Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha
Sound test security policies and procedures are needed to ensure test security and confidentiality, and to help prevent cheating. In this era when cheating on tests draws regular media attention, there is a need for thoughtful consideration of the ways in which possible test security measures may affect accessibility for some students with…
American Federation of Teachers, 2004
The Latino population is the fastest growing ethnic minority in the United States. This group is rapidly changing the face of public schools and presenting a unique set of challenges to public education. This policy brief provides the data and context to support the American Federation of Teacher's call for increased attention to the condition of…
Spradlin, Terry; Cierniak, Katherine; Shi, Dingjing; Chen, Minge
This Education Policy Brief summarizes the research and data analysis completed by the Center for Evaluation and Education Policy (CEEP) on Indiana's student attendance and absenteeism data. The study was initiated by The Indiana Partnerships Center and conducted by CEEP with funding from USA Funds and State Farm. Additional partners in the study…
Steinke, Dorothea A.
Earlier institution-sponsored research revealed that about 20% of students in community college basic math and pre-algebra programs lacked a sense of part-whole relationships with whole numbers. Using the same tool with a group of 86 workforce students, about 75% placed five whole numbers on an empty number line in a way that indicated lack of…
The climate of competition for students in the higher education sector makes it imperative that institutions increase their marketing efforts, both domestically and internationally, to help sustain student numbers. In Australia, the Bradley Report and the government response, which will do away with quotas, allows for a much freer market than…
Bailey, Sarah F.; Jenkins, Jade S.; Barber, Larissa K.
Classroom management involves managing students' requests for course policy changes. Instructors can adhere to the course policies or convey flexibility through making an exception for the student. The current study empirically examines students' emotional reactions (hostility, guilt, and surprise) and fairness perceptions to course policy…
McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine
Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)
Blimling, Gregory S.
Describes the distinguishing features of a cult and the recruitment practices of cults on college campuses. Considers the psychological, social, and developmental reasons why students are attracted to cults, and describes the conversion process. Reports on campus policy, implications of litigation, and recommends strategies for dealing with cults.…
Barile, John P; Donohue, Dana K; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Baker, Andrew M; Weaver, Scott R; Henrich, Christopher C
In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher-student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students' senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.
Steinke, Dorothea A.
Community college developmental math students (N = 657) from three math levels were asked to place five whole numbers on a line that had only endpoints 0 and 20 marked. How the students placed the numbers revealed the same three stages of behavior that Steffe and Cobb (1988) documented in determining young children's number sense. 23% of the…
Levi, Daniel; And Others
Surveyed college students (n=116) to determine how they viewed Japanese human resources policies. Policies examined included lifetime employment, hiring, evaluation and promotion, professional skills, salary, training, and holistic concern. Findings revealed that, despite appeal of some of Japan's policies, students were unwilling to trade the…
Gary G. Huang
Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.
This article juxtaposes "world culture" and "policy borrowing and lending" literatures to understand policy formation in China. Through reviewing China's student nutrition policy evolution since the International Conference on Nutrition in 1992 to the launch of China's landmark national rural student nutrition program in 2011,…
TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Sep 77) 54 PTT’s Social Action Policy Detailed (MESSAGES DES POSTES ET TELECOMMUNICATIONS, Sep 77) 58 GREECE Briefs...undertaken that are counter to state and social requirements for order and security. (5) If amateur radio stations of the GST are operated for...telephone (1)-567-70-97. 52 Reseaux eommutea Dibit (bHt/i) Liaisons specialities telex telephone Caducee TRANSPAC 50 200 1200 2400
The impact of European government policy on the movement of foreign students in Great Britain, France, and West Germany is discussed by a member of the American Council on Education Committee on Foreign Students. Foreign student enrollments have increased dramatically in these three countries in the 1960s and 1970s, and foreign students also make…
Williams, Jennifer; Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina
To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy.
Shay, Robert P.
Four aspects of the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) Program are compared with credit policies on other loans made by consumer installment lenders. The four aspects are: (1) the planning, screening, monitoring, collecting, and write-off policies on GSLs versus uninsured loans; (2) the importance of the Student Loan Marketing Association in providing…
In positioning student voice within the Irish education policy discourse it is imperative that this emergent and complex concept is explored and theorized in the context of its definition and motivation. Student voice can then be positioned and critiqued as it emerged within Irish education policy primarily following Ireland's ratification of the…
Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.
Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…
... services. We seek comment on these trends and associated Commission policies. DATES: Comments are due on or... limit distribution in some fashion? Should the Commission permit these other entities to obtain only non... geography-based intercarrier compensation to bill-and-keep, focusing particularly on whether telephone...
Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Catalano, Richard F.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.
Although it is common for secondary schools to implement alcohol policies to reduce alcohol misuse, there has been little evaluation of the efficacy of these policies. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the degree and type of alcohol policy enforcement in state representative samples of secondary students in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia (n = 1848). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the prospective association between student reports of s...
On 16 March, eight days after International Women's Day, CERN is organizing a discussion on its Equal Opportunities Policy. This is a new chance for all at CERN to find out about the programme, and to get up to date with the position of women at CERN. This year CERN will mark International Women's Day with a special event on Friday 16 March: a chance for all at CERN to meet members of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. You have probably already heard about the Panel, but you may have wondered what the Equal Opportunities Programme actually does to ensure fair treatment in the recruitment and career development of men and women, and to allow all to work in an atmosphere of safety, dignity, and mutual respect. Daniella Moraes of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro at work on electronics for the LHCb experiment. By attending this meeting CERN people will have the chance to learn about the work of the Panel, its recommendations to Management, and the subsequent actions taken by the Organization. The m...
Barry W. Bobst; Joe T. Davis
Land use shifts between cropland and pasture affect the demand for beef cow inventories because economically viable cow-calf enterprises are pasture-based. Econometric analysis indicates an inverse relationship of −36.6 thousand head of beef cows per million acre change in harvested cropland. Curtailment of the expansion phase of the current cattle cycle and subsequent declines in cow numbers is in part attributable to large acreages converted from pasture to cropland in the early 1980s. Conv...
Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Plenty, Stephanie M; Catalano, Richard F; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W
Although it is common for secondary schools to implement alcohol policies to reduce alcohol misuse, there has been little evaluation of the efficacy of these policies. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the degree and type of alcohol policy enforcement in state representative samples of secondary students in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia (n = 1848). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the prospective association between student reports of school alcohol policy in Grade 8 and self-reported alcohol use in Grade 9, controlling for age, gender, state, family socio-economic status and Grade 8 alcohol use. The likelihood of students drinking on school grounds was increased when students perceived lax policy enforcement. Student perceptions of harm minimization alcohol messages, abstinence alcohol messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators predicted reduced likelihood of binge drinking. Students perceiving harm minimization messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators had a reduced likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related harms. Perceptions of harsh penalties were unrelated to drinking behaviour. These results suggest that perceived policy enforcement may lessen drinking at school 1 year later and that harm minimization messages and counselling approaches may also lessen harmful drinking behaviours as harm minimization advocates suggest.
Snyder, Jason; Frank, Lisa A. C.
The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across five sections of a managerial communication course (N = 150) to test the role of course policies and student perceptions of the instructor in influencing student absenteeism and three indicators of student learning: grades, affective learning, and cognitive learning. The experimental group…
Van Hal, Guido; Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre; Stock, Christiane
BACKGROUND: Many studies indicate that a substantial part of the student population drinks excessively, yet most European universities do not have an alcohol policy. In the absence of an alcohol guideline at universities and the easy access to alcohol sold at the student cafeteria, for instance......, students recognized that alcohol was a big problem on their campuses yet they knew very little, if any, about the rules concerning alcohol on their campus. CONCLUSIONS: Students will not support an on campus alcohol restriction and a policy should therefore focus on prevention initiatives....
Sabiston, Catherine M; Lovato, Chris Y; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K Stephen
The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10-11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-level modeling results revealed that the school a student attended was associated with his/her smoking behavior. Individual-level variables that were associated with student smoking included lower school connectedness, a greater number of family and friends who smoked, higher perceptions of student smoking prevalence, lower perceptions of student smoking frequency, and stronger perceptions of the school tobacco context. School-level variables associated with student smoking included weaker policy intention indicating prohibition and assistance to overcome tobacco addiction, weaker policy implementation involving strategies for enforcement, and a higher number of students smoking on school property. These findings suggest that the school environment is important to tobacco control strategies, and that various policy dimensions have unique relationships to student smoking. School tobacco policies should be part of a comprehensive approach to adolescent tobacco use.
Miskovic, Maja; Curcic, Svjetlana
This paper investigates the policies and politics of including European Roma students in mainstream educational systems within the context of two European Union (EU) policies: the Decade of Roma Inclusion (2005-2015) and EU National Roma Integration Strategies (2013-2020). Drawing on the scholarship about inclusion and its practical achievements,…
Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark
The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…
The question of the retention of ethnic minority university students in universities in the Netherlands, especially at the University of Utrecht, is examined. In particular, the cases of Surinamese, Antillian, and Aruban students, foreign refugee students, particularly medical doctors, and Turkish
Department of Veterans Affairs — Number of life insurance policies for each administered life insurance program listed by state. Data is current as of 08/31/11. All programs are closed to new issues...
Despite the fact that students are often articulate about qualifications policy matters, their perspectives are rarely listened to. This is because governments shape qualifications policy according to pre-set beliefs and are unwilling to countenance dissonant or outsider views. Using the Diploma qualification and inclusion of vocational…
Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali
Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…
Coyle, C; Saunderson, W; Freeman, R
To examine the attitudes of dental students and social policy students towards learning disabilities in order to identify whether attitudinal differences exist and to suggest recommendations in the dental undergraduate curriculum commensurate with Government legislation in the United Kingdom. A cross-sectional survey of all undergraduate dental students at Queen's University, Belfast and all undergraduate social policy students at University of Ulster. A convenience sample of all undergraduate dental and social policy students was obtained. The students completed a questionnaire to assess attitude towards learning disability. The data were analysed using Cronbach's alpha, Student's t-test and analysis of variance (one-way fixed effect model). The level of statistical significance was set at 5%. The response rate was 83% for dental students and 97% for social policy students. Dental students had significantly lower mean scores and hence less favourable attitudes to learning disability compared with social policy students. Female dental students had significantly higher mean scores and hence more favourable attitudes to learning disability compared with male students. The findings show that dental undergraduates compared with social policy students had less favourable attitudes towards those with learning disability. Dental students should receive training in learning disability and undergraduate programmes should be conceptualised as a spiral curriculum. It is proposed that social policy theory should be introduced into undergraduate dental curricula, that early exposure to learning disability in a community setting should be incorporated into the first undergraduate years and in later undergraduate clinical years students should treat patients with learning disability in order to promote experiential learning and reflective practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Results Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p Conclusion School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.
Pavlakis, Alexandra E.
Students and families experience homelessness and high mobility (HHM) in vastly different ways. Yet, popular media, academic scholars, and practitioners often overlook this diversity. Building on a 2012 special issue of "Educational Researcher," I discuss recent research that highlights the heterogeneity of HHM student and families. In…
Norris, Susan L; Holmer, Haley K; Burda, Brittany U; Ogden, Lauren A; Fu, Rongwei
Conflict of interest (COI) of clinical practice guideline (CPG) sponsors and authors is an important potential source of bias in CPG development. The objectives of this study were to describe the COI policies for organizations currently producing a significant number of CPGs, and to determine if these policies meet 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards. We identified organizations with five or more guidelines listed in the National Guideline Clearinghouse between January 1, 2009 and November 5, 2010. We obtained the COI policy for each organization from publicly accessible sources, most often the organization's website, and compared those polices to IOM standards related to COI. 37 organizations fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of which 17 (46%) had a COI policy directly related to CPGs. These COI policies varied widely with respect to types of COI addressed, from whom disclosures were collected, monetary thresholds for disclosure, approaches to management, and updating requirements. Not one organization's policy adhered to all seven of the IOM standards that were examined, and nine organizations did not meet a single one of the standards. COI policies among organizations producing a large number of CPGs currently do not measure up to IOM standards related to COI disclosure and management. CPG developers need to make significant improvements in these policies and their implementation in order to optimize the quality and credibility of their guidelines.
Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene; Shyyan, Vitaliy
Federal policy initiatives such as the flexibility waivers for accountability are requiring that states transition away from the use of an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). It is expected that those students who had participated in that assessment will instead participate in the state's general assessment (or a…
In the 1999-2000 school year, only about 12 percent of U.S. public schools required their students to wear uniforms. Since then, the number of schools requiring uniforms has risen. Uniform policies are now in place at about a fifth of all public schools in the United States--but do school uniforms really level the playing field? New research has…
Marshall, Brenda L; Roberts, Katherine J; Donnelly, Joseph W; Rutledge, Imani N
Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422 freshman students was surveyed during their first month at a 4-year public college. Findings indicated that the majority of students (89%) were aware of campus policies, yet of those who were aware, less than half (44%) were accepting of these campus rules and regulations. In addition, the majority (79%) of students drank at social events, despite this behavior being in direct violation of campus alcohol policies. However, those who supported campus rules consumed significantly less alcohol at social events than those who opposed or had no opinion of the rules. Also, those who supported the rules perceived that their peers and students in general consumed significantly less alcohol at social events than those who were opposed or had no opinion. This outcome supports the premise established by several theories of behavior change including the theory of planned behavior, which state that behavior is influenced less by knowledge than by attitude and intention.
Reports that all six regional college/university accrediting agencies have rewritten, or are currently rewriting, their standards to place more emphasis on what students learn, accept the growth of part-time faculty members, develop ways to evaluate the effectiveness of distance learning, and let colleges tailor accreditation process to their own…
Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee; Talukdar, Joy
The curriculum policies for students with special needs across Australia have been reviewed. The Curriculum Framework in the Australian Capital Territory is used to inform their school based curriculum. The Northern Territory Curriculum Framework describes what learners are expected to achieve and what learners have achieved. The New South Wales…
Virginia Department of Education, 2015
The Virginia Board of Education's "Student Conduct Policy Guidelines" were first developed in 1994 in response to action by the 1993 General Assembly requiring the Virginia Board of Education to establish such guidelines. In 2004, the "Guidelines" underwent a major revision in response to requirements of § 22.1-279.6. of the…
Dente, Bruno; Piraino, Nadia
For both efficiency and equity reasons, student loans schemes have been introduced by several countries. Empirical work has been carried out in order to measure the effectiveness of these policies, but, with few exceptions, their results are not comparable because of their concentration on specific aspects. The present work suggests a…
Aaron, Michael D.
The relationship between attendance policies and student grades in college courses was investigated. Specifically, a calculated grade point average was determined for all academic classes taught at Shelton State Community College between 2000 and 2008. These grade point averages were compared descriptively and statistically in an effort to…
Raines, James C.
Explores two principles of educational policy--appropriate education and least-restrictive environment--within the context of the current debate about integrating students with disabilities into public education. Reviews the origins of exclusion, and traces the foundations of inclusion back to the civil rights movement. Explains three approaches…
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa; Ralston, Katherine
This study assessed the impact of changes in school food policy on student lunch consumption in middle schools. Two years of lunch food records were collected from students at three middle schools in the Houston, Texas area. During the first year, no changes occurred in the school food environment. After that school year was completed, chips and dessert foods were removed from the snack bars of all schools by the Food Service Director. Students recorded the amount and source of food and beverage items consumed. Point-of-service purchase machines provided a day-by-day electronic data file with food and beverage purchases from the snack bars during the 2-year period. Independent t-tests and time series analyses were used to document the impact of the policy change on consumption and sales data between the two years. In general, student consumption of sweetened beverages declined and milk, calcium, vitamin A, saturated fat and sodium increased after the policy change. Snack chips consumption from the snack bar declined in year 2; however, consumption of snack chips and candy from vending increased and the number of vending machines in study schools doubled during the study period. Ice cream sales increased significantly in year 2. Policy changes on foods sold in schools can result in changes in student consumption from the targeted environments. However, if all environments do not make similar changes, compensation may occur.
Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth
This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…
... PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by the State and Its Subgrantees? Participation of Students Enrolled... participation of public school students: (a) The needs of students enrolled in private schools. (b) The number...
This student guide in agricultural marketing is designed to accompany the lessons in the curriculum unit, "Instructor's Guide in Agricultural Marketing" (CE 025 683). There are six sections in the student guide: (1) Introduction to Marketing; (2) Marketing Cash Grains; (3) Marketing Grain with a Protected Price; (4) Marketing Cash Livestock; (5)…
Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A; Morin, Alain
Undergraduate Students' interest in taking quantitative vs. non quantitative courses has received limited attention even though it has important consequences for higher education. Previous studies have collected course interest ratings at the end of the courses as part of student evaluation of teaching (SET) ratings, which may confound prior interest in taking these courses with students' actual experience in taking them. This study is the first to examine undergraduate students' interest in quantitative vs. non quantitative courses in their first year of studies before they have taken any quantitative courses. Three hundred and forty students were presented with descriptions of 44 psychology courses and asked to rate their interest in taking each course. Student interest in taking quantitative vs non quantitative courses was very low; the mean interest in statistics courses was nearly 6 SDs below the mean interest in non quantitative courses. Moreover, women were less interested in taking quantitative courses than men. Our findings have several far-reaching implications. First, evaluating professors teaching quantitative vs. non quantitative courses against the same SET standard may be inappropriate. Second, if the same SET standard is used for the evaluation of faculty teaching quantitative vs. non quantitative courses, faculty are likely to teach to SETs rather than focus on student learning. Third, universities interested primarily in student satisfaction may want to expunge quantitative courses from their curricula. In contrast, universities interested in student learning may want to abandon SETs as a primary measure of faculty teaching effectiveness. Fourth, undergraduate students who are not interested in taking quantitative courses are unlikely to pursue graduate studies in quantitative psychology and unlikely to be able to competently analyze data independently.
Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A.; Morin, Alain
Undergraduate Students' interest in taking quantitative vs. non quantitative courses has received limited attention even though it has important consequences for higher education. Previous studies have collected course interest ratings at the end of the courses as part of student evaluation of teaching (SET) ratings, which may confound prior interest in taking these courses with students' actual experience in taking them. This study is the first to examine undergraduate students' interest in quantitative vs. non quantitative courses in their first year of studies before they have taken any quantitative courses. Three hundred and forty students were presented with descriptions of 44 psychology courses and asked to rate their interest in taking each course. Student interest in taking quantitative vs non quantitative courses was very low; the mean interest in statistics courses was nearly 6 SDs below the mean interest in non quantitative courses. Moreover, women were less interested in taking quantitative courses than men. Our findings have several far-reaching implications. First, evaluating professors teaching quantitative vs. non quantitative courses against the same SET standard may be inappropriate. Second, if the same SET standard is used for the evaluation of faculty teaching quantitative vs. non quantitative courses, faculty are likely to teach to SETs rather than focus on student learning. Third, universities interested primarily in student satisfaction may want to expunge quantitative courses from their curricula. In contrast, universities interested in student learning may want to abandon SETs as a primary measure of faculty teaching effectiveness. Fourth, undergraduate students who are not interested in taking quantitative courses are unlikely to pursue graduate studies in quantitative psychology and unlikely to be able to competently analyze data independently. PMID:24358284
Describes an assignment in which students write a short memo report analyzing and comparing both what a company says in its annual report and what its balance sheet shows. Describes four simple mathematical formulas students can use to quickly diagnose a company's financial health. Appends a sample of the short report format. (RS)
This digest reviews ways to provide Arab Americans with a supportive school environment and all students with an accurate and unbiased education about the Middle East. The school climate will make Arab American students feel more welcome if Arab culture is included in multicultural courses and activities, and if the staff works to eliminate…
Watts, Allison W; Lovato, Chris Y; Card, Antony; Manske, Steve R
The objective of this study was to explore students' perceptions of school policy characteristics that influence the location of smoking while at school. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth in grades 7-12 as part of the 2006-2007 Youth Smoking Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression to examine how students' perceptions of school policies predicted smoking behavior on and off school grounds in 11,881 students who had ever smoked. Separate analyses were conducted for grades 7-9 and 10-12. In both grades 7-9 and 10-12, perceiving clear rules about smoking decreased the likelihood that a student would smoke on school grounds, while perceiving that a high percentage of peers smoke, that there are school rules about smoking, that students obey the rules, and that students can be fined for smoking increased the likelihood that a student would smoke off school grounds. Clearly perceived rules about smoking encourage students not to smoke on school grounds; however, perceptions of rules, along with strong enforcement, may displace behavior off of school grounds. Non-smoking policies should be part of a comprehensive approach, that supports cessation.
Abdullah, Doria; Abd Aziz, Mohd Ismail; Mohd Ibrahim, Abdul Latiff
The movement of students across borders has had profound impact on higher education policy development. This article seeks to unpack international student mobility through a discourse approach, using five policy documents on international student mobility from well-established recruiters of international students. Eight headline findings are…
Leffert, Kenneth L.; And Others
This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain 10 lessons to enhance an Agricultural Science I course for grade 9. The lessons cover the following topics: introduction, psychology and handling, conformation and selection, genetics and reproduction, herd health, hoof care, nutrition, equipment and facilities, handling horses,…
The federal government has made a policy choice to share Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) information with colleges. This arrangement has been viewed as an administrative detail by students, parents, policymakers, and even economists. The results of this study demonstrate that this seemingly unimportant administrative detail is…
In the knowledge based economy, brain gain has vital importance for many countries. However, the non-English speaking countries, such as Korea and Japan, face a similar disadvantage in attracting talented foreigners. International student policy plays an important role in attracting and fostering future talents in such countries. In this paper, the characteristics of international student policy and brain gain/circulation policy of Korea will be analyzed in light of its emigration history and...
Losq, Christine S.
For the last several years teachers have been using counters and connected cube "trains" and creating base-10 block models to help students develop number sense and understand number concepts. It is described how ten-frame tiles could be more useful tool for building number understanding for many students.
This "Briefing" presents information about the initial tertiary education experiences, such as satisfaction with aspects of student life and changes to initial enrolments, of two groups of young people, based on two recent Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) research reports. One study focused on the first year experiences of…
Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.
Many children and adults have difficulty gaining a comprehensive understanding of rational numbers. Although fractions are taught before decimals and percentages in many countries, including the USA, a number of researchers have argued that decimals are easier to learn than fractions and therefore teaching them first might mitigate children's…
Namkung, Jessica M; Fuchs, Lynn S
The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive predictors of calculations and number line estimation with whole numbers and fractions. At-risk 4 th -grade students ( N = 139) were assessed on 7 domain-general abilities (i.e., working memory, processing speed, concept formation, language, attentive behavior, and nonverbal reasoning) and incoming calculation skill at the start of 4 th grade. Then, they were assessed on whole-number and fraction calculation and number line estimation measures at the end of 4 th grade. Structural equation modeling and path analysis indicated that processing speed, attentive behavior, and incoming calculation skill were significant predictors of whole-number calculations whereas language, in addition to processing speed and attentive behavior, significantly predicted fraction calculations. In terms of number line estimation, nonverbal reasoning significantly predicted both whole-number and fraction outcome, with numerical working memory predicting whole-number number line estimation and language predicting fraction number line estimation. Findings are discussed in terms of distinctions between whole-number and fraction development and between calculations and number line learning.
Gower, Amy L.; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W.
Background: Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying…
Although number sense is difficult to define, it involves having a good intuition about numbers and their relationships, including the ability to have a "feel" for the relative size of numbers and to make reasonable estimations. Students with good number sense typically recognise the relative magnitude of numbers, appreciate the effect…
Hough, Heather; Witte, Joe
With the passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, California state policymakers are tasked with determining the subgroup threshold for school-level reporting. To inform this decision, this policy brief explores the implications of utilizing various subgroup sizes using data from the CORE Districts. The authors find that the 20+…
Luck, Jo; Rossi, Dolene
Central Queensland University (CQU) is progressing toward a policy whereby all course materials will only be available online from 2013. The assumption by decision-makers within CQU is that current and potential students are comfortable enough with the use of technology that they will accept all their course materials being delivered online. This…
Ackerman, Amy; Etow, Alexis; Bartel, Sara; Ribisl, Kurt M
Because higher density of tobacco retailers is associated with greater tobacco use, U.S. communities seek ways to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers. This approach can reduce the concentration of tobacco retailers in poorer communities, limit youth exposure to tobacco advertising, and prevent misleading associations between tobacco and health messaging. Communities can reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers by imposing minimum distance requirements between existing retailers, capping the number of retailers in a given geographic area, establishing a maximum number of retailers proportional to population size, and prohibiting sales at certain types of establishments, such as pharmacies, or within a certain distance of locations serving youth. Local governments use direct regulation, licensing, or zoning laws to enact these changes. We analyze each approach under U.S. constitutional law to assist communities in selecting and implementing one or more of these methods. There are few published legal opinions that address these strategies in the context of tobacco control. But potential constitutional challenges include violations of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment, which protects property owners from onerous government regulations, and under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses, which protect business owners from arbitrary or unreasonable regulations that do not further a legitimate government interest. Because there is an evidentiary basis linking the density of tobacco retailers to smoking rates in a community, courts are likely to reject constitutional challenges to carefully crafted laws that reduce the number of tobacco retailers. Our review of the relevant constitutional issues confirms that local governments have the authority to utilize laws and policies to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers in their communities, given existing public health data. The analysis guides policy
Yuen, Celeste Yuet-Mui
Every society has an obligation to provide quality education to children regardless of their socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. The number of cross-boundary students (CBS) from Mainland China in Hong Kong schools is increasing. This article reviews educational policy and provision for educating CBS, presenting data from an empirical study.…
Sá, Creso M.; Sabzalieva, Emma
As the number of globally mobile students has expanded, governments are assumed to be consistently and intentionally competing for talent, in what has been called a "great brain race". While the notion of competition has become dominant, there is little evidence on long-term policy dynamics in this field, not only across jurisdictions…
Miele, Anthony M.
The purpose of this study was to determine how the study of number theory might affect high school students' metacognitive functioning, mathematical curiosity, and/or attitudes towards mathematics. The study utilized questionnaire and/or interview responses of seven high school students from New York City and 33 high school students from Dalian,…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the number sense performance of secondary school students according to grade level, gender and the components of number sense. A descriptive survey design was used to collect data. A total of 576 secondary school students (291 girls and 285 boys) participated in the study. The results revealed that the…
Kusuma, Josephine; Sulistiawati
Multiplication of numbers from 1 to 10 is very important as it provides the basis for learning multiplication of other larger numbers as well as other related mathematical operations. How do students learn multiplication? Usually students just memorize the results of multiplication. This is often performed without a complete comprehension of the…
Full Text Available Students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT are at risk for harassment due to their sexual orientation or gender identification with over 85% of LGBT students in the United States (US reporting such harassment. These statistics demonstrate one aspect of the significance of this issue, but the cost of human life in some instances has revealed another layer of importance related to a need for safety policies for LGBT students. Even though a need exists for such policies, the practice of heteronormativity found in US policymaking regarding bullying does not protect victims or curb the violence. This essay highlights several recent developments in anti-bullying policy in US schools that shows the existence of heteronormativity, which is not helping to pro-tect LGBT students. By understanding the discrimination encouraged by current policy, future policy can be better shaped to protect LGBT students.
Hourieh, Shamshiri-Milani; Abolghasem, Pourreza; Feizollah, Akbari
Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights.
Aber, Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Raver, Cybele
Now, more than ever, it is crucial to address the topic of children and poverty in the U.S., given current scientific knowledge about poverty's influence on children and effective strategies to mitigate its negative impact. In this report, we summarize the best available information on definitions and trends in child poverty, policy responses to…
McDermott, Kathryn A.; Frankenberg, Erica; Diem, Sarah
Many school districts have recently revised, or tried to revise, their policies for assigning students to schools, because the legal and political status of racial and other kinds of diversity is uncertain, and the districts are facing fiscal austerity. This article presents case studies of politics and student assignment policy in three large…
Baillie, Lynne; Callaghan, Doris; Smith, Michelle L.
Background: Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. Methods: The authors conducted 8 focus groups at…
Griswold, Carolyn P.
A study explored constraints experienced by policy researchers working for the National Commission on Student Assistance, founded in 1980 to investigate federal student-aid policy. It analyzed how political changes limited the scope of research questions, influenced reporting of results, and reduced effects of research on policymaking. Findings…
Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd S.
Reports on a study that investigated the effect of a university's solicitation policy on students' acquisition and usage of credit cards. Attempts by universities to limit access to and use of credit cards appear to be ineffective. Suggests alternative policies be constructed around teaching students sound money management skills. (Author/JDM)
This qualitative investigation explores the responses of 22 U.S. urban public high school students when confronted with their newly imposed school uniform policy. Specifically, the study assessed students' appraisals of the policy along with compliance and academic performance. Guided by ecological human development perspectives and grounded in…
McGuire, Maureen; Goldstein, Carol; Claywell, Lora; Patton, Ryan
This is a content analysis of the reflections of 187 nursing students after experiential learning opportunities in both master's and doctoral level health policy courses. Results show that experiential activities in a health policy class for nursing students increased their knowledge of the legislative process and motivated them to identify newfound intent to become more involved in the political process.
Saelzer, Christine; Lenski, Anna Eva
Truant student behavior can be due to various reasons. Some of these reasons are located in schools. So far, little is known about how student perception of school rules is related to truancy. This study aims to identify types of school attendance policies and how these policies are associated with individual truancy. Self-reports from the German…
National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.
Over the years, it has been painfully apparent that student interest and participation has dropped off dramatically in those student councils which have dragged their feet, contenting themselves with sock hops and candy sales. At a time when many new groups are appearing on the scene, espousing a variety of causes, student councils must work…
Finn, Amber N.; Ledbetter, Andrew M.
In this study, we extend previous work on teacher technology policies by refining the teacher technology policies instrument to account for the technology purpose (social, academic) and type (cell phone, laptop/tablet), and examine a model of teacher technology policies and perceived learning. We found that students are more sensitive to policies…
Gottfried, Michael A., Ed.; Conchas, Gilberto Q., Ed.
Like medical practitioners, educators share the moral obligation to "first, do no harm." But as this provocative volume shows, education policies do not always live up to this ideal, especially policies intended to help our most vulnerable students. "When School Policies Backfire" draws our attention to education policies…
Lineburg, Mark Young
An Analysis of Random Student Drug Testing Policies and Patterns of Practice In Virginia Public Schools Mark Y. Lineburg Abstract There were two purposes to this study. First, the study was designed to determine which Virginia public school districts have articulated policies that govern random drug testing of students and if school districtsâ policies aligned with U.S. Supreme Court standards and Virginia statutes. The second purpose was to ascertain the patterns of pract...
Mousley, Keith; Kelly, Ronald R.
Research has shown that fraction magnitude and whole number division are important precursors to learning and understanding fractions. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students are consistently challenged with learning fractions from K-12 through college. Sixty DHH college students were tested for both their understanding of magnitude between two…
Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.
Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…
This paper describes a classroom experiment where students use techniques found in the history of mathematics to learn about an important mathematical idea. More precisely, sixth graders in a primary school follow Archimedes's method of exhaustion in order to compute the number p. Working in a computer environment, students inscribe and…
Whiteman, Rodney S.; Shi, Dingjing; Plucker, Jonathan A.
This policy brief explores Senate Enrolled Act 001 (SEA 1), specifically the provisions for how teachers must be evaluated. After a short summary of SEA 1 and its direct changes to evaluation policies and practices, the brief reviews literature in teacher evaluation and highlights important issues for school corporations to consider when selecting…
Cornett, Joshua Stephen
Students' behavior on buses continues to be an issue that requires administrators to spend significant time investigating and applying consequences for the behavior (Neatrour, 1994; Pattington, 1945; Putnam, Handler, Ramirez-Plat, and Luiselli, 2003). The purpose of this study was to identify policies and practices that may improve student bus behavior. Two research questions were addressed: (a) What policies could school districts implement to facilitate the improvement of student bus beh...
Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Schneider, Melissa A
To understand perceptions of faculty and students about attendance policies in baccalaureate nursing programs. Classroom attendance is an issue of debate across academic disciplines. A mixed-methods study was conducted using qualitative data from a stratified random sample of 65 accredited baccalaureate nursing programs; 591 students and 91 faculty from 19 schools responded. Sixty-two percent of faculty thought students who missed class exhibited unprofessional behavior; 69 percent believed students who missed class were less successful in the clinical setting. Students (57 percent) and faculty (66 percent) believed there should be an attendance policy. Twenty-nine students reported needing a break in workload (16.8 percent) or did not find class time valuable (11.8 percent). Variability exists in student and faculty beliefs regarding attendance policies. Understanding these viewpoints and utilizing creative teaching approaches will facilitate learning and create an environment of teamwork and mutual respect.
Martin, Christie; Lambert, Richard; Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Pugalee, David
The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Assessing Math Concepts AMC Anywhere Hiding and Ten Frame Assessments, formative assessments of primary students' number sense skills. Each assessment has two parts, where Part 1 is intended to be foundational skills for part two. Part 1 includes manipulatives whereas Part 2 does not. Student data from 228 kindergarten through second grade teachers with a total of 3,666 students was analyzed using Rasch scaling. Data analyses indicated that when the two assessments were examined separately the intended order of item difficulty was clear. When the parts of both assessments were analyzed together, the items in Part 2 were not consistently more difficult that the items in Part 1. This suggests an alternative sequence of tasks in that students may progress from working with a specific number with manipulatives then without manipulatives rather than working with a variety of numbers with manipulatives before moving onto assessments without manipulatives.
Smith, Ryan Lee
The purpose of this study was to use human capital theory to develop a policy approach towards college student migration in Illinois. A rate of return analysis revealed the social rate of return for college student migrants who return to Illinois and the private rate of return was 15.95%. It was estimated that due to college student migration in…
The author analyzed the effects that Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) had on the number of words in a spelling test that students with learning disabilities in reading and writing spelled correctly. By means of an ABAB design, she investigated using CWPT in relation to the amount of correctly spelled words. The results indicated that the number of…
Subramaniam, Bs; Hande, S; Komattil, R
The attendance mandate for the medical course in Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, India was increased from 75% to 90% based on the assumption that the mandatory increase will improve the students' performance. To find out whether there is any correlation between class attendance and academic performance. This was an institution based retrospective analytical study. Students who have completed Phase I (first two and a half years) of the MBBS course were included in the study. Student marks and attendance, from the database were obtained from three random batches, each, from two clusters A and B respectively. Those who had a mandatory attendance requirement of 75% belonged to A (n = 243), and those who had a mandatory attendance percentage of 90% belonged to B (n = 360). Statistical analyses performed included, Pearson 2 tailed correlation to correlate class attendance with student performance; Cluster analysis to classify group average in a similarity matrix; t-test to determine significance of difference in percentage of students who attained 100% when the college changed mandatory attendance from 75% to 90%; Mann-Whitney test to find out if there was a better performance in university exam when attendance policy changed. There was a significant correlation between attendance and the students who passed in the University exam. The number of students in the pass category was maximum (>90%) compared to students in distinction and failed categories. Percentage of students with 100% attendance rose from 4% (n = 10) to 11% (n = 40) when the mandatory attendance was increased from 75% to 90%. Attendance policy correlated with better academic performance. Reducing absenteeism, probably contributed to the improved academic performance of the students. But the link between attendance and best and worst performances could not be predicted because of small numbers in every batch.
Brown, Joel; And Others
A mailed survey was conducted of students' opinions on issues relevant to the university's policy toward the consumption of alcoholic beverages on campus. Responses were received from 402 members of a random sample of 496 students from the Twin Cities Campus of the University of Minnesota. Key findings include: A majority of respondents believed…
Roxburgh, Allison L.
Through my experience I have found students often rely on concrete or pictorial strategies to solve mathematical problems. These strategies are great to build an understanding in mathematical concepts. However, using these strategies becomes a tedious task when working with multi-digit numbers to solve problems involving mathematical operations. For example, a student who relies on drawing base ten blocks to solve three-digit addition problems may experience fatigue, as this is not the most e...
Amos, Jason, Ed.
"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Waiving Away High School Graduation Rate Accountability?: State NCLB Waiver Proposals Threaten to Weaken…
Amos, Jason, Ed.
"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Problems Down the Road: House Passes Congressional Budget Resolutions, Sets Overall Spending Cap at $19 Billion Below Senate;…
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009
"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Congress Begins Budget Debate: House and Senate Budget Plans Accommodate President Obama's Education Proposals; (2)…
Amos, Jason, Ed.
"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) State of the Union Preview: In Email to Supporters, Obama Highlights Economy and Jobs, Education, Deficit Reduction, and…
This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…
Amos, Jason, Ed.
"Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) Digital Learning Meets Digital Democracy: Alliance for Excellent Education Accepting Public Feedback on New Digital Learning…
Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip; Caudery, Tim
To assess whether the Erasmus student exchange program contributes to EU’s language policy aim of furthering multilingualism/plurilingualism, this presentation draws on interviews with, and tests taken by, some 50 incoming exchange students in Scandinavia and employs Bourdieu’s concept of capital...... in explaining individual variation in students’ language goals and gains.......To assess whether the Erasmus student exchange program contributes to EU’s language policy aim of furthering multilingualism/plurilingualism, this presentation draws on interviews with, and tests taken by, some 50 incoming exchange students in Scandinavia and employs Bourdieu’s concept of capital...
Potter, S J; Edwards, K M; Banyard, V L; Stapleton, J G; Demers, J M; Moynihan, M M
To examine the efficacy of different methods (ie, in-class policy reading; in-class policy reading and discussion; no reading or discussion) to deliver campus sexual misconduct policy information to students on 7 campuses. A total of 1,195 participants at 7 colleges and universities participated in the study from August to October 2014. Participants were randomly assigned at the class level and completed pretest and posttest surveys assessing knowledge of campus policy and resources and confidence to seek help for sexual assault. Students exposed to a larger dosage of material (in-class policy reading plus discussion) showed greater positive changes in attitudes and knowledge than students who did not receive information or were only read the policy. However, on some indices, students who were only read the policy showed positive outcomes compared with students receiving no intervention. Colleges and universities must use engaging methods to disseminate campus sexual misconduct policies to students.
Bennett, Brooke L; Deiner, Melodi; Pokhrel, Pallav
Currently, most college campuses across the U.S. in some way address on-campus cigarette smoking, mainly through policies that restrict smoking on campus premises. However, it is not well understood whether college-level anti-smoking policies help reduce cigarette smoking among students. In addition, little is known about policies that may have an impact on student smoking behavior. This study attempted to address these issues through a literature review. A systematic literature review was performed. To identify relevant studies, the following online databases were searched using specific keywords: Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Studies that met the exclusion and inclusion criteria were selected for review. Studies were not excluded based on the type of anti-smoking policy studied. Total 11 studies were included in the review. The majority of the studies (54.5%) were cross-sectional in design, 18% were longitudinal, and the rest involved counting cigarette butts or smokers. Most studies represented more women than men and more Whites than individuals of other ethnic/racial groups. The majority (54.5%) of the studies evaluated 100% smoke-free or tobacco-free campus policies. Other types of policies studied included the use of partial smoking restriction and integration of preventive education and/or smoking cessation programs into college-level policies. As far as the role of campus smoking policies on reducing student smoking behavior is concerned, the results of the cross-sectional studies were mixed. However, the results of the two longitudinal studies reviewed were promising in that policies were found to significantly reduce smoking behavior and pro-smoking attitudes over time. More longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the role of college anti-smoking policies on student smoking behavior. Current data indicate that stricter, more comprehensive policies, and policies that incorporate prevention and cessation programming
Hoffman, Pamela K.; Davey, Cynthia S.; Larson, Nicole; Grannon, Katherine Y.; Hanson, Carlie; Nanney, Marilyn S.
Weight-related outcomes were examined among high school students in Minnesota public school districts according to the quality of district wellness policies. Wellness policy strength and comprehensiveness were scored using the Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) for 325 Minnesota public school districts in 2013. The associations between…
Roberts, James A.
This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)
Obare, Francis; Birungi, Harriet
This paper explores the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policy context and the realities facing in-school young people in Kenya. It is based on a review of the health and education sector policy documents as well as data from self-administered questionnaires with 3624 male and female students from eight secondary schools in Nairobi. Findings…
Office of Safe and Healthy Students, US Department of Education, 2016
It has come to the Department of Education's (ED's) attention that many transgender students (i.e., students whose gender identity is different from the sex they were assigned at birth) report feeling unsafe and experiencing verbal and physical harassment or assault in school, and that these students may perform worse academically when they are…
Notten, Geranda; de Neubourg, Chris
Financial poverty indicators still play an important role in policymaking and evaluation. Countries such as the USA and the EU member states use one or several ‘official’ poverty indicators on which success of poverty reduction policy is regularly monitored. Whereas the US poverty indicator is based on an absolute concept of poverty, the EU Laeken indicator is based on a relative concept. But the consequences of such a decision are considerable. As absolute and relative poverty indicators ref...
Patrick, Megan E.; Lee, Christine M.
Objective: Retrospective summary, followback (retrospective diaries), and prospective daily diary measures of alcohol use among college students were compared across 29 days. Method: Participants were college students (n = 176; 60.2% female). Similarities in the three web-based reporting methods and both between-persons (i.e., gender, past drinking behavior, fraternity/sorority affiliation, average drinking behavior during the study period) and within-person (i.e., daily number of drinks, weekend days, Halloween, and week of study) predictors of concordance between reports of followback and prospective diaries were analyzed. Results: On prospective diaries, students reported a greater number of maximum drinks (compared with followback only) and a greater number of heavy drinking days in the past 2 weeks (compared with both followback and retrospective summary measures). In followback compared with prospective diaries, students tended to provide inflated accounts of their drinking behavior when reporting about occasions with greater typical drinking (i.e., weekends, Halloween) and deflated accounts of their drinking on their own heavier drinking days, especially if they were affiliated with a fraternity/sorority. Women and students who drank more on average across study days tended to provide deflated estimates of their day-to-day drinking in followback compared with prospective diary. Conclusions: Understanding the concordance and discordance in self-reported alcohol use is an important area for continued research efforts. PMID:20553664
Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M
Retrospective summary, followback (retrospective diaries), and prospective daily diary measures of alcohol use among college students were compared across 29 days. Participants were college students (n = 176; 60.2% female). Similarities in the three web-based reporting methods and both between-persons (i.e., gender, past drinking behavior, fraternity/sorority affiliation, average drinking behavior during the study period) and within-person (i.e., daily number of drinks, weekend days, Halloween, and week of study) predictors of concordance between reports of followback and prospective diaries were analyzed. On prospective diaries, students reported a greater number of maximum drinks (compared with followback only) and a greater number of heavy drinking days in the past 2 weeks (compared with both followback and retrospective summary measures). In followback compared with prospective diaries, students tended to provide inflated accounts of their drinking behavior when reporting about occasions with greater typical drinking (i.e., weekends, Halloween) and deflated accounts of their drinking on their own heavier drinking days, especially if they were affiliated with a fraternity/sorority. Women and students who drank more on average across study days tended to provide deflated estimates of their day-to-day drinking in followback compared with prospective diary. Understanding the concordance and discordance in self-reported alcohol use is an important area for continued research efforts.
Gersten, Russell; Schumacher, Robin F.; Jordan, Nancy C.
Magnitude understanding is critical for students to develop a deep understanding of fractions and more advanced mathematics curriculum. The research reports in this special issue underscore magnitude understanding for fractions and emphasize number lines as both an assessment and an instructional tool. In this commentary, we discuss how number…
St-Jacques, J. M.; McGee, S.; Janze, R.; Longman, M.; Pete, S.; Starblanket, N.
Canadian Indigenous people are an extremely poorly represented group in STEM today due to major barriers in obtaining a high school and then a university education. Approximately 10% of the undergraduate student population out of a total 12,600 students at the University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, is First Nations, Métis or Inuit. The university is located in a catchment region where 30% of the population is First Nations or Métis. Approximately 100 students majoring in the sciences, mathematics and engineering have self-declared themselves to be Indigenous. For the past two years, we have been running a pilot project, the Initiative to Support and Increase the Number of Indigenous Students in the Sciences, Mathematics and Engineering at the Aboriginal Student Centre, with financial support from the Deans of Science and Engineering. We provide student networking lunches, Indigenous scientist and engineer speakers and mentors and supplemental tutoring. Our program is actively supported and guided by Elder Noel Starblanket, former president of the National Indian Brotherhood (now the Assembly of First Nations). Our students are greatly interested in the health and environmental sciences (particularly water quality), with a sprinkling of physics, mathematics and engineering majors. Our students have gone on to graduate work with prestigious scholarships and a paid internship in engineering. We report here on various lessons learned: the involvement of elders is key, as is the acceptance of non-traditional academic paths, and any STEM support program must respect Indigenous culture. There is great interest in science and engineering on the part of these students, if scientists and engineers are willing to listen and learn to talk with these students on their own terms.
In 1997, Chicago implemented a policy that required algebra for all ninth-grade students, eliminating all remedial coursework. This policy increased opportunities to take algebra for low-skill students who had previously enrolled in remedial math. However, little is known about how schools respond to the policy in terms of organizing math…
Alcohol prohibition and legal or administrative sanctions have been implemented in attempts to curb alcohol drinking and drinking-while-driving in the general population as well as among college students. This dissertation study examines the impact of college alcohol prohibition and policy enforcement on students' alcohol drinking and…
Cooper, Daniel; Wang, J. Christina
This policy brief advances the growing literature on how student loan debt affects individuals' other economic decisions. Specifically, it examines the impact of student loan liabilities on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation. The analysis employs a rich set of financial and demographic control variables that are not…
Perry, Laura; McConney, Andrew
It is established that the socio-economic status (SES) of individual students is strongly associated with academic achievement but less is known about this relationship when both student and school socio-economic status are considered. To examine these associations at a finer grain, with the intent of informing educational funding policy, we…
Waddell, Glen R.; Singell, Larry D., Jr.
We examine whether there is discernable variation in the matriculation patterns of low-income students at public flagship institutions around changes in institutional financial-aid policies that target resident, low-income students with need-based aid. Overall, our results suggests that need is not being met on the extensive margin and that…
De Costa, Peter I.
This article reports on year-long critical ethnographic study conducted in a Singapore school and examines how the standard English language educational policy is interpreted by a Secondary 3 (Grade 9) female student from China. She is a member of an exclusive group of academically able students who has been carefully recruited by the local…
Diaz-Strong, Daysi; Gomez, Christina; Luna-Duarte, Maria E.; Meiners, Erica R.
This article examines how the denial of financial aid constrains undocumented students from pursuing higher education and discusses the interlocking relationship between federal immigration and higher education policies. Reporting on research data identifying that undocumented students pay for their education through work, family contributions,…
Arreeman, Inger Erixon
In Sweden, and in most other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, post-16 education is a general requirement to succeed in adult life. By the late 2000s, after about two decades of policies for student choice and publicly funded free schools, students' results in the Programme for International Student…
Leibrandt, Sarah Ohle
This dissertation investigates how low-resource high schools support (or not) high achieving, low-income students depending on how they enact college readiness agendas. My study was motivated by the lack of empirical research in two areas--how college readiness policies are being actualized for high achieving, low-income students and how these…
Sawyer, Holly N.
Illicit drug usage at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) is a topic of limited research. The research questions that guided this study were (a) What is the relationship between college policy on illicit drugs and students' frequency of drug usage after controlling for college location (urban or rural) and students' age,…
Nguyen, Lan Chi; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Renshaw, Peter
Although the teaching of English as a foreign language in primary schools has emerged as one of the major language-in-education policy decisions, students' perspectives on primary English have received very little research attention. Drawing on data from a larger study, this paper depicts primary school students' lived experiences in the English…
Penn, Cathy E
Errors in health care settings are common and potentially dangerous to patients. Errors will arise as novice nursing students practice skills in complex health care settings. This article describes one baccalaureate nursing program's approach toward student errors that integrates core competencies described in the Institute of Medicine's Health Professions Education report, the Quality and Safety in Education for Nurses project, and the position statement on Just Culture by the American Nurses Association. A consistent approach to defining and categorizing data about nursing student errors provides faculty with a framework for coaching students to safer nursing practice. Aggregate data may be used to identify gaps in the nursing program's curriculum.
Larsen, Eva Ladekjær; Andsager Smorawski, Gitte; Lund Krabak, Katrine
Background High alcohol consumption among university students is a well-researched health concern in many countries. At universities in Denmark, policies of alcohol consumption are a new phenomenon if existing at all. However, little is known of how students perceive campus alcohol policies...... topics such as experiences and attitudes towards alcohol consumption among students, regulations, and norms of alcohol use on campus. The analysis followed a pre-determined codebook. Results Alcohol consumption is an integrated practice on campus. Most of the participants found it unnecessary to make...
Ana María Porto-Castro
Full Text Available This work aims to approach the latest available numbers about students with specific need for educational support in the Autonomous Galician Community and in the State. For this, a secondary data analysis is carried out, using the information source of the Statistics of non-university education. The classification variables taken as reference are: sex, students with specific educational support needs, ownership of the centers, and educational level. The data are used in a descriptive way, using tables of frequency distribution. The results show that many students with special educational needs present behavioral/personality disorders; the students with high capacities are integrated mainly in public primary schools; a higher number of pupils than of girls is incorporated late into the educational system, above all, in public centers; Learning Disorders is the specific educational need for more common educational support. Finally, it should be noted that all the cases considered are more men than women and a greater presence of students in public centers. It is also worth noting that the figures show an equal panorama in the State as a whole and in the Galician Autonomous Community.
Bista, Krishna, Ed.; Foster, Charlotte, Ed.
Study abroad programs have proven beneficial for both the international student as well as the domestic community and school population interacting with the student. In an effort to promote cultural awareness, intercultural communications as well as opportunities for future study abroad program success, universities must take care to provide…
Focus and Scope. The Journal of Student Affairs in Africa (JSAA) is an independent, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary, open-access academic journal that publishes scholarly research and reflective discussions about the theory and practice of student affairs in Africa. JSAA aims to contribute to the professionalization of ...
Institute for College Access & Success, 2014
Since 2005, "The Institute for College Access & Success" (TICAS) and its Project on Student Debt have worked to reduce the risks and burdens of student debt. TICAS helped create and improve income-based repayment plans to keep federal loan payments manageable; strengthen Pell Grants, which reduce the need to borrow; and simplify the…
Olsen, Linda S.
This brief examines absences in September and students' attendance over the rest of the year. Attendance should be addressed before it becomes problematic. Chronic absenteeism, missing more than 20 days of a school year, is an early indicator of disengagement. High absence rates have negative consequences not only for individual students, but also…
Buizer, I.M.; Lawrence, A.
Forestry worldwide has a history of relying upon quantification, drawing on science and economics to compute core concepts such as the relationship between tree-based stand descriptors and marketable timber volumes. This number-oriented approach is grounded in rationalisation and sustained yield
Full Text Available This study sought to determine if playing a digital math game could increase student number sense (mathematical proficiency in numeracy. We used a pre- and post-assessment to measure the number sense of two groups of third grade students with the same mathematics teacher. One group played the game Wuzzit Trouble and the other did not. Overall, the group who played Wuzzit Trouble showed a significant increase in number sense between the pre- and post-assessment, compared to the other group who did not. A qualitative analysis of a novel problem revealed differences between the treatment and comparison groups from pre- to post-. A discussion of these findings and features of the game are addressed. Namely, two features inherent in Wuzzit Trouble are associated with the learners’ increased number sense. First, Wuzzit Trouble promoted mathematical proficiency by requiring learners to attend to several mathematical constraints at once. Second, the game engaged learners in an iterative process of decision-making by calling for students to try, check, and revise their strategy as they played.
Pereira, Nielsen; Knotts, J. Dusteen; Roberts, Julia Link
Educational legislation and policy can lead to effective educational practices, especially for student populations that have had equal access to education addressing their needs, such as students with disabilities and gifted students. This study was an examination of state legislation and policy related to twice-exceptional learners in the United…
Mughal, Abdul Waheed
In 2009, the United Kingdom government introduced the Tier 4 (general) student visa policy for foreign students, out of European Economic Area and Switzerland, aged 16 or over. According to this policy, any institution recruiting international students must be a highly trusted sponsor--a status determined by the UK Border Agency. Further, right to…
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathy; Zakeri, Issa
We assessed the effect of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on middle school student lunchtime food consumption. Three years of lunch food records were collected from middle school students in southeast Texas: baseline (2001-2002), after local district changes (2002-2003), and 1 year after implementation of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy (2005-2006). Students recorded amount and source of foods and beverages they consumed. Analysis of variance and covariance and nonparametric tests were used to compare intake after the policy change with intake during the 2 previous years. After implementation of the nutrition policy, student lunch consumption of vegetables, milk, and several nutrients increased (protein, fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and sodium), and consumption of less desirable items (sweetened beverages, snack chips) decreased, as did percentage of energy from fat. Most of the desired nutrients and foods (vegetables and milk) were obtained from the National School Lunch Program meal. Fewer sweetened beverages, candy, chips, and dessert foods were purchased and consumed, but more of these items were brought from home and purchased from the snack bar. Overall, state school nutrition policies can improve the healthfulness of foods consumed by students at lunch.
Using country panel data of student achievement from PISA, 2003-2012 combined with national-level teacher salary data from the OECD; this study investigates if relatively short term -5-years - changes in the level and structure of statutory teacher salaries affect student performance in the European countries. Our results show that there are marked differences between subjects and by the experience of teachers. Higher statutory teacher salaries and larger growth of teacher salaries at the fir...
Jozkowski, Kristen N.
Over the last few years, there have been some egregious examples of rape culture on college campuses that call into question the effectiveness of current sexual-assault policies. This article contains brief recaps of four recent events that took place at prominent American universities, drawn from a laundry list of contemporary examples. They…
Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna
Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…
Full Text Available Background and Objectives. The number of US allopathic medical school graduates choosing a residency in family medicine has fallen from 13.4% in 1999 to 10.5% in 2002. Concern about declining numbers has led to the development of programs to provide medical students exposure to family medicine outside the clerkship. This paper reports on the development and longitudinal achievements of a clinical summer externship program 1993 to 1999. Methods. The program description, practice settings, students experiences, and department commitment are described. The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the percentage of family medicine summer externship participants (n=115 who match into family medicine. Results. During the six years studied, 49 (43.4% of the participants matched into family medicine. Program participants viewed the program favorably, mean = 5.82 out of 6. Conclusions. The Ohio State University Department of Family Medicine Medical Student Summer Externship Program demonstrates an effective educational experience that can increase and/or attain the proportion of students going into family medicine at the time of graduation
Full Text Available The present article begins with a short analysis of the scientific literature, represented by theoretical and methodological aspects regarding the regression analysis. Then, it continues with the description of the data used for analysis and econometric model construction. The present paper also presents the adjusting and forecasting curve for the data analysed, as well as the final conclusions. The general conclusion is that in the following period the number of students will increase constantly.
Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen
The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10?11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-le...
Kaiser, Matthew M.; Seitz, Keshia M.; Walters, Elizabeth A.
Ritha Smith, assistant superintendent, and Seth Hanson, principal, are faced with a difficult decision. Taylor Harper is a transgender student who identifies as male and is openly attracted to females. Taylor's parents, Lane and Morgan Harper, are lesbians; they are fully supportive of their child's identification and are well versed in their…
State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2016
Access and affordability are the main themes of Goal 1 of The Virginia Plan for Higher Education. Progress toward these goals can be measured by a variety of means, but access and affordability serve as foundational guiding principles as the Commonwealth of Virginia crafts its annual and biennial higher-education budgets. Student-loan debt is but…
Research shows that chronic absenteeism can affect academic performance in later grades and is a key early warning sign that a student is more likely to drop out of high school. Several states enacted legislation to address this issue, and many states are currently discussing the utility of chronic absenteeism as an indicator of school quality or…
Scammell, Janet; Tait, Desiree; White, Sara; Tait, Michael
This study uses a lifeworld perspective to explore beginning students' values about nursing. Internationally, increasing care demand, a focus on targets and evidence of dehumanized care cultures have resulted in scrutiny of practitioner values. In England, selection policy dictates that prospective nursing students demonstrate person-centred values and care work experience. However, there is limited recent evidence exploring values at programme commencement or the effect of care experience on values. Mixed method study. A total of 161 undergraduate nursing students were recruited in 2013 from one English university. Thematic content analysis and frequency distribution to reveal descriptive statistics were used. Statistical analysis indicated that most of the values identified in student responses were not significantly affected by paid care experience. Five themes were identified: How I want care to be; Making a difference; The value of learning; Perceived characteristics of a nurse; and Respecting our humanity. Students readily drew on their experience of living to identify person-centred values about nursing.
Record, Rachael A
The purpose of this study was to examine the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework for understanding tobacco-free policy compliance behaviors. Undergraduate student smokers (n = 479) on a college campus with a tobacco-free policy were randomly selected to report their tobacco-free compliance behaviors and respond to TPB items. A path analysis found all constructs of the TPB model to be significantly related to tobacco-free policy compliance behaviors. The results obtained from this study fill gaps in the mostly atheoretical literature regarding our understanding of tobacco-free policy compliance behaviors as well as extend our knowledge of the TPB. Implications for this study provide recommendations for universities, health organizations, and government agencies currently attempting to enforce compliance with a tobacco-free policy.
Peiter, Andrea; And Others
This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain seven lessons about animal reproduction for inclusion in Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) agricultural education courses. The lessons cover the following topics: the male and female reproductive systems, puberty and the estrous cycle, conception and gestation,…
Peiter, Andrea; And Others
This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain five lessons about animal science for inclusion in Vocational Instructional Management System (VIMS) agricultural education courses. The lessons cover these topics: the monogastric digestive system, the ruminant digestive system, the importance of meeting nutritional needs, how…
This century has seen continued exponential growth in the use of digital technologies. In Australia, the proportion of students having access to a computer at home rose from about 91 per cent in 2000 to over 99 per cent in 2013, and access to the internet grew from 67 per cent in 2000 to 98 per cent in 2013. According to the 2013 report on the…
Pollard, Connie J.; Thorne, Tom
A Wyoming alternative high school successfully graduates at-risk students because of its student-centered environment. Flexibility in the timelines to earn credits, a cross-disciplinary curriculum, community partnerships, and meaningful career enterprises offer the "person-environment fit" needed by students at risk. Student counseling…
Today, while the number of Chinese students studying at universities abroad continues to rise, the number of international students studying in China has also greatly increased. As a destination country, China is third after only the United States and the United Kingdom. The situation seems to contradict the traditional theory of center-periphery, and this paper will specifically analyze whether China has moved from the periphery to the center of the knowledge production system. The number of...
Pi, Romina Antonella; Vidal, Paula Daniela; Brassesco, Bárbara Romina; Viola, Lorena; Aballay, Laura Rosana
There is increasing scientific evidence that nutrition influence positive and negative on health along life. Many studies have reported that the student population is a particularly vulnerable group from the nutritional point of view, due to it is characterized by meal skipping frequently and nibble between eating occasions. to establish the relationship between the number of daily dietary intakes and nutritional status in male students aged 23 to 33 years of the National Technological University, in the city of Córdoba, in 2013. in order to achieve this aim, a prospective, cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design was used. Descriptive and inferential analysis were applied by using multiple logistic regression models. Almost 50% of the sample analyzed presented overweight (OW) and 40% high body fat (BF). In relation to the intakes numbers, the students that take less than 4 and more than 6 had 2 times more chance of presenting overweight and high body fat. It was found that as age increases it also does the Body Fat Storage, whereas diminished physical activity increases the chance of having high Body Mass Index and Body Fat. Moreover, high ingestion of carbohydrates increases the chance of high Body Fat and Overweight, and a high intake of protein and lipids increases the risk of high Body Fat. it is recognized that high or low number of daily intakes than recommended, low level of physical activity, high consumption of carbohydrates and having more than 29 years is related to high overweight and body fat. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study is to understand how a policy that provided college-prep coursework for low-skill students may affect instructional organization within schools, and how such effects on instructional organization may have unintended consequences on academic outcomes of high-skill students who were not targeted by the policy. The author…
Today, as international students become more mobile, and as further diversification of mobility takes place, transnational strategic development is demanded of Japan's higher education policies in lieu of traditional concepts such as "international intellectual contribution" and "mutual international understanding." Global 30, the Project for Establishing a University Network for Internationalization, the Project for Promotion of Global Human Resources Development, and the Top Global Universi...
Wellen, Richard; Axelrod, Paul; Desai-Trilokekar, Roopa; Shanahan, Theresa
This paper examines the pattern of decision-making, lobbying, and influence that led to the landmark series of federal student assistance policies introduced by Jean Chretien's Liberal government in the late 1990s. The package of new initiatives--dubbed the Canada Opportunities Strategy--not only partially reversed an earlier period of fiscal…
Bradbury, Katharine; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.
Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show…
Hoss, Nickta; Eberle, Francis
This Policy Update highlights the mismatch between the skills taught in many teacher preparation programs and those needed to help students achieve rigorous learning standards. State boards of education have a role to play here. They have authority over preparation program standards and approval processes, curriculum, teacher certification and…
Centering around case studies of American military intervention (1898 to 1933) in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Nicaragua, this unit invites the student to compare the results of such intervention with the foreign policy goals and ideals the interventions were intended to implement. It confronts him with the dilemma of power in international…
National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower Education.
This manual covers basic policies and procedures governing four student loan and scholarship programs administered within the Bureau of Health Manpower, National Institutes of Health. An introductory chapter provides definitions, procedures, and reporting common to all programs, and this is followed by chapters describing: (1) The Health…
Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele
About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.
Lawson, Janelle E.; Cmar, Jennifer L.
For over 25 years, students with disabilities in California received educationally related mental health services through interagency collaboration between school districts and county mental health agencies. After a major change in state policy that eliminated state-mandated interagency collaboration, school districts in California are now solely…
Ander, Roseanna; Guryan, Jonathan; Ludwig, Jens
Improving the educational outcomes of economically disadvantaged children is a policy priority in the United States, and yet relatively little progress has been made in recent decades. Education reforms that aim to help economically disadvantaged students often focus on improving the quality with which grade-level material is taught, or the…
Parsi, Ace; Casey, Meghan
The nation's six million students with disabilities have graduation rates nearly 25 percent lower than their general education peers and significantly lower postsecondary enrollment and completion rates. For the last decade and a half, state policy leaders have decried No Child Left Behind's lack of flexibility and one-size-fits-all design for…
Hornberger, Nancy H.
Presents a framework of biliteracy development focusing on the following three continua: (1) the macro-micro continuum of policy; (2) the monolingual-bilingual continuum; and (3) the oral-literate continuum. These are discussed in the contexts of Cambodian and Puerto Rican students in two public elementary schools in Philadelphia. (SLD)
Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.
Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…
Obersteiner, Andreas; Reiss, Kristina; Ufer, Stefan
Theories of psychology and mathematics education recommend two instructional approaches to develop students' mental representations of number: The "exact" approach focuses on the development of exact representations of organized dot patterns; the "approximate" approach focuses on the approximate representation of analogue magnitudes. This study…
van Luit, J.E.H.; van der Molen, M.J.
Background Children from Asian countries score higher on early years’ arithmetic tests than children from Europe or the United States of America. An explanation for these differences may be the way numbers are named. A clear ten-structure like in the Korean language method leads to a better insight
Hughes, Alison; Condon, Louise
Aim To explore the experiences of student and novice health visitors in implementing health visiting policy reform pre- and post-qualification. In England, public health nursing has been subject to major policy reform. The Health Visitor Implementation Plan (2011) set out a plan to recruit increasing numbers of nurses and midwives to the profession to deliver an expanded and refocussed health visiting service. Exploring this policy change from the viewpoint of those new to health visiting offers a unique perspective into how a specific policy vision is translated into nursing practice. A descriptive qualitative study in which participants were enrolled on a one-year post-graduate health visiting course at a University in South West of England. Qualitative data were collected pre- and post-qualification. A total of 16 interviews and a focus group were conducted with nine participants between September 2012 and March 2013. Findings Descriptive data were interpreted using Lipsky's theoretical framework of street-level bureaucracy. Three themes emerged which relate to this 'bottom-up' perspective on policy implementation; readiness to operationalise policy, challenges in delivering the service vision; and using discretion in delivering the vision. Community public health nurses operate as street-level bureaucrats in negotiating the demands of policy and practice, and by this means, attempt to reconcile professional values with institutional constraints. Barriers to policy implementation at a local level mediate the effects of policy reform, ultimately impacting upon outcomes for children and families.
Ritchie, Lorrene D; Rosen, Nila J; Fenton, Keenan; Au, Lauren E; Goldstein, Lauren H; Shimada, Tia
Breakfast skipping has been associated with obesity. Schools have adopted breakfast policies to increase breakfast participation. Recently, there have been concerns that students in schools where breakfast is served in the classroom may be eating two breakfasts--one at home and one at school--thereby increasing their risk of excessive energy intake and weight gain. The study objective was to compare the prevalence of not eating breakfast, eating breakfast at home or school only, and eating double breakfasts (home and school) by students in schools with distinct breakfast policies and evaluate the relationship of breakfast policy to energy intake and diet quality. Baseline data were collected in 2011-2012 as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention to promote fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in low-resource elementary schools in California. Participants were 3,944 fourth and fifth graders from 43 schools, 20 served breakfast in the cafeteria before school, 17 served breakfast in the classroom at the start of school, and 6 served "second chance" breakfast (in the cafeteria before school and again at first recess). As part of a secondary data analysis, differences in school and individual characteristics by school breakfast policy were assessed by χ(2) test of independence or analysis of variance. Associations between school breakfast policy and breakfast eating patterns were assessed. Outcomes included calorie intake at breakfast, total daily calorie intake, and diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010. Control variables included student race/ethnicity, grade, and language spoken at home, and clustering of students by school. Breakfast in the classroom was associated with fewer students not eating breakfast (Pschool (P<0.001). Students in the breakfast in the classroom group did not have higher mean energy intakes from breakfast or higher daily energy intakes that were
Haugen, Heidi Østbø
This article explores how Sino-African relations are affected by the growing number of Africans who pursue higher education in China. China actively recruits African university students in order to increase soft power and generate income from the export of education services. Semi-structured interviews with African university students suggest that…
Buettner, Cynthia K.; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Andrews, David W.; Khurana, Atika
Objective The purpose of this study was to extend the limited research on college student support for alcohol control policies by using a latent class analysis to examine the shared characteristics of drinking students who support or oppose such policies. Methods We used data from a sample of 2393 students drawn from a larger study on high risk drinking at a mid-western university. Data was collected between October 2005 and May 2007. We conducted a latent class analysis to identify sub-groups of drinking students based on relevant variables. Results The results of the latent class analysis yielded a model which could correctly classify 90% of the students taking the survey into one of four “classes” based upon their response to four items on the questionnaire. Conclusions Interventions would benefit from approaches that target both student perceptions and specific policies that are most conducive to student support and engagement. PMID:20153587
Rutkowski, David J.; Prusinski, Ellen L.
The staff of the Center for Evaluation & Education Policy (CEEP) at Indiana University is often asked about how international large-scale assessments influence U.S. educational policy. This policy brief is designed to provide answers to some of the most frequently asked questions encountered by CEEP researchers concerning the three most popular…
Licqurish, Sharon; Seibold, Camel
to explore one aspect of the findings from a qualitative study exploring Australian Bachelor of Midwifery students' experiences of achieving competency for beginning practice. a qualitative study using grounded theory, incorporating situational analysis. Data were collected by interviews, field observation and students' documents. one university in Victoria, Australia, which was a member of a consortium of universities that first implemented Bachelor of Midwifery curricula. 19 women, aged 20-40 years, completing the Bachelor of Midwifery course between the years 2005 and 2008. data analysis revealed an overarching social process of assimilation, and three related subprocesses namely realisation, adaptation and consolidation. This paper focuses on consolidation in terms of competency achievement in relation to set requirements. while generally found competent for beginning practice, the Bachelor of Midwifery students in this study felt that their ability to achieve competency according to professional midwifery standards, was constrained by the restricted nature of midwifery practice and medical dominance in the hospitals where they were placed. Furthermore, they found it challenging to achieve the minimum midwifery experience requirements, as well as their own personal learning objectives, within the clinical practicum hours provided in the curriculum. a review of the clinical hours provided by Bachelor of Midwifery curricula is required, with a view to ensure that clinical hours are consistent with recommended hours suggested by Australian Bachelor of Midwifery course accreditation standards. Universities implementing midwifery curricula in Australia need to be cognisant of the theory-practice gap and therefore the applicability of professional competency standards to the education of midwives. The concerns about the reliability of competency standards need to be addressed. Finally, further research is required to validate the current number of, minimum practice
Nejem, Khamis Mousa; Muhanna, Wafa
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using computer games in teaching mathematics on developing the number sense of fourth grade students. To achieve this purpose a study sample of (81) students was selected from the fourth grade. This sample was divided into two groups. One group was randomly chosen to be the experimental…
Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count, this issue examines the percentages and numbers of students who attempted and completed both developmental and college-level math. The analysis reveals that a large portion of students either do not attempt or do not complete developmental math coursework. Furthermore, the data show…
Sneyers, Eline; De Witte, Kristof
This paper examines the effect of the introduction of an academic dismissal (AD) policy (i.e. an intervention, which can lead to compulsory student withdrawal) on student dropout, student graduation rates and satisfaction with the study program. Using a difference-in-differences type of estimator, we compare programs that introduced an AD policy…
Breitenbach, Edward C.
School safety is a very important issue for school staff, parents, and students. When school safety is lacking, students suffer in emotional, academic, and social areas. One recent intervention middle schools are examining is the student uniform policy. In some cases, school uniforms have been shown to have a profound effect on school safety,…
Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D; O'Malley, Patrick M
This report provides information about drug testing by American secondary schools, based on results from national surveys. The study provides descriptive information on drug-testing practices by schools from 1998 to 2001, and examines the association between drug testing by schools and reported drug use by students. School-level data on drug testing were obtained through the Youth, Education, and Society study, and student-level survey data were obtained from the same schools participating in the Monitoring the Future study. A relatively small percentage of schools (about 18%) reported testing students for drug use, with more high schools than middle schools reporting drug testing. Drug testing was not associated with students' reported illicit drug use, or with rate of use among experienced marijuana users. Drug testing of athletes was not associated with illicit drug use among male high school athletes. Policy implications are discussed.
Grilo Diogo, Pedro; Moreira, Afonso; Coimbra, Ana; Coelho Silva, Ana; Nixon Martins, Artur; Mendonça, Carlos; Carvalho, Constança; Almeida, Gonçalo; Almeida, Hugo; Garcia Moreira, Inês; Rodrigues, Marta; Goulão, Miguel; Vasconcelos, Rafael; Vicente, Rodrigo; Magano, Sara
Experiences of clinical and nonclinical learning environments, as well as assessment and study environments influence student satisfaction with their medical schools. Student-tutor ratios may impact on their perception of clinical learning environments. The aim of this study was to analyze medical students' satisfaction and student-tutor ratios in relation to medical schools' number of admissions. A questionnaire was created, regarding learning, assessment and study environments in eight medical schools. 2037 students participated in this cross-sectional study. Cronbach' alpha (internal consistency) was calculated and principal component analysis was conducted. Pearson correlations and multiple comparisons were analyzed. Assessment environments showed the highest satisfaction scores and clinical learning environments the lowest scores. The national student-tutor ratio in clinical rotations is 7.53; there are significant differences among schools. Institutions with higher number of admissions showed the lowest scores of overall student satisfaction (r = -0.756; p High student-tutor ratios are strongly correlated with low levels of satisfaction regarding clinical learning environments (r = -0.826; p high ratios in clinical rotations. Depending on the number of admissions, significant differences between medical schools were found. Quality of teaching-learning strategies and articulation with hospitals might also be important variables. Medical schools with more admissions might be more susceptible to lower scores of student satisfaction. High student-tutor ratios in clinical rotations may reduce the quality of learning experiences and inhibit the acquisition of competences.
Robert A Dugger
Full Text Available Relatively little is known about American medical student's attitudes toward caring for the uninsured, limiting physician reimbursement and the role of cost-effectiveness data in medical decision-making. We assessed American medical student's attitudes regarding these topics as well as demographic predictors of those attitudes, and compared them to practicing physicians.A survey instrument was explicitly designed to compare medical student attitudes with those previously reported by physicians. Between December 1st 2010 and March 27th 2011 survey responses were collected from more than 2% of the total estimated 2010-2011 US medical student population enrolled at 111 of 159 accredited US medical schools within the 50 United States (n = 2414 of possible 98197. Medical students were more likely to object to reimbursement cuts, and more likely to object to the use of cost effectiveness data in medical decision making than current physicians according to the literature. Specialty preference, political persuasion, and medical student debt were significant predictors of health policy attitudes. Medical students with anticipated debt in excess of $200,000 were significantly less willing to favor limiting reimbursement to improve patient access (OR: 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.59-0.89], and significantly more likely to object to using cost effectiveness data to limit treatments (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.60 when compared to respondents with anticipated debt less than $200,000.When compared to physicians in the literature, future physicians may be less willing to favor cuts to physician reimbursements and may be more likely to object to the use of cost effectiveness data. Political orientation, specialty preference and anticipated debt may be important predictors of health policy attitudes among medical students. Early career medical providers with primary care ambitions and those who anticipate less debt may be more likely to support healthcare
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B; Fithian, Ashley R
This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the Texas policy. Students recorded amount and source of foods/beverages consumed. Two-way analyses of variance with year and school SES as factors were performed to compare consumption by school SES before and after implementation of the Texas policy. Regardless of year, the low SES group consumed less fat, sweetened beverages, and candy and more vitamin C and calcium than the middle SES group. There were more significant improvements in dietary patterns for the middle SES school students post-policy, particularly from the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) meal. The middle SES school students reported significantly higher percentages of less healthy items from home post-policy. Overall, low SES school students consumed more healthy lunches at school compared with middle SES school students, and the Texas policy improved middle SES school student dietary intakes. Whether the dietary behaviors in school influence dietary intake for the entire day is unknown.
Marquez, Daniela; Pell, Dylan; Forster-Cox, Sue; Garcia, Evelyn; Ornelas, Sophia; Bandstra, Brenna; Mata, Holly
Emerging professionals and new Certified Health Education Specialists often lack academic training in and actual experience in National Commission for Health Education Credentialing Area of Responsibility VII: Communicate, Promote, and Advocate for Health, Health Education/Promotion, and the Profession. For undergraduate and graduate students who have an opportunity to complete an internship or practicum experience, gaining experience in Competencies 7.2: Engage in advocacy for health and health education/promotion and 7.3: Influence policy and/or systems change to promote health and health education can have a profound impact on their career development and their ability to advocate for policies that promote health and health equity. Compelling evidence suggests that interventions that address social determinants of health such as poverty and education and those that change the context through improved policy or healthier environments have the greatest impact on public health, making it vital for emerging public health professionals to gain experience in policy advocacy and systems change. In this commentary, students and faculty from two large universities in the U.S.-Mexico border region reflect on the value of policy advocacy in academic internship/fieldwork experiences. Based on their experiences, they highly recommend that students seek out internship opportunities where they can participate in policy advocacy, and they encourage university faculty and practicum preceptors to provide more opportunities for policy advocacy in both classroom and fieldwork settings.
Lafleur, Mariah; Strongin, Seth; Cole, Brian L; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Banthia, Rajni; Craypo, Lisa; Sivasubramanian, Ramya; Samuels, Sarah; García, Robert
California law has standards for physical education (PE) instruction in K-12 public schools; audits found that the Los Angeles Unified School District did not enforce the standards. In 2009, the district adopted a PE policy to comply with these standards. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the PE policy in district schools. PE class observations were conducted using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years in an income-stratified random sample of 34 elementary, middle, and high schools to assess changes in PE class size, class duration, and time students spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. PE class duration increased in high-income elementary schools. Mean class size decreased in low-income middle schools. There was limited implementation of the PE policy 2 years after passage. Opportunities exist to continue monitoring and improving PE quantity and quality.
Rodriguez, Alberto J.
This case study draws attention to Pedro's story, a Grade 6 Latino teacher who, along with other grade 4-6 teachers, participated in a three-year professional development research project. By using data analyzed from multiple ethnographic interviews with teachers and students, and by drawing from the quantitative analyzes of concept map unit tests, we illustrate how Pedro's significant professional growth and his students' learning were truncated by top-down school district policies. These policies were implemented because of the punitive nature of the No Child Left Behind Act. Simply put, this case study exposes the impact of opp(reg)ressive policies on learning, that is, policies simultaneously oppressive and regressive. The critical perspective of the project, and its emphasis on assisting teachers to make their pedagogy and curriculum more culturally and socially relevant, was informed by sociotransformative constructivism (sTc). This is a theoretical framework that affords equal importance to cross-cultural education (learning about and acting on socially/culturally relevant issues) and social constructivism (learning to critically produce and consume knowledge). We hope that this case study will provide additional insights into the slow progress we continue to make in science teacher professional development and in closing the achievement gap.
Full Text Available In this article, we examine student performance on mandated tests in grades 3, 4, and 5 in one state. We focus on this interval, which we term "the fourth grade window," based on our hypothesis that students in grade four are particularly vulnerable to decrements in achievement. The national focus on the third grade as the critical benchmark in student performance has distracted researchers and policy makers from recognition that the fourth grade transition is essential to our understanding of how to promote complex thinking and reasoning that are built upon a foundation of basic skills that may be necessary, but are not sufficient, for the more nuanced learning expected in subsequent grades. We hypothesized that the basic skills that define a successful third grade performance do not predict successful performance in subsequent years. We examined student performance over time using two measures of student success: the Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS, a standards based test; and the Stanford 9 (SAT9, a norm-referenced test. Three groups of schools were included in these analyses. Schools were individually matched to the original sample of interest, which were schools serving students of poverty that received state funding to implement Comprehensive School Reform (CSR models that emphasize continuity across grade levels. The first comparison sample includes schools that also serve students of poverty but did not receive CSR funding, "nonCSR" schools. The second comparison sample includes schools individually matched on all variables except economic status. These schools, which we term "ow poverty" schools, are the wealthiest public schools in the state, with less than 10% of attending students receiving free or reduced lunch. Student test scores in math, reading, and writing (AIMS or language (SAT9 were analyzed for the years 2000-2003. These intervals allowed the analysis of two cohorts of the fourth grade window. Our results
Mascioli, Kelly J; Robertson, Catharine J; Douglass, Alan B
Traditionally, third-year medical students are assigned to one supervisor during their 1-week rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, the majority of supervisory staff in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry opted to switch the supervision schedule to one in which some medical students are assigned to two primary supervisors. The aim of the study was to determine if students assigned to two primary supervisors had greater rotation satisfaction compared with students assigned to one primary supervisor during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. A satisfaction questionnaire was sent to 110 third-year medical students who completed their child and adolescent clerkship rotation. Based on the responses, students were divided into groups depending on their number of supervisors. Questionnaire responses were compared between the groups using independent t-tests. When students who had one primary supervisor were compared to students who had two primary supervisors, the lone item showing a statistically significant difference was regarding improvement of assessment reports/progress notes. The number of supervisors does not significantly affect the satisfaction of students during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Other factors are important in rotation satisfaction.
Lee, Romeo B; Baring, Rito V; Sta Maria, Madelene A
The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students.
Fevrier, Bradley; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Privitera, Pauline
The rate of Hookah use among college students during the last decade is about 30%. Although college students perceive hookah use as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, hookah use increases the risk of disease and nicotine dependence, and therefore remains an area of concern. Presently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has little regulation for the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah. This review attempts to assess empirical literature relating to hookah use while focusing on the consequences for regulatory policy. PubMed (including MEDLINE 2010-2017), PsycINFO, EBSCO, Scopus (Elsevier) databases were examined to pinpoint articles published in English. The following terms were used in the searches: Hookah or Waterpipe or nargile or "arghile" or "shisha" or "hubble bubble" or "alternative tobacco product" or "flavored tobacco". Hookah use may initiate smoking among tobacconaïve college students. College students who use hookah are generally not aware of the increased risks for tobacco related diseases as it relates to their behavior. In addition, few public health messages target college-age adults with anti-hookah messages. A lack of information regarding the dangers and potential harms of hookah use may be misinterpreted as a sign of "safety" which inadvertently may imply a suggestion of no need for safety measures. Hence, a research agenda that would inform about health policy actions has been proposed.
This December 2012 Brief updates NSCC's 2011 report "State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil School"s (www.schoolclimate.org/climate/papers-briefs.php). This Brief provides a summary of State level: (1) anti-bullying legislation; (2)…
Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…
Gonsalves, Nicola; Krawec, Jennifer
Students with learning disabilities (LD) consistently struggle with word problem solving in mathematics classes. This difficulty has made curricular, state, and national tests particularly stressful, as word problem solving has become a predominant feature of such student performance assessments. Research suggests that students with LD perform…
Jenkins, Jennifer; Wingate, Ursula
This article presents a small qualitative study which aimed to gain an understanding of how lecturers and international students perceive the English language policies and practices at their institutions. The findings show that most participants perceive current policies and practices as unfair. However, there were discrepancies in lecturers' and…
D.S. Eyre (Dylan Samuel)
textabstractThis research explores frame conflict in the context of education policy. It centers on the public discourse surrounding the retraction of a student assignment policy aimed at socio-economic diversity in the Wake County Public School System in North Carolina, USA. It argues that the
A draft policy developed by the Minneapolis (Minnesota) public schools concerning the use of aversive or deprivation procedures with students who are handicapped is presented. The policy model covers such elements as response to prior interventions; written treatment plan; informed consent; supervision; maintenance and retention of records;…
DeMitchell, Todd A.; Carroll, Thomas
The Vernonia (Oregon) School District passed a mandatory random drug testing policy for student athletes that was later upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court. A survey of randomly selected superintendents in five geographic regions disclosed that a majority of respondents who knew about the case were leaning toward not adopting a similar policy. (28…
Whitfield, Frank Albert
The lack of an adequate supply of human resources in science and engineering has been well documented. Efforts from a number of agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, have been implemented to alleviate this national problem. However, it is unclear what concerted efforts state agencies are taking to increase the number of African American students' scientific literacy, and career choices in science and engineering. The purpose of this study was to select a talent pool of African American students who are academically able to pursue a career in a math-based major. The selection of this talent pool lead to the recommendation of an encouragement process model to be used by the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) system to encourage the selectees of this talent pool to enter math-based programs at TBR universities. An integrated literature review was conducted. This review includes perspectives on national, state, and local educational policy decisions which affect educational purposes, institutional governance and secondary-postsecondary linkages. Existing TBR system data were analyzed and tabulated. This tabulated data along with the recommended model will be offered to the TBR system for possible adoption. The results of these data support the methodological notion that there are an appreciable number of potential TBR system African American students academically able to enter math related majors who, however, may be reluctant to choose a career direction in a math-based career field. Implications of this study and suggestions for further research are discussed. On an applied level, the study might suggest to other states ways in which to deal with similar problems.
Harris, Sion K; Sherritt, Lon; Van Hook, Shari; Wechsler, Henry; Knight, John R
Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252), one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074). We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11) found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011). Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy.
Background Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Methods Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252), one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074). We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Results Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11) found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011). Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy. PMID:20684777
Harris Sion K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol use among U.S. college students is a major contributor to young adult morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether college alcohol policy enforcement levels predict changes in student drinking and related behaviors in a state system of public colleges and universities, following a system-wide change to a stricter policy. Methods Students and administrators at 11 Massachusetts public colleges/universities completed surveys in 1999 (N of students = 1252, one year after the policy change, and again in 2001 (N = 1074. We calculated policy enforcement scores for each school based on the reports of deans of students, campus security chiefs, and students, and examined the correlations between perceived enforcement levels and the change in student drinking rates over the subsequent two year period, after weighting the 2001 data to adjust for demographic changes in the student body. Results Overall rates of any past-30-days drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and usual heavy drinking among past-30-days drinkers were all lower in 2001 compared to 1999. School-level analyses (N = 11 found deans' baseline reports of stricter enforcement were strongly correlated with subsequent declines in heavy episodic drinking (Pearson's r = -0.73, p = 0.011. Moreover, consistently high enforcement levels across time, as reported by deans, were associated with greater declines in heavy episodic drinking. Such relationships were not found for students' and security chiefs' reports of enforcement. Marijuana use did not rise during this period of decline in heavy drinking. Conclusions Study findings suggest that stronger enforcement of a stricter alcohol policy may be associated with reductions in student heavy drinking rates over time. An aggressive enforcement stance by deans may be an important element of an effective college alcohol policy.
Spradlin, Terry; Gard, Greta; Huang, Vivian; Kopp, Beth; Malik, Alanna
This Education Policy Brief examines the latest research and statistics regarding childhood obesity. In addition to providing an overview of current trends and effects of childhood obesity, this brief considers the reasons for the increase in obesity rates among children, as well as the latest federal and state initiatives created to combat…
Carney, Michele B.; Smith, Everett; Hughes, Gwyneth R.; Brendefur, Jonathan L.; Crawford, Angela
Proportional reasoning is important to students' future success in mathematics and science endeavors. More specifically, students' fluent and flexible use of scalar and functional relationships to solve problems is critical to their ability to reason proportionally. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of systematically manipulating the location of an integer multiplier—to press the scalar or functional relationship—on item difficulty and student solution strategies. We administered short-answer assessment forms to 473 students in grades 6-8 (approximate ages 11-14) and analyzed the data quantitatively with the Rasch model to examine item accessibility and qualitatively to examine student solution strategies. We found that manipulating the location of the integer multiplier encouraged students to make use of different aspects of proportional relationships without decreasing item accessibility. Implications for proportional reasoning curricular materials, instruction, and assessment are addressed.
Full Text Available Kelly J Mascioli,1 Catharine J Robertson,1,2 Alan B Douglass1,31Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre, University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, Ottawa, ON, Canada Background: Traditionally, third-year medical students are assigned to one supervisor during their 1-week rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, the majority of supervisory staff in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry opted to switch the supervision schedule to one in which some medical students are assigned to two primary supervisors.Objective: The aim of the study was to determine if students assigned to two primary supervisors had greater rotation satisfaction compared with students assigned to one primary supervisor during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry.Methods: A satisfaction questionnaire was sent to 110 third-year medical students who completed their child and adolescent clerkship rotation. Based on the responses, students were divided into groups depending on their number of supervisors. Questionnaire responses were compared between the groups using independent t-tests.Results: When students who had one primary supervisor were compared to students who had two primary supervisors, the lone item showing a statistically significant difference was regarding improvement of assessment reports/progress notes.Conclusion: The number of supervisors does not significantly affect the satisfaction of students during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Other factors are important in rotation satisfaction.Keywords: medical students, clerkship, child psychiatry
Land Use decisions in the local community are well represented in geoscience topics and issues, and provide an excellent opportunity to showcase a wide range of geoscience careers to high school students. In PLUS (Planning Land Use with Students) we work with youth corps, volunteer agencies and the County Departments of Planning, Transportation, Public Health, Water Resources to run a program for high school seniors to engage the students in the complex layers of decision making connected with land use as we showcase geoscience careers (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/edu/plus/index.html). How development occurs, what resources are in use and who makes these decisions is both interesting and relevant for students. We develop case studies around current, active, local land use issues large enough in scale to have a formal environmental review at the County and/or the State level. Sections of each case study are dedicated to addressing the range of environmental issues that are central to each land use decision. Water, its availability, planned use and treatment on the site, brings in both a review of local hydrology and a discussion of storm water management. Air quality and the impact of the proposed project's density, transportation plans, and commercial and industrial uses brings in air quality issues like air quality ratings, existing pollution, and local air monitoring. A review of the site plans brings in grading plans for the project area, which highlights issues of drainage, soil stability, and exposure to toxins or pollutants depending on the historic use of the site. Brownfield redevelopments are especially challenging with various monitoring, clean up and usage restrictions that are extremely interesting to the students. Students' work with mentors from the community who represent various roles in the planning process including a range of geosciences, community business members and other players in the planning process. This interplay of individuals provides
Němečková, Tereza; Krylová, Petra; Horký -Hlucháň, Ondřej; Hejkrlík, Jiří; Jílkova, Klementína
In Czech Republic there is a long tradition of providing tertiary scholarships to students from developing countries. The government scholarship programme started in the 1950s already as a part of the Czechoslovak technical assistance to countries in the South. Even though the programme left tens of thousands of graduates all over the world, the recent programme evaluation has revealed that it is characterised by a relatively poor performance. This article brings forward the main outcomes of the programme evaluation, highlights the policy recommendations and summarises policy reflections that occurred following the evaluation. The programme evaluation was done under unfavourable circumstances and could be accordingly defined as 'shoestring evaluation'. The restrictions and their influence on evaluation outcomes are discussed in article, too. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pavlakis, Alexandra E.; Duffield, Barbara
While most of the press around the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) has focused on how it signals an end to No Child Left Behind, the implications of ESSA for students experiencing homelessness have been largely overlooked. Garnering organizational insights from Kingdon's (Agendas, alternatives, and public policies, Pearson, Glenviiew, 2011)…
This study compared the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Students in one middle socioeconomic status (SES), and one low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002), and after (200...
Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Addison, William E.; Clay, Samuel L.
The technology policies included on instructors' syllabi vary greatly and, in some cases, may unfavorably influence students' perceptions of the instructor. To examine this hypothesis, we randomly assigned college students enrolled in psychology courses at two different institutions (N = 163) to groups in which they viewed different syllabi for a…
Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B.; Fithian, Ashley R.
Background: This study compares the impact of the Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on lunch consumption of low- and middle-income students in sixth through eighth grades. Methods: Students in 1 middle socioeconomic status (SES) and 1 low SES school completed lunch food records before (2001/2002) and after (2005/2006) implementation of the…
The entrenching of competitive values within the public-market field of secondary education has led to the formation of academically focused institutions whose budgets and reputations are based on gaining large numbers of students who have the best chance of attaining highly in public examinations. Although parents have become savvier about their…
Scherschel, Patricia M.
This report on student indebtedness is based primarily on a current study which is measuring the average Stafford loan balance facing students, as well as indicators of payment stress. The study is based on data on about 325,000 loans from the USA Group's entire loan servicing portfolio, which includes both subsidized and unsubsidized Stafford…
This digest briefly reviews the ways that working affects students, and describes ways that schools can partner with businesses to increase the educational benefits of working. The economic payoff for students who work in high school is well-established, including a positive association between the amount of high school work experience and…
Noda, Aurelia; Bruno, Alicia
This paper presents an assessment of the understanding of the decimal numeral system in students with Down Syndrome (DS). We followed a methodology based on a descriptive case study involving six students with DS. We used a framework of four constructs (counting, grouping, partitioning and numerical relationships) and five levels of thinking for…
Liu, Ru-De; Ding, Yi; Gao, Bing-Cheng; Zhang, Dake
This study aimed to examine the relations among property strategies, working memory, and multiplication tasks with 101 Chinese fourth-grade students. Two multiplication property strategies (associative and distributive) were compared with no strategy and demonstrated differentiated effects on students' accuracy and reaction time. Associative…
National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2015
During the 2014-15 school year, almost 500 new public charter schools opened. An estimated 348,000 additional students were attending public charter schools in the 2014-15 school year compared with the previous school year. With the addition of new charter schools and students, there are now more than 6,700 public charter schools enrolling about…
Seitz, Christopher M; Kabir, Zubair; Greiner, Birgit A; Davoren, Martin P
To provide a nontraditional source of data to university policymakers regarding student, faculty, and staff approval of university smoke/tobacco-free policies, as published through campus newspaper articles. From January to April 2016, a total of 2523 articles were retrieved concerning campus smoking/tobacco at 4-year, public universities. Of these, 54 articles met the inclusion factors, which described 30 surveys about campus approval of tobacco-free policies and 24 surveys about smoke-free policies. In all, the surveys included more than 130 000 respondents. With the exception of 4 surveys, all reported that the most of the respondents approved a tobacco/smoke-free campus policy. Although the study had several limitations, the findings provide a synthesis from a nontraditional data source that is consistent with findings from the peer-reviewed literature, in which most of the students, faculty, and staff on university campuses approve of smoke/tobacco-free campus policies.
Miller, Michael T., Ed.; Nadler, Daniel P., Ed.
Colleges and universities face a variety of challenges in meeting the needs of students, and one of the greatest is their ability to respond to student needs while protecting institutional and academic integrity. For those working with students, a primary example of this challenge is the involvement of students in shared decision-making, a process…
Gustavo Adolfo Enríquez Gutiérrez
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze educational policies on gifted students (1980-2006, known in Mexico as «estudiantes sobresalientes». The authors point out the way the term «estudiantes sobresalientes» was implemented over the field of Special Education as well as how a political agenda was designed in order to assist gifted childhood and youth. This article also focuses on the design a proposal of an educational intervention. And at the very end how this proposal was developed, the results and the way it was formed as a training program for Mexican Teachers from Public Education. We recognize the fact that the term «estudiante sobresaliente» is ambiguous due to the diversity of student population as well as, in many cases; the gifted status is no visible. We consider the process of selection, assessment and follow up of this project was based on formal concepts and at the same time did not take in consideration the capabilities and skills of the cultural context of each student (community, family and individual. These elements let us understand the educational political agenda (1980-2006 on special education for gifted students as well as the construction of a wide concept of «sobresaliencia» that was design in order to classify and rate them thru that political agenda.
Yüzen, Abdulkadir; Karamete, Aysen
In this study, using ADDIE instructional design model, it is aimed to prepare English language educational material for 4th grade primary students to teach them numbers. At the same time, ARCS model of motivation's attention, relevance and satisfaction phases are also taken into consideration. This study also comprises of Design Based Research…
Risley, Rachael Ann
This study explored the impact of numbers used in instructional tasks on the construction and generalization of multiplicative reasoning by fourth grade students designated as having learning difficulties or disabilities in mathematics (SLDs). In particular, this study addressed the following research questions: (1) In what ways do SLDs'…
Fien, Hank; Doabler, Christian T.; Nelson, Nancy J.; Kosty, Derek B.; Clarke, Ben; Baker, Scott K.
The purpose of this study was to test the promise of the NumberShire Level 1 Gaming Intervention (NS1) to accelerate math learning for first-grade students with or at risk for math difficulties. The NS1 intervention was developed through the Institute of Education Sciences, Small Business Innovation Research Program (Gause, Fien, Baker, &…
Gough, Harrison G.; And Others
Gives results of a 40-item questionnaire for assessing attitudes toward contraception, abortion, family planning, population movement, and modernity given to American, Italian, and Swiss students. (Author/AM)
Cross, Christopher T.
Over the course of our nation's existence, the federal role in K-12 education has evolved many times. From an initial limited role to one that is more focused today on access and equity, the federal role in education policy has seldom been without controversy. During each twist and turn there has been ongoing debate over federal versus state…
This issue of ETS Policy Notes (Vol. 20, No. 4) provides highlights from the symposium, "Middle School Matters: Improving the Life Course of Black Boys" held on July 23-24, 2012. The second in a series of four symposia co-sponsored by ETS and the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), the seminar examined the education and status of…
Newman, Constance; Guthrie, Joanne; Mancino, Lisa; Ralston, Katherine; Musiker, Melissa
Concerns about child obesity have raised questions about the quality of meals served in the National School Lunch Program. Local, State, and Federal policymakers responded to these concerns beginning in the mid-1990s by instituting a range of policies and standards to improve the quality of U.S. Department of Agriculture-subsidized meals. Schools…
American Federation of Teachers, 2002
This policy brief provides the context and the research supporting the American Federation of Teacher's call for universal early childhood education. It focuses on the current challenges the nation faces in achieving such a program; and it includes the signs of progress, a description of what other industrialized countries are doing, the features…
Full Text Available Background: Medical students' thesis is equal to six units, which is mandatory for graduation. The purpose of preparing thesis is to familiarize students with research process, methodology, and scientific report writing skill. Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine the relation between executing of thesis policies and medical students' theses quality in type I medical faculties of Iran Methods: To perform this study first, we randomly chose 36 (Total sample=396 medical students' theses in each 11 medical faculties, which completed in 1998-99 academic year. The original theses were evaluated by using a questionnaire. Second, for evaluation of operationalization of thesis policies we use four criteria including, the presence of performance regulations, the proposals approving process, final approving course and presence of a defence session to evaluate thesis in the same medical faculty. Results: In medical faculties that thesis policies were completed, the score of theses was high. In contrast medical faculties with weak policies had low students’ theses scores. Conclusion: Thesis policies are considered as one of the ways to improve the quality of thesis. it is advise at the same time as we should be plan to provide the effective factors for improvement quality of thesis consider strongly the regulations related thesis should be considerate. Keywords: MEDICAL STUDENTS, THESES, REGULATION, and SCORES
Clark, Jeffrey K., Ed.
This collection of student monographs includes: "Educating Older Adults About Medications" (Patricia Barrett-Schwer); "Health Educators' Role in Weight Management and Body Acceptance" (Melanie H. Brede); "Health Educators as Advocates for Organ Donation" (Jennifer L. Hawker); "Involvement of Illinois School…
Peters, Scott J.; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen; Makel, Matthew C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Plucker, Jonathan A.
Few topics have garnered more attention in preservice teacher training and educational reform than student diversity and its influence on learning. However, the actual degree of cognitive diversity has yet to be considered regarding instructional implications for advanced learners. We used four data sets (three state-level and one national) from…
Cullen, Karen W; Watson, Kathleen B
We assessed the statewide impact of the 2004 Texas Public School Nutrition Policy on foods and beverages served or sold in schools. We collected lunch food production records from 47 schools in 11 Texas school districts for the school years before (2003-2004) and after (2004-2005) policy implementation. Cafeteria servings of fruit, vegetables (regular and fried), and milk served each day were calculated. Twenty-three schools from 5 districts provided records of à la carte sales of candy, chips, desserts, drinks, ice cream, and water. We examined aggregated school-level differences in total items served or sold per day per student between study years. School demographics were similar to state data. Regardless of district and school size, cafeterias served significantly fewer high-fat vegetable items per student postpolicy (P School food policy changes have improved foods served or sold to students. It is not known whether improved lunch choices influence consumption for the whole day.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY.
The following two types of student mobility stand out as causing educational problems: (1) inner-city mobility, which is prompted largely by fluctuations in the job market; and (2) intra-city mobility, which is caused by upward mobility or by poverty and homelessness. Most research indicates that high mobility negatively affects student…
Edwards, Virginia B., Ed.
Educators and experts alike have come to a growing realization that academic factors alone do not tell the whole story of what it means to successfully navigate the educational system through high school and into higher education or the workplace. This national report from "Education Week" investigates the role that student engagement…
Humphrey, John Kevin
This document consists of two separately published guides for a course on crop science: an instructor's guide and a student's reference manual. Each part contains nine lessons on the following topics: (1) economic importance of crops; (2) crop uses (products and byproducts); (3) plant and seed identification; (4) certified seed and variety…
This essay is based on the author's talk at the FPRI Wachman Center's History Institute for Teachers on "What Students Need to Know about America's Wars, Part 2: 1920-Present," held May 2-3, 2009. Observing that the Vietnam War was the longest and most contested conflict in American history and that it called into question many…
Humphrey, John Kevin
This document consists of two separately published guides for a course on plant science: an instructor's guide and a student's reference manual. Each part consists of eight lessons and cover the following topics: (1) importance of plants; (2) classification of plants; (3) plant growth factors; (4) weeds, diseases, insects; (5) germination; (6)…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.
The first 2 of the 12 publications reviewed in this annotated bibliography use Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs to address problems, respectively, of teaching composition and of motivating students by teaching them how to set goals, formulate goal-achievement strategies, and successfully implement their plans. Subsequent reports suggest ways of…
Olsen, James R.
Researchers and educators are calling for increased use of technology and attention to function concepts in school mathematics. Students often have considerable difficulty gleaning pointwise and global information from Cartesian (R squared) representations of functions, whether they are hand- or machine-produced. Described here is an interactive…
Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria
Objective: We examined students’ self-reported step data and discussed the feasibility of using these data in a local school policy process. Methods: For 5 days during school hours, 281 stu- dents from grades 5–7 participating in a health education program, measured their steps using a pedometer......: Student-collected data showed similar patterns as reported in the literature, and therefore, a feasible perspective could be to use students’ self-reported step data in a local school policy process....
Bernstein, Michael J; Reifschneider, Kiera; Bennett, Ira; Wetmore, Jameson M
Helping scientists and engineers challenge received assumptions about how science, engineering, and society relate is a critical cornerstone for macroethics education. Scientific and engineering research are frequently framed as first steps of a value-free linear model that inexorably leads to societal benefit. Social studies of science and assessments of scientific and engineering research speak to the need for a more critical approach to the noble intentions underlying these assumptions. "Science Outside the Lab" is a program designed to help early-career scientists and engineers understand the complexities of science and engineering policy. Assessment of the program entailed a pre-, post-, and 1 year follow up survey to gauge student perspectives on relationships between science and society, as well as a pre-post concept map exercise to elicit student conceptualizations of science policy. Students leave Science Outside the Lab with greater humility about the role of scientific expertise in science and engineering policy; greater skepticism toward linear notions of scientific advances benefiting society; a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the actors involved in shaping science policy; and a continued appreciation of the contributions of science and engineering to society. The study presents an efficacious program that helps scientists and engineers make inroads into macroethical debates, reframe the ways in which they think about values of science and engineering in society, and more thoughtfully engage with critical mediators of science and society relationships: policy makers and policy processes.
Distance Education Students, and AWC Fellows. Articles edited for economy and clarity. USAWC Distinguished Academic Chairs R. Craig Bullis Michael S...Joseph W. Smotherman United States Navy Insights Terminating Conflict with the Islamic State 54 Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin R. Jonsson United... School of Law) is a Colonel in the United States Army. An earlier version of this article, written under the direction of Dr. Paul C. Jussel while
Owens, Katharine A
The Shore to Statehouse project supported the creation of an open-source, replicable, undergraduate experiential course on marine debris. Funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the course allowed undergraduate students in Connecticut, USA, to collect marine debris locally, then create a policy report for state legislators. Here we share the results of the project including data on four accumulation surveys on the Long Island Sound, as well as the impact on student motivation, attitudes, and behavior levels. Results include finding over 1600 individual pieces of debris totaling 19.4kg (42.8lb). In addition, the students experienced statistically significant improvements in knowledge and behavior scores. This open-source course can be replicated, empowering students to remove debris, provide important information to local policy makers, and improve knowledge and behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lluïsa Jordi Nebot
Full Text Available This article examines new tutoring evaluation methods to be adopted in the course, Machine Theory, in the Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona (ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. These new methods have been developed in order to facilitate teaching staff work and include students in the evaluation process. Machine Theory is a required course with a large number of students. These students are divided into groups of three, and required to carry out a supervised work constituting 20% of their final mark. These new evaluation methods were proposed in response to the significant increase of students in spring semester of 2010-2011, and were pilot tested during fall semester of academic year 2011-2012, in the previous Industrial Engineering degree program. Pilot test results were highly satisfactory for students and teachers, alike, and met proposed educational objectives. For this reason, the new evaluation methodology was adopted in spring semester of 2011-2012, in the current bachelor’s degree program in Industrial Technology (Grau en Enginyeria en Tecnologies Industrials, GETI, where it has also achieved highly satisfactory results.
Harris, Gregory A.
Colleges and universities work hard to create environments that encourage student learning, and they develop grading policies, in part, to motivate their students to perform well. Grades provide two kinds of information about a student's abilities and learned knowledge: "internal" information that informs the students themselves about the…
Millei, Zsuzsa; Gallagher, Jannelle
Australian early childhood education still labours with the achievement of universal access and the production of comprehensive and consistent data to underpin a national evidence base. In this article, we attend to the processes led by numbers whereby new practices of quantification, rationalization and reporting are introduced and mastered in a…
Burns, Matthew K.; Ysseldyke, Jim; Nelson, Peter M.; Kanive, Rebecca
Computational fluency is an important aspect of math proficiency. Despite widely held beliefs about the differential difficulty of single-digit multiplication math facts, little empirical work has examined this issue. The current study analyzed the number of repetitions needed to master multiplication math facts. Data from 15,402 3rd, 4th, and 5th…
Young, Kathleen D.; Snelling, Anastasia; Maroto, Maya; Young, Katherine A.
Purpose/Objectives: In 2010, a large urban school district implemented a district-wide school wellness policy that addressed childhood obesity by requiring schools to increase health and physical education contact hours for students and to improve the nutritional standards of school meals. Schools were required to serve a different fruit and…
Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund, New York, NY.
This document presents guidance for stopping discrimination, harassment, and violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students in schools. Section 1, "Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund on the Legal Considerations for Creating and Changing Statewide Laws and Policies," discusses the various types of statewide…
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011
Introduction into federal policy of response to intervention (RTI) and positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS) led to widespread adoption and adaptation of the three tier intervention pyramid. As originally presented, the pyramid highlights three different levels of intervention and suggests the percent of students at each level. While…
Coles, Jeremy T.; Carstens, Brittany A.; Wright, Jennifer M.; Williams, Robert L.
The study determined whether or not a predominantly Caucasian sample (N = 187) attending a southeastern state's major public university embraced political policies consistent with their self-identified political ideology. The findings showed that the highest percentage of students identified with a conservative ideology and that a much lower…
Certain policy areas with considerable impact on young people's educational experiences and achievements, notably assessment and qualifications, do not involve consultation with young people to any meaningful extent. Findings from a national study, which included focus groups with 243 students in the 14-19 phase, are presented with respect to…
Wubbold, Joseph Mark
In an extension of educational attainment research, this exploratory mixed- methods case study examines the influence of institutional policies on the behavior of five cohorts (n = 925) of traditional first time, full time (FTFT) freshmen--called "Last Mile" students--at one urban research university located in the Pacific Northwest.…
Oster-Aaland, Laura; Thompson, Kevin; Eighmy, Myron
This study analyzed the impact of a medical amnesty policy and an online alcohol poisoning video on college students' intentions to seek help when witnessing alcohol poisoning symptoms. Students were randomly assigned to receive an amnesty policy, alcohol poisoning video, or both. The group that received both treatments was most likely to seek…
Van Hoover, Cheri
Core competencies for midwifery practice include an understanding of systems of health care delivery and advocacy for legislation and policy initiatives that promote quality in health care. Today's rapidly changing health care environment, due in part to the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, mandates that midwives possess greater literacy in health policy and comfort with political action than ever before. Frequently disinterested in politics and intimidated by the policymaking process, student midwives lack the foundational knowledge and practical skills needed to meet this professional obligation. The Midwifery Institute of Philadelphia University graduate program educates both student nurse-midwives and student midwives in health policy using an innovative, project-based service-learning approach featuring real-world collaborative experiences. This novel teaching style is ideally suited for instruction at a distance because of the diversity of experience brought to the virtual classroom by students in widely disparate geopolitical locations. As students accomplish measurable objectives within their individually developed projects and reflect with classmates about their experiences, they feel empowered to effect change and report lower perceived barriers to future political engagement. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Hermawan; Suprapto, M.; Setyawan, A.
Rehabilitation and maintenance of road performed by technical agencies at the local government in Indonesia, are generally not based on the assessment of road conditions. The value of the structural and functional condition of the pavement is not counted on carefully. As a result, road rehabilitation and maintenance patterns tend to be similar, repetitive and improper. International Roughness Index (IRI) is a parameter for assessing the functional condition of the pavement while the Structural Number (SN) is a parameter for assessing the structural condition of the pavement. Measuring road conditions by using Roadroid applications on smartphones can provide an efficient way, scalable, and low cost to the highway authority to collect road condition data. This study was conducted to determine the conditions of the road both functionally and structurally. Results of research conducted, pavement functionally in a good condition with the acquisition of IRI value of less than 4. Structural pavement conditions indicate that the value of Structural Number Effective (SNeff) is less than the value of the Structural Number Future (SNf), thus the structural condition of the road segments has not been able to serve traffic with a design life of 20 years. Prediction of IRI value obtained to determine the type of road maintenance is functionally performed when the value of IRI exceeds the value of 4 with an overlay of material HRS WC 30 mm. Structurally road maintenance carried out various scenarios, the phased construction and direct construction. The type of material and thickness of pavement on a phased construction scenario for the design life of 15-20 years and direct construction gives better results than the phased construction scenarios for the design life of 5-20 years and 10-20 years.
In accordance with the requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1 through September 30, 1990. This report is the third of a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of new initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, study plans, and performance assessment. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Andrews, George E
Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl
NOEL M. CAPULONG
Full Text Available – The qualities of student-leaders in the 21st century cannot be underrated. The ability to influence individuals in the context of boundless territories and worldwide integration is of paramount importance to education. Research has revealed that the crux of student leadership in this century is on achieving the right pace and qualities in the changing landscape of borderless society. Choosing the qualities of leaders helps the administrators and students come up with a collaborative policy formulation in the attainment of institutional mission and goals. The research utilized the mixed methods using the qualitative key informant interview, focus group discussions, and researcher’s experience to choose the qualities of student leaders among the students of City College of Calamba. The perceptions of student council leaders from the different schools of Calamba were also surveyed. The student voting preference was matched with the results of Student Council election. The results obtained were recorded and compared to the results of the interview from the experts in the field of educational leadership.
Buckner, Julia D; Jeffries, Emily R; Terlecki, Meredith A; Ecker, Anthony H
Students referred to treatment after violating campus drug policies represent a high-risk group. Identification of factors related to these students' cannabis use could inform prevention and treatment efforts. Distress tolerance (DT) is negatively related to substance-related behaviors and may be related to high-risk cannabis use vulnerability factors that can impact treatment outcome. Thus, the current study tested whether DT was related to cannabis use frequency, cannabis-related problems, and motivation to change cannabis use among 88 students referred for treatment after violating campus cannabis policies. DT was robustly, negatively related to cannabis use and related problems. DT was also significantly, negatively correlated with coping, conformity, and expansion motives. DT was directly and indirectly related to cannabis problems via coping (not conformity or expansion) motives. Motives did not mediate the relation of DT to cannabis use frequency. DT may be an important target in treatment with students who violate campus cannabis policies. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine how to do forward-looking analysis to determine the future need for various professionals, so that educational institutes can produce an appropriate labor force for national development. The concept of component part commonality, which derives from research on effective inventory management using material resource planning (MRP, can also be applied to human resource planning and educational resource management in higher education systems. Therefore, this paper proposed a systematic method to analyze student recruitment numbers for future needs, based on the concept of MRP. The research studied the relationship between a curricular structure tree and the associated commonalities. It explored the relationship between the commonality of students and the aggregated level of student replenishment. Based on that, systematic guidelines for curriculum design can be established for undeclared programs at collages. Two simple examples were used to illustrate the implementation of MRP in analysis of the replenishment levels (necessary safety stock levels in an education system such as an engineering college.
Full Text Available This report drew on a larger study which was to describe and understand the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at senior high schools in Jambi, Indonesia. The purpose of this paper was to report some of findings from the qualitative interview data on the sources of senior high school students’ English language speaking anxiety at one senior high school in Jambi, Indonesia. Data were collected through demographic profiles and semi-structured interview with senior high school students. The demographic data were analysed descriptively while the interview data were transcribed and analysed line by line to generate and develop codes and themes. An analysis of the interview data revealed that five major themes were related to students’ English language speaking anxiety, including (1 low speaking skill due to lack of vocabulary and grammar, (2 fear of negative responses from others, (3 low self-esteem to speak in English, (4 fear of being evaluated by teachers, and (5 cultural influences to speak English due to a more teacher-centred style. Suggestions and policy implications are also discussed.
Vorob'ev, Nikolai Nikolaevich
Fibonacci numbers date back to an 800-year-old problem concerning the number of offspring born in a single year to a pair of rabbits. This book offers the solution and explores the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in number theory, continued fractions, and geometry. A discussion of the ""golden section"" rectangle, in which the lengths of the sides can be expressed as a ration of two successive Fibonacci numbers, draws upon attempts by ancient and medieval thinkers to base aesthetic and philosophical principles on the beauty of these figures. Recreational readers as well as students and teacher
Tobin, Mollie; Nugroho, Dita; Lietz, Petra
This article synthesises findings from two systematic reviews that examined evidence of the link between large-scale assessments (LSAs) and education policy in economically developing countries and in countries of the Asia-Pacific. Analyses summarise evidence of assessment characteristics and policy goals of LSAs that influence education policy,…
Christensen, Laurene L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Crone, Melissa; Thurlow, Martha L.
This document presents an update of a 2006 report from NCEO tracking and analyzing state policies on assessment participation and accommodations since 1992. The purpose of the current analysis is to update information on these policies that was last reported by NCEO in 2006 (based on 2005 data). In this analysis, policies from all 50 states, plus…
Gale, Trevor; Tranter, Deborah
This article provides a synoptic account of historically changing conceptions and practices of social justice in Australian higher education policy. It maps the changes in this policy arena, beginning with the period following the Second World War and concluding with an analysis of the most recent policy proposals of the Bradley Review.…
Scherschel, Patricia M.
A study of the rate of growth in Stafford student loan debt levels compiled average indebtedness figures for graduate students, undergraduate students, proprietary students, and students enrolled in community colleges and other 2- and 3-year institutions. The study also attempted to develop payment stress indicators by tracking payment status data…
Full Text Available Heightened concerns and dialogue about access to justice have infused the law school setting in Saskatchewan and, to varying degrees, across the country. If there ever were a time to approach social justice reform differently – to upset traditional parameters around decision making and step around older hierarchies for input and design – it would be now. This article describes the Dean’s Forum on Dispute Resolution and Access to Justice (colloquially known as the Dean’s Forum as a platform for genuine student engagement in the development of public policy in this important area. We offer our combined reflections, gathered inside our “teaching team,” about the unique pedagogical features of our experiment and its challenges. As we continue to grow with the project, we offer this Saskatchewan story as one example of institutional collaboration in a quickly evolving educational and social policy landscape. L’accès à la justice est une préoccupation croissante et un thème de plus en plus récurrent dans les facultés de droit de la Saskatchewan et, à différents degrés, de l’ensemble du pays. Le temps est venu, semble-t-il, d’aborder la réforme de la justice sociale différemment, de bouleverser les paramètres traditionnels gravitant autour de la prise de décisions et de contourner les hiérarchies plus anciennes en ce qui concerne les données et les concepts. Cet article porte sur le forum du doyen concernant le règlement des conflits et l’accès à la justice (familièrement appelé le Dean’s Forum (forum du doyen comme plateforme pour la participation des étudiants à l’élaboration des politiques publiques dans cet important domaine. Nous présentons l’ensemble des réflexions de notre équipe d’enseignants au sujet des éléments pédagogiques uniques de notre expérience et des difficultés connexes. Nous continuons à grandir avec notre projet, mais nous souhaitions décrire dès maintenant cette
Buckner, Julia D.; Jeffries, Emily R.; Terlecki, Meredith A.; Ecker, Anthony H.
Students referred to treatment after violating campus drug policies represent a high-risk\\ud group. Identification of factors related to these students’ cannabis use could inform prevention\\ud and treatment efforts. Distress tolerance (DT) is negatively related to substance-related\\ud behaviors and may be related to high-risk cannabis use vulnerability factors that can impact\\ud treatment outcome. Thus, the current study tested whether DT was related to cannabis use\\ud frequency, cannabis-rel...
The European Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is a common policy that originates from 1983 and has been renewed every 10 years. The policy generally aims for sustainable fisheries in terms of living resources, economics and social aspects. The most recent version of the policy was agreed in co-decision
This article shows how the Catalan government has not developed an agenda to tackle school segregation despite the growing number of migrant pupils who arrived over the course of the last decade. Education policy has explicitly disregarded the possibilities of improving the regulatory framework for tackling segregation; it has exercised…
This article shows how the Catalan government has not developed an agenda to tackle school segregation despite the growing number of migrant pupils who arrived over the course of the last decade. Education policy has explicitly disregarded the possibilities of improving the regulatory framework for
Gender neutral housing is an innovative new policy being developed in colleges around the country. One reason to create these policies is an attempt to meet the unique needs and challenges of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students. As the number of gender neutral housing policies in the United States continues to rise, research has been…
Ionescu, Felicia; Simpson, Nicole B.
The private market for student loans has become an important source of college financing in the United States. Unlike government student loans, the terms on student loans in the private market are based on credit status. We quantify the importance of the private market for student loans and of credit status for college investment in a general equilibrium heterogeneous life-cycle economy. We find that students with good credit status invest in more college education (compared to those with bad...
Niemeier, Brandi S; Chapp, Christopher B; Henley, Whitney B
Tobacco-control policy proposals are usually met with opposition on college campuses. Research to understand students' viewpoints about health-related policy proposals and messaging strategies, however, does not exist. This study investigated students' perceptions about a smoke-free policy proposal to help understand their positions of support and opposition and to inform the development of effective messaging strategies. In January 2012, 1,266 undergraduate students from a midwestern university completed an online questionnaire about smoke-free campus policies. Responses were coded and analyzed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software and chi-square, independent-samples t tests, and binary logistic models. Most students who supported a smoke-free policy considered environmental or aesthetic conditions, whereas most opponents used personal freedom frames of thought. Supporters viewed smoking policies in personal terms, and opponents suggested means-ends policy reasoning. Taken together, points of reference and emotions about proposed policies provided insight about participants' perspectives to help inform effective policy advocacy efforts.
Full Text Available This paper highlights the Indonesian’s road transportation contexts, namely, angkot, that used in learning and teaching of addition and subtraction in first grade and second grade MIN-2 Palembang. PMRI approach that adopt from RME was used in this design research. From teaching experiment was founded that the student used many strategies when teaching and learning process conducted. In situational level they used their knowledge of experience-base activity, in referential level they use manik-manik (string of beads, and in general level they used number line to solve the problem. From the research was known that the Indonesian’s road transportation context helps student to understand basic concept of addition and subtraction. The suggestion to further research this context can be used in design research of multiplication.Key word: Indonesian’s road transportation, angkot, context, addition, subtraction DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.1.779.67-78
Leasa, Marleny; Duran Corebima, Aloysius
Learning models and academic ability may affect students’ achievement in science. This study, thus aimed to investigate the effect of numbered heads together (NHT) cooperative learning model on elementary students’ cognitive achievement in natural science. This study employed a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group with 2 x 2 factorial. There were two learning models compared NHT and the conventional, and two academic ability high and low. The results of ana Cova test confirmed the difference in the students’ cognitive achievement based on learning models and general academic ability. However, the interaction between learning models and academic ability did not affect the students’ cognitive achievement. In conclusion, teachers are strongly recommended to be more creative in designing learning using other types of cooperative learning models. Also, schools are required to create a better learning environment which is more cooperative to avoid unfair competition among students in the classroom and as a result improve the students’ academic ability. Further research needs to be conducted to explore the contribution of other aspects in cooperative learning toward cognitive achievement of students with different academic ability.
Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni
A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…
Jørgensen, Christian Helms
vocational programmes. Consequently, lowering the drop-out rate is high on a policy maker’s agenda. This chapter examines the education policies designed to reduce the prevalence of drop-out in Denmark’s vocational system. First, the chapter reviews the international research on the phenomenon of drop...... education, the organisation of curricula, and an under-supply of opportunities for authentic training placements. This analysis finds that policies designed to reduce drop-out seem to be going in circles. Some possible explanations for inconsistencies in policy are discussed in the conclusion...
From the inception of post-Colombo Plan international education in Australia, three broad research emphases have been evident: the student as student, as migrant and most recently, as victim. The victim role plays easily into preconceived notions, helping to sustain an exploiter and exploited framework in which deeper issues remain unaddressed.…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatments for coronary heart disease (CHD have evolved rapidly over the last 15 years with considerable change in the number and effectiveness of both medical and surgical treatments. This period has seen the rapid development and uptake of statin drugs and coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs that include Coronary Artery Bypass Graft procedures (CABGs and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PCIs. It is difficult in an era of such rapid change to accurately forecast requirements for treatment services such as CARPs. In a previous paper we have described and outlined the use of a Markov Monte Carlo simulation model for analyzing and predicting the requirements for CARPs for the population of Western Australia (Mannan et al, 2007. In this paper, we expand on the use of this model for forecasting CARPs in Western Australia with a focus on the lack of adequate performance of the (standard model for forecasting CARPs in a period during the mid 1990s when there were considerable changes to CARP technology and implementation policy and an exploration and demonstration of how the standard model may be adapted to achieve better performance. Methods Selected key CARP event model probabilities are modified based on information relating to changes in the effectiveness of CARPs from clinical trial evidence and an awareness of trends in policy and practice of CARPs. These modified model probabilities and the ones obtained by standard methods are used as inputs in our Markov simulation model. Results The projected numbers of CARPs in the population of Western Australia over 1995–99 only improve marginally when modifications to model probabilities are made to incorporate an increase in effectiveness of PCI procedures. However, the projected numbers improve substantially when, in addition, further modifications are incorporated that relate to the increased probability of a PCI procedure and the reduced probability of a CABG
Mannan, Haider R; Knuiman, Matthew; Hobbs, Michael
Treatments for coronary heart disease (CHD) have evolved rapidly over the last 15 years with considerable change in the number and effectiveness of both medical and surgical treatments. This period has seen the rapid development and uptake of statin drugs and coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs) that include Coronary Artery Bypass Graft procedures (CABGs) and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PCIs). It is difficult in an era of such rapid change to accurately forecast requirements for treatment services such as CARPs. In a previous paper we have described and outlined the use of a Markov Monte Carlo simulation model for analyzing and predicting the requirements for CARPs for the population of Western Australia (Mannan et al, 2007). In this paper, we expand on the use of this model for forecasting CARPs in Western Australia with a focus on the lack of adequate performance of the (standard) model for forecasting CARPs in a period during the mid 1990s when there were considerable changes to CARP technology and implementation policy and an exploration and demonstration of how the standard model may be adapted to achieve better performance. Selected key CARP event model probabilities are modified based on information relating to changes in the effectiveness of CARPs from clinical trial evidence and an awareness of trends in policy and practice of CARPs. These modified model probabilities and the ones obtained by standard methods are used as inputs in our Markov simulation model. The projected numbers of CARPs in the population of Western Australia over 1995-99 only improve marginally when modifications to model probabilities are made to incorporate an increase in effectiveness of PCI procedures. However, the projected numbers improve substantially when, in addition, further modifications are incorporated that relate to the increased probability of a PCI procedure and the reduced probability of a CABG procedure stemming from changed CARP preference
Namkung, Jessica M; Fuchs, Lynn S; Koziol, Natalie
The purposes of this study were to (a) explore whether early fractions understanding at 4 th grade is differentially challenging for students with versus without adequate whole-number competence and (b) identify specific whole-number skill associated with difficulty in fractions understanding. Based on initial whole-number competence, 1,108 4 th graders were classified as having (a) adequate whole-number competence ( n = 775), (b) less severe whole-number difficulty ( n = 201), and (c) severe whole-number difficulty ( n = 132). At the end of 4 th grade, they were assessed on fractions understanding and further classified as with versus without difficulty in fractions understanding. Multi-level logistic regression indicated that compared to students with adequate whole-number competence, those with less severe whole-number difficulty were almost 5 times as likely to experience difficulty with fractions understanding whereas those with severe whole-number difficulty were about 32 times as likely to experience difficulty with fractions understanding. Students with severe whole-number difficulty were about 7 times as likely to experience difficulty with fractions understanding compared to those with less severe whole-number difficulty. Among students with adequate whole-number competence, the pretest whole-number skill distinguishing those with versus without difficulty in fractions understanding was basic division facts (i.e., 2-digit dividend ÷ 1-digit divisor) and simple multiplication (i.e., 3-digit × 1-digit without regrouping). The role of whole-number competence in developing initial fractions understanding and implications for instruction are discussed.
McNeal, Laura; Dunbar, Christopher, Jr.
Zero tolerance policy was created as a result of the Gun Free Schools Act of 1994. Varied views exist on zero tolerance policy that include its substantive impact, for whom it is intended, and its viability to address the problem of school violence. Parents, politicians, principals, and teachers have stated their views on the issues. However,…
Christensen, Laurene L.; Braam, Maureen; Scullin, Sarah; Thurlow, Martha L.
The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been tracking and analyzing state policies on assessment participation and accommodations since 1992. The purpose of the current analysis is to update information on these policies that was last reported by NCEO in 2008 (based on 2007 data). In addition, current state accommodations policies…
Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lail, Kathryn E.; Eisenbraun, Kristin D.; Kato, Kentaro
The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been tracking and analyzing state policies on assessment participation and accommodations since 1992. The purpose of the current analysis is to update information on these policies that was last reported by NCEO in 2005 (based on 2003 data). The current analysis of states' 2005 participation…
Muhling, Stefanie; Mady, Callie
This article describes a document analysis of policy and resource documents pertaining to inclusion of students with special education needs (SSEN) in Canadian French as a Second Language (FSL) programs. By recognizing gaps and acknowledging advancements, we aim to inform current implementation and future development of inclusive policy. Document…
Understanding the relationship between fractions and decimals is an important step in developing an overall understanding of rational numbers. Research has demonstrated the feasibility of technology in the form of virtual manipulatives for facilitating students' meaningful understanding of rational number concepts. This exploratory dissertation…
Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi, Leila; Hesampour, Maryam; Hasan Zadeh, Jafar
Recognizing the determinants of behavior plays a major role in identification and application of effective strategies for encouraging individuals to follow the intended pattern of behavior. The present study aimed to analyze the university students' behaviors regarding the amenability to dress code, using the theory of reasoned action (TRA). In this cross sectional study, 472 students were selected through multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by specialists. Besides, its reliability was confirmed by conducting a pilot study revealing Cronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.93 for attitude, 0.83 for subjective norms, 0.94 for behavioral intention and 0.77 for behavior. The data were entered into the SPSS statistical software and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney, correlation and regression analysis). Based on the students' self-reports, conformity of clothes to the university's dress code was below the expected level in 28.87% of the female students and 28.55% of the male ones. The mean scores of attitude, subjective norms, and behavioral intention to comply with dress code policy were 28.78±10.08, 28.51±8.25 and 11.12±3.84, respectively. The students of different colleges were different from each other concerning TRA constructs. Yet, subjective norms played a more critical role in explaining the variance of dress code behavior among the students. Theory of reasoned action explained the students' dress code behaviors relatively well. The study results suggest paying attention to appropriate approaches in educational, cultural activities, including promotion of student-teacher communication.
Conn-Powers, Michael; Cross, Alice F.; Zapf, Jason S.
In this Education Policy Brief, Indiana University's Center for Evaluation and Education Policy and Indiana Institute on Disability and Community tackle major policy questions regarding publicly-funded prekindergarten programs: Why should Indiana invest in prekindergarten? Who should be served? What should prekindergarten look like in Indiana? And…
Nugent, P; Ogle, K R; Bethune, E; Walker, A; Wellman, D A
There is much evidence to indicate a shortage of Registered Nurses (RNs) in Australia and to suggest that the shortage may be more pronounced in rural and remote locations. Attracting RNs to work in rural and remote areas may not be as simple as increasing the intake of students into university undergraduate pre-registration nursing courses. There is some evidence indicating that student nurses may be more likely to enter the nursing workforce in rural and remote locations if they have existing associations with rural and remote areas and/or their undergraduate education provides opportunities to undertake supported placements in rural and remote settings. Two important difficulties have been associated with measuring outcomes in relation to rural and remote pre-registration nursing students. One is defining what constitutes a rural or remote location and the other is suspect data on the number of nursing students enrolled in, and completing, nursing courses. The aims of this study were to provide a longitudinal profile of the number of domestic students studying and completing undergraduate pre-registration nursing courses in Australia, with a particular emphasis on identifying those at rural and remote university campuses, and to compare results across States and Territories. This study presents the combined findings from two investigative reports. Data on undergraduate pre-registration nursing student numbers were collected via electronic survey instruments completed by staff at all Australian educational institutions offering undergraduate pre-registration nursing education programs in 2001 and 2002. Australian domestic students were the focus of this study. Data included the total number of domestic students enrolled in undergraduate pre-registration nursing courses in 2001 and 2002, the number of domestic students who successfully completed courses in 1999, 2000 and 2001, and estimates for the number expected to complete in 2002. Surveys were sent to course
Seabourg, Deborah; And Others
At the beginning of the 1973-74 academic year alcohol usage was officially permitted for the first time in residence halls at the Twin Cities Campus of the University of Minnesota. To determine residents' perceptions of the effects of the change in drinking policy, interviews were conducted with 49 current dormitory residents, who had also lived…
McArthur, Laura Helena; Ball, Lanae; Danek, Ariel C; Holbert, Donald
To measure prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among college students in Appalachia, compare food-insecure and food-secure students on correlates, and identify predictor variables. Cross-sectional, online questionnaire. University in Appalachia. Nonprobability, random sample of 1,093 students (317 male [30.1%]; 723 females [68.4%]). Food insecurity, coping strategies, money expenditure, academic progress, and demographics. Correlational, chi-square, and regression. A total of 239 students experienced low food security (21.9%) whereas 266 had experienced very low food security (24.3%) in the past 12 months. Predictor variables were higher money expenditure and coping strategy scale scores, lower grade point averages, male gender, receiving financial aid, fair or poor self-rated health status, and never cooking for self or others. These variables accounted for 48.1% of variance in food security scores. Most frequently used coping strategies included purchasing cheap, processed food (n = 282; 57.4%), stretching food (n = 199; 40.5%), and eating less healthy meals to eat more (n = 174; 35.4%). Food-insecure students need interventions that teach budgeting skills and how to purchase and prepare healthy foods, as well as policies that increase access to food resource assistance. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Horodyskyj, L.; Lennon, T.; Mead, C.; Anbar, A. D.
Climate change is a problem that involves science, economics, and politics. Particularly in the United States, political resistance to addressing climate change has been exacerbated by a concerted misinformation campaign against the basic science, a negative response to how the proposed solutions to climate change intersect with values. Scientists often propose more climate science education as a solution to the problem, but preliminary studies indicate that more science education does not necessarily reduce polarization on the topic (Kahan et al. 2012). Is there a way that we can better engage non-science students in topics related to climate change that improve their comprehension of the problem and its implications, overcoming polarization? In an existing political science course, "Do You Want to Build a Nation?", we are testing a new digital world-building model based on resource development and consequent environmental and societal impacts. Students spend half the class building their nations based on their assigned ideology (i.e., socialist, absolute monarchy, libertarian) and the second half of the class negotiating with other nations to resolve global issues while remaining true to their ideologies. The course instructor, co-author Lennon, and ASU's Center for Education Through eXploration have collaborated to design a digital world model based on resources linked to an adaptive decision-making environment that translates student policies into modifications to the digital world. The model tracks students' exploration and justification of their nation's policy choices. In the Fall 2017 offering of the course, we will investigate how this digital world model and scenarios built around it affect student learning outcomes. Specifically, we anticipate improved understanding of the policy trade-offs related to energy development, better understanding of the ways that different ideologies approach solutions to climate change, and that both will result in more
Maman, Mayong; Rajab, Andi Aryani
The study aimed at describing the implementation of cooperative learning model of (NHT) at student of SMPN 2 Maros. The method used was a classroom action research in two cycles. Data were collected using the test for the quantitative and non-test for the qualitative by employing observation, field note, student's workbook, student's reflection…
Mathematical ability of students creative thinking is a component that must be mastered by the student. Mathematical creative thinking plays an important role, both in solving the problem and well, even in high school students. Therefore, efforts are needed to convey ideas in mathematics. But the reality is not yet developed the ability to…
EdSource, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.
This parent/student guide describes recent changes in admissions policies at the University of California (UC). Traditionally, UC admitted the top 12.5% of high school graduating seniors, but beginning in 2001, the top 4% of students in the graduating class of every high school are eligible if they have completed 11 specific "a-f"…
With an attempt to realize the effectiveness of a university's policy on motorcycle emission, this study compared its students' participation behavior, associated knowledge, and attitudes toward relevant environmental issues with those of three other universities without similar measures. The results of a survey on a total of 504 students revealed…
Ezhov, Sergey G.; Komarova, Nataliya M.; Khairullina, Elmira R.; Rapatskaia, Liudmila, A.; Miftakhov, Radik R.; Khusainova, Liana R.
The research urgency is caused by the increase of social responsibility of universities for improvement of the quality of higher education and development of students' socio-professional values. In terms of the conflicting realities of modern society the youth policy at the University is the most important tool to form students' commitment to…
Stamm, Mark E.; Frick, William C.; Mackey, Hollie J.
This study explored the moral complexity of student drug and alcohol policies that are often disciplinary, punitive, and exclusionary in nature. The Ethic of the Profession and its Model for Students' Best Interests (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016; Stefkovich, 2013), a professional ethical construct for educational leadership and for school…
Love-Quick, Sharon J.
One of the most pressing concerns that universities and colleges face today is the drug and alcohol abuse of students. In order to address this, there is a need to strengthen university policies in order to mitigate the increasing rate and cases of drug and alcohol abuse among students. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the…
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the body mass index and daily steps number of secondary and high school students in Mugla region according to age and gender. Material and Methods: A total of 1851 volunteer students (682 secondary school students and 1169 high school students participated in this study. Physical activity level was determined by measuring daily step numbers of students with a pedometer. Body mass index (kg/m2 was calculated by utilizing from height and weight measurements in order to find body composition. Acquired data was recorded in SPSS (18.0 program. In order to find a difference in body composition and physical activity level between gender, Independent t-test was applied. One-way Anova was applied in order to find the differences among ages. Tukey HSD Analysis was used to find from which age the difference stemmed from. Frequencies and percentages values were calculated to assess the number of daily steps and body mass index standards, and chi-square analysis was used to find differences according to sex. Results: As a result of the statistical analyse; statistically significant difference was found in the physical activity level of secondary school students, it was also found both high school student’s body composition and physical activity levels of high school students according to gender (p<0.05. While the body mass index values of both male and female students tend to increase with age, the physical activity level of both students tends to decrease with age. Statistically, a significant difference was found when the daily step count standards were compared by sex (X2=23.999 p=0.000. It was found that 65.91% (n=698 of the female students and 49.87% (n=395 of the male students were below the normal values of the daily step counts. Statistically, a significant difference was found when the body mass index standards were compared by sex (X2=15.702, p=0.000. It was seen that 16.90% of female students (n=179
Hough, Heather; Witte, Joe
In May 2016, the authors released a policy memo comparing the effect of reporting subgroups at an n-size of 20+ compared to 100+. In response to this original memo, the U.S. Department of Education released a rule notice proposing changes to ESSA regulation §200.17 allowing states "to establish a range of n-sizes, not to exceed 30." To…
A new report finding that black and Hispanic students are far more likely to be kicked out of school when they break the rules adds to a growing chorus of concern over the discipline policies being used in K-12 schools. Over the past two years, an increasing number of reports and initiatives have pointed out problems with 'zero tolerance"…
There is a strong focus on the importance of student engagement in higher education, with increasing attention on how students can participate in their university's decision-making processes. Yet, although the concept appears to be almost universally accepted, it is rarely problematised. This has led some commentators to conclude that student…
For years, students in foster care have been among the most transient in the nation, enduring sudden, sometimes frequent school changes as they move from home to home. The lack of school stability contributes to those children's academic struggles: Students in foster care are more likely than their peers to score lower on assessments and less…
Stahl, William M.; Karger, Joanne
The rapid adoption of digital content and delivery systems, each with its own capacity to track, store, and analyze student usage, interactions, and academic outcomes at both a highly detailed and granular level, has emerged as an area of widespread opportunity, but also of concern. The comingling of various student data sets (demographics, usage,…
Koh, Caroline; Liu, Woon Chia; Chye, Stefanie; Divaharan, Shanti
This study examines student teachers' views on their country and on National Education (NE), with the aim of promoting teachers' understanding of the need for NE. A 40-item survey was administered to 1,650 student teachers, to assess their sense of belonging, protective attitude, perceived right, ethnic tolerance and community and political…
National Council of Teachers of English, 2014
"The Students' Right to Read," published in 1961, revised in 1981, and reaffirmed by the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Executive Committee in 2012, responds to censorship or attempts to restrict or deny students access to materials deemed objectionable by some individual or group. Despite this position statement and the…
Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung
This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…
Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Kingston, Neal
This study examined the learner characteristics and performance scores of students in the 2009 alternate assessment-modified achievement standard for one Midwestern state. Comparing performance differences by disability category for each content area from the students' 2008 test type assignments and performance scores facilitated examining the…
Lichty, Lauren F.; Torres, Jennifer M. C.; Valenti, Maria T.; Buchanan, NiCole T.
Background: Peer sexual harassment is a significant social problem with consequences for both students and schools. Four out of 5 students report experiencing sexual harassment. These experiences have been linked to poor psychological health and academic withdrawal. Recognizing the seriousness of sexual harassment in schools, Supreme Court rulings…
Jones, Ann M.
The problem of bullying in schools is an issue of national importance. Research points to an abundance of negative impacts on students involved in bullying and require the attention of adults to address and resolve bullying incidents between students. This study, giving credence to the voices of eighth graders in one central Massachusetts middle…
The Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM) movement argues that broad-based education that promotes creativity recognizes student learning diversity, increases student engagement and can potentially enhance Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) learning by embracing cross-cutting translational skills…
García, Hugo A.; Villarreal, María de Lourdes
International student mobility in higher education has gained currency as an important topic in today's global, political, and economic environment. United States postsecondary institutions are working to expand their international student population to increase revenue and diversity. The current higher education and economic context has produced…
A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…
Groginsky, Scott; Trujillo, Tara
As schools work to ensure that all students have the skills and competencies to succeed in work and life, and with growing expectations for success on standardized assessments at the federal, state and local levels, education leaders increasingly understand the importance of student wellness to achieving these goals. This report outlines why…
Craig, Pippa; Gordon, Jill; Clarke, Rufus; Oldmeadow, Wendy
This study aimed to provide evidence to guide decisions on the type and timing of assessments in a graduate medical programme, by identifying whether students from particular degree backgrounds face greater difficulty in satisfying the current assessment requirements. We examined the performance rank of students in three types of assessments and…
For the past several decades, China has sent many students to other higher education systems for education overseas. The Taiwanese higher education sector, which is facing intense international competition, is also attempting to recruit students from China in order to internationalize its higher education and solve the problem of overprovision of…
Guo, Yan; Guo, Shibao
The internationalization of higher education in Canada is happening at a rapid pace. One manifestation of internationalization is the increasing enrolment of international students in Canadian institutions. There is little research on international undergraduate students' experiences from their own perspectives as they adapt to a new educational…
Isom, Dena K.
This report describes a problem-based learning project focused on the information available to superintendents related to improving student attendance. This information has the potential to assist school districts in improving the attendance of each student as is required by attendance standards such as those of the fifth version of the Missouri…
The scholarly literature in higher education has not dealt extensively with the responsibilities of institutions for servicing the rights of international students. This paper is a comparative analysis of legal frameworks which guide institutions in their handling of international student rights. Two national approaches, those of Australia and New…
Doyle, Stephanie; Loveridge, Judith; Faamanatu-Eteuati, Niusila
This article focuses on a significant group of postgraduate international students overlooked by institutions and policymakers, namely those with accompanying partners and children. The economic importance of international students to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America is highlighted. It is argued…
Granruth, Laura Brierton; Kindle, Peter A.; Burford, Michael L.; Delavega, Elena; Johnson, David H.; Peterson, Susan; Caplan, Mary A.
Understanding student political attitudes--feelings about government and perceptions of its role--has long been of interest to social scientists. One factor that may influence political attitudes is belief in a just world, a complex psychological construct well established in the literature. Our study explores changes in social work students'…
In the context of increasing linguistic and cultural diversity in Australian schools, it is important to consider the value of students' multilingual resources for learning. This paper reports on an ethnographic case study conducted in an Australian metropolitan secondary school where the student body represented more than 40 cultures and…
Fitri Mawaddah Lubis
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the differences in learning outcomes of students taught by cooperative learning model NHT using simulation PhET and conventional learning, analyzing the differences in learning outcomes of students who have high activity and low activity, as well as the interaction between learning model with the level of student activity in influencing the outcome students learn physics. This research is a quasi experimental. The population in this study were students of class X SMK Tritech Informatika Medan. The tests were used to obtain the data is in the form of multiple choice. Test requirements have been carried out in the form of normality and homogeneity, which showed that the normal data and homogeneous. The data were analyzed using Anova analysis of two paths. The results showed that: The physics learning outcomes of students who use cooperative learning model NHT using PhET simulations media is better than students who use conventional learning models. The physics learning outcomes of students who have high learning activities is better than students who have Low learning activities. There is an interaction between cooperative learning model NHT PhET simulations using the media and the level of learning activity in influencing student learning outcomes. Average increase learning outcomes in the control class is greater than the experimental class.
Ziguras, Christopher; Gribble, Cate
For several decades, Singapore has experienced a high rate of outbound degree mobility with around 1 in 10 higher education students currently studying outside the country according to UNESCO figures. Singapore's successful economic development strategy, which has seen it become a key Asian hub for knowledge-intensive industries for…
Holt, Janet K.; Duffy, Daniel Q.
The Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE) sought to identify those institutions helping students overcome barriers to college completion and achieve a livable wage. This analysis of Illinois 4-year postsecondary institutions highlights those institutions which fostered degree completion and job success with less debt for underrepresented…
Holt, Janet K.; Duffy, Daniel Q.
The Illinois Board of Higher Education (IBHE) sought to identify those institutions helping students overcome barriers to college completion and achieve a livable wage. This analysis of Illinois 4-year postsecondary institutions highlights those institutions which fostered degree completion and job success with less debt for underrepresented…
Rollinson, Joseph; Brunskill, Emma
At their core, Intelligent Tutoring Systems consist of a student model and a policy. The student model captures the state of the student and the policy uses the student model to individualize instruction. Policies require different properties from the student model. For example, a mastery threshold policy requires the student model to have a way…
Junia Zacour del Giúdice
Full Text Available The criterion of social vulnerability is embedded in different programs for the analysis of poverty and social exclusion. For the present study, we sought to examine conceptually and empirically, the criterion of social vulnerability adopted in student assistance from the Federal University of Viçosa / MG for selection of students benefited by means of literature and questionnaire. Related to social vulnerability and social exclusion risks and addressed the students' perception of the subject. We conclude that the empirical approach refers to the conceptual, social vulnerability being concentrated on economic and social indicators, represented by income, ownership of assets, work, health and family structure.
Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…
Lee, Joseph G L; Purcell, Christopher J; Chaney, Beth H
The objective of this study was to examine how different ways of describing a hypothetical tobacco-free campus policy would impact college students' perceived level of support from the college. In the spring of 2016, we randomized 1885 undergraduate students in a required course to three message conditions in an online survey: control (no message), wellness (emphasizing promoting health and quitting support), and punitive (emphasizing consequences for violating the policy). The dependent variable was perceived organizational support. We selected items previously shown to be relevant for college students (alpha = 0.92 in our data). Given significant non-normality, we used non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests with pairwise comparisons to examine differences in perceived organizational support across the three conditions. We examined results by smoking status and if the participant correctly reported the message they received. We found no significant difference in perceived organizational support among students exposed to different tobacco-free campus policy announcements ( p = 0.75). We also found no significant difference among smokers ( p = 0.66). However, among smokers who correctly reported the message they received, we found significantly lower perceived university support ( p = 0.01). Messages about tobacco-free campus policies should focus on the role of policy in supporting a healthy environment instead of punitive enforcement. Campus administrators should use caution when using message frames focusing on consequences of violating newly adopted policies.
Gregory J. Marchant
Full Text Available With the mandate of No Child Left Behind, high-stakes achievement testing is firmly in place in every state. The few studies that have explored the effectiveness of high-stakes testing using NAEP scores have yielded mixed results. This study considered state demographic characteristics for each NAEP testing period in reading, writing, mathematics, and science from 1992 through 2002, in an effort to examine the relation of high-stakes testing policies to achievement and changes in achievement between testing periods. As expected, demographic characteristics and their changes were related significantly to most achievement outcomes, but high-stakes testing policies demonstrated few relationships with achievement. The few relationships between high-stakes testing and achievement or improvement in reading, writing, or science tended to appear only when demographic data were missing; and the minimal relationships with math achievement were consistent with findings in previous research. Considering the cost and potential unintended negative consequences, high-stakes testing policies seem to provide a questionable means of improving student learning.
Recent research shows no significant educational benefits from providing summer schools, extended school years, or year-round schooling to disadvantaged students. However, the severe educational difficulties faced by these students, combined with the many practical reasons for deviating from the traditional school year, are strong reasons why…
Nespoli, Lawrence A.; Radcliffe, Susan K.
A study was conducted by Howard Community College (HCC) to identify the geographic make-up of HCC credit students and to examine importance factors influencing college attendance. Using census software, data on 93.4% of HCC's 1980 credit students (N=4,013) were compared with 1980 census data on Howard County to determine participation rates for…
Livieratos, Barbara B.
In spring 1988, a telephone survey was conducted of students who had been enrolled in Howard Community College's (HCC's) Biomedical Engineering Technology (BMET) program between 1972 and 1987. The study sought to gather information for future student recruitment and program planning efforts. Responses were obtained from 43 (35%) of a potential…
Huber, Lindsay Perez; Malagon, Maria C.; Solorzano, Daniel G.
Assembly Bill 540 (AB 540) was passed into law by the California state legislature in October 2001 and was implemented on January 1, 2002. Under AB 540, an undocumented student pays resident (in-state) fees at California's public colleges and universities if the student 1) attended a high school in California for at least three years (schooling…
Sandoval-Hernandez, Andres; Taniguchi, Kyoko; Aghakasiri, Parisa
Preschool education is a major topic on many national educational agendas. Countries and supranational organizations have promoted reforms aimed at readying children for entry into formal schooling, and preschool coverage rates have steadily increased in recent decades. In this policy brief the authors analyze data from 37 education systems that…
This paper addresses racism and white privilege in America. Racism is generally discriminatory policy and behavior aimed at oppressing non whites whereas white privilege is the advantage gained by whites that is not due to ability or merit. It is argued that white privilege is largely invisible and that this allows the current unacceptable status…
Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia
This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…
Barton, Paul E.; Coley, Richard J.
The United States has a history of vacillating between rehabilitation and punishment for prisoners. The current mood is to devote resources to building more prisons and to strengthen law enforcement and sentencing policies. Within the last 15 years, the U.S. prison population has tripled, with minority groups being overrepresented in prisons.…
Ibrahim, Ali Mohamed
Previous research on the effect of class size on student ratings of instruction has primarily investigated the effect of class size on the favorableness of these ratings rather than its effect on their reliability (dependability). A few studies have used "generalizability theory" to demonstrate the relative effect of class size on the dependability of student ratings of instruction. The purpose of the present study was to test the validity of the findings of these studies in a different cultural setting using a different student ratings questionnaire. Using a random-effect analysis of variance to estimate the variance components for a design in which students were nested within classes and crossed with items, it was found that the variance component for class size was appreciably larger than that for items. At least 20 students were needed to obtain a generalizability coefficient for relative decisions of .70 or more. Increasing the number of students has a greater effect on generalizability coefficients than increasing the number of items.
James S Yeh
Full Text Available Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors.Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty-industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50-2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50-2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale. Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.63. Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19-1.04 and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15-0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.95 than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of education, size of school, and publicly
Yeh, James S; Austad, Kirsten E; Franklin, Jessica M; Chimonas, Susan; Campbell, Eric G; Avorn, Jerry; Kesselheim, Aaron S
Professional societies use metrics to evaluate medical schools' policies regarding interactions of students and faculty with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. We compared these metrics and determined which US medical schools' industry interaction policies were associated with student behaviors. Using survey responses from a national sample of 1,610 US medical students, we compared their reported industry interactions with their schools' American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard and average Institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) Conflicts of Interest Policy Database score. We used hierarchical logistic regression models to determine the association between policies and students' gift acceptance, interactions with marketing representatives, and perceived adequacy of faculty-industry separation. We adjusted for year in training, medical school size, and level of US National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding. We used LASSO regression models to identify specific policies associated with the outcomes. We found that IMAP and AMSA scores had similar median values (1.75 [interquartile range 1.50-2.00] versus 1.77 [1.50-2.18], adjusted to compare scores on the same scale). Scores on AMSA and IMAP shared policy dimensions were not closely correlated (gift policies, r = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.44; marketing representative access policies, r = 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.63). Students from schools with the most stringent industry interaction policies were less likely to report receiving gifts (AMSA score, odds ratio [OR]: 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72; IMAP score, OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.19-1.04) and less likely to interact with marketing representatives (AMSA score, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15-0.69; IMAP score, OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.95) than students from schools with the lowest ranked policy scores. The association became nonsignificant when fully adjusted for NIH funding level, whereas adjusting for year of education, size of school, and publicly versus
Gong, Min; Liang, Zhu-Yuan; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Shadel, William G; Zhou, Lei; Xiao, Jiaying
China issued a nationwide "Tobacco-Free Campus" Policy (TFCP) in January 2014, but it is unclear how well it was implemented across China's 2138 college campuses. We conducted an Internet survey of Beijing college students to evaluate the implementation of the TFCP in Beijing. An Internet survey of 711 students from 37 colleges in Beijing was conducted in May 2015. Respondents reported on secondhand smoking (SHS) exposure on campus, knowledge on and actions taken against SHS, and tobacco marketing exposure on campus. Almost 90% of respondents were exposed to SHS on campus at least once in the past month. Approximately 37% of nonsmokers and 61% of smokers reported seeing a teacher smoking, and the majority of both smokers and nonsmokers reported seeing a classmate smoking in campus buildings. The likelihood and location of SHS exposure depend on the participant's demographics and own smoking behavior. Nonsmokers were more likely to be aware of the health risk of SHS than smokers. Although most participants were aware of the harms, only 13% and 9% tried to stop their last SHS exposure indoors and outdoors, respectively. Forty-seven students from 14 colleges noticed tobacco marketing activities on campus. The TFCP on Chinese college campuses was only partially enforced, particularly with regard to SHS. On January 29, 2014, the Chinese Ministry of Education issued the TFCP. A major barrier to effective tobacco control in China is the difficulty in implementing policies issued by the central government. At this point, it is unclear whether the TFCP was successfully implemented on China's college campuses. Major tobacco use monitoring efforts do not include college students. The present research describes the current tobacco control environment on Beijing's college campuses 15 months after the TFCP took effect. To our knowledge, this is the first paper in the English literature on tobacco environment and exposure (rather than a prevalence survey) of college students in
Shanty, Nenden Octavarulia; Hartono, Yusuf; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; de Haan, Dede
This study aimed at investigating the progress of students' learning on multiplication fractions with natural numbers through the five activity levels based on Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach proposed by Streefland. Design research was chosen to achieve this research goal. In design research, the Hypothetical Learning Trajectory…
Full Text Available Social capital in Eastern Europe has received a fair amount of scholarly attention in recent years, including in the Czech Republic. This paper examines the stock of macro-level social capital in the Czech Republic in comparative European perspective. The notions of “missing” social capital and corruption as negative social capital are explored. The corruption situation in the Czech Republic and the progress in curbing it that was made in the last decade are evaluated. Regressions run with data from the World Value Survey and the Corruption Perception Index show that economic growth does not translate into correspondingly lower levels of corruption in the Czech case. State bureaucracy is identified as a possible reason for the failure to curb corruption successfully. Public policy recommendations and their usefulness for the Czech Republic are debated and a civil service reform is proposed as the most appropriate policy for addressing the situation.
Vanubia Sampaio Santos
Full Text Available This work presents the outline of a study that is underway, seeking evidence and question the reality of Indian students in schools not as the situations of indigenous affirmation and omission identity (ethnic belonging in urban public schools in Rondônia. The obtained data show everyday situations that characterize violence and prejudice against students indígenas.Essas and other situations that reveals the interethnic tension remains dormant and can manifest in many different situations. At school, occurs in intercultural interaction. To discuss these and other issues raised in the survey, support for authors who discuss indigenous education, management, public policy, anti-colonialist project, empowerment, autonomy and leadership indigenous perspective of the indigenous movement with Grupioni (2001, Lopes da Silva (2000; D'Angelis (2012; Bergamaschi (2012, Both (2009; Mendonça (2009; Castoriadis (1988; Secchi (2008; Tadeu da Silva (1999 and Paulo Freire (1982 with their outstanding contribution to the dialogue on indigenous education. Keywords: Indian student. Urban school. Prejudice. Omission identity.
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Sørensen, Torben; Taber, Christopher
In this paper, we investigate the responsiveness of the demand for college to changes in student aid arising from a Danish reform. We separately identify the effect of aid from that of other observed and unobserved variables such as parental income. We exploit the combination of a kinked aid scheme...... and a reform of the student aid scheme to identify the effect of direct costs on college enrollment. To allow for heterogeneous responses due to borrowing constraints, we use detailed information on parents' assets. We find that enrollment is less responsive than found in other studies and that the presence...
Teerawattananon, Yot; Russell, Steve
This paper presents qualitative findings from an assessment of the acceptability of using economic evaluation among policy actors in Thailand. Using cost-utility data from two economic analyses a hypothetical case scenario was created in which policy actors had to choose between two competing interventions to include in a public health benefit package. The two competing interventions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for gallbladder disease versus renal dialysis for chronic renal disease, were selected because they highlighted conflicting criteria influencing the allocation of healthcare resources. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role in resource allocation decisions within the Thai healthcare system. These included 14 policy makers at the national level, five hospital directors, ten health professionals and seven academics. Twenty six out of 36 (72%) respondents were not convinced by the presentation of economic evaluation findings and chose not to support the inclusion of a proven cost-effective intervention (LC) in the benefit package due to ethical, institutional and political considerations. There were only six respondents, including three policy makers at national level, one hospital director, one health professional and one academic, (6/36, 17%) whose decisions were influenced by economic evaluation evidence. This paper illustrates limitations of using economic evaluation information in decision making priorities of health care, perceived by different policy actors. It demonstrates that the concept of maximising health utility fails to recognise other important societal values in making health resource allocation decisions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents qualitative findings from an assessment of the acceptability of using economic evaluation among policy actors in Thailand. Using cost-utility data from two economic analyses a hypothetical case scenario was created in which policy actors had to choose between two competing interventions to include in a public health benefit package. The two competing interventions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC for gallbladder disease versus renal dialysis for chronic renal disease, were selected because they highlighted conflicting criteria influencing the allocation of healthcare resources. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role in resource allocation decisions within the Thai healthcare system. These included 14 policy makers at the national level, five hospital directors, ten health professionals and seven academics. Results Twenty six out of 36 (72% respondents were not convinced by the presentation of economic evaluation findings and chose not to support the inclusion of a proven cost-effective intervention (LC in the benefit package due to ethical, institutional and political considerations. There were only six respondents, including three policy makers at national level, one hospital director, one health professional and one academic, (6/36, 17% whose decisions were influenced by economic evaluation evidence. Conclusion This paper illustrates limitations of using economic evaluation information in decision making priorities of health care, perceived by different policy actors. It demonstrates that the concept of maximising health utility fails to recognise other important societal values in making health resource allocation decisions.
In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...
McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Chu, Yen Li; Blanchard, Chris; Rossiter, Melissa; Williams, Patricia; Raine, Kim; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J
To assess what health promotion policies and practices were adopted by schools in Nova Scotia and the extent that these policies and practices affected the diet quality, physical activity (PA) and weight status of students. We developed and administered a 'school practice assessment tool' to assess the presence of 72 different school-based health promotion policies and practices. Surveys were conducted in 2003 and 2011 to assess diet, PA and weight status in approximately 10,000 grade 5 students. We used multilevel regression methods to examine changes in these outcomes across schools with varying levels of health promotion policies and practices between the two time-points. Between 2003 and 2011 the diet quality of students improved, PA decreased and the prevalence of childhood obesity increased. Although we did not find consistent or significant favourable benefits resulting from higher implementation levels, we did observe fewer negative trends among schools at higher levels of implementation. Our results build on the current gap in knowledge on the impact of Health Promoting Schools (HPS) implementation through population health interventions, but there is a continued need for further evaluation and monitoring of school policies to understand how HPS practices are supporting healthier eating and PA for students.
Miller, Peter M.
Rates of student homelessness have increased dramatically throughout the United States in recent years, yet there has been a dearth of scholarly analysis devoted to key organizations' engagement of the issue. Given that the federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act has taken on a central, but underexamined role in shaping this engagement,…
Schildkamp, Kim; Rekers-Mombarg, L.T.M.; Rekers-Mombarg, L.T.M.; Harms, T.
At the end of secondary education in The Netherlands, students have to pass a final examination, consisting of an internal school-based assessment and an external national assessment. According to the Dutch inspectorate, to ensure the quality of final examinations, the discrepancy between both
Sendelbaugh, Joseph; Bullis, Michael
The national survey to determine what state level transition provisions exist between special education and rehabilitation services for hearing-impaired students found that half of the vocational rehabilitation and one-fourth of the special education agencies have a formal state-level transition plan in place. (DB)
Rice, Craig J.
Individuals' attitudes impact the decisions they make in life. These attitudes are often formed early and are maintained by individuals throughout their lives. Attitudes toward individuals with disabilities were compared for undergraduate students enrolled in introductory special education and political science courses. This population was…
Thomas, Beth A.
In 1968 the Bilingual Education Act marked the first comprehensive federal intervention in the schooling of language minoritized students by creating financial incentives for bilingual education in an effort to address social and educational inequities created by poverty and linguistic isolation in schools. Since that time federal education…
Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus
The paper highlights the violations of students' human rights in schools. The problem is the incident that took place at a school in Pretoria in 2016 where Black girls protested against the School's Code of Conduct relating to hairstyle. Qualitative approach was used to collect information through a literature review and desk-top research methods.…
Barkhuizen, Gary P.
Examined decisions about which languages to include in the school curriculum and which languages to use as languages of learning and teaching in South Africa, paying particular attention to the relative role and status of Xhosa and English from the perspective of high school students studying Xhosa as a first language and English as a second.…
Clavel, Jose G.; Crespo, Francisco Javier G.; Méndez, Ildefonso
The different strategies and methodologies used by teachers in their day-to-day activity may have an impact on the academic performance of their students. Indexes constructed to summarize how teachers address different teaching tasks can be used to quantify the teaching activities' associations with academic results. In the IEA's Trends in…
Roby, Teshia; Ashe, Susan; Singh, Neha; Clark, Curtis
To maximize the quality of the online experience and actualize the potential of alternative learning environments at their institutions, administrators must explore the perceived experiences of the members of their online learning communities. The overall purpose of the study was to identify factors that would enhance student and instructor…
Introduction: Everyday millions of students in the United States receive special education services. Special education is an institution shaped by societal norms. Inherent in these norms are implicit assumptions regarding disability and the nature of special education services. The two dominant implicit assumptions evident in the American…
Kolb, Kenneth H.; Longest, Kyle C.; Singer, Alexa J.
Writing intensive first-year seminars are well situated within the curriculum to teach about issues like cheating and plagiarism. Although most research on academic integrity focuses on how--and how much--students cheat, we take a different approach. We assess whether participation in writing intensive first-year seminars produces measurable…
Wake County Public School System, 2015
This handbook was produced as a resource for students and parents to explain the policies, rules, and regulations governing all students in the Wake County Public School System. Numbers that appear in some portions of the handbook refer to specific Board of Education policies. In some instances the entire policy is cited; at other times, only the…
Nkomazana, Njabulo; Maharaj, Pranitha
Young people, especially university students, are at high risk of HIV infections because of little or no parental or administrative prohibitions in campus environments. The aim of this study was to ascertain the level of condom use among university students in Zimbabwe; that is, condom use at last sex and consistent condom use among both regular and casual partners. The study draws on self-completed questionnaires administered to university students. The results reveal that, while 78.3% of sexually active respondents had used condoms in penetrative sexual encounters before, only 56.2% had used condoms at their last sexual encounter. As expected, consistent condom use was lower in regular sexual partnerships than it was in casual partnerships (30.6% versus 54.6%). Condom use at first sex and high personal HIV risk perception were found to be the most important factors in explaining condom use at last sex and consistent condom use with casual partners. Condom use intentions were high, as 75% of respondents indicated that they would use condoms at their next sexual encounters. Whilst this is commendable, use rates should ideally be higher still. Campus HIV/AIDS programmers should endeavour to ensure that condoms are available at all times in order to help translate these intentions into actual condom use. In addition, promotional programmes should encourage those who have not yet initiated sexual intercourse to use condoms at their first sex and also to improve personal HIV risk perceptions in order to trigger initiation of protective sexual behaviours.
Heng, Mary Anne; Sudarshan, Akhila
This paper examines the perceptions and understandings of ten grades 1 and 2 Singapore mathematics teachers as they learned to use clinical interviews (Ginsburg, "Human Development" 52:109-128, 2009) to understand students' mathematical thinking. This study challenged teachers' pedagogical assumptions about what it means to teach for…
Until last year, Ohio had in place a rule requiring a minimum level of staffing for music, visual arts, physical education, counselors, librarians, nurses, social workers and visiting teachers. School districts had to have at least five of these eight positions for every 1,000 students. In March 2015, the State Board of Education eliminated this…
Timko, Joseph J.; Birkenholz, Robert J.
This student reference on agricultural business, designed to accompany the lessons outlined in the 1984 instructor's guide, "Introduction to Agricultural Business," has seven lessons: (1) introduction to agribusiness; (2) careers in agribusiness; (3) agribusiness in the community; (4) the role of the employee in an agribusiness; (5)…
Gibbs, Anna S.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Flores, Margaret M.
Children who struggle in mathematics have a limited understanding of the foundational processes of mathematics. A lack of conceptual understanding causes students to fall behind as they progress through the core curriculum. Children at high risk for developing mathematics disabilities fail to gain numeracy knowledge. The purpose of this case study…
Phinney, Joanna; And Others
This student guide for a program concerned with the way handicapped children feel about themselves and the way others respond to them provides a brief introduction to the kinds of handicapping conditions, sources of help for handicapped children and their families, and suggestions for ways that parents can meet the special challenge of raising a…
Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian
The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students' lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students' self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1-2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3-4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1-2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3-4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near
Martínez, Cristina; Méndez, Carlos; Sánchez, María; Martínez-Sánchez, José María
To assess attitudes towards the extension of outdoor smoke-free areas on university campuses. Cross-sectional study (n=384) conducted using a questionnaire administered to medical and nursing students in Barcelona in 2014. Information was obtained pertaining to support for indoor and outdoor smoking bans on university campuses, and the importance of acting as role models. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine agreement. Most of the students agreed on the importance of health professionals and students as role models (74.9% and 64.1%, respectively) although there were statistically significant differences by smoking status and age. 90% of students reported exposure to smoke on campus. Students expressed strong support for indoor smoke-free policies (97.9%). However, only 39.3% of participants supported regulation of outdoor smoking for university campuses. Non-smokers (OR=12.315; 95% CI: 5.377-28.204) and students ≥22 years old (OR=3.001; 95% CI: 1.439-6.257) were the strongest supporters. The students supported indoor smoke-free policies for universities. However, support for extending smoke-free regulations to outdoor areas of university campuses was limited. It is necessary to educate students about tobacco control and emphasise their importance as role models before extending outdoor smoke-free legislation at university campuses. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.
Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…
Alvarado, José Gerardo
Un estudiante universitario de primera generación (EUPG, First Generation College Student, FGCS) se define como una persona cuyos padres tienen escaso conocimiento acerca de la educación superior y el objetivo de esta etnografía es mostrar como se utiliza esta categoría social en una universidad del suroeste de los Estados Unidos de América. El primer capítulo sirve de introducción. El segundo capítulo ubica el estudio dentro de la etnografía, viéndola como una perspectiva en las ciencias soc...
This dissertation is a study of the policy process behind the legislation and regulation governing international student access to U.S. higher education since the immediate aftermath of World War II. The particular research focus of this dissertation is on NAFSA: Association of International Educators (originally established as the National…
Scrivener, Susan; Weiss, Michael J.
This policy brief presents results from a random assignment evaluation of the City University of New York's Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP). An ambitious and promising endeavor, ASAP provides a comprehensive array of services and supports to help community college students graduate and to help them graduate sooner. The evaluation…
Mehdi Abdollah-Zadeh Rafi
Conclusion: Theory of mind development of mental retarded students varies based on that type of task being used to assess. In total, the claim of Theory-Theory approach, that says theory of mind development is on the basis of necessary processes, could be accepted. Also those theories which are based on cultural-social approaches calming that experience with other people causes development of mind understanding need to be more examined.
Duray, Stephen M.; Mekow, Craig L.
Chiropractic and medical colleges have experienced a significant increase in the number of female applicants in recent years, a percentage of whom are pregnant or become pregnant following admission. It is therefore important to ask the question: How do institutions that educate future health care providers address the issue of pregnancy and the…
Rae Seong Hong
Full Text Available Humanities and social sciences studies in Korea have remarkably low rates of co-authorship between professors and students. We chose a bibliometrics-based approach to characterize changes in the ratio of joint authorship between professors and students. Articles classified in the humanities and social sciences sectors that were published in journals registered in the Korean Citation Index during 2 phases over a 10-year period—2004 to 2006 (phase 1 and 2011 to 2013 (phase 2—were used as the main source for the analysis. The study results can be summarized as follows: first, the overall number of co-authored articles drastically increased from phase 1 to phase 2; the percentage of co-authorship articles increased from 34.8% to 47.7%, and the percentage of co-authorship between students and professors rose from 9.9% to 20.7%. This trend was particularly noticeable in the social sciences, such as accounting, social welfare, and economics/business administration. Second, papers written by scholars from Seoul National University, Yonsei University, and Korea University were often published in high-impact factor journals. Among those articles, the rate of professor-student co-authorship increased by 21.6% for 7 years. Third, the increase in professor-student co-authored articles published in high- impact factor journals was even sharper. These findings indicate that perceptions of professor-student co-authorship have changed in the humanities and social sciences. In the near future, positive perceptions toward joint research and joint authorship between professors and students are expected to become more widespread.
This book explores the experiences of young people as they move through the Irish secondary educational system. Drawing on a rich study which combines survey data with in-depth interviews with students, it addresses the key facets of schooling which influence young people’s experiences. With chapters organised thematically, including ability grouping, school climate and the impact of high stakes examinations, the central dimensions of school structure and process is explored. Placing young people’s voices centre stage, it explores how they respond to the school context and make decisions that will profoundly affect their future. This book contrasts different types of school settings and examines how gender and social class play out at the school level. .
Full Text Available The article discusses the basic steps and approaches to market research of the region’s open economic system during the practice on the geography of foreign economic ties. Students pass pre-diploma practice on geography of foreign economic activity in customs bodies, the Ministry of Economic Development, in the Chamber of Commerce, Union of entrepreneurs, industrialists and agrarians of Transnistria. The analysis of potential markets for products aimed at a comprehensive study of the processes developing in commodity treatment, factors determining the economic relations between producers and consumers of goods that form the supply and demand. A variety of methods have been used for market research: “cabinet” of research, direct market research, the method of trial sales, development and maintenance of personal contacts with the representatives of contractor companies, widely used reference and printed periodicals.
Cho, Sumi; Lee, Eunjoo
Smartphone use in healthcare settings may distract healthcare providers and disrupt patient care. Moreover, it may lead to adverse events, thereby threatening patient safety. This study assessed nursing students' smartphone use as a source of distraction in clinical practice and identified their opinions about policies restricting smartphone use during patient care. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used with convenience sampling. Third-year nursing students (n=312) from two nursing schools in the Republic of Korea completed the survey in 2012. A self-report questionnaire-based on addiction theories for problem behaviors and literature on the distraction caused by cellular phone use-was used to assess smartphone use, experiences of distraction caused by smartphone use, and opinions about restriction policies on smartphone use during clinical practice. Nearly half (46.2%) of the nursing students used smartphones at least sometimes during clinical practice and about a quarter of the respondents (24.7%) were at least sometimes distracted by smartphones during clinical practice. The majority of the respondents (83.7%) had witnessed nurses using smartphones at least sometimes during their work. A few respondents (15.7%) agreed or strongly agreed with the policy for restricting smartphone use in hospitals. Students who used smartphones more often tended to disagree with restriction policies for smartphone use in hospitals. Awareness about the risks of smartphone use, especially regarding patient safety, is necessary for nursing students in school and hospital settings. Educators and faculty of nursing schools need to develop policies that encourage intelligent and safe use of smartphones during clinical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Snow, E.; Moore, S. L.
GeoFORCE Texas is an outreach program of the Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin. Established in 2005 with the goal of increasing the number and diversity of students studying geosciences and engineering and entering the high-tech workforce, GeoFORCE has been highly successful. Key elements to that success will be presented here. GeoFORCE targets bright students in rural and inner-city schools where they are generally not academically challenged. Every summer throughout high school we take them on geologic field trips all over the country. In 2014, GeoFORCE led 15 field academies for about 600 students. The program is rigorous and academic. We emphasize college-level thinking skills. Because it is a 4-year program, they have a pretty good grounding in physical geology by the time they graduate. More importantly, they develop confidence in their ability to handle college, and a strong motivation to earn a college degree. GeoFORCE students are mostly minority (85%) and more than half will be the first in their family to graduate from college. GeoFORCE students exceed national averages in rates of going to college (97%), majoring in STEM fields (66%), majoring in geosciences (15%) and engineering (13%), and graduating from college (~85%). GeoFORCE is a public/private partnership and a workforce-focused program. The Jackson School funds staff and operating expenses (37%). Money for student programs comes from private industry (44%), state and federal grants (14%), and foundations and individual donors (5%). Our corporate partners are in the energy sector. In addition to funding, corporate sponsors attend the summer field programs, mentor GeoFORCE students, and provide opportunities for the students to visit the companies. As our students move toward college graduation, our industry and government partners have begun to hire them as interns. GeoFORCE graduates are now entering the workforce. Our first two cohorts are 4 and 5 years past high
Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971 who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11, 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82 and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09 were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95, 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13 and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02. Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346. Conclusions There
Gertler, Paul; Patrinos, Harry; Rubio-Codina, Marta
Mexico's compensatory education program provides extra resources to primary schools that enroll disadvantaged students in highly disadvantaged rural communities. One of the most important components of the program is the school-based management intervention known as Apoyo a la Gestion Escolar, (AGEs). The impact of the AGEs is assessed on…
Holstead, Michael S.; Spradlin, Terry E.; Plucker, Jonathan A.
The Internet has become a powerful force in transforming organizations in both private and public sectors, including public education. Some educational reformers now view virtual schools, in which the majority of course content is delivered online, as a viable alternative and innovative means of educating K-12 students. As of September 2007, 42…
The Analysis Of The Effects Of Regulatory Policy Finance Minister Number 91 In 2015 On The Factors That Influence The Willingnes To Pay Taxes Case Study On The Personal Tax Payers Registered In STO Jember
Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the Regulatory Policy of The Republic Indonesian PMKRI Number 91 in 2015 on Factors Affecting Tax Payer Willingness. This research is a kind of quantitative research using descriptive statistical approach.. this study uses the object in the form of personal tax payers registered in the tax office primary jember by questionnaire method. Sampling technique in this research is technique of Convinience Sampling. the sample used in this study are as many as 100 Individual Tax Payers who report the Annual SPT on 22 February to 30 March 2016 manually in KPP Pratama Jember. The results showed that the Regulatory Policy of The Republic Indonesian PMKRI Number 91 in 2015 has given a significant effect on the factors that influence the willingness to pay taxes that pay taxes awareness knowledge and understanding of the tax laws as well as good perception on the effectiveness of the tax system..
Full Text Available Hands are the principal carriers of bacterial diseases, therefore very important to know that washing hands with soap or hand sanitizer is highly effective healthy behaviors to reduce bacteria in the palm. This study aimed to determine the total number of bacteria between washing hands with soap and hand sanitizer, also applying the results of these studies as a learning resource in bacteriology. The research design was the true experiment with pretest-posttest control group research design and laboratory examination. Analysis of data using paired t-test and independent sample t-test with α = 0.05. The result using paired t-test obtained t count= 2.48921> t 0.05 (14 = 2.14479 (with liquid soap, obtained t count= 2.32937> t 0.05 (14 = 2.14479 (with hand sanitizer. As for the comparison of the total number of bacteria include washing hands with soap and hand sanitizer using independent samples t-test obtained results there were differences in the total number of bacteria include washing hands with liquid soap and hand sanitizer with t count= 2.23755> t 0.05 ( 13 = 2.16037. That results showed hand sanitizer more effective to reduce the number of bacteria than the liquid soap, that was hand sanitizer 96% and liquid soap by 95%.
Higher Education Faculty in Mexico and the United States: Characteristics and Policy Issues. Understanding the Differences: A Working Paper Series on Higher Education in the U. S. and Mexico. Working Paper Number 2.
Lovell, Cheryl D.; Sanchez, Maria Dolores Soler
This working paper analyzes higher education faculty characteristics in Mexico and the United States. The first section describes and compares Mexican and U.S. faculty characteristics and conditions, including total number of faculty, student-teacher ratios, full- versus part-time status, rank, tenure, average salaries, gender and ethnicity, and…
Friederichs, Hendrik; Ligges, Sandra; Weissenstein, Anne
Physicians and medical students may lack sufficient numeracy skills to make treatment decisions, interpret test results, and practice evidence-based medicine. We evaluated whether the use of a tree diagram without numerical values as an aid for numerical processing might improve students' test results when dealing with percentages. A prospective randomized study was carried out with 102 third-year students. Participants received 3 diagnostic test problems and were asked to determine positive predictive values. The information in these tests was expressed either in (1) natural frequencies, (2) conditional probabilities, or (3) conditional probabilities with a tree diagram without numbers. Ninety-eight (96.1%) complete data sets could be obtained. The group working with natural frequencies achieved significantly higher test results (n = 29, mean score: 1.1, P = 0.045) than the group working with conditional probabilities (n = 34, mean score: 0.56). The students who were given a tree diagram in addition to conditional probabilities (n = 35, mean score: 1.26) also achieved significantly better scores than the group with conditional probabilities alone (P = 0.008). The difference between the group who had received natural frequencies and the group working with conditional probabilities and the tree diagram was not significant. We suggest the use of a tree diagram as a visual aid when dealing with diagnostic tests expressed in conditional probabilities.
Mansfield, Jennifer L; Savaiano, Dennis A
Federal regulation mandates that the US National School Lunch Program nutrition standards align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. As students consume a substantial proportion of their nutrition during school lunch, increasing access to healthy foods is proposed to improve student dietary outcomes. The purpose of this review is to assess whether policy changes impacted food-consumption behaviors of students during periods when (1) school wellness policies were implemented (2006-2007); (2) the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was passed (2010-2012); and (3) the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act was implemented (2012-present). PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct were searched for primary research studies. Policy evaluations and interventions implemented from 2006 to 2016 were included. A total of 31 studies evaluating plate waste, dietary intake, food selection, and/or purchasing patterns were identified and reviewed. Fourteen of 19 intervention and longitudinal observation studies reported improved food-consumption behaviors (increased selection, intake, and sales of healthy foods, and decreased plate waste). Only 2 of 12 one-time observation studies reported food-consumption behaviors meeting target nutrition standards. The majority of studies indicated that increasing access to healthy foods during school lunch improved students' dietary intakes. Challenges related to study design, adaptation period, quality of foods, and policy implementation likely affect a school lunch program's ability to impact students' food-consumption behaviors. Ongoing evaluation of these programs is warranted. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Staver, John R.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of problem format and the number of independent variables in the problem on the responses of students to a control of variables reasoning task. The Bending Rods problem was used. A four times two factorial research design with four levels (2-, 3-, 4-, 5-variables) of the number of independent variables and two formats (essay and multiple choice) was set up for the investigation. 548 eighth graders in 24 science classes in a suburban public school district northwest of Chicago participated in the study. Students were administered the Bending Rods problem in groups in their science classes. Each classroom was randomly assigned to a cell in the research design. Initial analysis of the data indicated four separate levels (2-, 3-, 4-, 5-variables) of the independent variable number of independent variables in the problem' were unnecessary. The 2- and 3-variable levels were pooled as were the 4- and 5-variable levels to give two distinct levels of this variable. Analysis of variance indicated that: (1) task format had no effect on subject's scores; but (2) the differences between subjects' mean scores on the 2-, 3-variable essay versions and the 4-, 5-variable essay versions are significantly greater than the mean scores of corresponding multiple choice versions of the task, which exhibit rather uniform scores; and (3) the 2-, 3-variable forms together were significantly less difficult for students than were the 4-, 5-variable forms together. Discussion focuses on interpretations that include: (1) task demands on working memory; (2) Pascual-Leone's M-energy; and (3) the use of testwiseness strategies in solving essay and multiple choice tasks, respectively. Implications for science teachers are set forth in view of these discussion points and their relevance to test construction and classroom assessment of learning objectives in science.
Regulatory agencies require numbers to provide health protection. The manner in which these numbers are derived from animal experiments and human epidemiology is considered together with the limitations and inadequacies of these numbers. Some recent examples of risk assessment in Canada are given including asbestos, drinking water, and indoor air quality. The value of these numbers in providing a measure of the hazard in a wider perspective is stressed, although they can never be the sole determinant of public policy.
Kyle Richard Morrissey
Full Text Available Recent work in numerical cognition has shown-that number magnitude is not entirely abstract, and at least partly rooted in embodied and situated experiences, including finger-counting. The current study extends previous cross-cultural research to address within-culture individual differences in finger counting habits. Results indicated that Canadian participants demonstrated an additional cognitive load when comparing numbers that require more than one hand to represent, and this pattern of performance is further modulated by whether they typically start counting on their left hand or their right hand. Chinese students typically count on only one hand and so show no such effect, except for an increase in errors, similar to that seen in Canadians, for those whom self-identify as predominantly two-hand counters. Results suggest that the impact of finger counting habits extend beyond cultural experience and concord in predictable ways with differences in number magnitude processing for specific number-digits. We conclude that symbolic number magnitude processing is partially rooted in learned finger-counting habits, consistent with a motor simulation account of embodied numeracy and that argument is supported by both cross-cultural and within-culture differences in finger-counting habits.
Malle, Abebe Yehualawork; Pirttimaa, Raija; Saloviita, Timo
This study explores the extent to which the issue of special educational and training needs for persons with disabilities is addressed in the education and training policy of Ethiopia, with a specific focus on technical and vocational education and training (TVET). Focus group discussions and interviews were used to assess the content of the…
Wang, Yanhong; Wu, Anise M S; Lau, Joseph T F
Students are vulnerable to Internet addiction (IA). Influences of cognitions based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and perceived number of peers with IA (PNPIA) affecting students' IA, and mediating effects involved, have not been investigated. This cross-sectional study surveyed 9518 Hong Kong Chinese secondary school students in the school setting. In this self-reported study, the majority (82.6%) reported that they had peers with IA. Based on the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale (cut-off =63/64), the prevalence of IA was 16.0% (males: 17.6%; females: 14.0%). Among the non-IA cases, 7.6% (males: 8.7%; females: 6.3%) perceived a chance of developing IA in the next 12 months. Concurring with the HBM, adjusted logistic analysis showed that the Perceived Social Benefits of Internet Use Scale (males: Adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 1.19; females: ORa = 1.23), Perceived Barriers for Reducing Internet Use Scale (males: ORa = 1.26; females: ORa = 1.36), and Perceived Self-efficacy for Reducing Internet Use Scale (males: ORa = 0.66; females: ORa = 0.56) were significantly associated with IA. Similarly, PNPIA was significantly associated with IA ('quite a number': males: ORa = 2.85; females: ORa = 4.35; 'a large number': males: ORa = 3.90; females: ORa = 9.09). Controlling for these three constructs, PNPIA remained significant but the strength of association diminished ('quite a number': males: multivariate odds ratio (ORm) = 2.07; females: ORm = 2.44; 'a large number': males: ORm = 2.39; females: ORm = 3.56). Hence, the association between PNPIA and IA was partially mediated (explained) by the three HBM constructs. Interventions preventing IA should change these constructs. In sum, prevalence of IA was relatively high and was associated with some HBM constructs and PNPIA, and PNPIA also partially mediated associations between HBM constructs and IA. Huge challenges are expected, as social relationships and an imbalance of cost-benefit for reducing Internet use are
Gagnon, Douglas J.; Jaffee, Eleanor M.; Kennedy, Reeve
Exclusionary school discipline--that is, suspension and expulsion--disproportionately affects already disadvantaged students on both the national and state levels. In New Hampshire, students attending larger urban schools, male students, students of color, students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch, students with disabilities, and homeless…
Gamble, Abigail; Chatfield, Sheryl L; Cormack, Michael L; Hallam, Jeffrey S
In recent decades, the alignment of health and education has been at the forefront of school reform. Whereas the establishment of national in-school physical activity (ISPA) recommendations and state-level mandates demonstrates success, there has been less achievement in areas that address health disparities. The purpose of this investigation was to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing state-mandated ISPA policies in the Mississippi Delta. Focus groups or interviews were conducted with district administrators, school principals, teachers, and students. A total of 2 semistructured moderator guides were developed to focus on (1) student ISPA practices and preferences and (2) facilitators and barriers to implementing ISPA policies and practices. A total of 6 themes were developed. In that, 2 themes addressed participant-described barriers (primary challenges and interferences and excuses). Three themes highlighted participant-described facilitators (compromises, things that work, and being active at school). Finally, 1 theme encompassed the participant-described need to address educating the whole child. There is a critical need for meaningful and relevant solutions to circumvent challenges to implementing ISPA policies and practices in the Mississippi Delta. The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child model offers a broad means of visualizing rural, low-income, racially concentrated schools to circumvent challenges and foster ISPA policies and practices. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available In this paper, public and/or nonprofit institutions of adult education in Croatia have been analyzed. The issue of the degree and the structure of the use of market-oriented activities in the mentioned institutions has been raised as the main subject matter of this research. The degree and the relationship will be studied and differences in the use of market-oriented activities in institutions with small and large number of enrolled students will be established. Verification of research objectives is based on measuring two constructs by a specially designed questionnaire. The relationship implied by research objectives will be empirically analyzed and partially confirmed on a random sample of Croatian institutions of adult education. The most important limitation of the research is related to the summarized self-reporting of marketing behavior by the analyzed institutions, which should be addressed by future studies. However, it is expected that the results of this study imply the existence of a relationship between different institutions of adult education with a different number of students and market activities which the mentioned institutions develop within the specific context of adult education ‘industry’. Special considerations should therefore be applied to the universal applicability of the obtained results in other fields of education.
The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory
Canton, Erik; Blom, Andreas
Financial aid to students in tertiary education can contribute to human capital accumulation through two channels: increased enrollment and improved student performance. We analyze the quantitative importance of both channels in the context of a student loan program "Sociedad de Fomento a la Educacion, Superior" (SOFES) implemented at…
Daniel R Taber
Full Text Available Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors.Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1 estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2 determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors..Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11 and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05 if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference = -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76. However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors.Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.
Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Vuillaume, Renee; Chaloupka, Frank J.
Background Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS) and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1) estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2) determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors.) Results Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11) and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05) if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference = -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76). However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates) and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors. Conclusion Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption. PMID:25083906
Students represent a population group that is for the most part in good health. However, students also face specific stresses and constraints that are likely to make it difficult for them to adapt to student life, and these adjustments can lead to unhealthy behaviours. Within Universities, the implementation of a coherent health policy must aim to positively impact on the development of both the professional and daily lives of young adults. The University of Paul Verlaine in Metz (France) has taken this perspective on board, and under the leadership of its social health department, the whole University has adopted a comprehensive policy for student well-being under the five action areas of the Ottawa Charter. This approach to well-being as a public policy strategy, through the Healthy Life policy, is central to all decisions taken at the Metz University and throughout the Regional Centre for Scholars and University Students (CROUS) in Lorraine. A number of facilities dedicated to students' health and well-being have been created in this supporting environment, and the engagement of students in the Healthy Life policy (some students 'relay' the information, others are 'peer educators') show that they are involved in the community life of the University. The introduction of teaching modules by the University's health department has given access to training to increase students' awareness of the concept of a holistic approach to health. Finally students have had improved access to healthcare services thanks to an increase in the number of activities provided by the student health department focusing on common problems experienced by university students.
Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…
Hall, Michael E.; Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Hunt, Barry
Background: Recently there has been a push to implement tobacco-free policies on college campuses. Policies creating tobacco-free college campuses have increased with changes in social norms. The campus environment provides a setting for individuals to express their attitudes regarding tobacco use. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess…
This study is an attempt to bring together research examining diversity initiatives in curriculum and co-curriculum with research on race-based policies, specifically the policy of affirmative action in college admissions. The study attempted to identify and confirm unique background characteristics, beliefs, and predispositions that students…
Holt, Janet K.; White, Bradford R.; Terrell, Sarah K.
In 2016, a higher education task force of St. Louis Graduates (STLG), a collaborative network whose mission is to increase degree completion for low income students, first-generation students, and students of color from St. Louis, commissioned this study from the Illinois Education Research Council (IERC). Through discussion, the following goals…
To manage their loans effectively, U.S. postsecondary student loan borrowers must make a variety of important decisions that require significant knowledge and financial skills and entail considerable risk. Federal law requires colleges to provide student loan counseling to their federal student loan borrowers, but there is significant room for…
Full Text Available This research was aimed to determine the increasing of students' motivation that has been applied by Numbered Heads Together (NHT learning model with Science, Environment, Technology, Society (SETS approach. The design of this study was quasi experiment with One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The data of students’ learning motivation obtained through questionnaire administered before and after NHT learning model with SETS approach. In this research, the indicators of learning-motivation were facing tasks diligently, showing interest in variety of problems, prefering to work independently, keeping students’ opinions, and feeling happy to find and solve problems. Increasing of the students’ learning motivation was analyzed by using a gain test. The results showed that applying NHT learning model with SETS approach could increase the students’ learning motivation in medium categories.
Arán Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud, María Cristina
Though the relationship between executive functions (EFs) and mathematical skills has been well documented, little is known about how both EFs and IQ differentially support diverse math domains in primary students. Inconsistency of results may be due to the statistical techniques employed, specifically, if the analysis is conducted with observed variables, i.e., regression analysis, or at the latent level, i.e., structural equation modeling (SEM). The current study explores the contribution of both EFs and IQ in mathematics through an SEM approach. A total of 118 8- to 12-year-olds were administered measures of EFs, crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) intelligence, and math abilities (i.e., number production, mental calculus and arithmetical problem-solving). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) offered support for the three-factor solution of EFs: (1) working memory (WM), (2) shifting, and (3) inhibition. Regarding the relationship among EFs, IQ and math abilities, the results of the SEM analysis showed that (i) WM and age predict number production and mental calculus, and (ii) shifting and sex predict arithmetical problem-solving. In all of the SEM models, EFs partially or totally mediated the relationship between IQ, age and math achievement. These results suggest that EFs differentially supports math abilities in primary-school children and is a more significant predictor of math achievement than IQ level.
Do international organisations generate benchmarks as tools for policy enforcement or policy learning? This article suggests that the latter is possible even in unlikely scenarios. It does this through a case study on the ‘power of numbers’ in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) Financial...... Sector Assessment Programme (FSAP). While the IMF is typically viewed as an institution that enforces global standards for economic governance through the imposition of quantitative targets (‘numbers’ for this special issue), I suggest that its use of benchmarking in the generation of financial data can...... is that it seeks to generate a policy dialogue for learning with member states. But this aim also has to operate within broader international political and economic constraints. As such this process must yield to broader principal-agent dynamics in the IMF's governance structure, as well as tip its cap to private...
Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)
This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).
News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events
Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events
Clemesha, David J.
Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)
Everett Jones, Sherry; Sliwa, Sarah
Active school transport, such as by walking or biking, increases physical activity levels, which has health and academic benefits for children. We examined school demographic and other characteristics to determine their association with the percentage of students who walk or bike to school. We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study. The response rate for the module containing questions about transportation was 70% (N = 577). Multivariate logistic regression models examined whether certain school characteristics were associated with a school having 26% or more of students who walk or bike to school in the morning on an average school day. In most (61.5%) schools, 10% or fewer students walked or biked to school in the morning on an average school day; in 22.7% of schools, 26% or more students did so. Although having crossing guards (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-6.0), having bicycle racks (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.8), and providing promotional materials to students or families on walking or biking to school (AOR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7-5.1) were associated with having 26% or more students who walk or bike to school, only 47.7% of schools had crossing guards, 62.4% had bicycle racks, and 33.3% provided promotional materials. Several low-cost or no-cost strategies were associated with having 26% or more students who walked or biked to school, but these strategies are not commonly used in schools.
Fletcher, Geoff; Levin, Doug; Lipper, Katherine; Leichty, Reg
This is a time of rapid technological advancement, with innovations in education holding great promise for improving teaching and learning, particularly for students with unique needs. High-quality digital educational materials, tools, and resources offer students relevant, up-to-date, and innovative ways to acquire knowledge and skills. Created…
Department of Homeland Security — SEVIS by the Numbers is a quarterly report that highlights nonimmigrant student and exchange visitor trends, values and information using data from the Student and...
Department of Homeland Security — SEVIS by the Numbers is a quarterly report that highlights nonimmigrant student and exchange visitor trends, values and information using data from the Student and...
Haigh, William E.
Presents an activity, suitable for students in grades 6-12, on generating random numbers. Objectives, equipment needed, list of prerequisite experiences, instructional strategies, and ready-to-copy student worksheets are included. (JN)
Gosliner, Wendi Anne
AbstractThe National School Lunch Program:Ideas, proposals, policies, and politics shaping students' experiences with school lunch in the United States, 1946 - presentBy Wendi Anne GoslinerDoctor of Public HealthUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Ann Keller, ChairOn an average school day in 2012, The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) supported the provision of lunch meals to almost 2/3 of school-age youth in the United States. Recent spikes in childhood obesity rates and the emerg...
The purpose of this research is to study the influence parental involvement on student achievement in high schools in NongChok District, Bangkok, Thailand. To compare the level of parental involvement on the student achievement and to analyze the influence of parental involvement and education policy on the student achievement, it is classified by demographic factors. The population in this study are parents whose the children are currently studying in the public high schools in NongChok ...
The opinion of a ten of about authors about the consequences of the Chernobylsk accident on the 26. april 1986 and on the future of populations. This study tackles the technical and scientific risk from a socio-anthropological point of view and asks for the possible development after a such disaster. (N.C.)
The technical difficulties of algebraic number theory often make this subject appear difficult to beginners. This undergraduate textbook provides a welcome solution to these problems as it provides an approachable and thorough introduction to the topic. Algebraic Number Theory takes the reader from unique factorisation in the integers through to the modern-day number field sieve. The first few chapters consider the importance of arithmetic in fields larger than the rational numbers. Whilst some results generalise well, the unique factorisation of the integers in these more general number fields often fail. Algebraic number theory aims to overcome this problem. Most examples are taken from quadratic fields, for which calculations are easy to perform. The middle section considers more general theory and results for number fields, and the book concludes with some topics which are more likely to be suitable for advanced students, namely, the analytic class number formula and the number field sieve. This is the fi...
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.
Current and future financial aid to students of medicine, osteopathy, and dentistry (MODs) is discussed in the context of federal health manpower objectives. Options for providing financial access to such students are analyzed. The report was prepared for the Senate Budget Committee in response to a request by Senator Lawton Chiles as part of…
White, Kelsey D.; Heidrich, Emily
Most educators are aware that some students utilize web-based machine translators for foreign language assignments, however, little research has been done to determine how and why students utilize these programs, or what the implications are for language learning and teaching. In this mixed-methods study we utilized surveys, a translation task,…
Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2012
This study followed all freshman community college students in California who had demonstrated the intent to transfer from 1996, 1997, and 1998. Outcomes were assessed for each of the three entering cohorts after six years (2002-2004) and students were linked with their high schools of origin and the 4-year colleges to which they transferred. The…
Cabieses, Baltica; Espinoza, Manuel
Chile is facing a major intellectual revolution: organised college students are arguing for the most significant educational reform since the period of dictatorship (1973-1990). Thousands of high-school and university students have refused to go to lessons since early June 2011, calling for better and more affordable education and an end to a…
Thurlow, Martha L.; Albus, Debra A.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Vang, Miong
Graduation rates and requirements for earning a regular diploma are topics of increasing interest as states focus on ensuring that their students are college and career ready when they leave school with a diploma. To ensure that states are gauging the rates at which students are graduating in a consistent way, the Elementary and Secondary…
Debraggio, Elizabeth; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna
Immigration and migration to New York City (NYC) collectively create a dynamic population of students. In this brief the authors use a decade of detailed, longitudinal data on NYC's 1st-8th graders to explore both the "stock" of students enrolled and the "flow" of new entrants in each academic year. Together, these paint a…
Jha, Shashiranjan; Kumar, Sumit
This article analyzes the socio-economic determinants of student mobility in India and evaluates the factors that hinder and promote higher educational mobility. It is argued that despite the mass expansion of higher education in India in recent times, student mobility is directed towards developed educational regions. India is a unique case…
Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.
We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....
Brandriet, Alexandra R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery
This manuscript describes the relationship between students' redox understandings and confidence as measured by the Redox Concept Inventory (ROXCI) which assesses symbolic and particulate redox concepts. The ROXCI was administered to two samples of 1st- and 2nd-semester general chemistry students after the students were taught and tested on redox…
Duah, Nancy O; Matrevi, Sena A; de Souza, Dziedzom K; Binnah, Daniel D; Tamakloe, Mary M; Opoku, Vera S; Onwona, Christiana O; Narh, Charles A; Quashie, Neils B; Abuaku, Benjamin; Duplessis, Christopher; Kronmann, Karl C; Koram, Kwadwo A
With the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2005, monitoring of anti-malarial drug efficacy, which includes the use of molecular tools to detect known genetic markers of parasite resistance, is important for first-hand information on the changes in parasite susceptibility to drugs in Ghana. This study investigated the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance gene (pfmdr1) copy number, mutations and the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) mutations in Ghanaian isolates collected in seven years to detect the trends in prevalence of mutations. Archived filter paper blood blots collected from children aged below five years with uncomplicated malaria in 2003-2010 at sentinel sites were used. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 756 samples were assessed for pfmdr1 gene copy number. PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used to detect alleles of pfmdr1 86 in 1,102 samples, pfmdr1 184, 1034, 1042 and 1246 in 832 samples and pfcrt 76 in 1,063 samples. Merozoite surface protein 2 (msp2) genotyping was done to select monoclonal infections for copy number analysis. The percentage of isolates with increased pfmdr1 copy number were 4, 27, 9, and 18% for 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08 and 2010, respectively. Significant increasing trends for prevalence of pfmdr1 N86 (×(2) = 96.31, p resistance has been reported. The decreasing trend in the prevalence of chloroquine resistance markers after change of treatment policy presents the possibility for future introduction of chloroquine as prophylaxis for malaria risk groups such as children and pregnant women in Ghana.
Petersen, T Kyle
This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...
Subramaniam, BS; Hande, S; Komattil, R
Background: The attendance mandate for the medical course in Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, India was increased from 75% to 90% based on the assumption that the mandatory increase will improve the students? performance. Aims: To find out whether there is any correlation between class attendance and academic performance. Subjects and Methods: This was an institution based retrospective analytical study. Students who have completed Phase I (first two and a half years) of the MBBS cour...
Titus, Marvin A.
Using national data from various sources, this study investigates the influence of financial aspects of state higher education policy on college completion. It found that college completion is positively associated with total state grants as a percentage of appropriations of state tax funds for operating expenses of higher education and state…
Tsuchiya, Keiko; Pérez Murillo, María D.
Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) has been widely implemented in educational systems in Europe since the mid-1990s based on their multilingual education policy. CLIL integrates acquisition of subject knowledge with language learning, either a second or foreign language, simultaneously. Recently, CLIL in English has been introduced in…
Drawing on a Levinasian ethical perspective, the argument driving this paper is that the technical accountability movement currently dominating the educational system in England is less than adequate because it overlooks educators' responsibility for ethical relations in responding to difference in respect of the other. Curriculum policy makes a…
He has been in the field of mathematics education for three decades, and has been closely involved with the. Math Olympiad movement in. India. He is the author of many mathematics books addressed to high school students, and serves as an editor for Resonance and for. At Right Angles. He is engaged in many outreach.
Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.
Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal
Powell, Mary Ann; Graham, Anne
National concern regarding the social and emotional wellbeing of children and young people is now strongly reflected in a wide range of Australian policy initiatives. A considerable number of these target schools and point firmly to the role education is perceived to play in promoting student wellbeing. Given that wellbeing can be difficult to…
Agarwal, Vinod B.; Winkler, Donald R.
The number of foreign professionals (including college students) who have entered the United States with nonimmigrant status but who have their visas adjusted to immigrant status is steadily increasing. This study explores the relationship between the frequency of such adjustments and changes in immigration policy. (PGD)
In the early 1990s, the tight job market for Ph.D. recipients in physics led to a reexamination of graduate programs by some departments. The speaker participated in this reanalysis at his graduate institution and arranged presentations of alternative careers to the physics graduate student body. What became clear was that diverse options were open; job seekers just needed flexible expectations. However, there are a number of additions or modifications to graduate programs which could further help to prepare Ph.D. recipients as they move into non-traditional roles, such as additional and more formal experience in communicating science to a wide range of audiences. In particular, it would be advantageous to learn how to explain the role that basic scientific research projects play in the larger public policy arena. Examples from the speaker's experience of working as a staff member in the U.S. Congress will be presented to illustrate the skills needed in that environment.
In this article, the author tells the story of her search for appropriate tools to conceptualise policy work. She had set out to explore the relationship between the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Australia's education policy, but early interview data…
Experimentation of cooperative learning model Numbered Heads Together (NHT) type by concept maps and Teams Games Tournament (TGT) by concept maps in terms of students logical mathematics intellegences
Irawan, Adi; Mardiyana; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi
This research is aimed to find out the effect of learning model towards learning achievement in terms of students’ logical mathematics intelligences. The learning models that were compared were NHT by Concept Maps, TGT by Concept Maps, and Direct Learning model. This research was pseudo experimental by factorial design 3×3. The population of this research was all of the students of class XI Natural Sciences of Senior High School in all regency of Karanganyar in academic year 2016/2017. The conclusions of this research were: 1) the students’ achievements with NHT learning model by Concept Maps were better than students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps and Direct Learning model. The students’ achievements with TGT model by Concept Maps were better than the students’ achievements with Direct Learning model. 2) The students’ achievements that exposed high logical mathematics intelligences were better than students’ medium and low logical mathematics intelligences. The students’ achievements that exposed medium logical mathematics intelligences were better than the students’ low logical mathematics intelligences. 3) Each of student logical mathematics intelligences with NHT learning model by Concept Maps has better achievement than students with TGT learning model by Concept Maps, students with NHT learning model by Concept Maps have better achievement than students with the direct learning model, and the students with TGT by Concept Maps learning model have better achievement than students with Direct Learning model. 4) Each of learning model, students who have logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement then students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences, and students who have medium logical mathematics intelligences have better achievement than students who have low logical mathematics intelligences.
This article seeks to consider the consequences that overseas students experience having studied at a university in the United Kingdom. With the implementation of the United Kingdom policies, the number of international students studying in the United Kingdom is increasing. A study of Thai students studying in the United Kingdom has been used to…
Simon, Marsha; Black, William R.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004 and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 (NCLB) require that students with disabilities have equal access to general education curricula and contexts. Florida's Differentiated Accountability Program (DAP) is designed to support educators in meeting IDEA and NCLB…
Cammarota, Julio; Romero, Augustine
The authors discuss how participatory action research (PAR) informs the pedagogy and epistemology of the social justice education. PAR facilitates students' engagement in their social context and acquisition of knowledge to initiate personal and social transformation. The scope of research contains knowledge about social justice issues negatively…
LaSota, Robin Rae
My dissertation utilizes an explanatory, sequential mixed-methods research design to assess factors influencing community college students' transfer probability to baccalaureate-granting institutions and to present promising practices in colleges and states directed at improving upward transfer, particularly for low-income and first-generation…
Alfaro, Ignacio J.; Boullosa, Alfredo Perez; Andreu-Beso, J. Vicente; De Lamo, Jose; Sobrado, Luis; Sanz, Rafael; Arias, Jose M.
The London Communique of the Conference of Ministers responsible for Higher Education in the countries participating in the Bologna Process (2007) emphasized as priorities for 2009 the "action taken at national level to promote the mobility of students and staff, including measures for future evaluation". Certain responsibilities are…
Efande, Lyonga John
This study aims at investigating the relationship between the expansion of secondary Technical Education on the acquisition of technical skills by students. Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has been expanding quantitatively yearly without paying enough attention to its adverse effect on quality and the acquisition of the…
Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.
Despite considerable recent public and judicial attention to the issue of drug testing, little empirical research has focused on the relationship between drug testing in schools and the actual use of illicit drugs by students. To explore this issue, we use school-level survey data about drug testing from the Youth, Education, and Society study and…
Logermann, Frauke; Leisyte, Liudvika; Curaj, Adrian; Matei, Liviu; Pricopie, Remus; Salmi, Jamil; Scott, Peter
The European Standard and Guidelines for Quality Assurance (ESG) of 2005 can be defined as one of the major Bologna documents aimed at furthering the role of students as stakeholders in internal quality assurance processes at higher education institutions (HEIs). Still little is known about
Lester, Toni; Rodgers, Vikki L.
Within the business world, there is growing evidence and increasing acceptance that sustainability and environmental practices are the main drivers for current innovation and success. We developed an interdisciplinary, offshore course where undergraduate business students could truly investigate and experience the benefits of environmentally and…
Swanson, Katie; Gettinger, Maribeth
This study focused on the association between 3 school-level supports for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward LGBT youth. Framed within social support theory, the study used survey method with a sample of 98 teachers in Grades 6-12. The purpose was to examine the relation…
Jin, Qiushuang; Shi, Qian
This study investigated the association between sleep deprivation and enrollment in Advanced Placement (AP) and/or college courses among high school students. Approximately 4,000 surveys were distributed, and 2,197 completed surveys were returned from students in Grades 9 to 12 at 15 high schools in Iowa. Findings indicated the majority of high…
Hammersley, Lisa C.; Levine, R.; Cornwell, K.; Kusnick, J. E.; Hausback, B. P.
We present a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of a newly developed introductory course, Geology of Mexico, in attracting Hispanic students, encouraging them to take more geology courses, and recruiting them to the major. The student population in the Geology of Mexico course was 93% Hispanic compared with 18.5% in Physical Geology. We…
Dickman, Anneliese; Schmidt, Jeffrey
For the first time since its 1998 expansion to include religious schools, enrollment in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) did not grow in the 2010-2011 school year. Currently, 20,996 private school students receive taxpayer-funded tuition vouchers (of $6,442 per pupil), a decrease of 66 students over last year. Chart 1 shows program…
Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten
This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 system...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....
Pelowski, Matthew; Wamai, Richard G; Wangombe, Joseph; Nyakundi, Hellen; Oduwo, Geofrey O; Ngugi, Benjamin K; Ogembo, Javier G
Birth registration and obtaining physical birth certificates impose major challenges in developing countries, with impact on child and community health, education, planning, and all levels of development. However despite initiatives, universal registration is elusive, leading to calls for new approaches to understanding the decisions of parents. In this paper, we report results of a survey of students in grades six to eight (age ~12-16) in an under-registered area of Kenya regarding their own understanding of registration issues and their suggestions for improvement. These students were selected because they themselves were also nearing the age for high school enrollment/entrance examinations, which specifically requires possession of a birth certificate. This assessment was also a companion to our previous representative survey of adults in the same Kenyan region, allowing for parent-child comparison. Results supported previous research, showing that only 43% had birth certificates. At the same time, despite these low totals, students were themselves quite aware of registration factors and purposes. The students also made quite prescient sources for understanding their households' motivations, with many of their suggestions-for focus on communication of pragmatic benefits, or automatic measures shifting responsibility from parents-mirroring our own previous suggestions, and showing a level of pragmatism not witnessed when surveying their parents. This paper therefore adds evidence to the discussion of registration policy planning. More generally, it also builds on an important trend regarding the treatment of children as stakeholders and important sources of information, and raising an intriguing new avenue for future research.
Full Text Available Birth registration and obtaining physical birth certificates impose major challenges in developing countries, with impact on child and community health, education, planning, and all levels of development. However despite initiatives, universal registration is elusive, leading to calls for new approaches to understanding the decisions of parents. In this paper, we report results of a survey of students in grades six to eight (age ~12-16 in an under-registered area of Kenya regarding their own understanding of registration issues and their suggestions for improvement. These students were selected because they themselves were also nearing the age for high school enrollment/entrance examinations, which specifically requires possession of a birth certificate. This assessment was also a companion to our previous representative survey of adults in the same Kenyan region, allowing for parent-child comparison. Results supported previous research, showing that only 43% had birth certificates. At the same time, despite these low totals, students were themselves quite aware of registration factors and purposes. The students also made quite prescient sources for understanding their households' motivations, with many of their suggestions-for focus on communication of pragmatic benefits, or automatic measures shifting responsibility from parents-mirroring our own previous suggestions, and showing a level of pragmatism not witnessed when surveying their parents. This paper therefore adds evidence to the discussion of registration policy planning. More generally, it also builds on an important trend regarding the treatment of children as stakeholders and important sources of information, and raising an intriguing new avenue for future research.
Zuo, Fei; Comte, Melisa; So, Jannice; Rosella, Laura; McGavock, Jonathan; Hobin, Erin
Canadian adolescents' sedentary behaviour (SB) is poorly understood and greatly understudied compared to physical activity (PA). Accumulating evidence suggests that SB poses long-term health risks regardless of PA levels. To design effective interventions that target SB, it is critical to first understand adolescents' sedentary time (ST) trajectories in a Canadian context. Therefore, we examined longitudinal trajectories of Manitoba students' ST from 2008 to 2011 and identified associated factors in the context of a province-wide physical education (PE) policy. Secondary schools offering grades 9 through 12 were randomly selected in blocks to represent the urban and rural geography of Manitoba. In each selected school (n = 31), a convenience sample of grade 9 or 10 PE classes was recruited, leading to a final sample of 447 students. To assess ST, participants wore accelerometers on 7 consecutive days at baseline (2008) and during at least one follow-up period (2009, 2010 and 2011). At baseline, students accumulated an average of 540 minutes/day of ST. Over the course of secondary school, students' ST trajectories remained stable. Females compared to males had a slightly higher rate of decline in ST (p = 0.035), adjusting for socio-demographic variables. ST trajectories were not associated with baseline PA, body mass index and school neighbourhood socio-economic status. Adolescent ST remained high throughout secondary school. SB may be well established by early adolescence and track through late adolescence. Our findings suggest the potential need for additional interventions to reduce SB before and over the course of secondary school.
Theodore M. Porter
Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.
Feb 24, 2012 ... able to a motivated undergraduate or postgraduate student. It may be somewhat of a challenge to make it ...... A quote attributed to the famous mathematician L Kronecker is 'Die. Ganzen Zahlen hat Gott gemacht, alles ...... Interestingly, Bertrand's motivation was to group theory and not really number theory ...
Anderson, Maureen McCahan
A mnemonic clue sentence--"He thinks mice bite trees"--is suggested for helping students with learning disabilities or mild mental retardation successfully identify up to 15 digit numbers by relating the sentence to the sequence of hundreds, thousands, millions, billions, and trillions. (DB)
Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and processes. ... New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ... South African skills development policy since the promulgation of the Skills Development Act of 1998 has undergone a number of different iterations or attempts at accelerating ...
Lange, Bettina; Alexiadou, Nafsika
Open methods for coordinating (OMC) education policies in the EU rely on a number of techniques, one of which is policy learning. This article examines how policy learning and governance transform each other. More specifically, policy-learning in the education OMC becomes differentiated into four distinct learning styles: mutual, competitive,…
Brehm, Thomas Theo; Korf, Horst-Werner; Benzenhöfer, Udo; Schomerus, Christof; Wicht, Helmut
Until recently, it was believed that all internal documentation regarding student affairs and body procurement of the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie concerning the time before March 1944 - when the building was destroyed during an Allied air raid - was lost. A few years ago, however, we discovered stacks of old documents in the current anatomy building. These documents permitted a reconstruction (1) of the history of body procurement, student numbers and course management from 1914 to 1944, as well as (2) some aspects of the building's history in the time immediately after its destruction that have hitherto not been documented. In this paper (Part I), we will deal with the organizational history of the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie from 1914 to 2013, placing special emphasis on the development of the student population and body procurement, as well as on the major changes that occurred in the gross anatomy labs of the last century. More than 30,000 students were trained in the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie over the last 100 years, and more than 3000 bodies have been received. The number of incoming bodies has remained quite stable in all these years and is, on average, approximately 32 per year. The number of students entering the gross anatomy lab during that period, however, rose from less than 100 to more than 600. A companion paper (Part II) deals with the years of the Third Reich (1933-1945) in more detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…
this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Transfinite Numbers - What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. General Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 58-68. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/03/0058-0068 ...
This article presents the results of a textual analysis conducted on policy discourses on international students in the UK between 1999 and 2013. A number of rationales for and against increasing their numbers have been made, which have largely remained consistent over changing political administrations. One key rationale is that international…
Li, M; Xue, H; Wen, M; Wang, W; Wang, Y
Obesity is a serious threat to global health. School is a key setting for obesity intervention. Research on school risk factors for child obesity is limited in developing countries. To examine regional variations in obesity and school environments/policies and their associations among students in China. Analyses were based on the first nationally representative sample of 8573 9 th graders in 110 middle schools from 28 regions across China. Multilevel models tested associations between school factors and child self-reported weight outcomes and by school urbanicity setting (urban, rural). Overweight/obesity rate is higher among boys and in urban areas. Schools in rural areas, or less developed regions, promote longer on-campus life, as is indicated by the presence of school cafeterias, night study sessions and longer class hours. Multilevel models show that (i) school cafeterias (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.35-4.75) and internet bars close to school (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15-2.30) are associated with increased overweight/obesity risk in rural areas, especially for boys; (ii) school night study sessions are associated with lower overweight/obesity risk (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.50-0.96) in rural areas. China has large regional disparities in school environment/policies related to nutrition and physical activity. Some school factors are associated with students' weight status, which vary across gender and areas. Future school-based interventions should attend to diverse regional contexts. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Helen M. Hazi
Full Text Available This paper reports on the analysis of state statutes and department of education regulations in fifty states for changes in teacher evaluation in use since the passage of No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. We asked what the policy activity for teacher evaluation is in state statutes and department of education regulations, how these changes in statutes and regulations might affect the practice of teacher evaluation, and what were the implications for instructional supervision from these policy actions. Teacher evaluation statutes and department of education regulations provided the data for this study, using archival records from each state's legislature and education departments that were placed into a comparison matrix based on criteria developed from the National Governors Association (NGA goals for school reform (Goldrick, 2002. Data were analyzed deductively in terms of these criteria for underlying theories of action (Malen, 2005, trends, and likely effects on teacher evaluation and implications for supervision. The majority of states adopted many of the NGA strategies, asserted oversight and involvement in local teacher evaluation practices, decreased the frequency of veteran teacher evaluation, and increased the types of data used in evaluation. Whether or not the changes in teacher evaluation will improve student learning in the long run remains to be seen.
Athanasou, James A.; Langan, Dianne
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the roles of interest, knowledge, and learning strategies on recall within a specific subject domain at an early stage of learning. Students (n=17) at two levels in a postgraduate music therapy course were assessed for their levels of prior knowledge, interest, and the number of strategies they used to…
The Impact of the Implementation of the Behavior Intervention Support CHAMPS on Reading Achievement, Discipline Referrals, and Number of Suspensions amongst Students Grades Third through Fifth within a Large Suburban Elementary School
Smith, Jennifer L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Randy Spricks (2009) behavior intervention support model, CHAMPS (Conversation, Help, Activity, Movement, Participation, Success), on elementary students in third through fifth grade in the areas of reading achievement, discipline referrals, and suspension numbers within a large culturally…
""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts
Huang, Hsiaowen; Shih, Hongyu; Thiruvadi, Sheela; Song, Yiru
The focus of this study is to explore the lifestyle of international students and also the difficulties faced by them due to the language barrier (difficulty in learning the Chinese language) in Taiwan. Motivation for this study comes from the increasing number of international students, and the related educational policy settings of the…
The 2008 Brown Center Report on American Education: How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on International Assessments, the Misplaced Math Student, and Urban Schools. Volume II, Number 3
The watchword of this year's Brown Center Report is caution--caution in linking state tests to international assessments--"benchmarking" is the term--caution in proceeding with a policy of "algebra for all eighth graders," caution in gleaning policy lessons from the recent progress made by urban schools. State and local budget…
Weeks, Keith W; Higginson, Ray; Clochesy, John M; Coben, Diana
This paper evaluates nursing students' transition through schemata construction and competence development in medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS). We advance a grounded theory from interview data that reflects the experiences and perceptions of two groups of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students: eight students exposed to a prototype authentic MDC-PS environment and didactic transmission methods of education and 15 final year students exposed to the safeMedicate authentic MDC-PS environment. We advance a theory of how classroom-based 'chalk and talk' didactic transmission environments offered multiple barriers to accurate MDC-PS schemata construction among novice students. While conversely it was universally perceived by all students that authentic learning and assessment environments enabled MDC-PS schemata construction through facilitating: 'seeing' the authentic features of medication dosage problems; context-based and situational learning; learning within a scaffolded environment that supported construction of cognitive links between the concrete world of clinical MDC-PS and the abstract world of mathematics; and confidence-building in their cognitive and functional competence ability. Drawing on the principle of veni, vidi, duci (I came, I saw, I calculated), we combined the two sets of evaluations to offer a grounded theoretical basis for schemata construction and competence development within this critical domain of professional practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jin, Qiushuang; Shi, Qian
This study investigated the association between sleep deprivation and enrollment in Advanced Placement (AP) and/or college courses among high school students. Approximately 4,000 surveys were distributed, and 2,197 completed surveys were returned from students in Grades 9 to 12 at 15 high schools in Iowa. Findings indicated the majority of high school students were sleep deprived. Sleep deprivation was significantly associated with enrollment in AP/college courses. Results indicated that enrollment in AP/college courses had a greater impact on younger students than older students. Compared with non-AP/college course takers, AP/college course takers slept approximately 20 minutes less per night. Specifically, 9th- and 10th-grade AP/college course takers slept approximately 1 hour less and 40 minutes less, respectively. In addition, students enrolled in two or more AP/college classes received 1 hour less and 30 minutes less among 10th and 11th graders, respectively. These results provide useful information on adolescent sleep patterns for school nurses.
Speake, Jacquelyn Hoffmann
Recent anti-evolution legislation, in the form of Academic Freedom bills, has been introduced in many state legislatures over the last three years. The language in the proposed Academic Freedom bills may allow different interpretations of what can be taught in the science classrooms, and possibly spur parents to take advantage of their perceived parental rights to request their child be opted-out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Five research questions guided the analysis of participant responses to questions and perception statements focusing on secondary school administrators' actions, perceptions, and awareness as they relate to their decision to allow or not allow a student to opt out of academics, specifically evolution, through the collection of data using a web-based survey. Opt out policies are typically invoked to excuse students from activities to which they or their parents may have religious objections (Scott & Branch, 2008). Florida statutes allow parents to opt out their child from human sexuality and animal dissection. The population consisted of 281 Florida public secondary school administrators, who were divided into two subgroups based on whether they have allowed or would allow a student to opt out of evolution, or have not allowed or would not allow a student to opt out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Results found that over 70% of the administrators who completed the survey have allowed or would allow parents to opt out their child from learning about the scientific theory of evolution. There was a significant relationship between the decision to allow opt out and the following variables: (a) Free and Reduced Lunch population, (b) grade level served, (c) support for teaching evolution and alternative theories, and (d) the perception that parent rights supersede state statute requiring students to learn evolution. In Florida, any scientific concept that is based on empirical evidence is
. The preliminary data analysis highlights that education-system related barriers are intrinsically related to and dependent on the broader policy environment shaped by Governmental adhesion to the Bologna process. In Denmark this has led to a differentiation between a main stream education system and a parallel...... from a common ideal that results from cross-national cooperation implemented through the Bologna process. The data source includes relevant scientific literature, policy documents as well as interviews with policy makers, representatives of higher education institutions and non-traditional students...... system for adult and continuing education. This differentiation favors adult and mature students to re-enter higher education, however, it also presents structural constrains for this group to obtain bachelor and master degrees, as foreseen by the Bologna process....
Estévez-Ayres, Iria; Alario-Hoyos, Carlos; Pérez-Sanagustín, Mar; Pardo, Abelardo; Crespo-García, Raquel M.; Leony, Derick; Parada G., Hugo A.; Delgado-Kloos, Carlos
In the last decade, engineering education has evolved in many ways to meet society demands. Universities offer more flexible curricula and put a lot of effort on the acquisition of professional engineering skills by the students. In many universities, the courses in the first years of different engineering degrees share program and objectives,…
Atiyat, Omar Khalil
This study aimed at measuring the level of the psychological burnout in the teachers of students that have autism symptoms in Al-Riyadh area--kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In light of variables. These variables are the gender, the teaching place, the academic qualification of the teachers, the experience of the teachers, the age of the teachers, and…
Schwartz, Richard Evan
In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...
Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis
Saleem Arrigo, J. A.; Berry, K.; Hooper, R. P.; Lilienfeld, L.
"Let's Talk about Water" is a film symposium designed to bring together experts and the public to talk about the complex water issues facing society. The format of the event is quite simple: a panel of experts and the audience view a water documentary (such as "FLOW", "Liquid Assets", or "Gasland") together and there is an extended moderated discussion period following the film between the panel and the audience. Over the course of several events, we have developed best practices that make this simple format very effective. A film creates a context of subject and language for the discussion--it gets the audience and the panel on the same page. The moderators must actively manage the discussion, both challenging the panelists with follow up questions, asking questions to simplify the language the expert is using, and passing a question among panelists to bring out different points of view. The panelists are provided with the film in advance to view and, most importantly, meet the day before the event to discuss the film. This makes for a much more convivial discussion at the event. We have found that these discussions can easily be sustained for 90 to 120 minutes with active audience participation. We have found key element of the event is local relevance. Films should be carefully chosen to resonate with the audience, and the local host is critical in defining the audience, goals and identified panel members. Having local experts from universities and representatives from local water authorities and environmental groups bring a sense of community and a confidence in the audience that the panel members have local knowledge that is important for sustaining discussion. The discussion begins with points raised by the movie (are these issues real? Do they apply here? What are the scientific, engineering, and policy solutions to these problems?) and then segues into a discussion about career opportunities in the water sector, volunteer opportunities in the community or
A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)
Gunn, Reamous Jr.
THE EFFECTS OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION TRAINING ON STUDENTS WITH PREVIOUS DISCIPLINE REFERRALS by Reamous Gunn, Jr. Educational Leadership and Policy Studies (ABSTRACT) The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of conflict resolution training on the number and severity of discipline referral offenses committed by high school students in one urban school. Effectiveness was measured by the number and severity of student discipline referrals to the school administra...
Opinions abound on what students should wear to class. Some see student dress as a safety issue; others see it as a student-rights issue. The issue of dress codes and uniform policies has been tackled in the classroom, the boardroom, and the courtroom. This Policy Report examines the whole fabric of the debate on dress codes and uniform policies…
De Graaf, G.; Van Hove, G.; Haveman, M.
Background: In the Netherlands, as in many other countries, there are indications of an inclusive school policy for children with Down syndrome. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluate to what extent this policy has actually succeeded in supporting the mainstreaming of these students. Method: For the period 1984-2011, the number of…
Weeks, Keith W; Clochesy, John M; Hutton, B Meriel; Moseley, Laurie
Advancing the art and science of education practice requires a robust evaluation of the relationship between students' exposure to learning and assessment environments and the development of their cognitive competence (knowing that and why) and functional competence (know-how and skills). Healthcare education translation research requires specific education technology assessments and evaluations that consist of quantitative analyses of empirical data and qualitative evaluations of the lived student experience of the education journey and schemata construction (Weeks et al., 2013a). This paper focuses on the outcomes of UK PhD and USA post-doctorate experimental research. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to traditional didactic methods of education, prototypes of an authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) environment and nursing students' construction of conceptual and calculation competence in medication dosage calculation problem-solving skills. Empirical outcomes from both UK and USA programmes of research identified highly significant differences in the construction of conceptual and calculation competence in MDC-PS following exposure to the authentic learning environment to that following exposure to traditional didactic transmission methods of education (p learning environments is an essential first step in the development of conceptual and calculation competence and relevant schemata construction (internal representations of the relationship between the features of authentic dosage problems and calculation functions); and how authentic environments more ably support all cognitive (learning) styles in mathematics than traditional didactic methods of education. Functional competence evaluations are addressed in Macdonald et al. (2013) and Weeks et al. (2013e). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.