Curriculum; and the implementation of professional standards as outlined in the Australian Professional Standard for Principals and the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. These policies create expectations of school leaders to bring about change in classrooms and across their schools, often described as bringing about ‘quality teaching’ and ‘school improvement’. These policies indicate that Australian children should develop ‘democratic values’, and that school principals should exercise ‘democratic values’ in their schools. The national approaches to the implementation of these policies however, is largely silent on promoting learning that fosters democracy through education, or about making connections between teaching and learning with technologies, school leadership and living in a democracy. Yet the policies promote these connections and alignments. Furthermore, understanding democratic values, knowing what is a democracy, and being able to use technologies in democratic ways, has to be learned and practiced. Through the lens of the use of technologies to build digital citizenship and to achieve democratic processes and outcomes in schools, these policy complexities are examined in order to consider some of the implications for school leadership.

  12. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union–level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). Design: We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. Results: The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. Conclusions: The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy. PMID:27680991

  13. Nicotine self-administration research: the legacy of Steven R. Goldberg and implications for regulation, health policy, and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T.; Kleykamp, Bethea A.; Fant, Reginald V.; Donny, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Background and rationale Steven R. Goldberg was a pioneering behavioral pharmacologist whose intravenous drug self-administration studies advanced the understanding of conditioned stimuli and schedules of reinforcement as determinants of pattern and persistence of drug-seeking behavior, and in particular, the importance of nicotine in tobacco use. His passing in 2014 led to invitations to contribute articles to psychopharmacology dedicated to his work. Objectives The objectives of this review are to summarize and put into historical perspective Goldberg’s contributions to elucidate the reinforcing effects of nicotine and to summarize the implications of his research for medication development, tobacco regulation, and potential tobacco control policy options. This includes a review of intravenous nicotine self-administration research from the 1960s to 2016. Results Goldberg’s application of behavioral pharmacology methods to investigate nicotine reinforcement and the influence of schedule of reinforcement and conditioned stimuli on nicotine administration contributed to the conclusions of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the Surgeon General, that nicotine met the criteria as a dependence-producing drug and cigarette smoking as a prototypic drug dependency or “addiction.” Equally important, this work has been systematically extended to other species and applied to address a range of factors relevant to tobacco use, medication development, regulation, and public health policy. Conclusions Steven R. Goldberg was a pioneering scientist whose systematic application of the science of behavioral pharmacology advanced the understanding of tobacco and nicotine use and contributed to the scientific foundation for tobacco product regulation and potential public health tobacco control policy development. PMID:27766371

  14. Can biofuels be a solution to climate change? The implications of land use change-related emissions for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Madhu; Crago, Christine L.; Black, Mairi

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels have gained increasing attention as an alternative to fossil fuels for several reasons, one of which is their potential to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. Recent studies have questioned the validity of claims about the potential of biofuels to reduce GHG emissions relative to the liquid fossil fuels they are replacing when emissions owing to direct (DLUC) and indirect land use changes (ILUC) that accompany biofuels are included in the life cycle GHG intensity of biofuels. Studies estimate that the GHG emissions released from ILUC could more than offset the direct GHG savings by producing biofuels and replacing liquid fossil fuels and create a ‘carbon debt’ with a long payback period. The estimates of this payback period, however, vary widely across biofuels from different feedstocks and even for a single biofuel across different modelling assumptions. In the case of corn ethanol, this payback period is found to range from 15 to 200 years. We discuss the challenges in estimating the ILUC effect of a biofuel and differences across biofuels, and its sensitivity to the assumptions and policy scenarios considered by different economic models. We also discuss the implications of ILUC for designing policies that promote biofuels and seek to reduce GHG emissions. In a first-best setting, a global carbon tax is needed to set both DLUC and ILUC emissions to their optimal levels. However, it is unclear whether unilateral GHG mitigation policies, even if they penalize the ILUC-related emissions, would increase social welfare and lead to optimal emission levels. In the absence of a global carbon tax, incentivizing sustainable land use practices through certification standards, government regulations and market-based pressures may be a viable option for reducing ILUC. PMID:22482030

  15. Can biofuels be a solution to climate change? The implications of land use change-related emissions for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Madhu; Crago, Christine L; Black, Mairi

    2011-04-06

    Biofuels have gained increasing attention as an alternative to fossil fuels for several reasons, one of which is their potential to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. Recent studies have questioned the validity of claims about the potential of biofuels to reduce GHG emissions relative to the liquid fossil fuels they are replacing when emissions owing to direct (DLUC) and indirect land use changes (ILUC) that accompany biofuels are included in the life cycle GHG intensity of biofuels. Studies estimate that the GHG emissions released from ILUC could more than offset the direct GHG savings by producing biofuels and replacing liquid fossil fuels and create a 'carbon debt' with a long payback period. The estimates of this payback period, however, vary widely across biofuels from different feedstocks and even for a single biofuel across different modelling assumptions. In the case of corn ethanol, this payback period is found to range from 15 to 200 years. We discuss the challenges in estimating the ILUC effect of a biofuel and differences across biofuels, and its sensitivity to the assumptions and policy scenarios considered by different economic models. We also discuss the implications of ILUC for designing policies that promote biofuels and seek to reduce GHG emissions. In a first-best setting, a global carbon tax is needed to set both DLUC and ILUC emissions to their optimal levels. However, it is unclear whether unilateral GHG mitigation policies, even if they penalize the ILUC-related emissions, would increase social welfare and lead to optimal emission levels. In the absence of a global carbon tax, incentivizing sustainable land use practices through certification standards, government regulations and market-based pressures may be a viable option for reducing ILUC.

  16. Legalization of marijuana for non-medical use: health, policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Anne

    2014-09-01

    The legalization of marijuana is a controversial issue with implications for health care providers, policy makers, and society at large. The use of marijuana for medical reasons is accepted in many states. However, legal sale of the drug for non-medical use began for the first time on January 1, 2014, in Colorado, following a relaxation of marijuana restrictions that is unprecedented worldwide. News reports have indicated that sales of the drug have been brisk. Marijuana-infused food products have been unexpectedly popular, exceeding sales projections. Marijuana use is associated with numerous physical and mental disorders and could result in addiction. Evidence suggests its potency has increased since the 1980s. Colorado has established regulations regarding the sale of marijuana for non-medical use, but concerns still exist. The current article offers a discussion of the health, public policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications of the legalization of marijuana for non-medical use.

  17. The transport implications of regional policies for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report aims to evaluate transport parameters and logistics associated with the disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL. The assumed power scenario is DoE Scheme 3, which approximates to a moderate power generation scenario, with a 15 GWe PWR programme commissioned between 1991 and 2010, existing Magnox and AGR stations are assumed to have a 30 year lifespan. Three transport options are again assumed, namely; road, rail and a hybrid system, as is consistent with previous studies. These three options will be used in investigating regional policies of disposal, initially at the national level and then progressively disaggregating to a system of three regional depositories serving their respective catchment areas. (author)

  18. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  19. Massachusetts Et Al. v Environmental Protection Agency: Implications For Public Health Policy And Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Perry W.; Rosenbaum, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This installment of Law and the Public's Health reviews the U.S. Supreme Court's April 2, 2007, decision in Massachusetts et al. v Environmental Protection Agency1 and considers its implications for public health policy and practice. This landmark decision focused on a central concern in administrative law; namely, when an agency vested with the authority to regulate in the public's health has the power to refuse to carry out a legislative directive. The subject of the case was regulation of ...

  20. Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    156 Prepared by Dick K. Nanto, Specialist in Industry and Trade, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division . 157 International Labour Office...security. The economy has always been there both to provide the funds and materiel for defense and to provide economic security for most households ...Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division . Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy Congressional Research

  1. CO2 embodied in international trade with implications for global climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2008-03-01

    The flow of pollution through international trade flows has the ability to undermine environmental policies, particularly for global pollutants. In this article we determine the CO2 emissions embodied in international trade among 87 countries for the year 2001. We find that globally there are over 5.3 Gt of CO2 embodied in trade and that Annex B countries are net importers of CO2 emissions. Depending on country characteristics--such as size variables and geographic location--there are considerable variations in the embodied emissions. We argue that emissions embodied in trade may have a significant impact on participation in and effectiveness of global climate policies such as the Kyoto Protocol. We discuss several policy options to reduce the impact of trade in global climate policy. If countries take binding commitments as a part of a coalition, instead of as individual countries, then the impacts of trade can be substantially reduced. Adjusting emission inventories for trade gives a more consistent description of a country's environmental pressures and circumvents many trade related issues. It also gives opportunities to exploit trade as a means of mitigating emissions. Not least, a better understanding of the role that trade plays in a country's economic and environmental development will help design more effective and participatory climate policy post-Kyoto.

  2. Paying for Cures: How Can We Afford It? Managed Care Pharmacy Stakeholder Perceptions of Policy Options to Address Affordability of Prescription Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Kai; Suh, Kangho; Basu, Anirban; Garrison, Louis P; Bansal, Aasthaa; Carlson, Josh J

    2017-10-01

    High-priced medications with curative potential, such as the newer hepatitis C therapies, have contributed to the recent growth in pharmaceutical expenditure. Despite the obvious benefits, health care decision makers are just beginning to grapple with questions of how to value and pay for curative therapies that may feature large upfront cost, followed by health benefits that are reaped over a patient's lifespan. Alternative policy options have been proposed to promote high value and financially sustainable use of these therapies. It is unclear which policy options would be most acceptable to health care payer and biomedical manufacturer stakeholders. To (a) briefly review pharmaceutical policy options to address health system affordability and (b) assess the acceptability of alternative policy options to health care payers and biomedical manufacturers before and after an Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) continuing pharmacy education (CPE) session. We searched MEDLINE and Cochran databases for pharmaceutical policy options addressing affordability. With input from a focus group of managed care professionals, we developed CPE session content and an 8-question survey focusing on the most promising policy options. We fielded the survey before and after the CPE session, which occurred as part of the 2016 AMCP Annual Meeting. We first conducted a chi-squared goodness-of-fit test to assess response distributions. Next, we tested how responses differed before and after by using an ordered logit and a multinomial logit to model Likert scale and unordered responses, respectively. Although risk-sharing payments over time remained the most favorable choice before (37%) and after (35%) the CPE session, this choice was closely followed by HealthCoin after the session, which increased in favorability from 4% to 33% of responses (P = 0.001). About half of the respondents (54%) indicated that legislative change is the most significant barrier to the implementation of any

  3. Implications of DSM-5 for Health Care Organizations and Mental Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Richard J; Guo, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has made major changes in the way mental illness is conceptualized, assessed, and diagnosed in its new diagnostic manual, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published in 2013, and has far reaching implications for health care organizations and mental health policy. This paper reviews the four new principles in DSM-5: 1) A spectrum (also called "dimensional") approach to the definition of mental illness; 2) recognition of the role played by environmental risk factors related to stress and trauma in predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating mental illness; 3) cultural relativism in diagnosis and treatment of mental illness; and 4) recognizing the adverse effects of psychiatric medications on patients. Each of these four principles will be addressed in detail. In addition, four major implications for health care organizations and mental health policy are identified as: 1) prevention; 2) client-centered psychiatry; 3) mental health workers retraining; and 4) medical insurance reform. We conclude that DSM- 5's new approach to diagnosis and treatment of mental illness will have profound implications for health care organizations and mental health policy, indicating a greater emphasis on prevention and cure rather than long-term management of symptoms.

  4. The Role Of Modeling Assumptions And Policy Instruments in Evaluating The Global Implications Of U.S. Biofuel Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of current U.S. biofuel law the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is to reduce dependence on imported oil, but the law also requires biofuels to meet carbon emission reduction thresholds relative to petroleum fuels. EISA created a renewable fuel standard with annual targets for U.S. biofuel use that climb gradually from 9 billion gallons per year in 2008 to 36 billion gallons (or about 136 billion liters) of biofuels per year by 2022. The most controversial aspects of the biofuel policy have centered on the global social and environmental implications of its potential land use effects. In particular, there is an ongoing debate about whether indirect land use change (ILUC) make biofuels a net source, rather sink, of carbon emissions. However, estimates of ILUC induced by biofuel production and use can only be inferred through modeling. This paper evaluates how model structure, underlying assumptions, and the representation of policy instruments influence the results of U.S. biofuel policy simulations. The analysis shows that differences in these factors can lead to divergent model estimates of land use and economic effects. Estimates of the net conversion of forests and grasslands induced by U.S. biofuel policy range from 0.09 ha/1000 gallons described in this paper to 0.73 ha/1000 gallons from early studies in the ILUC change debate. We note that several important factors governing LUC change remain to be examined. Challenges that must be addressed to improve global land use change modeling are highlighted.

  5. World energy markets and uncertainty to the year 2100: implications for greenhouse policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorpe, S.; Sterland, B.; Jones, B.P.; Wallace, N.A.; Pugsley, S.-A.

    1991-01-01

    This study analyses the implications for long run world and regional economic growth and energy markets of possible international action to counter the enhanced greenhouse effect and examines the design of effective policy responses acceptable to all nations. The implications for energy trade of greenhouse policy responses will be of considerable importance to Australia, a major energy exporter. The main issue examined is the effect of responses to climate change directed at the energy sector on energy markets and economic growth. Regional and global economic growth and energy demands under various policy responses were simulated using a long run partial equilibrium model of world energy markets and fossil fuel pollution. It is concluded that the consequences of the enhanced greenhouse effect are surrounded by uncertainty, which creates problems in the design of a policy regime. The effectiveness of a carbon tax increases with greater international cooperation. The effect of carbon taxes is to encourage switching from fossil fuels to renewable and nuclear technologies rather than to reduce energy consumption or economic growth. New technology to improve the efficiency of power generation from coal, could by reducing costs and promoting fuel switching to coal, actually increase CO{sub 2} emissions. 40 refs., 10 figs., 30 tabs

  6. Do a law's policy implications affect beliefs about its constitutionality? An experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furgeson, Joshua R; Babcock, Linda; Shane, Peter M

    2008-06-01

    Although a substantial empirical literature has found associations between judges' political orientation and their judicial decisions, the nature of the relationship between policy preferences and constitutional reasoning remains unclear. In this experimental study, law students were asked to determine the constitutionality of a hypothetical law, where the policy implications of the law were manipulated while holding all legal evidence constant. The data indicate that, even with an incentive to select the ruling best supported by the legal evidence, liberal participants were more likely to overturn laws that decreased taxes than laws that increased taxes. The opposite pattern held for conservatives. The experimental manipulation significantly affected even those participants who believed their policy preferences had no influence on their constitutional decisions.

  7. Social ecology and behavioral medicine: implications for training, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokols, D

    2000-01-01

    Social ecology offers a conceptual framework for understanding the etiology of multiple health problems and a basis for designing broad-gauge educational, therapeutic, and policy interventions to enhance personal and community well-being. Implications of social ecology for behavioral medicine are considered in relation to the development of diagnostic and therapeutic practices, professional training programs, and health policies implemented at municipal, state, and national levels. By influencing the training and practices of healthcare professionals and the decisions of corporate and community leaders, behavioral medicine can expand the scope and impact of future interventions beyond the health gains achievable through provision of direct services to patient populations. Potential barriers to establishing ecologically based health programs and policies and directions for research at the interface of behavioral medicine, social ecology, and public health are discussed.

  8. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  9. Instruments and options for environmental policy during the accession process of EU associated countries in the area of environment and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, M.; Matthes, F.C.; Baer, S.; Oberthuer, S.; Krug, M.; Mez, L.; Tempel, S.

    2001-07-01

    With regard to the leading role of the EU in climate protection policies, it is important to consider the impact of the accession process on EU climate policy. This study includes the analysis of the most important issues related to environment and energy within the accession process, namely: 1) status quo and development of the energy sector and structural CO{sub 2} mitigation options; 2) legal gap assessment and analysis of performance in the accession process; 3) identification of implementation patterns through detailed policy analysis; 4) evaluation of co-operation projects in the field of environment and energy in order to develop new projects that promote the accession process. This volume includes comparative analysis of the five Accession Countries. The detailed analysis of each country is documented in five country reports, each in a separate volume available only on the attached CD. (orig.)

  10. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pocock, Nicola S; Phua, Kai Hong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, draw...

  11. Improving services for glaucoma care in Nigeria: implications for policy and programmes to achieve universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Gilbert, Clare; Blanchet, Karl; Wormald, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Glaucoma in Africa is sometimes referred to as the silent thief of sight. In Nigeria, glaucoma is common, it is serious, ophthalmologists face many constraints in managing it, people do not even know they have it until it is advanced, patients do not understand or comply with treatment after they are diagnosed and the poor are more likely to be glaucoma blind. Available evidence indicates that the health system in Nigeria is failing to meet the needs of patients with glaucoma. Based on evidence, we propose future directions for improving services for glaucoma care in Nigeria, and the implications for policy and programmes to control glaucoma blindness, using a health system-oriented approach. Three complementary strategies are required: (i) strengthening clinical services for glaucoma-by developing models of glaucoma care, improving clinical treatment options, making medicines and equipment available, financing glaucoma care and training eye care workers; (ii) introducing initiatives for earlier detection of glaucoma in the clinic and approaches in the community and (iii) strengthening health system governance. Glaucoma is a complex disease to manage and addressing it as a public health problem is challenging. However, we need to change the paradigm to recognise that glaucoma is a potentially avoidable cause of blindness in Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Determinants and valuation implications of compulsory stock option disclosures in a weak regulatory setting the case of France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Lisa; Joos, Philip; Soonawalla, Kazbi

    Using a sample of listed French firms in 2005, the year of mandatory IFRS adoption in the European Union (EU), we investigate the determinants of disclosure compliance of stock option expenses under IFRS 2, Share-based Payment. Stock options are a popular means of executive compensation in France

  13. Understanding farmers' strategic decision-making processes and the implications for biodiversity conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmar-Bowers, Quentin; Lane, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The conservation of biodiversity is an important issue world wide and in Australia the maintenance of native biodiversity on farms makes an important contribution to overall conservation objectives. This paper seeks to explain Australian farmers' rationale for maintaining biodiversity on their farms for personal as opposed to business reasons by developing a decision-systems theory from in-depth interviews. This difference has implications for policy development. The decision-systems theory is divided into two main sections. The first section contains five parts. (1) A hierarchy of motivation stories, (2) the concept of suitability and availability of opportunities, (3) a hierarchy of three decision-systems, (4) the concept of personal career paths, (5) the concept of Lenses. The second section contains one part, a policy classification system called 'boxes of influence' that suggests how policy developers can use the information in the first section to develop new biodiversity conservation policy. The paper suggests that decision-systems theory could be used to shed new light on current trends in agriculture and become an important investigative tool for policy development concerning the conservation of biodiversity on farms.

  14. A critical examination of the U.S. nursing shortage: contributing factors, public policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Rebekah L; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite short-lived periods of adequacy in nurse availability, the nursing shortage has endured. In order to better understand the myriad factors that influence the current shortage of nurses, as well as possible solutions, this project addresses the influence of social factors and government policy on nurse staffing inadequacy. When the government intervenes in a philosophically free-market economy, the assumption is that a problem, such as the current nursing shortage, could not be solved without such intervention. PURPOSE. Nursing care arguably falls into the realm of protecting the common good, and therefore requires government oversight. We provide a critical analysis of policy intervention efforts into the nursing shortage debate by examining the passage of legislation, the provision of educational assistance, and the establishment of minimum staffing requirements and minimum quality standards for reimbursement, which all impact nursing supply and demand. RESULTS. Arguments supporting and opposing policy intervention in general, and its impact on the overall provision of nursing care in the United States, were examined. Without policy incentive to place financial value on the quality of care provided by nurses, a simple increase in the number of available nurses is unlikely to solve the current problem. IMPLICATIONS. Important considerations that should be factored into policy creation include measurement and compensation for quality care, the nature of recruitment efforts of new nurses, and the complex nature of a nursing work.

  15. System-wide and Superemitter Policy Options for the Abatement of Methane Emissions from the U.S. Natural Gas System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, E. N.; Robinson, A. L.; Cohon, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    This work assesses trade-offs between system-wide and superemitter policy options for reducing methane emissions from compressor stations in the U.S. transmission and storage system. Leveraging recently collected national emissions and activity data sets, we developed a new process-based emissions model implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to estimate emissions for each component and facility in the system. We find that approximately 83% of emissions, given the existing suite of technologies, have the potential to be abated, with only a few emission categories comprising a majority of emissions. We then formulate optimization models to determine optimal abatement strategies. Most emissions across the system (approximately 80%) are efficient to abate, resulting in net benefits ranging from 160M to 1.2B annually across the system. The private cost burden is minimal under standard and tax instruments, and if firms market the abated natural gas, private net benefits may be generated. Superemitter policies, namely, those that target the highest emitting facilities, may reduce the private cost burden and achieve high emission reductions, especially if emissions across facilities are highly skewed. However, detection across all facilities is necessary regardless of the policy option and there are nontrivial net benefits resulting from abatement of relatively low-emitting sources.

  16. An Investigation of Creative Climate of University R&D Centers and Policy Implications for Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Rasmussen, Palle; Chemi, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the influences of science and technology (S&T) policies on creative climate of university R&D centers in China that provide policy implications for improving roles of university R&D in innovation system. The empirical data came from two questionnaire surveys, one...

  17. Quantifying the spatial implications of future land use policies in South Africa: Reshaping a city through land use modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Alize

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Land use policies have a definite and lasting impact on the way that cities grow, however, the change in land use only gets observed many years later. As such, it is difficult for policy and decision makers to observe and quantify the implications...

  18. Rethinking India’s Nuclear Policy:Credible Minimum Nuclear Deterrence as a Dynamic Transformation of Nuclear Option Open

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    After its 1998 nuclear test, India’s nuclear doctrine was described as ‘credible minimum nuclear deterrence’. India’s nuclear doctrine and policy are often characterized, in the academic discourse, as if the country pursues an assertive military doctrine and policy. Has the Indian National Congress (INC)-led government that has been in place since 2004 altered the nuclear policy formulated by the former Bharatiya Jhanata Party (BJP)-led government? Although the BJP-led government led India to...

  19. IMPLICATIONS OF THE EU MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE IN THE FIELD OF COMPETITION POLICY – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF COHESION AND COMPETITION POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the intrinsic characteristics of the European Union and to show that these characteristics objectively require the implementation of multi-level governance. A comparative analysis of the European Union’s cohesion and competition policy is presented from the point of view of these elements. Further on, given the implications of the economic crisis, the paper explores the possible translation from multi-level governance to polycentric governance and its implications for the cohesion and competition policies.

  20. Rural Households’ Adaptation to Climate Change and its Implications for Policy Designs in Lijiang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuan

    . The thesis, carried out in three mountain villages in southwest China, seeks to advance the understanding of local adaptation process and its implications for vulnerability and policy designs. In particular, the research contributes to quantitative assessment of current and forward-looking adaptation...... quantitative approaches to model adaptation behaviour. The thesis consists of four papers. Paper 1 looks at households’ livelihood dynamics during the past three decades, its drivers and implications for vulnerability. Paper 2 investigates households’ motivations to adapt ex-ante to drought in relation...... changes in social-ecological systems. The PhD research demonstrates 1) the interwoven impacts of co-evolving socio-economic, political and environmental changes in shaping livelihood changes and households’ vulnerability; 2) the usefulness to accommodate key cognitive processes, such as risk perception...

  1. International labour migration in the Asian-Pacific region: patterns, policies and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, P

    1993-11-01

    "This paper reviews the literature on international labour migration from and within the Asian-Pacific region. It deals with patterns and characteristics of migration flows, government policies towards labour migration, and economic implications of labour migration for both labour-exporting and importing countries in the region. The indications are that, despite gradual slowing down of labour flows to the western industrial countries and the Middle East, labour migration will continue to be a major economic influence on surplus-labour countries in the region. As an integral part of the growth dynamism in the region, labour migration has now begun to take on a regional dimension, with immense implications for the process of industrial restructuring in high growth economies and the changing pattern of economic interdependence among countries." excerpt

  2. The Cost of Compliance: A CGE Assessment of Canada's Policy Options under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph (Univ. of Oldenburg, Dept. of Economics, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)); Rutherford, Thomas F. (ETH Zuerich, Center for Energy Policy and Economy, CH-8032 Zuerich (Switzerland))

    2008-07-01

    Canada is committed under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 and 2012 to a level six percent below the 1990 reference value. To date, however, Canada's greenhouse gas emissions remain far above 1990 levels. Stringent short-term policy measures are needed if Canada is to meet this legally binding commitment. This paper uses a multi-region, multi-commodity static general equilibrium model to quantify the economic impacts of alternative compliance strategies for Canada in the context of climate policies undertaken by other Kyoto Parties. The numerical results confirm fears among Canadian policy makers of larger economic adjustment cost should Canada fulfill its Kyoto commitment solely through domestic action. Comprehensive use of flexible mechanisms - in particular the Clean Development Mechanism - could allow Canada to live up with its international climate policy commitment at a substantially lower economic cost

  3. Testing the Nonlinearity of the Phillips Curve. Implications for Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana BALABAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the nonlinearity of the Phillips Curve and its implications for monetary policy. To investigate the trade-off between output gap and inflation volatility we used a backward-looking model type. The data for our empirical analysis is obtained from the Area Wide Model (AWM Database (from 1970 to 2008 for Euro area and National Institute of Statistics (from 2000 to 2009 for Romania and has quarterly frequency. The results of econometric tests indicate a significant estimated coefficient of the output gap for Romania, compared with the Eurozone; we find no significant evidence of nonlinearity of the Phillips curve in the European Monetary Union. This suggests that the optimal choice for European Central Bank should be a fixed inflation targeting, while the National Bank of Romania's monetary policy strategy should aim a flexible inflation targeting.

  4. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ''market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate

  5. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  6. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  7. Psychotherapy research in historical perspective. Implications for mental health care policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R L; Orlinsky, D E

    1996-08-01

    This article is a sketch of the historical development of the field of behavioral and non-behavioral therapy research. Four phases are characterized: (1) establishing scientific research (1927-1954), (2) searching for scientific rigor (1955-1969), (3) expansion and organization (1970-1983), and (4) consolidation and reformulation (1984-present). Continuities between and key developments within successive phases are outlined, with emphasis given to methodological innovations. The corroboration of select findings about process and outcome and the development of several critical discourses within the third and fourth phases have implications for the provision of mental health care and for policy discussions.

  8. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  9. Gender, international migration and social reproduction: implications for theory, policy, research and networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong T-d

    1996-01-01

    "This paper aims to contribute to the development of an analytical framework that provides the space for the understanding of female migrants as reproductive workers in a cross-national transfer of labor. It will first provide some hypothetical guidelines for the explanation of female migration in the context of reproductive labor. Based on accessible data, a discussion on the case of Japan will be presented to highlight the main issues and problems concerning female migrants as reproductive workers. Finally, implications on policy-making and networking at the international and national level will be analyzed and discussed, taking into account the specific ideological, political and socioeconomic constraints." excerpt

  10. Predicting turnover and retention in nursing home administrators: management and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D A; Schwab, R C

    2000-06-01

    Administrator turnover and its impact on the quality of patient care are important concerns in the nursing home industry. This study evaluates a model to determine which factors, attitudes, and personal characteristics can predict tenure. Responses to a survey from 290 nursing home administrators (NHAs) who furnished data on their previous positions were analyzed using logistic regression methods. The extracted model correlates tenure with the administrator's past patterns of stability, community attachment, organizational commitment, and facility performance. The model is particularly effective (85% accuracy) in flagging NHAs who are likely to depart within their first 3 years of employment. Implications of these findings for recruitment, retention, and licensure policy are discussed.

  11. Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF TRADE LAWS: IMPLICATIONS IN THE PRICE CONTROL POLICY OF COMMUNITY NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkus Engkus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [Implementation Of Trade Laws: Implications In The Price Control Policy Of Community Needs] Issuing the act no 7 year 2014 about tade, Indonesia has new hope to design the obscene of social basic requirements were going on all this time. The main problem in the research that “increasing and decreasing pricefluctuatively” has became repeatedly in Ramadhan. It has been caused by some factors: Unbalancing Supply and demand not done optimally yet. The aim of the research to collect data, facta and problems analyses them and directly or indirectlywe want to know and increase for academic nuance as theorital, also who want to know about them deeply. The research is qualitative research, using the technical of theresearch are observation, interview, documental history and documental audio visual. The results of research, before, at the moment, after Ramadhan, the price of social basic requirements still increasely and fluctuatively. Government intervention, by short term policy not touched social basic requirements continously yet. So piling them were not clearness of official. Raring supply, increasing demand, It has been caused by social increasing consumption, Finally high increasing price. Conclusion: The price control social basic requirements policy, complately by redesign comprehensive, transparancy, participative and continuosly policy, from central government to local government towards nation autonomy in food. Keywords: Increasing Price, clearness of official, Control.

  13. Implications of the Private Property Right to the Community Forest Businesses Formalization through the Certification Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramasto Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the implication of formalization of community forest business efforts through mandatory timber legality certification policy. Field survey was conducted in March–April 2012 in 3 districts in Central of Java namely Blora, Wonogiri, and Wonosobo District. The results showed that community forest is mainly planting in their private owned land. It brings 2 consequences. Firstly, their willingness to manage their forest sustainably was emerged without any enforcement from external parties. Secondly, there were autonomous in decision making in their way to manage their forest such as they only planted tree species that easy to sell and valuable, they only cut their trees when they need huge money for children schooling, marriage, illness, and housing. The autonomous decision making gives also the owners (farmers other alternatives to utilize their land otherwise planting the trees. It is mean, if the policy is decreasing the potential benefits from growing the trees, they can also convert their community forest into other business in which profitable and easy to sell their products. From those facts, it seems the formalization of community forest business through mandatory certification is not a proper policy to enhance the community forest.Keywords: community forest, formalization, policy, private property, timber legality DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.3.178

  14. The economics of environmental policy in Poland: implications for countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, M.L.; Bochniarz, Z.; Bolan, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to generate insights into the problems and opportunities faced by countries in transition in implementing environmental policy based on the recent experience of Poland. There is much to be learned from the experience of the country that arguably took the riskiest and boldest path of environmental and economic institutional change. The experience of Poland can be enlightening in terms of the problems and opportunities in establishing an institutional framework that can validate the long term legitimacy of sustainable development as a national goal. From the unique set of circumstances facing Poland, lessons can be derived for other countries in transition. The paper begins by introducing the basic welfare economics of institutional choice. The theoretical arguments are presented in terms general to institutional design and specific to environmental policy. Subsequently, the recent experience of Poland in terms of the problems faced and key environmental policy innovations are documented. The concluding section presents policy implications that can be drawn from the Polish experience and speculates about their applicability to other countries in transition. 28 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Long-term climate policy implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Piontek, Franziska; Bertram, Christoph; Luderer, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    It is often argued that fossil fuel subsidies hamper the transition towards a sustainable energy supply as they incentivize wasteful consumption. We assess implications of a subsidy phase-out for the mitigation of climate change and the low-carbon transformation of the energy system, using the global energy–economy model REMIND. We compare our results with those obtained by the International Energy Agency (based on the World Energy Model) and by the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD-Model ENV-Linkages), providing the long-term perspective of an intertemporal optimization model. The results are analyzed in the two dimensions of subsidy phase-out and climate policy scenarios. We confirm short-term benefits of phasing-out fossil fuel subsidies as found in prior studies. However, these benefits are only sustained to a small extent in the long term, if dedicated climate policies are weak or nonexistent. Most remarkably we find that a removal of fossil fuel subsidies, if not complemented by other policies, can slow down a global transition towards a renewable based energy system. The reason is that world market prices for fossil fuels may drop due to a removal of subsidies. Thus, low carbon alternatives would encounter comparative disadvantages. - Highlights: • We assess implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies on the mitigation of climate change. • The removal of subsidies leads to a net-reduction in the use of energy. • Emission reductions contribute little to stabilize greenhouse gases at 450 ppm if not combined with climate policies. • Low carbon alternatives may encounter comparative disadvantages due to relative price changes at world markets

  16. Governance Options to Enhance Ecosystem Services in Cocoa, Soy, Tropical Timber and Palm Oil Value Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, Verina; Den Berg, van Jolanda; Oorschot, van Mark; Arets, Eric; Judge, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Dutch policies have advocated sustainable commodity value chains, which have implications for the landscapes from which these commodities originate. This study examines governance and policy options for sustainability in terms of how ecosystem services are addressed in cocoa, soy, tropical timber

  17. Public participation and environmental impact assessment: Purposes, implications, and lessons for public policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the need to enhance public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the efficacy of alternative mechanisms in achieving this goal, have been central themes in the EIA literature. The benefits of public participation are often taken for granted, and partly for this reason the underlying rationale for greater public participation is sometimes poorly articulated, making it more difficult to determine how to pursue it effectively. The reasons for seeking public participation are also highly diverse and not always mutually consistent. There has been limited analysis of the implications of different forms and degrees of public participation for public decision making based on EIA, and little discussion of how experience with public participation in EIA relates to debates about participation in policy making generally. This paper distinguishes various purposes for public participation in EIA, and discusses their implications for decision making. It then draws on some general models of public participation in policy making to consider how approaches to participation in EIA can be interpreted and valued, and asks what EIA experience reveals about the utility of these models. It argues that the models pay insufficient attention to the interaction that can occur between different forms of public participation; and to the fact that public participation raises issues regarding control over decision making that are not subject to resolution, but must be managed through ongoing processes of negotiation.

  18. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships.After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R and D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R and D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance

  19. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, M. C. [National Science Foundation (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2005-06-15

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships.After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R and D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R and D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance.

  20. African female immigration to the United States and its policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J.A.; Logan, Ikubolajeh

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the dynamics of female African immigration and settlement in the United States and discusses the research and policy implications for these processes. It highlights a significant surge in female immigration from African than non-African countries in recent years. This surge is driven by female immigration from Africa’s countries most populous countries, from countries affected by civil conflicts, and from English-speaking countries in the region. African women are also more likely to arrive as unmarried single than other female immigrants. In addition, they had the highest prevalence of Bachelors, Masters, or Doctorate degrees among women in the US. African females were also about twice more likely to be enrolled in US Educational institutions compared to other women. Those in the labor force were more likely to work as nursing professionals than in technical occupational groups such as engineering and computing. The study concludes by discussing the research and policy implications of these findings for countries in the developing world. PMID:25097267

  1. Landscape Transformation in Tropical Latin America: Assessing Trends and Policy Implications for REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Vera Diaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Important transformations are underway in tropical landscapes in Latin America with implications for economic development and climate change. Landscape transformation is driven not only by national policies and markets, but also by global market dynamics associated with an increased role for transnational traders and investors. National and global trends affect a disparate number of social, political and economic interactions taking place at the local level, which ultimately shapes land-use and socio-economic change. This paper reviews five different trajectories of landscape change in tropical Latin America, and discusses their implications for development and conservation: (1 Market-driven growth of agribusiness; (2 expansion and modernization of traditional cattle ranching; (3 slow growth of peasant agriculture; (4 logging in production forest frontiers; and (5 resurgence of agro-extractive economies. Contrasting trade-offs between economic development and forest conservation emerge across these landscapes, calling for nuanced policy responses to manage them in the context of climate change. This discussion sets the background to assess how reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+ aims should be better aligned with current landscape trajectories and associated actors to better address climate-change mitigation in forest landscapes with effective and equitable outcomes.

  2. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-06-01

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco & Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships. After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R&D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R&D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance.

  3. QUING WHY paper: Framing gender intersections in the European Union: what implications for the quality of intersectionality in policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Lombardo, Emanuela

    This paper explores the extent to which the emergence of an anti-discrimination policy in the European Union (EU) implies a shift in EU gender equality policies towards an intersectional approach. The frame analysis of EU gender equality policy documents shows that intersectional dimensions...... are increasingly present but they are treated implicitly and from a separate perspective, and the inclusion of a wide range of inequalities often implies a degendering of the policy content. We assess the implications of the identified intersectionality trends for the quality of intersectionality in gender...

  4. Approach to studying the nuclear power option in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal Khair Ibrahim; Mohamad Zam Zam

    1986-01-01

    As a rapid growth in industrialisation and population policy, energy consumption in Malaysia has increased cosiderably. The nation is pursuing a course of diversification of primary energy sources: gas, hydro, coal and oil. Recently nuclear power programme is assessed and evaluated as another energy option in the fuel strategy. Studies of infrastructure, manpower technological and other related considerations are included. Impacts and policy implications of the introduction of nuclear power in Malaysia are also discussed. (A.J.)

  5. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  6. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.142 Statement of policy... agency securities and money market instruments. (a) Purpose of financial contract positions. In.... Accordingly, the Board believes that any positions that bank holding companies or their nonbank subsidiaries...

  7. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  8. Carbon mitigation with biomass: An engineering, economic and policy assessment of opportunities and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, James S., III

    2007-12-01

    Industrial bio-energy systems provide diverse opportunities for abating anthropogenic greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions and for advancing other important policy objectives. The confluence of potential contributions to important social, economic, and environmental policy objectives with very real challenges to deployment creates rich opportunities for study. In particular, the analyses developed in this thesis aim to increase understanding of how industrial bio-energy may be applied to abate GHG emissions in prospective energy markets, the relative merits of alternate bio-energy systems, the extent to which public support for developing such systems is justified, and the public policy instruments that may be capable of providing such support. This objective is advanced through analysis of specific industrial bio-energy technologies, in the form of bottom-up engineering-economic analyses, to determine their economic performance relative to other mitigation options. These bottom-up analyses are used to inform parameter definitions in two higher-level stochastic models that explicitly account for uncertainty in key model parameters, including capital costs, operating and maintenance costs, and fuel costs. One of these models is used to develop supply curves for electricity generation and carbon mitigation from biomass-coal cofire in the U.S. The other is used to characterize the performance of multiple bio-energy systems in the context of a competitive market for low-carbon energy products. The results indicate that industrial bio-energy systems are capable of making a variety of potentially important contributions under scenarios that value anthropogenic GHG emissions. In the near term, cofire of available biomass in existing coal fired power plants has the potential to provide substantial emissions reductions at reasonable costs. Carbon prices between 30 and 70 per ton carbon could induce reductions in U.S. carbon emissions by 100 to 225 megatons carbon ("Mt

  9. The Bolger conference on PDE-5 inhibition and HIV risk: implications for health policy and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Raymond C; Catania, Joseph A; Ehrhardt, Anke A; Burnett, Arthur L; Lue, Tom F; McKenna, Kevin; Heiman, Julia R; Schwarcz, Sandy; Ostrow, David G; Hirshfield, Sabina; Purcell, David W; Fisher, William A; Stall, Ron; Halkitis, Perry N; Latini, David M; Elford, Jonathan; Laumann, Edward O; Sonenstein, Freya L; Greenblatt, David J; Kloner, Robert A; Lee, Jay; Malebranche, David; Janssen, Erick; Diaz, Rafael; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Caplan, Arthur L; Jackson, Graham; Shabsigh, Ridwan; Khalsa, Jag H; Stoff, David M

    2006-11-01

    Recent reports have linked the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors with increased rates of high-risk sexual behavior and HIV transmission in some individuals. A National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded, multidisciplinary conference was convened to evaluate scientific research, clinical and ethical considerations, and public policy implications of this topic. Published and unpublished findings on effects of PDE-5 inhibitors on sexual behavior; published guidelines and management recommendations. Leading investigators in relevant disciplines (e.g., public health, epidemiology, medical ethics, urology, psychology) participated in a 2-day meeting, including representatives of government, scientific, and regulatory agencies (the Centers for Disease Control, Food and Drug Administration, NIMH, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse). Panelists provided critical reviews of substantive areas of research, followed by question and answer sessions on each topic. On the second day, working groups were convened to identify critical gaps and priorities in three major areas: (i) research and evaluation needs; (ii) prevention strategies and clinical management issues; and (iii) policy and prevention implications. Research needs and priorities were categorized into four specific areas: (i) basic and clinical/laboratory research; (ii) epidemiology and risk factors; (iii) social-behavioral processes and interventions; and (iv) prevention/policy and educational needs. Identified gaps in the available data include populations at risk (e.g., risk among heterosexuals, risk profiles among subpopulations of men who have sex with men) and the specific role of PDE-5 inhibitors in HIV seroconversion. Specific areas of emphasis were the need for safer sex counseling, comprehensive sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening and follow-up when indicated, avoidance of potentially dangerous drug interactions, and potential benefits of testosterone replacement for HIV

  10. Towards Food Security and Livelihoods of Low-income Women in central Uganda: Policy Implications based on action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom; Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2015-01-01

    these constraints into opportunities for women by reflecting on how they can mitigate risks, adapt to climatic challenges and find alternative coping strategies, but suggests that policy options to enhance food security need to respond to the integrated framework of the issues. Additionally, this paper posits......Uganda is burdened with rising poverty, malnutrition and food insecurity. While most Ugandans depend on agriculture for their livelihoods, it is important to recognize that access to and control over resources by women and climate factors are central to the question of food security in Uganda....... However, a review of the literature demonstrates that policy options have poorly understood these interlinkages or tended to undermine them, especially the extent that these policies and programs put the necessary attention on the role of women farmers in food security. This paper presents part of a work...

  11. Sustainable development, demography and sexual and reproductive health: inseparable linkages and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The greatest challenge today is to meet the needs of current and future generations, of a large and growing world population, without imposing catastrophic pressures on the natural environment. Meeting this challenge depends on decisive policy changes in three areas: more inclusive economic growth, greener economic growth, and population policies. This article focuses on efforts to address and harness demographic changes for sustainable development, which are largely outside the purview of the current debate. Efforts to this end must be based on the recognition that demographic changes are the cumulative result of individual choices and opportunities, and that demographic changes are best addressed through policies that enlarge these choices and opportunities, with a focus on ensuring unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, empowering women to fully participate in social, economic and political life, and investing in the education of the younger generation beyond the primary level. The article provides a strong argument for why the Programme of Action that was agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 20 years ago continues to hold important implications and lessons for the formulation of the post-2015 development agenda, which is expected to supersede the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of smallholder farmers’ perceptions on adaptation strategies to climate change and policy implications in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Obert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder agricultural production is largely affected by climate change and variability. Despite the negative effects brought by climate variability, smallholder farmers are still able to derive livelihoods. An understanding of factors that influence farmers’ responses and adaptation to climate variability can improve decision making for governments and development partners. This study investigated farmers’ perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change and how these influence adaptation policies at local level. A survey was conducted with 100 households randomly selected from Chiredzi district. Data collected was used to derive farmer perceptions to climate change as well as the influence of their perceptions and subsequent adaptation methods to ensuing local agricultural adaptation measures and policies. The results indicated that smallholder farmers perceived general reduction in long-term annual rainfall and rising local average temperatures. Adverse trends in rainfall and average temperature perceived by farmers were consistent with empirical data. These perceptions and other socio-economic factors helped to shape smallholder farmer agricultural adaptation strategies. Policy implications are that the government and development partners should seek ways to assist autonomous adaptations by farmers through investments in planned adaptation initiatives.

  13. Reproductive tourism in Argentina: clinic accreditation and its implications for consumers, health professionals and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elise; Behrmann, Jason; Martin, Carolina; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2010-08-01

    A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent 'players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices.

  14. Carbon dioxide emissions and climate change: policy implications for the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehan, R.; Nehdi, M.

    2005-01-01

    There is growing awareness that the cement industry is a significant contributor to global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. It is expected that this industry will come under increasing regulatory pressures to reduce its emissions and contribute more aggressively to mitigating global warming. It is important that the industry's stakeholders become more familiar with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and associated global warming issues, along with emerging policies that may affect the future of the industry. This paper discusses climate change, the current and proposed actions for mitigating its effects, and the implications of such actions for the cement industry. International negotiations on climate change are summarized and mechanisms available under the Kyoto Protocol for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are explained. The paper examines some of the traditional and emerging policy instruments for greenhouse gas emissions and analyses their merits and drawbacks. The applicability, effectiveness and potential impact of these policy instruments for the global cement industry in general and the Canadian cement industry in particular are discussed with recommendations for possible courses of action

  15. A new approach to measure speculation in the oil futures market and some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Leo H.; Nguyen, Chi M.; Chan, Kam C.

    2015-01-01

    We propose using a new relative measure, the speculative ratio, defined as trading volume divided by open interest, to gauge speculative activity in the oil futures market. We apply the speculative ratio to examine the relation between basis and speculative activity in the oil futures market before and after the financialization of the oil market in 2003. Our finding suggests that the oil futures market is dominated by uninformed speculators in the post-financialization period. Our finding carries several practical policy implications, as follows: (1) both the commodity exchange and the regulator should design regulations and trading policies that improve basis risk; (2) on the commodity exchange side, new policies on margin requirements and position limits for speculators should be implemented; (3) margin requirements should be based on the level of basis risk; (4) regulators should speed up implementation of the position limit rule in the Dodd–Frank Act; and (5) stronger and more meaningful enforcement actions by regulators are required to punish and deter market manipulators. - Highlights: • Use a new speculative ratio to gauge speculative activities in oil futures market. • Examine the relation between basis and speculative activities. • The new speculative ratio also works well in the post-2008 oil bubble period. • Oil futures market is dominated by uninformed speculators in post-financialization in 2003.

  16. Policy implications of considering pre-commitments in U.S. aggregate energy demand system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, Christopher S.; Mjelde, James W.; Dharmasena, Senarath

    2017-01-01

    Linear approximations of the Generalized Almost Ideal Demand System and Almost Ideal Demand System for U.S. energy are compared to contrast the explicit inclusion and exclusion of pre-committed consumption levels. Results indicate that pre-commitment levels, the quantity of a good that is consumed in the short run with little regard for price, helps to better explain energy demand in the U.S. compared to the system that does not explicitly consider pre-commitments. Policy implications are if pre-commitments are a legitimate assumption, larger price changes are necessary to achieve a given policy objective than if there are no pre-commitments. - Highlights: • Pre-commitments are the quantity that is consumed with little regard for price. • Demand systems with pre-commitment levels better explain energy demand. • Elasticities from assuming pre-commitments are more elastic. • Estimated elasticities apply to discretionary and not pre-commitment consumption. • Pre-commitments require larger price changes to achieve a given policy objective.

  17. Project-Based Market Competition and Policy Implications for Sustainable Developments in Building and Construction Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building and construction sectors are significant contributors to the global economy, but their energy consumption necessitates greater commitment to sustainable developments. There is therefore a growing demand for green innovation in the form of cleaner production and policies to meet the modern requirements of sustainability. However, the nature in which public work is undertaken is in an environment of project-based market competition, whereby contractors routinely bid for contracts under specific project awarding systems, and variations are accompanied with the unique scope of individual projects before the final goods or services are delivered. A comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and contractors’ behavior in systems could help to identify the leverage points of policies. This paper proposes a system dynamics model, with quantitative analysis and simulations, to demonstrate the problems of a system with different project awarding systems and ineffective market performance. The framework of market efficiency and performance measures has been proposed to evaluate the project-based competition mechanism. Managerial policy implications for market efficiency and sustainable developments can thus be systematically discussed and compared through iterative computer simulations and scenario analysis.

  18. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river-basin resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2013-07-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface- and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river-basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly examines policy frameworks in three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  19. Policy implications of achievement testing using multilevel models: The case of Brazilian elementary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Gomes Menezes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale educational assessment has been established as source of descriptive, evaluative and interpretative information that influence educational policies worldwide throughout the last third of the 20th century. In the 1990s the Brazilian Ministry of Education developed the National Basic Education Assessment System (SAEB that regularly measures management, resource and contextual school features and academic achievement in public and private institutions. In 2005, after significant piloting and review of the SAEB, a new sampling strategy was taken and Prova Brasil became the new instrument used by the Ministry to assess skills in Portuguese (reading comprehension and Mathematics (problem solving, as well as collecting contextual information concerning the school, principal, teacher, and the students. This study aims to identify which variables are predictors of academic achievement of fifth grade students on Prova Brasil. Across a large sample of students, multilevel models tested a large number of variables relevant to student achievement. This approach uncovered critical variables not commonly seen as significant in light of other achievement determinants, including student habits, teacher ethnicity, and school technological resources. As such, this approach demonstrates the value of MLM to appropriately nuanced educational policies that reflect critical influences on student achievement. Its implications for wider application for psychology studies that may have relevant impacts for policy are also discussed.

  20. The Water Demand of Energy: Implications for Sustainable Energy Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Madani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With energy security, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development as three main motives, global energy policies have evolved, now asking for higher shares of renewable energies, shale oil and gas resources in the global energy supply portfolios. Yet, concerns have recently been raised about the environmental impacts of the renewable energy development, supported by many governments around the world. For example, governmental ethanol subsidies and mandates in the U.S. are aimed to increase the biofuel supply while the water footprint of this type of energy might be 70–400 times higher than the water footprint of conventional fossil energy sources. Hydrofracking, as another example, has been recognized as a high water-intensive procedure that impacts the surface and ground water in both quality and quantity. Hence, monitoring the water footprint of the energy mix is significantly important and could have implications for energy policy development. This paper estimates the water footprint of current and projected global energy policies, based on the energy production and consumption scenarios, developed by the International Energy Outlook of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The outcomes reveal the amount of water required for total energy production in the world will increase by 37%–66% during the next two decades, requiring extensive improvements in water use efficiency of the existing energy production technologies, especially renewables.

  1. Ensuring an optimal environment for peer education in South African schools: Goals, systems, standards and policy options for effective learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene; Deutsch, Charles; Moolman, Benita; Arogundade, Emma; Isaacs, Dane; Michel, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Peer education has long been seen as a key health promotion strategy and an important tool in preventing HIV infection. In South African schools, it is currently one of the strategies employed to do so. Based on both a recent research study of peer education across 35 schools and drawing on multiple previous studies in South Africa, this paper examines the key elements of peer education that contribute to its effectiveness and asks how this aligns with current educational and health policies. From this research, it summarises and proposes shared goals and aims, minimum standards of implementation and reflects on the necessary infrastructure required for peer education to be effective. In light of these findings, it offers policy recommendations regarding who should be doing peer education and the status peer education should have in a school's formal programme.

  2. Preferences on policy options for ensuring the financial sustainability of health care services in the future: results of a stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordrup, David; Angelis, Aris; Kanavos, Panos

    2013-12-01

    Universal access to health care in most western European countries has been a given for many decades; however, macroeconomic developments and increased pressure on health care budgets could mean the status quo cannot be maintained. As populations age, a declining proportion of economically active citizens are being required to support a larger burden of health and social care, while increasing availability of novel technologies for extending and improving life continues to push health care costs upwards. With health expenditure continuing to rise as a proportion of national income, concerns are raised about the current and future financial sustainability of Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) health care systems. Against this backdrop, a discussion about options to fund health care in the future, including whether to raise additional health care finance (and the ways to do so), reallocate resources and/or ration services becomes very pertinent. This study elicits preferences among a group of key stakeholders (payers, providers, government, academia and health-related industry) on the issue of health care financial sustainability and the future funding of health care services, with a view to understanding the different degrees of acceptability between policy interventions and future funding options as well as their feasibility. We invited 842 individuals from academia, other research organisations (eg. think tanks), national health services, providers, health insurance organisations, government representatives and health-related industry and related advisory stakeholders to participate in an online survey collecting preferences on a variety of revenue-generating mechanisms and cost/demand reducing policies. Respondents represented the 28 EU member states as well as Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, Australia, Russian Federation, Canada and New Zealand. We received 494 responses to our survey from all stakeholder groups. Across all groups, the

  3. Assessing policy options for increasing the use of renewable energy for sustainable development: Modelling energy scenarios for Sichuan, China. A UN-ENERGY demonstration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    UN-Energy was created in 2004 as the United Nations' principal interagency mechanism in the field of energy. Its creation responds to a request in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, adopted by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, for a new collaborative mechanism between UN agencies, programmes and institutions. UN-Energy has published several reports. The first was prepared for the September 2005 World Summit, 'The Energy Challenge for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals', showing the key role energy access plays for countries to achieve the MDGs. A second report was presented at the May 2006 session of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-14), 'Energy in the United Nations: An Overview of UN-Energy Activities'. For the May 2007 CSD-15 UN-Energy brought forward 'Sustainable Bio-Energy: A Framework for Decision-Makers' to help inform dialogue in one critical area of future energy policy choice. Another critical energy policy issue is how renewable energy can be promoted as countries plan for sustainable development. UN-Energy therefore decided to look at how the tools for energy modelling could be evolved. In May 2006, for CSD-14, UN-Energy presented 'Assessing Policy Options for Increasing the Use of Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development: Modelling Energy Scenarios for Ghana'. The Ghana study was carried out by five UN organizations and the Energy Commission of Ghana. It was led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and included the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) in the UN Secretariat, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). UN-Energy now presents a similar study for Sichuan, China. Together these two reports are the first UN-Energy reports to present analytic results from interagency cooperation that, without UN-Energy, would not have happened. This report analyzes alternative provincial

  4. From Market Uncertainty to Policy Uncertainty for Investment in Power Generation: Real Options for NPP on Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    In the electricity sector, market participants must make decisions about capacity choice in a situation of radical uncertainty about future market conditions. Sector is normally characterised by non-storability and periodic and stochastic demand fluctuations. In these cases capacity determination is a decision for the long term, whereas production is adjusted in the short run. Capacities need to be installed well in advance (decision for investment even earlier because of long construction time and even longer in case of NPP to prepare all needed legal, financial and physical infrastructure), at times when firms face considerable demand and cost uncertainty when choosing their capacity. Paper looks on the main contributions in investment planning under uncertainty, in particular in the electricity market for capital intensive investments like NPP. The relationship between market and non-market factors (recent UK policy example) in determining investment signals in competitive electricity markets was analysed. Paper analyse the ability of competitive electricity markets to deliver the desired quantity and type of generation capacity and also investigates the variety of market imperfections operating in electricity generation and their impact on long-term dynamics for generation capacity, the most capital-intensive of the liberalised functions in the electricity supply industry. Paper analyses how price formation influences investment signals. Today, investment decisions are made by several operators that act independently. Number of factors (including market power, wholesale price volatility, lack of liquidity in the wholesale and financial market, policy and regulatory risks etc.) contribute to polluting the price signal and generating sub-optimal behaviour. Climate change policies can easily distort market signals, insulating renewables generation from market dynamics. This in turn reduces the proportion of the market that is effectively opened to competitive

  5. Low enrolment in Ugandan Community Health Insurance Schemes: underlying causes and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criel Bart

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the promotion of Community Health Insurance (CHI in Uganda in the second half of the 90's, mainly under the impetus of external aid organisations, overall membership has remained low. Today, some 30,000 persons are enrolled in about a dozen different schemes located in Central and Southern Uganda. Moreover, most of these schemes were created some 10 years ago but since then, only one or two new schemes have been launched. The dynamic of CHI has apparently come to a halt. Methods A case study evaluation was carried out on two selected CHI schemes: the Ishaka and the Save for Health Uganda (SHU schemes. The objective of this evaluation was to explore the reasons for the limited success of CHI. The evaluation involved review of the schemes' records, key informant interviews and exit polls with both insured and non-insured patients. Results Our research points to a series of not mutually exclusive explanations for this under-achievement at both the demand and the supply side of health care delivery. On the demand side, the following elements have been identified: lack of basic information on the scheme's design and operation, limited understanding of the principles underlying CHI, limited community involvement and lack of trust in the management of the schemes, and, last but not least, problems in people's ability to pay the insurance premiums. On the supply-side, we have identified the following explanations: limited interest and knowledge of health care providers and managers of CHI, and the absence of a coherent policy framework for the development of CHI. Conclusion The policy implications of this study refer to the need for the government to provide the necessary legislative, technical and regulative support to CHI development. The main policy challenge however is the need to reconcile the government of Uganda's interest in promoting CHI with the current policy of abolition of user fees in public facilities.

  6. Health risks of climate change: An assessment of uncertainties and its implications for adaptation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Projections of health risks of climate change are surrounded with uncertainties in knowledge. Understanding of these uncertainties will help the selection of appropriate adaptation policies. Methods We made an inventory of conceivable health impacts of climate change, explored the type and level of uncertainty for each impact, and discussed its implications for adaptation policy. A questionnaire-based expert elicitation was performed using an ordinal scoring scale. Experts were asked to indicate the level of precision with which health risks can be estimated, given the present state of knowledge. We assessed the individual scores, the expertise-weighted descriptive statistics, and the argumentation given for each score. Suggestions were made for how dealing with uncertainties could be taken into account in climate change adaptation policy strategies. Results The results showed that the direction of change could be indicated for most anticipated health effects. For several potential effects, too little knowledge exists to indicate whether any impact will occur, or whether the impact will be positive or negative. For several effects, rough ‘order-of-magnitude’ estimates were considered possible. Factors limiting health impact quantification include: lack of data, multi-causality, unknown impacts considering a high-quality health system, complex cause-effect relations leading to multi-directional impacts, possible changes of present-day response-relations, and difficulties in predicting local climate impacts. Participants considered heat-related mortality and non-endemic vector-borne diseases particularly relevant for climate change adaptation. Conclusions For possible climate related health impacts characterised by ignorance, adaptation policies that focus on enhancing the health system’s and society’s capability of dealing with possible future changes, uncertainties and surprises (e.g. through resilience, flexibility, and adaptive capacity) are

  7. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T.

    2006-10-01

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  8. Extending Recidivism Monitoring for Drug Courts: Methods Issues and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVall, Kristen E; Gregory, Paul D; Hartmann, David J

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of research has been amassed documenting the effectiveness of drug treatment courts in addressing the needs of substance-abusing individuals involved with the criminal justice system. However, there is a relative dearth of research that examines the long-term impact of these programs on recidivism rates for both drug treatment court graduates and those unsuccessfully discharged from the program. In this study, we examine which demographic and programmatic/legal factors influence program disposition and recidivism rates of participants (both graduates and those unsuccessfully discharged) across the 5 years following their discharge from a drug treatment court program located in a suburban city in the Midwest. The study sample consists of 249 (N = 249) male participants who have been out of the program for more than 5 years. Results from the univariate and multivariate analyses are provided, as well as policy implications, directions for future research, and study limitations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The transport implications of siting policies for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report has been produced to be complementary to the previously issued report ''The Transport Implications of Regional Policies for The Disposal of Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes''. The same combinations of disposal facilities have been used so that direct comparison with intermediate waste results can be made. Low level wastes and short-lived intermediate level wastes for near-surface disposal are assumed to share a common infrastructure on the rail system and hence a methodology of separating total costs between these two waste types has been derived. Two transport modes, road and rail have been analysed. Hybrid transport, a combination of road and rail systems, has not been examined since no site is considered to produce sufficient waste to justify a dedicated rail service. Sellafield, has not been included in this examination since it is assumed to be served by its own disposal site at Drigg. (author)

  10. Interviewing children in custody cases: implications of research and policy for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda B; Romanoff, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Research on child interviewing has burgeoned over the past 25 years as expectations about children's agency, competence, and participation in society have changed. This article identifies recent trends in research, policy, and theory with implications for the practice of interviewing children in cases of contested divorce and for the weight to be given the information children provide. A number of fields of relevant research are identified, including studies of families who have participated in the family law system, studies of child witnesses in the field, experimental studies of the effects of interview techniques on children's memory and suggestibility, and ethnographic methods that elicit children's views of their own experiences. Finally, a set of 10 principles for practice are delineated based on the best available science. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Neurobiology of "Food Addiction" and Its Implications for Obesity Treatment and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Adrian; Hendrikse, Joshua; Lee, Natalia; Yücel, Murat; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Andrews, Zane; Hall, Wayne

    2016-07-17

    There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs. We critically review the evidence that some forms of obesity or overeating could be considered a food addiction and argue that the use of food addiction as a diagnostic category is premature. We also examine some of the potential positive and negative clinical, social, and public policy implications of describing obesity as a food addiction that require further investigation.

  12. A qualitative exploration of the human resource policy implications of voluntary counselling and testing scale-up in Kenya: applying a model for policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Kenya experienced rapid scale up of HIV testing and counselling services in government health services from 2001. We set out to examine the human resource policy implications of scaling up HIV testing and counselling in Kenya and to analyse the resultant policy against a recognised theoretical framework of health policy reform (policy analysis triangle). Methods Qualitative methods were used to gain in-depth insights from policy makers who shaped scale up. This included 22 in-depth interviews with Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) task force members, critical analysis of 53 sets of minutes and diary notes. We explore points of consensus and conflict amongst policymakers in Kenya and analyse this content to assess who favoured and resisted new policies, how scale up was achieved and the importance of the local context in which scale up occurred. Results The scale up of VCT in Kenya had a number of human resource policy implications resulting from the introduction of lay counsellors and their authorisation to conduct rapid HIV testing using newly introduced rapid testing technologies. Our findings indicate that three key groups of actors were critical: laboratory professionals, counselling associations and the Ministry of Health. Strategic alliances between donors, NGOs and these three key groups underpinned the process. The process of reaching consensus required compromise and time commitment but was critical to a unified nationwide approach. Policies around quality assurance were integral in ensuring standardisation of content and approach. Conclusion The introduction and scale up of new health service initiatives such as HIV voluntary counselling and testing necessitates changes to existing health systems and modification of entrenched interests around professional counselling and laboratory testing. Our methodological approach enabled exploration of complexities of scale up of HIV testing and counselling in Kenya. We argue that a better

  13. Analysis of the economic impact of different Chinese climate policy options based on a CGE model incorporating endogenous technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wang Can; Chen Jining

    2009-01-01

    Abatement cost is the main concern for climate change mitigation and the key factor for mitigation cost is technological change. This study established an integrated economic, energy, environmental, dynamic, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model representing endogenous technological change for China's climate change policy analysis. This study analyzed and compared the economic impact of different approaches to mitigation commitments as well as the potential role of technological change in the formulation of mitigation targets and commitments, taking into account China's climate policy-making needs based on the current international climate negotiation process. The results show that, absolute emission limits similar to the Kyoto Protocol will seriously impede the future economic development of China, while the impact of an 80% reduction in carbon intensity, forecast for 2050 based on the 2005 level, is relatively small. Technological change can promote economic growth, improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon intensity per unit of output through the substitution of production factors. Consequently it can reduce marginal abatement cost and related GDP loss by mitigation. At the same time it can increase mitigation potentials and extend the emission reduction amount, showing that consideration of the impact of technological change when deciding the emission reduction targets is necessary.

  14. The outlook for crude oil supply and demand in Australia and its energy policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Australia's oil reserves and production have contributed significantly to national economic prosperity and growth since the first large scale discoveries in Bass Strait in the 1960s. As a finite, non-renewable resource, the reserves ultimately must decline. In 1988 the forecast was that Australia's oil production would begin to decline in the mid 1990s and then rapidly tail off by the late 1990s. With this in mind, AMEC Ministers agreed in 1988 that a Working Group should review the energy policy implications of the forecast decline in the production of petroleum. The Working Group's findings are presented in this booklet. Chapter 2 examines the outlook for demand for petroleum products in Australia until 2005. This Chapter is based on current Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) forecasts as well as savings in fuel demand that are potentially available from fuel efficiency and fuel switching measures. Chapter 3, which includes BMR's recently revised petroleum production forecasts, looks at the outlook for crude oil and condensate production, also to 2005. Chapter 4 discusses the range of government initiatives already in place to foster the efficient exploration and production of petroleum in Australia. This Chapter also examines the outlook for Australian alternative liquid fuels. Chapter 5, which is based on analysis by ABARE, broadly examines the possible macroeconomic implications of declining oil production for Australia while Chapter 6 examines the issue of energy security and in particular its relationship with oil self sufficiency. Finally, Chapter 7 identifies some energy policy considerations and recommendations arising out of the Working Group's analysis. 7 tabs, 3 figs

  15. Challenges and policy implications of gas reform in Italy and Ukraine: Evidence from a benchmarking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharuk, Anatoliy G.; Storto, Corrado lo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-country benchmarking study of natural gas distribution to final consumers and compares two samples of companies in Italy and Ukraine. A 2-stage DEA procedure calculating efficiency of gas providers and identifying critical context factors and policy issues that affect it is implemented. Both countries are low performing in terms of operators’ technical and scale efficiency and there is room to design more efficient market configurations. Some issues need attention to develop an effective gas market policy: a) search for efficiency requires accurate investigation of its main drivers that depend on context factors; b) while greater efficiency is necessary to reduce cost and increase service quality, at different stages of progress of the reform process other goals may be more important; c) gas industry reform process should be planned adopting a systemic perspective as its development does not remain confined to the sector, but implies changes in the whole country economy, particularly when the gas market is of primary relevance to the economy; d) a more comprehensive package of reforms may be necessary to make gas market reform successful; e) even though the gas market reform is an economic process, it has unavoidably social and political implications. - Highlights: • Benchmarking of natural gas distribution industry in Italy and Ukraine is performed. • Average industry inefficiency is about 27% and decreasing returns to scale are dominant. • Gas industry reform process should be planned adopting a systemic perspective. • Gas reform needs a more comprehensive package of reforms and/or supporting legislation to be successful. • Gas industry reform has social and political implications.

  16. Balancing Fiscal, Energy, and Environmental Concerns: Analyzing the Policy Options for California’s Energy and Economic Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Manderson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the fiscal, energy, and environmental tradeoffs involved in supplying California’s future energy needs. An integrated framework is developed whereby an econometric forecasting system of California energy demand is coupled with engineering-economic models of energy supply, and economic impacts are estimated using input-output models of the California economy. A baseline scenario in which California relies on imported electricity to meet future demand is then compared against various energy supply development scenarios over the forecast horizon (2012–2035. The results indicate that if California implements its renewable portfolio standard (RPS, there will be a substantial net cost in terms of value added, employment, and state tax revenues because the economic benefits of building capacity are outweighed by higher energy prices. Although carbon emissions fall, the cost per ton of avoided emissions is well above market prices. Building out natural gas fired generation capacity also leads to losses compared to the baseline, although the impacts are relatively minor. Meanwhile, a strategy of replacing imported crude oil and natural gas with domestic production using indigenous resources increases gross state product, employment, and tax revenues, with minimal impact on carbon emissions. This option could, therefore, help mitigate the costs of California meeting its RPS commitment.

  17. Water stress, water transfer and social equity in Northern China--implications for policy reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ximing

    2008-04-01

    Water stress in Northern China is characterized with major, inefficient irrigation water use and rapidly growing non-agricultural water demands, as well as limited water quantity and declining water quality. Water use in the region is undergoing transfer from agricultural to municipal and industrial sectors. Currently, part of the economic loss and environmental damage due to water stress can be considered as a consequence of water transfer failures, including the current transfers, which hurt farmers' livelihood and income, and the needed transfers, which industry and cities have been waiting for but have not received. This paper starts with a discussion of the causes of water stress in Northern China, which is fundamental to understand the necessity and complexity of agricultural water transfers. Following that, it reviews water transfers in Northern China as a cause for concern over the social stability, economy and environment of the region. Based on an integrated analysis of economic, environmental, fiscal and social implications, this paper begins by identifying critical barriers to smooth water redistribution; and ends with implications for policy reforms, ensuring that farmers can and will save water. It is concluded that the decisions of water reallocation under water stress should be shared by communities at all levels, from the local to the national, to ensure equal access of water, especially the availability of the basic water need for all groups.

  18. Parents' perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence: implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Melanie J; Emshoff, James; Buck, Chad A; Cook, Sarah L

    2006-05-01

    This study explores perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence in a sample of 202 parents interviewed in the wake of nationally publicized school shootings. We also investigate the effects the school shootings had on children, parents' perceptions regarding firearms, and changes in parenting behavior. Parents exhibited strong support for almost all proposed causes and solutions, and we address their desire for immediate and often invasive interventions to prevent future violence. We contrast parents' perceptions with their own parenting behaviors and with literature on effective interventions. Results are discussed within the context of policy implications.Editors' Strategic Implications: Parents' perceptions and behaviors are frequently influenced by history effects. The national attention received by school shootings provided an opportunity for exploration of those perceptions and self-reported behaviors. The authors provide evidence from timely surveys that parents struggle with identifying causal factors that may contribute to school violence and consequently support a myriad of strategies for intervention including very invasive environmental preventive strategies. The findings suggest that social scientists should play a proactive role in translating research-supported preventive strategies to effective replications in the community and make research available in formats that are available and comprehensible by the lay public.

  19. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Bayefsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD, a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for ‘saviour siblings’ who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe.

  20. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayefsky, Michelle J

    2016-12-01

    Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for 'saviour siblings' who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe.

  1. Creating value in health care through big data: opportunities and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roski, Joachim; Bo-Linn, George W; Andrews, Timothy A

    2014-07-01

    Big data has the potential to create significant value in health care by improving outcomes while lowering costs. Big data's defining features include the ability to handle massive data volume and variety at high velocity. New, flexible, and easily expandable information technology (IT) infrastructure, including so-called data lakes and cloud data storage and management solutions, make big-data analytics possible. However, most health IT systems still rely on data warehouse structures. Without the right IT infrastructure, analytic tools, visualization approaches, work flows, and interfaces, the insights provided by big data are likely to be limited. Big data's success in creating value in the health care sector may require changes in current polices to balance the potential societal benefits of big-data approaches and the protection of patients' confidentiality. Other policy implications of using big data are that many current practices and policies related to data use, access, sharing, privacy, and stewardship need to be revised. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Informal care and the self-management partnership: implications for Australian health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essue, Beverley M; Jowsey, Tanisha; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Mirzaei, Masoud; Pearce-Brown, Carmen L; Aspin, Clive; Usherwood, Tim P

    2010-11-01

    The Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS) aims to improve the care and support for patients with chronic illness and their family carers. Here we describe the carers' contribution to the self-management partnership and discuss the policy and practice implications that are relevant to improving the support available for informal care in Australia. A secondary analysis of SCIPPS data. Fourteen carers of patients between 45 and 85 years with chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes were conveniently sampled from western Sydney and the Australian Capital Territory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Key roles that carers perform in the self-management partnership included: home helper; lifestyle coach; advocate; technical care manager; and health information interpreter. Two negative consequences of juggling these roles included: self-neglect and conflict. Rigid eligibility criteria limit carers' access to essential support programs which underestimates and undervalues their contributions to the self-management partnership. Support services should focus on the development of practical skills to perform the caregiving roles. In addition, health professionals require support to work more effectively with carers to minimise the conflict that can overshadow the care and self-management partnership.

  3. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayefsky, Michelle J

    2017-01-01

    Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for ‘saviour siblings’ who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe. PMID:28959787

  4. Interrogating the Contested Spaces of Rural Aging: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark W; Winterton, Rachel

    2018-01-18

    Informed by a critical turn underway in rural gerontology, this article explores how the intersection of global and local trends relating to population aging and rural change create contested spaces of rural aging. The aim is to build our understanding of rural as a dynamic context within which the processes, outcomes, and experiences of aging are created, confronted, and contested by older adults and their communities. A review of key developments within gerontology and rural studies reveals how competing policies, discourses, and practices relating to healthy aging and aging in place, rural citizenship and governmentality, and social inclusion and inequality combine in particular ways to empower or disempower a diverse range of older rural adults aging in a diverse range of rural communities. The article provides a contextually sensitive perspective on potential sources of conflict and exclusion for older adults in dynamic rural spaces and further enhances our understanding of how rural physical and social environments are constructed and experienced in older age. A framework for interrogating emergent questions about aging in rural contexts is developed and implications for advancing research, policy, and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Policy implications of complementary and alternative medicine use in Australia: data from the National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Jean; Hollingsworth, Bruce

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the drivers of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in the general population in Australia and to identify key policy implications. The National Health Survey 2007/2008, a representative survey of the Australian population, provides information on CAM use (practitioners and products) in the last 12 months. All adult respondents (N=15,779) aged 18 years or older are included in this study. Logistic regression is employed to determine the effect of socio-economic, condition-specific, health behavior variables, and private health insurance status on CAM use. In addition to socio-economic variables known to affect CAM use, individuals who have a chronic condition, particularly a mental health condition, are more likely to use CAM. There does not appear to be a correlation between CAM use and more frequent General Practitioner use; however, ancillary private health insurance is correlated with a greater likelihood of CAM use, as expected. The Australian government does not currently intervene in the CAM market in a systematic way. CAM is clearly considered to be a legitimate and important component of health care for many Australians, despite the limited availability of clinical evidence for its efficacy and safety. Policy interventions may include the regulation of CAM products, practitioners, and information as well as providing subsidies for cost-effective modalities.

  6. Organic nitrogen storage in mineral soil: Implications for policy and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrew H; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important ecosystem nutrients and often its availability limits net primary production as well as stabilization of soil organic matter. The long-term storage of nitrogen-containing organic matter in soils was classically attributed to chemical complexity of plant and microbial residues that retarded microbial degradation. Recent advances have revised this framework, with the understanding that persistent soil organic matter consists largely of chemically labile, microbially processed organic compounds. Chemical bonding to minerals and physical protection in aggregates are more important to long-term (i.e., centuries to millennia) preservation of these organic compounds that contain the bulk of soil nitrogen rather than molecular complexity, with the exception of nitrogen in pyrogenic organic matter. This review examines for the first time the factors and mechanisms at each stage of movement into long-term storage that influence the sequestration of organic nitrogen in the mineral soil of natural temperate ecosystems. Because the factors which govern persistence are different under this newly accepted paradigm we examine the policy and management implications that are altered, such as critical load considerations, nitrogen saturation and mitigation consequences. Finally, it emphasizes how essential it is for this important but underappreciated pool to be better quantified and incorporated into policy and management decisions, especially given the lack of evidence for many soils having a finite capacity to sequester nitrogen. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Resident Perspectives on Work-Life Policies and Implications for Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westercamp, Nicole; Wang, Raziya S; Fassiotto, Magali

    2018-02-01

    As resident burnout increases, there is a need for better awareness, resources, and interventions. Challenges in balancing work and life priorities have been implicated in contributing to physician burnout. Institutional work-life policies (WLPs) are critical tools to meet work-life needs. This study investigates the influence of WLPs on residents' experiences. The authors emailed a SurveyMonkey link to the APA chief resident and Minority Fellow listservs and directly to 94 psychiatry program directors and 52 fellowship directors nationwide to distribute a survey to residents regarding WLP use and barriers, as well as burnout. Estimated response rate was 12-23%. The authors assessed the anonymous responses using SPSS to evaluate for relationships between awareness of WLPs, perceptions/barriers surrounding their usage, and burnout. The authors analyzed 255 responses. Awareness and use of policies ranged from 2 to 33%. A prominent barrier to WLPs is that use results in shifting workload to co-residents (48% agree). Respondents who perceived leadership to view use of WLPs as a sign of weakness (16% agree) were less likely to use WLPs (t (89) = -3.52, p burnout (41%) perceived vastly higher barriers to using WLPs as compared to those without burnout. This study supports the need for further investigation of WLPs to mitigate resident burnout and identifies important perceived barriers that affect the use of WLPs including low awareness, potential for shifting workload to co-residents, and negative perceptions of leadership attitudes toward WLPs.

  8. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river basin resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2014-04-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface water and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly considers three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  9. WTO Agreement on Agriculture and its Implication on Rural Development Policies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erokhin Vasily

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at overview of the history and major contents of the Agreement on Agriculture of the World Trade Organization. Special attention is paid to implications of the Agreement for agricultural and trade policies in developing countries, including Russia, recently accessed the WTO. The differential treatment that developing countries receive under the agreement is investigated. The paper includes an overview of the recently adopted State Program of the Russian Federation for Development of Agriculture and Regulation of Agricultural Commodities Markets in 2013-2020. The research considers four applications of the given State Program: compliance with WTO requirements, state support of agriculture, provision of food security, and ensurance of sustainable rural development. The paper results in the conclusion that state policies in the sphere of rural development have to evolve beyond the traditional, sector-based model, with its almost exclusive focus on agriculture. Contemporary set of tools to ensure sustainable rural development should be based on the multi-sectoral strategies and programs that identify and better exploit the development potential of rural area through a variety of factors: national food security, agricultural production, liberalization of trade and foreign economic activities, support of local producers and rural households, rural infrastructure, environmental and recreational potential.

  10. Sustainable alternatives for land-based biofuels in the European Union. Assessment of options and development of a policy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H.

    2012-12-15

    It is feasible for EU member states to meet their commitments regarding transport fuels under the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) without resorting to biofuels from food crops. The RED target (10% renewable transport energy in 2020) can be met by a mix of measures aimed at improving energy efficiency, combined with a strong focus on growth of renewable electricity use and biofuels and biomethane from waste and residues. These measures also contribute to the FQD target (6% reduction in carbon intensity of fuels by 2020), but will need to be complemented by other measures such as reduced flaring and venting during oil production. The report shows how EU transport energy policy could reduce its reliance on biofuels from food crops that are likely to cause land use change. This alternative vision for the transport sector in 2020 would cut CO2 emissions by 205 million tonnes.

  11. Consumer perceptions of smart grid development: Results of a Hong Kong survey and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Daphne Ngar-yin; Vleuten, Johannes Marinus van der; Hills, Peter; Tao, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Consumers have a major role to play in smart grid technologies which can be instrumental in addressing climate change and energy challenges. However, little is known about how consumers perceive, and how they might respond to the opportunities that smart grid technologies offer. This paper reports the results from a Hong Kong survey (n=505). It contributes to the literature by providing a better understanding of the perceptions and behaviour of electricity consumers about the possible deployment of smart grids. Our results indicate that Hong Kong consumers generally welcomed smart grid technologies and had a preference for energy saving, energy efficiency and renewable energy while they showed a high level of opposition to nuclear power. They displayed an interest in playing a much more informed and active role in energy decision-making, but they were sensitive to tariff increases. Motivations and barriers for consumers to support smart grid developments are also discussed. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications for effective consumer engagement. More policy attention is needed on demand-side measures, introducing institutional and regulatory changes, and modifying relationships between consumers, the government and utilities. - Highlights: ► Consumers have a major role in smart grid technologies. ► This paper reports findings of a Hong Kong survey on how consumers perceive and respond. ► Hong Kong consumers are interested in being informed and playing an active role in energy decision-making. ► Motivations and barriers are discussed. ► Policy recommendations for effective consumer engagement are suggested.

  12. Living with a carbon allowance: The experiences of Carbon Rationing Action Groups and implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Rachel A.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs) are grassroots voluntary groups of citizens concerned about climate change, who set themselves a carbon allowance each year and provide support to members seeking to reduce their direct carbon emissions from household energy use and personal transport. Some groups have a financial penalty for carbon emitted in excess of the ration, and systems whereby under-emitters are rewarded using the monies collected from over-emitters. CRAGs therefore operate the nearest scheme in existence to the proposed policy of Personal Carbon Trading (PCT). This paper reports the findings of a study of the opinions and experiences of individuals involved in CRAGs (‘CRAGgers’). In general, interviewees have made significant behavioural changes and emissions reductions, but many would be unwilling to sell spare carbon allowances within a national PCT system. The choices made by CRAGgers with respect to the design and operation of their ‘carbon accounting’, their experiences of reducing fossil fuel energy use, and their views on personal carbon trading at CRAG and national level are discussed. Some possible implications for PCT and other policies are considered, as well as the limitations of CRAGs in informing an understanding of the potential impacts and operation of PCT. - Highlights: ► Reports opinions and experiences of members of Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs). ► Many interviewees have made significant reductions to their carbon footprint. ► CRAGs offer insights into individuals' experiences of living with a carbon allowance. ► Most CRAGs involve highly motivated individuals and avoid trading. ► They nonetheless offer some insights into Personal Carbon Trading and other policies.

  13. Shedding light on solar technologies-A techno-economic assessment and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Michael; Schmidt, Tobias S.; Wiederkehr, David; Schneider, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Solar power technologies will have to become a major pillar in the world's future energy system to combat climate change and resource depletion. However, it is unclear which solar technology is and will prove most viable. Therefore, a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies along the key quantitative and qualitative competitiveness criteria is needed. Based on a literature review and detailed techno-economic modeling for 2010 and 2020 in five locations, we provide such an assessment for the three currently leading large-scale solar technologies. We show that today these technologies cannot yet compete with conventional forms of power generation but approach competitiveness around 2020 in favorable locations. Furthermore, from a global perspective we find that none of the solar technologies emerges as a clear winner and that cost of storing energy differs by technology and can change the order of competitiveness in some instances. Importantly, the competitiveness of the different technologies varies considerably across locations due to differences in, e.g., solar resource and discount rates. Based on this analysis, we discuss policy implications with regard to fostering the diffusion of solar technologies while increasing the efficiency of policy support through an adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies. - Highlights: → We conduct a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies (CSP/PV). → While solar technologies approach competitiveness in 2020, no clear winner emerges. → Solar resource and discount rate heavily impact competitiveness of solar technologies. → Adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies increases policy efficiency. → Focus on key cost down levers and strategic co-benefits of solar technologies needed.

  14. Comparison of integration options for gasification-based biofuel production systems – Economic and greenhouse gas emission implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina M.; Berntsson, Thore S.; Andersson, Eva; Rydberg, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The impact of different integration options for gasification-based biofuel production systems producing synthetic natural gas, methanol and FT (Fischer-Tropsch) fuels on the NAP (net annual profit), FPC (fuel production cost) and the GHG (greenhouse gas) emission reduction potential are analysed. The considered integration options are heat deliveries to DH (district heating) systems or to nearby industries and integration with infrastructure for CO 2 storage. The comparison is made to stand-alone configurations in which the excess heat is used for power production. The analysis considers future energy market scenarios and case studies in southwestern Sweden. The results show that integration with DH systems has small impacts on the NAP and the FPC and diverging (positive or negative) impacts on the GHG emissions. Integration with industries has positive effects on the economic and GHG performances in all scenarios. The FPCs are reduced by 7–8% in the methanol case and by 12–13% in the FT production case. The GHG emission reductions are strongly dependent on the reference power production. The storage of separated CO 2 shows an increase in the GHG emission reduction potential of 70–100% for all systems, whereas the impacts on the economic performances are strongly dependent on the CO 2e -charge. - Highlights: • Three gasification-based biofuel production systems at case study sites are analysed. • Greenhouse gas emissions reduction potential and economic performance are evaluated. • Impact of integration with adjacent industry or district heating systems is analysed. • The assessment comprises future energy market scenarios including CCS infrastructure. • Utilisation options for excess heat significantly impact the evaluated parameters.

  15. “Oil price shocks and fiscal policy management: Implications for Nigerian economic planning (1980-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aremo, A.G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High Oil price fluctuations have been a common feature in Nigeria and these have considerably constituted a major source of fiscal policy disturbance to the Nigerian economy as well as the economies of other oil producing countries of the world. The over-reliance on oil production for income generation combined with local undiversified revenue and export bases is an issue for concern. This has policy implications for economic policy and in particular fiscal policy management. The motivation for this study is to examine the effect of oil price shock on fiscal policy in the country. Using structural vector autoregression (SVAR methodology, the effects of crude oil price fluctuations on two major key fiscal policy variables (government expenditure (GEXP and government revenue (GREV, money supply (MS2 and GDP were examined. The results showed that oil prices have significant effect on fiscal policy in Nigeria within the study period of 1980:1 to 2009:4. The study also revealed that oil price shock affects GREV and GDP first before reflecting on fiscal expenditure. The study suggests strongly that diversification of the economy is necessary in order to minimize the consequences of oil price fluctuations on government revenue, by implication government expenditure planning in the country.

  16. A Case Study with an Identified Bully: Policy and Practice Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huddleston, Lillie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bullying is a serious public health problem that may include verbal or physical injury as well as social isolation or exclusion. As a result, research is needed to establish a database for policies and interventions designed to prevent bullying and its negative effects. This paper presented a case study that contributed to the literature by describing an intervention for bullies that has implications for research, practice and related policies regarding bullying.Methods: An individualized intervention for an identified bully was implemented using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model (PCSIM; Nastasi, Moore, & Varjas, 2004 with a seventh-grade middle school student. Ecological and culture-specific perspectives were used to develop and implement the intervention that included psychoeducational sessions with the student and consultation with the parent and school personnel. A mixed methods intervention design was used with the following informants: the target student, the mother of the student, a teacher and the school counselor. Qualitative data included semi-structured interviews with the parent, teacher and student, narrative classroom observations and evaluation/feedback forms filled out by the student and interventionist. Quantitative data included the following quantitative surveys (i.e., Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index [CPTS-RI] and the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children, 2nd Edition. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used to evaluate the acceptability, integrity and efficacy of this intervention.Results: The process of intervention design, implementation and evaluation are described through an illustrative case study. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated a decrease in internalizing, externalizing and bullying behaviors as reported by the teacher and the mother, and a high degree of acceptability and treatment integrity as reported by multiple stakeholders.Conclusion: This case

  17. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technological innovation system in China: Structure, function evaluation and policy implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Xianjin; Ye Zhonghua; Xu Zhengzhong; Husar Holmes, Maja; Henry Lambright, W.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can be an important technology option for China in addressing global climate change and developing clean energy technologies. Promoted by international climate conventions and supported by government research and development programs, an increasing number of CCS pilot and demonstration projects have been launched in China. In this study, we analyze the structure of China’s CCS effort from a technological innovation system (TIS) perspective. Within this system, key socio-political components, including institutions, actor-networks, and technology development, are examined to evaluate the state of the innovation system. The study assessed the perceived capacity of seven functional areas of the CCS innovation system through a survey of key CCS actors and stakeholders. The findings suggest that China’s CCS innovation system has a strong functional capacity for knowledge and technology development. It is significantly weaker in the innovative functions of knowledge diffusion, market formation, facilitating entrepreneurs and new entrants into the CCS market. Based on the evaluation of China’s technological innovation system to develop CCS, the article articulates specific public policies to formulate a more robust innovation system to traverse the “valley of death” from research and development to commercial deployment and accelerate energy innovation in China. - Highlights: ► We analyze and evaluate China’s CCS innovation system from TIS perspective. ► Strong and systematic CCS innovation system structure has come into being in China. ► The system has acquired high knowledge development and accumulation. ► Weak innovation functions are identified: market creation, guidance, etc. ► Public policies are needed to improve the innovation system performance.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of public-health policy options in the presence of pretreatment NNRTI drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Cambiano, Valentina; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Revill, Paul; Jordan, Michael R; Hallett, Timothy B; Doherty, Meg; De Luca, Andrea; Lundgren, Jens D; Mhangara, Mutsa; Apollo, Tsitsi; Mellors, John; Nichols, Brooke; Parikh, Urvi; Pillay, Deenan; Rinke de Wit, Tobias; Sigaloff, Kim; Havlir, Diane; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Pozniak, Anton; van de Vijver, David; Vitoria, Marco; Wainberg, Mark A; Raizes, Elliot; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    There is concern over increasing prevalence of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance in people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-income and middle-income countries. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative public health responses in countries in sub-Saharan Africa where the prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance to NNRTIs is high. The HIV Synthesis Model is an individual-based simulation model of sexual HIV transmission, progression, and the effect of ART in adults, which is based on extensive published data sources and considers specific drugs and resistance mutations. We used this model to generate multiple setting scenarios mimicking those in sub-Saharan Africa and considered the prevalence of pretreatment NNRTI drug resistance in 2017. We then compared effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative policy options. We took a 20 year time horizon, used a cost effectiveness threshold of US$500 per DALY averted, and discounted DALYs and costs at 3% per year. A transition to use of a dolutegravir as a first-line regimen in all new ART initiators is the option predicted to produce the most health benefits, resulting in a reduction of about 1 death per year per 100 people on ART over the next 20 years in a situation in which more than 10% of ART initiators have NNRTI resistance. The negative effect on population health of postponing the transition to dolutegravir increases substantially with higher prevalence of HIV drug resistance to NNRTI in ART initiators. Because of the reduced risk of resistance acquisition with dolutegravir-based regimens and reduced use of expensive second-line boosted protease inhibitor regimens, this policy option is also predicted to lead to a reduction of overall programme cost. A future transition from first-line regimens containing efavirenz to regimens containing dolutegravir formulations in adult ART initiators is predicted to be effective and cost-effective in

  19. Russian Federation : The Demographic Transition and Its Implications for Adult Learning and Long-Term Care Policies

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the demographic transition in the Russian Federation and its implications for adult learning and long-term care policies. The population of Russia is aging and declining rapidly compared to other European nations. Russia's current age structure results from decades of complex demographic trends that have created a population structure with increasingly fewer young peo...

  20. Threats to the Sustainability of the Outsourced Call Center Industry in the Philippines: Implications for Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friginal, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study overviews current threats to the sustainability of the outsourced call center industry in the Philippines and discusses implications for macro and micro language policies given the use of English in this cross-cultural interactional context. This study also summarizes the present state of outsourced call centers in the Philippines, and…

  1. Governance Options to Enhance Ecosystem Services in Cocoa, Soy, Tropical Timber and Palm Oil Value Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Verina; Den Berg, van, Jolanda; Oorschot, van, Mark; Arets, Eric; Judge, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Dutch policies have advocated sustainable commodity value chains, which have implications for the landscapes from which these commodities originate. This study examines governance and policy options for sustainability in terms of how ecosystem services are addressed in cocoa, soy, tropical timber and palm oil value chains with Dutch links. A range of policies addressing ecosystem services were identified, from market governance (certification, payments for ecosystem services) to multi-actor p...

  2. Biogas energy from family-sized digesters in Uganda: Critical factors and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walekhwa, Peter N.; Mugisha, Johnny; Drake, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Dependence on fossil energy sources is increasingly becoming unsustainable due to ecological and environmental problems and rapid depletion. Biogas energy could augment these conventional energy sources but despite its advantages and favourable conditions for its production, biogas energy use in Uganda remains low due to technical, economic and socio-cultural impediments. Based on primary data on households in Central and Eastern Uganda and the use of logistic regression, this study analyses factors affecting the adoption of biogas energy in Uganda. The empirical results suggest that the probability of a household adopting biogas technology increases with decreasing age of head of household, increasing household income, increasing number of cattle owned, increasing household size, male head of household and increasing cost of traditional fuels. In contrast, the likelihood of adoption decreases with increasing remoteness of household location and increasing household land area. Policy options and recommendations including educational and awareness campaigns on biogas benefits and successes, the provision of financial and non-financial incentives to households and establishment of an institutional framework could bolster wider biogas energy acceptance in Uganda.

  3. Supplementary tutoring in Trinidad and Tobago: Some implications for policy making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Dorian A.; Lochan, Samuel N.

    2012-06-01

    Globally, private supplementary tutoring is a huge business and the practice is expanding rapidly in many regions of the world where it never existed before. In some of these regions it is posing a novel set of challenges for education planners and policy makers. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which supplementary tutoring is impacting on the goals of the formal education system in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). The participation rate in supplementary tutoring at primary school level in T&T was found to be high (88.2 per cent at Standard Five level), with the majority of the students being privately tutored by their regular school teachers. Their main motivation for taking private tutoring lessons was to try to secure a place in one of the few elite secondary schools in the country. The authors of this paper admit that there is no quick solution to the problem, especially if it is understood as a part of the process of cultural change. They contend that the key to breaking the elitist tradition lies in modifying public understanding about education and convincing parents and citizens at large that a wide range of options and opportunities exists outside the narrow confines of the old colonial economy and the old colonial schools.

  4. Energy drink consumption in Europe: A review of the risks, adverse health effects and policy options to respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Joaquim Breda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe however more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

  5. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  6. Towards the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Bhutan: A cost-utility analysis to determine the optimal policy option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Kinley; Phuntsho, Sonam; Pempa; Kumluang, Suthasinee; Khuntha, Sarayuth; Kulpeng, Wantanee; Rajbhandari, Sneha; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2018-03-20

    Due to competing health priorities and limited resources, many low-income countries, even those with a high disease burden, are not able to introduce pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. To determine the cost-utility of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13) compared to no vaccination in Bhutan. A model-based cost-utility analysis was performed in the Bhutanese context using a government perspective. A Markov simulation model with one-year cycle length was used to estimate the costs and outcomes of three options: PCV10, PCV13 and no PCV programmes for a lifetime horizon. A discount rate of 3% per annum was applied. Results are presented using an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in United State Dollar per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained (USD 1 = Ngultrum 65). A one-way sensitivity analysis and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted to assess uncertainty. Compared to no vaccination, PCV10 and PCV13 gained 0.0006 and 0.0007 QALYs with additional lifetime costs of USD 0.02 and USD 0.03 per person, respectively. PCV10 and PCV13 generated ICERs of USD 36 and USD 40 per QALY gained compared to no vaccination. In addition, PCV13 produced an ICER of USD 92 compared with PCV10. When including PCV into the Expanded Programme on Immunization, the total 5-year budgetary requirement is anticipated to increase to USD. 3.77 million for PCV10 and USD 3.75 million for PCV13. Moreover, the full-time equivalent (FTE) of one health assistant would increase by 2.0 per year while the FTE of other health workers can be reduced each year, particularly of specialist (0.6-1.1 FTE) and nurse (1-1.6 FTE). At the suggested threshold of 1xGDP per capita equivalent to USD 2708, both PCVs are cost-effective in Bhutan and we recommend that they be included in the routine immunization programme. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  9. Spread of anti-malarial drug resistance: Mathematical model with implications for ACT drug policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dondorp Arjen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most malaria-endemic countries are implementing a change in anti-malarial drug policy to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. The impact of different drug choices and implementation strategies is uncertain. Data from many epidemiological studies in different levels of malaria endemicity and in areas with the highest prevalence of drug resistance like borders of Thailand are certainly valuable. Formulating an appropriate dynamic data-driven model is a powerful predictive tool for exploring the impact of these strategies quantitatively. Methods A comprehensive model was constructed incorporating important epidemiological and biological factors of human, mosquito, parasite and treatment. The iterative process of developing the model, identifying data needed, and parameterization has been taken to strongly link the model to the empirical evidence. The model provides quantitative measures of outcomes, such as malaria prevalence/incidence and treatment failure, and illustrates the spread of resistance in low and high transmission settings. The model was used to evaluate different anti-malarial policy options focusing on ACT deployment. Results The model predicts robustly that in low transmission settings drug resistance spreads faster than in high transmission settings, and treatment failure is the main force driving the spread of drug resistance. In low transmission settings, ACT slows the spread of drug resistance to a partner drug, especially at high coverage rates. This effect decreases exponentially with increasing delay in deploying the ACT and decreasing rates of coverage. In the high transmission settings, however, drug resistance is driven by the proportion of the human population with a residual drug level, which gives resistant parasites some survival advantage. The spread of drug resistance could be slowed down by controlling presumptive drug use and avoiding the use of combination therapies containing drugs with

  10. European Union's Arms Embargo on China: Implications and Options for U.S. Policy. CRS Report to Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin; Grimmett, Richard F; Kan, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    .... The United States contends that engagement with China need not send the wrong signals on China's human rights record and military buildup that threaten a peaceful resolution of Taiwan and other issues...

  11. Economic analysis of participation in physical activity in England: implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokye, Nana Kwame; Pokhrel, Subhash; Fox-Rushby, Julia

    2014-09-14

    Changing the relative price of (in) activity is an important tool for health policies. Nonetheless, to date, analyses of correlates of physical activity (PA) have excluded the notion of price. Using the first nationwide dataset on prices of PA for England, we explore for the first time how money and time prices are associated with PA (in general) and specific activities. A nationally representative telephone follow-up survey to Health Survey for England (HSE) 2008 was undertaken in 2010. The sample covered individuals who reported to have undertaken some PA in the HSE 2008. Questions focussed on: ex-post money and time prices; type and quantity of PA; perceived benefits of PA and socio-economic details. Count regression models (all activities together, and swimming, workout, walking separately) were fitted to investigate the variation in quantity of PA. Of 1683 respondents, 83% participated in PA (one or more activities), and spent an average of £2.40 per occasion of participation in PA and 23 minutes travelling. Participation in PA was negatively associated with money prices per occasion (i.e. family member/child care fees, parking fees, and facility charges) and travel time price. Participation in PA was more sensitive to travel time price than money price. Among the specific activities, the money price effect was highest for swimming with a 10% higher price associated with 29% fewer occasions of swimming; followed by workout (3% fewer occasions) and walking (2% fewer occasions). Only swimming and workout were sensitive to travel time price. People who felt doing PA could help them 'get outdoors', 'have fun', or 'lose weight' were likely to do more PA. Two main policy implications emerge from the findings. First, the results support the notion that positive financial incentives, e.g. subsidising price of participation, could generally lead to an increase in quantity of PA among those already exercising. Second, such policies could lead to desired policy goals if

  12. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  13. Indonesian options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderluh, J.H.M.; van der Weide, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Jakarta Stock Exchange Indonesia has started to trade Indonesian options at September 9th, 2004. An Indonesian option can be considered as an American style barrier option with immediate (forced) exercise if the price hits or crosses the barrier before maturity. The payoff of the option is based on

  14. News media coverage of U.S. Ebola policies: Implications for communication during future infectious disease threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Tara Kirk; Boddie, Crystal; McGinty, Emma E; Pollack, Keshia; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Burke, Thomas A; Rutkow, Lainie

    2016-12-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2015 raised concerns about the disease's potential spread in the U.S. and received significant news media coverage. Prior research has shown that news media coverage of policy options can influence public opinion regarding those policies, as well as public attitudes toward the broader social issues and target populations addressed by such policies. To assess news media coverage of Ebola policies, the content of U.S.-focused news stories (n=1262) published between July 1 and November 30, 2014 from 12 news sources was analyzed for 13 policy-related messages. Eight-two percent of news stories mentioned one or more policy-related messages. The most frequently appearing policy-related messages overall were those about isolation (47%) and quarantine (40%). The least frequently mentioned policy-related message described dividing potentially exposed persons into distinct groups based on their level of Ebola risk in order to set different levels of restrictions (5%). Message frequency differed depending on whether news sources were located in an area that experienced an Ebola case or controversy, by news sources' political ideological perspective, and by type of news source (print and television). All policy-related messages showed significant increases in frequency after the first case of Ebola was diagnosed in the U.S. on September 30, 2014, with the exception of messages related to isolation, which showed a significant decrease. Results offer insight into how the news media covers policies to manage emerging disease threats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Meeting human resources for health staffing goals by 2018: a quantitative analysis of policy options in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroder Kate

    2010-06-01

    training school enrolment. Supplemental interventions targeting attrition, graduation and public sector entry rates can help close the gap. HRH modelling can help MOH policy makers determine the relative priority and level of investment needed to expand Zambia's workforce to target staffing levels.

  16. Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlyn Teri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Methods Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. Results • Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs. • The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment. • There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills. • Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However

  17. Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Methods Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis) of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. Results • Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs. • The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment). • There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills. • Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However, little is known regarding

  18. Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yun-Hee; Glasgow, Nicholas J; Merlyn, Teri; Sansoni, Emily

    2010-07-06

    The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis) of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. * Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs.* The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment).* There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills.* Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However, little is known regarding how appropriate and effective they are

  19. Family Models for Earning and Caring: Implications for Child Care and for Family Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanera, Zenaida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCanadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity infamilies. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant andtoddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parentalpreferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.RésuméLa famille canadiennes a changé, dû en partie à une économie qui offre plus de possibilités d’emploi pour les femmes, et à une tendance culturelle qui valorise l’égalité des chances et la diversité dans les familles. En dépit de ces changements, les preuves quantitatives et qualitatives suggèrent une préférence continue pour les mères de passer plus de temps avec les enfants, particulièrement quand il s’agit de nouveau-nés ou d’enfants en bas âge. Donc, pour un couple moyen, la présence de jeunes enfants au foyer pousse les femmes à réduire leurs emplois rémunérés et les maris à augmenter les leurs. Notre étude des préférences parentales suggère un intérêt pour un accroissement des services pour jeunes enfants sous la forme d’éducation préscolaire et de garde d’enfants, et aussi un intérêt pour des politiques qui permettraient aux parents de passer plus de temps avec leurs enfants tels que cong

  20. Exploring public perceptions of solutions to tree diseases in the UK: Implications for policy-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul; Arakelyan, Irina

    2017-10-01

    Tree diseases are on the increase in many countries and the implications of their appearance can be political, as well as ecological and economic. Preventative policy approaches to tree diseases are difficult to formulate because dispersal pathways for pest and pathogens are numerous, poorly known and likely to be beyond human management control. Genomic techniques could offer the quickest and most predictable approach to developing a disease tolerant native ash. The population of European Ash ( Fraxinus Excelsi or) has suffered major losses in the last decade, due to the onset of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (previously called Chalara Fraxinea ) commonly known in the UK as ash dieback. This study presents evidence on the public acceptability of tree-breed solutions to the spread of Chalara , with the main aim to provide science and policy with an up-stream 'steer' on the likely public acceptability of different tree breeding solutions. The findings showed that whilst there was a firm anti-GM and ' we shouldn't tamper with nature ' attitude among UK publics, there was an equally firm and perhaps slightly larger pragmatic attitude that GM (science and technology) should be used if there is a good reason to do so, for example if it can help protect trees from disease and help feed the world. The latter view was significantly stronger among younger age groups (Millennials), those living in urban areas and when the (GM)modified trees were destined for urban and plantation, rather than countryside settings. Overall, our findings suggest that the UK government could consider genomic solutions to tree breeding with more confidence in the future, as large and influential publics appear to be relaxed about the use of genomic techniques to increase tolerance of trees to disease.

  1. Transformative Change for an Inclusive Society: Insights from Social Innovations and Implications for Policy Innovation and innovation Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weaver, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Our societies experience challenges of inclusion and cohesion and suffer (evidently) from multiple problems associated with exclusion across economic, social, political and many other dimensions. The challenge of building more inclusive societies is recognized at highest policy levels. The Europe

  2. Transformative Change for an Inclusive Society: : Insights from Social Innovations and Implications for Policy Innovation and innovation Policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weaver, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Our societies experience challenges of inclusion and cohesion and suffer (evidently) from multiple problems associated with exclusion across economic, social, political and many other dimensions. The challenge of building more inclusive societies is recognised at highest policy levels. The Europe

  3. Modelling effects of geoengineering options in response to climate change and global warming: implications for coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, M J C

    2009-12-01

    Climate change will have serious effects on the planet and on its ecosystems. Currently, mitigation efforts are proving ineffectual in reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Coral reefs are the most sensitive ecosystems on the planet to climate change, and here we review modelling a number of geoengineering options, and their potential influence on coral reefs. There are two categories of geoengineering, shortwave solar radiation management and longwave carbon dioxide removal. The first set of techniques only reduce some, but not all, effects of climate change, while possibly creating other problems. They also do not affect CO2 levels and therefore fail to address the wider effects of rising CO2, including ocean acidification, important for coral reefs. Solar radiation is important to coral growth and survival, and solar radiation management is not in general appropriate for this ecosystem. Longwave carbon dioxide removal techniques address the root cause of climate change, rising CO2 concentrations, they have relatively low uncertainties and risks. They are worthy of further research and potential implementation, particularly carbon capture and storage, biochar, and afforestation methods, alongside increased mitigation of atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  4. Green Growth and its Implications for Public Policy - The Case of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schers, Jules; Ghersi, Frederic; Lecocq, Franck; Grazi, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    2 equivalent (R100/tCO 2 ), although 'small' by international standards, is large relative to initial domestic energy prices - , and that R300/tCO 2 might be able to achieve the country's pledges. This is consistent with prior literature on mitigation in South Africa. Impacts on GDP growth and on unemployment reduction can be significant (GDP in 2035 can be 7% lower with policy than it would be without), but strongly depend on the revenue recycling mechanism. Amongst the recycling options we test, recycling carbon tax proceeds as lump-sum transfers to households under-performs the reference in terms of GDP and employment, but has a progressive impact on income distribution. Using carbon proceeds to reduce sales taxes results in GDP growth on a par with the reference projection and in a higher level of employment, without excessively degrading the mitigation impact of the tax (compared to scenarios with a less favourable economic impact), but at the cost of a slight increase of income dispersion. Finally, under the same economically efficient recycling option of sales tax reductions, diverting part of the proceeds to invest in education results in accelerated growth even for a conservative assumption of the induced productivity gains. However, it does not improve employment because the sales tax reduction has a specific positive impact on the relative cost of capital, which increases along with growth and the consecutive development of the carbon tax fiscal basis that fuels it. (authors)

  5. The global diffusion of organ transplantation: trends, drivers and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L; Hirth, Richard; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Delmonico, Francis L; Noel, Luc; Chapman, Jeremy; Matesanz, Rafael; Carmona, Mar; Alvarez, Marina; Núñez, Jose R; Leichtman, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Rising incomes, the spread of personal insurance, lifestyle factors adding to the burden of illness, ageing populations, globalization and skills transfer within the medical community have increased worldwide demand for organ transplantation. The Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation, which was built in response to World Health Assembly resolution WHA57.18, has conducted ongoing documentation of global transplantation activities since 2007. In this paper, we use the Global Observatory's data to describe the current distribution of - and trends in - transplantation activities and to evaluate the role of health systems factors and macroeconomics in the diffusion of transplantation technology. We then consider the implications of our results for health policies relating to organ donation and transplantation. Of the World Health Organization's Member States, most now engage in organ transplantation and more than a third performed deceased donor transplantation in 2011. In general, the Member States that engage in organ transplantation have greater access to physician services and greater total health spending per capita than the Member States where organ transplantation is not performed. The provision of deceased donor transplantation was closely associated with high levels of gross national income per capita. There are several ways in which governments can support the ethical development of organ donation and transplantation programmes. Specifically, they can ensure that appropriate legislation, regulation and oversight are in place, and monitor donation and transplantation activities, practices and outcomes. Moreover, they can allocate resources towards the training of specialist physicians, surgeons and transplant coordinators, and implement a professional donor-procurement network.

  6. Innovative Strategy in Shrimp Potiguar: Asymmetries Power Generation and Implications for Policy Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Baldi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the technological trajectory and the actors – public and private - political behave in the carciniculture network (cultivate of shrimp in the federal estate of Rio Grande do Norte. The research was based on both embeddedness and cluster policy approach. The case study was based on bibliographic, archives, and empirical data, whose primary data were collected through semi-structured interviews carried on with 10 members of different organizations from carciniculture sector in the period 2009-2010, as well as interviews already conducted in the area since the year 2005. These data were submitted to content analysis with longitudinal and descriptive approach. Along the technological trajectory of the cluster we highlighted opportunities and limits for innovative strategies generated by asymmetries of power and ability to influence actors in the network. We highlight the relationship between 'power network' and 'links established with public actors' as well as the implications for innovation along the trajectory generated by a more or less state interference.

  7. Measuring food availability and access in African-American communities: implications for intervention and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoms-Young, Angela M; Zenk, Shannon; Mason, Maryann

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the U.S. As compared to whites, minority populations are disproportionately at risk, with the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity occurring among African American women. Although researchers and policymakers argue that environmental approaches have the greatest potential to reverse the rising prevalence of obesity, critical gaps remain in our understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie the associations between neighborhood food environments and weight status. A major challenge has been the need for reliable and valid measures to assess aspects of the neighborhood food environment that encourage or inhibit healthful eating behaviors and weight management. Investigators have made considerable gains in the development of tools and approaches to measure neighborhood food environments overall, but few studies focus on the specific challenges and issues associated with characterizing neighborhood food environments in communities of color. This paper highlights important considerations for measuring food environments in African-American neighborhoods and their implications for developing programmatic and policy solutions to reduce racial disparities in overweight.

  8. Addressing inequalities in physical activity participation: implications for public health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Boeri, Marco; Tully, Mark A; Donnelly, Paul; Kee, Frank

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the characteristics of those doing no moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (0 days/week), some MVPA (1-4 days/week) and sufficient MVPA (≥ 5 days/week) to meet the guidelines in order to effectively develop and target PA interventions to address inequalities in participation. A population survey (2010/2011) of 4653 UK adults provided data on PA and socio-demographic characteristics. An ordered logit model investigated the covariates of 1) participating in no PA, 2) participating in some PA, and 3) meeting the PA guidelines. Model predictions were derived for stereotypical subgroups to highlight important policy and practice implications. Mean age of participants was 45 years old (95% CI 44.51, 45.58) and 42% were male. Probability forecasting showed that males older than 55 years of age (probability=0.20; 95% CI 0.11, 0.28), and both males (probability=0.31; 95% CI 0.17, 0.45) and females (probability=0.38; 95% CI 0.27, 0.50) who report poor health are significantly more likely to do no PA. Understanding the characteristics of those doing no MVPA and some MVPA could help develop population-level interventions targeting those most in need. Findings suggest that interventions are needed to target older adults, particularly males, and those who report poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Knowledge about nicotine among HIV-positive smokers: Implications for tobacco regulatory science policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Rass, Olga; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-02-01

    The present paper describes the general knowledge of smoking and nicotine among a sample of current smokers living with HIV (n=271) who were recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Descriptive statistics were used to report sociodemographic and smoking characteristics, as well as knowledge about smoking and nicotine. The sample was comprised of relatively light smokers, both in terms of cigarettes per day (M=8.1, SD=9.7) and dependence (67.5% had low dependence according to the Heaviness of Smoking Index). The majority of participants correctly identified smoking as being a potential cause of various smoking-related conditions and correctly identified constituents in cigarette smoke. However, a majority of participants also misattributed nicotine as being a potential cause of smoking-related illness. Accurate knowledge about nicotine was low. These misperceptions are of particular concern for vulnerable populations, such as persons living with HIV, who are disproportionately burdened by the prevalence of smoking and associated morbidities and mortality. These misperceptions could have unintended consequences in the wake of a potential nicotine reduction policy, such that reduced nicotine content products are perceived as safer than normal nicotine content products currently available for sale. Additionally, incorrect knowledge about nicotine has implications for the uptake and continued use of nicotine replacement therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Observations on quality senior health business: success patterns and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Chen, Ya-Mei; Su, Shyi; Chang, Yao-Mao; Iqbal, Usman; Yujiro, Handa; Lin, Neng-Pai

    2016-04-01

    Population ageing is a global issue that affects almost every country. Most ageing researches focused on demand side and studies related to supply side were relatively scarce. This study selected quality enterprises focus on ageing health and analysed their patterns on providing quality services successfully. Our study selected quality senior health enterprises and explored their success patterns through face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews with CEO of each enterprise in 2013. Thirty-three quality senior health enterprises in Taiwan. Thirty-three CEO's of enterprises were interviewed individually. None. Core values and vision, historical development, organization structure, services/products provided, delivering channels, customer relationships and further development strategies. Our results indicated success patterns for senior enterprises that there were meeting diversified lifestyles and substitutive needs for the elderly and their caregivers, providing a total solution for actual/virtual integration and flexible one-stop shopping services. We classified these enterprises by used degree of clicks-and-mortar of services and residing situation of the elderly. Industry characteristics and policy implications were summarized. Our observations will serve as a primary evidenced base for enterprises developing their senior market, and also for opening dialogue between customers and enterprises to facilitate valuable opportunities for co-creation between the supply and demand sides. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  11. Constraining East Asian CO2 emissions with GOSAT retrievals: methods and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, C.; Henze, D. K.; Deng, F.

    2017-12-01

    The world largest CO2 emissions are from East Asia. However, there are large uncertainties in CO2 emission inventories, mainly because of imperfections in bottom-up statistics and a lack of observations for validating emission fluxes, particularly over China. Here we tried to constrain East Asian CO2 emissions with GOSAT retrievals applying 4-Dvar GEOS-Chem and its adjoint model. We applied the inversion to only the cold season (November - February) in 2009 - 2010 since the summer monsoon and greater transboundary impacts in spring and fall greatly reduced the GOSAT retrievals. In the cold season, the a posteriori CO2 emissions over East Asia generally higher by 5 - 20%, particularly Northeastern China shows intensively higher in a posteriori emissions ( 20%), where the Chinese government is recently focusing on mitigating the air pollutants. In another hand, a posteriori emissions from Southern China are lower 10 - 25%. A posteriori emissions in Korea and Japan are mostly higher by 10 % except over Kyushu region. With our top-down estimates with 4-Dvar CO2 inversion, we will evaluate the current regional CO2 emissions inventories and potential uncertainties in the sectoral emissions. This study will help understand the quantitative information on anthropogenic CO2 emissions over East Asia and will give policy implications for the mitigation targets.

  12. Green Economy Performance and Green Productivity Growth in China’s Cities: Measures and Policy Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglong Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for China’s sustainable development. This paper constructs indicators to assess China’s green economy performance and green productivity growth, in which economic expansion, resource conservation and environmental protection need to be incorporated simultaneously. For this purpose, we combine non-radial directional distance function and meta-frontier Malmquist productivity to develop the indicators. The methodology also allows for the decomposition of driving forces of China’s green economy. Moreover, the dataset employed in this paper allows for the evaluation of 275 cities in China during the period 2003–2012. The main findings are as follows. First, most of China’s cities did not perform efficiently in terms of the green economy, with an average score of only 0.233. Second, the growth rate of green productivity is slower than real GDP, and the green productivity growth in China is only moderate. Third, innovation is the main driving force of China’s green productivity growth, but the central region lags behind when it comes to green innovation. Fourth, artificial local protectionism and transport limitations impede the progress of cities that perform ineffectively in the green economy. Based on our empirical findings, we provide policy implications and suggestions for enhancing China’s green economy performance and productivity growth.

  13. Managing climate risks through transformational adaptation: Economic and policy implications for key production regions in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Mushtaq

    Full Text Available Transformational adaptations are expected to become more frequent and widespread in Australia, and globally, with a changing climate. However, any transformation adaptation will have complex and interconnected effects on rural communities, particularly income, employment and service provision, which will impact on regional sustainability. This paper investigates regional transformative adaptation options to manage climate risks for the rice and cotton industries of northern Queensland, Australia. More specifically, it seeks to identify when to move from incremental adaptation to transformative adaptation and, more importantly, to assess the potential regional economic consequences of such a transformative adaptation. The results indicate transformative adaptation could have large negative effects on regional economies. Relocation of rice or cotton in sugarcane production system will not compensate some negative regional impacts. More importantly, the increase in wheat production in Riverina will not compensate for the reduction in the higher value rice commodity. However, the cotton production system in Queensland is capable of transformational adaptation and incremental adaptation with little impact on regional communities. In contrast, the southern rice production region of the Riverina shows limited capacity for incremental adaptation, given the already high adoption of improved irrigation technologies and practices, and the limited scope to improve these further. The market incentives for the transformation adaptation of cotton and/or rice production in north Queensland are limited without government support. Alternatively, there may be interest from international investors, which would shift the focus from market opportunities to international food security. Keywords: Structural adjustment, Climate change, Environmental and water policy, Rice, Cotton, Regional economic model

  14. Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh: Recent Fieldwork Results and Policy Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Addy, Susan E.A.

    2009-09-17

    ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) has proven effective at removing high concentrations of arsenic from drinking water in Bangladesh. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of the country, ARUBA reduced arsenic levels ranging from 200 to 900 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate--bottom ash from coal fired power plants--is a waste material readily available in South Asia. In comparison to similar technologies, ARUBA uses less media for arsenic removal due to its high surface area to volume ratio. Hence, less waste is produced. A number of experiments were conducted in Bangladesh to determine the effectiveness of various water treatment protocols. It was found that (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from water within five minutes of treatment, (2) ARUBA, that has settled at the bottom of a treatment vessel, continues to remove arsenic for 2-3 days, (3) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through sequential partial dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once), and (4) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic levels ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well. Our findings imply a number of tradeoffs between ARUBA's effective arsenic removal capacity, treatment system costs, and waste output. These tradeoffs, some a function of arsenic-related policies in Bangladesh (e.g., waste disposal regulations), must be considered when designing an arsenic removal system. We propose that the most attractive option is to use ARUBA in communityscale water treatment centers, installed as public-private partnerships, in Bangladeshi villages.

  15. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Policy Options for Ensuring Long-term Supply Security of Molybdenum-99 and/or Technetium-99m Produced Without Highly Enriched Uranium Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmacott, Chad; Cameron, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Following the shortages of the key medical radioisotopes, molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and its daughter technetium-99m (' 99m Tc), the OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) created the High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). Since 2009, this group has identified the reasons for the isotope shortages and developed a policy approach to address the challenges to a long-term secure supply of these important medical isotopes. On top of the ongoing concerns related to long-term reliability, all current long-term major 99 Mo-producing nations have agreed to convert to using low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for the production of 99 Mo. This decision was made based on important nonproliferation reasons; however, the conversion will have potential impacts on the global supply chain - both in terms of costs and available capacity. Recognising that conversion is important and will occur, and also recognising the need to ensure a long-term secure supply of 99 Mo/' 99m Tc, the NEA, along with stakeholders, examined potential policy options that could be used by to ensure a reliable supply of 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc produced without highly enriched uranium (HEU), consistent with the time frames and policies of the HLG-MR. This discussion paper provides the various policy options available to governments to encourage a reliable supply of 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc produced without HEU. The examination of these options was done through the lens of ensuring a reliable supply, consistent with the time frames and policies of the HLG-MR. The options described in this document are meant to meet this objective by taking one of three general actions: - Making the option of purchasing or producing non-HEU-based 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc more attractive. - Making the option of purchasing or producing HEU-based 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc less attractive. - Limiting access to HEU-based 99 Mo and/or ' 99m Tc. This paper presents the options in each category and provides some views

  16. Increased expression of fibroblast activation protein-alpha in keloid fibroblasts: implications for development of a novel treatment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienus, Kirstin; Bayat, Ardeshir; Gilmore, Brendan F; Seifert, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Keloid scars are common benign fibroproliferative reticular dermal lesions with unknown etiology and ill-defined management with high rate of recurrence post surgery. The progression of keloids is characterized by increased deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, invasion into the surrounding healthy skin and inflammation. Fibroblasts are considered to be the key cellular mediators of fibrogenesis in keloid scars. Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP-α) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) are proteases located at the plasma membrane promoting cell invasiveness and tumor growth and have been previously associated with keloid scars. Therefore, in this study we analyzed in further detail the expression of FAP-α in keloid fibroblasts compared to control skin fibroblasts. Dermal fibroblasts were obtained from punch-biopsies from the active margin of four keloids and four control skin samples. Flow cytometry was used to analyze FAP-α expression and the CytoSelect 24-Well Collagen I Cell Invasion Assay was applied to study fibroblast invasion. Secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins was investigated by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometric assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found an increased expression of FAP-α in keloid fibroblasts compared to control skin fibroblasts (p fibroblasts (p fibroblast growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor, (c) on the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8) or monocyte chemotactic protein-1. These results suggest a potential role for FAP-α and DPPIV in the invasive behavior of keloids. FAP-α and DPPIV may increase the invasive capacity of keloid fibroblasts rather than by modulating inflammation or ECM production. Since FAP-α expression is restricted to reactive fibroblasts in wound healing and normal adult tissues are generally FAP-α negative, inhibiting FAP-α/DPPIV activity may be a novel treatment option to prevent keloid progression.

  17. CO2 Capture from the Air: Technology Assessment and Implications for Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, D. W.

    2002-05-01

    It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Today, there are no large-scale technologies that achieve air capture at reasonable cost. Yet, strong arguments suggest that it will comparatively easy to develop practical air capture technologies on the timescales relevant to climate policy [1]. This paper first analyzes the cost of air capture and then assesses the implications for climate policy. We first analyze the lower bound on the cost needed for air capture, describing the thermodynamic and physical limits to the use of energy and land. We then compare the costs of air capture to the cost of capture from combustion exhaust streams. While the intrinsic minimum energy requirement is larger for air capture, we argue that air capture has important structural advantages, such as the reduction of transport costs and the larger potential for economies of scale. These advantages suggest that, in the long-run air capture be competitive with other methods of achieving deep emissions reductions. We provide a preliminary engineering-economic analysis of an air capture system based on CaO to CaCO3 chemical looping [1]. We analyze the possibility of doing the calcination in a modified pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) burning coal in a CO2 rich atmosphere with oxygen supplied by an air separation unit. The CaCO3-to-coal ratio would be ~2:1 and the system would be nearly thermally neutral. PFBC systems have been demonstrated at capacities of over 100 MW. Such systems already include CaCO3 injection for sulfur control, and operate at suitable temperatures and pressures for calcination. We assess the potential to recover heat from the dissolution of CaO in order to reduce the overall energy requirements. We analyze the possibility of adapting existing large water/air heat exchangers for use as contacting systems to capture CO2 from the air using the calcium hydroxide solution. The implications of air capture

  18. Brain Gain / Circulation Policy and International Student Policy in Korea : In Light of its Migration Policy and Implications for Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yuriko

    2015-01-01

    In the knowledge based economy, brain gain has vital importance for many countries. However, the non-English speaking countries, such as Korea and Japan, face a similar disadvantage in attracting talented foreigners. International student policy plays an important role in attracting and fostering future talents in such countries. In this paper, the characteristics of international student policy and brain gain/circulation policy of Korea will be analyzed in light of its emigration history and...

  19. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  20. Global warming policy: A coherent-sequential approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manicke, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses these two closely related themes: (1) the need for structuring and evaluating global climate policy sequentially and (2) the need to incorporate the analysis of real options which may contribute significantly to global climate policy. This paper is organized into four sections. The first section deals with benefit-cost analysis and capital budgeting as they are generally practiced and discusses the reasons why the traditional benefit-cost formulation is inadequate. The second section then discusses the case of one financial option, namely, the European Call Option and discusses some important results. The third section of the paper addresses some of the important results or principles derived in the literature on real options, and while most of the mathematics is not easily transferred nor relevant to the global climate policy, there are many principles that can be applied. In the fourth section the author discusses the implications of a real option environment for the policy process